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Plants are unique as they all have chlorophyll; However 2 other organisms possess chlorophyll and yet they are not plants, and therefore this presents a problem: Protists (chloroplast with chlorophyll), cyanobacteria Regnum = Latin for Kingdom LUCA = Last Universal Common Ancestor







Opisthokonta: flagellum at posterior Ameobozoa and Opisthokonta are the only UNIKONTS The rest are BIKONTS UNIKONT: 1 flagella BIKONT: 2 flagella

Linnheus described and organised plants by their reproductive systems Binomial system Botanical Nomencleture: in plants you cant have the same genus and species in the same name Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species Sufex of a name gives indication of which taxa one is refering to.

A symbiotic relationship between a eukaryotic organism which engulfed a prokaryote Eukaryotes have genetic material from prokaryotes and archeans Some organisms leave chemicals not fossils behind them ! Principal hypothesis: endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis explains organelles One way to explain organelles and the eukaryotic condition: an early prokaryote with a cell wall, and the cell wall is lost [mutation], folds in itslef and starts to pinch off vessicles, one of the vessicles contanied the genetic material = nucleus, taken in by other cell and hence forming the eukaryotes [formation of nucleus THEORY] Chlorohydra is filled with algae which gived them their color, soo the hydra absorbed them yet did not digest them = symbiosis Elysia the sea slug have algae in it, ingest algae, keeps chloroplasts and GENES THAT MAKE THE CHLOROPHYLL making it a photosynthetic organism

Mitochondria and chloroplasts, MIGHT be old symbiotes Free living mitochondria had there own dna (mitochondiral dna) but when it was engulfed most of that dna was given to the host, therefore we made mitochondria DEPENDANT on us, even though they are independent

Purely professional relationship, not very close to us, Metabolism of the mitochondria, depends on the host, the host gives it everything it needs, it cant get it itself, we have their dna Primary endosymbiotic events {2} TIM TOM, TIC TOC Archaeaplastida [old plastids]: red algea, green algae, glycosi. Rhizarian: paulinella: has plastids; chromatophore, which still have cyanobacterial wall inside the eukaryote !!! the plastid is still relatively similiar to the state it was in before Cyanophora (glaucophyta)

Primary smybiosis: cell swollows a prokaryote When a cell swollows another EUKARYOTE = secondary endosymbiosis Chloroplasts with many membranes and in between 2 membranes you can still a nucleosome (nucleus of the guy that got swollowed) which eventually degrades away, ONLY the essentials are kept Green plastids: when you ingest green algae: was ingested several times Red plastids: not seen yet, but when u ingest red algae: was it ingested more than once? Must engluf as PRIMITIVE red algae, non primitive are too big Red plastid: 4 small groups: aveolates, haptophytes, cryptophytes, strarmenopiles


Plants in the broad sense of the word Not brown algae (Kingdom Chromalveolata) 3 groups of plant kingdom: glaucocystophytes, red algae (Rhodophyta),green plants (green algae, prasinophytes, land plants)

Primary plastid: resulted from primary endosymbiosis Glauco and red algae exactly the same BUT green algae DEVELOPED into chlorophyll b storage is different

choroplasts called CYANELLES [look very much like bacterium] gloeochaeta most primitive 3 genera: cyano, glycheata, gleocystis Chloroplasts are called cyanelles Resemble cyanobacteria Peptidoglycan wall Surrounding very similiar to lipopolysaccharide envelope of gram negative bacteria Chloroplasts resemble blue green algae


red because very often they are red They have chlorophyll, but they have many other pigments which mask the green Red algae are the most abundant Most red algae arent unicellular and small, they are multicellular large and marine Around 6000 species Most are macroscopic, attached to rock (few float freely) Ephycoerthrin ll erithrin ll erithrocyte ll red cell Blue light last to be extinguished, therefore they can live in deeper water than others Mucilaginous, mucus makes it slippery as it water proofs it ( prevent dessication) Cell wall has 2 layers(Porphyridium cruentum-unicellular): outer and inner layer Choraline algae, hard outer covering resmbles a stone Corallinaceae deposit calcium carbonate in cell walls Pit plug ofers stability, sticks cells together Cladodiagram: trees that represent evolutionary pathway Bangiophasy , phloridiophasi Choraline alkae: filmaentous, but they are coiled soo sometimes u cant notice them

