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Categories of Resources Reference materials Teaching materials Learning materials Tools/mediums to aid in using the resources : electronic and non- electronic equipment Concrete and virtual aids for teaching and learning
Types of Printed Materials Syllabi; Curriculum Text books; Guide books; Workbooks Revision books; Reference books Resource books or catalogues (Where and how to obtain resources and or how to create resources or has ready-made resources)
Advantages of using Printed Materials Brainstorming: Advantages of using different types of printed materials in teaching and learning mathematics. Cheap, permanent, illustrates from concrete to abstract, easy to refer, can be multiplied easily (photocopied); availability, variety.
Use printed materials in teaching and learning Set Induction Developmental stages Closure Homework Class work Notes: reference materials Display: charts
Characteristics of materials in teaching and learning Meets curricular and instructional needs Is cost effective Cosmetically and technically adequate Cognitively challenging Attractive Motivates students to learn Encourages active participation
Benefits Accommodates student‟s differences (needs and abilities) Resulting in realisation of student‟s capabilities and potentials Students take responsibility for managing and directing their own learning
Selection and Evaluation Guideline o Cosmetic adequacy o Instructional adequacy o Technical adequacy o Curriculum adequacy o Cost effectiveness
Mathematical manipulative A mathematical manipulative is defined as any material or defined as any material or object from the real world that object from the real world that children move around to show a children move around to show a mathematics concept. They are concrete, hands-on models that appeal to the models that appeal to the senses and can be touched by senses and can be touched by students. Students learn best when they Students learn best when they are active participants in the learning process.
Figures are made on the geoboard by stretching rubber bands from one nail to another until the desired shape is formed. o Easy way to introduce and Easy way to introduce and visualize a concept. verbalize their concepts. A grid of 5 vertical lines and 5 horizontal lines evenly spaced are drawn on the square piece of wood. verbalize their mathematics thinking o Solve problems without teacher Solve problems without teacher direction. and learn that there are many different ways to solve many different ways to solve problems.Advantages use teaching aids o Help students learn to relate real Help students learn to relate real world situations to mathematics world situations to mathematics symbolism. and learn that there are directions. Nails are placed at the intersections of the lines so that they extend about one centimeter. Twodimensional representations of the geoboard may be applied to ordinary paper using rubber stamps or special "geoboard paper" with diagrams of geoboards may be used to help capture a student's explanations of the concept they have discovered or illustrated on the geoboard. GEOBOARD • A geoboard is a mathematical manipulative often used to explore basic concepts in plane geometry such as perimeter. The geoboard is a device used in elementary schools to aid in the teaching of basic geometric concepts. A simple geoboard can be made from a square piece of wood and 25 finishing nails. area or the characteristics of triangles and other polygons. o Work together cooperatively in Work together cooperatively in solving problems. o Discuss mathematical ideas and Discuss mathematical ideas and concepts. Geoboards may be purchased commercially from the usual supply houses or they may be constructed out of common household materials using common tools. Consisting of a physical board with a certain number of nails half driven in. • • Geoboards were invented and popularized by Egyptian mathematician Caleb Gattegno in the 1950s. students are encouraged to place rubber bands around the pegs to model various geometric concepts or to solve other mathematical puzzles. in a symmetrical square five-by-five array. Segments can be .
fractions. For example. Base Block Subtraction. • Though primarily used for mathematics. when you have 12 units in the blocks column. Have your students use the base 10 workspace to represent a variety of numbers. area. and even quadratic equations. When you add a 10th thing. who published a book on their use in 1952 called Les nombres en couleurs. • The rods (réglettes in the original French) are named after their inventor. they have also become popular in language-teaching classrooms. volume. the user can change the default setting of base 10 (to any of the bases 2. Georges Cuisenaire (1891-1976). Show a variety of base 10 representations and ask students to write the associated numeral. place value. you need to make a trade up. particularly The Silent Way. square roots. Base Blocks • This manipulative is intended to provide maximum flexibility for the teacher in teaching place-naming in different bases and different numbers of decimal places. systems of equations. They can be used to teach items such as prepositions of place. solving simple equations. and operations.shown by connecting only two nails. Ask students to describe the rule that determines place value. 3. 4. and Base Block Decimals). • Base blocks representations can be very helpful in developing mental images of numbers.. or back to 10). They are used to teach a wide variety of mathematical topics such as the basic four operations. a Belgian primary school teacher. • Base blocks are also useful in illustrating grouping rules. The use of rods for both mathematics and language ." CUISENAIRE RODS • Cuisenaire rods are a versatile mathematical manipulative used in elementary school as well as other levels of learning and even with adults. sentence and word stress. you must make a group of ten and drag it into the 10's column. The first task to perform is to determine how many different segments may be constructed on the geoboard. As with the other Base Block manipulatives (Base Block Addition. The associated rule might be described as "You can only have 9 things in a column. 5.
