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1. Can a school exist without a curriculum? Why or why not?

No, because curriculum is very important to build a great school. Curriculum is a body of subjects prepared by the teachers, without this curriculum, the students will not learn. Why or why not? Curriculum can be compared to a backbone of human body while the school can be compared to the body itself. Without a backbone, the body would not work and cannot accomplish its duties to live. The body would become weak and die. The same with school and curriculum, these two words should come together in order for the one to work. Thinking of a school without a curriculum can lead to disaster. Without a curriculum, students would be confused what subjects do they need to take or where would they go, because, curriculum also serve as a plan of actions that is already fixed in accomplishing goals. Most importantly, a school would even die without a curriculum and students would have no chance to learn, gain more knowledge and experience new things. Without a curriculum, school life would be chaos because students and also teachers consider this as a guide which helps the school to have an organized plan of activities that should be done in that particular year. Depending on my own interpretations, I have come to realize that curriculum is what a school importantly needs. Yes, a school cannot exist without a curriculum. A school is put up to be an institution of guidelines, an institution for educating children into the knowledge they have to attain for the sake of survival in the world of community they live in. Furthermore, without curriculum, a school is worthless or of no use. The establishment that consists of subjects to be taught during the whole school year, the amount of each lesson to be taught, the materials to be used during the lesson, the textbooks, the schedule of exams and test to be taken, the due of paper works, projects and the programs to be made during and in between school days - all of these, is what we called the curriculum.Therefore, a school is made up of and diverse of curriculum and the school is made known because of its curriculum. 2. How does a strong belief or philosophy influence curriculum? A belief or philosophy influence curriculum by following the rules in school, building a good education and disciplining the students, teachers and all faculty members of the school. One has to have a strong belief or philosophy or a spoon full of values for a curriculum to exist. To enable to design a curriculum, there are factors which influenced it. It could be political development, social development, emotional development, physical development, psychological development or even technology If we are to design a curriculum, we have vision on what would become of our children, and to be able to see this vision coming to life, we have to have a goal - a curriculum is this mission. Without a strong belief or strong philosophy, we are tossed to and fro and we cannot see our vision reach the goal.

3.As future teachers, how important will a curriculum to you? As a future teacher, curriculum is very important to me because it is all aspects pertaining to education, without this curriculum it will be hard for me to teach in the future Curriculum is the heart of my teaching. That is how essential, valuable and important curriculum is to me as a future teacher. How can I know what to teach, how to teach and why to teach if i don't have the curriculum. It is my guiding light to lead the learners to the essentials that they should learn. Through curriculum, I can know when to give them a certain lesson, when to let them have the test and exams. I can know when to give them practical evaluations. In it, I can evaluate my

students and assess them into which level they have achieved, have been achieving and will be achieved.
4.What are the implications of an ever-changing curriculum to teachers? This means, teachers will need to gain knowledge in the new parts of curriculum, in many cases. They will also need to attend sessions such as professional development or better yet, return to school if possible. Teachers may have to change the way they teach depending on how the curriculum is changed. A change in curriculum is a good thing because often times, it is changed to accommodate the learners' changing needs and abilities.

5. Name five persons who contributed to the field of curriculum. Give the contribution of each.
Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) - Bobbit presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on student's need. Curriculum prepares students for adult life. To Bobbit, objectives with corresponding activities should be grouped and sequenced. This can only be done if instructional activities and tasks are clarified. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - As one of the hallmarks of curriculum, Tyler believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. It is based on student's needs and interest. To Tyler, curriculum is always related to instruction. Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge, skills, and values. The process emphasizes problem solving. The curriculum aims to educate generalists and not specialists. William Kilpatrick (1871-1965) - Curricula are purposeful activities which are child-centered. The purpose of curriculum is child development and growth. The project method was introduced by Kilpatrick where teacher and student plan the activities. The curriculum develops social relationships and small group instruction. Werret Charters (1875-1952) - Like Bobbit, to Charters curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on students' needs. The listing of objectives and matching these with corresponding activities ensures that the content or subject matter is related to objectives. the subject matter and the activities are planned by the teacher. Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - To Rugg, curriculum should develop the whole child. It is childcentered. With the statement of objectives and related learning activities, curriculum should

produce outcomes. Harold Rugg emphasized social studies and the teacher plans curriculum in advance. 6. How do philosophy, psychology, history and society influence the development of a curriculum?

Educational Philosophy lays strong foundation of any curriculum. It provides educators, teachers
and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing and evaluating curriculum in schools. It helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making. It helps curriculum makers reflects his/her life experiences, common beliefs, social and economic background and education.

Psychology provides a basis for the teaching and learning process. It unifies elements of the
learning process and some of the questions which can be addressed by psychological foundations of education whether how should curriculum be organized to enhance learning or what is the optimum level of students' participation in learning the various contents of the curriculum. The Historical Development shows the different changes in the purposes, principles and content of the curriculum. This implies that curriculum is ever changing putting in knowledge and content from many fields of disciplines. The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Hence, to be relevant, the curricula should reflect and preserve the culture of society and its aspirations. At the same time society should also absorb or take in the changes brought about by the formal institutions called schools.

7. Explain how the three processes of planning, implementing and evaluating are used in curriculum development. The three processes of planning, implementing and evaluating are essential in the curriculum development because these processes make up the development of a curriculum. These three processes are called the three parts of a curriculum. touch

Figure 2 PHASES AND STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT (See Figure 2 on the previous page) further illustrates how the 12 essential steps progress from one to the next. It also shows the interaction and relationships of the four essential phases of the curriculum development process: ( I) Planning, (II) Content and Methods, (III) Implementation, and (IV) Evaluation and Reporting. It is important to acknowledge that things do not always work exactly as depicted in a model! Each phase has several steps or tasks to complete in logical sequence. These steps are not always separate and distinct, but may overlap and occur concurrently. For example, the curriculum development team is involved in all of the steps. Evaluations should occur in most of the steps to assess progress. The team learns what works and what does not and determines the impact of the curriculum on learners after it is implemented. Each step logically follows the previous. It would make no sense to design learning activities before learner outcomes and content are described and identified. Similarly, content cannot be determined before learner outcomes are described. In the experience of the author, and confirmed by other curriculum specialists, the following curriculum development steps are frequently omitted or slighted. These steps are essential to successful curriculum development and need to be emphasized.