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Cover sheet to amendment 74

International Standards and Recommended Practices

Aeronautical Telecommunications
Annex 10 To the convention on International Civil Aviation

Volume I (Radio navigation aids)

Fifth edition of Volume I - July 1996

International Civil Aviation Organization

Annex 10 Volume I Radio Navigation Aids

Note 1. All references to Radio Regulations are to the Radio Regulations published by the International Telecommunication Union. Note 2. Annex 10, Volume I includes Standards and Recommended Practices for certain forms of equipment for air navigation aids. While the Contracting State will determine the necessity for specific installations in accordance with the conditions prescribed in the relevant Standard or Recommended Practice, review of the need for specific installation and the formulation of ICAO opinion and recommendations to Contracting States concerned is carried out periodically by Council, ordinarily on the basis of recommendations of Regional Air Navigation Meetings (Doc 8144 Directives to Regional Air Navigation Meetings and Rules of Procedure for their Conduct).

Chapter 1.

Definitions

When the following terms are used in this Volume, they have the following meanings: Altitude. The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level (MSL). Effective acceptance bandwidth. The range of frequencies with respect to the assigned frequency for which reception is assured when all receiver tolerances have been taken into account. Effective adjacent channel rejection. The rejection that is obtained at the appropriate adjacent channel frequency when all relevant receiver tolerances have been taken into account. Elevation. The vertical distance of a point or a level, on or affixed to the surface of the earth, measured from mean sea level. Fan marker beacon. Height. datum. A type of radio beacon, the emissions of which radiate in a vertical fan-shaped pattern.

The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from a specified

Human Factors principles. Principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other components by proper consideration to human performance. Mean power (of a radio transmitter). The average power supplied to the antenna transmission line by a transmitter during an interval of time sufficiently long compared with the lowest frequency encountered in the modulation taken under normal operating conditions. Note. A time of 1/10 second during which the mean power is greatest will be selected normally. Pressure-altitude. An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which corresponds to that pressure in the Standard Atmosphere.

Protected service volume. A part of the facility coverage where the facility provides a particular service in accordance with relevant SARPs and within which the facility is afforded frequency protection. Touchdown. The point where the predetermined glide path intercepts the runway. Note. Touchdown as defined above is only a datum and is not necessarily) the actual point at which the aircraft will touch the runway. Z marker beacon. A type of radio beacon, the emissions of which radiate in a vertical cone-shaped pattern.

Chapter 2. General provisions for Radio Navigation Aids


2.1 Aids to approach, landing and departure 2.1.1 The standard non-visual aids to recession approach and landing shall be: a) the instrument landing system (ILS) conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.1; and b) the microwave landing system (MLS) conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.11. Note 1. The term non-visual aid to precision approach and landing is to be applied when referring to the foregoing systems specified in Chapter 3. Other non-visual aids, which are consistent with RNP for precision approach and landing referred to in 2.1.6 below, may be standardized as alternatives for the foregoing systems. Note 2. It is intended that, wherever an ILS has been installed conforming to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.1, no change in, or addition to, those Standards will require the replacement of such equipment before 1 January 2010. Note 3. It is intended that wherever an MLS has been installed conforming to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.11, no change in, or addition to, those Standards will require the replacement of such equipment before 31 December 2015. Note 4. The locations at which non-visual aids are required are normally established on the basis of regional air navigation agreements. Note 5. Since visual reference is essential for the final stages of approach and landing, the installation of a non-visual aid does not obviate the need for visual aids to approach and landing in conditions of low visibility. Note 6. Non-visual aids to approach and landing can also be used to support departure. 2.1.1.1 It shall be permissible to replace a non-visual aid with an alternative non-visual aid on the basis of regional air navigation agreement. 2.1.1.2 Recommendation. The agreements indicated in 2.1.1.1 should provide at least a five-year notice. Note. It is intended that introduction and application of non-visual aids will be in accordance with the strategy shown at Attachment B. 2.1.1.3 When a non-visual aid is to be provided, its performance shall correspond at least to the category of precision approach runway to be served. Note 1. Categories of precision approach and landing operations are classified in Annex 6, Part I, Chapter 1. Note 2. Information on operational objectives associated with ILS facility performance categories is given in Attachment C, 2.1 and 2.14. Note 3. Information on operational objectives associated with MLS facility performance is given in Attachment G, Section 11. 2.1.2 Differences in non-visual aids in any respect from the Standards of Chapter 3 shall be published in an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). 2.1.2.1 Non-visual aids that do not conform: a) to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.1.2.1, 3.1.2.2 and 3.1.7.1 a) shall not be described by the term ILS; b) to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.11.3 shall not be described by the term MLS. 2.1.3 Wherever there is installed a non-visual aid that is neither an ILS nor an MLS, but which may be used in whole or in part with aircraft equipment designed for use with the ILS or MLS, full details of parts that may be so used shall be published in an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). Note. This provision is to establish a requirement for promulgation of relevant information rather than to authorize such installations.

2.1.4 Recommendation. A precision approach radar (PAR) system conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.2 and equipment for two-way communication with aircraft, together with facilities for the efficient co-ordination of these elements with air traffic control, should be installed and operated as a supplement to a non-visual aid wherever: a) air traffic control will be materially assisted by such installation in the landing of aircraft intending to use a non-visual aid; and b) the accuracy or expedition of final approaches or the facilitation of approaches by aircraft not equipped to use a non-visual aid will be materially aided by such installation. 2.1.4.1 Recommendation. Only the precision approach radar element (PAR) of the precision approach radar system conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.2.3, together with the equipment and facilities prescribed in 2.1.4 above, should be installed when it is determined that the surveillance radar element (SRE), associated with the precision approach radar system, is not necessary to meet the requirements of air traffic control for the handling of aircraft intending to use a non-visual aid. Note. The SRE is not considered, in any circumstances, a satisfactory alternative to the precision approach radar system. 2.1.4.2 Recommendation. Although SRE is not considered a satisfactory alternative to the precision approach radar system, an SRE conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.2.4 and equipment for two-way communication with aircraft should be installed and operated for: a) the assistance of air traffic control in handling aircraft intending to use a non-visual aid; b) surveillance radar approaches and departures. 2.1.5 Recommendation. A non-visual aid should be supplemented, as necessary, by a source or sources of guidance information which, when used in conjunction with appropriate procedures, will provide effective guidance to, and efficient coupling (manual or automatic) with, the desired reference path. Note. The following sources of guidance have been used for such purposes: a) a suitably located VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR) conforming to the specifications in Chapter 3, 3.3 or equivalent; b) a locator or locators conforming with the specifications in Chapter 3, 3.4 or a suitably located non-directional radio beacon (NDB); c) a suitably located UHF distance measuring equipment (DME) conforming to the specifications in Chapter 3, 3.5 and providing continuous distance information during the approach and missed approach phase of flight. 2.1.6 Required navigation performance (RNP) for approach, landing and departure operations 2.1.6.1 Where used, RNP for approach, landing and departure operations shall be prescribed by States. Note. RNP types for approach, landing and departure operations and guidance material on application of RNP are provided in the Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (in preparation). 2.1.6.2 Where RNP is prescribed for precision approach and landing operations, the RNP shall only be supported by a standard non-visual aid in accordance with 2.1.1 above. 2.2 Short-distance aids 2.2.1 In localities and along routes where conditions of traffic density and low visibility necessitate a ground based short-distance radio aid to navigation for the efficient exercise of air traffic control, or where such short-distance aid is required for the safe and efficient conduct of aircraft operations, the standard aid shall be the VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR) of the CW phase comparison type conforming to the Standards contained in Chapter 3, 3.3.

Note 1. It is not intended that short-distance radio aids to navigation provided in accordance with 2.2.1 above should be required primarily to perform the function of a long-distance navigation aid. Note 2. It is intended that, wherever a VOR conforming to the Standard in 2.2.1 above has been installed, no change in, or addition to, that Standard will require the replacement of such equipment before 1 January 1995. 2.2.1.1 Recommendation. Means should be provided for the pre-flight checking of VOR airborne equipment at aerodromes regularly used by international air traffic. Note. Guidance material on the pre-flight checking of VOR airborne equipment is contained in Attachment E. 2.2.2 At localities where for operational reasons, or because of air traffic control reasons such as air traffic density or proximity of routes, there is a need for a more precise navigation service than that provided by VOR, distance measuring equipment (DME) (conforming to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.5) shall be installed and maintained in operation as a complement to VOR. 2.2.2.1 DME/N equipment first installed after 1 January 1989 shall also conform to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.5 denoted by. Note. It is intended that, wherever a DME conforming to the Standard in 2.2.2 above has been installed, no change in, or addition to, that Standard will require the replacement of such equipment before 1 January 2010. 2.2.3 DME/W conforming to the Standard contained in Chapter 3, 3.5.4.1.3 f) shall be installed only on the basis of regional agreement. Note. There are likely to be locations at which DME/W may be usefully installed, especially for national use. Co-ordination within the Region concerned, or between Regions, is needed to avoid possible interference and to assist in the maintenance of a current and complete frequency allocation plan. 2.2.3.1 Recommendation. There should be no new installations of DME/W after 1 January 1987.

2.3 Radio beacons 2.3.1 Non-directional radio beacons (NDB) 2.3.1.1 An NDB conforming to the Standards in Chapter 3, 3.4 shall be installed and maintained in operation at a locality where an NDB, in conjunction with direction-finding equipment in the aircraft, fulfils the operational requirement for a radio aid to navigation. 2.3.2 En-route VHF marker beacons (75 MHz) 2.3.2.1 Recommendation. Where a VHF marker beacon is required to mark a position on any air route, a fan marker beacon conforming to the Standard contained in Chapter 3, 3.6 should be installed and maintained in operation. Note. This recommendation does not preclude the use of fan marker beacons at points other than on an air route as, for example, an aid to descent under IFR conditions. 2.3.2.2 Recommendation. Where a VHF marker beacon is required to mark the position of a radio navigation aid giving directional or track guidance, a Z marker conforming to the Standard in Chapter 3, 3.6 should be installed and maintained in operation. 2.4 Long-distance aids Note. Material for this section is under development.

2.5 Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) Note. The contents of this section were relocated to Volume IV of Annex 10 by Amendment 71 to the Annex. 2.6 Distance measuring aids 2.6.1 Recommendation. If a distance measuring facility is installed and maintained in operation for any radio navigational purpose additional to that specified in 2.2.2 above, it should conform to the specification in Chapter 3, 3.5. 2.7 Ground and flight testing 2.7.1 Radio navigation aids of the types covered by the specifications in Chapter 3 and available for use by aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall be the subject of periodic ground and flight tests. Note. Guidance on the ground and flight testing of some ICAO standard facilities is contained in Attachment C and in Doc 8071. 2.8 Provision of information on the operational status of radio navigation aids 2.8.1 Aerodrome control towers and units providing approach control service shall be provided without delay with information on the operational status of radio navigation aids essential for approach, landing and take-off at the aerodrome(s) with which they are concerned. 2.9 Secondary power supply for radio navigation aids and communication systems. 2.9.1 Radio navigation aids and ground elements of communication systems of the types specified in Annex 10 shall be provided with suitable power supplies and means to ensure continuity of service appropriate to the needs of the service provided. Note. Guidance material on this subject is contained in Section 8 of Attachment C. 2.10 Human Factors considerations 2.10.1 Recommendation. Human Factors principles should be observed in the design and certification of radio navigation aids. Note. Guidance material on Human Factors principles can be found in Circular 216 (Human Factors Digest No. 1 Fundamental Human Factors Concepts), Circular 238 (Human Factors Digest No. 6 Ergonomics), and Circular 249 (Human Factors Digest No. 11 Human Factors in CNS/ATM Systems).

Chapter 3.

Specifications for Radio Navigation Aids

Note. Specifications concerning the siting and construction of equipment and installations on operational areas aimed at reducing the hazard to aircraft to a minimum are contained in Annex 14, Chapter 8. 3.1 Specification for ILS 3.1.1 Definitions Angular displacement sensitivity. The ratio of measured DDM to the corresponding angular displacement from the appropriate reference line. Back course sector. The course sector which is situated on the opposite side of the localizer from the runway. Course line. The locus of points nearest to the runway centre line in any horizontal plane at which the DDM is zero. Course sector. A sector in an horizontal plane containing the course line and limited by the loci of points nearest to the course line at which the DDM is 0.155. DDM Difference in depth of modulation. The percentage modulation depth of the larger signal minus the percentage modulation depth of the smaller signal, divided by 100. Displacement sensitivity (localizer). The ratio of measured DDM to the corresponding lateral displacement from the appropriate reference line. Facility Performance Category I ILS. An ILS which provides guidance information from the coverage limit of the ILS to the point at which the localizer course line intersects the ILS glide path at a height of 60 m (200 ft) or less above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. Note. This definition is not intended to preclude the use of Facility Performance Category I ILS below the height of 60 m (200 ft), with visual reference where the quality of the guidance provided permits, and where satisfactory operational procedures have been established. Facility Performance Category II ILS. An ILS which provides guidance information from the coverage limit of the ILS to the point at which the localizer course line intersects the ILS glide path at height of 15 m (50 ft) or less above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. Facility Performance Category III ILS. An ILS which , with the aid of ancillary equipment where necessary, provides guidance information from the coverage limit of the facility to, and along, the surface of the runway. Front course sector. The course sector which is situated on the same side of the localizer as the runway. Half course sector. The sector, in a horizontal plane containing the course line and limited by the loci of points nearest to the course line at which the DDM is 0.0775. Half ILS glide path sector. The sector in the vertical plane containing the ILS glide path and limited by the loci of points nearest to the glide path at which the DDM is 0.0875. ILS continuity of service. That quality which relates to the rarity of radiated signal interruption. The level of continuity of service of the localizer or the glide path is expressed in terms of the probability of not losing the radiated guidance signals.

ILS glide path. That locus of points in the vertical plane containing the runway centre line at which the DDM is zero, which, of all such loci, is the closest to the horizontal plane. ILS glide path angle. The angle between a straight line which represents the mean of the ILS glide path and the horizontal. ILS glide path sector. The sector in the vertical plane containing the ILS glide path and limited by the loci of points nearest to the glide path at which the DDM is 0.175. Note. The ILS glide path sector is located in the vertical plane containing the runway centre line, and is divided by the radiated glide path in two parts called upper sector and lower sector, referring respectively to the sectors above and below the glide path. ILS integrity. That quality which relates to the trust which can be placed in the correctness of the information supplied by the facility. The level of integrity of the localizer or the glide path is expressed in terms of the probability of not radiating false guidance signals. ILS point A. A point on the ILS glide path measured along the extended runway centre line in the approach direction a distance of 7.5 km (4 NM) from the threshold. ILS point B. A point on the ILS glide path measured along the extended runway centre line in the approach direction a distance of 1050 m (3500 ft) from the threshold. ILS point C. A point through which the downward extended straight portion of the nominal ILS glide path passes at a height of 30 m (100 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. ILS point D. A point 4 m (12 ft) above the runway centre line and 900 m (3000 ft) from the threshold in the direction of the localizer. ILS point E. A point 4 m (12 ft) above the runway centre line and 600 m (2000 ft) from the stop end of the runway in the direction of the threshold. Note. See Attachment C, Figure C 1. ILS reference datum (Point T). A point at a specified height located above the intersection of the runway centre line and the threshold and through which the downward extended straight portion of the ILS glide passes. Two-frequency glide path system. A ILS glide path in which coverage is achieved by the use of two independent radiation field patterns spaced on separate carrier frequencies within the particular glide path channel. Two-frequency localizer system. A localizer system in which coverage is achieved by the use of two independent radiation field patterns spaced on separate carrier frequencies within the particular localizer VHF channel. 3.1.2 Basic requirements 3.1.2.1 The ILS shall comprise the following basic components: a) VHF localizer equipment, associated monitor system, remote control and indicator equipment; b) UHF glide path equipment, associated monitor system, remote control and indicator equipment; c) VHF marker beacons, associated monitor systems, remote control and indicator equipment, except as provided in 3.1.7.6.6 below. 3.1.2.1.1 Facility Performance Categories I, II and III ILS shall provide indications at designated remote control points of the operational status of all ILS ground system components.

Note 1. It is intended that the air traffic services unit involved in the control of aircraft on the final approach be one of the designated control points receiving, without delay, information on the operational status of the ILS as derived from the monitors. Note 2. It is intended that the air traffic system is likely to call for additional provisions which may be found essential for the attainment of full operational Category III capability, e.g. to provide additional lateral and longitudinal guidance during the landing roll-out, and taxiing, and to ensure enhancement of the integrity and reliability of the system. 3.1.2.2 The ILS shall be constructed and adjusted so that, at a specified distance from the threshold, similar instrumental indications in the aircraft represent similar displacements from the course line or ILS glide path as appropriate, irrespective of the particular ground installation in use. 3.1.2.3 The localizer and glide path components specified in 3.1.2.1 a) and b) above which form part of a Facility Performance Category I ILS shall comply at least with the Standards in 3.1.3 and 3.1.5 below respectively, excepting those in which application to Facility Performance Category II ILS is prescribed. 3.1.2.4 The localizer and glide path components specified in 3.1.2.1 a) and b) above which form part of a Facility Performance Category II ILS shall comply with the standards applicable to these components in a Facility Performance Category I ILS , as supplemented or amended by the Standards in 3.1.3 and 3.1.5 below in which application to Facility Performance Category II ILS is prescribed. 3.1.2.5 The localizer and glide path components and other ancillary equipment specified in 3.1.2.1.1 above, which form part of a Facility Performance Category III ILS, shall otherwise comply with the Standards applicable to these components in Facility Performance Categories I and II ILS, except as supplemented by the Standards in 3.1.3 and 3.1.5 below in which application to Facility Performance Category III ILS is prescribed. 3.1.2.6 To ensure an adequate level of safety, the ILS shall be so designed and maintained that the probability of operation within the performance requirements specified is of a high value, consistent with the category of operational performance concerned. Note. The specifications for Facility Performance Categories II and III ILS are intended to achieve the highest degree of system integrity, reliability and stability of operation under the most adverse environmental conditions to be encountered. Guidance material to achieve this objective in Categories II and III operations is given in 2.8 of Attachment C. 3.1.2.7 At those locations where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway, an interlock shall ensure that only the localizer serving the approach directional use is Facility Performance Category I ILS and no operationally harmful interference results. 3.1.2.7.1 Recommendation. At those locations where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway and where a Facility Performance Category I ILS is to be used for auto-coupled approaches and landings in visual conditions an interlock should ensure that only the localizer serving the approach direction in use radiates, providing the other localizer is not required for simultaneous operational use. Note. If both localizers radiate there is a possibility of interference to the localizer signals in the threshold region. Additional guidance material is contained in 2.1.9 and 2.13 of Attachment C. 3.1.2.7.2 At locations where ILS facilities serving opposite ends of the same runway or different runways at the same airport use the same paired frequencies, an interlock shall ensure that only one facility shall radiate at a time. When switching from one ILS facility to another, radiation from both shall be suppressed for not less than 20 seconds.

Note. Additional guidance material on the operation of localizers on the same frequency channel is contained in 2.1.9 of Attachment C and Volume V, Chapter 4. 3.1.3 VHF localizer and associated monitor Introduction. The specifications of this 3.1.3 cover ILS localizers providing either positive guidance information over 360 degrees of azimuth, or providing such guidance only within a specified portion of the front coverage (see 3.1.3.7.4 below). Where ILS localizers providing positive guidance information in a limited sector are installed, information from some suitably located navigation aid, together with appropriate procedures, will generally be required to ensure that any misleading guidance information outside the sector is not operationally significant. 3.1.3.1 General 3.1.3.1.1 The radiation from the localizer antenna system shall produce a composite field pattern which is amplitude modulated by a 90 Hz and a 150 Hz tone. The radiation field pattern shall produce a course sector with one tone predominating on one side of the course and with the other tone predominating on the opposite side. 3.1.3.1.2 When an observer faces the localizer from the approach end of a runway, the depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to the 150 Hz tone shall predominate on his right hand and that due to the 90 Hz tone shall predominate on his left hand. 3.1.3.1.3 All horizontal angles employed in specifying the localizer field patterns shall originate from the centre of the localizer antenna system which provides the signals used in the front course sector. 3.1.3.2 Radio frequency 3.1.3.2.1 The localizer shall operate in the band 108 MHz to 111.975 MHz. Where a single radio frequency carrier is used, the frequency tolerance shall not exceed plus or minus 0.005 per cent. Where two radio frequency carriers are used, the frequency tolerance shall not exceed 0.002 per cent and the nominal band occupied by the carriers shall be symmetrical about the assigned frequency. With all tolerances applied, the frequency separation between the carriers shall not be less than 5 kHz nor more than 14 kHz. 3.1.3.2.2 The emission from the localizer shall be horizontally polarized. The vertically polarized component of the radiation on the course line shall not exceed that which corresponds to a DDM error of 0.016 when an aircraft is positioned on the course line and is in a roll attitude of 20 degrees from the horizontal. 3.1.3.2.2.1 For Facility Performance Category II localizers, the vertically polarized component of the radiation on the course line shall not exceed that which corresponds to a DDM error of 0.008 when an aircraft is positioned on the course line and is in a roll attitude of 20 degrees from the horizontal. 3.1.3.2.2.2 For Facility Performance Category III localizers, the vertically polarized component of the radiation within a sector bounded by 0.02 DDM either side of the course line shall not exceed that which corresponds to a DDM error of 0.005 when an aircraft is in a roll attitude of 20 degrees from the horizontal. 3.1.3.2.3 For Facility Performance Category III localizers, signals emanating from the transmitter shall contain no components which result in an apparent course line fluctuation of more than 0.005 DDM peak to peak in the frequency band 0.001 Hz to 10 Hz.

3.1.3.3 Coverage 3.1.3.3.1 The localizer shall provide signals sufficient to allow satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation within the localizer and glide path coverage sectors. The localizer coverage sector shall extend from the centre of the localizer antenna system to distances of : 46.3km (25 NM) within plus or minus 10 degrees from the front course line: 31.5 km (17 NM) between 10 degrees and 35 degrees from the front course line: 18.5 km (10 NM) outside of plus or minus 45 degrees if coverage is provided: except that, where topographical features dictate or operational requirements permit, the limits may be reduced to 33.3 km (18 NM) within the plus or minus 10 degree sector and 18.5 km (10 NM) within the remainder of the coverage when alternative navigational facilities provide satisfactory coverage within the intermediate approach area. The localizer signals shall be receivable at the distances specified at and above a height of 600 m (2000 ft) above the elevation of the threshold, or 300 m (1000 ft) above the elevation of the highest point within the intermediate and final approach areas, whichever is the higher. Such signals shall be receivable, to the distances specified, up to a surface extending outward from the localizer antenna and inclined at 7 degrees above the horizontal. Note. Guidance material on localizer coverage is given in 2.1.11 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.3.2 In all parts of the coverage volume specified in 3.1.3.3.1 above, other than as specified in 3.1.3.3.2.1, 3.1.3.3.2.2 and 3.1.3.3.2.3 below, the field strength shall be not less than 40 microvolts per metre (minus 114 dBW/m 2). Note. This minimum field strength is required to permit satisfactory operational usage of ILS localizer facilities. 3.1.3.3.2.1 For Facility Performance Category I localizers, the minimum field strength on the ILS glide path and within the localizer course sector from a distance of 18.5 km (10 NM) to a height of 60 m (200 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold shall be not less than 90 microvolts per metre (minus 107 dBW/m 2). 3.1.3.3.2.2 For Facility Performance Category II localizers, the minimum field strength on the ILS glide path and within the localizer course sector shall be not less than 100 microvolts per metre (minus 106 dBW/m 2) at a distance of 18.5 km (10 NM) increasing to not less than 200 microvolts per metre (minus 100 dBW/m 2) at a height of 15 m (50 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. 3.1.3.3.2.3 For Facility Performance Category III localizers, the minimum field strength on the ILS glide path and within the localizer course sector shall be not less than 100 microvolts per metre (minus 106 dBW/m 2) at a distance of 18.5 km (10 NM), increasing to not less than 200 microvolts per metre (minus 100 dBW/m 2) at 6 m (20 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. From this point to a further point 4 m (12 ft) above the runway centre line, and 300 m (1000 ft) from the threshold in the direction of the localizer, and thereafter at a height of 4 m (12 ft) along the length of the runway in the direction of the localizer, the field strength shall be not less than 100 microvolts per metre (minus 106 dBW/m 2). Note. The field strengths given in 3.1.3.3.2.2 and 3.1.3.3.2.3 above are necessary to provide the signal-to-noise ratio required for improved integrity. 3.1.3.3.3 Recommendation. Above 7 degrees, the signals should be reduced to as low a value as practicable. Note 1. The requirements in 3.1.3.3.1, 3.1.3.3.2.1, 3.1.3.3.2.2 and 3.1.3.3.2.3 above are based on the assumption that the aircraft is heading directly toward the facility. Note 2. Guidance material on significant airborne receiver parameters is given in 2.2.2 and 2.2.4 of Attachment C.

3.1.3.3.4 When coverage is achieved by a localizer using two radio frequency carriers, one carrier providing a radiation field pattern in the front course sector and the other providing a radiation field pattern outside that sector, the ratio of the two carrier signal strengths in space within the front course sector to the coverage limits specified at 3.1.3.3.1 above shall not be less than 10 dB. Note. Guidance material on localizers achieving coverage with two radio frequency carriers is given in the Note to 3.1.3.11.2 below and in 2.7 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.3.5 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category III localizers, the ratio of the two carrier signal strengths in space within the front course sector should not be less than 16 dB. 3.1.3.4 Course structure 3.1.3.4.1 For Facility Performance Category I localizers, bends in the course line shall not have amplitudes which exceed the following: Amplitude (DDM) Zone (95% probability) Outer limit of coverage to ILS Point A ILS Point A to ILS Point B

0.031 0.031 at ILS Point A decreasing at a Linear rate to 0.015 at ILS Point B

ILS Point B to ILS Point C

0.015

3.1.3.4.2 For Facility Performance Categories II and III localizers, bends in the course line shall not have amplitudes which exceed the following: Amplitude (DDM) Zone (95% probability) Outer limit of coverage to ILS Point A ILS Point A to ILS Point B

0.031 0.031 at ILS Point A decreasing at a linear Rate to 0.005 At ILS Point B

ILS Point B to the ILS reference datum and, for Category III only: ILS reference datum to ILS Point D ILS Point D to ILS Point E

0.005

0.005 0.005 at ILS Point D increasing at a linear rate to 0.010 at ILS Point E

Note 1. The amplitudes referred to in 3.1.3.4.1 and 3.1.3.4.2 above are the DDMs due to bends as realized on the mean course line, when correctly adjusted. Note 2. Guidance material relevant to the localizer course structure is given in 2.1.4, 2.1.6 and 2.1.7 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.5 Carrier modulation 3.1.3.5.1 The nominal depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to each of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones shall be 20 per cent along the course line. 3.1.3.5.2 The depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to each of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones shall be within the limits of 18 and 22 per cent. 3.1.3.5.3 The following tolerances shall be applied to the frequencies of the modulating tones: a) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within plus or minus 2.5 per cent; b) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within plus or minus 1.5 per cent for Facility Performance Category II installations; c) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within plus or minus 1 per cent for Facility Performance Category III installations; d) the total harmonic content of the 90 Hz tone shall not exceed 10 per cent; additionally, for Facility Performance Category III localizers, the second harmonic of the 90 Hz tone shall not exceed 5 per cent; e) the total harmonic content of the 150 Hz tone shall not exceed 10 per cent. 3.1.3.5.3.1 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category I ILS, the modulating tones should be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within plus or minus 1.5 per cent where practicable. 3.1.3.5.3.2 For Facility Performance Category III localizers, the depth of amplitude modulation of the radio frequency carrier at the power supply frequency or its harmonics, or by other unwanted components, shall not exceed 0.5 per cent. Harmonics of the supply, or other unwanted noise components that may inter modulate with the 90 Hz and 150 Hz navigational tones or their harmonics to produce fluctuations in the course line, shall not exceed 0.005 per cent modulation depth of the radio frequency carrier. 3.1.3.5.3.3 The modulation tones shall be phase-locked so that within the half course sector, the demodulated 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within: a) for Facility Performance Categories I and II localizers: 20 degrees; and b) for Facility Performance Category III localizers; 10 degrees. of phase relative to the 150 Hz component, every half cycle of the combined 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave form. Note 1. The definition of phase relationship in this manner is not intended to imply a requirement to measure the phase within the half course sector. Note 2. Guidance material relative to such measurement is given at Figure C-6 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.5.3.4 With two-frequency localizer systems, 3.1.3.5.3.3 above shall apply to each carrier. In addition, the 90 Hz modulating tone of one carrier shall be phase-locked to the 90 Hz modulating tone of the other carrier so that demodulated wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within: a) for Categories I and II localizers: 20 degrees; and b) for Category III localizers: 10 degrees. of phase relative to 90 Hz. Similarly, the 150 Hz tones of the two carriers shall be phase-locked so that the demodulated wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within: 1) for Categories I and II localizers: 20 degrees; and 2) for Category III localizers: 10 degrees. of phase relative to 150 Hz

3.1.3.5.3.5 Alternative two-frequency localizer systems that employ audio phasing different from the normal in phase conditions described in 3.1.3.5.3.4 above shall be permitted. In this alternative system, the 90 Hz to 90 Hz phasing and the 150 Hz to 150 Hz phasing shall be adjusted to their nominal values to within limits equivalent to those stated in 3.1.3.5.3.4 above. Note. This is to ensure correct airborne receiver operation in the region away from the course line where the two carrier signal strengths are approximately equal. 3.1.3.5.3.6 Recommendation. The sum of the modulation depths of the radio frequency carrier due to the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones should not exceed 60 per cent or be less than 30 per cent within the required coverage. 3.1.3.5.3.6.1 For equipment first installed after 1 January 2000, the sum of the modulation depths of the radio frequency carrier due to the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones shall not exceed 60 per cent or be less than 30 per cent within the required coverage. Note 1. If the sum of the modulation depths is greater than 60 per cent for Facility Performance Category I localizers, the nominal displacement sensitivity may be adjusted as provided for in 3.1.3.7.1 to achieve the above modulation limit. Note 2. For two-frequency systems the standard for maximum sum of modulation depths does not apply at or near azimuths where the course and clearance carrier signal levels are equal in amplitude (i.e. at azimuths where both transmitting systems have a significant contribution to the total modulation depth). Note 3. The standard for minimum sum of modulation depths is based on the malfunctioning alarm level being set as high as 30 per cent as started in 2.3.3 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.5.3.7 When utilizing a localizer for radiotelephone communications, the sum of the modulation depths of the radio frequency carrier due to the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones shall not exceed 65 per cent within 10 degrees of the course line and shall not exceed 78 per cent at any other point around the localizer. 3.1.3.5.4 Recommendation. Undesired frequency and phase modulation on ILS localizer radio frequency carriers that can affect the displayed DDM values in localizer receivers should be minimized to the extent practical. Note. Relevant guidance material is given in 2.15 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.6 Course alignment accuracy 3.1.3.6.1 The mean course line shall be adjusted and maintained within limits equivalent to the following displacements from the runway centre line at the ILS reference datum: a) for Facility Performance Category I localizers: plus or minus 10.5 m (35 ft), or the linear equivalent of 0.015 DDM, whichever is less: b) for Facility Performance Category II localizers: plus or minus 7.5 m (25 ft); c) for Facility Performance Category III localizers: plus or minus 3 m (10 ft). 3.1.3.6.2 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category II localizers, the mean course line should be adjusted and maintained within limits equivalent to plus or minus 4.5 m (15 ft) displacement from runway centre line at the ILS reference datum. Note 1. It is intended that Facility Performance Categories II and III installations be adjusted and maintained so that the limits specified in 3.1.3.6.1 and 3.1.3.6.2 above are reached on very rare occasions. It is further intended that design and operation of the total ILS ground system be of sufficient integrity to accomplish this aim. Note 2. It is intended that new Category II installations are to meet the requirements of 3.1..3.6.2 above. Note 3. Guidance material on measurement of localizer course alignment is given in 2.1.4 of Attachment C.

3.1.3.7 Displacement sensitivity 3.1.3.7.1 The nominal displacement sensitivity within the half course sector at the ILS reference datum shall be 0.00145 DDM/m (0.00044 DDM/ft) except that for Category I localizers, where the specified nominal displacement sensitivity cannot be met, the displacement sensitivity shall be adjusted as near as possible to that value. For Facility Performance Category I localizers on runway codes I and 2, the nominal displacement sensitivity shall be achieved at the ILS Point B. The maximum course sector angle shall not exceed 6 degrees. Note. Runway codes 1 and 2 are defined in Annex 14. 3.1.3.7.2 The lateral displacement sensitivity shall be adjusted and maintained within the limits of plus or minus: a) 17 per cent of the nominal value for Facility Performance Categories I and II; b) 10 per cent of the nominal value for Facility Performance Category III. 3.1.3.7.3 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category II ILS, displacement sensitivity should be adjusted and maintained within the limits of plus or minus 10 per cent where practicable. Note 1. The figures given in 3.1.3.7.1, 3.1.3.7.2 and 3.1.3.7.3 above are based upon a nominal sector width of 210 m (700 ft) at the appropriate point, i.e. ILS Point B on runway codes 1 and 2, and the ILS reference datum on other runways. Note 2. Guidance material on the alignment and displacement sensitivity of localizers using two radio frequency carriers is given in 2.7 of Attachment C. Note 3. Guidance material on measurement of localizer displacement sensitivity is given in 2.9 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.7.4 The increase of DDM shall be substantially linear with respect to angular displacement from the front course line (where DDM is zero) up to an angle on either side of the front course line where the DDM is 0.180. From that angle to plus or minus 10 degrees, the DDM shall not be less than 0.180. From plus or minus 10 degrees to plus or minus 35 degrees, the DDM shall not be less than 0.155. Where coverage is required outside of the plus or minus 35 degrees sector, the DDM in the area of the coverage, except in the back course sector, shall not be less than 0.155. Note 1. The linearity of change of DDM with respect to angular displacement is particularly important in the neighborhood of the course line. Note 2. The above DDM in the 10-35 degree sector is to be considered a minimum requirement for the use of ILS as a landing aid. Wherever practicable a higher DDM, e.g. 0.180, is advantageous to assist high speed aircraft to execute large angle intercepts at operationally desirable distances provided that limits on modulation percentage given in 3.1.3.5.3.6 are met. Note 3. Wherever practicable, the localizer capture level of automatic flight control systems is to be set at or below 0.175 DDM in order to prevent false localizer captures. 3.1.3.8 Voice 3.1.3.8.1 Facility Performance Categories I and II localizers may provide a ground-to-air radiotelephone communication channel to be operated simultaneously with the navigation and identification signals, provided that such operation shall not interfere in any way with the basic localizer function. 3.1.3.8.2 Category III localizers shall not provide such a channel, except where extreme care has been taken in the design and operation of the facility to ensure that there is no possibility of interference with the navigational guidance. 3.1.3.8.3 If the channel is provided, it shall conform with the following Standards:

3.1.3.8.3.1 The channel shall be on the same radio frequency carrier or carriers as used for the localizer function, and the radiation shall be horizontally polarized. Where two carriers are modulated with speech, the relative phases of the modulations on the two carriers shall be such as to avoid the occurrence of nulls within the coverage of the localizer. 3.1.3.8.3.2 The peak modulation depth of the carrier or carriers due to the radiotelephone communications shall not exceed 50 per cent but shall be adjusted so that: a) the ratio of peak modulation depth due to the radiotelephone communications to that due to the identification signal is approximately 9 : 1; b) the sum of modulation components due to use of the radiotelephone channel, navigational signals and identification signal shall not exceed 95 per cent. 3.1.3.8.3.3 The audio frequency characteristics of the radiotelephone channel shall be flat to within 3 dB relative to the level at 1000 Hz over the range 300 Hz to 3000 Hz. 3.1.3.9 Identification 3.1.3.9.1 The localizer shall provide for the simultaneous transmission of an identification signal, specific to the run way and approach direction, on the same radio frequency carrier or carriers as used for the localizer function. The transmission of the identification signal shall not interfere in any way with the basic localizer function. 3.1.3.9.2 The identification signal shall be produced by Class A2A modulation of the radio frequency carrier or carriers using a modulation tone of 1020 Hz within plus or minus 50 Hz. The depth of modulation shall be between the limits of 5 and 15 per cent except that, where a radiotelephone communication channel is provided, the depth of modulation shall be adjusted so that the ratio of peak modulation depth due to radiotelephone communications to that due to the identification signal modulation is approximately 9 : 1 (see 3.1.3.8.3.2 above). The emissions carrying the identification signal shall be horizontally polarized. Where two carriers are modulated with identification signals, the relative phase of the modulations shall be such as to avoid the occurrence of nulls within the coverage of the localizer. 3.1.3.9.3 The identification signal shall employ the International Morse Code and consist of two or three letters. It may be preceded by the International Morse Code signal of the letter I, followed by a short pause where it is necessary to distinguish the ILS facility from other navigational facilities in the immediate area. 3.1.3.9.4 The identification signal shall be transmitted by dots and dashes at a speed corresponding to approximately seven words per minute, and shall be repeated at approximately equal intervals, not less than six times per minute, at all times during which he localizer is available for operational use. When the transmissions of the localizer are not available for operational use, as, for example, after removal of navigational components, or during maintenance or test transmissions, the identification signal shall be suppressed. The dots shall have a duration of 0.1 second to 0.160 second. The dash duration shall be typically three times the duration of a dot. The interval between dots and/or dashes shall be equal to that of one dot plus or minus 10 per cent. The interval between letters shall not be less than the duration of three dots. 3.1.3.10 Siting 3.1.3.10.1 The localizer antenna system shall be located on the extension of the centre line of the runway at athe stop end, and the equipment shall be adjusted so that the course lines will be in a vertical plane containing the centre line of the runway served. The antenna system shall have the minimum height necessary to satisfy the coverage requirements laid down in 3.1.3.3 above, and the distance from the stop end of the runway shall be consistent with safe obstruction clearance practices.

3.1.3.11 Monitoring 3.1.3.11.1 The automatic monitor system shall provide a warning to the designated control points and cause one of the following to occur, within the period specified in 3.1.3.11.3.1 below, if any of the conditions stated in 3.1.3.11.2 below persists: a) radiation to cease; b) removal of the navigation and identification components from the carrier; c) reversion to a lower category in the case of Facility Performance Categories II and III localizers where the reversion requirement exists. Note. It is intended that the alternative of reversion offered in 3.1.3.11.1 above may be used only if: 1) the safety of the reversion procedure has been substantiated; and 2) the means of providing information to the pilot on the change of category has adequate integrity. 3.1.3.11.2 The conditions requiring initiation of monitor action shall be the following: a) for Facility Performance Category I localizers, a shift of the mean course line from the runway centre equivalent to more than 10.5 m (35 ft), or the linear equivalent to 0.015 DDM, whichever is less, at the reference datum; b) for Facility Performance Category II localizers, a shift of the mean course line from the runway centre equivalent to more than 7.5 m (25 ft) at the ILS reference datum; c) for Facility Performance Category III localizers, a shift of the mean course line from the runway centre equivalent to more than 6 m (20 ft) at the ILS reference datum;

line ILS line line

d) in the case of localizers in which the basic functions are provided by the use of a single-frequency system, a reduction of power output to less than 50 per cent of normal, provided the localizer continues to meet the requirements of 3.1.3.3, 3.1.3.4 and 3.1.3.5 above; e) in the case of localizers in which the basic functions are provided by the use of a two-frequency system, a reduction of power output for either carrier to less than 80 per cent of normal, except that a greater reduction to between 80 per cent and 50 per cent of normal may be permitted, provided the localizer continues to meet the requirements of 3.1.3.3, 3.1.3.4 and 3.1.3.5 above; Note. It is important to recognize that a frequency change resulting in a loss of the frequency difference specified in 3.1.3.2.1 above may produce a hazardous condition. This problem is of greater operational significance for Categories II and III installations. As necessary, this problem can be dealt with through special monitoring provisions or highly reliable circuitry. f) change of displacement sensitivity to a value differing by more than 17 per cent from the nominal value for the localizer facility. Note. In selecting the power reduction figure to be employed in monitoring referred to in 3.1.3.11.2 e) above, particular attention is directed to vertical and horizontal lobe structure (vertical lobing due to different antenna heights) of the combined radiation systems when two carriers are employed. Large changes in the ratio between carriers may result in low clearance areas and false courses in the off-course areas to the limits of the vertical coverage requirements specified in 3.1.3.3.1 above. 3.1.3.11.2.1 Recommendation. In the case of localizers in which the basic functions are provided by the use of a two-frequency system, the conditions requiring initiation of monitor action should include the case when the DDM in the required coverage beyond plus or minus 10 degrees from the front course line, except in the back course sector, decreases below 0.155. 3.1.3.11.3 The total period of radiation, including period(s) of zero radiation, outside the performance limits specified in a), b), c), d), e) and f) of 3.1.3.11.2 above shall be as short as practicable, consistent with the need for avoiding interruptions of the navigation service provided by the localizer.