because unlike spring scales their accuracy is not affected by differences in the local gravity. beam balance and laboratory balance) was the first mass measuring instrument invented. A change in the strength of the gravitational field caused by moving the balance will not change the . In the system. A spring scale measures weight by the distance a spring deflects under its load. there are 10 rods measuring 1 cm to 10 cm. it consists of a pivoted horizontal lever of equal length arms. Balances are used for precision mass measurement. In precision balances. a slider weight is moved along a graduated scale. called the beam. and standard masses are added to the other pan until the beam is as close to equilibrium as possible. A balance compares the unknown weight to a standard weight using a horizontal lever. not masses. Weighing scales are used in many industrial and commercial applications. BALANCE The balance (also balance scale. and the standard weights used with balances are usually labelled in mass units.• • teaching was developed and popularised by Caleb Gattegno in many countries around the world. The unknown mass is placed in one pan.5% at different locations on Earth. or base on (obsolete[1 ]) suspended from each arm. and products from feathers to loaded tractor-trailers are sold by weight. also called scale (hence the term "scales") scale pan. The slider position gives a fine correction to the weight value. which can vary by almost 0. with a weighing pan. They use one of two techniques. Although a balance technically compares weights. except in Australian English where "scales" is more common) is a measuring instrument for measuring the weight or mass of an object. Rods of equal length are assigned the same colour. the weight of an object is proportional to its mass. Most Cuisenaire rods follow this system: WEIGHTING SCALE A weighing scale (usually just “scales" in common usage. In its traditional form. Specialized medical scales and bathroom scales are used to measure the body weight of human beings.
by subtracting mass on the same side of the beam that the sample is added. ANALITICAL BALANCE An analytical balance is an instrument that's used to measure mass to a very high degree of precision. The weighing pan(s) of a high precision (. because the moments of force on either side of the balance beam are affected equally.measured mass. the spring stretches (as in a hanging scale in the produce department of a grocery store) or compresses (as in a simple bathroom scale) in proportion to how hard the Earth pulls down on the object. The final balance is achieved by using a small spring force rather than subtracting fixed weights. The use of a vented balance safety enclosure that has uniquely designed acrylic air foils allows a smooth turbulence-free airflow that prevents balance fluctuation and the weighing of mass down to 1μg without fluctuations or loss of product. . Some weighing scales such as a Jolly balance (named after Philipp von Jolly who invented the balance about 1874) use a spring with a known spring constant (see Hooke's law) and measure the displacement of the spring by any variety of mechanisms to produce an estimate of the gravitational force applied by the object. Analytical precision is achieved by maintaining a constant load on the balance beam. Every spring has a proportionality constant that relates how hard you pull it to how far it stretches.01 mg or better) analytical balance are inside a transparent enclosure with doors so dust does not collect and so any air currents in the room do not affect the delicate balance. affecting the weighing. the sample must be at room temperature to prevent natural convection from forming air currents inside the enclosure. SPRING SCALE In a typical spring scale. Rack and pinion mechanisms are often used to convert the linear spring motion to a dial reading. which can be simply hung from the spring or set on a pivot and bearing platform. Also.
and is used in a modern weigh bridge.ELECTRONIC VERSION SPRING SCALE In electronic versions of spring scales. skills and processes Complementary learning aid Suitable for all achievement levels Individual exploration For year two: Place value concept can be reinforced through this instruction: • • • • Oral name Concrete representation Place value components comparing and sequencing . the deflection of a beam supporting the unknown weight is measured using a strain gauge. The results from several supporting locations may be added electronically. WHY USE CALCULATORS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS? • • • • • • Inherent interest/motivation Intensive use/ versatile nature Development of concept. such as trucks and rail cars. The capacity of such devices is only limited by the resistance of the beam to deflection. so this technique is suitable for determining the weight of very heavy objects. which is a length-sensitive electrical resistance.
