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Energy Efficiency in the Brewing Industry

National Conference on Thermal Energy Management in the Food & Drink Industries

By Eric Candy

Brewing Industry Energy Efficiency Areas to be Covered

Past Present Future

Drive for Energy Efficiency Not New In short, I expect almost totally to prevent waste of steam James Watt letter to Dr Lind 1765

Past Manns Brewery Whitechapel Brewery on Site from 1808 Developed in 1880s with: Copper Pans, Copper Vapour Heat Recovery, Waste Steam from Beam Engine heating Mash Tuns By 1930s Electricity Generation with District Heating Scheme

Past Copper Pans

Courtesy A Treatise on the Art of Brewing 1820

Past Copper Pans

Copper with Pans at Fuller, Smith & Turner, Chiswick

Manns Brewery Whitechapel Beam Engine 1867

Manns Brewery Whitechapel Beam Engine 1867

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1899 Journal Institute of Brewing Patent self return of condensate to boiler (J Hall) Patent dry residual products of distilleries in tubes in furnace flue, use steam to power engines (C Doig)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1900 Zeit.ges.Brauw Need to control excess air in boiler, coal requirements 25 to 50 kg brown coal per Hl by decoction (R Madlener)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1902 Journal Institute of Brewing Concern over steam leaks, need for good lagging, finding uses for waste products (O Overbeck) Brewery Refrigeration need for insulation, Carbon Dioxide & Ammonia Primary Refrigerants (G Harrap)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals

(G Harrap)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals

(G Harrap)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1902 Zeit.ges.Brauw Cheaper to generate electricity from steam engines rather than gas engines because of both lower fuel cost plus use of spent steam for other uses (C Eberle)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1903 Zeit.ges.Brauw Use spent steam to heat water Use flue gas to heat boiler feed water & mash tun sparging water. Condensate returned straight to boiler (C Eberle)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1908 Journal Institute of Brewing Coal use 48 lbs to 90 lbs per barrel Need to Control Excess Air in Boiler Energy can be saved by Pre Heating Boiler Feed Water, Use of Economisers in Boiler Flues More efficient steam distribution if superheat the steam (Maynard)

Past Papers in Brewing Journals 1908 Journal Institute of Brewing Gas engine more efficient way of generating electricity than a steam engine (Maynard)

Past Economiser 1910

(Courtesy Coldharbour Mill)

Exit Economiser 1910 Route to Flue

(Courtesy Coldharbour Mill)

Past 1947 Efficient Use of Steam O Lyle

Copper Vapour Heat Recovery

Past - Benchmarking Results UK & Germany


Madlener1900 BrownCoalkg/hl EstGCVMJ/kg MJ/hl Maynard1908 Coallbs/brl EstGCVMJ/kg MJ/hl Range Germany 25 50 17 24 436 1193 UK 48 90 32 42 426 1048

(Basis for Benchmarking Fuel Ranges Not Known, probably excludes lighting) (Low end low Coal GCV, High end high Coal GCV)

Past 1947 Efficient Use of Steam O Lyle

222 to 229 MJ/hl

(Low end low Coal GCV, High end high Coal GCV)

Existing Process No Heat Recovery

Past 1947 Efficient Use of Steam O Lyle

124 to 163 MJ/hl (Low end low Coal GCV, High end high Coal GCV)

No Process Mod Heat Recovery Preheat through Refrigeration condenser Wort cooling preheat liquor Copper Vapour

Past 1947 Efficient Use of Steam O Lyle

106 to 140 MJ/hl

(Low end low Coal GCV, High end high Coal GCV)

Process Mod Changes Recover from cask washing Pressure boil, reduced or even no evap Boiler flue gases Ozone rather than heat sterilise liquor No cask steaming

Past 1947 Efficient Use of Steam O Lyle

355 to 466 MJ/hl


(Low end low Coal GCV, High end high Coal GCV)

Existing Brewery Heat Recovery Wort cooling preheat liquor Copper Vapour

Present - Benchmarking Results World Lager Brewing

Present - Benchmarking Results UK Brewing Year 1976 1999 2009 SECMJ/hl 303 232 171

(Courtesy BLRA)

Benchmarking Results Lager Brewing

Benchmarking Results
Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) kWh/hl v Implementation Effort

Best Practice Brewery Example

Best Practice Brewery Example

Best Practice Brewery Example

1997 Kyoto 12.5% by 2008 2012 Climate Change Bill


32% by 2020 60% by 2050

Best Practice Brewery Example

1997 Kyoto 12.5% by 2008 2 Climate Change Bill


32% by 2020 60% by 2050
54 MJ/hl 108 MJ/hl

Energy Consumption As Is Beer Production 139,000 Btu/US BBL 125,000 kJ/hl


Bottling T 20% Heating & Other T 14% Fridge E 10% Mashing T 14% Pumps E 8% Lighting E 2% Kettle Raise T 12%

Kettle Boil T 20%


(Courtesy Briggs)

Vigorous Boil

(Courtesy of Steinecker)

Internal Heat Exchanger

(Courtesy of Meura)

Internal Heat Exchanger

(Courtesy of Meura)

External Heat Exchanger Mixing

PDX Reactor
Supersonic vapour flow and condensation shockwave, Generated from the injection of high velocity steam. Steam is introduced into a special annular "conditioning" chamber that is wrapped around the core of the PDX Reactor unit. It is injected into the process fluid at supersonic conditions generating high levels of shear and turbulence within the process fluid,

PDX Reactor
Leads to creation of a controllable cross bore condensation shockwave. The combination of these mechanisms provide unsurpassed homogenous mixing, agitation and heating of the process fluid. Claim delivers up to 50% energy savings and reduced processing time (30 mins from 60 mins) for the intensive wort boiling stage of the brewing process

PDX Wort Heater Process

(Courtesy of Pursuit Dynamics)

PDX Reactor

(Courtesy of Pursuit Dynamics)

Continuous Wort Boiling


wort is in-line heated up to its boiling temperature. Added hop is also homogenized. An adapted agitator is assuring a sufficient mixing for the trub formation. Among other chemical/biochemical reactions, the SMM is turned into DMS. An external agitation must be provided.

