INTRODUCTION English is the most common foreign language that has been studied for all of student in our country. English has been learned since in elementary school until stand in University to get degree. In University, English become the common communication through the students. English uses in international communication, not only in oral form but also in written form. It has been known that student in school often get hard to understand English, they just know a little bit simple vocabulary and they are very lazy to practice it. Sometimes they do those things because they don’t have interest in studying English; they just study English in their school with old method and make them bored. Actually, they want to practice English but they not have capability on it, they just learn it but don’t understand, and do not know how to use it. Even in their school they have to be mastered the 4 skills in English; they just have capability in reading with their bad pronunciations. Teacher must know exactly the condition of their student, and after that they have to do something to solve that problem. In this era, learning program not able to give satisfactory result. It is seen when the process of learning happen, the atmosphere seemed like the boring class. Teachers are busy to deliver the material without care to their students, are they understand the lesson or not. Most of teachers, always monotone and lack of variations they almost stuttering technology, are not able to use media in learning process. Teachers, consciously plan a systematic teaching activity by use all of things that can increase interest in study. Teacher must have creative idea to make their student better in English; on the contrary, they teach their student but their student never understand what they are studied. So they must find other way to teach their student and make them interested in study English. Actually, to know about student interest it is very easy, we must know what kind of method that can make them interested in the lesson. Sometimes they can ask the teacher to provide the new method in teaching and their teachers have to open their mind also aware what the students need in their learning process. Improved learning quality is one of the fundamental improvement in educations a whole, improve the quality of education be an integral part to improve the quality of people. Both aspects of ability, personality and responsibility as a human in the earth. Quality of education depends on the quality of the teachers and learning process. As a result, increasing quality in learning process is a fundamental issue for the improvement of the quality of education in a rational way. Learning english skills, including reading skills in that part. The primary goal as reading educators is to improve reading instruction. To do that, we must embrace the advantages computer technology can offer when planning a curriculum for students that will successfully develop proficiency and fluency in silent reading. It is evident from statistics that our nation’s students need to improve their reading proficiency. While progress has been made in National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores since 2005, the relatively low scores of fourth and eighth graders at present, the disparity of these scores between affluent and less privileged students, the high dropout rate, and the discontent of many students with traditional classroom learning clearly indicate that something different must be done. It is encouraging that a growing number of research reports show computer learning can significantly improve student achievement in reading. These reports strongly suggest a reconsideration of what might be best provided by a teacher and what might be more appropriately delivered by computer technology. Studies of the use of computer learning in
A strong argument for computer learning is also emerging with regard to teacher limitations. long before it became a regular part of reading pedagogy. and so must be developed with the assistance of computer technology. progress and regress. it still is. nor controlled by a student. dead ends and cul du sacs. the avid and advantaged. by forces outside as inside education. Moreover. perhaps more. silent reading has almost always been a tough pedagogical sell and by some standards (e.
. These findings will undoubtedly stimulate changes that will affect student appraisal. In short. arguing that silent reading as a social practice existed for some readers. instruction. and achievement. we anticipated a pathway of continuous progress toward ever more fluent and efficient silent reading processes prompted by advances in reading research over time. Instead we found a meandering pathway of fits and starts. Certain aspects of the reading process simply cannot be directed by a teacher. economic factors. the 2000 National Reading Panel Report).” after school. We describe the changes in the roles that silent reading has played in instruction by mapping them onto norms and events in the larger society and culture. and literacy technologies that played out in the larger cultural ecology. The story of how silent reading instruction developed is not simple.. the practices in any given period were shaped as much.“before the bell. When we set out on this journey to unearth the story.g. these were social norms. management. political events. and home study programs are increasing.