Floating point calculations are performed by designating a space between 2 columns as the decimal-point and all the rows to the right of that space represent fractional portions while all the rows to the left represent whole number digits Bead Values • • Each bead in the upper deck has a value of5.ASK STUDENTS TO SHOW ON THEIR CALCULATOR ABACUS • • can be used to perform addition. In certain calculations. and so on. The beads are manipulated with either the index finger or the thumb of one hand. each bead in the lower deck has a value of 1. • • The right-most column is the ones column. the next adjacent to the left is the tens column. Counting • After 5 beads are counted in the lower deck. after both beads in the upper deck are counted. the result (10) is then carried to the left-most adjacent column. when moved towards the beam that separates the two decks. With a Chinese abacus. the thumb and the index finger together with the middle finger are used to manipulate the beads. subtraction. Beads are considered counted. Beads in lower deck are moved up with the thumb and down with the index finger. the next adjacent to the left is the hundreds column. . Technique • • • Proper finger technique is paramount in achieving proficiency on the abacus. the middle finger is used to move beads in the upper deck. division and multiplication The abacus is prepared for use by placing it flat on a table or one's lap and pushing all the beads on both the upper and lower decks away from the beam. the result is "carried" to the upper deck.
a hardcopy on printed pages or an audio playback of music composed on the computer. artwork. MIDI: Musical Instrumental Digital Interface Digital camera.drawing Speakers LCD project Output to robot arm . etc. Example • • • • • Dot matrix printers Plotters.COMPUTER Input Devices • • • Before a computer can process data – a need for a method to input data. there must be a means to produce output of the results. The output can be displayed on the computer screen. sound. Example • • • • • • Graphic tablets Scanner Microphone: to record sound. Device depends on the form the data takes: text. Devices used to gather/collect information and enter data and instructions into a computer – can be manual or automatic. Video digitiser Touch screen Output Devices • • When the computer has processed the data.
data programs stored in its RAM are retained even if the GC is switched off.introduced to increase performance of computer – primary : L1 (faster). Primary storage: Memory – RAM and ROM – directly accessible by computer‟s processing unit (CPU). . For whole classroom display of GC screen or data. Graphing Calculators (GC) • • • • • • Blend of calculator and computer technology Keyboard resembles a calculator keyboard Each key – may have more than one function – combination with „alpha‟ and „2nd‟ key will produce different symbols or perform different functions. LCD via computer. Flash-ROM – to store applications software. 2 types: Primary and secondary storage devices. Mira Mera May 21 at 5:55pm Report Storage Devices • • • • A hardware device designed to store information. Computer. secondary L2 (slower) cache. LCD. etc. pen drive. TV. TV. Powered by batteries but has back-up batteries – hence values. the following output devices may be used: OHP with OHP view-screen. Can be linked to other devices: Printer.Storage Technology • • • • Magnetic: floppy disk or diskettes Optical : CDs Computer caches: like a memory bank to speed up accessing data. Some L3. Flash memory: Digital cameras – solid state storage device – no moving parts – everything is electronic instead of mechanical. Data logger and its probes (CBL: Computer based laboratory) CBL • • CBL and CBR (Computer based ranger) – data capture devices: enable easy collection of real data. Note: Cache. LCD.