Continuous Wort Boiling

(Courtesy of Meura)

Wort Preheating with vapour

Heating wort during transfer between lauter tun/mash filter and boiling kettle Energy recovery by vapour condensing Energy stored in a hot water buffer tank Heat recovery from condensate possible for secondary hot water generation

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

Vapour condenser

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

Wort pre-heating with hot water

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

Wort Preheating - Evaluation

Pros: Energy recovery up to 25% Shorter time to reach boiling Wort heating up to 96 C Environmental impact (lower emissions) Cons: Heat inertia if production interrupted Energy losses if number of brews/day < 5 Wort buffer tank required

External Wortboiling with Vapour Thermocompression

Wortboiling with external heat exchanger (wide gap PHE) Energy recovery by thermocompression of vapour (with high pressure steam) Heat recovery from condensate possible for secondary hot water generation

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

Ejector of thermocompressor

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

Thermocompressor

(Courtesy of Alpha Laval)

External Wortboiling with Thermocompression Evaluation

Pros: Energy recovery up to 40% Intensive but gentle boiling (max steam temp 110C) Environmental Impact (lower emissions) Cons: Losses of condensate water used for thermocompressor New PHE or EWB with higher heat transfer needed (steam max 0.4 bar, 110C) Power requirement for recirculation pump

Future The Main Concepts that we use to Improve Energy Efficiency are Not New We are Getting Smarter at Using Them We Need to Make the Process Work for Us To Do This We Need to Create Beers that Our Customers Want to Buy Using Low Energy Processes

Future We Need to Understand Our Current Products e.g. Volatile Profile of Wort Pre Pitch to Enable Process Guarantees from Equipment Suppliers

Future Techniques Use of enzymes like Novozymes Maturex can be used with lager to prevent the formation of diacetyl reducing the maturation time from 2 to 14 days. DSMs enzyme Brewers Clarex removes the need for a sub-zero temperature stabilization stage. Alfa Lavals Isomix system for effective mixing in Unitank operation enabling efficient heat transfer

Future Techniques Use of Heat Pumps in Brewing, Packaging & Trade Outlets Efficient Energy from Waste Encourage Energy Efficient Small Breweries Developing Low Energy Brands that Consumers Want to Buy

Future Techniques Even Smarter More Effective & Wider Use of Existing Techniques Use of Energy Use Analysis Tools such as EINSTEIN II to enable us to Efficiently Overview Processes to Identify Opportunities

Best Practice Maltings & Distillery Example

1997 Kyoto 12.5% by 2008 2 Climate Change Bill


32% by 2020 60% by 2050

Ethanol From Cellulose

1997 Kyoto 12.5% by 2008 2 Climate Change Bill


32% by 2020 60% by 2050

Ethanol From Biomass

1997 Kyoto 12.5% by 2008 2 Climate Change Bill


32% by 2020 60% by 2050

Ethanol From Biomass TMO Process

Heat Pump Application in Dairy 11/12

Three Compressors in Series Heat of Compression at each stage raises refrigerant gas temperature Hot water at 82 C produced from first condensing stage Hot water used to Plate Pasteurise Milk rather than use Steam from Boiler

RefrigerationintheDairy
+2C 3C +2C Regen section +74C +2C Heater +65C +11C Past. +74C +65C +69C 10C Chiller +11C 3C +2C +2C Chiller Power Compressor 2C +2C Condenser Water + Power 8C Gas Boiler80%efficient +15 32C +76C IntakeChill +5C Milk

GEA Refrigeration

RefrigerationintheDairy withheatpump
+2C 3C +2C Regen section +74C +2C +80C Heater +65C +11C Past. +74C +65C +69C 10C Chiller +11C 3C +2C +2C Chiller Power Compressor Water + Power 8C Gas Boiler80%efficient +15 32C Condenser +76C +80C Power HPCompressor +69C IntakeChill +5C Milk

+82C

2C

+2C

GEA Refrigeration

Two stage heat pump ( to deal with limited field of application)

GEA Refrigeration

Brewing Industry Energy Efficiency Possible Lessons Learnt


Past Knowledge Helps, Application is Key Present We are Making Progress with variable performance from site to site, tools like EINSTEIN II should be useful - We have many challenges ahead optimising energy from waste

Brewing Industry Energy Efficiency Future


Optimise Process Proviso Customer Acceptable Beers Optimise Utilities Use Maximise Heat Recovery Optimise Energy from Waste

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Contact Details: Eric Candy MSc, BSc(Hons), CEng, CSci, CEnv, CMIOSH, FIChemE, DMS, MBrew St Johns Innovation Centre, Cowley Road, Cambridge CB4 0WS Mobile: +44 (0)7812 333143 Telephone: +44 (0)1223 420252 Fax: +44 (0)1223 420844 E mail: ericcandy@inovate.co.uk