3.1.3.11.3.1 The total period referred to under 3.1.3.11.3 above shall not exceed under any circumstances: 10 seconds for Category I localizers; 5 seconds for Category II localizers; 2 seconds for Category III localizers. Note 1. The total time periods specified are never-to-be-exceeded limits and are intended to protect aircraft in the final stages of approach against prolonged or repeated periods of localizer guidance outside the monitor limits. For this reason, they include not only the initial period of outside tolerance operation but also the total of any or all periods of outside tolerance radiation including period(s) of zero radiation, which might occur during action to restore service, for example, in the course of consecutive monitor functioning and consequent change-over(s) to localizer equipment(s) or elements thereof. Note 2. From an operational point of view, the intension is that no guidance outside the monitor limits be radiated after the time periods given, and that no further attempts be made to restore service until a period in the order of 20 seconds has elapsed. 3.1.3.11.3.2 Recommendation. Where practicable, the total period under 3.1.3.11.3.1 above should be reduced so as not to exceed two seconds for Category II localizers and one second for Category III localizers. 3.1.3.11.4 Design and operation of the monitor system shall be consistent with the requirement that navigation guidance and identification will be removed and a warning provided at the designated remote control points in the event of failure of the monitor system itself. Note. Guidance material on the design and operation of monitor systems is given in 2.1.8 of Attachment C. 3.1.3.11.5 Any erroneous navigation signals on the carrier occurring during removal of navigation and identification components in accordance with 3.1.3.11.1 b) above shall be suppressed within the total periods allowed in 3.1.3.11.3.1 above. Note. To prevent hazardous fluctuations in the radiated signal, localizers employing mechanical modulation equipment may require suppression of navigation components during modulator rundown. 3.1.3.12 Integrity and continuity of service requirements 3.1.3.12.1 The probability of not radiating false guidance signals shall not be less than 1 0.5 10 9 in any one landing for Facility Performance Categories II and III localizers. 3.1.3.12.2 Recommendation. The probability of not radiating false guidance signals should not be less than 1 1.010 7 in any one landing for Facility Performance Category I localizers. 3.1.3.12.3 The probability of not losing the radiated guidance signal shall be greater than: a) 1 210 6 in any period of 15 seconds for Facility Performance Category II localizers (equivalent to 2000 hours mean time between outages). 1 210 6 in any period of 30 seconds for Facility Performance Category III localizers (equivalent to 4000 hours mean time between outages). 3.1.3.12.4 Recommendation. The probability of not losing the radiated guidance signal should exceed 1 - 4 10 6 in any period of 15 seconds for Facility Performance Category I localizers (equivalent to 1000 hours mean time between outages). Note. Guidance material on integrity and continuity of service is given in 2.8 of Attachment C.

3.1.4 Interference immunity performance for ILS localizer receiving systems 3.1.4.1 After 1 January 1998, the ILS localizer receiving system shall provide adequate immunity to interference from two signal, third-order inter modulation products caused by VHF FM broadcast signals having levels in accordance with the following: 2N1 + N2 + 72 0 for VHF FM sound broadcasting signals in the range 107.7 108.0 MHz and 2N1 + N2 + 3 ( 24 20 log f / 0.4) 0 for VHF FM sound broadcasting signals below 107.7 MHz, where the frequencies of the two VHF FM sound broadcasting signals produce, within the receiver, a two signal, third-order inter modulation product on the desired ILS localizer frequency. N1 and N2 are the levels (dBm) of the two VHF FM sound broadcasting signals at the ILS localizer receiver input. Neither level shall exceed the desensitization criteria set forth in 3.1.4.2 below. f = 108.1 f1, where f1 is the frequency of N1, the VHF FM sound broadcasting signal closer to 108.1 MHz. 3.1.4.2 After 1 January 1998, the ILS localizer receiving system shall not be desensitized in the presence of VHF FM broadcast signals having levels in accordance with the following table: Maximum level of unwanted Frequency signal at receiver input (MHz) (dBm) 88 102 + 15 104 + 10 106 +5 107.9 - 10 Note 1. The relationship is linear between adjacent points designated by the above frequencies. Note 2. Guidance material on immunity criteria to be used for the performance quoted in 3.1.4.1 and 3.1.4.2 above is contained in Attachment C, 2.2.9. 3.1.4.3 After 1 January 1995, all new installations of airborne ILS localizer receiving systems shall meet the provisions of 3.1.4.1 and 3.1.4.2 above. 3.1.4.4 Recommendation. Airborne ILS localizer receiving systems meeting the immunity performance standards of 3.1.4.1 and 3.1.4.2 above should be placed into operation at the earliest possible date. 3.1.5 UHF glide path equipment and associated monitor Note. is used in this paragraph to denote the nominal glide path angle. 3.1.5.1 General 3.1.5.1.1 The radiation from the UHF glide path antenna system shall produce a composite field pattern which is amplitude modulated by a 90 Hz and a 150 Hz tone. The pattern shall be arranged to provide a straight line descent path in the vertical plane containing the centre line of the runway, with the 150 Hz tone predominating below the path and the 90 Hz tone predominating above the path to at least an angle equal to 1.75. 3.1.5.1.2 Recommendation. The UHF glide path equipment should be capable of adjustment to produce a radiated glide path from 2 to 4 degrees with respect to the horizontal. 3.1.5.1.2.1 Recommendation. The ILS glide path angle should be 3 degrees. ILS glide path angles in excess of 3 degrees should not be except where alternative means of satisfying obstruction clearance requirements are impracticable.

3.1.5.1.2.2 The glide path angle shall be adjusted and maintained within: a) 0.075 from for Facility Performance Categories I and II ILS glide path; b) 0.04 from for Facility Performance Category III ILS glide path. Note 1. Guidance material on adjustment and maintenance of glide path angles is given in 2.4 of Attachment C. Note 2. Guidance material on ILS glide path curvature, alignment and siting, relevant to the selection of the height of the ILS reference datum is given in 2.4 of Attachment C and Figure C-5. 3.1.5.1.3 The downward extended straight portion of the ILS glide path shall pass through the ILS reference datum at a height ensuring safe guidance over obstructions and also safe and efficient use of the runway served. 3.1.5.1.4 The height of the ILS reference datum for Facility Performance Categories II and III ILS shall be 15 m (50 ft). A tolerance of plus 3 m (10 ft) is permitted. 3.1.5.1.5 Recommendation. The height of the ILS reference datum for Facility Performance Category I ILS should be 15 m (50 ft). A tolerance of plus 3 m (10 ft) is permitted. Note 1. In arriving at the above height values for the ILS reference datum, the path of the aircraft glide path antenna and the path of the lowest part of the wheels at the threshold was assumed. For aircraft exceeding this criterion, appropriate steps may have to be taken either to maintain adequate clearance at threshold or to adjust the permitted operating minima. Note 2. Appropriate guidance material is given in 2.4 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.1.6 Recommendation. The height of the ILS reference datum for Facility Performance Category I ILS used on short precision approach runway codes 1 and 2 should be 12 m (40 ft). A tolerance of plus 6 m (20 ft) is permitted. 3.1.5.2 Radio frequency 3.1.5.2.1 The glide path equipment shall operate in the band 328.6 MHz to 335.4 MHz. Where a single radio frequency carrier is used, the frequency tolerance shall not exceed 0.005 per cent. Where two carrier glide path systems are used, the frequency tolerance shall not exceed 0.002 per cent and the nominal band occupied by the carriers shall be symmetrical about the assigned frequency. With all tolerances applied, the frequency separation between the carriers shall not be less than 4 kHz nor more than 32 kHz. 3.1.5.2.2 The emission from the glide path equipment shall be horizontally polarized.

3.1.5.2.3 For Facility Performance Category III ILS glide path equipment, signals emanating from the transmitter shall contain no components which result in apparent glide path fluctuations of more than 0.02 DDM peak to peak in the frequency band 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz. 3.1.5.3 Coverage 3.1.5.3.1 The glide path equipment shall provide signals sufficient to allow satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation in sectors of 8 degrees in azimuth on each side of the centre line of the ILS glide path, to a distance of at least 18.5 km (10 NM) up to 1.75 and down to 0.45 above the horizontal or to such lower angle, down to 0.30, as required to safeguard the promulgated glide path intercept procedure.

3.1.5.3.2 In order to provide the coverage for glide path performance specified in 3.1.5.3.1 above, the minimum field strength within this coverage sector shall be 400 microvolts per metre (minus 95 dBW/m2). For Facility Performance Category I glide paths, this field strength shall be provided down to a height of 30 m (100 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. For Facility Performance Categories II and III glide paths, this field strength shall be provided down to a height of 15 m (50 ft) above the horizontal plane containing the threshold. Note 1. The requirements in the foregoing paragraphs are based on the assumption that the aircraft is heading directly toward the facility. Note 2. Guidance material on significant airborne receiver parameters is given in 2.2.5 of Attachment C. Note 3. Material concerning reduction in coverage outside 8 degrees on each side of the centre line of the ILS glide path appears in 2.4 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.4 ILS glide path structure 3.1.5.4.1 For Facility Performance Category I ILS glide paths, bends in the glide path shall not have amplitudes which exceed the following: Amplitude (DDM) Zone (95% probability) Outer limit of coverage to ILS Point C 0.035 3.1.5.4.2 For Facility Performance Categories II and III ILS glide paths, bends in the glide path shall not have amplitudes which exceed the following: Amplitude (DDM) Zone (95% probability) Outer limit of coverage to ILS Point A ILS Point A to ILS Point B

0.035 0.035 at ILS Point A decreasing at a linear rate to 0.023 at ILS Point B

ILS Point B to the ILS reference datum

0.023

Note 1. The amplitudes referred to in 3.1.5.4.1 and 3.1.5.4.2 above are the DDMs due to bends as realized on the mean ILS glide path correctly adjusted. Note 2. In regions of the approach where ILS glide path curvature is significant, bend amplitudes are calculated from the mean curved path, and not the downward extended straight line. Note 3. Guidance material relevant to the ILS glide path course structure is given in 2.1.5 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.5 Carrier modulation 3.1.5.5.1 The nominal depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to each of the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tones shall be 40 per cent along the ILS glide path. The depth of modulation shall not deviate outside the limits of 37.5 per cent to 42.5 per cent.

3.1.5.5.2 The following tolerances shall be applied to the frequencies of the modulating tones: a) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within 2.5 per cent for Facility Performance Category I ILS: b) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within 1.5 per cent for Facility Performance Category II ILS: c) the modulating tones shall be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within 1 per cent for Facility Performance Category III ILS: d) the total harmonic content of the 90 Hz tone shall not exceed 10 per cent: additionally, for Facility Performance Category III equipment, the second harmonic of the 90 Hz tone shall not exceed 5 per cent; e) the total harmonic content of the 150 Hz tone shall not exceed 10 per cent. 3.1.5.5.2.1 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category I ILS, the modulating tones should be 90 Hz and 150 Hz within plus or minus 1.5 per cent where practicable. 3.1.5.5.2.2 For Facility Performance Category III glide path equipment, the depth of amplitude modulation of the radio frequency carrier at the power supply frequency or harmonics, or at other noise frequencies, shall not exceed 1 per cent. 3.1.5.5.3 The modulation shall be phase-locked so that within the ILS half glide path sector, the demodulated 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within: a) for Facility Performance Categories I and II ILS glide paths: 20 degrees; b) for Facility Performance Category III ILS glide paths: 10 degrees, of phase relative to the 150 Hz component, every half cycle of the combined 90 Hz and 150 Hz wave form. Note 1. The definition of phase relationship in this manner is not intended to imply a requirement ofr measurement of phase within the ILS half glide path sector. Note 2. Guidance material relating to such measures is given at Figure C-6 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.5.3.1 With two-frequency glide path systems, 3.1.5.5.3 above shall apply to each carrier. In addition, the 90 Hz modulating tone of one carrier shall be phase-locked to the 90 Hz modulating tone of the other carrier so that the demodulated wave forms pass through zero in the same direction within: a) for Categories I and II ILS glide paths: 20 degrees; b) for Category III ILS glide paths: 10 degrees, of phase relative to 90 Hz. Similarly, the 150 Hz tones of the two carriers shall be phase-locked so that the demodulated wave forms pass through zero in the same direction, within: 1) for Categories I and II ILS glide paths: 20 degrees; 2) for Category III ILS glide paths: 10 degrees, of phase relative to 150 Hz. 3.1.5.5.3.2 Alternative two-frequency glide path systems that employ audio phasing different from the normal in phase condition described in 3.1.5.5.3.1 above shall be permitted. In these alternative systems, the 90 Hz to 90 Hz phasing and the 150 Hz to 150 Hz phasing shall be adjusted to their nominal values to within limits equivalent to those stated in 3.1.5.5.3.1 above. Note. This is to ensure correct airborne receiver operation within the glide path sector where the two carrier signal strengths are approximately equal. 3.1.5.5.4 Recommendation. Undesired frequency and phase modulation on ILS glide path radio frequency carriers that can affect the displayed DDM values in glide path receivers should be minimized to the extent practical. Note. Relevant guidance material is given in 2.15 of Attachment C.

3.1.5.6 Displacement sensitivity 3.1.5.6.1 For Facility Performance Category I ILS glide paths, the nominal angular displacement sensitivity shall correspond to a DDM of 0.0875 at angular displacements above and below the glide path between 0.07 and 0.14. Note. The above is not intended to preclude glide path systems which inherently have asymmetrical upper and lower sectors. 3.1.5.6.2 Recommendation. For Facility Performance Category I ILS glide paths, the nominal angular displacement sensitivity should correspond to a DDM of 0.0875 at an angular displacement below the glide path of 0.12 with a tolerance of plus or minus 0.02. The upper and lower sectors should be symmetrical as practicable within the limits specified in 3.1.5.6.1 above. 3.1.5.6.3 For Facility Performance Category II ILS glide paths, the angular displacement sensitivity shall be as symmetrical as practicable. The nominal angular displacement sensitivity shall correspond to a DDM of 0.0875 at an angular displacement of: a) 0.12 below path with a tolerance of plus or minus 0.02; b) 0.12 above path with a tolerance of plus 0.02 and minus 0.05. 3.1.5.6.4 For Facility Performance Category III ILS glide paths, the nominal angular displacement sensitivity shall correspond to a DDM of 0.0875 at angular displacements above and below the glide path of 0.12 with a tolerance of plus or minus 0.02. 3.1.5.6.5 The DDM bellow the ILS glide path shall increase smoothly for decreasing angle until a value of 0.22 DDM is reached. This value shall be achieved at an angle not less than 0.30 above the horizontal. However, if it is achieved at an angle above 0.45, the DDM value shall not be less than 0.22 at least down to 0.45 or to such lower angle, down to 0.30, as required to safeguard the promulgated glide path intercept procedure. Note. The limits of glide path equipment adjustment are pictorially represented in Figure C-11 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.6.6 For Facility Performance Category I ILS glide paths, the angular displacement sensitivity shall be adjusted and maintained within plus or minus 25 per cent of the nominal value selected. 3.1.5.6.7 For Facility Performance Category II ILS glide paths, the angular displacement sensitivity shall be adjusted and maintained within plus or minus 20 per cent of the nominal value selected. 3.1.5.6.8 For Facility Performance Category III ILS glide paths, the angular displacement sensitivity shall be adjusted and maintained within plus or minus 15 per cent of the nominal value selected. Note. Explanatory material on ILS glide path adjustment and maintenance values appears at 2.1.5 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.7 Monitoring 3.1.5.7.1 The automatic monitor system shall provide a warning to the designated control points and cause radiation to cease within the periods specified in 3.1.5.7.3.1 below if any of the following conditions persist: a) shift of the mean ILS glide path angle equivalent to more than minus 0.075to plus 1.10from; b) in the case of ILS glide paths in which the basic functions are provided by the use of a single-frequency system, a reduction of power output to less than 50 per cent, provided the glide path continues to meet the requirements of 3.1.5.3, 3.1.5.4 and 3.1.5.5 above;

c) in the case of ILS glide paths in which the basic functions are provided by the use of two-frequency systems, a reduction of power output for either carrier to less than 80 per cent of normal, except that a greater reduction to between 80 per cent and 50 per cent of normal may be permitted, provided the glide path continues to meet the requirements of 3.1.5.3, 3.1.5.4 and 3.1.5.5 above; Note. It is important to recognize that a frequency change resulting in a loss of the frequency difference specified in 3.1.5.2.1 above may produce a hazardous condition. This problem is of greater operational significance for Categories II and III installations. As necessary, this problem can be dealt with through special monitoring provisions or highly reliable circuitry. d) for Facility Performance Category I ILS glide paths, a change of the angle between the glide path and the line below the glide path (150 Hz predominating) at which a DDM of 0.0875 is realized by more than plus or minus 0.0375; e) for Facility Performance Categories II and III ILS glide paths, a change of displacement sensitivity to a value differing by more than 25 per cent from the nominal value: f) lowering of the line beneath the ILS glide path at which a DDM of 0.0875 is realized to less than 0.7475from horizontal: g) a reduction of DDM to less than 0.175 within the specified coverage below the glide path sector. Note 1. The value of 0.7475 from horizontal is intended to ensure adequate obstacle clearance. This value was derived from other parameters of the glide path and monitor specification. Since the measuring accuracy to four significant figures is not intended, the value of 0.75 may be used as a monitor limit for this purpose. Guidance on obstacle clearance criteria is given in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168). Note 2. Subparagraphs f) and g) are not intended to establish a requirement for a separate monitor to protect against deviation of the lower limits of the half sector below 0.7475 from horizontal. Note 3. At glide path facilities where the selected nominal angular displacement sensitivity corresponds to an angle below the ILS glide path which is close to or at the maximum limits specified in 3.1.5.6 above, it may be necessary to adjust the monitor operating limits to protect against sector deviations below 0.7475 from horizontal. Note 4. Guidance material relating to the condition described in g) appears in 2.4.13 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.7.2 Recommendation. Monitoring of the ILS glide path characteristics to smaller tolerances should be arranged in those cases where operational penalties would otherwise exist. 3.1.5.7.3 The total period of radiation, including period(s) of zero radiation, outside the performance limits specified in a), b), c), d), e) and f) of 3.1.5.7.1 above shall be as short as practicable, consistent with the need for avoiding interruptions of the navigation service provided by the ILS glide path. 3.1.5.7.3.1 The total period referred to under 3.1.5.7.3 above shall not exceed under any circumstances: 6 seconds for Category I ILS glide paths; 2 seconds for Categories II and III ILS glide paths. Note 1. The total time periods specified are never-to-be-exceeded limits and are intended to protect aircraft in the final stages of approach against prolonged or repeated periods of ILS glide path guidance outside the monitor limits. For this reason, they include not only the initial period of outside tolerance operation but also the total of any or all periods of outside tolerance radiation, including period(s) of zero radiation, which might occur during action to restore service, for example, in the course of consecutive monitor functioning and consequent changeover(s) to glide path equipment(s) or elements thereof. Note 2. From an operational point of view, the intention is that no guidance outside the monitor limits be radiated after the time periods given, and that no further attempts be made to restore service until a period in the order of 20 seconds has elapsed. 3.1.5.7.3.2 Recommendation. Where practicable, the total period specified under 3.1.5.7.3.1 above for Categories II and III ILS glide paths should not exceed 1 second.

3.1.5.7.4 Design and operation of the monitor system shall be consistent with the requirement that radiation shall cease and a warning shall be provided at the designated remote control points in the event of failure of the monitor system itself. Note. Guidance material on the design and operation of monitor systems is given in 2.1.8 of Attachment C. 3.1.5.8 Integrity and continuity of service requirements 3.1.5.8.1 The probability of not radiating false guidance signals shall not be less than 1 0.510-9 in any one landing for Facility Performance Categories II and III glide paths. 3.1.5.8.2 Recommendation. The probability of not radiating false guidance signals should not be less than 1 1.010-7 in any one landing for Facility Performance Category 1 glide paths. 3.1.5.8.3 The probability of not losing the radiated guidance signal shall be greater than 1 210-6 in any period of 15 seconds for Facility Performance Categories II and III glide paths (equivalent to 2000 hours mean time between outages). 3.1.5.8.4 Recommendation. The probability of not losing the radiated guidance signal should exceed 1 4 10-6 in any period of 15 seconds for Facility Performance Category I and glide paths (equivalent to 1000 hours mean time between outages). Note. Guidance material on integrity and continuity of service is given in 2.8 of Attachment C. 3.1.6 Localizer and glide path frequency pairing 3.1.6.1 The pairing of the runway localizer and glide path transmitter frequencies of an instrument landing system shall be taken from the following list in accordance with the provisions of Volume V, Chapter 4, 4.2: Localizer Glide path Localizer Glide path (MHz) (MHz) (MHz) (MHz) 108.1 334.7 110.1 334.4 108.15 334.55 110.15 334.25 108.3 334.1 110.3 335.0 108.35 333.95 110.35 334.85 108.5 329.9 110.5 329.6 108.55 329.75 110.55 329.45 108.7 108.75 108.9 108.95 109.1 109.15 109.3 109.35 109.5 109.55 109.7 109.75 109.9 109.95 330.5 330.35 329.3 329.15 331.4 331.25 332.0 331.85 332.6 332.45 333.2 333.05 333.8 333.65 110.7 110.75 110.9 110.95 111.1 111.15 111.3 111.35 111.5 111.55 111.7 111.75 111.9 111.95 330.2 330.05 330.8 330.65 331.7 331.55 332.3 332.15 332.9 332.75 333.5 333.35 331.1 330.95

3.1.6.1.1 In those region where the requirements for runway localizer and glide path transmitter frequencies of an instrument landing system do not justify more than 20 pairs, they shall be selected sequentially, as required, from the following list: Sequence Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Localizer (MHz) 110.3 109.9 109.5 110.1 109.7 109.3 109.1 110.9 110.7 110.5 Glide path (MHz) 335.0 333.8 332.6 334.4 333.2 332.0 331.4 330.8 330.2 329.6 Sequence number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Localizer (MHz) 108.1 108.3 108.5 108.7 108.9 111.1 111.3 111.5 111.7 111.9 Glide path (MHz) 334.7 334.1 329.9 330.5 329.3 331.7 332.3 332.9 333.5 331.1

3.1.6.2 Where existing ILS localizers meeting national requirements are operating on frequencies ending in even tenths of a megahertz, they shall be re-assigned frequencies, conforming with 3.1.6.1 or 3.1.6.1.1 above as soon as practicable and may continue operating on their present assignments only until this re-assignment can be effected. 3.1.6.3 Existing ILS localizers in the international service operating on frequencies ending in odd tenths of a megahertz shall not be assigned new frequencies ending in odd tenth plus one twentieth of a megahertz except where, by regional agreement, general use may be made of any of the channels listed in 3.1.6.1 above (see Volume V, Chapter 4, 4.2). 3.1.7 VHF marker beacons 3.1.7.1 General a) There shall be two marker beacons in each installation except as provided in 3.1.7.6.6 below. A third marker beacon may be added whenever, in the opinion of the Competent Authority, an additional beacon is required because of operational procedures at a particular site. b) The marker beacons shall conform to the requirements prescribed in this 3.1.7. When the installation comprises only two marker beacons, the requirements applicable to the middle marker and to the outer marker shall be complied with. c) The marker beacons shall produce radiation patterns to indicate predetermined distance from the threshold along the ILS glide path. 3.1.7.1.1 When a marker beacon is used in conjunction with the back course of a localizer, it shall conform with the marker beacon characteristics specified in 3.1.7. 3.1.7.1.2 Identification signals of marker beacons used in conjunction with the back course of a localizer shall be clearly distinguishable from the inner, middle and outer marker beacon identifications, as prescribed in 3.1.7.5.1 below. 3.1.7.2 Radio frequency 3.1.7.2.1 The marker beacons shall operate at 75 MHz with a frequency tolerance of plus or minus 0.01 per cent and shall utilize horizontal polarization. As from 1 January 1985 all newly installed marker beacons shall have a frequency tolerance of plus or minus 0.005 per cent. After 1 January 1990 this provision applies for all marker beacons.

3.1.7.2.2 Recommendation. Marker beacons should operate with a frequency tolerance of plus or minus 0.005 per cent. 3.1.7.3 Coverage 3.1.7.3.1 The marker beacon system shall be adjusted to provide coverage over the following distances, measured on the ILS glide path and localizer course line: a) inner marker (where installed): 150 m plus or minus 50 m (500 ft plus or minus 160 ft); b) middle marker: 300 m plus or minus 100 m (1000 ft plus or minus 325 ft); c) outer marker: 600 m plus or minus 200 m (2000 ft plus or minus 650 ft). 3.1.7.3.2 The field strength at the limits of coverage specified in 3.1.7.3.1 above shall be 1.5 millivolts per metre (82 dBW/m 2). In addition, the field strength within the coverage area shall rise to at least 3.0 millivolts per metre (76 dBW/m 2). Note 1. In the design of the ground antenna, it is advisable to ensure that an adequate rate of change of field strength is provided at the edges of coverage. It is also advisable to ensure that aircraft within the localizer course sector will receive visual indication. Note 2. Satisfactory operation of a typical airborne marker installation will be obtained if the sensitivity is so adjusted that visual indication will be obtained when the field strength is 1.5 millivolts per metre (82 dBW/m 2). 3.1.7.4 Modulation 3.1.7.4.1 The modulation frequencies shall be as follows: a) inner marker (when installed): 3000 Hz; b) middle marker: 1300 Hz; c) outer marker: 400Hz. The frequency tolerance of the above frequencies shall be plus or minus 2.5 per cent, and the total harmonic content of each of the frequencies shall not exceed 15 per cent. 3.1.7.4.2 The depth of modulation of the markers shall be 95 per cent plus or minus 4 per cent.

3.1.7.5 Identification 3.1.7.5.1 The carrier energy shall not be interrupted. The audio frequency modulation shall be keyed as follows: a) inner marker (when installed): 6 dots per second continuously: b) middle marker : a continuous series of alternate dots and dashes, the dashes keyed at the rate of 2 dashes per second, and the dots at the rate of 6 dots per second; c) outer marker: 2 dashes per second continuously. These keying rates shall be maintained to within plus or minus 15 per cent. 3.1.7.6 Siting 3.1.7.6.1 The inner marker, when installed, shall be located so as to indicate in low visibility conditions the imminence of arrival at the runway threshold. 3.1.7.6.1.1 Recommendation. If the radiation pattern is vertical, the inner marker, when installed, should be located between 75 m (250 ft) and 450 m (1500 ft) from the threshold and at not more than 30 m (100 ft) from the extended centre line of the runway. Note 1. It is intended that the inner marker pattern should intercept the downward extended straight portion of the nominal ILS glide path of the lowest decision height applicable in Category II operations. Note 2. Care must be exercised in siting the inner marker to avoid interference between the inner and middle markers. Details regarding the siting of inner markers are contained in 2.10 of Attachment C.

3.1.7.6.1.2 Recommendation. If the radiation pattern is other than vertical, the equipment should be located so as to produce a field within the course sector and ILS glide path sector that is substantially similar to that produced by an antenna radiating a vertical pattern and located as prescribed in 3.1.7.6.1.1 above. 3.1.7.6.2 The middle marker shall be located so as to indicate the imminence, in low visibility conditions, of visual approach guidance. 3.1.7.6.2.1 Recommendation. If the radiation pattern is vertical, the middle marker should be located 1050 m (3500 ft) plus or minus 150 m (500 ft), from the landing threshold at the approach end of the runway and at not more than 75 m (250 ft) from the extended centre line of the runway. Note. See 2.2.2 of Attachment A regarding the siting of inner and middle marker beacons. 3.1.7.6.2.2 Recommendation. If the radiation pattern is other than vertical, the equipment should be located so as to produce a field within the course sector and ILS glide path sector that is substantially similar to that produced by an antenna radiating a vertical pattern and located as prescribed in 3.1.7.6.2.1 above. 3.1.7.6.3 The outer marker shall be located so as to provide height, distance and equipment functioning checks to aircraft on intermediate and final approach. 3.1.7.6.3.1 Recommendation. The outer marker should be located 7.2 km (3.9 NM) from the threshold except that, where for topographical or operational reasons this distance is not practicable, the outer marker may be located between 6.5 and 11.1 km (3.5 and 6 NM) from the threshold. 3.1.7.6.4 Recommendation. If the radiation pattern is vertical, the outer marker should be not more than 75 m (250 ft) from the extended centre line of the runway. If the radiation pattern is other than vertical, the equipment should be located so as to produce a field within the course sector and ILS glide path sector that is substantially similar to that produced by an antenna radiating a vertical pattern. 3.1.7.6.5 The positions of marker beacons, or where applicable, the equivalent distance(s) indicated by the DME when used as an alternative to part or all of the marker beacon component of the ILS, shall be published in accordance with the provisions of Annex 15 3.1.7.6.6 Where the provision of VHF marker beacons is impracticable, a suitably located DME, together with associated monitor system and remote control and indicator equipment shall be an acceptable alternative to part or all of the marker beacon component of the ILS. Note. Guidance material relative to the use of DME as an alternative to the marker beacon component of the ILS is contained in Attachment C, 2.11. 3.1.7.6.6.1 When so used, the DME shall provide distance information operationally equivalent to that finished by marker beacon(s). 3.1.7.6.6.2 When used as an alternative for the middle marker, the DME shall be frequency paired with the ILS localizer and sited so as to minimize the error in distance information. 3.1.7.6.6.3 The DME in 3.1.7.6.6 above shall conform to the specification in 3.5 below.

3.1.7.7 Monitoring 3.1.7.7.1 Suitable equipment shall provide signals for the operation of an automatic monitor. The monitor shall transmit a warning to a control point if either of the following conditions arise: a) failure of the modulation or keying; b) reduction of power output to less than 50 per cent of normal. 3.1.7.7.2 Recommendation. For each marker beacon, suitable monitoring equipment should be provided which will indicate at the appropriate location a decrease of the modulation depth below 50 per cent.

3.3 Specification for VHF omni directional radio range (VOR) 3.3.1 General 3.3.1.1 The VOR shall be constructed and adjusted so that similar instrumental indications in aircraft represent equal clockwise angular deviations (bearings), degree for degree from magnetic North as measured from the location of the VOR. 3.3.1.2 The VOR shall radiate a radio frequency carrier with which are associated two separate 30 Hz modulations. One of these modulations shall be such that its phase is independent of the azimuth of the point of observation (reference phase). The other modulation (variable phase) shall be such that its phase at the point of observation differs from that of the reference phase by an angle equal to the bearing of the point of observation with respect to the VOR. 3.3.1.3 The reference and variable phase modulations shall be in phase along the reference meridian through the station. Note. The reference and variable phase modulations are in phase when the maximum value of the sum of the radio frequency carrier and the sideband energy due to the variable phase modulation occurs at the same time as the highest instantaneous frequency of the reference phase modulation. 3.3.2 Radio frequency 3.3.2.1 The VOR shall operate in the band 111.975 MHz to 117.975MHz except that frequencies in the band 108 MHz to 111.975 MHz may be used when, in accordance with the provisions of Volume V, Chapter 4, 4.2.1 and 4.2.3.1, the use of such frequencies is acceptable. The highest assignable frequency shall be 117.950MHz. The channel separation shall be in increments of 50 kHz referred to the highest assignable frequency. In areas where 100kHz or 200 kHz channel spacing is in general use, the frequency tolerance of the radio frequency carrier shall be plus or minus 0.005 per cent. 3.3.2.2 The frequency tolerance of the radio frequency carrier of all new installations implemented after 23 May 1974 in areas where 50 kHz channel spacing is in use shall be plus or minus 0.002 per cent. 3.3.2.3 In areas where new VOR installations are implemented and are assigned frequencies spaced at 50 kHz from existing VORs in the same area, priority shall be given to ensuring that the frequency tolerance of the radio frequency carrier of the existing VORs is reduced to plus or minus 0.002 per cent. 3.3.3 Polarization and pattern accuracy 3.3.3.1 The emission from the VOR shall be horizontally polarized. The vertically polarized component of the radiation shall be as small as possible. Note. It is not possible at present to state quantitatively the maximum permissible magnitude of the vertically polarized component of the radiation from the VOR. (Information is provided in the Manual on Testing of Radio Navigation Aids (Doc 8071) as to flight checks that can be carried out to determine the effects of vertical polarization on the bearing accuracy.)

3.3.3.2 The accuracy of the bearing information conveyed by the horizontally polarized radiation from the VOR at a distance of approximately four wavelengths for all elevation angles between 0 and 40 degrees, measured from the centre of the VOR antenna system, shall be within plus or minus 2 degrees. 3.3.4 Coverage 3.3.4.1 The VOR shall provide signals such as to permit satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation at the levels and distances required for operational reasons, and up to an elevation angle of 40 degrees. 3.3.4.2 Recommendation. The field strength or power density in space of VOR signals required to permit satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation at the minimum service level at the maximum specified service radius should be 90 microvolts per metre or minus 107 dBW/m2. Note. Typical effective radiated powers (ERPs) to achieve specified ranges are contained in 3.1 of Attachment C. 3.3.5 Modulations of navigational signals 3.3.5.1 The radio frequency carrier as observed at any point in space shall be amplitude modulated by two signals as follows: a) a sub carrier of 9960 Hz of constant amplitude, frequency modulated at 30 Hz and having a deviation ratio of 16 plus or minus 1 (i.e. 15 to 17): 1) for the conventional VOR, the 30 Hz component of his FM sub carrier fixed without respect to azimuth and is termed the reference phase; 2) for the Doppler VOR, the phase of the 30 Hz component varies with azimuth and is termed the variable phase; b) a 30 Hz amplitude modulation component: 1) for the conventional VOR, this component results from a rotating field pattern, the phase of which varies with azimuth, and is termed the variable phase; 2) for the Doppler VOR, this component, of constant phase with relation to azimuth and constant amplitude, is radiated omni directionally and is termed the reference phase. 3.3.5.2 The depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to the sub carrier of 9960 Hz shall be within the limits of 28 per cent and 32 per cent. 3.3.5.3 The depth of modulation of the radio frequency carrier due to the 30 Hz or 9960 Hz signals, as observed at any angle of elevation up to 5 degrees, shall be within the limits of 28 per cent to 32 per cent. 3.3.5.4 3.3.5.5 The variable and reference phase modulation frequencies shall be 30 Hz within plus or minus 1 per cent. The sub carrier modulation mid-frequency shall be 9960 Hz within plus or minus 1 per cent.

3.3.5.6 a) For the conventional VOR, the percentage of amplitude modulation of the 9960 Hz sub carrier shall not exceed 5 per cent. b) For the Doppler VOR, the percentage of amplitude modulation of the 9960 Hz sub carrier shall not exceed 40 per cent when measured at a point at least 300 m (1000 ft ) from the VOR.

3.3.5.7 Where 50 kHz VOR channel spacing is implemented, the sideband level of the harmonics of the 9960 Hz component in the radiated signal shall not exceed the following levels referred to the level of the 9960 Hz sideband: Sub carrier Level 9960 Hz 0 dB reference 2nd harmonic - 30 dB 3rd harmonic - 50 dB 4th harmonic and above - 60 dB 3.3.6 Voice and identification 3.3.6.1 If the VOR provides a simultaneous communication channel ground-to-air, it shall be on the same radio frequency carrier as used for the navigational function. The radiation on this channel shall be horizontally polarized. 3.3.6.2 cent. The peak modulation depth of the carrier on the communication channel shall not be greater than 30 per

3.3.6.3 The audio frequency characteristics of the speech channel shall be within 3 dB relative to the level at 1000 Hz over the range 300 Hz to 3000 Hz. 3.3.6.4 The VOR shall provide for the simultaneous transmission of a signal of identification on the same radio frequency carrier as that used for the navigational function. The identification signal radiation shall be horizontally polarized. 3.3.6.5 The identification signal shall employ the International Morse Code and consist of two or three letters. It shall be sent at a speed corresponding to approximately 7 words per minute. The signal shall be repeated at least once every 30 seconds and the modulation tone shall be 1020 Hz within plus or minus 50 Hz. 3.3.6.5.1 Recommendation. The identification signal should be transmitted at least three each 30 seconds, spaced equally within that time period. One of these identification signals may take the form of a voice identification. Note. Where a VOR and DME are associated in accordance with 3.5.2.5 below, the identification provisions of 3.5.3.6.4 below influence the VOR identification 3.3.6.6 The depth to which the radio frequency carrier is modulated by the code identification signal shall be close to, but not in excess of 10 per cent except that, where a communication channel is not provided, it shall be permissible to increase the modulation by the code identification signal to a value not exceeding 20 per cent. 3.3.6.6.1 Recommendation. If the VOR provides a simultaneous communication channel ground-to-air, the modulation depth of the code identification signal should be 5 plus or minus 1 per cent in order to provide a satisfactory voice quality. 3.3.6.7 The transmission of speech shall not interfere in any way with the basic navigational function. When speech is being radiated, the code identification shall not be suppressed. 3.3.6.8 The VOR receiving function shall permit positive identification of the wanted signal under the signal conditions encountered within the specified coverage limits, and with the modulation parameters specified at 3.3.6.5, 3.3.6.6 and 3.3.6.7 above.

3.3.7 Monitoring 3.3.7.1 Suitable equipment located in the radiation field shall provide signals for the operation of an automatic monitor. The monitor shall transmit a warning to a control point, and either remove the identification and navigation components from the carrier or cause radiation to cease if any one or a combination of the following deviations from established conditions arises: a) a change in excess of 1 degree at the monitor site of the bearing information transmitted by the VOR: b) a reduction of 15 per cent in the modulation components of the radio frequency signals voltage level at the monitor of either the sub carrier, or 30 Hz amplitude modulation signals, or both. 3.3.7.2 Failure of the monitor itself shall transmit a warning to a control point either: a) remove the identification and navigation components from the carrier; or b) cause radiation to cease. Note. Guidance material on VOR appears in Section 3 of Attachment C.

3.5 Specification for UHF distance measuring equipment (DME) Note 1. In the following section, provision is made for three types of DME facility: DME/N for application as outlined in Chapter 2, 2.2.2, DME/W only for application as outlined in Chapter 2, 2.2.3, and DME/P as outlined in 3.11.3 below. Except for spectrum, DME/N and DME/W are identical. Note 2. In the following paragraphs, those denoted by are applicable to equipment first installed after 1 January 1989 (Chapter 2, 2.2.2.1). 3.5.1 Definitions Control motion noise (CMN). That portion of the guidance signal error which causes control surface, wheel and column motion and could affect aircraft attitude angle during coupled flight, but does not cause aircraft displacement from the desired course and/or glide path. (See 3.11 below.) DME dead time. A period immediately following the decoding of a valid interrogation during which a received interrogation will not cause a reply to be generated. Note. Dead time is intended to prevent the transponder from replying to echoes resulting from multipath effects. DME/N. Distance measuring equipment, primarily serving operational needs of en-route or TMA navigation, where the N stands for narrow spectrum characteristics (to be distinguished from W). DME/P. The distance measuring element of the MLS, where the P stands for precise distance measurement. The spectrum characteristics are those of DME/N. DME/W. Distance measuring equipment, primarily serving operational needs of en-route or TMA navigation, where the W stands for wide spectrum characteristics (to be distinguished from N). Equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p). The product of the power supplied to the antenna and the antenna gain in a given direction relative to an isotropic antenna (absolute or isotropic gain). Final approach (FA) mode. The condition of DME/P operation which supports flight operations in the final approach and runway regions. Initial approach (IA) mode. The condition of DME/P operation which supports those flight operations outside the final approach region and which is interoperable with DME/N.