Prevent grazing but some snails still succeed Coralline lime stone are called coralline cause they have coralline ALGAE Corallina elongata, branches in one plane Probably first eukaryotes that carry out SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Polyphyletic: more than one common ancestor Paraphyletic: common ancestor with SOME of its decendants Monophyletic: one common ancestor Before: bangiophysy Today: put everything on rhodophysy First to experiment with multicellularity, Bangia developed multicellularity by connecting cells together via intracellular pits, by increasing structural and mechanical stability, if something goes wrong they can fix it (plug it up)

Corallinaceae: non-geniculate (encrusting), geniculate (jointed) Lithophyllum: flat pinkish rock-like Janja Rubens: Corallina elongata: all appendages in one plane Ceramium: epiphyte (search meaning) Gelidium: Peyssonelia: heart shaped Lophocladia: deep red, increasing in maltese islands, very senistive LIFE CYCLES: Alternation in generation: more than one form in one cycle Isomorphic/ hereomorphic sporophytes and gametophytes Having two phases increases reproducing ability Diphasic: gametophyts (n) sporophyte (2n) Triphasic: gametophyte (n) carpoporophyte (2n) tetrasporophyte (2n) WHY BOTHER WITH 3 phases ? Answer, the have a handicaped member, sperms of red algae dont have flagella (called spermatia) therfore cant swim towards the egg, might end up anywhere, hardly ever reach female, very few fertilization takes place and to tpatti for that deficiency they have another member

Polysiphonia (many tubes): cells can shaped conneced end to end and surrounded by tubes (cell in middle is called the axial cell) and pericentral cells ( cells around axial, on the outside)

Polysiphonia has A TRIPHASIC LIFE CYCLE: Gametophte generation that produces gametes Male gametophyye has a spermatangia (container of sperm) produces spermatia Femal gametophyte has a carpogonial branch (CARPOGONIUM) which has a TRICHOGYNE (female stalk/hair) : which traps floating and drifting sperm At the base of trichogyne there is the egg waiting The male nucleus migrates downwards and fuses with egg and you get diploid zygot in carpogonium, the zygot develops into a tiny plant (diploid hence sporophyte) zygot starts diving through mitosis and eventualy forms a sporophyte inside the carpogonium, that sporophyte is called a CARPOSPOROPHYTE the whole structure which was a carpogonium is now called a PERICARP

Carposporophyte job is to produce spores: the spores (corpospores) produced however are DIPLOID as they are produced by mitosis (budding off), it feeds on parent plant (MADROTROPHIC) ,

Carpospores germinate into something different into a large algae, a sporophyte producing tetraspores which are HAPLOID


MADE UP OF GREEN ALGAE, PRASINOPHYCAEA, LAND PLANTS (EMBRYOPHYTA) Names: chlorobionta, chlorobiota, chloroplastida Chlorophyll A most common pigment Mosses, ferns ... Plastids are usrrounded by two membranes Flat cristea in mitochondria Chlorophyll a and b BUT NO PHYCOBILIPROTEINS

Green algae are made of 5 classes:

Class 1: Prasinophycaea Class 2,3,4: Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyceae [The Chlorophytes] Class 5: Charophyceae [together with the Embryophyta(land plants) form The Streptophytes]

Branches: CHLOROPHYTES* = (

; ulvophyceae, trebouxiophyceaea,

chlorophycaea) and STREPTOPHYTES* = (charophyceae, embryophyta[land plants]), and PRASINOPHYTES (a fuck load of groups) [*main] Huge diversity Gymnoisperms and angiosperms are part of them, discussed next year In inverted commas cause its a common name, whether they are related or not When algae float and blob: they are most probably filamentous Red blob: chlamydamonas ( the protist with a cup shaped chloroplasts) Nivadis = lives in snow and rock Becomes red due to ceratonoids act like sunglasses due to snow reflecting light, the red protects the pigments and the organism COMMON FEATURES: contain plastids, 2 flagella (or multiples of two) BICONTS, chlorophyll a and b, form starch in the stroma, no chloroplasts ER occurs around the chloroplasts, nuclear coding of the small RUBISCO subunit Have pyrenoids Paretal chloroplasts (one type) PHYLUM: CHLORPHYTA UTC CLADE + Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceaea Chlorophycaea Dead end, reamained the same throughout the years Didnt evolve CLASS II: ULVOPHYCEAE + Mostly marine Tube like Siphonous coenocytes (multinucleate)