digital camera. Variety of media resources • A hypermedia (eg. LCD: used with a computer. photographs. Example of some: Scanner. such as text. and organise activities to optimise the advantages and address the limitations in order to enhance learning. handwritten documents. . animation and video clip. Display Devices • • TV interfaces: connect computer or GC to a conventional TV Projection equipment: OHP: Using transparency or special OHP resources Visualizer: Display 3-D objects – good for demonstrations to whole class. Digital cameras: designed for single images. data loggers. audio. Therefore teachers need to know how to identify the characteristics of the hypermedia applications. understand the advantages and limitations of such applications. However. Scanners: devices to produce digital images of sourced objects. probes. rather than just graphic images – process called Optical Character Recognition (OCR). these opportunities may not necessary be taken up by the teachers. Software) application can include more than one of the following media: text. Technology – as used in Fax machines. Software available to enable typed text to be scanned and turned into meaningful text. video camera. • • • • However it is not necessary that an application may have all the five types of media.Data Capturing Devices • • • • • Many data capturing devices. like a conventional camera but stores them on a memory card/flash-ROM or diskette/ CD. The characteristics of hypermedia application offer teachers opportunities to enhance teaching and learning. etc. graphic image (still picture).
Cells can contain numerical values. letters to parents or students. store and reuse or copy required sections.SOFTWARE • • Helps teacher to organise and present lessons.g. notes. flyers. Answers “what if” questions – useful for grading. etc. reports. forms. etc. Spread sheet Software (e. Creates charts easily. record data. excel. • • Prepare materials: hand outs. Motivation: makes working with numbers more fun . 3 most common support tools: o Word Processing SW (includes equation editor / Maths Type) o Spreadsheet SW o Database SW Word Processing SW • • Supports task or teaching and learning activities which were previously done by handwriting or typewriter Offers more because processing document is prepared on the screen before being printed onto paper – so can correct errors. grades. etc). But some can also support teaching and learning like the Mathematical tools. change appearance (font. lotus) • • • • • • • To organise and manipulate data (especially numerical data) Each row-column position is called a cell. check spelling and grammar. etc. newsletters. Time saving – calculations – faster than on calculator. Automatic calculation feature – easy to update products such as budgets. etc. spacing. words or character data and formula for calculating commands. During T&L activities: Prepare report or type out discussion outcomes.
demonstrations and summaries of information. median.merge data base fields with letter created using a word processing document. . on statistics). etc. Compare to a file cabinet. logical thinking. Storing and analyzing data – descriptive statistical analyses (mean. birthday search) and provide information on students. MS Access) • • • Store. organise and manipulate information. Support for problem solving: e. Produce charts and graphs.Use • • • • • • • • Keep scores and grades of assessments Analyse scores and grades Keep attendance record Budget Demonstrations: example relationship between numbers and percentages.g. shapes. etc) Print graphic tools: e. To store and retrieve data – during lessons (e. Use information on students to plan instruction and enhance motivation (e.g. Presentation Tools (e.g.g.g. develop organizational skills. Usually used in conjunction with projection tools such as LCDs Graphic Tools • • Tools to produce graphics (pictures. illustrations. etc.g. Main purpose – to store information in a way that makes it easy to locate Use • • • • Inventory and locating instructional resources. Power Point) • • Helps user create on-screen descriptions. etc.) Databases (e. Send personalized letters: use mail merge.) (Today – ANOVA. Print Shop: All graphics – selected from menu – making it very easy to use.
The more widely used web browsers for personal computers are Internet Explorer. Video collections (and sound collections-support graphics with sound effects) – ready-made video clips (or audio clips) that may be used. A WEB SITE is a collection of related Web pages and associated items. A WEB SERVER is a computer that delivers requested web pages to your computer. Each electronic document on the Web is called a WEB PAGE . Computers connected to the Internet work together to transfer data and information around the world using servers and clients. etc. . To browse the web. your computer is a client that can access data. What is INTERNET? • • • The Internet is also called the NET. you need a computer that is connected to the Internet and that has a web browser. information and services on a variety of servers. What is WEB BROWSER? • • • A web browser or browser is application software that allows users to access and view web pages. such as documents and pictures. educational institutions and individuals. Clip Art Packages: Ready-made pictures and graphic designs – in file or disk. government agencies. Netscape. Quicktime.• • • • Draw/paint Programs: Used to produce more complex graphics and can be imported into desktop publishing systems or presentation tools. audio and video. – enables users to create own movies and play them. Firefox. Video making software: Movie maker. On the Internet. The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that links millions of businesses. stored on a Web server. graphics. What is WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)? • • • • World Wide Web (www) or WEB consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents. Mozilla. which can contain text. Opera and Safari.