Key down time.

The during which a dot or dash of a Morse character is being transmitted.

MLS approach reference datum. (See 3.11 below.)

A point on the minimum glide path at a specified height above the threshold.

MLS datum point. The point on the runway centre line closest to the phase centre of the approach elevation antenna. (See 3.11 below.) Mode W, X, Y, Z. A method of coding the DME transmissions by time spacing pulses of a pulse pair, so that each frequency can be used more than once. Partial rise time. The time as measured between the 5 and 30 per cent amplitude points on the leading edge of the pulse envelope, i.e. between points h and i on Figures 3-1 and 3-2. Path following error (PFE). That portion of the guidance signal error which could cause aircraft displacement from the desired course and/or glide path. (See 3.11 below.) Pulse amplitude. The maximum voltage of the pulse envelope, i.e. A in Figure 3-1.

Pulse decay time. The time as measured between the 90 and 10 per cent amplitude points on the trailing edge of the pulse envelope, i.e. between points e and g on Figure 3-1. Pulse code. The method of differentiating between W, X, Y and Z modes and between FA and IA modes.

Pulse duration. The time interval between the 50 per cent amplitude point on leading and trailing edges of the pulse envelope, i.e. between points b and f on Figure 3-1. Pulse rise time. The time as measured between the 10 and 90 per cent amplitude points on the leading edge of the pulse envelope, i.e. between points a and c on Figure 3-1. Reply efficiency. The ratio of replies transmitted by the transponder to the total of received valid interrogations.

Search. The condition which exists when the DME interrogator is attempting to acquire and lock onto the response to its own interrogations from the selected transponder. System efficiency. The ratio of valid replies processed by the interrogator to the total of its own interrogations.

Track. The condition which exists when the DME interrogator has locked onto replies in response to its own interrogations, and is continuously providing a distance measurement. Transmission rate. The average number of pulse pairs transmitted from the transponder per second.

Virtual origin. The point at which the straight line through the 30 per cent and 5 per cent amplitude points on the pulse leading edge intersects the 0 per cent amplitude axis (see Figure 3-2). 3.5.2 General 3.5.2.1 The DME system shall provide for continuous and accurate indication in the cockpit of the slant range distance of an equipped aircraft from an equipped ground reference point. 3.5.2.2 The system shall comprise two basic components, one fitted in the aircraft, the other installed on the ground. The aircraft component shall be referred to as the interrogator and the ground component as the transponder.

3.5.2.3 In operation, interrogators shall interrogate transponders which shall, in turn, transmit to the interrogator replies synchronized with the interrogations, thus providing means for accurate measurement of distance. 3.5.2.4 DME/P shall have two operating modes, IA and FA.

3.5.2.5 When a DME function is combined with either an ILS, MLS or VOR for the purpose of constituting a single facility, they shall be considered to be associated in a manner complying with Chapter 2, 2.2.2, only when: a) operated on a standard frequency pairing in accordance with 3.5.3.3.5 below; b) collocated within the limits prescribed for associated facilities in 3.5.2.6 below; and c) complying with the identification provisions of 3.5.3.6.4 below. Note. A single DME facility may be paired with both an ILS and MLS. 3.5.2.6 Collocation limits for a DME facility associated with an ILS, MLS or VOR facility 3.5.2.6.1 Associated VOR and DME facilities shall be collocated in accordance with the following: a) coaxial collocation: the VOR and DME antennas are located on the same vertical axis; or b) offset collocation; 1) for those facilities used in terminal areas for approach purposes or other procedures where the highest position fixing accuracy of system capability is required, the separation of the VOR and DME antennas does not exceed 30 m (100 ft) except that, at Doppler VOR facilities, where DME service is provided by a separate facility, the antennas may be separated by more than 30 m (100 ft), but not in excess of 80 m (260 ft); 2) for purposes other than those indicated in 1), the separation of the VOR and DME antennas does not exceed 600 m (2000 ft). 3.5.2.6.2 Association of DME with ILS Note. Attachment C, 2.11 gives guidance on the association of DME with ILS.

3.5.2.6.3 Association of DME with MLS 3.5.2.6.3.1 Recommendation. If a DME/P is used to provide ranging information, it should be sited as close as possible to the MLS azimuth facility. Note. Attachment G, 5 and Attachment C, 7.1.6 give guidance on siting of DME with MLS. This guidance sets forth, in particular, appropriate steps to be taken to prevent different zero range indication if DME/P associated with MLS and DME/N associated with ILS serve the same runway.

Pulse envelope d c
Vostage amplitude (A)

0.9A

b
0.5A

i
0.3A

h 0

0.1A 0.05A

Time

Figure 3-1

3.5.3 System characteristics 3.5.3.1 Performance 3.5.3.1.1 Range. The system shall provide a means of measurement of slant range distance from an aircraft to a selected transponder to the limit of coverage prescribed by the operational requirements for the selected transponder. 3.5.3.1.2 Coverage 3.5.3.1.2.1 When associated with a VOR, DME/N coverage shall be at least that of the VOR to the extent practicable. 3.5.3.1.2.2 When associated with either an ILS or an MLS, DME/N coverage shall be at least that of the respective ILS or of the MLS azimuth angle guidance coverage sectors. 3.5.3.1.2.3 DME/P coverage shall be at least that provided by the MLS azimuth angle guidance coverage sectors. Note. This is not intended to specify the operational range and coverage to which the system may be used; spacing of facilities already installed may limit the range in certain areas. 3.5.3.1.3 Accuracy 3.5.3.1.3.1 System accuracy. The accuracy standards specified herein shall be met on a 95 per cent probability basis. Note. The total system limits include errors from all causes such as those from airborne equipment, ground equipment, propagation and random pulse interference effects. 3.5.3.1.3.2 DME/N accuracy. Recommendation. At distances of from zero to 370 km (200 NM) from the transponder, dependent upon the particular service application, the total system error, excluding reading error, should be not greater than plus or minus 460 m (0.25 NM) plus 1.25 per cent of distance measured. 3.5.3.1.3.3 The total system error shall not exceed plus or minus 370 m (0.2 NM). Note 1. This system accuracy is predicated upon the achievement of an airborne interrogator error contribution of not more than plus or minus 315 m (0.17 NM). Note 2. In mixed DME/N and DME/P operations it is intended that the achieved accuracy be at least that in 3.5.3.1.3.2 above. 3.5.3.1.3.4 DME/P accuracy Note 1. In the following, two accuracy standards, 1 and 2, are stated for the DME/P to accommodate a variety of applications. Note 2. guidance on accuracy standards is given in Attachment C, 7.3.2. 3.5.3.1.3.4.1 Error components. The path following error (PFE) shall be comprised of those frequency components of the DME/P error at the output of the interrogator which lie below 1.5 rad/s. The control motion noise (CMN) shall be comprised of those frequency components of the DME/P error at the output of the interrogator which lie between 0.5 rad/s and 10 rad/s. Note. Specified error limits at a point are to be applied over a flight path that includes that point. Information on the interpretation of DME/P errors and the measurement of those errors over an interval appropriate for flight inspection is provided in Attachment C, 7.3.6.1. 3.5.3.1.3.4.2 Errors on the extended runway centre line shall not exceed the values given in Table B at the end of this chapter.

3.5.3.1.3.4.3 In the approach sector, away from the extended runway centre line, the allowable PFE for both standard 1 and standard 2 shall be permitted to increase linearly with angle up to plus or minus 40 degrees MLS azimuth angle where the permitted error is 1.5 times that on the extended runway centre line at the same distance. The allowable CMN shall not increase with angle. There shall be no degradation of either PFE or CMN with elevation angle. 3.5.3.2 Radio frequencies and polarization. The system shall operate with vertical polarization in the frequency band 960 MHz to 1215 MHz. The interrogation and reply frequencies shall be assigned with 1-MHz spacing between channels. 3.5.3.3 Channeling 3.5.3.3.1 DME operating channels shall be formed by pairing interrogation and reply frequencies and by pulse coding on the paired frequencies. 3.5.3.3.2 Pulse coding. DME/P channels shall have two different interrogation pulse codes as shown in the table of 3.5.4.4.1. One shall be used in the initial approach (IA) mode; the other shall be used in the final approach (FA) mode. 3.5.3.3.3 DME operating channels shall be chosen from Table A (located at the end of this chapter), of 352 channels in which the channel numbers, frequencies, and pulse codes are assigned. 3.5.3.3.4 Area channel assignment 3.5.3.3.4.1 In a particular area, the number of DME operating channels to be used shall be decided regionally. Note. Standards and Recommended Practices on the utilization of the DME frequency band 960-1215 MHz are found in Volume V, Chapter 4. 3.5.3.3.4.2 The specific DME operating channels to be assigned in such a particular area shall also be decided regionally, taking into consideration the requirements for co-channel and adjacent channel protection. 3.5.3.3.4.3 Recommendation. Co-ordination of regional DME channel assignments should be effected through ICAO. Note. The above paragraphs permit the use of DME airborne interrogators having less than the total number of operating channels where so desired. 3.5.3.3.5 Channel pairing. When a DME transponder is intended to operate in association with a single VHF navigation facility in the 108 MHz to 117.95 MHz frequency band and/or an MLS angle facility in the 5031.0 MHz to 5090.7 MHz frequency band, the DME operating channel shall be paired with the VHF channel and/or MLS angle frequency as given in Table A. Note. There may be instances when a DME will be paired with both the ILS frequency and an MLS channel (see Volume V, Chapter 4, 4.3). 3.5.3.4 Interrogation pulse repetition frequency Note. If the interrogator operates on more than one channel in one second the following specifications apply to the sum of interrogations on all channels. 3.5.3.4.1 DME/N. The interrogator average pulse repetition frequency (PRF) shall not exceed 30 pairs of pulses per second, based on the assumption that at least 95 per cent of the time is occupied for tracking. 3.5.3.4.2 DME/N. If it is desired to decrease the time of search, the PRF may be increased during search but shall not exceed 150 pairs of pulses per second.

3.5.3.4.3 DME/N. Recommendation. After 15000 pairs of pulses have been transmitted without acquiring indication of distance, the PRF should not exceed 60 pairs of pulses per second thereafter, until a change in operating channel is made or successful search is completed. 3.5.3.4.4 DME/N. When, after a time period of 30 seconds, tracking has not been established the pulse pair repetition frequency shall not exceed 30 pulse pairs per second thereafter. 3.5.3.4.5 DME/P. The interrogator pulse repetition frequency shall not exceed the following number of pulse pairs per second: a) search 40 b) aircraft on the ground 5 c) initial approach mode track 16 d) final approach mode track 40 Note 1. A pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5 pulse pairs per second for aircraft on the ground may be exceeded if the aircraft requires accurate range information. Note 2. It is intended that all PRF changes be achieved by automatic means. 3.5.3.5 Aircraft handling capacity of the system 3.5.3.5.1 The aircraft handling capacity of transponders in an area shall adequate for the peak traffic of the area or 100 aircraft, whichever is the lesser. 3.5.3.5.2 Recommendation. Where the peak traffic in an area exceeds 100 aircraft, the transponder should be capable of handling that peak traffic. Note. Guidance material on aircraft handling capacity will be found in Attachment C, 7.1.5. 3.5.3.6 Transponder identification 3.5.3.6.1 All transponders shall transmit an identification signal in one of the following forms as required by 3.5.3.6.5 below: a) an independent identification consisting of coded (International Morse Code) identity pulses which can be used with all transponders; b) an associated signal which can be used for transponders specifically associated with a VHF navigation or an MLS angle guidance facility which itself transmits an identification signal. Note. An MLS angle guidance facility provides its identification as a digital word transmitted on the data channel into the approach and back azimuth coverage regions as specified in 3.11.4.6.2.1 below. 3.5.3.6.2 Both systems of identification shall use signals, which shall consist of the transmission for an appropriate period of a series of paired pulses transmitted at a repetition rate of 1350 pulse pairs per second, and shall temporarily replace all reply pulses that would normally occur at that time except as in 3.5.3.6.2.2 below. These pulses shall have similar characteristics to the other pulses of the reply signals. 3.5.3.6.2.1 DME/N. Reply pulses shall be transmitted between key down times.

3.5.3.6.2.2 DME/N. Recommendation. If it is desired to preserve a constant duty cycle, an equalizing pair of pulses, having the same characteristics as the identification pulse pairs, should be transmitted 100 microseconds plus or minus 10 microseconds after each identity pair. 3.5.3.6.2.3 DME/P. Reply pulses shall be transmitted between key down times.

3.5.3.6.2.4 For the DME/P transponder, reply pulse pairs to valid FA mode interrogations shall also be transmitted during key down times and have priority over identification pulse pairs.

3.5.3.6.2.5

The DME/P transponder shall not employ the equalizing pair of pulses of 3.5.3.6.2.2 above.

3.5.3.6.3 The characteristics of the independent identification signal shall be as follows: a) the identity signal shall consist of the transmission of the beacon code in the form of dots and dashes (International Morse Code) of identity pulses at least once every 40 seconds, at a rate of at least 6 words per minute; and b) the identification code characteristic and letter rate for the DME, transponder shall conform to the following to ensure that the maximum total key down time does not exceed 5 seconds per identification code group. The dots shall be a time duration of 0.1 second to 0.160 second. The dashes shall be typically 3 times the duration of the dots. The duration between letters or numerals shall not be less than three dots. The total period for transmission of an identification code group shall not exceed 10 seconds. Note. The tone identification signal is transmitted at a repetition rate of 1350 pps. This frequency may be used directly in the airborne equipment as an aural output for the pilot, or other frequencies may be generated at the option of the interrogator designer (see 3.5.3.6.2 above). 3.5.3.6.4 The characteristics of the associated signal shall be as follows: a) when associated with a VHF or an MLS angle facility, the identification shall be transmitted in the form of dots and dashes (International Morse Code) as in 3.5.3.6.3 above and shall be synchronized with the VHF facility identification code; b) each 40-second interval shall be divided into four or more equal periods, with the transponder identification transmitted during one period only and the associated VHF and MLS angle facility identification, where these are provided, transmitted during the remaining periods; c) for a DME transponder associated with an MLS, the identification shall be the last three letters of the MLS angle facility identification specified in 3.11.4.6.2.1 below. 3.5.3.6.5 Identification implementation 3.5.3.6.5.1 The independent identification code shall be employed wherever a transponder is not specifically associated with a VHF navigational facility or an MLS facility. 3.5.3.6.5.2 Wherever a transponder is specifically associated with a VHF navigational facility or an MLS facility, identification shall be provided by the associated code. 3.5.3.6.5.3 When voice communications are being radiated on an associated VHF navigational facility, an associated signal from the transponder shall not be suppressed. 3.5.3.7 DME/P mode transition 3.5.3.7.1 The DME/P interrogator for Standard 1 accuracy shall change from IA mode track to FA mode track at 13 km (7 NM) from the transponder when approaching the transponder, or any other situation when within 13 km (7 NM). 3.5.3.7.2 For Standard 1 accuracy, the transition from IA mode to FA mode track operation may be initiated within 14.8 km (8 NM) from the transponder. Outside 14.8 km (8 NM), the interrogator shall not interrogate in the FA mode. Note. 3.5.3.7.1 above does not apply if the transponder is a DME/N or if the DME/P transponder FA mode is inoperative. 3.5.3.8 System efficiency. The DME/P system accuracy of 3.5.3.1.3.4 above shall be achieved with a system efficiency of 50 per cent or more.

3.5.4 Detailed technical characteristics of transponder and associated monitor 3.5.4.1 Transmitter 3.5.4.1.1 Frequency of operation. The transponder shall transmit on the reply frequency appropriate to the assigned DME channel (see 3.5.3.3.3 above). 3.5.4.1.2 Frequency stability. The radio frequency of operation shall not vary more than plus or minus 0.002 per cent from the assigned frequency. 3.5.4.1.3 Pulse shape and spectrum. The following shall apply to all radiated pulses: a) Pulse rise time. 1) DME/N. Pulse rise time shall not exceed 3 microseconds. 2) DME/P. Pulse rise time shall not exceed 1.6 microseconds. For the FA mode, the pulse shall have a partial rise time of 0.25 plus or minus 0.05 microsecond. With respect to the FA mode and accuracy standard 1, the slope of the pulse in the partial rise time shall not vary by more than plus or minus 20 per cent. For accuracy standard 2, the slope shall not vary by more than plus or minus 10 per cent. 3) DME/P. Recommendation. Pulse rise time should not exceed 1.2 microseconds. b) Pulse duration shall be 3.5 microseconds plus or minus 0.5 microsecond. c) Pulse decay time shall nominally be 2.5 microseconds but shall not exceed 3.5 microseconds. d) The instantaneous amplitude of the pulse shall not, at any instant between the point of the leading edge which is 95 per cent of maximum amplitude and the point of the trailing edge which is 95 per cent of the maximum amplitude, fall below a value which is 95 per cent of the maximum voltage amplitude of the pulse. e) For DME/N and DME/P; the spectrum of the pulse modulated signal shall be such that during the pulse the effective radiated power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 0.8 MHz above and 0.8 MHz below the nominal channel frequency in each case shall not exceed 200 mW, and the effective radiated power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 2 MHz below the nominal channel frequency in each case shall not exceed 2 mW. The effective radiated power contained within any 0.5 MHz band shall decrease monotonically as the band centre frequency moves away from the nominal channel frequency. Note. Guidance material relating to the pulse spectrum measurement is provided in attachment C, Section 7.1.11. f) For DME/W, the spectrum of the pulse modulated signal shall be such that during the pulse the effective radiated power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 1.8 MHz above and 1.8 MHz below the nominal channel frequency in each case shall not exceed 200 mW, and the effective radiated power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 3 MHz above and 3 MHz below the nominal channel frequency in each case shall not exceed 2 mW. Any lobe of the spectrum shall be of less amplitude than the adjacent lobe nearer the nominal channel frequency. g) To ensure proper operation of the thresholding techniques, the instantaneous magnitude of any pulse turn-on transients which occur in time prior to the virtual origin shall be less than one per cent of the pulse peak amplitude. Initiation of the turn-on process shall not commence sooner than 1 microsecond prior to the virtual origin. Note 1. The time during the pulse encompasses the total interval from the beginning of pulse transmission to its end. For practical reasons this interval may be measured between the 5 per cent points on the leading and trailing edges of the pulse envelope. Note 2. The power contained in the frequency bands specified in 3.5.4.1.3 e) and f) above is the average power during the pulse. Average power in a given frequency band is the energy contained in this frequency band divided by the time of pulse transmission according to Note 1. 3.5.4.1.4 Pulse spacing 3.5.4.1.4.1 The spacing of the constituent pulses of transmitted pulse pairs shall be as given in the table in 3.5.4.4.1.

3.5.4.1.4.2

DME/N.

The tolerance on the pulse spacing shall be plus or minus 0.25 microsecond.

3.5.4.1.4.3 DME/N. Recommendation. The tolerance on the DME/N pulse spacing should be plus or minus 0.10 microsecond. 3.5.4.1.4.4 3.5.4.1.4.5 pulses. DME/P. The tolerance on the pulse spacing shall be plus or minus 0.10 microsecond.

The pulse spacings shall be measured between the half voltage points on the leading edges of the

3.5.4.1.5 Peak power output 3.5.4.1.5.1 DME/N. Recommendation. The peak effective radiated power should not be less than that required to ensure a peak pulse power density of approximately minus 83 dBW/m2 at the maximum specified service range and level. 3.5.4.1.5.2 DME/N. The peak equivalent isotropically radiated power shall not be less than that required to ensure a peak pulse power density of minus 89dBW/m2 under all operational weather conditions at any point within coverage specified in3.5.3.1.2 above. Note. Although the Standard in 3.5.4.1.5.2 above implies an improved interrogator receiver sensitivity, it is intended that the power density specified in 3.5.4.1.5.1 above be available at the maximum specified service range and level. 3.5.4.1.5.3 DME/P. The peak equivalent isotropically radiated power shall not be less than that required to ensure the following peak pulse power densities under all operational weather conditions: a) minus 89 dBW/m2 at any point within the coverage specified in 3.5.3.1.2 above at ranges greater than 13 km (7 NM) from the transponder antenna: b) minus 75 dBW/m2 at any point within the coverage specified in 3.5.3.1.2 above at ranges less than 13 km (7 NM) from the transponder antenna; c) minus 70 dBW/m2 at the MLS approach reference datum; d) minus 79 dBW/m2 at 2.5 m (8 ft) above the runway surface, at the MLS datum point, or at the farthest point on the runway centre line which is in line of sight of the DME transponder antenna. Note. Guidance material relating to the ERP may be found in Attachment C, 7.2.1 and 7.3.8. 3.5.4.1.5.4 The peak power of the constituent pulses of any pair of pulses shall not differ by more than 1 dB.

3.5.4.1.5.5 Recommendation. The reply capability of the transmitter should be such that the transponder should be capable of continuous operation at a transmission rate of 2700 plus or minus 90 pulse pairs per second (if 100 aircraft are to be served). Note. Guidance on the relationship between number of aircraft and transmission rate is given in attachment C, 7.1.5. 3.5.4.1.5.6 The transmitter shall operate at a transmission rate, including randomly distributed pulse pairs and distance reply pulse pairs, of not less than 700 pulse pairs per second except during identity. The minimum transmission rate shall be as close as practicable to 700 pulse pairs per second. For DME/P, in no case shall it exceed 1200 pulse pairs per second.

3.5.4.1.6 Spurious radiation. During intervals between transmission of individual pulses, the spurious power received and measured in a receiver having the same characteristics as a transponder receiver, but tuned to any DME interrogation or reply frequency, shall be more than 50 dB below the peak pulse power received and measured in the same receiver tuned to the reply frequency in use during the transmission of the required pulses. This provision refers to all spurious transmissions, including modulator and electrical interference. 3.5.4.1.6.1 DME/N. The spurious power level specified in 3.5.4.1.6 above shall be more than 80 dB below the peak pulse power level. 3.5.4.1.6.2 DME/P. The spurious power level specified in 3.5.4.1.6 above shall be more than 80 dB below the peak pulse power level. 3.5.4.1.6.3 Out-of-band spurious radiation. At all frequencies from 10 to 1800 MHz, but excluding the band of frequencies from 960 to 1215 MHz, the spurious output of the DME transponder transmitter shall not exceed minus 40 dBm in any one kHz of receiver bandwidth. 3.5.4.1.6.4 The equivalent isotropically radiated power of any CW harmonic of the carrier frequency on any DME operating channel shall not exceed minus 10 dBm. 3.5.4.2 Receiver 3.5.4.2.1 Frequency of operation. The receiver centre frequency shall be the interrogation frequency appropriate to the assigned DME operating channel (see 3.5.3.3.3 above). 3.5.4.2.2 Frequency stability. The centre frequency of the receiver shall not vary more than plus or minus 0.002 per cent from the assigned frequency. 3.5.4.2.3 Transponder sensitivity 3.5.4.2.3.1 In the absence of all interrogation pulse pairs, with the exception of those necessary to perform the sensitivity measurement, interrogation pulse pairs with the correct spacing and nominal frequency shall trigger the transponder if the peak power density at the transponder antenna is at least: a) minus 103 dBW/m2 for DME/N; b) minus 86 dBW/m2 for DME/P IA mode; c) minus 75 dBW/m2 for DME/P FA mode. 3.5.4.2.3.2 The minimum power densities specified in 3.5.4.2.3.1 above shall cause the transponder to reply with an efficiency of at least: a) 70 per cent for DME/N; b) 70 per cent DME/P IA mode; c) 80 per cent for DME/P FA mode. 3.5.4.2.3.3 DME/N dynamic range. The performance of the transponder shall be maintained when the power density of the interrogation signal at the transponder antenna has any value between the minimum specified in 3.5.4.2.3.1 above up to a maximum of minus 22 dBW/m2 when installed with ILS or MLS and minus 35 dBW/m2 when installed for other applications. 3.5.4.2.3.4 DME/P dynamic range. The performance of the transponder shall be maintained when the power density of the interrogation signal at the transponder antenna has any value between the minimum specified in 3.5.4.2.3.1 above up to a maximum of minus 22 dBW/m2.

3.5.4.2.3.5 The transponder sensitivity level shall not vary by more than 1 dB for transponder loadings between 0 and 90 per cent of its maximum transmission rate. 3.5.4.2.3.6 DME/N. When the spacing of an interrogator pulse pair varies from the nominal value by up to plus or minus 1 microsecond, the receiver sensitivity shall not be reduced by more than 1 dB. 3.5.4.2.3.7 DME/P. When the spacing of an interrogator pulse pair varies from the nominal value by up to plus or minus 1 microsecond, the receiver sensitivity shall not be reduced by more than 1 dB. 3.5.4.2.4 Load limiting 3.5.4.2.4.1 DME/N. Recommendation. When transponder loading exceeds 90 per cent of the maximum transmission rate, the receiver sensitivity should be automatically reduced in order to limit the transponder replies, so as to ensure that the maximum permissible transmission rate is not exceeded. (That available range of sensitivity reduction should be at least 50 dB). 3.5.4.2.4.2 DME/P. To prevent transponder overloading the transponder shall automatically limit its replies, so as to ensure that the maximum transmission rate is not exceeded. If the receiver sensitivity reduction is implemented to meet this requirement, it shall be applied to the IA mode only and shall not affect the FA mode. 3.5.4.2.5 Noise. When the receiver is interrogated at the power densities specified in 3.5.4.2.3.1 above to produce a transmission rate equal to 90 per cent of the maximum, the noise generated pulse pairs shall not exceed 5 per cent of the maximum transmission rate. 3.5.4.2.6 Bandwidth 3.5.4.2.6.1 The minimum permissible bandwidth of the receiver shall be such that the transponder sensitivity level shall not deteriorate by more than 3 dB when the total receiver drift is added to an incoming interrogation frequency drift of plus or minus 100 kHz. 3.5.4.2.6.2 DME/N. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.5.1.3 below. 3.5.4.2.6.3 DME/P IA mode. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.5.1.3 below. The 12 dB bandwidth shall not exceed 2 MHz and the 60 dB bandwidth shall not exceed 10 MHz. 3.5.4.2.6.4 DME/P FA mode. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.5.1.3 below. The 12 dB bandwidth shall not exceed 6 MHz and the 60 dB bandwidth shall not exceed 20 MHz. 3.5.4.2.6.5 Signals greater than 900 kHz removed from the desired channel nominal frequency and having power densities up to the values specified in 3.5.4.2.3.3 for DME/N and 3.5.4.2.3.4 for DME/P shall not trigger the transponder. Signals arriving at the intermediate frequency shall be suppressed at least 80 dB. All other spurious response or signals within the 960 MHz band and image frequencies shall be suppressed at least 75 dB. 3.5.4.2.7 Recovery time. Within 8 microseconds of the reception of a signal between 0 dB and 60 dB above minimum sensitivity level, the minimum sensitivity level of the transponder to a desired signal shall be within 3 dB of the value obtained in the absence of signals. This requirement shall be met with echo suppression circuits, if any, rendered inoperative. The 8 microseconds are to be measured between the half voltage points on the leading edges of the two signals, both of which conform in shape, with the specifications in 3.5.5.1.3 below.

3.5.4.2.8 Spurious radiations. Radiation from any part of the receiver or allied circuits shall meet the requirements stated in 3.5.4.1.6 above. 3.5.4.2.9 CW and echo suppression Recommendation. CW and echo suppression should be adequate for the sites at which the transponders will be used. Note. In this connection, echoes mean undesired signals caused by multipath transmission (reflections, etc.). 3.5.4.2.10 Protection against interference Recommendation. Protection against interference outside the DME frequency band should be adequate for the sites at which the transponders will be used. 3.5.4.3 Decoding 3.5.4.3.1 The transponder shall include a decoding circuit such that the transponder can be triggered only by pairs of received pulses having pulse duration and pulse spacings appropriate to interrogator signals as described in 3.5.5.1.3 and 3.5.5.1.4 below. 3.5.4.3.2 The decoding circuit performance shall not be affected by signals arriving before, between, or after, the constituent pulses of a pair of the correct spacing. 3.5.4.3.3 DME/N Decoder reflection. An interrogation pulse pair with a spacing of plus or minus 2 microseconds, or more, from the nominal value and with any signal level up to the value specified in 3.5.4.2.3.4 shall be rejected such that the transmission rate does not exceed the value obtained when interrogations are absent. 3.5.4.4 Time delay 3.5.4.4.1 When a DME is associated only with a VHF facility, the time delay shall be the interval from the half voltage point on the leading edge of the second constituent pulse of the interrogation pair and the half voltage point on the leading edge of the second constituent pulse of the reply transmission. This delay shall be consistent with the following table, when it is desired that aircraft interrogators are to indicate distance from the transponder site. Pulse pair Time delay (s) Spacing (s) Channel 1st pulse 2nd pulse suffix Operating mode Interr. Reply timing timing X DME/N 12 12 50 50 DME/P IA M 12 12 50 DME/P FA M 18 12 56 Y DME/N DME/P IA M DME/P FA M 36 36 42 30 30 30 56 56 62 50 -

DME/N DME/P IA M 24 24 50 DME/P FA M 30 24 56 Z DME/N DME/P IA M 21 15 56 DME/P FA M 27 15 62 Note 1. W and X are multiplexed on the same frequency. Note 2. Z and Y are multiplexed on the same frequency.

3.5.4.4.2 When a DME is associated with an MLS angle facility, the time delay shall be the interval from the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the interrogation pair and the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the reply transmission. This delay shall be 50 microseconds for mode X channels and 56 microseconds for mode Y channels, when it is desired that aircraft interrogators are to indicate distance from the transponder site. 3.5.4.4.2.1 For DME/P transponders, no time delay adjustment shall be permitted.

3.5.4.4.3 Recommendation. For the DME/N the transponder time delay should be capable of being set to an appropriate value between the nominal value of the time delay minus 15 microseconds and the nominal value of the time delay, to permit aircraft interrogators to indicate zero distance at a specific point remote from the transponder site. Note. Modes not allowing for the full 15 microseconds range of adjustment in transponder time delay may only be adjustable to the limits given by the transponder circuit delay and recovery time. 3.5.4.4.3.1 DME/N. The time delay shall be the interval from the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the interrogation pair and the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the reply transmission. 3.5.4.4.3.2 DME/P IA mode. The time delay shall be the interval from the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the interrogation pulse pair to the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent pulse of the reply pulse pair. 3.5.4.4.3.3 DME/P FA mode. The time delay shall be the interval from the virtual origin of the first constituent pulse of the interrogation pulse pair to the virtual origin of the first constituent pulse of the reply pulse pair. The time of arrival measurement points shall be within the partial rise time of the first constituent pulse of the pulse pair in each case. 3.5.4.4.4 DME/N. Recommendation. Transponders should be sited as near to the point at which zero indication is required as is practicable. Note 1. It is desirable that the radius of the sphere at the surface of which zero indication is given be kept as small as possible in order to keep the zone of ambiguity to a minimum. Note 2. Guidance material on siting DME with MLS is provided in 7.1.6 of Attachment C and 5 of Attachment G. This guidance material sets forth, in particular, appropriate steps to be taken to prevent different zero range indication if DME/P associated with MLS and DME/N associated with ILS serve the same runway. 3.5.4.5 Accuracy 3.5.4.5.1 DME/N. The transponder shall not contribute more than plus or minus 1 microsecond (150 m (500 ft)) to the over-all system error. 3.5.4.5.2 DME/N. A transponder associated with a landing aid shall not contribute more than plus or minus 0.5 microsecond (75 m (250 ft)) to the over-all system error. 3.5.4.5.3 DME/P FA mode 3.5.4.5.3.1 Accuracy standard 1. The transponder shall not contribute more than plus or minus 10 m (plus or minus 33 ft) PFE and plus or minus 8 m (plus or minus 26 ft) CMN to the over-all system error. 3.5.4.5.3.2 Accuracy standard 2. The transponder shall not contribute more than plus or minus 5 m(plus or minus 16 ft) PFE and plus or minus 5 m (plus or minus 16 ft) CMN to the over-all system error.

3.5.4.5.4 DME/P IA mode. The transponder shall not contribute more than plus or minus 15 m (plus or minus 50 ft) PFE and plus or minus 10 m (plus or minus 33 ft) CMN to the over-all system error. 3.5.4.5.5 Recommendation. When a DME is associated with an MLS angle facility, the above accuracy should include the error introduced by the first pulse direction due to the pulse spacing tolerances. 3.5.4.6 Efficiency 3.5.4.6.1 The transponder reply efficiency shall be at least 70 per cent for DME/N and DME/P (IA mode) and 80 per cent for DME/P (FA mode) at all values of transponder loading up to the loading corresponding to 3.5.3.5 above and at the minimum sensitivity level specified in 3.5.4.2.3.1 and 3.5.4.2.3.5 above. Note. When considering the transponder reply efficiency value, account is to be taken of the DME dead time and of the loading introduced by the monitoring function. 3.5.4.6.2 Transponder dead time. The transponder shall be rendered inoperative for a period normally not to exceed 60 microseconds after a valid interrogation decode has occurred. In extreme cases when the geographical site of the transponder is such as to produce undesirable reflection problems, the dead time may be increased but only by the minimum amount necessary to allow the suppression of echoes for DME/N and DME/P IA mode. 3.5.4.6.2.1 In DME/P the IA mode dead time shall not blank the FA mode channel and vice versa.

3.5.4.7 Monitoring and control 3.5.4.7.1 Means shall be provided at each transponder site for the automatic monitoring and control of the transponder in use. 3.5.4.7.2 DME/N monitoring action 3.5.4.7.2.1 In the event that any of the conditions specified in 3.5.4.7.2.2 below occur, the monitor shall cause the following action to take place: a) a suitable indication shall be given at a control point; b) the operating transponder shall be automatically switched off; and c) the standby transponder, if provided, shall automatically placed in operation. 3.5.4.7.2.2 The monitor shall cause the actions specified in 3.5.4.7.2.1 above if; a) the transponder delay differs from the assigned value by 1 microsecond (150 m (500 ft)) or more: b) in the case of a DME/N associated with a landing aid, the transponder delay differs from the assigned value by 0.5 microsecond (75 m (250 ft)) or more. 3.5.4.7.2.3 Recommendation. The monitor should cause the actions specified in 3.5.4.7.2.1 above if the spacing between the first and second pulse of the transponder pulse pair differs from the nominal value specified in the table following 3.5.4.4.1 above by I microsecond or more. 3.5.4.7.2.4 Recommendation. The monitor should also cause a suitable indication to be given at a control point if any of the following conditions arise: a) a fall of 3 dB or more in transponder transmitted power output; b) a fall of 6 dB or more in the minimum transponder receiver sensitivity (provided that this is not due to the action of the receiver automatic gain reduction circuits); c) the spacing between the first and second pulse of the transponder reply pulse pair differs from the normal value specified in 3.5.4.1.4 above by 1 microsecond or more; d) variation of the transponder receiver and transmitter frequencies beyond the control range of the reference circuits (if the operating frequencies are not directly crystal controlled).

3.5.4.7.2.5 Means shall be provided so that any of the conditions and malfunctioning enumerated in 3.5.4.7.2.2, 3.5.4.7.2.3 and 3.5.4.7.2.4 above which are monitored can persist for a certain period before the monitor takes action. This period shall be as low as practicable, but shall not exceed 10 seconds, consistent with the need for avoiding interruption, due to transient effects, of the service provided by the transponder. 3.5.4.7.2.6 The transponder shall not be triggered more than 120 times per second for either monitoring or automatic frequency control purposes, or both. 3.5.4.7.3 DME/P monitoring action 3.5.4.7.3.1 The monitor system shall cause the transponder radiation to cease and provide a warning at a control point if any of the following conditions persist for longer than the period specified: a) there is change in transponder PFE that exceeds the limits specified in either 3.5.4.5.3 or 3.5.4.5.4 above for more than one second. If the FA mode limit is maintained, the IA mode may remain operative; b) there is a reduction in the effective radiated power to less than that necessary to satisfy the requirements specified in 3.5.4.1.5.3 above for a period of more than one second; c) there is a reduction of 3 dB or more in the transponder sensitivity necessary to satisfy the requirements specified in 3.5.4.2.3 above for a period of more than five seconds in FA mode and ten seconds in IA mode (provided that this is not due to the action of the receiver automatic sensitivity reduction circuits); d) the spacing between the first and second pulse of the transponder reply pulse pair differs from the value specified in the table in 3.5.4.4.1 above by 0.25 microsecond or more for a period of more than one second. 3.5.4.7.3.2 Recommendation. The monitor should cause a suitable indication to be given at a control point if there is an increase above 0.3 microseconds or a decrease below 0.2 microseconds of the reply pulse partial rise time which persists for more than one second. 3.5.4.7.3.3 The period during which erroneous guidance information is radiated shall not exceed the periods specified in 3.5.4.7.3.1 above. Attempts to clear a fault by resetting the primary ground equipment or by switching to standby ground equipment, if fitted, shall be completed within this time. If the fault is not cleared within the time allowed, the radiation shall cease. After shutdown, no attempt shall be made to restore service until a period of 20 seconds has elapsed. 3.5.4.7.3.4 The transponder shall not be triggered for monitoring purposes more than 120 times per second in the IA mode and 150 times per second in the FA mode. 3.5.4.7.3.5 DME/N and DME/P monitor failure. Failure of any part of the monitor itself shall automatically produce the same results as the malfunctioning of the element being monitored. 3.5.5 Technical characteristics of interrogator Note. The following subparagraphs specify only those interrogator parameters which must be defined to ensure that the interrogator: a) does not jeopardize the effective operation of the DME system, e.g. by increasing transponder loading abnormally; and b) is capable of giving accurate distance readings. 3.5.5.1 Transmitter 3.5.5.1.1 Frequency of operation. The interrogator shall transmit on the interrogation frequency appropriate to the assigned DME channel (see 3.5.3.3.3 above).

Note. This specification does not preclude the use of airborne interrogators having less than the total number of operating channels. 3.5.5.1.2 Frequency stability. kHz from the assigned value. The radio frequency of operation shall not vary more than plus or minus 100

3.5.5.1.3 Pulse shape and spectrum. The following shall apply to all radiated pulses: a) Pulse rise time. 1) DME/N. Pulse rise time shall not exceed 3 microseconds. 2) DME/P. Pulse rise time shall not exceed 1.6 microseconds. For the FA mode, the pulse shall have a partial rise time of 0.25 plus or minus 0.05 microsecond. With respect to the FA mode and accuracy standard 1, the slope of the pulse in the partial rise time shall not vary by more than plus or minus 20 per cent. For accuracy standard 2 the slope shall not vary by more than plus or minus 10 per cent. 3) DME/P. Recommendation. Pulse rise time should not exceed 1.2 microseconds. b) Pulse duration shall be 3.5 microseconds plus or minus 0.5 microsecond. c) Pulse decay time shall nominally be 2.5 microseconds, but shall not exceed 3.5 microseconds. d) The instantaneous amplitude of the pulse shall not, at any instant between the point of the leading edge which is 95 per cent of maximum amplitude and the point of the railing edge which is 95 per cent of the maximum amplitude, fall below a value which is 95 per cent of the maximum voltage amplitude of the pulse. e) The spectrum of the pulse modulated signal shall be such that at least 90 per cent of the energy in each pulse shall be within 0.5 MHz in a band centred on the nominal frequency. f) To ensure proper operation of the thresholding techniques, the instantaneous magnitude of any pulse turn-on transients which occur in time prior to the virtual origin shall be less than one per cent of the pulse peak amplitude. Initiation of the turn-on process shall not commence sooner than 1 microsecond prior to the virtual origin. Note 1. The lower limit of pulse rise time (see 3.5.5.1.3 a) above ) and decay time (see 3.5.5.1.3 c) above ) are governed by the spectrum requirements in 3.5.5.1.3 e)) above. Note 2. While 3.5.5.1.3 e) above calls for a practically attainable spectrum, it is desirable to strive for the following spectrum control characteristics: the spectrum of the pulse modulated signal is such that the power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 0.8 MHz above and 0.8 MHz below the nominal channel frequency is , in each case , at least 23 dB below the power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on the nominal channel frequency. The power contained in a 0.5 MHz band centred on frequencies 2 MHz above and 2 MHz below the nominal channel frequency. Any additional lobe of the spectrum is of less amplitude than the adjacent lobe nearer the nominal channel frequency. 3.5.5.1.4 Pulse spacing 3.5.5.1.4.1 The spacing of the constituent pulses of transmitted pulse pairs shall be as given in the table in 3.5.4.4.1 above. 3.5.5.1.4.2 DME/N. The tolerance on the pulse spacing shall be plus or minus 0.5 microsecond.