Some terrestrial and fresh water Flagellated and nonflagelatted Unicellular and colonies Branched and unbrancehd filaments Membraneous sheets Most conspicous green algae seaweeds: ulva, enteromorpha, monostroma (one mattrice) in marine system Calcified green algae (Halimeda) Filamentous forms and some other type Ulotrichales: Cladophorales: Ulvales: [LOOK AT CHARACTERISTICS ON SLIDES] ULOTHRIX: paretal chloroplasts, filamentous algae, box shaped cells (unusual, usually cylindrical), ULVALES Ulva = muciliginous layer Monostroma: ONE flat sheet of cells, made up of many cells stuck together, but cells dont communicate together Ulva: TWO sheets of cells, chloroplasts are polarised, in half of the cell specifically to always face the outside. Enteromorpha: take ulva and role it up, same thing. Howeveer lumen is flat soo it seems flat at first, they can break up due to handling and they appear filamentous Holdfast: anchorage point and remains after rough waves, and algae can regrow Ulva lactuca: looks like lettuce LIFE CYCLE OF ULVA AND ENTEROMORPHA: Gametes have flagella unlike red algae Gametophye and sporophyte are similiar therefore ISOMORPHIC Gametophyes always have the same ploidy level, they are haploid, undergo mitosis, to produce haploid gametes, gametes usually form at edges of frond (heart shaped), become container of gametes, gametes are in a GAMETANGIUM, 1 = gametangia.

Gametes are biflaggelate, roughly the same size male and female The gametes are positevely phot otactic (swim towards light/ towards the surfcae) female/male replaced by + / reaching the surface makes it easier to meet (ADVANTAGE EVOLUTIONARY) fuse zygote quadry flagellate zygote (negative phototactic) swims to bottom to find a rock to attach to zygote grows to complete plant with a hold fast [sporophyte] spores(haploid) in sporangium (diploid) hence undergoes meiosis negatively phototactic spore germinates +/and produce gametes accordingly +/[SEE DIAGRAM] Thallusin is important for the development of morphology in ulvales Imp protein comes from bacteria Normal ulva shape is only acchieved via those bacteria ! Must be a signalling protein (mutualism) GROUP: TRENTOPHOLIALES

Look orange as they are rich in keratinoids Live on trees, walls Terrestrial algae Lvie on dry land, to protect their chlorophyll they use the orange keratinoids Branched filaments May occur as phycobionts in lichens (symbiotic rel between algae and lichens) Uninucleate Reproduce using spores (reddish and can be mistaken for GROUP: CLADOPHORALES

Clade = branch Taxonomy unclear Vegetative cells multinucleate

Reticulate chlorplasts or reticulate discoid chloroplasts Look for branches filaments, reticulate chloroplasts GROUP: ANADYOMENE

Aphrodite Looks like ulva but cryspier Lookinh at it from microscope, lots of branching filaments (looks like a sheet) but deep down it is a filmaentous alga Hence why it belongs to cladophorales Found a meter below the sea level GROUP: CAULERPALES

Its appearance is only convergent with those of higher plants Made up of only ONE CELL Hence it is vulnerable, if you get a break in the cell, all the contents will go out, hence it has effective toxine against herbivores and it has a good recovery Caulerpa racemosa (looks like a bunch of grapes) Caulerpa taxifolia: next point Heteromorphic / Heterogametic Halimeda tuna: poisonous

Codium decorticatum: filamentous alga in which it has been woven into funny shapes, fundamentally it is a filamentous algae. Looks like a tree or a hand. Dead mans fingers. Symbiotic rel with Azotobacter (bacterium that fix nitrogen, the alga photosythesis offering sugar), normally attached

Codium bursa: hollow light green ball, filamentous,

GROUP: DASYCLADALES Acetabularia: Mermaids wine glass Single cell

CLASS III TREBOUXIOPHYCEAE+ Small Chlorella (little green): Alone its unicellular Can form Colonies / Multicellular (borderline)