usually listed in reverse chronological order. • A chat room is a location on an Internet server that permits users to chat with each other. Anyone in the chat room can participate in the conversation. is an informal web site consisting of time. such as a web page from a server on the Internet. send. Blogs at school provide a means for teachers to collaborate with other teachers and students. called the blogger. forward. store. Some of the widely used search engines are Yahoo. in a diary or journal format. which usually is specific to a particular topic. What is ONLINE CHAT? • A chat is a real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer. opinions and personalities of the author. You use an e-mail program to create. and sometimes site visitors. Outlook and Outlook Express are two popular e-mail programs. What is BLOG? • A blog. What is SEARCH ENGINE? • A search engine is a program that finds web sites and web pages. short for Weblog. Today e-mail is a primary communications method for both personal and business use. . Google What is E-MAIL? • • • • E-mail or electronic mail is the transmission of messages and files via a computer network. print and delete e-mail messages. Real time means that you and the people with whom you are conversing are online at the same time.• DOWNLOADING is the process of a computer receiving information. receive. • • Blog reflect the interests.stamped articles or posts.
An interactive whiteboard provides multiple users with an area on which they can write or draw. To provide a centre to enhance professional development of mathematics teachers in the school. To provide a centre to obtain and disseminate information on mathematics and mathematics education. . distance and place advantages for students who live far from a college campus or work full time. These courses enable students to attend classes from anywhere in the world and at times that fit their schedules.What is VIDEO CONFERENCING? • A video conferencing is a meeting between two or more geographically separated people who use a network or the Internet to transmit audio and video data. What is DISTANCE LEARNING? • • Distance learning is the delivery of education at one location while the learning takes place at other locations. speakers and a video camera attached to a computer. Maths Lab: Objective • • • To enable teachers and students to conveniently carry out practical mathematical activities effectively to nurture interest in mathematics. Distance learning courses provide time. Mathematics Equipment’s • • Maths Tools and Materials can be classifies as generic Mathematics equipment‟s. • • To participate in a video conference. Maths Teaching and Learning Aids are Mathematics equipment‟s that can be classified according the main areas in the Malaysian mathematics curriculum. you need a video conferencing software along with a microphone.
Measures: Time. simulations. etc. database. Perimeter and area. etc. Pencil. drill and practice. . Cabrie. Suitable application software: Generic software: word processor. ICT Hardware and Software • • Appropriate input. Examples: Scissors. output and storage devices for ICT must be available in the lab. Statistics: Average and data handling. decimals. (Ask students to brainstorm and make a list of generic equipment). Teaching and Learning Aids Can be classified according to the Main Areas in the current curriculum as follows : • • • • Numbers Measurements Shape and Space Statistics Note however. Shape and Space: 2D and 3D shapes. etc. Specific to mathematics: GSP. percentages. spread sheet. A4 paper. money. Problem solving. that some T&L aids can be used in more than one learning area T&L Aids The main areas can be further subdivided into topics as follows : • • • • Numbers: Whole numbers. Volume of Liquid.Generic Mathematics equipment’s • • • Equipment which serve general purposes not specific to a particular learning area may be classified as generic equipment. etc. • Courseware: Tutorials. games and puzzles. fractions. etc. etc. Length. Mass. Derive. desktop publishing.