3.5.5.1.4.3 DME/N. Recommendation. The tolerance on the pulse spacing should be plus or minus 0.25 microsecond. 3.5.5.1.4.4 3.5.5.1.4.5 pulses. DME/P. The tolerance on the pulse spacing shall be plus or minus 0.25 microsecond.

The pulse spacing shall be measured between the half voltage points on the leading edges of the

3.5.5.1.5 Pulse repetition frequency 3.5.5.1.5.1 The pulse repetition frequency shall be as specified in 3.5.3.4 above.

3.5.5.1.5.2 The variation in time between successive pairs of interrogation pulses shall be sufficient to prevent false lock-on. 3.5.5.1.5.3 DME/P. In order to achieve the system accuracy specified in 3.5.3.1.3.4 above, the variation in time between successive pairs of interrogation pulses shall be sufficiently random to decorrelate high frequency multipath errors. Note. Guidance on DME/P multipath effects is given in Attachment C, 7.3.7. 3.5.5.1.6 Spurious radiation. During intervals between transmission of individual pulses, the spurious pulse power received and measured in a receiver having the same characteristics of a DME transponder receiver, but tuned to any DME interrogation or reply frequency, shall be more than 50 dB below the peak pulse power received and measured in the same receiver tuned to the interrogation frequency in use during the transmission of the required pulses. This provision shall apply to all spurious pulse transmissions. The spurious CW power radiated from the interrogator on any DME interrogation or reply frequency shall not exceed 20 microwatts (minus 47 dBW). Note. Although spurious CW radiation between pulses if limited to levels not exceeding minus 47 dBW, States are cautioned that where DME interrogators and secondary surveillance radar transponders are employed in the same aircraft, it may be necessary to provide protection to airborne SSR in the band 1015 MHz to 1045 MHz. This protection may be provided by limiting conducted and radiated CW to a level of the order of minus 77 dBW. Where this level cannot be achieved, the required degree of protection may be provided in planning the relative location of the SSR and DME aircraft antennas. It is to be noted that only a few of these frequencies are utilized in the VHF/DME pairing plan. 3.5.5.1.7 Recommendation. The spurious pulse power received and measured under the conditions stated in 3.5.5.1.6 above should be 80 dB below the required peak pulse power received. Note. Reference 3.5.5.1.6 and 3.5.5.1.7 above although limitation of spurious CW radiation between pulses to levels not exceeding 80 dB below the peak pulse power received is recommended, States are cautioned that where users employ airborne secondary surveillance radar transponders in the same aircraft, it may be necessary to limit direct and radiated CW to not more than 0.02 microwatt in the frequency band 1015 MHz to 1045 MHz. It is to be noted that only a few of these frequencies are utilized in the VHF/DME pairing plan. 3.5.5.1.8 DME/P. The peak effective radiated power (ERP) shall not be less than that required to ensure the power densities in 3.5.4.2.3.1 above under all operational weather conditions. 3.5.5.2 Time delay 3.5.5.2.1 The time delay shall be consistent with the table in 3.5.4.4.1 above. 3.5.5.2.2 DME/N. The time delay shall be the interval between the time of the half voltage point on the leading edge of the second constituent interrogation pulse and the time at which the distance circuits reach the condition corresponding to zero distance indication. 3.5.5.2.3 DME/N. The time delay shall be the interval between the time of the half voltage point on the leading edge of the second constituent interrogation pulse and the time at which the distance circuits reach the condition corresponding to zero distance indication. 3.5.5.2.4 DME/P. IA mode. The time delay shall be the interval between the time of the half voltage point on the leading edge of the first constituent interrogation pulse and the time at which the distance circuits reach the condition corresponding to zero distance indication.

3.5.5.2.5 DME/P FA mode. The time delay shall be the interval between the virtual origin of the leading edge of the first constituent interrogation pulse and the time at which the distance circuits reach the condition corresponding to zero distance indication. The time of arrival shall be measured within the partial rise time of the pulse. 3.5.5.3 Receiver 3.5.5.3.1 Frequency of operation. The receiver centre frequency shall be the transponder frequency appropriate to the assigned DME operating channel (see 3.5.3.3.3 above). 3.5.5.3.2 Receiver sensitivity 3.5.5.3.2.1 DME/N. The airborne equipment sensitivity shall be sufficient to acquire and provide distance information to the accuracy specified in 3.5.5.4 below for the signal power density specified in 3.5.4.1.5.2 above. Note. Although the Standard in 3.5.5.3.2.1 above is for DME/N interrogators, the receiver sensitivity is better than that necessary in order to operate with the power density of DME/N transponders given in 3.5.4.1.5.1 above in order to assure interoperability with the IA mode of DME/P transponders. 3.5.5.3.2.2 DME/P. The airborne equipment sensitivity shall be sufficient to acquire and provide distance information to the accuracy specified in 3.5.5.4.2 and 3.5.5.4.3 below for the signal power densities specified in 3.5.4.1.5.3 above. 3.5.5.3.2.3 DME/N. The performance of the interrogator shall be maintained when the power density of the transponder signal at the interrogator antenna is between the minimum values given in 3.5.4.1.5 above and a maximum of minus 18 dBW/m2. 3.5.5.3.2.4 DME/P. The performance of the interrogator shall be maintained when the power density of the transponder signal at the interrogator antenna is between the minimum values given in 3.5.4.1.5 above and a maximum of minus 18 dBW/m2. 3.5.5.3.3 Bandwidth 3.5.5.3.3.1 DME/N. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above, when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.4.1.3 above. 3.5.5.3.3.2 DME/P IA mode. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above, when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.4.1.3 above. The 12-dB bandwidth shall bot exceed 2 MHz and the 60-dB bandwidth shall not exceed 10 MHz. 3.5.5.3.3.3 DME/P FA mode. The receiver bandwidth shall be sufficient to allow compliance with 3.5.3.1.3 above when the input signals are those specified in 3.5.5.1.3 above. The 12-dB bandwidth shall not exceed 6 MHz and the 60-dB bandwidth shall not exceed 20 MHz. 3.5.5.3.4 Interference rejection 3.5.5.3.4.1 When there is a ratio of desired to undesired co-channel DME signals of at least 8 dB at the input terminals of the airborne receiver, the interrogator shall display distance information and provide unambiguous identification from the stronger signal. Note. Co-channel refers to those reply signals which utilize the same frequency and the same pulse pair spacing. 3.5.5.3.4.2 DME/N. DME signals greater than 900 kHz removed from the desired channel nominal frequency and having amplitudes up to 42 dB above the threshold sensitivity shall be rejected.

3.5.5.3.4.3 DME/P. DME signals greater than 900 kHz removed from the desired channel nominal frequency and having amplitudes up to 42 dB above the threshold sensitivity shall be rejected. 3.5.5.3.5 Decoding 3.5.5.3.5.1 The interrogator shall include a decoding circuit such that the receiver can be triggered only by pairs of received pulses having pulse duration and pulse spacings appropriate to transponder signals as described in 3.5.4.1.4 above. 3.5.5.3.5.2 DME/N Decoder rejection. A reply pulse pair with a spacing of plus or minus 2 microseconds, or more, from the nominal value and with any signal level up to 42 dB above the receiver sensitivity shall be rejected. 3.5.5.3.5.3 DME/P Decoder rejection. A reply pulse pair with a spacing of plus or minus 2 microseconds, or more, from the nominal value and with any signal level up to 42 dB above the receiver sensitivity shall be rejected. 3.5.5.4 Accuracy 3.5.5.4.1 DME/N. The interrogator shall not contribute more than plus or minus 315 m (plus or minus 0.17 NM) to the over-all system error. 3.5.5.4.2 DME/P IA mode. The interrogator shall not contribute more than plus or minus 30 m (plus or minus 100 ft) to the over-all system PFE and not more than plus or minus 15 m (plus or minus 50 ft) to the over-all system CMN.

3.6 Specification for en-route VHF marker beacons (75 MHz) 3.6.1 Equipment 3.6.1.1 Frequencies. The emissions of an en-route VHF marker beacon shall have a radio frequency of 75 MHz plus or minus 0.02 per cent. As from 1 January 1985 all new installed en-route VHF marker beacons shall have a frequency tolerance of plus or minus 0.005 per cent. After 1 January 1990 this provision applies for all en-route VHF marker beacons. 3.6.1.2 Characteristics of emissions 3.6.1.2.1 Radio marker beacons shall radiate an uninterrupted carrier modulated to a depth of not less than 95 per cent nor more than 100 per cent. The total harmonic content of the modulation shall not exceed 15 per cent. 3.6.1.2.2 3.6.1.2.3 The frequency of the modulating tone shall be 3000 Hz plus or minus 75 Hz.

The radiation shall be horizontally polarized.

3.6.1.2.4 Identification. If a coded identification is required at a radio marker beacon, the modulating tone shall be keyed so as to transmit dots or dashes or both in an appropriate sequence. The mode of keying shall be such as to provide a dot-and-dash duration together with spacing intervals corresponding to transmission at a rate equivalent to approximately 6 to 10 words per minute. The carrier shall not be interrupted during identification.

3.6.1.2.5 Coverage and radiation pattern Note. The coverage and radiation pattern of marker beacons will ordinarily be established by Contracting States on the basis of operational requirements, taking into account recommendations of regional meetings. The most desirable radiation pattern would be one that: a) in the case of fan marker beacons, results in lamp operation only when the aircraft is within a rectangular parallelepiped, symmetrical about the vertical line through the marker beacon and with the major and minor axes adjusted in accordance with the flight path served; b) in the case of a Z marker beacon, results in lamp operation only when the aircraft is within a cylinder, the axis of which is the vertical line through the marker beacons. In practice, the production of such patterns is impracticable and a compromise radiation pattern is necessary. In Attachment C, antenna systems currently in use and which have proved generally satisfactory are described for guidance. Such designs and any new designs providing a closer approximation to the most desirable radiation pattern outlined above will normally meet operational requirements. 3.6.1.2.6 Determination of coverage. The limits of coverage of marker beacons shall be determined on the basis of the field strength specified in 3.1.7.3.2 above. 3.6.1.2.7 Radiation pattern. Recommendation. The radiation pattern of a marker beacon normally should be such that the polar axis is vertical, and the field strength in the pattern is symmetrical about the polar axis in the plane or planes containing the flight paths for which the marker beacon is intended. Note. Difficulty in siting certain marker beacons may make it necessary to accept a polar axis that is not vertical. 3.6.1.3 Monitoring. Recommendation. For each marker beacon, suitable monitoring equipment should be provided which will show at an appropriate location: a) a decrease in radiated carrier power below 50 per cent of the normal: b) a decrease of modulation depth below 70 per cent: c) a failure of keying. Note. guidance material on marker beacons appears in Attachment C.

Attachment B. Strategy for introduction and application of Non-visual aids to approach and landing (see Chapter 2, 2.1)
1. Introduction 1.1 Various elements have an influence on all weather operations in terms of safety, efficiency and flexibility. The evolution of new techniques requires a flexible approach to the concept of all weather operations to obtain full benefits of technical development. To create this flexibility a strategy enables, through identification of its objectives and thoughts behind the strategy, incorporation of new technical developments or ideas into this strategy. 1.2 The strategy does not assume transition to a single globally established system or selection of systems to support approach and landing operations. The strategy is intended to accommodate future systems or system architectures to be standardized and certified for international use in addition to the present standard non-visual aids. 2. Objectives of strategy The strategy must: a) maintain at least the current safety level of all weather operations; b) retain at least the existing level or planned improved level of service; c) maintain global interoperability; d) provide regional flexibility based on coordinated regional planning; e) be applicable until at least the year 2015; and f) take account of economic, operational and technical issues. 3. Considerations 3.1 General The following considerations (as of the SP COM/OPS/95 Meeting) are based on the assumption that the operational requirement and the required commitment are available and the required effort is applied. 3.2 Standardization considerations a) A concept which describes the performance criteria for approach, landing and departure operations in generic terms is under development; b) acceptance and introduction of the generic performance criteria is expected to facilitate the application of emerging technologies for the approach, landing and departure phases of flight; and c) introduction of the generic performance criteria for approach, landing and departure operations will not eliminate the need for safety and interoperability-related SARPs, and these SARPs are to be developed to support the generic performance criteria. 3.3 ILS-related considerations a) There is a risk that ILS Category II or III operations cannot be safely sustained at specific locations; b) operators must equip with ILS receivers which meet the interference immunity performance standards by 1 January 1998 (Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 3, 3.1.4); c) expansion of ILS is limited by channel availability (40 channels); d) many aging ILS ground installations will need to be replaced; and e) in most areas of the world, ILS can be maintained in the foreseeable future.

3.5 GNSS-related considerations a) GNSS with augmentation has been demonstrated, for at least two States, to meet accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements for Category I precision approach; b) GNSS with differential augmentation has been demonstrated, for at least two States, to meet accuracy requirements for Category II and III approach and landing operations, and integrity, continuity and availability requirements are under evaluation for such operations; c) technical and operational issues associated with GNSS approach, landing and departure operations must be solved in a timely manner, d) institutional issues associated with GNSS approach, landing and departure operations must be solved in a timely manner, e) it is expected that an internationally accepted GNSS with augmentation as required may be available for Category I operations within the 2000-2005 time frame; and f) it is not expected that an internationally accepted GNSS with augmentation as required may be available for Category II and III operations before the 2005-2015 time frame. 3.8 Other considerations a) There is an increasing demand for Category II and III operations; and b) while a single step transition is preferable, in some States it may not be possible to make this transition towards new technology systems (e.g. GNSS Category II/III) without losing the level of Category II or III operations. 4. Strategy Based on the considerations above and a need to consult aircraft operations and international organizations as appropriate, the global strategy is to: a) continue ILS operations to the highest level of service as long as operationally acceptable and economically beneficial; b) implement MLS where operationally required and economically beneficial; c) promote the use of MMR or equivalent airborne capability to maintain aircraft interoperability; d) validate the use of GNSS, with such augmentations as required, to support approach and departure operations, including Category I operations, and implement GNSS for such operations as appropriate; e) complete feasibility studies for Category II and III operations, based on GNSS technology, with such augmentations as required. If feasible, implement GNSS for Category II and III operations where operationally acceptable and economically beneficial; and f) enable each region to develop an implementation strategy for future systems in line with the global strategy.

Attachment C. Information and material for guidance In the application of the standards and recommended practices For ILS, VOR, PAR, 75 MHz marker beacons (en-route), NDB and DME
1. Introduction

The material in this Attachment is intended for guidance and clarification purposes and is not to be considered as part of the specifications or as part of the Standards and Recommended Practices contained in Volume I. For the clarity of understanding of the text that follows and to facilitate the ready exchange of thoughts on closely associated concepts, the following definitions are included. Definitions relating to the Instrument Landing System (ILS) Note. The terms given here are in most cases capable of use either without prefix or in association with the prefixes nominal and indicated. Such usages are intended to convey the following meanings: The prefix nominal: the design characteristics of an element or concept. No prefix: the achieved characteristics of an element or concept. The prefix indicated: the achieved characteristics of an element or concept, as indicated on a receiver (i.e. including the errors of the receiving installation). Localizer system ILS glide path system Slant course line. The line formed at the intersection of the course surface and the plane of the nominal ILS glide path False ILS glide path. Those loci of points in the vertical plane containing the runway centre line at which the DDM is zero, other than that locus of points forming the ILS glide path. Displacement error. The angular or linear displacement of any point of zero DDM with respect to the nominal course line or the nominal ILS glide path respectively. Linearity sector. A sector containing the course line or ILS glide path, within a course sector or an ILS glide path sector, respectively, in which the increment of DDM per unit of displacement remains substantially constant. Low DDM zone. A zone outside a course sector or an ILS glide path sector in which the DDM is less than the minimum value specified for the zone. Note. The minimum values of DDM related to such zones are specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.7 and 3.1.5.6. Plane of the nominal ILS glide path. A plane perpendicular to the vertical plane of the runway centre line extended and containing the nominal ILS glide path. Indicated course line. The locus of points in any Indicated ILS glide path. The locus of points in the horizontal plane at which the receiver indicator vertical plane containing the runway centre line at deflection is zero which the receiver indicator deflection is zero. Indicated slant course line. The line formed at the intersection of the indicated course surface and the plane of the nominal ILS glide path. Indicated ILS glide path angle. The angle above the horizontal plane of the indicated ILS glide path.

Localizer system Indicated course sector. A sector in any horizontal plane containing the indicated course line in which the receiver indicator deflection remains within full-scale values. Localizer course bend. A course bend is an aberration of the localizer course line with respect to its nominal position.

ILS glide path system Indicated ILS glide path sector. The sector containing the indicated ILS glide path in which the receiver indicator deflection remains within full-scale values. ILS glide path bend. An ILS glide path bend is an aberration of the ILS glide path with respect to its nominal position.

Incremental sensitivity. The increment of receiver indicator current per unit change of receiver antenna displacement from the nominal course line or nominal ILS glide path. Flat zone. A zone within an indicated course sector or an indicated ILS glide path sector in which the slope of the sector characteristic curve is zero. Reversal zone. A zone within an indicated course sector or an indicated ILS glide path sector in which the slope of the sector characteristic curve is negative. 2. Material concerning ILS installations 2.1 Operational objectives, design and maintenance objectives, and definition of course structure for Facility Performance Categories. 2.1.1 The Facility Performance Categories defined in Chapter 3, 3.1.1 have operational objectives as follows: Category I operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. Category II operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and a runway visual range not less than 350 m. Category IIIA operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with: a) a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft), or no decision height; and b) a runway visual range not less than 200 m. Category IIIB operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with: a) a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft), or no decision height; and b) a run way visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m. Category IIIC operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. 2.1.2 Relevant to these objectives will be the type of aircraft using the ILS and the capabilities of the aircraft flight guidance system(s). Modern aircraft fitted with equipment of appropriate design are assumed in these objectives. In practice, however, operational capabilities may extend beyond the specific objectives given at 2.1.1 above. 2.1.2.1 The availability of fail-passive and fail-operational flight guidance systems in conjunction with an ILS ground system which provides adequate guidance with an appropriate level of continuity of service and integrity for the particular case can permit the attainment of operational objectives which do not coincide with those described at 2.1.1 above.

2.1.2.2 For modern aircraft fitted with automatic approach and landing systems the routine use of such systems is being encouraged by aircraft operating agencies in conditions where the progress of the approach can be visually monitored by the flight crew. For example, such operations may be conducted on Facility Performance Category I ILS where the guidance quality and coverage exceeds basic requirements given at Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4.1 and extends down to the runway. 2.1.2.3 In order to fully exploit the potential benefits of modern aircraft automatic flight control systems there is a related need for a method of describing ground based ILS more completely than can be achieved by reference solely to the Facility Performance Category. This is achieved by the ILS classification system using the three designated characters. It provides a description of those performance aspects which are required to be known from an operations viewpoint in order to decide the operational applications which a specific ILS could support. 2.1.2.4 The ILS classification scheme provides a means to make known the additional capabilities that may be available from a particular ILS ground facility, beyond those associated with the facilities defined in Chapter 3, 3.1.1. These additional capabilities can be exploited in order to permit operational use according to 2.1.2.1 and 2.1.2.2 above to be approved down to and below the values stated in the operational objectives described in 2.1 above. 2.1.2.5 An example of the classification system is presented in 2.1.4.3 below.

2.1.3 Guidance material relating to airborne equipment tolerances appropriate to the attainment of the objectives of ILS Operational Performance Categories I and II are given in 2.2.4 and 2.2.5 below. In the case of Category II operations utilizing appropriate ILS facilities, it may be feasible to allow operations by aircraft with low approach speeds and adequate demonstrable maneuverability fitted with airborne equipment having tolerances less stringent than those specified for Category II. Note. The following guidance material is intended to assist States when they are evaluating the acceptability of ILS localizer courses and glide paths having bends. Although, by definition, course bends and glide path bends are related to the nominal positions of the localizer course and glide path respectively, the evaluation of high frequency aberrations is based on the deviations from the mean course or path. The material in 2.1.6 and Figure C-2 regarding the evaluation of bends indicates how the bends relate to the mean position of the course and path. Aircraft recordings will normally be in this form. 2.1.4 Course bends. Localizer course bends should be evaluated in terms of the course structure specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4. With regard to landing and rollout in Category III conditions, this course structure is based on the desire to provide adequate guidance for manual and/or automatic operations along the runway in low visibility conditions. With regard to Category I performance in the approach phase, this course structure is based on the desire to restrict aircraft deviations, due to course bends (95 per cent probability basis) at the 30 m (100 ft) height, to lateral displacement of less than 10 m (30 ft). With regard to Categories II and III performance in the approach phase, this course structure is based on the desire to restrict aircraft deviations due to course bends (95 per cent probability basis) in the region between ILS Point B and the ILS reference datum (Category II facilities) or Point D (Category III facilities), to less than 2 degrees of roll and pitch attitude and to lateral displacement of less than 5 m (15 ft). Note 1. Course bends are unacceptable when they pre decision height in a stable attitude and at a position, within acceptable limits of displacement from the course line, from which a safe landing can be effected to a greater degree than ,manual coupling by the presence of bends. Excessive control activity after the aircraft has settled on an approach may preclude it from satisfactorily completing an approach or landing. Additionally, when automatic coupling is used, there may be an operational requirement to continue the approach below the decision height aircraft guidance can be satisfied if the specification for course structure in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4 is met. Note 2. Bends or other irregularities that are not acceptable will normally be ascertained by flight tests in stable air conditions requiring precision flight check techniques.

2.1.5 ILS glide path bends. Bends should be evaluated in terms of the ILS glide path structure specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.5.4. With regard to Category I performance, this glide path structure is based on the desire to restrict aircraft deviations due to glide path bends (95 per cent probability basis) at the 15 m (50 ft) height, to less than 2 degrees of roll and pitch attitude and to vertical displacements of less than 1.2 m (4 ft). Note 1. Path bends are unacceptable when they preclude an aircraft under normal conditions from reaching the decision height in a stable attitude and at a position within acceptable limits of displacement from the ILS glide path, from which a safe landing can be effected. Automatic and semi-automatic coupling is affected to a greater degree than manual coupling by the presence of bends. Additionally, when automatic coupling is used, there may be an operational requirement to continue the approach below the decision height. Aircraft guidance can be satisfied if the specification for ILS glide path structure in Chapter 3, 3.1.4.4 is met. Note 2. Bends or other irregularities that are not acceptable will normally be ascertained by precision flight tests, supplemented as necessary by special ground measurements.

To range limit Maximum allowance 2Standard deviation bend amplitude (microamperes)

A 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 ILS Points A
Category III only

Glide path criterion

Localizer course criterion

B
7.4 km (4 NM)

D Runway

Stop End of Runway


600 m (2000 ft)

1050 m (3500 ft)

900 m (3000 ft)

Figure C-1.

Categories II and III localizer course and glide path maximum bend amplitude criteria

2.1.6 Application of localizer course/glide path bend amplitude Standard. In applying the specification for localizer course structure (Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4) and ILS glide path structure (Chapter 3, 3.1.5.4), the following criteria should be employed: - Figure C-1 shows the relationship between the maximum (95 per cent probability) localizer course/glide path bend amplitudes and distances from the runway threshold that have been specified for Categories II and III performance. - If the bend amplitudes are to be evaluated in any region of the approach, the flight recordings, corrected for aircraft angular position error, should be analyzed for a time interval of plus or minus 20 seconds about the midpoint of the region to be evaluated. The foregoing is based on an aircraft ground speed of 195 km/h (105 knots) plus or minus 9 km/h (5 knots).

The 95 per cent maximum amplitude specification is the allowable percentage of total time interval in which the course/path bend amplitude must be less than the amount specified in Figure C-1 for the region being evaluated. Figure C-2 presents a typical example of the method that can be employed to evaluate the course/path bend amplitude at a particular facility. If the sum of the time intervals t1, t2, t3, where the given specification is exceeded, is equal to or less than 5 per cent of the total time T, the region that is being evaluated is acceptable. Therefore: 100 (T [ (t1 + t2 + ,,,)]) / T 95% Analysis of ILS glide path bends should be made using as a datum the mean glide path and not the downward extended straight line. The extent of curvature is governed by the offset displacement of the ground equipment glide path antenna system, the distance of this antenna system from the threshold, and the relative heights of the ground along the final approach route and at the glide path site (see 2.4 below). 2.1.7 Owing to the complex frequency components present in the ILS beam bend structures, measured values of beam bends are dependent on the frequency response of the airborne receiving and recording equipment. It is intended that beam bend measurements be obtained by using a total time constant (in seconds) for the receiver DDM output circuits and associated recording equipment of 92.6/V, where V is the velocity in km/h of the aircraft or ground vehicle as appropriate. 2.1.8 Monitor systems. Available evidence indicates that performance stability within the limits defined in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.6, 3.1.3.7 and 3.1.5.6, i.e. well within the monitor limit, can readily be achieved. The choice of monitor limits is based on judgment, backed by a knowledge of the safety requirements for the category of operation. However, the specifications of such monitoring limits do not indicate the magnitude of the normal day-to-day variations in performance which result from setting-up errors and equipment drift. It is necessary to investigate and take corrective action if the day-to-day performance frequently drifts beyond the limits specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.6, 3.1.3.7 and 3.1.5.6. The causes of such drifts should be eliminated: a) to reduce greatly the possibility of critical signal parameters hovering near the specified monitor limits; b) to ensure a high continuity of ILS service. Following are some general guidelines for the design, operation and maintenance of monitor systems to meet the requirements in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.11 and 3.1.5.7. 1) Great care should be exercised to ensure that monitor systems respond to all those variations of the ground facility which adversely affect the operation of the airborne system during ILS approach. 2) Monitor systems should not react to local conditions which do not affect the navigational information as seen by airborne systems. 3) Drifts of the monitor system equipment should not appreciably reduce or increase the monitoring limits specified. 4) Special care must be taken in the design and operation of the monitor system with the aim of ensuring that the navigational components will be removed or radiation cease in the event of a failure of the monitor system itself. 5) Some monitors rely on devices which sample the signal in the vicinity of the transmitter antenna system. Experience has shown that such monitor systems require special attention in the following aspects: a) where large-aperture antenna systems are used, it is often not possible to place the monitor sensors in such a position that the phase relationship observed in the far field on the course exists at the sensing point. Nevertheless, the monitor system should also detect antenna and associated feeder system changes which significantly affect the course in the far field; b) changes in effective ground level caused by snow, flooding, etc., may affect glide path monitor systems, and the actual course in space differently, particularly when reliance is placed on the ground plane to form the desired glide path pattern; c) attention should be paid to other causes which may disturb the monitor sensing of the radiated signal, such as icing, birds, etc;

d) in a system where monitoring signals are used in a feedback loop to correct variations of the corresponding equipment, special care should be taken that extraneous influence and changes in the monitor system itself do not cause course or ILS glide path variations outside the specified limits without alarming the monitor. 6) One possible form of monitor is an integral monitor in which the contribution of each transmitting antenna element to the far-field course signal is measured at the antenna system. Experience has shown that such monitoring systems, properly designed, can give a close correlation between the monitor indication and the radiated signal in the far field. This type of monitor, in certain circumstances, overcomes the problem outlined in 5 a), b) and c) above. It will be realized that the DDM measured at any one point in space is a function of displacement sensitivity and the position of the course line or ILS glide path. This should be taken into account in the design and operation of monitor systems. 2.1.9 Radiation by ILS localizers not in operational use. Severe interference with operational ILS localizer signals has been experienced in aircraft carrying out approaches to low levels at runways equipped with localizer facilities serving the reciprocal direction to the approach. Interference in aircraft over flying this localizer antenna system is caused by cross modulation due to signals radiated from the reciprocal approach localizer. Such interference, in the case of low level operations, could seriously affect approach or landing, and may prejudice safety. Chapter 3, 3.1.2.7, 3.1.2.7.1 and 3.1.2.7.2 specify the conditions under which radiation by localizers not in operational use may be permitted. 2.1.10 ILS multipath interference due to large reflecting objects and movements on the ground 2.1.10.1 The occurrence of interference to ILS signals is dependent on the total environment around the ILS antennas, including vehicles or fixed objects such as structures within the radiated signal coverage, will potentially cause multipath interference to the ILS course and path structure. The location and size of the reflecting fixed objects and structures in conjunction with the directional qualities of the antennas will determine the static course or path structure quality whether Category I, II or III. Movable objects can degrade this structure to the extent that it becomes unacceptable. The areas within which this degradable interference is possible need to be defined and recognized. For the purposes of developing protective zoning criteria, these areas can be divided into two types, i.e. critical areas and sensitive areas: a) the ILS critical area is an area of defined dimensions about the localizer and glide path antennas where vehicles, including aircraft, are excluded during all ILS operations. The critical area is protected because the presence of vehicles and/or aircraft inside its boundaries will cause unacceptable disturbance to the ILS signal-in-space; b) the ILS sensitive area is an area extending beyond the critical area where the parking and/or movement of vehicles, including aircraft, is controlled to prevent the possibility of unacceptable interference to the ILS signal during ILS operations. The sensitive area is protected against interference caused by large moving objects outside the critical area but still normally within the airfield boundary. Note 1. The objective of defining critical and sensitive areas is to afford adequate protection to the ILS. The manner in which the terminology is applied may vary between States. In some States, the term critical area is also used to describe the area that is referred to herein as the sensitive area. Note 2. It is expected that at sites, where ILS and MLS are to be collocated, the MLS might be located within ILS critical areas in accordance with guidance material in Attachment G, Section 4.1.

2.1.10.2 Typical examples of critical and sensitive areas that need to be protected are shown in Figures C-3A, C-3B, C-4A and C-4B. To protect the critical area, it is necessary to normally prohibit all entry of vehicles and the taxiing or parking of aircraft within this area during all ILS operations. The critical area determined for each localizer and glide path should be clearly designated. Suitable signal devices may need to be provided at taxiways and roadways which penetrate the critical area to restrict the entry of vehicles and aircraft. With respect to sensitive areas, it may be necessary to exclude some or all moving traffic depending on interference potential and category of operation. It would be advisable to have the aerodrome boundaries include all the sensitive areas so that adequate control can be exercised over all moving traffic to prevent unacceptable interference to the ILS signals. If these areas fall outside the aerodrome boundaries, it is essential that the co-operation of appropriate authorities be obtained to ensure adequate control. Operational procedures need to be developed for the protection of sensitive areas. 2.1.10.3 The size of the sensitive area depends on a number of factors including the type of ILS antenna, the topography, and the size and orientation of man-made objects, including large aircraft and vehicles. Modern designs of localizer and glide path antennas can be very effective in reducing the disturbance possibilities and hence the extent of the sensitive areas. Because of the greater potential of the larger types of aircraft for disturbing ILS signals, the sensitive areas for these aircraft extend a considerable distance beyond the critical areas. The problem is aggravated by increased traffic density on the ground. 2.1.10.3.1 In the case of the localizer, any large objects illuminated by the main directional radiation of the antenna must be considered as possible sources of unacceptable signal interference. This will include aircraft on the runway and on some taxiways. The dimensions of the sensitive areas required to protect Category I, II and III operations will vary, the largest being required for Category III. Only the least disturbance can be tolerated for Category III, but an out-of-tolerance course along the runway surface would have no effect on Category I or II operations. If the course structure is already marginal due to static multipath effects, less additional interference will cause an unacceptable signal . In such cases a larger-size sensitive area may have to be recognized. 2.1.10.3.2 In the case of the glide path, experience has shown that any object penetrating a surface above the reflection plane of the glide path antenna and within azimuth coverage of the antenna must be considered as a source of signal interference. The angle of the surface above the horizontal plane of the antenna is dependent on the type of glide path antenna array in use at the time. Very large aircraft, when parked or taxiing within several thousand feet of the glide path antenna and directly between it and the approach path, will usually cause serious disturbance to the glide path signal. On the other hand, the effect of small aircraft beyond a few hundred feet of the glide path antenna has been shown to be negligible. 2.1.10.3.3 Experience has shown that the major features affecting the reflection and diffraction of the ILS signal to produce multipath interference are the height and orientation of the vertical surfaces of aircraft and vehicles. The maximum height of vertical surface likely to be encountered must be established, together with the worst case orientation. This is because certain orientations can cause out-of-tolerance localizer or glide path deviations at greater distances than parallel or perpendicular orientations.

2.1.10.4 Computer or model techniques can be employed to calculate the probable location, magnitude and duration of ILS disturbances caused by objects, whether by structures or by aircraft of various sizes and orientation at different locations. Issues involved with these techniques include the following: a) computerized mathematical models are in general use and are applied by personnel with a wide variety of experience levels. However, engineering knowledge of and judgment about the appropriate assumptions and limitations are required when applying such models to specific multipath environments. ILS performance information relative to this subject should normally be made available by the ILS equipment manufacturer; b) where an ILS has been installed and found satisfactory, computers and simulation techniques can be employed to predict the probable extent of ILS disturbance which may arise as a result of proposed new construction. Wherever possible, the results of such computer-aided simulation should be validated by direct comparison with actual flight measurements of the results of new construction; and c) taking into account the maximum allowable multipath degradation of the signal due to aircraft on the ground, the corresponding minimum sensitive area limits can be determined. Models have been used to determine the critical and sensitive areas in Figures C-3A, C-3B, C-4A and C-4B, by taking into account the maximum allowable multipath degradation of ILS signals due to aircraft on the ground. The factors that affect the size and shape of the critical and sensitive areas include: aircraft types likely to cause interference, antenna aperture and type (log periodic dipole/dipole, etc.), type of clearance signals (single/dual frequency), category of operations proposed, runway length, and static bends caused by existing structures. Such use of models should involve their validation, which includes spot check comparison of computed results with actual field demonstration data on parked aircraft interference to the ILS signal. 2.1.10.5 Control of critical areas and the designation of sensitive areas on the airport proper may still not be sufficient to protect an ILS from multipath effects caused by large, fixed ground structures. This is particularly significant when considering the size of new buildings being erected for larger new aircraft and other purposes. Structures outside the boundaries of the airport may also cause difficulty to the ILS course quality, even though they meet restrictions with regard to obstruction heights. 2.1.10.5.1 Should the environment of an airport in terms of large fixed objects such as tall buildings cause the structure of the localizer and/or glide path to be near the tolerance limits for the category of operation, much larger sensitive areas may need to be established. This is because the effect of moving objects, which the sensitive areas are designed to protect the ILS against, has to be added to the static beam bends caused by fixed objects. However, direct addition of the maximum bend amplitudes is not considered appropriate and a root sum square combination is felt to be more realistic. Examples are as follows: a) localizer course bends due to static objects equals plus or minus 11/2A. Limit plus or minus 5A. Therefore allowance for moving objects to define localizer sensitive area is 52 - 1.52 = 4.77 A b) localizer course bends due to static objects equals plus or minus 4A. Limit plus or minus 5A. Therefore allowance for moving objects to define localizer sensitive area is 52 - 42 = 3A In case b) the sensitive area would be larger, thus keeping interfering objects further away from the runway so that they produce 3A or less distortion of the localizer beam. The same principle is applied to the glide path sensitive area. 2.1.11 Guidance on operational aspects of improving the performance of the ILS localizer in respect to bends 2.1.11.1 Introduction. Owing to site effects at certain locations, it is not always possible to produce with simple standard ILS installations localizer courses that are sufficiently free from troublesome bends or irregularities. At such installations, it will often be possible to reduce bends and irregularities in the localizer course to a satisfactory extent by various methods, most of which require acceptance of some deviation from the specification for ILS set forth in this Annex, together with possible penalties from an operational aspect.

2.1.11.2 Methods of effecting improvement. In general, improvements in localizer courses from the aspect of bends or irregularities may be effected by restriction of radiation in particular directions so as to avoid or minimize reflection from objects that give rise to the bends. In the majority of instances where special treatment is required, this may be achieved by screens placed and designed to reduce the radiation in the direction of the object. Where reflecting objects are numerous or of large dimensions, however, it may be necessary to restrict almost all the radiation from the localizer to a narrow sector centred on the course line. Each method introduces certain disadvantages which should be weighed for the individual installation in the light of the specific operational application to be made of the installation and the following considerations. 2.1.11.3 Disadvantages of methods of effecting improvements mentioned above 2.1.11.3.1 The use of screens limiting radiation in selected directions will, in general, give rise to a reduction of the clearance between the two modulation signals of the ILS in some other direction, with the consequence that the ILS indicator needle may move towards the centre when the aircraft is passing through areas in that direction. It is considered however that, in general, such deviations are not operationally significant or may be overcome by suitable procedures. In certain applications including the use of screens or reflectors to reinforce signals in the course sector, the use of screens or reflectors will modify the range and characteristics of the back course of the localizer. Here again, it is considered that the effects are unlikely to be operationally significant unless operational use is being made of the back course. In this latter case, it may be necessary to provide an additional facility to supplement or replace the back course. 2.1.11.3.2 Where it is necessary to limit radiation from the localizer over a wide sector and confine most of it to a sector centred on the front course of the localizer in order to reduce bends sufficiently, the disadvantages will, in general, be as follows: 1) Orientation information from the localizer in the sector in which radiation is limited will no longer be available or will be unreliable. 2) It will not be practicable to carry out a preliminary check of the performance of the aircraft receiver through the flag system until the aircraft is within the sector centred on the course line. 3) In the area outside the sector centred on the course line, sufficient radiation may occur in particular directions to operate the ILS indicator in the aircraft in an erratic manner, giving rise to false indications. 4) The loss of the back course. 2.1.11.3.3 In respect to 1), it is considered that orientation information is necessary but that practice has shown that such information is preferably obtained in any event from an auxiliary aid such as a locator. Such an auxiliary aid would be necessary if radiation from the localizer is confined to a narrow sector centred on the course line. In respect to 2), it is considered that the loss of a receiver check prior to entry into the sector centred on the course line could be operationally accepted. 2.1.11.3.4 The disadvantage indicated in 3) may, in some instances, be a serious drawback. In general, it is considered that acceptance of this disadvantage will depend on the extent to which false indications will occur at a particular site and on the procedures established or specified for the use of the ILS installation. In practice, it is possible to establish procedures so that no use is made of the localizer signals until the aircraft is able to check that it is in the usable sector. Experience has shown at one installation in operational use that, procedurally, no difficulty has arisen through the existence of erratic indications in the off-course sector. It is considered that the question of whether or not the off-course signal characteristics due to reduction of radiation in a narrow sector may be accepted operationally is a matter for individual assessment at each location concerned.