CLASS IV CHLOROPHYCEAE - PROPER GREEN PLANTS (C OF UTC) + Bikonts Diversity: Unicellular / colonial flagellates Non flagellate Sarcinoid packets Coenobial colonies Filaments Coenocytic siphons ( no septa) siphon = tube Asexual = zoospores, aplanospores, autospores Sexual = ISOGAMOUS (gametes are similiar),ANISOGAMOUS (can distinguish between amle and female), OOGAMOUS(female is much larger than male) [zygotic life cycle with

hypnozygotes dorment gametes that can tolerate harsh conditions and germinate when conditions are good again] Oo = egg General features: 1) Flagellate reproductive cell (when present): generally two or four flagella, apical flagella, cross shaped flagellar roots (anchorgae of flagella) 2) Shared cell division features: mitosis closed, telophase spindle collapses before cytokinesis, phycoplast runs parallel to cytokinetic cleavage plane In green algae, the PHYCOPLASTS (parallel to the plane of splitting / in phragmoplasts in higher plasts they are perpendicular), system of spindles that eventually divides the cell in two during mitosis / meiosis. (IMP FOR EXAM) Chlamydomonodales: f a whole colony of chlorella: border line between multicellular and a colony. A spheroid colony, several thousands vegatative biflagellate cells (apical), cells are not all identical, others ells are larger non flagelllated and reproductive ... first differentiation in this colony (the ones in theshade beat faster than the ones in the sun ... hence movement) mother colony filled with daughter, turns inside out. Heterogametic and Oogamous. Synchronise fertility: all become fertile simultanously. Thats becaue you only need one colony to reproduce, when they become fertile, they produce a chemical which induces colonies next to it to become fertile, therfore a bunch of Volvox suddenly become reproductive. ORGY. Volvoc come from Chlamydomonas (one cell) , volvox= bunch of cells. VERGING ON THE MULTICELLULAR. Gonium is flat. Pandorina, Platidorina: polarity (definite front and back) advantage definite direction waste less energy. Water Net Hydrodictyon: distinctive, looks like chains of benzene, tends to form tubes from clumping up, forms surface blooms in lentic (still) water (massive growth), large cylindrica cells. Desmodesmus: collonial, 4 cells stuck together, dont do much together, just live together, tend to grow distinctive terminal hornes; against predation (grow when predators are around, from urea of water flies, also makes you a bigger target and hence not being able to be digested by predators) or surface tention. Pediastrum: star shaped. Oedogonium: filamesntous algae just like spirogyra, where 2 cells meet, you get jointed like (straw bend) structures, each rib of the structures represents each time the cell was divided, can also form eggs in distinctive way (swollen) with terminal caps.

Order: Chaetophorales (The Hair Carrier): Fritschiella: looks like higher plant, seems to have branches, roots, prostate stem, many ppl assumed that it is the ancestor of higher plants, root is actually rhizoid. CLASS V CHAROPHYTA +

Not a dead end led to land plants Different from UTC even if they may appear alike Parenchymatous: like a sheet Variety of forms: unicellular, colonial, filamentous Asymmetrical flagellated cells with multilayered structures Disintengration of nuclear envelope at mitosis Multi layered structure root ( MLS) vs the cross shaped roots of UTC [1 difference] Persistent spindle at cytokineses Spindle in UTC cell plate is parallel (phycoplast) , in charophyte cell plate is perpendicular(phragmoplasts) [2 difference] Cladogram (branched diagram) SYNAPOMORPHIES: the shared derived characteristics on a cladogram (red tag) Mesostigma: undecided Order: Charales and Coleochaetales: Branches apical growth, oogemy, retention of egg, branched filaments not just filaments, eloborately branched filaments, apical growth, egg is retained (not releaased) hence internal fertilaisation, first stage to becoming an embryo, TRUE ANCESTORS of land plants, resemble vascular plants in their cell division and sexual reproduction, have phragmoplasts, oogamy, sperms similiar to bryophytes (mosses), Coleochaete: similiar to horwort gametophyte, forms flat sheet of algae. Chara look like little bushes, had in the practical, cells are calcified against predation, lives in stegnant water, live in temporary waters, when pool is dry and mud solid and hot you can see a chara skeleton at the bottom of the pond, calcium carbonate remains, hypnospores (sleeping spores): how it survives. Sperm gonad are circular, female gonad (oogonium) more oval. Nitella: not calcified, roughly the same shape.