and in numerous research reports by the journal. oral or silent.” Stahl and Kuhn (2000) in a Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement report stated. word spacing and capitalization. they will encounter significant difficulties in constructing meaning from the text. books were scarce. Fluency in reading is stressed in the “No Child Left Behind” legislation. Third.” Further. in a progression of five texts starting with the hornbook. in the Report of the National Reading Panel (2000). lurching ahead in intermittent surges. “Clearly. no matter how bright they are. Scientific Studies of Reading (2001). moving to the primer and on to further scriptural texts meant for religious instruction (Smith. the National Reading Panel (2000) found that 44 percent of a national representative sampling of fourth grade students were found to be disfluent. Beyond religion. Early colonial reading instruction applied the alphabetic approach to a small set of religious texts. especially for younger students. not in need of salvation through spiritually-based instruction. the printing press. So while oral reading was still the accepted practice in reading education. Fluency in reading is widely recognized as a critical need for reading competency. the ability to read accurately and rapidly is so fundamental in reading success that it just has to be right. First. In this journal Kame’enui and Simmons (2001) stated. In early colonial times. Access to books was limited to imports. reading pedagogy and assessment migrated from a dominance of oral reading (through the 19th Century) to silent (emerging in the first third of the 20th Century). mostly from London. because we read something without sounds and make us more concentrate. according to Monaghan (2005). propelled by the advances in the technologies of written language: punctuation. and those available were read intensively and repeatedly. Inside the walls of schools. and mass media. Silent reading as a cultural practice developed over a long period of time. will continue to read slowly and with great effort. the sheer number of texts produced for adults and children opened the possibility for individual reading for pleasurable purposes. 2002). reading for the common man was considered important to community involvement and commerce.” Rasinski (2006) further notes: “The link between fluency and overall reading proficiency is now well
. “If children fail to make the transition to fluent reading. improving conditions in access to books and changing understandings about the purposes for reading were expanding in ways that would ultimately support silent reading practices in school. The National Read . as reading for meaning burst onto the scene as an explicit theoretical and pedagogical goal around the time of World War I. the increase in popularity of “pretty books” and other pleasure reading texts indicated changing attitudes about children and their interests. SILENT READING Silent reading is the best way to read. Several changes in colonial times laid the groundwork for a shift in reading instruction in the century after the Revolution. changes in instruction were driven by a new notion of the “innocent child”. Reading was regarded mainly as oral reading. “Children who do not develop reading fluency. In silent reading we use eye-movement to read the book.” Reutzel and Hollingsworth (1993) reinforced the need for fluency development: “The development of reading fluency has been a neglected part of reading instruction despite the fact that many reading authorities consider it to be an important part of the reading curriculum. Fluency in both oral reading and silent reading should certainly be desired goals of our educational practices today. and were primarily produced for the adult male reader. the main purpose of reading. was to gain to religious insight. popular books for the masses (including children).ing Panel concluded. Second.II. as well as an acceptance of secular topics for students.
Oculomotor Activity During Reading. e. Building proficiency in all students so they can reach their true potential for proficient reading must be the goal of all reading instruction. From this beginning today’s computer appraisal and reading development techniques have emerged. technology. Technology’s Role in Silent Reading Fluency Development.established. An historical perspective on silent reading allows us to see the streams of language.” Examines the effects of oral reading practice on the development of a student’s oculomotor activity in silent reading.” In silent reading have multifaceted. but too much oral reading practice can produce detrimental effects on silent reading behavior. perceptual. text.” A review of the manner in which word information is fed to the mind in silent reading in a relatively habitual manner. Therefore.” Provides an introduction to the only means of analyzing the dynamic activity of reading and describes the detailed information that can be derived about a reader’s efficiency or fluency in silent reading. our understanding of reading fluency and its place in the reading process and reading curriculum is far from complete. While eye-movement recording may not be possible with all students. This process is conditioned by a reader’s visual/ perceptual processes that are fashioned in early reading and can only be effectively and directly altered by today’s computerized reading development approaches. and practice that shape what we have done and are likely to do so in the future. and information processing skills that constitute proficient reading are not addressed in most core or basal reading programs today. “Moving Toward Fluency in Silent Reading. but also to better readers who read in a slow and labored manner. understanding. Perhaps the result will be an increasing pedagogical emphasis on practices that help students develop ever-greater competency to read and think by and for themselves. Eye-Movement Recording of the Reading Process. b. perceiving. a better balance is needed between oral reading fluency practice an silent reading fluency development as delivered by computer assisted instruction if proficiency in silent reading is to emerge. It discusses the complexity of the reading process and calls attention to the fact that some of the more basic visual/functional. A brief overview of the contents of the book is as follows: a. c. “Today’s Technology to Develop Silent Reading Proficiency and Fluency. Nevertheless.” A brief history of the instructional devices that have been used over the past 80 years to both appraise and improve silent reading fluency. The Dynamic Activity of Reading. f. certainly the reading process of struggling readers should be examined to determine the instructional practices that will best meet their needs. The term “struggling reader” applies not only to students who exhibit low achievement.