2.1.11.3.5 The loss of the back course indicated in 4) may have several disadvantages. At some locations, the back course serves a useful function through intersection with other aids for facilitating procedures in the area concerned. Also, the back course often provides a useful aid in missed approach procedures and can often be used to simplify approach for landing when conditions require that the landing when conditions require that the landing direction be opposite to the direction for which the ILS is primarily installed. Loss of the back course will, in general, require the provision of a substitute aid or aids, and the principal disadvantage in suppressing the back course may be considered in terms of the additional expense of a substitute aid or aids. 2.1.11.4 Extent to which sector centred on course line may be narrowed. It is considered that a radiation sector 10 degrees each side of the localizer course line would be the minimum sector that could be accepted operationally. It is desirable that the characteristics of the signal from the localizer be identical with those specified in Chapter 3 within the region in the immediate vicinity (region from DDMs 0.155 to zero) of the course line and approximate closely to them out to 10 degrees, so that the indications of the ILS indicator and the signals fed to a coupling device, if used, will correspond to the standard ILS throughout any maneuvers necessary in the transition from the approach to the localizer to establishment on course line. It should be realized, however, that for an increased runway length, the localizer course sector wherein proportional guidance is provided will be narrower as a result of adjusting the localizer to the sensitivity specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.7.1. Although a proportional guidance signal is provided on each side of the course line up to a level of 0.180 DDM, the level above 0.150 DDM may not be usable by the automatic airborne system during the intercept maneuver unless that system is armed within the sector in which a minimum of 0.180 DDM is provided (e.g. plus or minus 10 degrees). It is advantageous to permit the localizer capture mode of the automatic airborne system to be armed at off-course angles greater than 10 degrees; consequently it is desirable to maintain a minimum DDM of 0.180 through a wider sector than plus or minus 10 degrees wherever practical. 2.1.11.5 Further possibilities. If the disadvantages arising from the use of the restricted coverage and modified signal characteristics discussed in 2.1.11.3 above are unacceptable, possibilities exist through the use of two radio frequency carriers to provide the coverage and signal characteristics that would maintain the essential information provided by a standard ILS in the suppressed sector while, at the same time, maintaining in the regions about the course sector the objective of the restricted coverage system. It may be necessary to employ this more elaborate system at aerodromes with high multipath environments. Additional guidance on two radio frequency carrier coverage is provided in 2.7 below. 2.4 Guidance for the siting, elevation, adjustment and coverage of glide path equipment 2.4.1 The ILS reference datum and the ILS glide path angle setting are the primary factors influencing the longitudinal location of the ILS glide path equipment with respect to the threshold. 2.4.2 The lateral placement of the glide path antenna system with respect to the runway centre line is normally not less than 120 m (400 ft). In deciding the lateral placement of the glide path antenna, account should be taken of the appropriate provisions of Annex 14 with regard to obstacle clearance surfaces and objects on strips for runways. 2.4.3 In selecting the ILS glide path antenna location and glide path angle, the aim should be to place the ILS reference datum as close as possible to the appropriate nominal value. The actual selection of the ILS glide path antenna location and glide path angle are governed by a number of factors, including: a) acceptable rates of descent and/or approach speeds for the type of operations envisaged at the particular aerodrome; b) the position of obstacles in the final approach area, the aerodrome sector and the missed approach area, and the resulting obstacle clearance limits; c) technical siting problems.

2.4.4 The selection of the antenna location and the angle, and the resulting ILS reference datum height, will also be affected by: a) the runway length available; b) the operating limits envisaged. Where the application of the foregoing criteria permits, the preferred angle of the ILS glide path would be 3 degrees. 2.4.5 An ILS reference datum and glide path should then be selected, having regard to the foregoing criteria, and the ability of the site to provide the clearance required by the Procedures for Air Navigation Services Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168) should be determined by calculation and confirmed, where possible, by flight test. 2.4.6 Where the selected ILS reference datum, the ILS glide path angle and the other relevant equipment characteristics do not provide the required clearances, the following alternative course of action should be investigated: 1) removal of the offending obstacle; 2) selection of an alternative height for the ILS reference datum, taking into account the criteria indicated in 2.4.3 and 2.4.5 above; 3) selection of an alternative acceptable ILS glide path angle; 4) variation of the obstacle clearance limit to cater for the offending obstacle. 2.4.7 To enable more effective use of land adjacent to Category III ILS glide path sites and to reduce siting requirements and sensitive areas at these sites, it is desirable that the signals forming the horizontal radiation pattern from the Category III ILS glide path antenna system be reduced to as low a value as practicable outside the azimuth coverage limits specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.5.3. Another acceptable method is to rotate in azimuth the glide path antennas away from multipath sources thus reducing the amount of radiated signals at specific angles while still maintaining the azimuth coverage limits. 2.4.8 ILS glide path curvature. In many cases the ILS glide path is formed as a conic surface originating at the glide path aerial system. Owing to the lateral placement of the origin of this conic surface from the runway centre line, the locus of the glide path in the vertical plane along the runway centre line is a hyperbola. Curvature of the glide path occurs in the threshold region and progressively increases until touchdown.

2.4.9 Relationship between siting of glide path antenna and glide path threshold crossing height. The longitudinal position of the glide path antenna should be selected so as to meet the recommendation made in Chapter 3, 3.1.5.1.4, in respect to the height of the ILS reference datum above the runway threshold. The height of the ILS reference datum above the runway threshold is then a function of the longitudinal position of the glide path antenna, of the longitudinal slope of the glide path reflection plane and of the position of the runway threshold in respect to the glide path reflection plane. This situation is described pictorially in Figure C-5. The longitudinal position of the glide path antenna is then calculated as follows: D = (H +Y) / tan (+) where D = the horizontal distance between O and P: H = the nominal threshold crossing height: Y = the vertical height of the runway threshold above P: = the nominal ILS glide path angle: = the longitudinal down slope of the glide path reflection plane. None. In the above formula a is to be taken as positive in the case of a down slope from the antenna towards the threshold. Y is taken as positive if the threshold is above the reflection plane intersection line. A A

Glide path Antenna Runway H O

Horizontal

Threshold P

Y View Through AA P

Note. The line OP represents the intersection of the glide path reflection plane and the vertical plane through AA Figure C-5. Glide path siting for sloping runway

2.4.10 The foregoing guidance material in respect of the longitudinal placement to the glide path antenna in relation to the runway threshold, which takes into account the fact that the runway may not be in the glide path reflection plane, and that the glide path reflection plane may be sloped, is based on geometrical abstractions. The material implicitly assumes that the glide path locus in the vertical plane, containing the runway centre line, is a perfect hyperbola; consequently, the glide path extension is implicitly assumed as the asymptote to this hyperbola. 2.4.11 In fact, however, the glide path is often quite irregular. The mean ILS glide path angle can be ascertained only by flight tests; the mean observed position of that part of the glide path between ILS Points A and B being represented as a straight line, and the ILS glide path angle being the angle measured between that straight line and its vertical projection on the horizontal plane.

2.4.12 It is important to recognize that the effect of glide path irregularities if averaged within the region between the middle marker and the threshold will likely tend to project a reference datum which is actually different from the ILS reference datum. This reference datum, defined here as the achieved ILS reference datum, is considered to be of important operational significance. The achieved ILS reference datum can only be ascertained by flight check, i.e. the mean observed position of that portion of the glide path typically between points 1830 m (6000 ft) and 300 m (1000 ft) from the threshold being represented as a straight line and extended to touchdown. The point at which this extended straight line meets the line drawn vertically through the threshold at the runway centre line is the achieved ILS reference datum. Note. Further guidance on the measurement of the glide path and achieved ILS reference datum is given in Doc 8071. 2.4.13 Chapter 3, 3.1.5.3.1 indicates the glide path coverage to be provided to allow satisfactory operation of a typical aircraft installation. The operational procedures promulgated for a facility must be compatible with the lower limit of this coverage. It is usual for descents to be made to the intercept altitude and for the approach to continue at this altitude until a fly-down signal is received. In certain circumstances a cross-check of position may not be available at this point. Automatic flight control systems will normally start the descent whenever a fly-up signal has decreased to less than about 10 microamperes. 2.4.14 The objective is, therefore, to provide a fly-up signal prior to intercepting the glide path. Although under normal conditions, approach procedures will be accomplished in such a way that glide path signals will not be used below 0.45, or beyond 18.5 km (10 NM) from the runway, it is desirable that misleading guidance information should not be radiated in this area. Where procedures are such that the glide path guidance may be used below 0.45, adequate precautions must be taken to guard against the radiation of misleading guidance information below 0.45, under both normal conditions and during a malfunction, thus preventing the final descent being initiated at an incorrect point on the approach. Some precautions which can be employed to guard against the radiation of misleading guidance include the radiation of a supplementary clearance signal such as provided for in Chapter 3, 3.1.5.2.1, the provision of a separate clearance monitor and appropriate ground inspection and setting-up procedures. 2.4.15 To achieve satisfactory monitor protection against below-path out-of-tolerance DDM, depending on the antenna system used, the displacement sensitivity monitor as required in Chapter 3, 3.1.5.7.1 e) may not be adequate to serve also as a clearance monitor, In some systems, e.g. those using multi-element arrays without supplementary clearance, a slight deterioration of certain antenna signals can cause serious degradation of the clearance with no change or only insignificant changes within the glide path sector as seen by the deviation sensitivity monitor. It is important to ensure that monitor alarm is achieved for any or all possible deteriorated antenna and radiated signal conditions, which may lead to a reduction of clearance to 0.175 DDM or less in the below-path clearance coverage. 2.7 Localizers and glide paths achieving coverage with two radio frequency carriers 2.7.1 Localizer coverage may be achieved by using two composite radiation field patterns on different carrier frequencies spaced within the localizer frequency channel. One field pattern gives accurate course and displacement indications within the front course sector; the other field pattern provides ILS indications outside the front course sector 3.1.3.7. discrimination between signals is obtained in airborne receivers by the stronger signal capturing the receiver. Effectiveness of capture depends on the type of detector used but, in general, if the radio of the two signals is of the order of 10 dB or more, the smaller signal does not cause significantly large errors in demodulated output. For optimum performance within the front course sector, the following guidance material should be applied in the operation of two carrier frequency localizer systems.

2.7.2 The localizer should be designed and maintained so that the radio of the two radiated signals-in-space within the front course sector does not fall below 10 dB. Particular attention should be directed to the vertical lobe structure produced by the two antenna systems which may be different in height and separated in distance, thus resulting in changes in radio of signal strengths during approach. 2.7.3 Due to the 6 dB allowance for the receiver pass-band filter ripple, localizer receiver response variations can occur as the clearance frequency is displaced from the course frequency. To minimize this effect, particularly for Category III operations, the course-to-clearance signal ratio needs to be increased from 10 dB to 16 dB. 2.7.4 To minimize further the risk of errors if the ratio of the two radiated signals falls below 10 dB within the front course sector, the difference in alignment of the radiation field patterns of the two signals should be kept as minimal as practicable. 2.7.5 Glide paths which employ two carriers are used to form a composite radiation field pattern on the same radio frequency channel. Special configurations of antennas and the distribution of antenna currents and phasing may permit siting of glide path facilities at locations with particular terrain conditions which may otherwise cause difficulty to a single-frequency system. At such sites, an improvement is obtained by reducing the low angle radiation. The second carrier is employed to provide coverage in the region below the glide path. 2.8 Integrity and continuity of service ILS ground equipment 2.8.1 Introduction 2.8.1.1 This material is intended to provide clarification of the integrity and continuity of service objectives of ILS localizer and glide path ground equipment and to provide guidance on engineering design and system characteristics of this equipment. The integrity and continuity of service must of necessity be known from an operational viewpoint in order to decide the operational application which an ILS could support. 2.8.1.2 It is generally accepted, irrespective of the operational objective, that the average rate of a fatal accident during landing, due to failures or shortcomings in the whole system, comprising the ground equipment, the aircraft and the pilot, should not exceed 110-7. This criterion is frequently referred to as the global risk factor. 2.8.1.3 In the case of Category I operations, responsibility for assuring that the above objective is not exceed is vested more or less completely in the pilot. In Category III operations, the same objective is required but must now be inherent in the whole system. In this context it is of the utmost importance to endeavour to achieve the highest level of integrity and continuity of service of the ground equipment integrity is needed to ensure that an aircraft on approach will have a low probability of receiving false guidance; continuity of service is needed to ensure that an aircraft in the final stages of approach will have a low probability of being deprived of a guidance signal. 2.8.1.4 It is seen that various operational requirements correspond to varied objectives of integrity and continuity of service. Paragraph 2.14 below identifies and describes four levels of integrity and continuity of service. 2.8.2 Guidance material concerning the achievement and retention of integrity and continuity of service levels 2.8.2.1 An integrity failure can occur if radiation of a signal which is outside specified tolerances is either unrecognized by the monitoring equipment or the control circuits fail to remove the faulty signal. Such a failure might constitute a hazard if it results in a gross error.

2.8.2.2 Clearly not all integrity failures are hazardous in all phases of the approach. For example, during the critical stages of the approach, undetected failures producing gross errors in course width or course line shifts are of special significance whereas an undetected change of modulation depth, or loss of localizer and glide slope clearance and localizer identification would not necessarily produce a hazardous situation. The criterion in assessing which failure modes are relevant must however include all those deleterious fault conditions which are not unquestionably obvious to the automatic flight system or pilot. 2.8.2.3 It is especially important that monitors be designed to provide fail-safe operation through compliance with the standards of Chapter 3, 3.1.3.11.4 and 3.1.5.7.4. This often requires a rigorous design analysis. Monitor failures otherwise may permit the radiation of erroneous signals. Some of the possible conditions which might constitute a hazard in Operational Performance Categories II and III are: a) an undetected shift of course line significantly outside the monitor limits for localizer and glide path; b) an undetected fault that significantly changes the course width and glide path sensitivity; c) an undetected, fault causing slow cyclic movements of the course, producing apparent course bends as seen by the approaching aircraft significantly exceeding in amplitude the figures specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4.2 for the localizer and Chapter 3, 3.1.5.4.2 for the glide path between ILS points B and T. 2.8.2.4 The highest order of protection is required against the risk of undetected failures in the monitoring and associated control system. This would be achieved by careful design to reduce the probability of such occurrences to a low level and by carrying out maintenance checks on the monitor system performance at intervals which are determined by the design analysis. Such an analysis can be used to calculate the level of integrity of the system in any one landing. The following formula applies to certain types of ILS and provides an example of the determination of system integrity, I, from a calculation of the probability of transmission of undetected erroneous radiation, P. (1) I = 1 P P = T1T2 /12 M1M2 when T1 < T2 where I = integrity P = the probability of a concurrent failure in transmitter and monitor systems resulting in erroneous undetected radiation. M1 = transmitter MTBF M1 = MTBF of the monitoring and associated control system 1 /1 = ratio of the rate of failure in the transmitter resulting in the radiation of an erroneous signal to the rate of all transmitter failures 1 /2 = ratio of the rate of failure in the monitoring and associated control system resulting in inability to detect an erroneous signal to the rate of all monitoring and associated control system failures T1 = period of time (in hours) between transmitter checks T2 = period of time (in hours) between checks on the monitoring and associated control system When T1 T2 the monitor system check may also be considered a transmitter check. In this case, therefore T1 = T2 and the formula would be: (2) P = T22 /12 M1M2 2.8.2.5 With regard to integrity, since the probability of occurrence of an unsafe failure within the monitoring or control equipment is extremely remote, to establish the required integrity level with a high degree of confidence would necessitate an evaluation period many times that needed to establish the equipment MTBF. Such a protracted period is unacceptable and therefore the required integrity level can only be predicted by rigorous design analysis of the equipment.

2.8.2.6 The MTBF and continuity of service of equipment is governed by basic construction and operating environment. Equipment design should employ the most suitable engineering techniques, materials and components, and rigorous inspection should be applied during manufacture. It is essential to ensure that equipment is operated within the environmental conditions specified by the manufacturer. The manufacturer is required to provide the details of the design to enable the MTBF and continuity of service to be calculated. It is expected that the equipment MTBF is confirmed by evaluation in an operational environment to take account of the impact of operational factors, i.e. airport environment, inclement weather conditions, power availability, quality and frequency of maintenance, etc. For integrity and continuity of service levels 2, 3 or 4 the evaluation period should be sufficient to determine achievement of the required level with a high degree of confidence. The following considerations apply: a) the typical acceptable degree of confidence is 90 per cent. Depending on the service level of the ILS, this may result in different evaluation periods. To assess the influence of the airport environment, a minimal evaluation period of one year is typically required for a new type of installation at that particular airport. It may be possible to reduce this period in cases where the operating environment is well controlled and similar to other proven installations. Subsequent installation of the same type of equipment under similar operational and environmental conditions may follow different evaluation periods. Typically, these minimal periods for subsequent installations are for service level 2, 2500 hours, for service level 3, 5000 hours and for service level 4, at least 9600 hours. Where several identical systems are being operated under similar conditions, it may be possible to base the assessment on the cumulative operating hours of all the systems. This will result in a reduced evaluation period; and b) during the evaluation period, it should be decided for each outage if it is caused by a design failure or if it is caused by a failure of a component due to its normal failure rate. Design failures are, for instance, operating components beyond their specification (overheating, over current, over voltage, etc. conditions). These design failures should be dealt with such that the operating condition is brought back to the normal operating condition of the component or that the component is replaced with a part suitable for the operating conditions. If the design failure is treated in this way, the evaluation may continue and this outage is not counted, assuming that there is a high probability that this design failure will not occur again. The same applies to outages due to any causes which can be mitigated by permanent changes to the operating conditions. 2.8.2.7 Continuity of service performance may also be demonstrated by means of MTBO (mean time between outage) where an outage is defined as any unanticipated cessation of signal-in-space. It is calculated by dividing the total facility up-time by the number of operational failures. MTBF and MTBO are not always equivalent, as not all equipment failures will necessarily result in an outage, e.g. an event such as a failure of a transmitter. The minimum MTBO values expected for the continuity of service in 2.14 below have been derived from several years of operational experience of many systems. To determine whether the performance record of an individual ILS system justifies its assignment to levels 2, 3 or 4 requires a judicious consideration of such factors as: 1) the performance record and experience of system use established over a suitable period of time (see 2.8.2.6); 2) the average achieved MTBO established for this type of ILS; and 3) the trend of the failure rates. As assigned designation should not be subject to frequent change. A suitable method to assess the behavior of a particular installation is to keep the records and calculate the average MTBO over the last five to eight failures of the equipment. A typical record of this method is given in Figures C-12A and C-12B. 2.8.2.8 During the equipment evaluation, and subsequent to its introduction into operational service, records should be maintained of all equipment failures or outages to confirm retention of the desired continuity of service.

2.8.2.9 The following configuration is an example of a redundant equipment arrangement that is likely to meet the objectives for integrity and continuity of service levels 3 or 4. The localizer facility consists of two continuously operating transmitters, one connected to the antenna and the standby connected to a dummy load. With these transmitters is associated a monitor system performing the following functions: a) monitoring of operation within the specified limits of the main transmitter and antenna system by means of majority voting among redundant monitors; b) monitoring the standby equipment. 2.8.2.9.1 Whenever the monitor system rejects one of the equipments the facility continuity of service level will the reduced because the probability of cessation of signal consequent on failure of other equipment will be increased. This change of performance must be automatically indicated at remote locations. 2.8.2.9.2 An identical monitoring arrangement to the localizer is used for the glide path facility.

2.8.2.9.3 To reduce mutual interference between the main and standby transmitters any stray radiation from the latter in at least 50 dB below the carrier level of the main transmitter measured at the antenna system. 2.8.2.9.4 In the above example the equipment would include provision to facilitate monitoring system checks at intervals specified by the manufacturer, consequent to his design analysis, to ensure attainment of the required integrity level. Such checks, which can be manual or automatic, provide the means to verify correct operation of the monitoring system including the control circuitry and changeover switching system. The advantage of adopting an automatic monitor integrity test is that no interruption to the operational service provided by the localizer or glide path is necessary. It is important when using this technique to ensure that the total duration of the check cycle is short enough not to exceed the total period specified in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.11.3 or 3.1.5.7.3. 2.8.2.9.5 Interruption of facility operation due to primary power failures is avoided by the provision of suitable standby supplies, such as batteries or no-break generators. Under these conditions, the facility should be capable of continuing in operation over the period when an aircraft may be in the critical stages of the approach. Therefore the standby supply should have adequate capacity to sustain service for at least two minutes. 2.8.2.9.6 Warnings of failures of critical parts of the system, such as the failure of the primary power supply, must be given at the designated control points. 2.8.2.10 In order to reduce failure of equipment that may be operating near its monitor tolerance limits, it is useful for the monitor system to include provision to generate a pre alarm warning signal to the designated control point when the monitored parameters reach a limit equal to a value in the order of 75 per cent of the monitor alarm limit. 2.8.2.11 Protection of the integrity of the signal-in-space against degradation which can arise from extraneous radio interference falling within the ILS frequency band or from re-radiation of ILS signals must also be considered. Measures to prevent the latter by critical and sensitive area protection are given in general terms at 2.1.10 above. With regard to radio interference it may be necessary to confirm periodically that the level of interference does not constitute a hazard. 2.8.2.12 A far field monitor can provide additional protection by providing a warning against the extremely remote probability of the radiation of false information from a localizer facility, as indicated in 2.8.5 below.

2.8.2.13 In general, monitoring equipment design is based on the principle of continuously monitoring the radiated signals-in-space at specific points within the coverage volume to ensure their compliance with the Standards specified at Chapter 3, 3.1.3.11 and 3.1.5.7. Although such monitoring provides to some extent an indication that the signal-in-space at all other points in the coverage volume is similarly within tolerance, this is largely inferred. It is essential therefore to carry out rigorous flight and ground inspections at periodic intervals to ensure the integrity of the signal-in-space throughout the coverage volume. 2.8.2.14 An equipment arrangement similar to that at 2.8.2.9 above, but with no transmitter redundancy, and the application of the provisions outlined in 2.8.2.11, 2.8.2.12 and 2.8.2.13 above, would normally be expected to achieve the objectives for integrity and continuity of service level 2. 2.8.2.15 An analysis of the factors involved in different types of operation allows the determination of desired values for the integrity, expressed in terms of the probability in any one landing, to be determined from the allowable global risk factor criterion. See 2.14.2 c) below. 2.8.3 The stringent requirement for integrity and high continuity of service essential for Category III operations requires the use of ILS Facility Performance Category III equipment having adequate assurance against failures. A failure is taken to be performance outside the monitor system tolerances specified in Chapter 3 at 3.1.3.11 for Category III localizers and 3.1.5.7 for Category III glide paths. Reliability of ground equipment operation must be very high, so as to ensure that safety during the critical phase of approach and landing is not impaired by a ground equipment failure when the aircraft is at such a height or attitude that it is unable to take safe corrective action. A high probability of performance within the specified limits has to be ensured. Facility reliability in terms of mean time between failure (MTBF) clearly has to be related on a system basis to the probability of failure which may affect any characteristic of the total signal-in-space. One analysis has shown that the continuity of service of an ILS installation used for Category IIIA operations should be such that the localizer facility and the glide path facility each have an MTBF of 4000 hours or more. The system must ensure the highest degree of protection against failure of the monitors to detect a failure in performance of the ground equipment. It is suggested that States endeavour to achieve reliability with as large a margin as is technically reasonable. 2.8.3.1 The following configuration is an example of a redundant arrangement suitable for Category III operations. The localizer facility consists of two continuously operating transmitters, one connected to an antenna load. With these transmitters is associated a monitor system performing the following functions: a) monitoring of operation within the specified limits of the main transmitter and antenna system by means of a majority voting among redundant monitors; b) monitoring the standby equipment. 2.8.3.1.1 Whenever the monitor system rejects one of the equipments the facility will no longer have Category III status because the probability of cessation of signal consequent on failure of other equipment will be too high. This reversion to a lower category is automatically indicated at remote locations. 2.8.3.1.2 An identical monitoring arrangement is used for the glide path facility.

2.8.3.1.3 To reduce mutual interference between the main and standby transmitters, any stray radiation from the latter should be at least 50 dB below the carrier level of the main transmitter measured at the antenna system. 2.8.3.2 The highest order of protection is required against the consequence of undetected monitor system failures. This should be achieved by careful design to reduce the probability of such occurrences to a low level and by carrying out maintenance checks on the monitor system performance at intervals which are determined by the design analysis.

2.8.4 Additional guidance material applicable to Categories II and III ILS localizer and glide path ground equipment is given below. 2.8.4.1 Reliability of equipment is governed by basic construction and operating environment. Equipment design should employ the most suitable engineering techniques, materials and components, and rigorous inspection should be applied in manufacture. Equipment should be operated in environmental conditions appropriate to the manufacturers design criteria. It is expected that the equipment reliability be established by evaluation before introduction into Categories II and III service. Design analysis should verify the predicted performance of the equipment. 2.8.5 Guidance relating to localizer far field monitor is given below.

2.8.5.1 Far field monitors are provided to monitor course alignment but may also be used to monitor course sensitivity. A far field monitor operates independently from integral and near field monitors. Its primary purpose is to protect against the risk of erroneous setting-up of the localizer, or faults in the near field or integral monitors. In addition, the far field monitor system will enhance the ability of the combined monitor system to respond to the effects of physical modification of the radiating elements or variations in the ground reflection characteristics. Moreover, multipath effects and runway area disturbances not seen by near field and integral monitors, and some occurrences of radio interferences may be substantially monitored by using a far field monitoring system built around a suitable receiver(s), installed under the approach path. 2.8.5.2 A far field monitor is generally considered essential for Category III operations, while for Category II it is generally considered to be desirable. Also for Category I installations, a far field monitor has proved to be a valuable tool to supplement the conventional monitor system. 2.8.5.3 The signal received by the far field monitor will suffer short-term interference effects caused by aircraft movements on or in the vicinity of the runway and experience has shown that it is not practical to use the far field monitor as an executive monitor. When used as a passive monitor, means must be adopted to minimize such temporary interference effects and to reduce the occurrence of nuisance downgrade indications; some methods of achieving this are covered in 2.8.5.4 below. The response of the far field monitor to interference effects offers the possibility of indicating to the air traffic control point when temporary disturbance of the localizer signal is present. However, experience has shown that disturbances due to aircraft movements may be present along the runway, including the touchdown zone, and not always be observed at the far field monitor. It must not be assumed, therefore, that a far field monitor can provide comprehensive surveillance of aircraft movements on the runway. 2.8.5.3.1 Additional possible applications of the far field monitor are as follows: a) it can be a useful maintenance aid to verify course and/or course deviation sensitivity in lieu of a portable far field monitor, b) it may be used to provide a continuous recording of far field signal performance showing the quality of the far field signal and the extent of signal disturbance. 2.8.5.4 Possible methods of reducing the occurrence of nuisance downgrade indications include: a) incorporation of a time delay within the system adjustable from 30 to 240 seconds; b) the use of a validation technique to ensure that only indications not affected by transitory disturbances are transmitted to the control system; c) use of low pass filtering.

2.8.5.5 A typical far field monitor consists of an antenna, VHF receiver and associated monitoring units which provide indications of DDM, modulation sum, and RF signal level. The receiving antenna is usually of a directional type to minimize unwanted interference and should be at the greatest height compatible with obstacle clearance limits. For course line monitoring, the antenna is usually positioned along the extended runway centre line. Where it is desired to also monitor displacement sensitivity, an additional receiver and monitor are installed with antenna suitably positioned to one side of the extended runway centre line. Some systems utilize a number of spatially separated antennas. 2.9 Localizer and glide path displacement sensitivities 2.9.1 Although certain localizer and glide path alignment and displacement sensitivities are specified in relation to the ILS reference datum, it is not intended to imply that measurement of these parameters must be made at this datum. 2.9.2 Localizer monitor system limits and adjustment and maintenance limits given in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.7 and 3.1.3.11 are stated as percentage changes of displacement sensitivity. This concept, which replaces specifications of angular width in earlier editions, has been introduced because the response of aircraft guidance systems is directly related to displacement sensitivity. It will be noted that angular width is inversely proportional to displacement sensitivity. 2.10 Siting of ILS markers 2.10.1 Considerations of interference between inner and middle markers, and the minimum operationally acceptable time interval between inner and middle marker light indications, will limit the maximum height marked by the inner marker to a height on the ILS glide path of the order of 37 m (120 ft) above threshold for markers sited within present tolerances in Annex 10. A study of the individual site will determine the maximum height which can be marked, noting that with a typical airborne marker receiver a separation period of the order of 3 seconds at an aircraft speed of 140 Kt between middle and inner marker light indications is the minimum operationally acceptable time interval. 2.10.2 In the case of ILS installations serving closely spaced parallel runways, e.g. 500 m (1650 ft) apart, special measures are needed to ensure satisfactory operation of the marker beacons. Some States have found it practical to employ a common outer marker for both ILS installations. However, special provisions, e.g. modified field patterns, are needed in the case of the middle markers if mutual interference is to be avoided, and especially in cases where the thresholds are displaced longitudinally from one another. 2.11 Use of DME as an alternative to ILS marker beacons 2.11.1 When DME is used as an alternative to ILS marker beacons, the DME should be located on the airport so that the zero range indication will be a point near the runway. 2.11.2 In order to reduce the triangulation error, the DME should be sited to ensure a small angle (e.g. less than 20 degrees) between the approach path and the direction to the DME at the points where the distance information is required. 2.11.3 The use of DME as an alternative to the middle marker beacon assumes a DME system accuracy of 0.37 km (0.2 NM) or better and a resolution of the airborne indication such as to allow this accuracy to be attained. 2.11.4 While it is not specifically required that DME be frequency paired with the localizer when it is used as an alternative for the outer marker, frequency pairing is preferred wherever DME is used with ILS to simplify pilot operation and to enable aircraft with two ILS receivers to use both receivers on the ILS channel.

2.11.5 When the DME is frequency paired with the localizer, the DME transponder identification should be obtained by the associated signal from the frequency-paired localizer. 2.12 The use of supplementary sources of orientation guidance in association with ILS 2.12.1 Aircraft beginning an ILS approach may be assisted by guidance information provided by other ground referenced facilities such as VORs, surveillance radar or, where these facilities cannot be provided, by a locator beacon. 2.12.2 When not provided by existing terminal or en-route facilities, a VOR, suitably sited, will provide efficient transition to the ILS. To achieve this purpose the VOR may be sited on the localizer course or at a position some distance from the localizer course provided that a radial will allow smooth transitions in the case of auto coupling. The distance between the VOR site and the desired point of interception must be recognized when determining the accuracy of the interception and the airspace available to provide for tracking errors. 2.12.3 Where it is impracticable to provide a suitably sited VOR, a compass locator or an NDB can assist transition to the ILS. The facility should be sited on the localizer course at a suitable distance from the threshold to provide for optimum transition. 2.13 The use of Facility Performance Category I ILS for automatic approaches and landings in visibility conditions permitting visual monitoring of the operation by the pilot 2.13.1 Facility Performance Category I ILS installations of suitable quality can be used, in combination with aircraft flight control systems of types not relying solely on the guidance information derived from the ILS sensors, for automatic approaches and automatic landings in visibility conditions permitting visual monitoring of the operation by the pilot. 2.13.2 To assist aircraft operating agencies with the initial appraisal of the suitability of individual ILS installations for such operations, provider States are encouraged to promulgate: a) the differences in any respect from Chapter 3, 3.1; b) the extent of compliance with the provisions in Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4 and 3.1.5.4, regarding localizer and glide path beam structure; and c) the height of the ILS reference datum above the threshold. 2.13.3 To avoid interference which might prevent the completion of an automatic approach and landing, it is necessary that local arrangements be made to protect, to the extent practicable, the ILS critical and sensitive areas. 2.13.4 Where two separate ILS facilities serve opposite ends of a single runway, an interlock should ensure that only the localizer serving the approach direction in use should radiate. 2.14 ILS classification supplementary ILS description method with objective to facilitate operational utilization 2.14.1 The classification system given below, in conjunction with the current facility performance categories, is intended to provide a more comprehensive method of describing an ILS. 2.14.2 The ILS classification is defined by using three characters as follows: a) I, II or III: this character indicates conformance to Facility Performance Category in Chapter 3, 3.1.3 and 3.1.5;

b) A, B, C, T, D or E: this character defined the ILS points to which the localizer structure conforms to the course structure given at Chapter 3, 3.1.3.4.2, except the letter T, which designates the runway threshold. The points are defined in Chapter 3, 3.1.1. c) 1, 2, 3 or 4: this number indicates the level of integrity and continuity of service given in Table C 2. Note. In relation to specific ILS operations it is intended that the level of integrity and continuity of service would typically be associated as follows: 1) Level 2 is the performance objective for ILS equipment used to support low visibility operations when ILS guidance for position information in the landing phase is supplemented by visual cues. This level is a recommended objective for equipment supporting Category I operations: 2) Level 3 is the performance objective for ILS equipment used to support operations which place a high degree of reliance on ILS guidance for positioning through touchdown. This level is a required objective for equipment supporting Category II operations; and 3) Level 4 is the performance objective for ILS equipment used to support operations which place a high degree of reliance on ILS guidance throughout touchdown and rollout. This level basically relates to the needs of the full range of Category III operations. Table C 2. Localizer or glide path Integrity integrity and continuity of service objectives Continuity of service Not demonstrated, or less than required for level 2 1 410-6 in any period of 15 seconds 1 210-6 in any period of 15 seconds 1 210-6 in any period of 30 seconds (localizer) 15 seconds (glide path) MTBO (hours)

Level 1

1 10-7 in any one landing 1 0.510-9 in any one landing 1 0.510-9 in any one landing

1000

2000

4000 (localizer) 2000 (glide path)

Note. For currently installed systems, in the event that the Level 2 integrity value is not available or cannot be readily calculated, it is necessary to at least perform a detailed analysis of the integrity to assure proper monitor fail-safe operation.

2.14.3 As an example, a Facility Performance Category II III which meets the localizer course structure criteria appropriate to a Facility Performance Category III ILS down to ILS point D and conforms to the integrity and continuity of service objectives of Level 3 would be described as class II/D/3. 2.14.4 ILS classes are appropriate only to the ground ILS element. Consideration of operational categories must also include additional factors such as operator capability, critical and sensitive area protection, procedural criteria and ancillary aids such as transmission meters, lights, etc. Note. For currently installed systems, in the event that the Level 2 integrity value is not available or cannot be readily calculated, it is necessary to at least perform a detailed analysis of the integrity to assure proper monitor fail-safe operation.

2.15 ILS carrier frequency and phase modulation 2.15.1 In addition to the desired 90 Hz and 150 Hz AM modulation of the ILS RF carriers, undesired frequency modulation (FM) and/or phase modulation (PM) may exist. This undesired modulation can cause centering errors in ILS receivers due to slope detection by ripple in the intermediate frequency (IF) filter pass-band. 2.15.2 For this to occur, the translated RF carrier frequency must fall on an IF frequency where the pass-band has a high slope. The slope converts the undesired 90 Hz and 150 Hz frequency changes to AM of the same frequencies. Similarly, any difference in FM deviation between the undesired 90 Hz and 150 Hz components is converted to DDM, which in tum produces an offset in the receiver. The mechanism is identical for PM as for FM, since PM causes a change in frequency equal to the change in phase (radians) multiplied by the modulating frequency. 2.15.3 The effect of the undesired FM and/or PM is summed by vector addition to the desired AM. The detected FM is either in phase or anti-phase with the AM according to whether the pass-band slope at the carriers IF is positive or negative. The detected PM is in quardrature with the AM, and may also be positive or negative according to the pass-band slope. 2.15.4 Undesired FM and/or PM from frequencies other than 90 Hz and 150 Hz, but which pass through the 90 Hz and 150 Hz tone filters of the receiver, can also cause changes to the desired 90 Hz and 150 Hz AM modulation of the ILS RF carrier, resulting in a DDM offset error in the receiver. Thus, it is essential that when measuring undesired FM and PM levels, audio band-pass filters with a pass-band at least as wide as that of the tone filters of ILS receiver should be used. These filters are typically inserted in commercial modulation meter test equipment between the demodulation and metering circuits, to ensure that only spectral components of interest to ILS applications are measured. To standardize such measurements, the filter characteristics are recommended as shown below:

Frequency (Hz) 45 85 90 95 142 150 158 300

90 Hz band-pass filter attenuation, dB - 10 - 0.5 0 - 0.5 (no specification) - 14 (no specification) - 16

150 Hz band-pass filter attenuation, dB - 16 (no specification) - 14 (no specification) - 0.5 0 - 0.5 - 10

3. Material concerning VOR 3.1 Guidance relating to VOR effective radiated power (ERP) and coverage 3.1.1 The field strength specified at Chapter 3, 3.3.4.2, is based on the following consideration: Airborne receiver sensitivity Transmission line loss, mismatch loss, antenna polar pattern variation with respect to an isotropic antenna Power required at antenna - 117 dBW

+ 7 dBW - 110 dBW

The power required of minus 100 dBW is obtained at 118 MHz with a power density of minus 107 dBW/m2; minus 107 dBW/m2 is equivalent to 90 microvolts per metre, i.e. plus 39 dB referenced to 1 microvolt per metre. Note. The power density for the case of an isotropic antenna may be computed in the following manner: Pd = Pa 10 log2 / 4 where Pd = power density in dBW/m2; Pa = power at receiving point in dBW; = wavelength in metres. 3.1.2 Nominal values of the necessary ERP to achieve a field strength of 90 microvolts per metre (minus 107 dBW/m2 ) are given at Figure C-13. For coverage under difficult terrain and siting conditions, it may be necessary to make appropriate increases in the effective radiated power. Conversely, practical experience has shown that under favourable siting conditions, and under the less pessimistic conditions often found in actual service, satisfactory system operation is achieved with a lower ERP. Note. The nominal effective radiated powers, expressed as a function of level and range, are based upon consideration of basic theoretical data from various sources (such as CCIR, NBS, etc.) modified empirically to reflect typical operational experience. 3.1.3 The use of Figure C-13 is illustrated by the following examples. In order to achieve the necessary field strength at 342 km (185 NM)/12000 m (40000 ft), 300 km (162 NM)/12000 m (40000 ft), and 166.5 km (90 NM)/6000 m (20000 ft), nominal effective radiated powers of plus 23 dBW, plus 17 dBW and plus 11 dBW respectively are required. 3.1.4 In order to facilitate frequency and equipment planning, wherever practicable, ERP categories corresponding to plus 23 dBW, plus 17 dBW and plus 11 dBW should be employed. These ERP values should be indicated during regional Planning Activities.

3.1.5 A VOR having an ERP of plus 23 dBW approximates to a VOR previously referred to in Annex 10 as Category A (transmitter power 200 W). Possible relationships between ERP and transmitter output powers are illustrated by the following examples: Example I +23 dBW -2 dBW +2 dBW +23 dBW Example II +18 dBW -1 dBW +6 dBW +23 dBW

Transmitter power Ground transmission Line loss Antenna gain relative to an isotropic antenna ERP

Similarly, a VOR having an ERP of plus 17 dBW approximates to a VOR previously referred to in Annex 10 as Category B (transmitter power 50 W). Possible relationships between ERP and transmitter output powers are illustrated by the following examples: Example I +17 dBW -2 dBW +2 dBW +17 dBW Example II +10 dBW -1 dBW +8 dBW +17 dBW

Transmitter power Ground transmission Line loss Antenna gain relative to an isotropic antenna ERP

3.1.6 It is recognized that the above ERP categories may achieve a greater coverage than is necessary for some operational requirements. A suitable lesser coverage might be achieved by a VOR facility having an ERP of approximately plus 11 dBW as follows: Example I Example II Transmitter power +11 dBW +7 dBW Ground transmission -2 dBW -1 dBW Line loss Antenna gain relative +2 dBW +5 dBW to an isotropic antenna ERP +11 dBW +11 dBW 3.2 Guidance in respect of siting VOR 3.2.1 The site should be on the highest ground in the vicinity to obtain the greatest line-of-sight coverage and should be level or should slope away from the station (at a downgrade not exceeding 4 per cent) to a distance of at least 300 m (1000 ft) and preferably to 600 m (2000 ft) from the station. The site contours should be circular with respect to the antenna array to a radius of at least 300 m (1000 ft). The site should be as far removed from wire lines and fences should not subtend a vertical angle of more than 1.5 degrees or extend more than 0.5 degree above the horizontal as measured from the antenna array. These limits may be increased by 50 per cent for fences or lines which are essentially radial to the antenna array or which subtend a horizontal angle of no more than 10 degrees. Single trees of moderate size, up to 9 m (30 ft) in height, may be tolerated beyond 150 m (500 ft). No groups of trees should subtend a vertical angle greater than 2 degrees or be situated within 300 m (1000 ft) of the station. Provisions should be made for clearing trees to 600 m (2000 ft) if it should prove necessary. No structures should subtend a vertical angle greater than 1.2 degrees or be situated within 150 m (500 ft) of the station. Wooden structures with negligible metallic content and with little prospect of future metallic additions may subtend vertical angles up to 2.5 degrees.