Plants which have an embryo Embryo: egg develops in mother plant Developed from charophytes during the Palaeozoic Closest relatives are the charales Major groups: A) Bryophytes: livertworts (Narchantiophyta), hornworts (anthocerophyta), mosses (bryophyta) B) Vascular Plants (Trachaeophytes): club mosses (lycopodiophyta), ferns and horsetails (pteridophyta), spermatophyta Fern allies: look like ferns in vascular .multicellular sporophyte, cuticle (water proofing, hence we find them on land), embryo, gamatangia, sporangium, First land plants were most probably shorline plants Bryophytes: have motile cells whihc are asymmetrical, lateral flagella (2), fragmoplasts like charophytes, nuclear envelope breaks down during mitosis, its is a bridge between vascular plants and .... , difference vs vascular tissue (check his slides),

Leafy: follios Hornwards and some liverworts are thalloid Mosses and some liverworts differentiated into leaves and stems These guys were the first to leave the water, the first to solve the problems related with living on land. To prevent dehydration: outer covering, cuticle The first plants were confined to moist humid environment, as their gametes could not SWIM on land, they grow sideways not upwards (no support from air), difficult to transport water

Mosses even have some sort of water transport sort of like vascular plants Still constrained to this day LEARN FIGURE 15-54 KNOW HOW TO INTERPRET

Seedless, NonVascular

Seedless, Vascular

Seeds, Vascular

NATURAL SELECTION Works on phenotype not genotype Ex. Skin color throughout evolution Selection will act in what you SHOW In HAPLOID organisms, selction is acting on the genotype, as the genotype and phenotype ARE EXACTLY THE SAME (you dont have another hidden set) BRYOPHYTES + They have things in common with vascular plants: CHECK HIS NOTES They have differences from vascular plants: CHECK HIS NOTES Hornworts and some liverworts are thalloid (largely undifferentiated) Mosses and some liverworts differentiated into leaves and stems Adaptations for life on land: Some gametophytes possess adaptations for co2 intake on upper surface, pseudostomata Rhizoids for anchoarge (not real roots) comes from holdfast Cells connected by plasmodesmata (with desmotubule) Liverwort ex. Marchantia: has cuticle and rhizoids, pores for gas exchange which incidentally allow water to escape aswell, hence they are confined to moist env as their rhizoids are incapable of taking up water.

You can tell where north is, on which side the moss grows on the bark of trees REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS ASEXUAL

Fragmentation Gemmae No flagellated zoospores (unlike Characeae) SEXUAL

Sperm are the only flagellated cells (anisogomous not isogomous) Diecious (2 homes in latin) separate sexes Zygot remains in archegonium after fertilisation Embryo nutrition is matrotrophic Creates new problem for male gametes, they have to KNOW WHERE THE FEMALE IS, there not just gonna randomly swim around, they can sense each other = attractant Embryo feeds off the mother

SPORES Very hard outer cover of spores (survives thousands of years) till they are blown or reach water Impregnated with sporopollenin CHECK NOTES

LIVERWORTS (MARCHANTIOPHYTA) + Generally small and terrestrial, some aquatic Aquatic: Riella helicophylla: means helical leaf: freshwater: rare Thin thallus: dorsal portion with chlorophyll and pores, ventral portion colourless with rhizoids and scales Riccia: dichotomous branching, sporophyte embedded within the gametophyte Marchantia: gametangia borne on gametangiophores, mature sporangium containws elaters: sporophyte grow like an umbrella

Elator: plant structure that helps disperse spores: looks liks a coiled spring, most of the time within the sporangium: respond to humidity: they disperse them away from parents but not too far, as the habitat might not be favourable

Riccia: Sporophyte within the gametophyte: tetrad (signiture of meiosis) Lunularia: half moon structurecalled gammae, used for asexual reproduction, they are plantlets, water can get them out of the cup and they grow separate from the mother



ANTHOCEROPHYTA (HORNWORTS) Approximately 100 species Cells usually with a single large chloroplast with a pyrenoid, like Coleochaetes Some species with cells having many small chloroplasts but apical cell with a single plastid This is a secondary characteristic Often symbiotic with cyanobacteria such as Nostoc Nitrogen fixation purposes (Nosoc is a blue green alga which fixes nitrogen) Sporophyte is photosynthetic Unlike liverworts and mosses Stomata precursors pores Transverse section through the sporophyte shows tetrads of spores in the centre Line of weakness down the sporophyte which splits open to release spores Sporophyte is matrotrophic feeds off the mother Sporophyte is photosynthetic, but still obtains nutrients from the gametophyte

MOSSES (PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA) Class Sphagnopsida (peat mosses) Class Andreaeopsida (granite mosses) Class Brypsida (true mosses)

Sporophyte is not photosynthetic like liverworts Protonema early thread Spores germinating to form protonema and form gametophytes along the protonema Archegonia and antheridia SPHAGNOPSIDA (PEAT MOSSES)