All students must have a copy of the lab rules. journals and other printed materials on mathematics and mathematics education. etc. Trolleys for placing used equipment is important so that the equipment can either be reused or checked before storing. Notice boards for information on mathematics. magazines. which displays the item concerned. Lab rules must be displayed outside and inside the lab. activities. reference books. Log book to record the use of the lab and comments about the lab should be kept where it is easily accessible but safe. • Today certain websites name themselves as maths corners and either provide information on mathematics or provide a site for discussion or for games and puzzles. a media house in the middle of campus. A first aid kit must be available in the lab. Different types of boards should be available in the maths room or software that can produce virtual boards for various uses should be available. lab usage time-table. Maths Corner (MC) • • A mathematics corner is a space for exhibiting items related to mathematics for the targeted group to view or try out hands-on.Maths Laboratory Plan and Layout • • • • • • • • • A store room is essential for storing large or rarely used equipment. The cupboards with glass slides may also be used for displaying 3-D objects and students work. Hence a MC can be a notice board or table in a classroom or in the corridor of a school. materials and aids. . etc. syllabi. Printed materials and equipment for daily use may be kept in the cupboards with glass slides to enable easy viewing. curriculum specification for all standards. etc. Printed Materials • The maths lab must be equipped with all school textbooks and other region mathematics text books.
g. solids. Activity sheets Courseware for students to use during lessons after completing their work or during their free time. etc. but a maths garden provides for non-formal learning. MATHS GARDEN (MG) • • • • An area created outdoors with learning stations. Information Centre • • • • Current literature on mathematics content and pedagogy Current trends and issues in mathematics pedagogy or research findings. Impact of ICT on maths education Information on curricular and co-curricular activities.g. Information Centre • • • • Journals Books Magazines Catalogues Exhibition Centre • • • Students work. MC may be used as information centres or exhibition centres or hands-on and minds-on activity centres or a combination of all. Models: e. mathematical equipments or instruments. It a form of non-formal learning because it is an organized educational activity outside the formal system intended to serve identifiable learning objectives. Charts: e. etc.• • The MC we are referring to in this unit are the non-virtual corners. formulae. . Hands-on and Minds-on Activity Centre • • • Manipulative items or materials that help to explore a maths concept. step by step guide of an algorithm. Each learning station has an activity or a set of activities with specific objectives. A normal garden provides for informal learning.
To instil interest in students to learn mathematics To provide opportunity for exploring and applying mathematics outdoors. Decide on the activities at each learning station. Constructing a MG • • • • • • Decide on an area in your school that is conducive to construct a MG. . followed by discussion and conclusion. Divide students into groups and give relevant instructions such as the length of time at each station. Ensure that the activities are in the form of a game. Plan their route through the station so that all stations have an appropriate number of students to carry out the activities conductively. The MG is aimed at drawing students‟ interest to learn mathematics. Objective • • • • To reduce boredom and fear of learning mathematics. the activity sheets that have to be completed. To show the use of mathematics in the real world. Operating the MG • • • • Prepare the activity sheets or booklet for each learning station activities. Obtain the budget and construct it. Decide how long each activity will take. Prepare a budget and working paper. Decide on the number of learning stations. Draw a plan.• • The MG provides an outdoor arena for students‟ to explore and apply mathematics concepts and skills. etc.
use. The forms are: • • • • Assets:Daftar Harta Modal (KEW 312. Part B: Used for record of maintenance -service. This system of recording on cards was introduced to facilitate recording all purchases and maintenance in the spaces provided and to prepare and arrange all records in alphabetical order. A copy of this form must be kept either in the store or office for each item other than one set kept by the section using the item. repairs and buying of spare parts. placement. 312A) • The record is kept in a card labelled KEW 312 (see sample card) for all assets.MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES Inventory and Records In the Malaysian context there are 3 categories of resources: • • • Assets: referring to items costing RM 500 or more. storage and disposal of items. However. all furniture and fittings come under this category. Inventory (Inventori): All items costing less than RM500. • • With this system of recording all records can be kept uniformly and make it convenient to monitor and maintain. inspection and disposal. The form has 2 parts: • • • Part A: Used to record information of purchase. even if they cost more than RM500. This category does not include furniture and fittings even if they cost more than RM500. . 312A) Inventory: Daftar Inventori (KEW 313) Office Supplies‟ Stock: Daftar Stok Bekalan Pejabat (KEW 314 Transfer: Daftar Pergerakan Harta Modal dan Inventori (KEW 315) Daftar Harta Model (KEW 312. Records All 3 categories have specific forms to record the acquisition. Office Supplies‟ Stock (Stok Bekalan Pejabat): All consumable items and it includes writing tools and other non-consumable items of very low value which are uneconomical to be itemised individually.