3.2.2 In mountainous terrain, a mountain-top site will often be preferable. The site should be on the highest accessible hilltop or mountain, the top of which should be graded flat to a radius of at least 45 m (150 ft). On such sites, the antenna system should be installed approximately a half wavelength above ground level in the centre of the graded area and the transmitter building should be beyond the graded area, far enough down the slope to be below optical line of sight from the antenna array. No ground, trees, power lines, buildings, etc, between 45 m (150 ft) and 360 m (1200 ft) should be within optical line of sight of the antenna array. 3.3 Determination of the effect of polarization error on VOR accuracy 3.3.1 As it is not possible to specify as yet the maximum permissible value of the vertically polarized component of the radiation from the VOR, certain flight tests are necessary to determine the effect on the bearing indication accuracy due to the presence of the polarization errors. 3.3.2 Three methods are available to determine the effects of polarization errors: 1) 30-degree wing rock; 2) flying 8 tracks over a ground check-point; 3) flying a circle at 30-degree bank. The first of these methods is designed to measure the polarization errors which occur when an aircraft rolls while flying a given VOR radial. The second method measures the polarization error for eight different aircraft headings when the aircraft is not banked. The third method measures the polarization errors, for all aircraft headings, with the aircraft banked at 30 degrees. The flight tests are as follows: 3.3.3 30-degree wing rock. The aircraft is flown on a constant heading towards the VOR station and is banked slowly from plus 30 degrees to minus 30 degrees. The course deviation indicator current is recorded and converted into degrees of course displacement. 3.3.4 Eight tracks over a ground check-point. The aircraft is flown over a specific ground check-point on eight different headings displaced by 45 degrees. The course deviation indicator current is recorded and the recording is marked when the aircraft is over the check-point. The indicated bearing on each heading is compared with the indicated bearing when the aircraft is heading towards the VOR station and is over the check-point. 3.3.5 Circular flight with 30-degree bank. The aircraft is first headed towards the VOR station over a ground check-point. From this point, it is flown in a circle at constant 30-degree bank. The course deviation indicator current is recorded while the aircraft is flying this circle and converted into degrees of error from the bearing indicated at the beginning of the procedure when the aircraft is over the check-point. The change of bearing of the aircraft with respect to the VOR station must be subtracted from the course deviation error. The resultant, after receiver error has been eliminated, is assumed to be polarization error. 3.3.6 The polarization tests may conveniently be conducted at an altitude of 300 m (1000 ft). Flight tests in 3.3.4 and 3.3.5 above may be employed with respect to a check-point which is approximately 33.4 km (18 NM) from the VOR. 3.4.7 Use of he figures given in 3.4.6 above or other figures appropriate to other service distances and altitudes implies recognition of the basic assumptions made in this substitution of an approximate method of calculating separation, and the application of the figures will only be correct within the limitations set by those assumptions. The assumptions include that the change of field strength with distance (Factor S) at various altitudes of reception is only valid for angles of elevation at the VOR of up to about 5 degrees, but above the radio line of sight. If more precise determination of separation distances is required in areas of frequency congestion, this may be determined for each facility from appropriate propagation curves.

3.4.8 The deployment of 50 kHz channel spacing requires conformity with Chapter 3, 3.3.2.2 and 3.3.5.7 and Annex 10, Volume V, Chapter 4, 4.2.4. Where, due to special circumstances it is essential during the initial conversion period from 100 kHz channel spacing to 50 kHz channel spacing to take account of nearby VOR facilities that do not conform with Chapter 3, 3.3.2.2 and 3.3.5.7 and Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 4, 4.2.4, greater geographical separation between these and the new facilities utilizing 50 kHz channel spacing will be required to ensure a bearing error of less than one degree due to the unwanted signal. On the assumption that the sideband levels of the 9960 Hz harmonic of the radiated signal of such facilities do not exceed the following levels: 9960 Hz 0 dB reference 2nd harmonic - 20 dB 3rd harmonic - 30 dB 4th harmonic and above - 40 dB the separation formula at 3.4.5 above should be applied as follows: a) where only receivers designed for 50 kHz channel spacing need to be protected, the value of 40 should be replaced by 20 in the formula at B non-collocated case; b) where it is necessary to protect receivers designed for 100 kHz channel spacing, the co-channel formula A co-channel case, should be applied for the range of altitudes for which protection is required. 3.4.9 When DME/N facilities and VOR facilities are intended to operate in association with each other, as outlined in Chapter 3. 3.5.3.3.5, and have a common service volume, both a the co-channel and adjacent channel geographical separation distances required by the DME are satisfied by the separation distances of the VOR as computed in this section, provided the distance between VOR and DME does not exceed 600 m (2000ft). However, if DME/W facilities are employed, the first adjacent channel minimum separation for the DME/W facilities should be equal to the co-channel separation specified for the VOR. The second adjacent channel minimum separation for DME/W facilities should equal the first adjacent channel separation specified for VOR. A potential interference situation may also occur with the implementation of DME Y channels since interference between two DME ground stations spaced 63 MHz apart could occur when transmitting and receiving on the same frequency (e.g. transmissions from channel 17Y could interfere with reception on channels 80 X and 80 Y). To aviate any ground receiver desensitization due to this interference, a minimum ground separation distance of 18.5 km (10 NM) between facilities is necessary. 3.5 Criteria for geographical separation of VOR/ILS facilities 3.5.1 In using the figures of 3.5.3.1 and 3.5.3.2 below, it is to be borne in mind that the following assumptions have been made: a) that the localizer receiver characteristic is as shown in 2.6.2 above, and the VOR receiver characteristic as shown in 3.4.2 above; b) that the protection ratio for the ILS system and the VOR system is 20 dB as in 2.6.3 above and 3.4.3 above, respectively; c) that the protection point for ILS is at a service distance of 46.25 km (25 NM) measured along the line of use, and at an altitude of 1900 m (6250 ft). Note. With the advent of highly directional ILS localizer antenna arrays, the most critical protection point will not be along the extended runway centre line. Directive antennas result in critical protection points at maximum distance, either plus or minus 10 degrees or plus or minus 35 degrees off the runway centre line. Protection of these points should be examined during the frequency assignment process. 3.5.2 Although international VOR and ILS facilities will not appear on the same frequency, it may occur that an frequency as, and on a comparable basis with, a national ILS facility. For this reason, guidance is given as to the geographical separation required not only for a VOR and an ILS facility separated by 50 kHz or 100 kHz, but also for co-channel usage.

3.5.3 Because of the differing characteristics of use of the two equipment, the criteria for minimum geographical separation of VOR/ILS to avoid harmful interference are stated separately for each facility where relevant. 3.5.3.1 Co-channel case 1) Protection of the ILS system requires that a VOR having an ERP of 17 dBW (50W) be at least 148 km (80 NM) from the ILS protection point. 2) On the assumption that a VOR having an ERP of 17 dBW (50W) is to be protected to a service distance of 46.25 km (25 NM) and an altitude of 3000 m (1000 ft), protection of the VOR system requires that the ILS be at least 148 km (80 NM) from the VOR. 3) If protection of the VOR is required to, say, 92.5 km (50 NM) and 6000 m (20000 ft), the ILS is to be at least 250 km (135 NM) from the VOR. 3.5.3.2 Adjacent channel case. Protection of the VOR system is effectively obtained without geographical separation of the facilities. However, in the case of: a) a localizer receiver designed for 100 kHz channel spacing and used in an area where navaid assignments are spaced at 100 kHz, the protection of the ILS system requires that a VOR having an ERP of 17 dBW (50 W) be at least 9.3 km (5 NM) from the ILS protection point; b) a localizer receiver designed for 100 kHz channel spacing and used in an area where assignments are spaced at 50 kHz, the protection of the ILS system requires that a VOR having an ERP of 17 dBW (50 W) be at least 79.6 km (43 NM) from the ILS protection point. 3.5.4 Use of the figures given in 2.5.3 above or other figures appropriate to other service distances and altitudes implies recognition of the basic assumptions made in this substitution of an approximate method of calculating separation, and the application of the figures will only be correct within the limitations set by those assumptions. If more precise determination of separation distances is required in areas of frequency congestion, this may be determined for each facility from appropriate propagation curves. 3.5.5 Protection of the ILS system from VOR interference is necessary where a VOR facility is located near an ILS approach path. In such circumstances, to avoid disturbance of the ILS receiver output due to possible cross modulation effects, suitable frequency separation between the ILS and VOR channel frequencies should be used. The frequency separation will be dependent upon the ratio of the VOR and ILS field densities, and the characteristics of the airborne installation. 3.7 VOR system accuracy Note. Guidance material on the determination of VOR system performance values is also contained in Annex 11, Attachment A.. 3.7.1 Purpose. The following guidance material is intended to assist in the use of VOR systems. It is not intended to represent lateral separation standards or minimum obstacle clearances, although it may of course provide a starting point in their determination. The setting of separation standards or minimum obstacle clearances will necessarily take account of many factors not covered by the following material. 3.7.1.1 There is, however, a need to indicate a system use accuracy figure for the guidance of States planning VOR systems. 3.7.2 Explanation of terms. The following terms are used with the meanings indicated: a) VOR radial signal error. The difference between the nominal magnetic bearing to a point of measurement from the VOR ground station and the bearing indicated by the VOR signal at that same point. The VOR radial signal error is made up of certain stable elements, such as course displacement error and most site and terrain effect errors, and certain random variable errors. The VOR radial signal error is associated with the ground station

only and excludes other error factors, such as airborne equipment errors and pilotage element.

b) VOR radial variability error. That part of the VOR radial signal error which can be expected to vary about the essentially constant remainder. The radial variability error is the sum of the variable errors. c) VOR radial displacement error. That part of the VOR radial signal error which is stable and may be considered as fixed for long periods of time. d) VOR airborne equipment error. That error attributable to the inability of the equipment in the aircraft to translate correctly the bearing information contained in the radial signal. This error includes the contributions of the airborne receiver and the instrumentation used to present the information to the pilot. e) VOR aggregate error. The difference between the magnetic bearing to a point of measurement from the VOR ground station and the bearing indicated by airborne VOR equipment of stated accuracy. More simply put, this is the error in the information presented to the pilot, taking into account not only the ground station and propagation path errors, but also the error contributed by the airborne VOR receiver and its instrumentation. The entire VOR radial signal error, both fixed and variable, is used. f) VOR pilotage element. The error in the use of VOR navigation attributable to the fact that the pilot cannot or does not keep the aircraft precisely at the centre of the VOR radial or bearing indicated to him. g) VOR system use error. The square root of the sum of the squares (RSS) of VOR aggregate error and the pilotage element. This combination may be used to determine the probability of an aircraft remaining within specified limits when using VOR. 3.7.3 Calculation of VOR system use accuracy 3.7.3.1 The VOR system use accuracy is derived by considering the following error elements: a) VOR radial signal error (Eg). This element consists of the radial displacement error and the radial variability error. It is determined by considering such factors as fixed radial displacement, monitoring, polarization effects, terrain effects and environment changes. b) VOR airborne equipment error (Ea). This element embraces all factors in the airborne VOR system which introduce errors (errors resulting from the use of compass information in some VOR displays are not included). c) VOR pilotage element (Ep). The value taken for this element is that used in PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) for pilot tolerance. Note A measurement error also exists, but in a generalized discussion of errors may be considered to be absorbed in the other error values. 3.7.3.2 Since the errors in a), b), and c), when considered on a system basis (not any one radial) are independent variables, they may be combined on a root-sum-square method (RSS) when the same probability level is given to each element. For the purpose of this material, each element is considered to have a 95 per cent probability. Therefore, the following formulae are derived: VOR aggregate error = Eg2 + Ea2 VOR system use error = Eg2 + Ea2 +Ep2 3.7.3.3 The following examples will derive only the VOR system use error but calculations can also be made to determine VOR aggregate error, if desired. By use of these formulae, the impact on the system of improvement or degradation of one of more error elements can be assessed. Note All figures for VOR radial signal error are related to radials for which no restrictions are published. 3.7.3.4 Subject to the qualifications indicated in 3.7.1 above, it is considered that a VOR system use accuracy of plus or minus 5 degrees on a 95 per cent probability basis is a suitable figure for use by States planning the application of the VOR system (see, however, 3.7.3.5 below). This figure corresponds to the following component errors: VOR radial signal error: Plus or minus 3 degrees (95 per cent probability), a value readily achieved in practice.

VOR airborne equipment error: Plus or minus 3 degrees (95 per cent probability), system characteristics value (see 3.6.2 above). VOR pilotage element: Plus or minus 2.5 degrees (95 per cent probability), in accordance with PANS-OPS (see also 3.7.3.8 below). 3.7.3.5 While the figure of plus or minus 5 degrees on a 95 per cent probability basis is a useful figure based on broad practical experience and used by many States, it must be noted that this figure may be achieved only if the error elements which make it up remain within certain tolerances. It is clear that, if the errors attributable to the VOR system elements are larger than the amounts noted, the resulting VOR system use error will also be larger. Conversely, where any or all of the above computation, the resulting VOR system use error will also be smaller. 3.7.3.6 The following examples, also derived from practical experience, provide additional planning guidance for State: A. VOR radial signal error: Plus or minus 3.5 degrees (95 per cent probability), used by some States as the total ground system error. VOR airborne equipment error: Plus or minus 4.2 degrees (95 per cent probability), recognized in some States as the minimum performance figure for some classes of operations. VOR pilotage element: Plus or minus 2.5 degree (95 per cent probability), in accordance with PANS-OPS (see also 3.7.3.8 below). Calculated VOR system use accuracy: Plus or minus 6 degrees (95 per cent probability). VOR radial signal error: Plus or minus 1.7 degree (95 per cent probability), based on one State on a large number of VORs. B.

extensive flight measurements conducted in

VOR airborne equipment error: Plus or minus 2.7 degrees (95 per cent probability), achieved in many airline operations. VOR pilotage element: Plus or minus 2.5 degrees (95 per cent probability), in accordance with PANS-OPS (see also 3.7.3.8 below). Calculated VOR system use accuracy: Plus or minus 4 degrees (95 per cent probability). 3.7.3.7 More realistic application of the VOR system may be achieved by assessing the errors as they actually exist in particular circumstances, rather than by using all-embracing generalizations which may give unduly optimistic or pessimistic results. In individual applications, it may be possible to utilize a system use accuracy value less than plus or minus 5 degrees if one or more of the error elements are smaller than the values used to compute the plus or minus 5 degrees. Conversely, a system use accuracy value greater than plus or minus 5 degrees will be necessary where it is known that radials are of poor quality or significant site errors exist, or for other reasons. However, in addition to this advice a warning is also essential regarding the use of lower values of individual elements in the system (for example, the radial signal error) on the assumption that an over-all improvement in system accuracy will occur. There is considerable evidence that this may not be the case in some circumstances and that lower system accuracy values should not be applied without other confirmation (e.g. by

radar observation ) that an actual improvement in over-all performance is being achieved.

3.7.3.8 It is to be noted that in angular systems such as the VOR, the pilotage element error, expressed in angular terms, will be greater as the aircraft nears the point source. Thus, whilst ground system and airborne error contributions, expressed in angular terms, are for all practical purposes constant at all ranges, it is necessary when considering the over-all system use accuracy figures to take into account the larger pilotage element error occurring when the aircraft is near the VOR. However, these larger pilotage element errors do not result in large lateral deviations from course when near the facility.

5. Specification for 75 MHz marker beacons (en-route) 5.1 Marker beacon antenna arrays 5.1.1 General. The following describes types of marker antenna arrays that are frequently used in current practice. These types are the simplest forms meeting normal requirements; in special cases, arrays having a better performance (see Note to 5.1.4 below) may be required. 5.1.2 Z marker beacons a) Radiating systems. A radiating system consisting of two horizontal dipole arrays crossed at right angles, each comprising two co-linear half-wave radiating elements with centres spaced approximately a half wavelength apart and mounted one-quarter wavelength above the counterpoise. The currents in the dipoles and their respective elements are adjusted so that: 1) the current in one set of dipole arrays relative to that in the other set is equal but differs in time phase by 90 degrees; 2) the currents in the radiating elements of a particular dipole array are equal and in time phase. b) Counterpoise. A square counterpoise with minimum dimensions of 9 m9 m, usually elevated about 1.8 m (6 ft) above the ground and, if fabricated from wire mesh, with the dimension of the mesh not exceeding 7.5 cm 7.5 cm. 5.1.3 Fan marker beacons for use only at low altitudes (low power fan marker beacons). capable of providing the field strengths indicated in Chapter 3, 3.1.7.3.2. A radiating system

5.1.4 Fan marker beacons for general use (high power fan marker beacons) a) Radiating system. A radiating system consisting of four horizontal co-linear half-wave (approximate) radiating elements mounted approximately one-quarter wavelength above the counterpoise. The current in each of the antenna elements should be in phase and should have current ratio of 1:3:3:1 Note. The current distribution between elements and their height above the counterpoise may be altered to provide patterns for specific operational requirements. Improved vertical patterns for certain operational needs may be achieved by adjusting the height of the dipole arrays above the counter-poise to a value of one-quarter wavelength or greater, but less than a half wavelength. b) Counterpoise. A rectangular counterpoise with minimum dimensions of 6 m12 m, usually elevated about 1.8 m (6 ft) above the ground and, if fabricated from wire mesh, with the dimension of the mesh not exceeding 7.5 cm 7.5 cm. 5.2 Identification coding for fan marker beacons associated with a four-course radio range 5.2.1 Fan marker beacons located on the legs of a four-course radio range do not normally require an identification signal relating to a particular geographic location, but only a signal that will indicate the leg with which they are associated.

5.2.2 In the case of a four-course radio range having not more than one marker on any leg, it is current practice to identify a marker by a single dash if on the leg bearing true north or nearest to north in a clockwise direction (east), and to identify a marker on other legs by two, three or four dashes according to whether the leg with which it is associated is the second, third or fourth leg from north in a clockwise direction. Where more than one fan marker beacon is associated with one leg of a four-course radio range, the marker nearest to the station is identified by dashes only, the next nearest by two dots preceding the dashes, and the third by three dots preceding the dashes, and so on. Note. In certain special circumstances, the above coding system may lead to ambiguities due to two markers associated with the legs of different by overlapping radio ranges being geographically close together. In such cases, it is desirable to use a distinctive identification coding with one of the marker beacons.

7. Material concerning DME 7.1 Guidance material concerning both DME/N and DME/P 7.1.1 System efficiency 7.1.1.1 System efficiency is the combined effect of down-link garble, ground transponder dead time, up-link garble, and interrogator signal processor efficiency. Since each of these efficiency components are statistically independent, they can be computed individually and then combined to yield the system efficiency. The effect of a single component is defined as the percentage ratio of valid replies processed by the interrogator in response to its own interrogations assuming all other components are not present. The system efficiency is then the product of the individual components. 7.1.1.2 In computing system efficiency, the number of missing replies as well as the accuracy of the range measurement made with the received replies should be considered. Missing replies may result from signal interference due to garble or from interrogations being received at the transponder during a dead time period. Replies which contain significant errors large enough to be rejected by the interrogator signal processing also should be treated as missing replies when computing the efficiency component. 7.1.1.3 The interference rate due to garble is dependent upon the channel assignment plan, traffic loading, and the ground transponder and interrogator receiver bandwidths. Because the FA mode has a wider receiver bandwidth than the IA mode, it is more susceptible to interference. These factors were accommodated in the DME/P system definition and normally do not require special consideration by the operating authority. 7.1.2 Down-link garble 7.1.2.1 Down-link garble occurs when valid interrogations at the ground transponder are interfered with by coincident interrogations from other aircraft and results in loss of signal or errors in time-of-arrival measurement. This undesired air-to-ground loading is a function of the number of interrogating aircraft in the vicinity of the serving transponder and the corresponding distribution of interrogation frequencies and signal amplitudes received at the transponder. Note. Transponder to transponder garbling is controlled by the channel assignment authorities. 7.1.3 Up-link garble 7.1.3.1 Up-link garble occurs when valid replies at the interrogator are interfered with by other transponders and results in loss of signal or errors in pulse time-of-arrival measurement. The garble can be interference from any transponder whose frequency is within the bandwidth of the interrogator, including those on the same frequency, but with different pulse coding. This undesired ground-to-air loading is a function of the number of transponders in the vicinity of the interrogator and the corresponding distribution of reply frequencies and signal amplitudes received at the interrogator.

7.1.4 Interrogator processor efficiency 7.1.4.1 The interrogator signal processor efficiency is the ratio of the number of replies processed by the interrogator to the number of interrogations in the absence of garble and transponder dead time effects. This efficiency depends on the reply pulse threshold level and the receiver noise level. 7.1.5 Relationship between aircraft served and transmission rate 7.1.5.1 Specification of the maximum transponder transmission rate establishes the maximum average transmitter power level. Chapter 3, 3.5.4.1.5.5 recommends that the transponder have a transmission rate capability of 2700 pulse pairs per second if 100 aircraft are to be served. This represents typical transponder loading arising from 100 aircraft. To determine the actual transmission rate capability that should be accommodated at a given facility during peak traffic conditions requires that the maximum number of interrogators be estimated. To compute the interrogation loading on the transponder, the following should be considered: a) the number of aircraft that constitutes the peak traffic load; b) the number of interrogators in use on each aircraft; c) the distribution of operating modes of the interrogators in use (e.g. search, initial approach, final approach, ground test); d) the appropriate pulse repetition frequency as given in Chapter 3, 3.5.3.4. 7.1.5.2 Given the interrogation loading which results from the peak traffic as well as the reply efficiency of the transponder in the presence of this load, the resulting reply rate can be computed, thereby establishing the required transmitter capability. This reply rate is the level that, when exceeded, results in a reduction in receiver sensitivity (as specified in Chapter 3, 3.5.4.2.4) in order to maintain the reply rate at or below this maximum level. 7.1.6 Siting of DME associated with ILS or MLS 7.1.6.1 The DME should, where possible, provide to the pilot an indicated zero range at touchdown in order to satisfy current operational requirements. 7.1.6.2 The optimum site for a DME transponder is dependent upon a number of technical and operational factors. DME/N may be installed with ILS or MLS where operational requirements permit. DME/P, which provides higher accuracy and coverage throughout the entire runway region, is required to support the more flexible and advanced operations that are available with MLS. 7.1.6.3 In the case of DME/N, the provision of zero range indication may be achieved by siting the transponder as close as possible to the point at which zero range indication is required. Alternatively, the transponder time delay can be adjusted to permit aircraft interrogators to indicate zero range at a specified distance from the DME antenna. When the indicated DME zero range has a reference other than the DME antenna, consideration should be given to publishing this information. 7.1.6.4 In the case of DME/P, in order to meet accuracy and coverage requirements, particularly in the runway region, it is recommended that the DME/P be sited as close as possible to the MLS azimuth facility, consistent with obstacle clearance criteria. For aircraft equipped with a full MLS capability, the desired zero range indication can then be obtained by utilizing MLS basic data. Note that the DME/P transponder time delay must not be adjusted for this purpose. 7.1.6.5 It is desirable that all users obtain indicated zero range at touchdown irrespective of the airborne equipment fitted. This would necessitate location of the DME/P abeam the runway at the touchdown point. In this case accuracy requirements for DME/P would not be met on the runway. It must be noted that MLS Basic Data Word 3 only permits the coding of DME/P coordinates within certain limits.

7.1.6.6 If an MLS/DME/P and an ILS/DME/N serve the same runway, an aircraft equipped with a minimum MLS capability can have a zero range indication at the MLS approach azimuth site when operating on MLS and a zero range indication at the touchdown point when operating on ILS. As this is considered to be operationally unacceptable, specifically from an ATC point of view, and if ILS/MLS/DME frequency tripling to prevent the relocation of the DME/N is not possible, the implementation of DME/P is to be postponed until the DME/N is withdrawn. 7.1.6.7 The nominal location of the zero range indication provided by a DME/N interrogator needs to be published. 7.1.6.8 In considering DME sites, it is also necessary to take into account technical factors such as runway length, profile, local terrain and transponder antenna height to assure adequate signal levels in the vicinity of threshold and along the runway. Care is also to be taken that where distance information is required in the runway region, the selected site is not likely to cause the interrogator to lose track due to excessive rate of change of velocity.

Doc8071 Volume I Fourth Edition

Manual on Testing of Radio Navigation Aids

Volume I

Testing of Ground-based Radio Navigation Systems

Fourth Edition 2000

International Civil Aviation Organization

Chapter 1 General
1.1 Introduction 1.1.1 Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 2, 2.7 states, states Radio navigation aids of the types covered by the specifications in Chapter 3 and available for use by aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall be the subject of periodic ground and flight tests. 1.1.2 Volume I of the Manual on Testing of Radio Navigation Aids (Doc 8071, Fourth Edition) addresses ground based radio navigation systems. This document contains guidance material only. The texts and procedures outlined do not have the status of Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) except for identified quotations from Annex 10. 1.2 Purpose of the document This document is intended to provide general guidance on the extent of testing and inspection normally carried out to ensure that radio navigation systems meet the SARPs in Annex 10. The guidance is representative of practices existing in a number of States with considerable experience in the operation and maintenance of these systems. 1.3 Scope of the document 1.3.1 This document describes the ground and flight testing to be accomplished for a specific radio navigation aid, and provides relevant information about special equipment required to carry out certain major tests. It is not intended to recommend certain models of equipment, but rather to provide general details relative to the systems under consideration. 1.3.2 System testing is addressed in this document in general terms. System testing is normally done as part of design and development activities, prior to volume production and individual site installations. System testing includes design qualification testing, operational testing and evaluation, and shakedown tests. 1.3.3 In this document, the terms testing and inspection have the following meanings: -- Testing: A specific measurement or check of facility performance that may form a part of an inspection when integrated with other tests. -- Inspection: A series of tests carried out by a State authority or an organization as authorized by the State to establish the operational classification of the facility. 1.4 Ground Versus Flight Testing/Inspection 1.4.1 Ground tests are carried out by a trained specialist using appropriate test equipment at the facility or at a point on the ground remote from the site. Flight tests are those carried out in the air by a trained flight crew using a suitably equipped aircraft. Serious consideration should be given to the relative merits of these two methods taking into account both technical and economic factors. 1.4.2 Ground tests are usually more appropriate and less costly for accurate and quick evaluation of the facility performance. Flight tests are required to examine the signals-in-space as received at the aircraft after being influenced by external factors such as site conditions, ground conductivity, terrain irregularities, metallic structures, propagation effects, etc. Certain tests that appear to be ground-based may be more appropriate as flight tests or vice versa.

1.4.3 Ground tests are normally carried out more frequently because they are less expensive and can be used as indicators to determine when flight inspection is required. It is important to establish correlation between ground and flight tests for this reason. Correlation will allow intelligent decisions to be made based on experience. It is often worthwhile to expend considerable effort in developing accurate and meaningful ground tests, as costs of flight tests are high. 1.4.4 Flight testing will continue to be important in the proof of facility performance because it represents in flight evaluation and provide a sampling of the radiated signals in the operating environment. 1.4.5 Where the small number of radio navigation aids in a State, or other reasons, make the establishment of a flight inspection unit uneconomical or impractical, it may be possible to obtain services through other States or a commercial company. Information regarding these flight inspection services can usually be obtained from the appropriate ICAO Regional Office. 1.5 Categories and Priorities of tests and inspections 1.5.1 It is difficult to define requirements for intervals between various types of testing/inspections due to many associated factors specific to different States. Factors such as stability of equipment, extent of monitoring , weather, quality of maintenance crews, standby equipment, etc, are all related. The period between tests/inspections of a new facility should be short during the early months of operation and may be extended as satisfactory experience is gained. 1.5.2 This document contains suggested schedules for each radio navigation aid, which should be considered (and modified, if necessary), based on the conditions relevant to each State and each site. The manufacturers instruction manual will usually contain recommendations that are useful in this regard. Facility testing can be considered in the following general categories. Ground testing / inspection 1.5.3 Site proving. Tests carried out at proposed sites for the ground element of radio navigation aids to prove suitability. Portable ground installations are used for this purpose. 1.5.4 Initial proof of performance: A complete inspection of the facility after installation and prior to commissioning to determine whether the equipment meets the Standards and specifications. 1.5.5 Periodic: Regular or routine inspections carried out on a facility to determine whether the equipment continues to meet the Standards and specifications. 1.5.6 Special: Tests after a failure of the facility or other circumstances that indicate special testing is required.. Special tests will often result in appropriate maintenance work to restore the facility and in a special flight inspection, if required. Flight testing / inspection 1.5.7 Site proving: A flight test conducted at the proposed site at the option of the responsible Authority to determine the effects of the environment on the performance of the planned radio navigation aid. 1.5.8 Commissioning: An extensive flight inspection following ground proof-of-performance inspection to establish the validity of the signals-in-space. The results of this inspection should be correlated with the results of the ground inspection. Together they form the basis for certification of the facility. 1.5.9 Periodic: Flight inspections to confirm the validity of the signals-in-space on a regular basis or after major scheduled facility maintenance.

1.5.10 Special: Flight inspections required as a result of suspected malfunctions, aircraft accidents, etc. Typically, it is necessary to test only those parameters which have or might have an effect on facility performance. However, it may be economically advantageous in many cases to complete the requirements for a periodic inspection. Priority of inspections 1.5.2.11 Flight inspections should be scheduled and conducted using a priority system. The following is a suggested grouping: a) Priority 1: Accident investigation, restoration of established facilities after unscheduled outages, and investigation of reported malfunctions; and b) Priority 2: Periodic inspections, commissioning of newly installed facilities, associated instrument flight procedures, and evaluations of proposed sites for new installations. 1.6 Operational status Facility status can be identified as follows: a) Usable: Available for operational use. i) Unrestricted: Providing safe, accurate signals-in-space conforming to established Standards within the coverage area of the facility. ii) Limited or restricted: Providing signals-in-space not conforming to established Standards in all respects or in all sectors of the coverage area, but safe for use within the restrictions defined. The facility that may be unsafe should not be classified as limited or restricted under any circumstances. b) Unusable: Not available for operational use as providing (potentially) unsafe or erroneous signals, or providing signals of an unknown quality. 1.7 Authority for facility status determination The responsibility for determining facility status rests with the appropriate State authority or the organization authorized by the State. The status determination should include all factors involved. This includes judgment (by the pilot) of the fly ability of the instrument procedures supported by the facility, analysis of airborne measurements of the facility (by the flight inspection technician/engineer), and a statement of readiness (by ground maintenance personnel). 1.8 Notification of change of status 1.8.1 Notification of a change of the facility status is to be done through appropriate Aeronautical Information Publications; differences from Standards are to be notified to ICAO and in a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). 1.8.2 Day-to-day changes in the status of facilities are to be promptly and efficiently advertised. A change in the status of a commissioned facility as a direct result of ground or flight inspection procedures, and resulting in a usable (unrestricted, limited, or restricted) or unusable designation, should be advertised immediately by air traffic control (ATC) personnel, and promptly by a NOTAM. 1.8.3 A facility having an unusable status is normally removed from service and can operate only for test or troubleshooting purposes. 1.9 Airborne and ground test equipment requirements The selection and utilization of special ground or flight inspection equipment used to determine the validity of navigation information should minimize the uncertainly of the measurement being performed. This equipment should be periodically calibrated to ensure traceability of measurements to appropriate standards.

1.10 Coordination between ground and flight testing/inspection 1.10.1 Comparison of the results, obtained during successive tests on the ground and in the air, can determine the extent of degradation in the performance of the installation as monitored on the ground. These results can also be used to determine the choice of the periodicity of the flight test/inspection. 1.10.2 Flight test/inspection may involve a coordinated effort with ground specialists who may make adjustments or participate in the flight test/inspection. Efficient two-way communications should be established between ground and air. An additional VHF transceiver is often installed in the flight inspection aircraft and a portable unit is employed at the facility to provide these communications without interfering with the air traffic control communications. 1.11 Flight inspection unit 1.11.1 This document considers the flight inspection unit to be comprised of three parts: the flight inspection crew, the flight inspection aircraft and the position-fixing system. Flight inspection crew 1.11.2 The flight inspection crew normally consists of two pilots and one or two technicians or engineers. The members of the flight inspection crew should be experts in their individual fields, have sound knowledge and experience in flight testing/inspection procedures and requirements, and be capable of working as a team. 1.11.3 The State authority or flight inspection organization, as authorized by the State authority, should formally certify flight inspection personnel. The objectives are to: a) grant authority to the flight crew member who ensures the satisfactory operation of air navigation facilities; b) provide a uniform method for examining employee competence; and c) issue credentials that authenticate inspection authority. Flight inspection aircraft 1.11.4 Many factors should be considered when selecting an aircraft as a vehicle for flight inspection. The number of aircraft required will be determined by the qualities of the aircraft chosen and factors such as the number of facilities to be flight inspected, their relative geographical locations, periodicity of inspections, and other duties of the aircraft. More guidance on the flight inspection aircraft instrumentation, antennas and other aspects is provided in Attachment 1 to this chapter. Position-fixing systems 1.11.5 Position reference information for all types of flight testing/inspection is required for the determination of the accuracy of the navigation signal. 1.11.6 The position-fixing system is independent from the facility under testing/inspection. The position-fixing system and the flight testing/inspection receiver contribute to the error budget. The overall error budget should be five times better than the published performance of the navigation signal. 1.11.7 The position-fixing system generates position reference information using the same coordinate system as the navigation system under testing, e.g. a reference distance for a DME, a reference localizer deviation, or a reference glide path signal. A great variety of technical solutions have been developed, either using position-fixing equipment, which provide information already in the correct coordinate system or using computer systems, which calculate the reference information from one or more sensors.

Position-fixing systems for approach and landing aids 1.11.8 Theodolites with electric read-outs have traditionally been used as a position reference for ILS testing. The output signal is either recorded on the ground, which requires post-flight evaluation, or transmitted to the flight inspection aircraft. ILS testing requires two different theodolite sites for azimuth and elevation data. The addition of ranging equipment allows ILS testing from a single site. The theodolite-based position fixing requires minimum visibility of 11 km (6 NM). A skilled theodolite operator is required to minimize manual tracking errors. 1.11.9 Manual tracking may result in significant contribution to the overall error budget of the flight inspection; therefore caution should be exercised when approach and landing aids, particularly Category III facilities, are evaluated using theodolite. Automatic tracking systems have been developed to optimize the error budget. The operator should set the tracking equipment to acquire the flight inspection aircraft, and initiate automatic tracking. Tracking data is transmitted to the aircraft. 1.11.10 Modern systems combine different sensor inputs for position fixing. This improves the accuracy, reliability and availability of position reference data. Inertial navigation systems (INSs) integrated with other sensors are the basis for these systems. Accuracy is aided by various sensor inputs such as global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and on-board camera systems which provide independent reference update information. With introduction of these technologies, flight inspection operations can be conducted under limited visibility conditions. 1.11.11 aid. Additional information on position-fixing systems may be found in chapters specific to each navigation

Position-fixing systems for en-route navigation aids 1.11.12 The basic solution of a position-fixing system for flight inspection of en-route navigation aids is the use of charts. Aeronautical charts should be used if possible. Large scale charts that provide the greatest possible amount of detail are desirable so that ground reference points can be better defined. The charts are to be marked for preparation of the flight inspection mission. Typically, charts provide reference information only for some parts of the flight path. Information has to be evaluated manually by the flight crew. 1.11.13 The equipment described in 1.11.8 to 1.11.11 may be used for the inspection of en-route navigation aids if better accuracy or continuous reference data are required. Position reference system 1.11.14 A more general approach is the use of a position reference system that provides information for all phases of the flight inspection. A state-of-the-art solution is the combination of different sensors for the testing, including INSs, barometric altimeters, tracking of several DME facilities, and GNSS augmented as necessary. A high degree of automation can be achieved for the flight inspection since continuous position reference information is available. Human-machine interface aspects 1.11.15 The operators console should be designed and located in such a way as to offer the proper interface between the flight inspection crew and test and data-processing equipment. The console location should be determined based on noise and vibration levels, lighting, outside visibility, proximity of the center of gravity of the aircraft, air conditioning, and forward-facing orientation. 1.12 Organization and quality 1.12.1 The management of organizational features that can cause a risk to safety should be conducted systematically. The effective management of quality should be achieved by the derivation of policy and application of principles and practices designed to prevent the occurrence of factors that could cause accidents.

1.12.2 The minimum requirements for the quality system should include written procedures that document all of the actions necessary to ensure the safe operation of navigation aids. The ISO 9000 quality management model provides a useful framework, and particular note has to be made of the following features expected in the quality management system. a) Organizational and individual accountability. Accountability and responsibility should be documented, traceable, and verifiable from the point of action through to the accountable manager (in most cases the Chief Executive). b) Management review. The system for management review should be effective and should ensure that senior management is fully recognizant of the systems and features that affect safety. c) Exposition or company documentation. An exposition or company documentation should be provided to clearly describe the organizational structure, personnel, accountabilities, responsibilities, resources, facilities, capabilities, policies, and purposes of the organization. d) Record keeping. Records should be accurate, legible, and capable of independent analysis. The retention period for records should be defined. Commissioning records and those documenting system modifications (e.g. changes to ILS antenna configuration from sideband reference to capture effect) should be kept for the entire life cycle of the facility. Documentation control 1.12.3 All procedures should be controlled so that the correct version of any procedure can be easily identified and used. 1.12.4 Retention of data is required in order to permit trend analysis of the ground and airborne flight inspection equipment. Such analysis will assist in the identification of fault conditions or substandard performance before development of any safety hazard. Examples of items that might be identified in this way are: a decreasing mean time between outages (MTBO); a slow drift in one or more radiated parameters; or a specific component that may appear to have a high failure rate. 1.12.5 More guidance on documentation and data recording is provided in Attachment 2 to this chapter.

Build state and modification control 1.12.6 The build state of all equipment, including test equipment, should be recorded and the records should be updated whenever modifications or changes are made. All modifications should be accurately documented an cross-referenced to modification strikes or numbers on the equipment. After making any modification, tests and analyses should ensure that the modification fulfils its intended purpose and that it has no undesired side effects. Personnel training and qualification 1.12.7 The organization should establish methods for determining required job competencies. All personnel directly engaged with the flight inspection or maintenance of an aeronautical navigation aid should be adequately qualified, trained, and experienced for their job functions. The management system should include a written procedure for ensuring the continued competence of personnel through regular assessment. Calibration of test equipment 1.12.8 All test equipment used for calibration, test or maintenance of an aeronautical navigation aid should be listed and subject to regular calibration checks. Each item of test equipment should have a documented calibration procedure and calibration records. Test equipment should be calibrated at the manufacturers recommended intervals, unless otherwise indicated by objective evidence or operational conditions.