One genus: Sphagnum with less than four hundred species Protonema Plate-like (one cell thick) not a network of branched filaments Similar to Coleochaete thallus Grows from a marginal meristem Gametophyte arises from a bud in a marginal cell Gametophyte Stems bear branches (often five at a node) Stem leaves are often aclorophyllous (no chlorophyll) Branch leaves contain chlorophyll Leaves one cell thick with distinctive cell pattern Can absorb up to 20x dry weight in water Release H+ Dead cells provide space for absorption of water Reproduction See notes on vle BRYOPSIDA +

Multicellular rhizoids

Leaves one cell thick Stems of gametophytes and sporophytes may possess hadrom and leptom (conducting tissues) Not true vascular tissue Cells: hydroids water; leptoids nutrients Not necessarily dead cells (depends on the species) Reproduction Gametangia produced at tip of main axis or on lateral branch by mature gametophytes Antheridia clustered in splash cups Sporangium borne on a seta Seta may contain hydroids and leptoids Stomata present on setae Setal cells may be chlorophyllous Capsule possess a peristome (around the mouth) Up to 50 million haploid spores in each capsule Archegonium Venter and neck canal (may be filled with cells) Neck canal cells produce the attractant for the sperm Calyptra remains of neck canal (protective layer) VASCULAR PLANTS

Only xylem is considered truly vascular - Hydroids have exactly the same characteristics, except for a lack of lignin Seedless plants and higher plants Seedless plants some are extinct (except Lycopodiophyta and Polypodiophyta) Leaf trace branch of vascular system that enters a leaf - May branch into veins inside the leaf Leaf gap no vascular cells above the leaf trace (may have other tissues, but not vascular) Eustele highly developed and modified channels which go into leaf traces 2 kinds of leaves microphylls and megaphylls

- Microphylls may actually be large and megaphylls may be small - Microphylls have one leaf trace going into the leaf and does NOT divide - Megaphylls may have multiple leaf traces which branch throughout the leaf 420million years ago plants invaded land Tracheids become lignified (vascular elements)

VASCULAR PLANTS + Xylem is the tissue which is truly vascular Xylem lack a protoplast

Seedless vascular plants / FERNS / PTERIDOPHYTES +

(5 groups) Rhyniophyta are extinct Trimeros : three part plant Polypodiophyta: ferns First 3 groups are extinct Stele : mass of vascular tissue Protostele Follwed by siphonostele (cylindrical) like protostele but hollow Leaf trace , branch of vascular system which goes in to leaves and eventually MIGHT branch in to veins Then Siphonostele with leaf gaps (might be filled with other cells but non vascular cells) Most developed stele is eustele, with stem bundles All this leads us to the development of leaves (phillon) Microphylls have one leaf trace, going into leaf and remains undivided (micro mega have NO relation to the SIZE) Megaphylls have more that one leaf trace and branch out Tracheophyta family tree 420 mill years ago first plant went on land Lycophytha (wolf plants) and euphyllophyta (true leaves) are the two major branches

Euphyloophyta seperate into two branches monillophyta (not woody) and lignophytes (woody plants) On the whole: microphylls on left , megaphylls on right LYCOPODIOPHYTA+

15 genera 3 extinct groups Microphylls Look like mosses Found everywhere Sporophytes with a branching rhizome Stem and root are protstylic (solid column of vascular tissue) simple and primitive Homosporous (same looking spores) The leaves can carry sporangia , leaves carrying sporangia are called sporophylls Microphyll vs microsporophyll and megasporophylls Megaphylls are the only guys that can have microsporophylls Sporangia occur on fertile microphyll (sporophylls) Non photosynthetic sporophyll may form a strobilus (cone) Water required for fertilisation Huperizia lucidula lacks differentiated sporophylls, soo you cant distinguish between a normal leaf and a sporophyll SELAGINELLACEAE (SELAGINELLA) +

Scale-like ligules near base of microphylls (doesnt do much till now, importat=nt later on in flowering plants) Heterosporous Megasporophylls and microsporophylls Megasporaniga and microsporangia on same strobillus Microgametophyte develops inside microspore Biology of Plants figure 17-18 Dont focus too much on life cycle (just a general life cycle)