Records are on cards to facilitate arranging and referring to the records. Record has to be kept in Bahasa Malaysia. Daftar Inventori (KEW 313) • • • • • The record is kept in a card labelled KEW 313 (see sample card) for all inventories. Daftar Pergerakan Harta Modal dan Inventori (KEW 315) • • • • The record of transferring of assets and inventory is kept in a book. Today in addition to these forms a computer record may be also kept. A copy of this form must be kept either in the store or office for each item other than one set kept by the section using the item. . Record has to be kept in Bahasa Malaysia. Receiving of inventories and location of inventories is recorded in these cards. Discuss the forms that have to be filled if the resource has been shifted to another location.• The form KEW 312A is a continuation of the form KEW 312 part B when part B in KEW 312 has no more space left. Daftar Stok Bekalan Pejabat (KEW 314) • • • • All receiving and distributing of items This record is kept in a book. Transferring here refers to shifting due to borrowing or temporary location. Maths Resources • • • All these forms of recording also apply to maths resources. Discussion: Look at a list of maths resources and discuss the forms that you would record it in. The cards are arranged according to type of inventory and in alphabetical order. Discussion: How to fill the form KEW 314? Please refer to notes and form in Bahasa Malaysia. Discussion: How to fill the form KEW 315? Please refer to notes and form in Bahasa Malaysia.
from donation. if it follows specification as in the order form and DN. Then and only then must you sign and stamp to endorse the DN. • • • File the DN with the earlier documents. • • Send 2 copies to the supplier and keep one copy in the file. Check the DN against the order form and also check the goods . make sure a letter stating that the item was donated by the agent (individual or company) must be kept in the file.Acquisition and Disposal Methods of Acquisition: By purchasing. quantity (as in the order form and DN). Purchasing : • • • • • Obtain quotations from suppliers or agents or from catalogues of companies. The DN also states the items and the quantities to be delivered. Check the invoice against the quotations and give the invoice and DN to the office for payment to be made. Delivery note (DN) will be sent by the supplier stating the time and date the goods will be sent to the address as in the order form. Select supplier and obtain approval from the school head. Record of item must be kept in the appropriate forms.condition (good or damaged). Acknowledgement letter will be sent by the supplier. The supplier will then send an invoice with a copy of the DNs. . Donation • • If any item is donated. Fill up the local order form and send it to the supplier and keep a carbon copy in a file. Receipt of goods will be accompanied by 3 copies of the delivery note. • Before purchasing from suppliers always find out if there is a central Government contract for supplying the item – the school office finance clerk can provide advice about it. by borrowing/sharing. File it with the order form.
However. Forms of Disposal • • Burying the item with written permission from appropriate agents (Environmental department. • Donating it to other institutions. damaged by fire or lost items must have a polis report as prove that the damage or loss has been investigated and this report must accompany the documents for disposal of the item. Disposal of Resources • • • Depending on the value of the asset or inventory. • You may keep your own record of borrowing and make sure it is returned on time but the forms described earlier will be kept by the owners of the items. disposal requires following government procedures.Borrowing/Sharing • Resources may be borrowed from other departments (e. 313 and 314) should be kept in the main store or school office and a copy at the respective locations. etc.g. also with written permission. When an item is beyond repair or out dated then approval according to government procedures must be followed to dispose of it. the teacher‟s activity centres (PKG: Pusat Kegiatan Guru) or the state resource centre (BTPN: Bahagian Teknologi Pendidikan Negeri)). beakers and measuring cylinders from the science labs) or resource centres ( other schools. Like wise for items that are damaged by fire or lost. etc.) Selling it – only to contractors registered with the Finance Ministry and the money from the sales must be credited into the school account. . If the registered contactors are not interested then it can be sold to others. Storage : Location • • • • • • Storage of Maths resources may be in several places: Maths lab Staff room Maths Store Room School Resource centre Appropriate documents (KEW 312.