1.12.9 The conditions of use of individual items of test equipment should be fully considered and the manufacturers recommended interval should be required if the utilization profile may be outside of the specified environmental conditions. 1.12.10 Regular calibration of the flight inspection receivers and position-fixing system is to be performed in order to ensure a back tracing of data to international or national standards. The calibration may be performed either on board the flight inspection aircraft or in a laboratory. In both cases, a test transmitter is connected to the radio frequency (RF) input of the receiver in order to input simulated signals. The receiver output is compared with the nominal signals; deviations are recorded either in a test protocol or in the memory of a computer. Calibration data are applied either on-line by the computer or during off-line data evaluation. Control of spares 1.12.11 Equipment spares should be stored under suitable environmental conditions. Spares having a limited lifetime, or requiring regular maintenance or calibration should be suitably identified to that effect. Procedures should exist for the control, repair, and return-to-service of equipment or modules. The procedures should show which modules may be repaired on-site and which should be returned to the manufacturer or recognized repair facility. Design qualification of ground equipment 1.12.12 A new design of equipment is subject to design qualification tests. These tests ensure that the equipment meets its design requirements. These tests are normally made on the first production equipment or on the first batch of equipment. If no serious problems are encountered, those tests are not repeated for future installations of similar equipment. Items to be addressed during these tests include: a) Environment performance. These tests show that the equipment meets the tolerances under the range of environmental conditions specified by the manufacturer and purchaser. Environmental tests include all parts of the equipment, both internal and external. b) Mean time between failures (MTBF). Before commencing such tests, it is essential to define the test conditions; for example, what constitutes a failure, what confidence level will be used during the demonstration, will modifications be permitted during the tests (see Annex 10, Volume I, Attachments C, F and G, for additional guidance on reliability aspects). c) Manufacturers quality system. The equipment is manufactured under an effective quality management system. There should be traceability from modules and components back through to system design requirements. d) Integrity. The manufacturer should have made an in-depth study of system integrity. Safety critical components of the system are to be identified and all components used in these areas are to be traceable to their source. The integrity analysis should also define the maintenance and test intervals for the safety critical components of the system. Where a system is claimed to have automatic integrity checks, it is important to fully understand the depth of tests made by the automatic procedure. e) Monitor correction tests. Many systems use integral monitors or monitors in the near field area of the antenna array. Tests should show that simulated faults in the system produce the same response on monitors as in the far field. This investigation should concentrate mainly on simulated antenna faults, including individual elements and the signal distribution equipment. 1.13 Electromagnetic interference 1.13.1 Electromagnetic interference to a navigation aid is a rare occurrence, but the possibility of it happening should not be excluded. All reports of suspected interference should be investigated. During a flight inspection, interference might affect the signals from the navigation aid being inspected or it might affect the signals used for some types of position fixing, such as GNSS.

1.13.2 Attachment 3 to this chapter gives guidance on this subject, including types of interference, possible sources, methods of detection, and steps which can be taken to eliminate or mitigate the effects. 1.14 Spectrum analysis 1.14.1 the use of a spectrum analyzer on the flight inspection aircraft and on the ground at navigation aid sites can be an effective means of resolving problems with radio navigation aids. The following are some of the applications for spectrum analysis as it relates to testing of radio navigation systems. 1.14.2 Spectrum measurements at specific points in the service volume should be accomplished on a flight inspection aircraft. It is recommended that the spectrum analyzer set-up information, aircraft antenna position, and measurement time be recorded with spectrum measurements. At remote sites, the spectrum analyzer on a flight inspection aircraft may be used for verification of the radiated signal spectrum from the ground system when the required test equipment is not available at the site. 1.14.3 The spectrum analyzer can be used to measure carrier frequency, sideband modulation levels and spurious emission levels. Residual frequency or phase modulation components on ILS transmitters can be identified from the radiated spectrum components. If present, frequency or phase modulation may affect the AM sideband amplitudes as measured on the spectrum analyzer. Care should be taken to account for the Doppler shift in signals as the aircraft moves at high speed toward or away from the transmitter. Computer-aided acquisition and set-up of the spectrum analyzer will be of great advantage in the air. 1.14.4 The spectrum analyzer can be used into the periodic flight inspection for dual frequency ILS to measure the power ratio between the reference and capture transmitters. The reference and the capture signal frequencies can be measured simultaneously and any error in frequency alignment of the ground facility can be detected. This technique greatly improves the effectiveness and accuracy of the measurement, eliminating the need to switch between the two transmitters on the ground and position the aircraft at exactly the same position in space for two sequential measurements. Course/clearance power ratio can be checked simultaneously with the normal clearance procedure using this technique. 1.14.5 The spectrum analyzer can also be used to identify the frequency and relative power of the interfering source when interference is detected through loss or erratic behavior of the cross-pointer, audio or automatic gain control (AGC) signal. Information of the types of sources and testing techniques is provided in Attachment 3 to this chapter. 1.15 Ground and flight inspection periodicity General 1.15.1 This document contains nominal schedules for each radio navigation aid that should be considered in the light of conditions relevant to each State and each site. 1.15.2 The nominal schedules should be used by States as a basis for determining the appropriate inspection intervals for specific facilities. In some cases, it may be necessary to carry out more frequent inspections, e.g. following initial installation. It may also be possible to extend the inspection intervals in some circumstances, if the factors outlined in this section have been taken into account. 1.15.3 The manufacturers instruction manual usually contains recommendations which are also useful in this regard.

Determination of test/inspection intervals 1.15.4 Many factors influence the choice of appropriate intervals for both ground and flight tests. These include the reliability and stability of operation of the equipment, the extent of ground monitoring, the degree of correlation between ground and flight measurements, changes in the operating environment, manufacturer recommendations, and the quality of maintenance. The complete program of ground and flight inspections should be considered when determining test intervals. 1.15.5 Reliability and stability of equipment is related to age, design technology, and the operational environment. Stability of operation may also be affected by excessive maintenance adjustments attributable to either human factors or variation in test equipment performance. This is particularly true with some older test equipment where the accuracy and stability of the test equipment is not significantly better than the equipment under test. A major contribution to the demonstration of stability of navigation aids in recent years is the design of modern flight inspection systems and ground facility test equipment, where the standard resolution and accuracy are very high. 1.15.6 Ground maintenance activity and its frequency is dependent upon the design, reliability and stability of a particular equipment and the quality of the test equipment employed as a transfer standard. It has been shown that equipment reliability may be adversely affected by frequently scheduled major maintenance activity. It is, therefore, desirable to limit such activity to essential testing only, particularly for tests that require the disconnection of cables. There is a requirement for additional supplementary flight inspection when some engineering activities, such as glide path antenna changes or adjustments are made. Further investigation may be initiated if the independent monitor calibration indicates any adjustments are required. 1.15.7 The correlation of air and ground measurement records and historic demonstration of equipment stability have allowed some States to extend the intervals between flight inspections. This is supported by the use of routine monitor readings, strict environmental safeguarding and closer tolerances on flight inspection results to ensure operational stability is maintained. Example criteria for the extension of ILS flight inspection intervals are given in 1.15.8 and 1.15.9. Example of criteria for the extension of ILS flight inspection intervals 1.15.8 This section gives an example of criteria applied to extend the nominal interval between flight inspections on selected ILS facilities. The procedure requires: a) an initial demonstration of stability over four consecutive periodic flight inspections with no transmitter adjustments. The tolerance applied to inspection results for glide path angle and displacement sensitivity, localizer alignment and displacement sensitivity is 75 per cent of the normal acceptance standards. Glide path clearance below the path at 0.3 of the nominal glide path angle should be greater than 220A: b) good correlation between concurrent ground and airborne results; c) a record of independent monitor calibration results; d) a record of equipment monitor readings taken at least at monthly intervals; e) evidence that the quality of the maintenance is high; and f) that the facility is adequately safeguarded against changes in the operational environment, e.g. building development. 1.15.9 The nominal inspection interval should be resumed if these criteria are no longer met.

Correlation as the basis for extending periodicity 1.15.10 A typical basis for extending the interval between required measurements without degrading ILS integrity is correlation. Any individual measurement is normally expected to be repeatable over time without adjustments to the equipment. Correlation between ILS measurements made both on the ground and in the air at the same or nearly the same time is also expected. This places equal responsibility on ground and airborne personnel and helps identify common-mode measurement errors. An additional requirement to extend flight inspection intervals is the influence of near- and far-field environments on the signals. These effects can be determined with a flight inspection aircraft. The following paragraphs give illustrations of the correlation technique. 1.15.11 Preliminary requirements. Certain fundamental requirements should be met prior to any measurement activity if correlation between ground and airborne measurements over time can be expected. Typical requirements include functionally similar training for personnel, appropriate calibrated test equipment, completion of all prescribed ground maintenance tasks, availability of commissioning reports and recent periodic inspection reports, and frequent use of measurement skills by both ground and airborne personnel. 1.15.12 Techniques. Achieving good correlation places the same or similar weight on both ground and airborne testing, and demands that both be conducted with great care. Initial or commissioning-type flight measurements should be made with special care, as the corresponding ground maintenance personnel. The portable maintenance receiver is readily used in the far-field for localizer facilities, while glide path facilities may require measurements in the near-or mid-field with an auxiliary antenna placed near the transmitting antennas. 1.15.13 Tolerances. New tolerances may be developed to define acceptable correlation between measurements. A rigorous application of correlation principles might include the following types: a) Setting tolerance defines the exact value for a parameter, which should be achieved (within the measurement uncertainty) when adjustment is required. b) Adjustment/maintenance tolerance defines the limit within which a parameter may vary without requiring adjustment. c) Operational tolerance defines the ICAO Standard for a parameter. d) Discrepancy tolerance defines, for certain parameters only, the limits of divergence between various measurements: i) Ground/ground discrepancy applies to a divergence over time, or between different methods of measuring the same parameter (e.g. alignment monitor, portable ILS receiver, and far-field monitor). ii) Ground/air discrepancy applies to a divergence between measurements of the same parameter at the same or nearly the same time by ground and airborne testing personnel. 1.15.14 Activities during flight inspection. Typical correlation activities begin with a confirmation that airborne and ground test equipment is operating within tolerances. This may be achieved by comparing ground and flight test generators and receivers. (If the tolerances are not met, the flight inspection is delayed until the cause of the problem is eliminated.) If the ground or airborne results are out of discrepancy tolerances during the flight inspection and the cause cannot be determined, then the ground monitor alarm limits should be tightened, the facility declassified appropriately or removed from service. The successful completion of the flight inspection (all tolerances are met) establishes that the ground maintenance activities are effective and the interval between inspections may be maintained at the optimum periodicity. 1.16 Flight inspection at night 1.16.1 Certain areas have high densities of air traffic during daylight hours. Conducting flight inspections in these areas during daylight can cause delays to normal traffic if safety is not to be compromised. It is possible to make many of the flight inspections, described in this manual, during the night to avoid interfering with normal flight operations.

1.16.2 Several additional factors need to be considered for night-time flight inspection. These are detailed in the following paragraphs. 1.16.3 Effect of the environment on the radiated signal. The signals radiated by some types of radio navigation aids are affected by propagation which differs between day and night. For example, the level of background radio noise over a city may be different. 1.16.4 Effect of environment on the navigation aid.. The ground facility maintenance engineer should inform the flight inspector of any equipment variations, such as monitor performance which may change at night. The effect of the local environment, such as changes in the position of reflecting obstacles should be considered. 1.16.5 Position reference. Flight inspection at night will normally use an independent reference system but the use of ground tracking equipment is not excluded. 1.16.6 Evaluation of results. The flight inspector should decide whether differences from measurements made during the daytime are due to night conditions, problems with the equipment or making the measurements at different positions. 1.16.7 Flight inspection reports. The flight inspection report should indicate whether the inspection was made at night. 1.16.8 Types of flight. The inspection flights should be made in accordance with the guidance given in this manual, with the exception of measurements that specifically need low-level flights. It is recommended that at specific intervals an inspection is made under the same conditions as prevailed at the time of commissioning. 1.16.9 Safety of flight. Flights should be conducted 300 m (1000 ft) above the level normally used for daytime flight inspection in areas having obstructions. It will be necessary to change some horizontal distances in order to retain the same vertical angle from the navigation aid, where this is important to the measurements. Low-level below path (safety approach) glide path inspection flights should not be made during the night or when the level of natural light is low. Flights should normally be carried out in accordance with VFR.

Attachment 1 to Chapter 1 Flight inspection aircraft


1. General characteristics 1.1 The following desirable characteristics should be found in a flight inspection aircraft: a) reliable, efficient type equipped and certified for IFR operations; b) sufficient carrying capacity for the flight crew, as well as all necessary electronic and recording equipment and spares. It may also be necessary to have additional capacity to transport ground personnel and equipment; c) sufficient range and endurance to complete a normal mission without reserving; d) aerodynamically stable throughout its speed range, but particularly at speeds encountered during flight inspection; e) low noise and vibration level; f) low electrical noise characteristics to minimize interference with received signal; e.g. propeller modulation of the received signal must be as low as possible; g) stable electrical system of adequate capacity to operate the required electronic equipment in addition to the aircraft equipment; h) reasonably wide-speed and altitude range to enable flight inspection to be conducted, where possible, under the conditions encountered by users. Good low-speed characteristics are essential where theodolite tracking by ground observers is carried out; i) suitable for future modifications or expansion of equipment to allow for inspection of additional aids or to increase accuracy or processing speed on existing facilities; j) aircraft cabin environmental control equipment that minimizes the adverse effects of temperature and humidity on the sensitive test equipment used in flight inspection systems and maintains a comfortable environment for the crew; and k) equipped with an autopilot to reduce crew workload. 1.2 A variety of aircraft having the above characteristics have been successfully used for flight inspection work. Some States are using the smaller, more versatile jet aircraft, of the type usually referred to as business jets, for medium-and high-altitude inspection of radio navigation facilities. 2. Aircraft instrumentation 2.1 The flight inspection aircraft contains a full range of navigation equipment as required for instrument flying. Additional equipment must be provided for the monitoring and recording of the received navigation signals. The navigation receivers may be used for both navigation and flight inspection. Special flight inspection receivers installed in addition to those used for navigation are preferable because of their special accuracy requirements. 2.2 When navigation receivers are shared between the pilot and observer, the control of the receiver during flight inspection should be with the technician/engineer. 2.3 Inspection of PAR requires no special equipment on board. The aircraft plays a passive role as a reflector of electromagnetic signals. Flight inspection procedures and Standards, particularly those relating to strength of signal return, are usually related to aircraft effective size as a reflector. System block diagram and description 2.4 The flight inspection equipment as shown in Figure I-1-1 comprises: a) flight inspection receivers with associated antennas; b) position-fixing system; c) equipment for data display and processing ; and d) equipment for data recording.

2.5 Flight inspection receivers provide both navigation information as in standard aircraft equipment and flight inspection information. Special care has to be taken concerning the location of antennas of the flight inspection receivers in order to avoid interference problems and to optimize the error budget of the test equipment. 2.6 The position-fixing system provides reference position (navigation) information in order to determine the navigation accuracy of the facility. Parts of the position-fixing system may be shared with standard aircraft equipment. 2.7 Data generated from the flight inspection receivers and the position-fixing system are to be displayed and processed. The processing may be performed either on-line or after completion of an inspection. One important element of data processing is the comparison of ground facility navigation and reference position (navigation) information. 2.8 2.9 A recording medium is required for documentation of raw data and inspection results. Calibration medium is required for documentation inspection equipments.

3. Antennas 3.1 Calibration and extensive testing to verify performance are normally required for antennas used to inspect navigation aid coverage. 3.2 Calibration of the antenna system gain is required for antennas used to measure field strength and should be considered early in the installation planning stage. Antenna system gain characteristics (including all feed cables, switches and power splitters) must be determined in order to measure the field strength accurately. The characteristics must be measured over the range of frequencies to be used and at the aircraft orientations experienced during the measurement procedures. These antenna gain characteristics must then be applied either in real-time as data is input and displayed, or post-processed to generate the final report data. 3.3 The above methods may be used to correct absolute or relative field strength measurements, however, there are some flight inspection applications for which gain errors cannot be corrected. These place additional constraints on the achieved airborne antenna patterns. An example is course structure measurements for localizer, glide path, and VOR, for which the contributing multipath errors may propagate to the aircraft from a widely different azimuth than the desired direct signal. In this case, variations in gain from an omni directional pattern will affect the measured amplitude of the course structure, with or without aircraft attitude variations, and flight measurements, by differing aircraft types, will vary. Flight inspection organizations should make every reasonable effort to achieve omni directional antenna patterns this is particularly important for Category II and III measurements. Antenna measurement techniques 3.4 Many techniques, including mathematical modeling, reduced-scale modeling , full-scale ground testing and flight testing, are available for optimizing the location of antennas and characterizing their gain in a given location on an aircraft. The complexity and cost are generally proportional to the number of azimuth and elevation angles to be measured as well as the accuracy required of the measurements. The overall cost is reduced if a combination of modeling and ground testing is used to establish expected performance; flight testing would then be used as the final confirmation stage. 3.5 Flight test techniques capable of full azimuth or lower hemisphere characterization with high accuracy are now available through many flight test ranges, these should be the preferred methods used to provide confirmation of antenna patterns. Procedures that provide ongoing confirmation of antenna performance are still required and some form of ramp-based check should be established.

3.6 Consideration should also be given to characterizing the localizer antenna pattern over the FM broadcast band (88-107.9 MHz), if the aircraft is to be used in resolving electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems from FM broadcast stations. A separate broadband antenna may be fitted if the aircraft is to be used for general interference investigation. Installation considerations 3.7 Antenna installation can affect the flight inspection measurements and the operational use of the aircraft in many ways. The following are a few examples: a) Propeller modulation effects can interfere with the received ILS localizer signal over a range of engine power settings. This can severely limit the use of the aircraft for flight inspection. Improving the antenna location is the best solution to this problem. b) Physical movement of other antennas, such as the weather radar, may affect the signal received from a glide path antenna located nearby. The weather radar may have to be parked in a know orientation to obtain proper glide path operation. c) Cross-coupling between aircraft transmitter antennas and receiving antennas can easily occur. Care must be taken to ensure adequate separation between potential interfering sources, such as VHF communications antennas and VOR/ILS localizer antennas. d) Aircraft structures must be taken into account when selecting antenna locations. The mounting of antennas near discontinuities in material types should be avoided if a good ground plane is required. Metallic support rods stowed inside a composite material nose cone can act as re radiators affecting the performance of a nearby antenna. e) When one antenna is used to feed two or more receivers there is potential for receiver interaction resulting in an un calibrated change to the antenna system gain. It is recommended that separate antennas be provided for the flight inspection receivers. Testing is recommended when a shared antenna must be used to ensure that tuning the second receiver over the band does not affect the signal level reaching the receiver used for coverage measurements. f) Changes in aircraft attitude will affect the relative positions of the antenna and tracking reference if the aircraft measuring antennas are not located at the same point as the reference for the tracking system as seen from the ground. Certain flight inspection systems correct this by using software and inputs from the aircraft navigation sensors. g) The position of the phase centre for some types of antennas will vary according to the direction of arrival of the signals. Measurements have shown that the effective phase centre may move outside the physical area of the antenna. This change in position of the phase centre should be included in any correction algorithms which may be used. 4. Flight inspection receivers and radio communication equipment 4.1 Flight inspection receivers are to be of the highest quality in order to obtain the accuracy required for flight inspection purposes and should provide additional measurement outputs specific to flight inspection. A dual set of receivers is preferable to reduce statistical errors. 4.2 Flight inspection receivers include an AGC measurement. The AGC information allows the determination of the field strength if the receiver and antenna characteristic is taken into account. Further components have to be added like a temperature control for the receiver or a further dedicated receiver if the stability of the flight inspection receiver AGC output is not sufficient. 4.3 Flight inspection receivers used for the calibration of pulsed navigation facilities, such as DME and radars, provide the video signal of these facilities. 4.4 A VHF radio is included in the flight inspection equipment in order to allow independent communication between the flight inspector and the ground crew, without affecting the pilot.

5. Data processing, display and recording 5.1 Modern flight inspection equipment includes a computer, which is used to read the data from the position-fixing sensors or system and from the flight inspection receivers. The computer processes data in order to compare the facility navigation information and the position reference information. The computer has the capability of determining facility parameters, e.g. ILS localizer course width, alignment, etc. 5.2 The comparison of facility navigation information and position reference information may be performed with an analog solution, if the flight inspection system does not include a computer for calculating the results. The facility parameters have to be calculated manually in this case. 5.3 All relevant information like facility navigation information, reference information, facility error and additional receiver information, such as field strength , is displayed on board the flight inspection aircraft for the operator. Data may be displayed on analog or digital instruments as well as on computer screens. 5.4 Chart recorders or printers are to be used for the documentation of flight inspection results. All data are annotated properly either by the operator or automatically by the data-processing, if a specific investigation is required. 6. Regulatory aspects 6.1 Integration of the systems in the aircraft must not affect the Airworthiness Certificate of the aircraft. Every modification has to be recorded in the technical documentation of the aircraft, along with the approvals of the manufacturer and of the certification authority concerned. 6.2 Particular operating instructions should be registered in flight and exploitation manuals. If this integration entails any performance limitations or operational restrictions for the aircraft, they should appear clearly in the corresponding documents. 6.3 The integration of a flight inspection system results from the best compromise taking into account airworthiness constraints.

Antenna(s) Flight inspection receivers and sensors Display

Data handling and data processing

Recording Aircraft sensors External position input Flight inspection receivers and sensors

Positionfixing system

Aircraft guidance information

Figure I-1-1.

Block diagram for flight inspection equipment

Attachment 2 to Chapter 1 Documentation and data recording


1. Flight inspection reports The flight inspection report serves as the basic means of documentation and dissemination of the results of each flight inspection. The flight inspector in charge is responsible for initiating the report and ensuring that it clearly records the results of each parameter measured, along with an assessment of the conformance of the facility performance to the required standards. This assessment will normally involve an analysis of the data recordings and a review of the computer-aided analysis carried out on the data gathered during the inspection. Flight inspection reports should allow for before and after results to be entered into routine documentation of the adjustments made to the facilities. 2. Flight inspection data recordings The flight inspection data recordings serve as a record of the raw signal information used to assess ground facility performance. The recording medium may be a strip chart or electronic files of sampled data. Data recordings are normally archived and maintained on file with the flight inspection reports. This data should be made available to engineering and maintenance personnel for solving site problems and for assessing trends in facility or equipment performance. 3. Flight inspection system calibration Many of the components in a typical flight inspection system, as well as secondary or transfer standards, such as signal generators, must be calibrated on a periodic basis to ensure measurements are made with the required accuracy. Records of the calibration results (including the specific test equipment used) must be retained to ensure the calibration is traceable back to national measurement standards. The flight inspection organization shall ensure policies and procedures are in place to track the calibration status of equipment and recall equipment for calibration at the established intervals. 4. Ground facility data Facility data sheets or computer files serve as a useful tool in providing the inspector and the flight inspection system with accurate information regarding facility survey data, facility and equipment types, frequencies, etc. Such information is normally prepared at the time of commissioning and revised as necessary to maintain current data. Its purpose is best served if the data are made part of a file to be carried in the aircraft or loaded into the flight inspection system. 5. Retention of flight inspection reports and data Each flight inspection organization is responsible for ensuring that sufficient historical data are retained to legally establish the trends in facility performance over a reasonable interval of time. As a minimum, all commissioning inspection reports and data recordings should be retained in the facility file along with reports and data recordings from the last five periodic inspections. All special flight inspections carried out during this time period should be retained on file.

6. Ground test reports It is recommended that the initial performance of a navigation aid facility be established through a formal proof of performance (POP) test and report. The facility is normally handed over to the ground maintenance staff once a commissioning flight inspection is complete. It is normal practice that maintenance staff be certified to maintain the navigation aid in accordance with prescribed policies and procedures. These policies and procedures will normally specify what ground documentation and reports are required and the period for which they must be retained. It is recommended that the POP test report and reports on the implementation of modifications to the facility be retained throughout the life of the facility. Reports on routine maintenance actions should be maintained for a minimum of one year. 7. Ground calibration reports Many of the components in a typical navigation aid system, as well as secondary or transfer standards, such as signal generators, must be calibrated on a periodic basis to ensure a facility is operating as intended. Reports of the calibration results (including the specific test equipment used) must be retained to ensure that measurements are traceable back to national calibration standards. The responsible maintenance organization shall ensure policies and procedures are in place to track the calibration status of equipment and recall equipment for calibration at the established intervals.

Attachment 3 to Chapter 1 Interference issues


1. Interference effects Interference to a navigation aid can manifest itself in many ways. A VOR receiver may appear to operate normally but indicate a solid bearing to an adjacent co-channel facility. A localizer deviation signal may become erratic while FM broadcast is heard on the receiver audio output. The glide path signal may be lost momentarily as an aircraft passes over an industrial facility. A GNSS receiver used for position fixing may lose track of satellites due to interference. Interference may be caused by not providing adequate separation between facilities on the same frequency. Ground-based non-aeronautical services such as FM broadcast stations may be the cause. Interference nay originate on board the aircraft due to a poor avionics installation or from carry-on equipment. There are many possible sources and the probability of interference occurring is increasing as the frequency spectrum becomes more congested. 2. Interference sources Note. The following sources account for most of the problems affecting radio navigation or radio communications receivers. Ground-based aeronautical sources 2.1 Aeronautical facilities are engineered, installed and maintained to avoid causing interference to users of other aeronautical facilities. The service volumes of aeronautical facilities are protected from co-channel and adjacent channel interference by using frequency coordination procedures based on minimum and maximum field strengths and protection criteria promulgated primarily in Annex 10. In-band interference is usually caused by malfunctioning transmitters, frequency coordination problems and receiver operation outside the protected service volume of the aeronautical facility. The use of signal generators on operational aeronautical frequencies during avionics testing can cause interference problems. Ground-based non-aeronautical sources 2.2 These sources include broadcast transmitters and emitters such as industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment and power lines. RF emitters are normally licensed and must comply with ITU Radio Regulations and domestic regulations. Malfunctioning transmitters and unintentional emitters are the cause of many interference problems. Fm broadcast transmitters 2.3 The FM broadcast services operating in the 88-107.9 MHz band can be a major source of interference in the adjacent VHF band 10 137 MHz, affecting ILS, VOR and VHF communications receivers. Two general types of interference can occur. The first is caused by FM broadcast emissions that fall inside the aeronautical band, such as inter modulation products generated when multiple FM transmitters feed one antenna or out-of-band emissions from stations operating at the upper edge of the FM band. The second type is generated within the navigation receiver in response to FM broadcast emissions that fall outside the aeronautical band. These are usually inter modulation or receiver desensitization effects caused by high-level signals outside the aeronautical band. 2.4 Annex 10, Volume I, Chapter 3, 3.1.4 and 3.3.8, and associated guidance material in Attachment C, contains FM immunity performance criteria for ILS and VOR receivers. Additional ITU-R material is provided in Appendices 1 and 2 to this manual. The ICAO Hand-book for Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility Between ILS and FM Broadcasting Stations Using Flight Test*provides guidance on conducting flight tests of this kind of interference. * Available from the ICAO Air Navigation Bureau upon request (English only).

TV broadcast transmitters 2.5 Harmonics, inter modulation products and spurious emissions of TV video and audio carriers may cause interference to DME, VHF communications, VOR and ILS receivers, and GNSS. Land mobile transmitters 2.6 In-band interference can be caused by spurious emissions from a single transmitter or by radiated inter modulation products created at a co-sited facility. VHF communications frequencies are often affected because a fixed/mobile service band lies immediately above 137 MHz. The mobile satellite service (MSS) operating in the band adjacent to the GNSS band or the fixed service (FS) operating in the GNSS band in some States can cause interference to GNSS receivers. Cable television distribution systems 2.7 These CATV systems distribute TV broadcasting signals on ILS and VHF communications frequencies. Most CATV systems use coaxial cables, which can leak RF signals and cause in-band interference. Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) systems 2.8 Specific radio frequency bands (e.g. centred at 13.56, 27.12 and 40.98 MHz) are allocated for the operation of ISM equipment. In-band interference to VHF communications, VOR and ILS localizer receivers may be caused by the radiation of harmonics of the ISM frequencies from malfunctioning or inadequately shielded ISM equipment. The interfering signal sweeps repetitively through a portion of the VHF aeronautical band affecting several aeronautical frequencies. The most common ISM interference sources are industrial equipment such as plastic welders. Power line distribution systems 2.9 Power line carrier (PLC) systems inject signals into power lines for monitoring and control purposes. ADF receivers can experience in-band interference because some PLC systems operate within the NDB band and PLC signals can radiate from power lines. 2.10 Corona noise and gap discharges from malfunctioning electrical equipment such as high-voltage bus-bars, switchgear, and insulators, can generate broadband impulsive-type noise, which can interfere with ILS localizer, VOR and VHF communications receivers in over-flying, low-altitude aircraft. Other ground-based non-aeronautical sources 2.11 Low/medium/high frequency (LF/MF/HF) transmitters can cause co-channel and adjacent channel interference to ADF and HF communications receivers. High-power military radar may generate harmonic and spurious emission levels high enough to cause in-band and out-of-band interference to on-board pulse-type systems such as GNSS receivers. Radiated emissions from most information technology equipment (ITE) are regulated domestically. Malfunctioning ITE can cause in-band interference. Radiation of ITE clock frequency signals and their harmonics can interfere with VHF communications, ILS localizer, VOR and other receivers. Airborne equipment source 2.12 On-board aeronautical transmitters may cause in-band interference to aircraft receivers through harmonics of the intentional emissions or harmonics of local oscillator frequencies being conducted between units. Potential problems associated with portable electronic device installations on-board aircraft should normally be identified and resolved during airworthiness testing. 3. General methods for detecting and resolving interference problems 3.1 There are many possible approaches to detecting and resolving interference problems. They all should be considered as tools to be applied when required.

EMC event-reporting system 3.2 An interference problem is often first observed by users of the navigation aid. Therefore, pilot and ATC reports are the first step in identifying the nature and approximate locations of where it occurs. The reporting system should be used to establish a point-of-contact between the users who observed the interference and the agency charged with resolving such occurrences. Ground monitoring 3.3 The increasing pollution of the electromagnetic environment at or near airports is a major concern to many States. It can be a particular problem near major airports with a large number of aeronautical systems. The local electromagnetic environment tends to be more congested by the many ground-based non-aeronautical interference sources. Ground-based monitoring systems to detect interference events are being developed. 3.4 The protection of the integrity of the signal-in-space against degradation. Which can arise from extraneous radio interference falling within the ILS frequency band, must be considered. This is particularly important where the ILS is used for Category II and III approach and landing operations. It is necessary, therefore, to periodically confirm that the radio environment at each Category II/III runway does not constitute a hazard. Technical confirmation of the interference 3.5 Ground and/or airborne test equipment deployment to obtain technical measurements will depend on how and where the interference manifests itself. 3.6 Most flight inspection aircraft can readily record the effects of the interference on receiver AGC, cross-pointer, flag and audio signals, as well as determine the aircraft position and altitude when interference is observed. Confirmation of the interference characteristics and location by the flight inspection service is a second step toward solving the problem. More detailed information can be obtained about the relative signal levels and the frequencies being received at the aircraft antenna if the flight inspection aircraft is equipped with a spectrum analyzer or field strength metre. Recording of the audio channel of the affected receiver, spectrum analyzer or field strength meter is useful in identifying the interference sources through its unique demodulated audio characteristics. A simple test such as inserting a suitable RF filter ahead of the receiver can often assist in identifying whether an interference source is in-band or out-of-band. 3.7 Confirmation of a suspected interference source can be achieved by switching the suspected source on and off several times and noting the resulting effects on the affected receiver. 3.8 It should be noted that there will be cases where the ground test equipment or the flight inspection aircraft may not be able to detect/confirm reported interference problems because: a) the receiver systems used in the air or on the ground (i.e. receiver, antenna, and cable system) may have significantly different performance characteristics from those receiver systems reported to have experienced interference; b) interference is intermittent and may not be occurring during the investigative flight test; or c) it may be difficult to find a ground observation point which corresponds to the interference conditions seen in the air.

Specialized electromagnetic interference (EMI) troubleshooting methods 3.9 Specialized equipment and computer simulation will likely be required if a source of interference cannot be readily identified. Many States have invested considerable time and effort on hardware and software techniques to resolve EMI problems. These techniques include: a) databases of potential interference source; b) EMC analysis software; c) interference simulators; d) special ground or airborne data acquisition systems; e) interference direction-finding systems; and f) antenna calibration techniques. Interference investigation 3.10 It may be helpful, in resolving the more difficult interference problems, to form an investigative team consisting of personnel representing (as required) flight inspection services, the State spectrum regulatory agency, aeronautical spectrum management and aeronautical facility engineering/maintenance. This team could seek input from the affected users and the owner/operator of the potential interference source, develop and implement test plans, analyze results and make recommendations for resolving interference problems.

Chapter 2 Very high frequency omni directional Radio range (VOR)


2.1 Introduction General 2.1.1 This chapter provides guidance on the ground and flight inspection requirements applicable to both conventional (CVOR) and Doppler (DVOR) type VHF omni directional radio range (VOR), as specified in Annex 10, Volume I, 3.3. System description 2.1.2 The VOR is a short-range radio navigation aid that procedures an infinite number of bearings that may be visualized as lines radiating from the beacon. The number of bearings can be limited to 360, one degree apart, known as radials. A radial is identified by its magnetic bearing from the VOR. 2.1.3 The radials are generated in space by comparing the phase angle of two equal frequencies radiated from the beacon. One signal, called the reference, radiates omni directionally so that its phase is equal in all directions. The second signal, called the variable, radiates from a directional array. The phase of the variable signal received at the aircraft is dependent upon the radial on which the receiver lies with respect to magnetic north. 2.1.4 Both signals are in-phase at magnetic north. The phase of the variable signal lags that of the reference signal by an amount equal to the azimuth angle around the beacon. 2.1.5 2.1.6 Reserved. Reserved.

Testing requirements 2.1.7 A summary of testing requirements is given in Table I-2-1. 2.2 Ground testing General 2.2.1 The following paragraphs contain information and guidance for establishment of an orderly maintenance program for VOR facilities. A maintenance program consists of standardized: a) periodic performance tests to determine if the facility is operating in accordance with established criteria; b) equipment adjustment procedures; c) periodic formal facilities inspections; d) logistic support procedures; and e) equipment modification as required. Note. Since the means by which VOR signals are produced vary from one manufacturer to the other, it would be impracticable to include detailed procedures in this manual for the different equipment employed in the various States. For this reason, broad equipment will be required. Ground performance parameters 2.2.2 Ground test requirements are listed in Table I-2-2. Ground test procedures 2.2.3 The VOR should be inspected in accordance with the manufacturers recommended procedures. The following procedures provide guidance for testing of VOR specific parameters specified in Annex 10, Volume I. The manufacturers procedures should include at least these tests.

Rotation 2.2.4 Correct rotation should be confirmed. This can be performed during the measurement of a ground error curve to determine antenna pattern accuracy. Sensing 2.2.5 Correct sensing should be verified by checking a radial other than 0 0 or 180 0 . Frequency 2.2.6 Using the frequency counter determines the transmitter carrier frequency in accordance with procedures in the equipment instruction book. If the frequency is out of tolerance, adjust it in accordance with the equipment instruction book. Pattern accuracy 2.2.7 A ground check is a means for determining course alignment errors. The actual courses produced by the VOR are compared (using monitor circuits) with simulated courses produced by a VOR test generator. Data recorded during the ground check are used to prepare a ground check error curve. Establishment of a ground check capability will enable maintenance personnel to restore a VOR to normal operation, following most repairs to the facility without a flight inspection. It is desirable to maintain the ground check error curve (maximum positive error to maximum negative error) within approximately 2.0 o . If the facility cannot provide this level of performance, a broader value should be considered. The stability of the error curve spread is considered more important to the facility performance analysis than the magnitude of the error spread. Example of procedure for conducting a ground check for a conventional VOR: a) Place a field detector into the 0 o positioner bracket and feed signals to the monitor in the normal manner. b) Rotate the azimuth selector of the monitor for an on course indication (reference and variable signals in phase). c) Substitute signals from the test generator. This can be accomplished by temporarily switching the field detector and test generator cables. d) Without changing monitor adjustments, rotate the test generator dial until an on course is again established. Read and record test generator dial reading. The difference between the dial reading of the test generator and the location of the field detector is the amount of course error at that location. e) Repeat steps a) through d) for all bracket locations. Plot a ground check error curve (amount of error versus azimuth) on rectangular co-ordinate graph paper. Note 1. Positioner brackets are installed on the edge of the counterpoise at every 22.5 0.1 o beginning at 0 o. Alternatively, brackets could be mounted on poles appropriately spaced around the facility. Note 2. Course error is either plus or minus. Plus error means the course is clockwise from where it should be, minus error means the course is counterclockwise from where it should be. Note 3. An alternative method is to rotate the antenna through 360 o and to plot the antenna characteristic from a single field monitor against the rotation angle. 2.2.8 Establishment of reference curve at commissioning. It is desirable to prepare a reference ground check error curve immediately following the commissioning flight inspection. This curve is no different from that described above except that it is an average of three separate ground checks conducted on the same day, if possible. The reference error curve serves as a standard for comparing subsequent ground checks. The reference error curve is updated whenever courses are realigned during a flight inspection. Coverage 2.2.9 The coverage of the facility is established at the commissioning flight inspection. The standard operating condition of the facility should be established at this time including the carrier power level. Measure the RF power output using the wattmeter in accordance with the procedure in the equipment instruction book. Compare the level measured with the established standard operating condition at the periodic test.

Modulation 2.2.10 The preferred method is the use of a modulation meter. If a modulation meter is not available, an oscilloscope may be used instead. 9960 Hz deviation 2.2.11 The deviation in a CVOR may be measured at the output of the FM modulation stage or by direct measurement of the radiated signal using a modulation analyzer. The deviation is determined using an oscilloscope by displaying the 9960 Hz signal and measuring the difference, Dt, in periods between the minimum frequency (9960 Hz 480 Hz) and the maximum frequency (9960 Hz + 480 Hz). The modulation index is determined by the following equation: Modulation Index = t / 60 T 2 Where T = 1/9960 In a DVOR, the deviation of the 9960 Hz sub carrier is determined by the rotation speed of the switched antennas and the physical characteristics of the array. 9960 Hz modulation depth of the radio frequency carrier 2.2.12 The CVOR 9960 Hz modulation depth of the carrier frequency can be measured by directly using a modulation meter, modulation analyzer, or an oscilloscope. All other modulation should be inhibited unless the characteristics of the modulation analyzer allow individual separation of the modulating signals. 2.2.13 In the oscilloscope method, a portion of the RF carrier (modulated by one frequency at a time) is coupled to the oscilloscope synchronized at the modulating frequency. An amplitude modulated waveform is produced from which the high (Emax) and low (Emin) points are measured. These values may be substituted in the following formula and the modulation percentage determined. M = (Emax - Emin) /(Emax + Emin) 100 % 2.2.14 The modulation of the carrier for a DVOR is achieved in space by the combination of the reference signal and the switched 9960 Hz variable signal. The modulation depth should be checked using a signal derived from a field monitor. A tuned modulation analyzer is required due to the lower signal strength available. 30 Hz modulation depth of the radio frequency carrier 2.2.15 The CVOR variable signal modulation level (space modulation) is a function of the ratio of sideband energy to carrier energy radiated. The procedure in the equipment instruction book should be followed for adjusting the variable signal modulation level because different means (i.e. antenna systems) are employed in producing the rotating figure-of-eight radiation pattern. 2.2.16 A procedure for adjusting the variable signal level that can be adapted to most VOR facilities is as follows: a) Stop rotation of the figure-of-eight pattern. b) Measure and record the relative field intensity (using monitor field intensity meter indications) at the two maximum field intensity points (180 o apart ) in the figure-of-eight radiation pattern. One of these points will be in-phase (Max) and the other out-of-phase (Min) with the carrier RF energy. c) Compute the modulation percentage by substituting the Max and Min quantities obtained by applying b) above in formula (1). d) Vary sideband power until the desired modulation level is attained. 2.2.17 Accuracy will require corrected field intensity readings obtained from a calibration curve (transmitter power output versus field detector meter indication) either furnished with the equipment or prepared by field maintenance personnel. The final setting of the 30 Hz variable signal level (course width) is determined by flight inspection.