POLYPODIOPHYTA (FERNS) Vascular and seed-less Carboniferous age when the world was convered in forests and then when they died they turned to coal Eusporangiate (built from several cells) or Leptosporangiate (built up from one cell) Most homosporous Major Groups: Ophioglossales (snake tounge), Marattiales .... Figure 17-23 FILICALES Leptosporangiate Homosporous Siphonostelic rhizome Produce new shoots annually Megaphyllous Fiddlehead / circinate vernation (young fern) SORI: cluster of sporangia / sometimes covered by inducium Life cycles of general fern Figure 17-30 Rhizome is underground stem, rhizoid: root-like structure Very similiar to moss life cycle Asplenium sagittatum: looks like an arrow Water Ferns: not true ferns, but close. Marsileales and Salviniales ... Equisetales: one genus, jointed stem, whorled leaves, whorled leaves ribbed internodes, Underground rhizomes, aerial stems, homosporous, have elators (little springs to shoot out the spores)

heterosporous, store food and have embryos in the seed, and they have a seed coat 5 extant phyla Magnoliophyta: flowering plants


Brown algae Symbiotic events that led to them: red algae injested, become organelle in ancestral chromalveolate

Small,memb bound alveoli ( cavities) below the cell surface Unicellular biflagellate Stiff cellulose plates for an other theca Chlorophyll a , c , peridenin, caretenoid, Food reserve in starch ........................................... Cingulum Epi and hypotheca

Unicellular Fatty acids Chloroplasts with 4 membranes Endosymbiosis ftw Chlorplasts carry nucleosome (nucleus like body) Chlorophyll a and c Starch food reserve Phycobillins


Flagellated mostly Haptonema Coccoliths Chlorophyll a and c

Different flagella meaning of name Chloroplasts with 4 memb Oomycetes ( sound like fungi, once were classified as fungi, name coming from there) Bacilliariophyta (diatoms) 2 flagella: tinsel flagellum and whip-lash flagellum Different types of gametes: isogamy, anisogamy (distinguishable), oogamy (female is a big ass son of a tardis)



Unikonts-so are we VIP-high surface are to volume ration-makes the particularly good at absorbing-tehfore higher plants usually use them as symbionts Different forms Reproduction-very diverse methods

Philobolus Grows on dung heeps-cows left overs This fungus shoots its spores a long distance-ballistospores. It wants to shoot them away form the dunk heep so it can see. So it bends away from the dung heep so as to shoot the spores away.

Classification 4 main groups Rusts and smuts, like puccinia grow on plants

Strange relationships; chytrids are polyphyletic.

Entomophtora-insect destroyer fungus. VIP slide-table 14-1 Methods of asexual reproduction Zoospores are flagellated Sporangiospores-produced inside a sporangium Conidia-chains of spores and look like a brush Chtridomycota do not produce sexually in fact called imperfect.

Chytridiomycota Have zoospores Mostly aquatic Whiplash flagellum Life cycle-when the zgygote grows, it forms 2 types of sporangia. Thin walled sporanagia produce zoospores which simply grow into another sporophyte(diploid). Resistance sporanagia (time/space capsules)-spores undergoes meiosis and form haploid spores. The latter has ticker wall( the sporangium)

Zygomycetes Mycorrhizal fungi-live in association with plant Stolon/runner-horizontal hyphae. 2 hyphae will aline with eahcother; form growths gametangia, these will fuse and form a zygospornagium. This can germinate into a sporangium.sexual reproduction usually used when there are hard conditions cause the zygospore is quite tough. Mucor is one of them

Ascomycota Asexual reproduction through conidia. Sexual reproduction-ascospores. Penecillium-brush like with chains of spores-conidia(asexual spores), and the conidiophores bears the conidia. Aspergillius Sexual reproduction-ascogonium and antheridium are multinucleate. Trichogyne develops-female thread, until it fuses with the antheridia, and the nuclei form the antheridia flow into the ascogonium-their cytoplasm fuses-this is called plasmogamy . After this all the nuclei are in the ascogonium. The ascogonium starts developing special hyphae ascogenous hyphae-budding cell after cell, and each cell has two nucle-one form the ascogonium an one form the antehridum. Because the have two nuclei they are

dikaryotic. The state of diploid is n plus n not as such diploid-because they havent fused. The ascogenous hyphae will eventually weave themselves into a cup-like structure