. d. Oral reading practices are certainly helpful in terms of word recognition and realization of phrasing.” Describes the visual/ perceptual process of silent reading in terms of the seeing. and divergent thinking functions that comprise this process.” A description of an ideal computerized reading development system that can provide a more comprehensive approach to the development of silent reading fluency and proficiency.
In the summer. In addition. now we have the new method in reading that can help our students in their difficulties. and information processing skills that comprise the silent reading process. silent reading always preceded oral reading for expression and fluency (Chall. 2006). Most important. The control group received no books and no parent scaffolding in the summer. as well as the changes produced by today’s web -based computer techniques to modify the basic visual/functional. the methos is sent reading. fourth-grade children received lessons from their teacher at the end of the school year. then focus on understanding the story. the words first approach gradually evolved into the highly popular look-say approach associated with the work of William Elson and William S. providing general feedback. And we need experimental studies to establish the effectiveness of any interventions that are developed before they are widely implemented with children. it needs to be more fully developed and tested in a methodologically rigorous way. They built sight word recognition before moving on to analytic phonics. 2002). even in grade one. The children practiced fluent oral reading in a paired reading format and practiced using five reading comprehension strategies while reading silently on their own. From its initial successes early in the 1900s. increasing low-income children’s access to books and encouraging them to read in the summer might go a long way towards reducing seasonal differences in learning and achievement gaps. higher education curriculum directors may be interested in this paper as recommended reading for graduate courses that cover what occurs during silent reading and what outcomes are possible with current reading practice programs using web-based computer technology. the teacher modeled fluent oral reading and comprehension strategies for silent reading. Silent reading can be very useful for students because they can get the idea of what they have read easily. We need to know. but did receive books in the fall after posttesting to satisfy ethical requirements. beyond usual clinic hours. DISCUSSION Nowadays. Such programs might also be of interest for their use with incoming
.III. perceptual. In these lessons. and signing a postcard to be mailed to the researchers with an optional comment about the summer reading experience. Although this powerful idea may be one whose time has finally come. whether mere access to books is sufficient. Reading and tutoring centers will naturally be interested in both the diagnostic eyemovement recording techniques as well as the web-based practice techniques available through computer technology. is certainly an advantage in terms of reading remediation. 1967. for example. students do not like to read the text book because they think that text book is really hard to understand. Pearson. Reading researchers should also be intrigued by the comprehensive description of the silent reading process as well as the effects of oral reading on the development of proficiency in silent reading. Especially helpful should be the information revealed through eye-movement recordings about the many subliminal factors involved in the process of reading. Gray. listening as a 100-word passage from the book was read aloud and then reread. Children were expected to learn whole words first. But. In the first of our two experiments (Kim. the treatment group received matched books and parent scaffolding that consisted of listening as the student talked about a book. As Heyns (1978) suggested more than 30 years ago. and specifically how to encourage children to read during their summer vacation. The ability for clients to use this silent reading development technology at home.
as instruction is adjusted step-by-step on the basis of a student’s comprehension. average duration of fixation. year by year. perceptual. This data can also suggest the degree of need for fluency development training. and following training a post eye-movement recording can indicate the degree of improvement in a student’s silent reading efficiency. What was done yesterday will be improved in the future and even greater student gains will result. it is important to realize that studies of efficacy must be an ongoing process.freshmen who need to improve their silent reading proficiency to deal with the more extensive and higher-level content they will encounter in their post-secondary education. Change comes slowly in the educational system. an ideal practice system must also provide scaffolding of instruction to ensure more targeted individualized instruction for each student. Computer scaffolding goes far beyond what a teacher can provide. The number of fixations and regressions a reader executes. the only reliable means of evaluating a reader’s oculomotor efficiency is through eye-movement recording. which determines reading effectiveness. Since changes in most computer programs will be made steadily throughout each year based on extensive analysis of online student records.
. Computer technology along with teacher direction and traditional book reading can provide students with the means to more fully achieve reading proficiency. Now is the time for reading instruction to change and expand in regard to skill development. and his or her reading rate determines the degree of reading efficiency or fluency during silent reading. Adding this information to a student’s achievement test data. Such instruction also goes far beyond what more reading practice alone can provide. and information processing skills that constitute proficient reading are not addressed in most core or basal reading programs today. and lesson progress. rate. can provide a more complete evaluation of both his or her efficiency and effectiveness in silent reading. Not only are these software techniques critical to the development of reading proficiency. The amount of data concerning “how” a student reads in terms of fluency or efficiency can be secured objectively and quite easily through an eye-movement recording system. This paper discusses the complexity of the reading process and calls attention to the fact that some of the more basic visual/functional. Since the eye moves from three to five times per second. but new research is demonstrating the vital role computer technology can play in reading instruction.