Maintenance • • Depending on the form of resource maintenance should be carried out regularly. The location must ensure that the items will be safe from damaged and theft. cupboards. Role of Teachers and Students • • • • Resources available in school must be taken care of. • space provided for teachers to report the condition of the resources. the topic and standard it was used for. The log book should have record of the name of staff. If a special store room is used to keep the Maths resources. However. cabinets. the use of resources such as manipulative kits in the classroom daily must be monitored not by using the KEW 313 or 315 but by keeping a log book. Teachers and students alike must ensure that the items are handled with care and replaced in their respective places after use. 313 and 315 and consumption of office supplies is catered in the form KEW 314. Storage space must be clearly labelled and coded. drawers. The teacher must check condition of items and quantity of items before and after use. date and time borrowed and returned. etc. racks. the quantity borrowed. Monitoring • • • Monitoring the transfer of assets and inventory is catered in the forms KEW 312.• • • • • The items must be labelled clearly and must be easily accessible to the Maths teachers. Maintenance is important to ensure that the resources are in good functioning order and also for the safety of the students and staff. All damage and loss must be reported. . item borrowed. then there must be suitable shelves. Coding system should enable quick location of item in the store.
Reading the log book daily where teachers have recorded damage and loss and taking action to repair damage and replace losses will help maintain the resources. when a problem persists. However.How to carry out Maintenance? • • Regular periodical inspection of items will help detect damages and ensure the proper functioning of the item and the safety of all. Action for maintenance must be taken immediately as delay could result in further deterioration in the condition of the item and the item may become unsafe for use. . Have periodic servicing as stated in the manual or as deemed suitable. • • Upgrading equipment or items to maintain it to be compatible with technological developments is also a form of maintenance. • Other sources of finance are private funds – either from fund-raising projects or from donations from the public. maintenance personnel from the supplier should be called or the asset should be sent to the dealers who provide maintenance services. Maintenance of Assets • • • • Maintenance of assets begins with the proper and correct way to operate the asset as stated in the user‟s manual. Most assets today enable the user to service the item on their own. Planning and Budgeting • All schools in Malaysia have a Mathematics and Science grant allocated by the government based several criteria such as the number of students. Including „Resources‟ in the department meeting will provide opportunity to hear from every member about the use. B or C). condition and required upgrading of existing resources. subjects offered. Then a major expensive repair may be required or the item may become an item beyond repair and hence has to be written off. • All services and repairs must be recorded. category of the school (grade A.
Why? All T&L activities would likely have ended so can obtain information on the consumption and use of the respective resources. Planning will enable essential items to be bought prevent over purchase or shortage of items enable to identify items that can be improvised or substituted Ensure money is put aside for maintenance. How to Budget? • Know how much money will be allocated for the coming year for mathematics – Know the grant for mathematics – based on the following years projected enrolment. repairs and unforeseen expenses. Ample time to purchase items for use in the following school year. Budgeting • • Budgeting is a process that involves systematic planning of expenditure based on income. List quantity of each consumable item that has to be purchased. • • • • • • Check all stocks to ascertain the quantity of stock available for every consumable item. . List all items that require maintenance. a plan must be made.Planning • • To ensure that the money obtained is used optimally. When to Plan the Budget? • • • • At least one month before the school year ends. List all items that require repair. Needs careful and serious considerations so that the allotted money is utilized to achieve maximum benefits. List items that require to be replaced. List items that have to be upgraded.
Allocate money for items. Monitoring and Controlling Expenditure • • • Once you have an approved budget. Have a meeting with your head of department and head of school. Ensure that the total amount of expenditure does not exceed income. If resources can be shared from other sources of resources – this will enable money to be used for other unavailable items. Always have some money for miscellaneous expenses which may arise during the following school year. Use quotations and earlier year‟s prices to estimate the cost for items based on criteria that enables to prioritise items such as urgency and safety.in other departments and in other resource centres available to the school must be analysed. List new items that could be purchased. use it to keep track of expenditures.• • • List new items that have to be purchased. You must however. Periodically check your budget plan to make sure you are not spending money on items that are not on the budget. Analyzing internal and external classroom/ school environment • • • • • • • Resources within the school . NOTES FOR RESOURCE OF MATHEMATICS . REMEMBER : Permission from the headmaster must be obtained before any purchasing is done. updated your budget and modify the budget when necessary.
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