Unikonts Heterotrophic Saprotrophic Hyphae and mycelium Hyphae are septate or coenocytic (lack septa) Chitinous cell wall High surface:volume (good at absorbing) Forms: anamorph (asexual reproductive stage), teleomorph (sexual rep. Stage), Holomorph ( entire fungus including both anamorph and teleomorph)


o o o Spores: (sexually or asexually) asexual: sporangia and conidiogenous sexual: plasmogamy, karyogamy, meiosis

Ballistospores, the fungus that can see, focused in sub sporangial swelling, Classification o o o o chytridiomycota zygomycota ascomycota basidiomycota

chytrids are polyphyletic empusamuske zoospore is flagellated [chytrid.] chytridiomycota (only reproduce asexually) rest r not flagellated

table is very imp characteristics of fungal phyla conidia string of spores

o o Life cycle Sporanigum (2n) MEIOSIS haploid flagellated spore gametophyte male gametangia + female gametangia (store gametes) release gametes bond zygot (2n) 2 types of sporangia produced thin walled sporangia (asexual) produce sporophytes


TO YOUR GENES], thich walled sporangia (sexual) [give haploid zoospore] give gametophyte. THEY HAVE TWO DIFFERENT SPORES

o o o o o o MYCORRHIZAL: lives in association with the roots of plants Rhizoid: root like , anchorage RhizoMe: underground stem Sporongiophore, sporangium, spores Zygosporangium, resistant Mating types + / -

o o o o o o o o Ascus: forms in anascoma [apothecium/ hvbreb/iwefbwifiew] Penecillin looks like a brush Conidia Conidiophore (carries conidia) Aspergillus (tal qassis) Sexual reproduction: Ascogonium has Trichogyne [female thread] grows until it fuses with antheridium Plasmogamy (fusion), and the males nuclei flow into the female

The ascogonium, develops special hyphae, ascogenous hyphae, bud cell after cell, each cell has 2 nuclei, one from the mother the other form the father, hence they are DICARYOTIC [not 2n, but n+n], each cell is a DICARYON, so many are produced, they will weave them selves into a cup like structure, the ascogonium with the thrico and antheridium, will still remain behind

o o o o o

Cup hsaped Fruiting bodies produced ascospores Reproduce through conidia (asexual spores) Apithecium / perithecium . claistothecia Claviceps on rye (causes argotism, insane in the membrane): black sclerotia (resting stage) hardened mass if hyphae, germinate, fungus come out, spores produced, land on stigma of rye, form a tube like a pollen tube, grow within the rye, destroying the inside, eventually folloing the black sclerotia, people get high on rye ... for the chids bro!

Agaricus, pleurotus. Amanita Highly toxic and poisonous Mushrooms, toadstools, stinkhorns, puffballs, rusts, smuts Basidium holding basidiospores Mycelium septate, septum with dolipore and parenthesomes (look like brackets) Ballistospores: spore dispersed explosively .. pilobolus (can see) Life cycle: monokaryotic phase , dikaryotic (n+n not 2n)phase Life cycle of typical mushroom: Plasmogamy, karyogamy, Primary mycelia: frist to come out: monkaryotic Seconday mycelium dikaryotic Tertary mycelium: the final product, basidiospores form Basidium is in gills Basidium produces basidiospores or meiospores Dollipore: pores between cells Crosiere: a little hook outside between joints of cells, part were hyphae grew

Bracket fungi Lactophenol: cotton blue, stains blue Hymenium: fertile layer

Puccinia: rusts, infect cereal plants, pests, life cycle depends on 2 hosts, heteroeceous (multiple hosts) o Life cycle: receptive hyphae stick to spermation of different kinds(longer hyphae , reproductive) branch out of spermagonium o o o Dikaryon Compositive hyphae (dikaryotic), results from fusion of spermatia and Aecium produced from yellow hyphae (grow downwards), puncture bottom surface, forming their own asexual reproductive body , produce asexual spores (aeciospores) (dikaryotic, eukaryotic), infect wheat, producing red streaks (uridinia)(dikaryotic hyphae) produce uridiospores,spores that fall on wheat, penetrate wheat plant, break surface, and produce masses of hyphae producing uridina, which produce urisiniospores (dikaryotic), end up infecting whole farm. In sumer red streaks (uridinia) start turning black, turning into telia, producing teliospores. Uridinio spores can infect wheat, telio spores cannot infect wheat. Eventuallu telispores undergo karyogomy, in spring, the cycle starts again, teliospores undergo meiosis, produce basidia basidiospore cycle starts again