including studies that involve eyemovement recording. Over the last 80 years a myriad of research. perceiving. for teachers to be aware of the multifaceted nature of the reading process. if any. then silent reading was preferred. Petscher. From the time the light from the printed page strikes the reader’s eyes until he or she has assimilated the message. It is encouraging to note that more and more reading specialists are becoming aware of the need for training in these areas and are taking steps to provide it. An historical perspective on silent reading allows us to see the streams of language. Also. During this interval of time not one eye-movement study has been conducted that shows non-technological approaches to the development of silent reading fluency that are as successful as technological approaches in improving the subliminal high-speed process of silent reading.
. Hiebert.” included more than 16. The fact that these processes are cyclical in nature and impinge so closely upon one another makes it difficult for teachers of reading to isolate them. more and more schools are realizing the need to provide such forms of instruction. CONCLUSION Reading modes have been similarly (perhaps even more greatly) influenced by access the availability of books. understanding. Samuels. more refined techniques and computer programs are becoming available for such silent reading practice. even when classroom control was paramount in a classroom teacher’s or Sunday school teacher’s mind. translate into improved scores on state reading achievement tests. attention to the skills involved in the seeing and perceiving stages that initiate reading. technology.IV. Perhaps the result will be an increasing pedagogical emphasis on practices that help students develop ever-greater competency to read and think by and for themselves. or when the needs and interests of the individual prevailed over those of the community. most reading development programs have concentrated on the latter stages of the reading process. It is essential. with little. and reacting. has proven conclusively the benefits of using reading technology to develop high levels of fluency in silent reading. time to read. text.000 students. When the communication of information and the transfer of technology were more important. when the clergy discouraged idiosyncratic interpretation. and these more sophisticated instructional systems do include specific training in seeing and perception as part of a comprehensive program of reading development. the reader has been involved in about 30 different processes of seeing. And reading modes have been shaped by social norms and goals. oral reading dominated. A recent study by Rasinski. and the skill to read without arduous effort. and to understand the sequence and relationship of the various steps in selecting and using reading improvement techniques. and practice that shape what we have done and are likely to do so in the future. however. either for purposes of measurement and evaluation. as provided for in Guided Reading in a scaffolding manner of practice. Over the years. Fortunately. When reading was a performance to be admired in social settings (the idea of powerful elocution on the way to speechifying). or in order to provide improved and appropriate instruction. and Feller (2011) entitled “The Relationship Between a Silent Reading Fluency Instructional Protocol on Students’ Reading Comprehension and Achievement in an Urban School Setting. and an increasing number of teacher training institutions are providing the kind of professional training that will help teachers to make competent use of the new methods and materials. It demonstrated conclusively that changes in the Fundamental Reading Process.
Thus. silent reading have many advatages for students because in silent readig they can read the book easily and can get more information because they can concentrate when they are reading. Certainly. from vision through comprehension. Lastly. ease and comfort. it would seem that appropriate measures of reading fluency or proficiency in silent reading should address all facets of the reading process. study of the effects of oral reading practice on the development of fluency in silent reading needs further exploration through eye-movement recording procedures. it is likely that an increasing amount of attention will be focused on incorporating such simplified computerized techniques into reading development approaches. It is an essential component of independent learning. these basic skills must be developed. and that new considerations must be given to evaluation of the most basic visual/functional. and information processing skills not typically considered in most reading development programs. every methods have their own minus or disadvantages. a necessity for success on high-stakes tests. at adequate reading rates. perceptual. Because of the widespread use of computerized reading development methods and computerized eye-movement recording techniques. It would seem likely that there will need to be a reconsideration of fluency development that would lead to a better balance between oral and silent reading practices to adequately capitalize on the benefits of both areas of development. it is apparent that development of the high-speed and large ly subliminal processes of silent reading will best be provided through computerized training techniques to expeditiously provide the visual/perceptual and cognitive modeling process that will result in meaningful fluency in silent reading. If students are to be able to read silently with good attention and concentration. As we know.Silent reading proficiency is a critical skill used every day. and with good comprehension. but in this method the lackness of silent reading can resolve by the teacher easily. and a requirement for twenty-first century careers. Fluency is really have important point in silent reading.
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