2.2.18 DVOR carrier modulation depth by the 30 Hz can be measured directly using a modulation meter, modulation analyzer, or an oscilloscope. All other modulation should be inhibited unless the characteristics of the modulation analyzer allow individual separation of the modulating signals. 30 Hz modulation frequency 2.2.19 Measure the 30 Hz modulation frequency using the frequency counter. 9960 Hz sub carrier frequency 2.2.20 Measure the 9960 Hz sub carrier frequency using the frequency counter. CVOR AM modulation of 9960 Hz sub carrier 2.2.21 Observe the 9960 Hz sub carrier using an oscilloscope at the output of the FM modulator or after detection from a field monitor. Use the method described above to determine the AM modulation of the sub carrier with all other modulation off. DVOR AM modulation of 9960 Hz sub carrier 2.2.22 Observe the composite signal with an oscilloscope connected to a test receiver or monitor and all other modulation off. Determine the percentage of amplitude modulation using the method described above. Note. The limit for AM on the sub carrier in the far field, further than 300 m (1000 ft) away, is less than 40 per cent. This limit corresponds to a limit of 55 per cent when the signal from a monitor antenna at the 80 m (260 ft) distance is used. Refer to the manufacturers equipment instruction book for additional guidance on particular equipment. Sideband level of the harmonics of the 9960 Hz component 2.2.23 The level of the 9960 Hz harmonics can be determined by using a spectrum analyzer and observing the radiated signal of the VOR from a field monitor probe. CVOR measurements can also be made at the antenna feed point of the reference signal. Voice channel 2.2.24 Peak modulation of voice channel. Connect an audio generator set to the nominal line level to the audio input of the VOR. Measure the peak modulation using a modulation meter or the oscilloscope method described above. 2.2.25 Audio frequency characteristics. Select a frequency of 1000 Hz using an audio generator and establish a reference modulation level. Maintain the same output level from the audio generator and vary the audio frequency between 300 Hz and 3000 Hz noting the modulation characteristics over the range. 2.2.26 Speech effect on normal navigation function. Operate the VOR in normal mode with all navigation modulation present. Apply the normal audio program and observe the station monitor for any effect on the navigation performance. Identification 2.2.27 Speed. Observe the identification signal envelope using an oscilloscope. The code transmission speed can be established by measuring the period of a dot. 2.2.28 Repetition. The repetition rate can be established by counting the repetition of the code cycle over a fixed period or by measuring the time required for the completion of several cycles. 2.2.29 Tone. The identification tone can be measured directly using a frequency counter.

2.2.30 Modulation depth. Measure the modulation depth using a modulation meter or the oscilloscope method with the identification tone continuously on and no other modulation present. Monitoring 2.2.31 Two methods are available to test the monitor performance. The first method is the simulation of the monitor input signal by the use of test equipment; and the second method is the adjustment of the transmitter to provide the required test signals. The use of discrete test equipment is the preferred method. Additional monitors may be provided in different equipment types. The manufacturers test procedures should be followed in such cases. 2.2.32 Bearing. Generate a VOR signal that equates to the monitored radial. Vary the phase of the variable signal relative to the reference signal to generate a positive and negative bearing alarm. Record the phase difference. 2.2.33 Modulation. Apply a standard monitor input signal and vary the modulation of the 9960 Hz and the 30 Hz signals to cause alarm conditions for either or both of the navigation tones. Polarization 2.2.34 This parameter is normally measured by flight inspection, but may be measured on the ground if suitable equipment is available. Spurious modulation 2.2.35 Spurious (unwanted) modulation should be as low as possible (0.5 per cent or less) to prevent possible course errors. This modulation level may be determined by comparing AC voltage indications required to produce a known modulation level (only one modulation frequency applied) with the AC voltage indications, while audio input level controls (1020 Hz, 10 kHz, and voice) are adjusted to zero. The modulation output meter may be used for these readings. Record the modulation value obtained. Site infringement 2.2.36 The site surrounding the VOR should be inspected at each maintenance visit for infringements of the clear are surrounding the facility. Maintenance activities that require flight inspection 2.2.37 Flight inspection is not required for all maintenance procedures or modifications to the transmitting and monitoring equipment if field measurement and monitoring indications can be restored to the conditions that existed at commissioning or during the last satisfactory flight test. 2.2.38 A flight test is required in the following situations before returning the VOR to serve: a) realignment of magnetic north reference; b) replacement of the antenna; c) repositioning the field monitor antenna; d) replacement of transmission lines of critical length; e) change of operating frequency; and f) environmental changes.

Course error analysis 2.2.39 Improper equipment adjustments or faulty equipment can result in a ground check error curve having periodic variations. These variations approximate the shape of sine waves and depending upon the total number of positive and negative peaks above and below the zero course error line, are called duantal, quadrantal, or octantal error. These errors can appear singly or simultaneously in any combination. The Fourier analysis technique can be employed to determine the type and amount of error in an error curve if desired. The following examples apply for CVOR only. 2.2.40 Duantal error (two peaks, one positive and one negative) is caused by unwanted 30 Hz amplitude modulation of the RF carrier and/or improper RF phase relationship between sideband antenna currents of a pair. Possible causes of duantal error in a four-loop array are: a) unequal electrical line lengths of paired transmission lines; b) improper location of figure-of-eight radiation pattern Min points; c) amplitude modulation of the 10 kHz signal at a 30 Hz rate; and/or d) dissimilar antennas or antenna members elements. 2.2.41 Quadrantal error (four peaks, two positive and two negative ) is caused by unwanted 60 Hz modulation of the RF carrier and/or antenna system faults. Possible causes of quadrantal error in a four-loop array are: a) in equally of antenna pair currents; b) miss phasing of RF currents between c) unequal attenuation of sideband antenna feed lines; and/or d) improper adjustment of the power amplifier stage of the transmitter. 2.2.42 Octantal error (eight peaks, four positives and four negatives) is found primarily in VOR facilities employing four (loop) antennas. This error results when they do not produce a true figure-of-eight radiation pattern. End-plates on loops should be adjusted to reduce octantal error. 2.2.43 Reserved.

Test equipment 2.2.44 The following is a suggested list of test equipment for use in maintaining VOR facilities: a) oscilloscope a bandwidth of 400 MHz is recommended. b) audio oscillator; c) VOR test generator; d) frequency counter; e) modulation analyzer or modulation meter; f) wattmeter, voltage standing wave ratio indicator or through-line wattmeter. g) probe detector, VHF; h) spectrum analyzer. 2.3 Flight testing General 2.3.1 VORs should meet all requirements to be classified as unrestricted. The operating agency may, after proper coordination, prescribe the use of the facility on a restricted basis and issue Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) accordingly when a specific area of a facility does not meet these operating tolerances. Flight test performance parameters 2.3.2 Flight testing requirements are listed in Table I-2-3.

Flight test procedures Sensing 2.3.3 This check is required at the beginning of the flight inspection and need not be repeated. The bearing of the aircraft from the station must be known. Select an appropriate radial and when the cross-pointer is centred, the indicator should indicate From. Rotation 2.3.4 Begin an orbit. The radial bearing as indicated should continually decrease for a counterclockwise orbit, or increase for a clockwise orbit. Sensing should be checked before rotation. Incorrect sensing might cause the station rotation to appear reversed. Polarization effect 2.3.5 The polarization effect results from vertically polarized RF energy being radiated from the antenna system. The presence of undesired vertical polarization should be checked by the attitude effect and may be further investigated by either the 360 o turn method or the heading effect method. Attitude effect method 2.3.6 The vertical polarization effect should be checked when flying directly to, or from, the facility, at a distance of 18.5 to 37 km (10 to 20 NM). The aircraft should be rolled to a 30 o bank, first to one side, then to the other, and returned to a straight level flight. Track and heading deviations should kept to a minimum. Course deviation, as measured on the recording, is the indication of vertical polarization effect. 30 o bank, 360 o turn method 2.3.7 Vertical polarization may be checked by executing a 30 o bank, 360 o turn, 18.5 to 37 km (10 to 20 NM) from the antenna. The turn should begin from an on-course (toward the station) position over a measured ground checkpoint. 2.3.8 The recording should be marked at the start of the turn and at each 90 o of heading change until the turn is completed. The turn should be completed over the starting point and the recording marked. The recording should show a smooth departure from and return to the on-course position, deviating only by the amount that the aircraft is displaced from the original starting point when the vertical polarization effect is not present. Other excursions of the cross-pointer may be attributed to the vertical polarization effect. The effect of the wing shadowing the aircraft antenna should be considered in evaluating the recording. Pattern accuracy Alignment 2.3.9 Alignment can be determined by flying an orbit or by flying a series of radials. The altitude selected for the flight should place the aircraft in the main lobe of the VOR.. 2.3.10 The orbit should be flown at a height and range that allows the position reference system to accurately determine the position of the aircraft. This will require low, close-in orbits for theodolite-based position systems. Other automated systems will require the orbits to be conducted at a greater range to achieve the required accuracy. The orbit should have sufficient overlap to ensure that the measurement covers the complete 360 o . The alignment of the VOR is determined by averaging the error throughout the orbit. Judgment may be exercised where the tracking of the orbit is interrupted to determine the effect of the lost information on the average alignment. 2.3.11 Alignment can also be determined by flying a series of radial approaches. These approaches should be conducted at equal angular displacements around the facility. A minimum of eight radial is considered necessary to determine the alignment of the VOR.

Bends 2.3.12 A bend is determined by flying a radial pattern and comparing the indicated course against a position reference system. The error is measured against the correct magnetic azimuth of the radial. Deviations of the course due to bends should not exceed 3.5 o from the computed average course alignment and should remain within 3.5 o of the correct magnetic azimuth. Roughness and scalloping error 2.3.13 Scalloping is a cyclic deviation of the course line. The frequency is high enough so that the deviation is averaged out and will not cause aircraft displacement. Roughness is a ragged irregular series of deviations. Momentary deviations of the course due to roughness, scalloping or combinations thereof should not exceed 3.0 o from the average course. Flyability 2.3.14 Flyability is a subjective assessment by the pilot flying the inspection. Assessment of flyability should be performed on operational radials and during procedures based on the VOR. Coverage 2.3.15 Coverage of the VOR is the usable area within the operational service volume and is determined during the various checks of the VOR. Additional flight checks are required to determine the distance from the facility at which satisfactory coverage is obtained at the specified altitudes. 2.3.16 The coverage of a VOR can be affected by factors other than signal strength. Where out-of-tolerance roughness, scalloping, bends, alignment, and/or interference render the facility unusable in certain areas, a restriction should result which should be handled in the same manner as restricted coverage due to lack of signal strength. Modulation 2.3.17 The modulation of the 30 Hz reference, 30 Hz variable and 9960 Hz sub carrier should be measured during the flight inspection. Note that the roles of the FM and AM signals are reversed between the CVOR and the DVOR. Voice channel 2.3.18 Voice communications on the VOR frequency should be checked for clarity, signal strength, and effect on the course structure in the same manner as described for identification checks. The audio level of voice communications is the same as the level of the voice identification feature. Flight inspection personnel should maintain surveillance of the quality and coverage of recorded voice transmissions (automatic terminal information service (ATIS) or other transcribed voice service) and ensure that there is no detrimental effect on the performance of the VOR. Comments and deficiencies should be included in the appropriate flight inspection reports. 2.3.19 Speech effect on normal navigation functions. Observe the indicated bearing information during a stable approach flight and determine if the bearing information is affected by the voice transmission. Identification 2.3.20 The identification signal should be inspected for correctness, clarity, and possible detrimental effect on the course structure. This check should be performed while flying on-course and within radio line-of-sight of the station. Observe the course recording to determine if either code or voice identification affects the course structure. If course roughness is suspected, the identical track should be flown again with the identification turned off. Maintenance personnel should be advised immediately if it is determined that the course characteristics are affected by the identification signal.

2.3.21 The audible transmission of simultaneous voice/code identification signals should appear to be equal in volume to the user. The voice identification is not utilized during ground-to-air broadcasts on the VOR frequency, but the coded identification should be audible in the background. Bearing monitor 2.3.22 The requirements for checking the monitor are as follows: a) during commissioning inspections; and b) during subsequent inspections, if the alignment at the reference checkpoint has changed more than one degree from the alignment last established and the monitor has not alarmed. 2.3.23 The check is made over the reference checkpoint at the same altitude as that used to establish the reference checkpoint. Position the aircraft inbound or outbound and activate the event mark exactly over the checkpoint while the following course conditions exist: a) with the course in the normal operating condition; b) with the course shifted to the alarm point; c) with course shifted to the alarm point to the opposite direction from b) above; or d) with the course returned to the normal operating condition. 2.3.24 The course alignment should be compared, in each of these conditions, by reference to the recordings to determine the amplitude of shift to the alarm point and to verify the return to normal. 2.3.25 Check both transmitters in the same manner when dual monitors are installed. Both should be checked on a systematic basis. Follow the procedure for single monitor check above, except in steps b) and c) the course should be shifted in each direction until both monitors alarm. Determine the amplitude of course-shift required to alarm both monitors. Reference checkpoint 2.3.26 A checkpoint should be selected during the commissioning inspection on or close to the monitor radial (usually 090 or 270 degrees) and located within 18.5 to 37 km (10 to 20 NM) of the antenna. This checkpoint should be used in establishing course alignment and should serve as a reference point for subsequent inspections of alignment, monitors, course sensitivity and modulation measurements. Course alignment and sensitivity should normally be adjusted with reference to this checkpoint. Adjustments made elsewhere will require a recheck of the these parameters at this reference checkpoint. 2.3.27 The flight inspector should record a description of the reference checkpoint that includes the azimuth to the nearest tenth of a degree, the distance from the facility, and the mean sea level (MSL) altitude, which is usually 460 m (1500 ft) above the antenna. This data should be revised any time the reference checkpoint is re-established. The final course alignment error, measured at the reference checkpoint, should be recorded on the facility data sheet for subsequent reference in order to determine the necessary for a complete monitor check as specified in 2.3.3.9. Standby power 2.3.28 Standby power, when installed, should be checked during the commissioning inspection. This is not necessary for some types of standby power installations, e.g. float-charged battery supplies where there is no possibility of performance variation when operating on standby power. Subsequent inspections should not be required unless there is reported evidence of facility deterioration while this source of power is in use. The following items should be evaluated while operating on standby power. a) course alignment (one radial); b) course structure; and c) modulations

2.3.29 The inspections are to be performed when flying a portion of a radial with the station operating on normal power, and then repeating the check at the same altitude and over the same ground track with the station operating on standby power. Standby equipment 2.3.30 Both transmitters should be checked against each required item of Table I-2-3. These checks may be performed using radial flights and a single alignment orbit. Complementary facilities 2.3.31 Facilities associated with the VOR that complement operational use (such as marker beacons, DME, lighting aids that support the visibility minima of an approach procedure, etc.) should be inspected concurrently with the VOR and in accordance with applicable procedures. Evaluation of operational procedures Radials 2.3.32 Radials used, or proposed for use, for IFR should be inspected to determine their capability to support the procedure. On commissioning inspections, a selection of radials proposed for IFR use should be inspected. The selection should be based on the following criteria: a) All radials supporting instrument approach procedures should be selected. b) Radials should be selected from areas of poor performance indicated by the orbit inspection. c) At least one radial should be selected from each quadrant, if appropriate. In general, this should include the longest and lowest radials. Routine inspection requirements are contained in the following paragraphs. En-route radials (airways, off-airway routes, substitute routes) 2.3.33 En-route radials should be flown either inbound or outbound, along their entire length from the facility to the extremity of their intended use, at the minimum altitude for the associated airway or route as published. The minimum altitude for flying en-route radials, predicated on terminal facilities, is 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest terrain or obstruction along the radial to a distance of 46.3 km (25 NM). The aircraft should be flown on the electronic radial and the position of the aircraft should be recorded using a position reference system. 2.3.34 Reference, variable and 9960 Hz modulations and the vertical polarization effect should be checked at least once on each airway and direct-route radial. Signal strength, course deviation and aircraft position should be recorded throughout the radial flight. 2.3.35 Course structure and alignment should be determined by analysis of the recordings. The recordings should also be analyzed for possible undesirable close-in or over-station characteristics to determine that use of the facility for approach, holding, etc., is not adversely affected. Terminal radials (approach, missed approach, standard instrument departure(SID)) 2.3.36 Approach radials should be evaluated at a distance that includes the procedure turn, holding pattern and missed approach on commissioning inspections. The approach radial should be flown 30 m (100 ft) below specified altitudes. Site and commissioning inspections require two additional radials 5 o either side of the approach radial to be flown and analyzed with the same criteria as the approach radial. Radials used to support SID procedures should be evaluated to the extent to which they are used.

Intersections 2.3.37 Adjacent facilities that provide intersections should be inspected to determine their capability to support the intersection. Reliable facility performance and course guidance at the approved minimum holding altitude (MHA) should exist. Minimum signal strength should exist for the radial(s) forming the intersection within 7.4 km (4 NM) or 4.5 o , whichever is greater, each side of the geographical location of the intersection fix. 2.3.38 Identification from each facility forming the intersection should be clear and distinct. Voice communications should be adequate at the minimum holding altitude. The signal from each facility should be free from interference at all altitudes below the maximum authorized altitude for holding. A minimum reception altitude should be established for the intersection, which is normally determined by the facility providing the weakest signal. Note. All minimum en-route altitudes are to be corrected to and reported as true altitudes above mean sea level. All intersections prior to being published and authorized for use are to be flight inspected against the requirements stated above. Routine inspections of intersections can be accomplished adequately by recording an airway radial of one facility and the transition from other facilities forming the fix. Routine inspections can therefore be conducted concurrently with airway radials. Departure from the airway radial that is being inspected to evaluate another radial which is part of the fix is not required, unless detailed investigations become necessary. Cross-check radials 2.3.39 Commissioning and routine flight inspections of cross-check radials are not required provided there is sufficient flight inspection data to support the certification of these radials. The radial(s) should be inspected prior to being authorized for use if cross-check radials are requested for use in areas outside of the operational service volume of the facility(ies) for which supporting flight inspection data is not available. Thereafter, flight inspections are not required. 2.3.40 Reserved.

Test equipment 2.3.41 The aircraft should be fitted with a typical VOR receiver and antenna system. The power level into the receiver is used as the normal reference parameter for the determination of field strength. The power level into the receiver can be converted to absolute field are strength if the antenna factor and cable losses are known. Refer to Chapter 1, Attachment 1, for guidance on determining antenna performance. 2.3.42 Reserved.

Analysis Course structure 2.3.43 Roughness, scalloping, and bends are displayed as deviations of the cross-pointer. Roughness will show as a series of ragged irregular deviations; scalloping, as a series of smooth rhythmic deviations. The frequency of each is such that it is not flyable and must be averaged out to obtain a course. Modern flight inspection systems can automatically carry out the analysis of a course structure.

2.3.44 A manual method to measure the amplitude of roughness and scalloping, or combinations thereof, is to draw two lines on the recording which are tangential to and along each positive and negative peak of the course deviation. The number of degrees, or microamperes, between these lines will be the total magnitude of course deviations; one half of this magnitude will be the plus and minus deviation. A third line is drawn equidistant from these lines to obtain the average on-course from which alignment is measured. The alignment error may be computed from the course recordings at any point where an accurate checkpoint has been marked on the recording. An alignment error should be referred to the nearest tenth of a degree. Misalignment in the clockwise direction is considered positive. The error is positive when the magnetic azimuth of the measured (ground) checkpoint is greater than the electronic radial. 2.3.45 A bend is similar to scalloping except that its frequency is such that an aircraft can be maneuvered throughout a bend to maintain a centered cross-pointer. A bend might be described as a brief misalignment of the course. It is therefore important to the analysis of a bend to consider aircraft heading and radial alignment deviations. Bends are sometimes difficult to discern, especially in those areas where good ground checkpoints or other means of aircraft positioning are not available. A smooth deviation of the course over a distance of 3.7 km (2NM) two miles would manifest itself as a bend for a flight inspection aircraft at a ground speed of 140 knots. An aircraft of greater speed would not detect such smooth deviations of the course as a bend, unless it was over a much greater distance. The analysis of bends should further consider the flight levels and speeds of potential users. 2.3.46 These various course aberrations are usually caused by reflections of the RF signal from terrain, trees, power lines, hangars, fences, etc. The character of the deviation can indicate the type of reflecting objects, i.e. rough objects such as trees may cause roughness, smooth objects such as power lines and hangars may cause scalloping and bends. A study of flight inspection recordings and the surrounding terrain will often disclose the source of the course aberrations. These conditions (roughness, scalloping, bends) can occur alone or in any combination. Application of tolerances 2.3.47 The application of bend criteria should consider the navigation system accuracy, which is based partly on a maximum course displacement of 3.5 o (bend tolerance) and the maximum distance an aircraft is expected to depart from an established course. The displacement of the course by a bend should not exceed 3.5 o from either the correct magnetic azimuth or the on-course average, as provided by the facility, in order to satisfy these factors. The following two examples are offered for clarification: a) A radial that has zero alignment error the maximum bend tolerance of 3.5 o is allowable on both sides of the on-course line whether the bend occurs singly or in series. b) A radial that has an alignment error of +2.0 o - further displacement of the course by a bend of +1.5 o is allowable. This results in a +3.5 o displacement from the correct magnetic azimuth. Since a bend displacement of the course of 3.5 o from the on-course average is allowable; this results in a 1.5 o displacement from the correct magnetic azimuth. 2.3.48 When roughness, or scalloping, or a combination is superimposed on the bend, the average on-course should be determined by averaging the total amplitude of such aberrations. This can result in a momentary displacement of the course of 6.5 o where 3.0 o of roughness is superimposed on a bend of 3.5 o .Such a condition is highly unlikely; however, consideration should be given to the suitability of the facility in the areas of such occurrence. 2.3.49 The criteria for roughness and scalloping should not be applied strictly as a plus and minus factor, but as a maximum deviation from the course. Roughness and scalloping normally occur in a series. Where it is apparent that a rapid deviation occurs only on one side of the course, rather than in a series, the criteria should be applied as a plus factor, or a minus factor, as applicable.

Summary of testing requirements VOR Annex 10, Volume I, Parameter Reference Rotation 3.3.1.1 Sensing 3.3.1.3 Frequency 3.3.2 Polarization 3.3.3.1 Pattern accuracy 3.3.3.2 Coverage 3.3.4 9960 Hz deviation 3.3.5.1 9960 Hz modulation depth 3.3.5.2 30 Hz modulation depth 3.3.5.3 30 Hz modulation frequency 3.3.5.4 9960 Hz subcarrier frequency 3.3.5.5. CVOR AM modulation of 9960 Hz subcarrier 3.3.5.6 DVOR AM modulation of 9960 Hz subcarrier 3.3.5.6 Sideband level of the harmonics of the 9960 Hz 3.3.5.7 Peak modulation of voice channel 3.3.6.2 Audio frequency characteristics 3.3.6.3 Identification speed 3.3.6.5 Identification repetition 3.3.6.5 Identification tone 3.3.6.5 Identification modulation depth 3.3.6.6 Speech effect on normal navigation function 3.3.6.7 Bearing monitor 3.3.7.1 Modulation monitor 3.3.7.1 Legend: F = Flight test/inspection G = Ground test

Table I-2-1.

Testing F/G F/G G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G F/G G G G G G G F/G F/G F/G G

Table I-2-2. Parameter


Rotation Sensing Carrier frequency Polarization Pattern accuracy Coverage 9960 Hz deviation 9960 Hz modulation depth 30 Hz modulation depth 30 Hz modulation frequency 9960 Hz subcarrier frequency
CVOR AM modulation of 9960 HZ subcarrier DVOR AM modulation of 9960 Hz subcarrier

Summary of ground test requirements VOR Annex Doc Tolerance Uncertainty Periodicity 10 8071 Measurand 3.3.1.1 2.2.4 Clockwise Correct 12 months
3.3.1.3 3.3.2 3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2 3.3.4 3.3.5.1 3.3.5.2 3.3.5.3 3.3.5.4 3.3.5.5 3.3.5.6 3.3.5.6 3.3.5.7 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.34 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.11 2.2.12 2.2.15 to 2.2.18 2.2.19 2.2.20 2.2.21 2.2.22 2.2.23 Correctness Frequency Deviation Alignment Field strength Ratio Modulation depth Modulation depth Frequency Frequency Correct 0.002% 2.0
o

12 months 0.0004% 0.3


o

12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months

2.0 o 90V/m 161 28 to 32% 28 to 32%


30Hz1% 9960Hz1%

0.4 o 3 dB

1% 1% 0.06Hz 20Hz 1% 1% 1dB

12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months

Sideband level of harmonics of 9960 Hz

Peak modulation of voice channel Audio frequency characteristics Identification speed Identification repetition Identification tone frequency Identification modulation depth with communications channel No communications channel Speech effect on navigation function Deviation Modulation Bearing monitor Modulation monitor Spurious modulation Site infringement

3.3.6.2 3.3.6.3 3.3.6.5 3.3.6.5 3.3.6.5 3.3.6.6

2.2.24 2.2.25 2.2.27 2.2.28 2.2.29 2.2.30

Modulation 5% depth Modulation 40% depth Modulation 9960 Hz=0dB ref depth 2nd harmonic -30dB 3rd harmonic -50dB 4th and above -60dB Modulation 30% depth Power Time Time Frequency Modulation depth 3dB 7words/min
2time/min

1% 1dB

12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months

102050Hz 10% 20%

10Hz 1%

12 months 12 months

3.3.6.7

2.2.26

Deviation Modulation Deviation Volts Modulation depth 1.0 o 15% 0.5%

0.3% 1% 0.3 o 1% 0.1%

12 months

3.3.7.1 3.3.7.1 None None

2.2.32 2.2.33 2.2.35 2.2.36

12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months

Table I-2-3. Parameter Rotation Sensing Polarization Pattern accuracy Alignment Bends Roughness and scalloping Flyability Coverage Modulation 9960 Hz modulation 30 Hz modulation Voice channel Identification Speech effect on navigation Bearing Modulation Bearing monitor Reference checkpoint Standby power Standby equipment Complementary facilities

Summary of flight inspection requirements VOR


Annex 10 3.3.1.1 3.3.1.3 3.3.3.1 3.3.3 Doc 8071 2.3.4 2.3.3 2.3.5 2.3.9 to 2.3.11 2.3.12 2.3.13 2.3.14 2.3.15 2.3.16 2.3.17 Measurand Clockwise Correctness Deviation Deviation Tolerance Correct Correct 2.0
o o

Uncertainty

Inspection type C, P, S C, P, S

0.3

2.0 o 3.5 o 3.0 o Flyable 90V/m 28 to 32%

0.3 o 0.3 o 0.3 o Subjective 3 dB 1%

C, P, S C, P, S

3.3.4 3.3.5

Field strength Modulation depth Clarity Clarity Deviation Modulation Deviation As required Normal operation As required As required

C C, P, S

3.3.6.2 3.3.6.5 3.3.6.7

2.3.18 2.3.20 2.3.21 2.3.19 2.3.22 to 2.3.25 2.3.26 to 2.3.27 2.3.28 to 2.3.29 2.3.30 2.3.31

Clear Clear No effect 1.0 o 0.3 o 1% 0.3 o

C, P C, P C, P

3.3.7.1

C C, P C, P C, P C, P

Legend: C = Commissioning P = Periodic, Nominal periodicity is 12 months. Some States have extended this interval, particularly for DVORs, based on the improved immunity of the Doppler equipment to multipath interference. Intervals of up to 5 years are applied by some States. S = Site proving

Chapter 3 Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)


3.1 Introduction General 3.1.1 This chapter provides guidance on flight and ground testing requirements applicable to the standard distance measuring equipment (DME), as specified in Annex 10, Volume I, 3.5. The basic radar principles, upon which the DME functions, are such that the accuracy of the distance indications is essentially independent of the ground equipment-radiated field pattern. Consequently, the determination of correct ground equipment performance can largely be made with the ground monitoring and maintenance equipment in accordance with the procedures outlined in the manuals of the individual DME transponder manufacturers. While ground checks are important in ensuring the quality of a DME system, it is good practice to confirm these results by flight inspection. Many of the Annex 10 parameters can be tested in an aircraft with an adequate airborne system. Note. Guidance concerning testing requirements for precision DME (DME/P) may be found in Part 2 (Microwave Landing System) of this volume.* System description 3.1.2 The DME system provides continuous distance information to an aircraft during approach, departure, or en-route procedures according to the location of the DME. The signals can be interpreted either by the pilot from the display or input directly into the flight management system (FMS). 3.1.3 3.1.4 Reserved Reserved

Testing requirements 3.1.5 A summary of testing requirements is given is Table I-3-1. 3.2 Ground testing General 3.2.1 The parameters of the ground equipment that should be regularly checked are indicated in Table I-3-2. The frequency with which such tests should be performed should be based on experience with each type of equipment and the quality of maintenance. The suggested periodicities are given only as general guidance and may require modification based on the manufacturers advice or practical experience. The procedures and test equipment to be employed in ground testing a DME transponder vary according to the commercial product involved. The appropriate manufacturer7s technical manuals should be used as guidance. Ground performance parameters 3.2.2 Ground test requirements are listed in Table I-3-2. Ground test procedures 3.2.3 Recommended general instructions for testing of DME specific parameters are provided in the following paragraphs. The DME should be checked in accordance with the test procedures proposed in the manufacturers equipment instruction book. 3.2.4 Transmitter frequency stability. Use the frequency counter to measure the transmitter frequency in accordance with the procedure in the equipment instruction book. Adjust the frequency as required.

3.2.5 Pulse spectrum. Use the spectrum analyzer to measure the spectrum of the output pulse according to the procedure in the equipment instruction book. Check and correct the modulation level (pedestal and Gaussian pulse) and adjust the transmitter stages if provided. Note the output power and pulse shape during adjustments. 3.2.6 Pulse shape. Use the oscilloscope to measure the shape of the output pulse according to the procedure in the equipment instruction book. If setting is necessary, refer to the adjustments of the output pulse spectrum in the paragraph above. After adjusting the pulse shape, it is very important to recheck the time delay. Check the pulse peak (refer to Annex 10, Volume I, 3.5.4.1.3 d)). 3.2.7 Pulse spacing. Use the oscilloscope to measure the spacing of the output pulse according to the procedure in the equipment instruction book. Adjustments are generally not provided. 3.2.8 Peak power output. Use the peak power meter and the calibrated load, or the variable attenuator when available, to measure the peak power output of the transmitter according to the procedure in the equipment instruction book. Refer to the adjustments of the Gaussian modulation pulse shape and transmitter stages in the previous paragraphs if adjustment is necessary. After adjustment, the time delay and pulse shape should be checked. Tolerances up to 1dB of the power output are acceptable because these variations result in a change of the operational range by only 10 per cent. It is more important to obtain the output pulse spectrum and pulse shape within the requirements. Check the reflected power of the facility using the directional coupler. 3.2.9 Peak variation. Measure the power drop of the output pulse using the oscilloscope. The variation in power level at the peak of any pair should not deviate from the average peak power by more than 1dB. 3.2.10 Transmitter pulse repetition frequency (PRI). The DME is set to a constant duty cycle at commissioning. Measure the transponder reply pulse rate using the frequency counter, following the procedure of the equipment instruction book. If the system is set to variable duty cycle, the measured reply pulse rate depends on the manufacturers design, which will be described in the detailed technical characteristics of the equipment. In any case, it should not be less than 700 pulse pairs per second (pps), or more than 1350 90 pps in the absence of interrogations. 3.2.11 Receiver frequency stability. Use the frequency counter to measure the receiver frequency in accordance with the procedure in the equipment instruction book. The accuracy of the receiver frequency depends on the accuracy of the transmitter frequency, and if provided with crystal, from their tolerances. Note that the transmitter frequency is always separated from the receiver frequency by 63 MHz. The sign depends on operating channel mode. 3.2.12 Receiver sensitivity. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment to measure the on-channel sensitivity to 70 per cent reply efficiency at an interrogation rate of 30 to 40 pulse pairs per second. The receiver sensitivity can be set at commissioning to different values depending on the required output power. Use the procedures and settings of the test equipment as described in the instruction book. 3.2.13 Receiver sensitivity variation with load. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment to measure the on-channel sensitivity to 70 per cent reply efficiency at an interrogation rate from 0 to 90 per cent of the maximum transponder transmission rate (depends on the requirements).

3.2.14 Receiver bandwidth. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment to measure the receiver sensitivity, as described in the paragraph receiver sensitivity, except: a) with an incoming frequency drift of 100 kHz from the centre frequency. Check the loss in sensitivity; and/or b) with an incoming frequency drift of 900 kHz from the centre frequency and with a level of 80 dB above receiver threshold. Check the interrogation pulse rejection. 3.2.15 Decoder. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment to measure the receiver sensitivity as previously described, except: a) with a shift of 0.4 s in the pulse spacing of the interrogation signal. Check that there is no change in sensitivity; b) with a shift between 0.5 s and 2s in the pulse spacing of the interrogation signal. Check that the loss in sensitivity is less than 1 dB; and c) with a shift of more than 2 s in the pulse spacing of the interrogation signal. Check the interrogation pulse rejection. 3.2.16 Time delay. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment and the oscilloscope to measure the time between the first pulse of the interrogation to the first pulse of the reply using the 50 per cent point of the leading edge. Follow the settings of the test equipment and the procedures to the manufacturers instruction book to make sure that the measurement is made precisely. The nominal transponder time delay is: X-Mode: 50 s Y-Mode: 56 s Operational requirements at commissioning may justify setting the time delay to another value. It is recommended that the time delay variation be checked with different interrogation levels (from the receiver sensitivity threshold to 80 dB above the threshold) to verify that the slant distance accuracy is not dependent upon the level. Follow the procedure of the instruction book. Note. The above figures are for first-pulse timing. If the transponder is set to second-pulse timing, the nominal time delay is 50s for both X-Mode and Y-Mode. 3.2.17 Identification. The identification signal consists of a series of paired pulses transmitted at a repetition rate of 1350 pps. The identification keying is pre-settable for associated or independent facilities. Use the frequency counter and a stopwatch to measure the time of the dots, the dashes, the spacing between dots and/or dashes and the spacing between consecutive letters or numerals. Check the total period of transmission of one identification code group. Check the repetition time between the code groups. 3.2.18 The automatic monitor control. Check and verify, using the milliwatt meter, the oscilloscope and the frequency counter that the monitor RF pulse peak output signal is correct (reference calibrated level: 0dBm). Follow the test procedures of the instruction book. Use the calibrated built-in or external DME test equipment and the oscilloscope, and the test procedures in the equipment instruction book, to confirm the parameter alarm circuits operate within the tolerances. Check the indications and automatic functions for changing over to the standby transponder, or switching off the transponder, if any alarm occurs. 3.2.19 Reserved

Test equipment 3.2.20 The following is a suggested list of test equipment for use in maintaining DME facilities: a) oscilloscope, with adequate time base; b) UHF peak power meter; c) UHF milliwatt meter; d) UHF load, suitable for at least 1.3 GHz and 1.3 kWp;

e) UHF frequency counter, f) UHF directional coupler with calibrated outputs; g) calibrated attenuator, 20 Wp, 10 dB; h) calibrated attenuator, 20 Wp, 20 dB; i) UHF spectrum analyzer; j) Built-in or external DME test equipment (supplied from manufacturer); k) Recommended: variable UHF attenuator with calibration chart. 3.3 Flight testing General 3.3.1 The flight inspection aircraft should be equipped with a precision three-dimensional reference system, a high quality DME interrogator, an oscilloscope with good timing capability, and signal processing capability. The flight inspection of DME can be performed separately or in parallel with the more detailed check of the associated ILS, MLS, or VOR facility. 3.3.2 Important DME parameters will normally be checked on the ground . However, since DME is normally installed in association with an ILS, MLS, or VOR facility, it is good practice to check satisfactory DME operations when the collocated aid is being flight inspected. It is not necessary to establish a schedule of flight tests for DME, other than to specify that DME should be checked in accordance with the guidance material given in 3.3 whenever the associated aid is checked. 3.3.3 In many cases, a DME is installed at the site of a VOR or ILS facility that is already operational. The DME should not be brought into unrestricted operational use until a commissioning flight inspection has been performed. Flight test performance parameters 3.3.4 Flight test requirements are listed in Table I-3-3. Flight test procedures Coverage 3.3.5 The coverage is measured by recording the automatic gain control (AGC) level of the airborne DME receiver. When combined with the reference system, a horizontal and vertical pattern can be plotted. A high assurance of continuous coverage should be established for all flight procedures based on the use of DME. Horizontal coverage 3.3.6 The aircraft is flown in a circular track with a radius depending on the service volume of the associated facility around the ground station antenna at an altitude corresponding to an angle of elevation of approximately 0.5 o above the antenna site, or 300 m (1000 ft) above intervening terrain, whichever is higher. If there is no associated facility, the orbit may be made at any radius greater than 18.5 km (10 NM). Since this flight is performed close to the radio horizon, it is possible to evaluate variations in field strength by recording the AGC voltage. Flight inspection of the coverage at maximum radius and minimum altitude, as prescribed by the operational requirements for the selected transponder, is usually necessary only on commissioning checks, when major modifications are made in the ground equipment, or if large structures are built in the vicinity of the antenna. The signal strength at the aircraft is generally adequate to maintain the interrogator in the tracking mode. Thus, the equipment itself can be used by the pilot for the desired orbit track guidance. Note. Checking of the associated VOR can be performed on the same flight. For a terminal class VOR, an orbit of 46.3 km (25 NM) can be flown.

Vertical coverage 3.3.7 The following flight inspection may be made to evaluate the lobing pattern of a DME transponder. The flight test aircraft is used to perform a horizontal flight at approximately 1500 m (5000 ft) on a bearing found suitable. The flight inspector records the RF-level or the AGC from the airborne receiver. Airspace procedures based on the use of DME are evaluated at the minimum flight altitude. The flight inspector verifies that the distance information is properly available in the aircraft at ATC reporting points, along air routes. 3.3.8 It is possible to check that the interrogator-transponder system is operating properly at every point of the airspace under consideration by recording the AGC voltage. The measurements made in flight provide data for plotting a graph showing the range in relation to the altitude. This graph makes it possible to: a) form a clear picture of the different lobes of the radiation pattern and thus evaluate the characteristics of the antenna and thus evaluate the characteristics of the antenna and its environment; b) show the cone as seen from directly overhead; and c) foresee any limitations of the transponder coverage and their operational implications. Accuracy 3.3.9 The accuracy of the system can be evaluated by comparing the measured DME distance with a three-dimensional reference. It is good practice to make the calculations in three-dimensional space to avoid errors based on differences between slant range and the range on the ground. The accuracy can be checked on both orbital and radial flights. The DME transponders contribution to the total error budget is principally the main delay. The most accurate calibration of this parameter is by ground measurement. Pulse shape 3.3.10 It is not easy to measure the pulse shape of the DME transponder signal in orbital flight due to multipath effects. The amplitude of the RF signal will vary along the flight path. The preferred method is to store a waveform of the pulse pair on a digital oscilloscope and use the timing functions of the instrument to average the calculated parameters over a series of samples. Pulse spacing 3.3.11 The same technique applies for the measurement of the pulse space as for the pulse shape. Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) 3.3.12 The PRF contains replies from interrogations, identification pulses and squitter. The PRF can be counted with the oscilloscope to test that the values are those set at commissioning. The aircraft may be positioned in orbital or radial flight. Identification 3.3.13 The identification signal should be checked for correctness and clarity, with the aircraft in orbital or radial flight. A DME associated with an ILS localizer or VOR should be checked for correct synchronization of the two identification signals. Reply efficiency 3.3.14 Throughout the flight inspection, the reply efficiency should be monitored and recorded. This provides data on the service provided by the ground transponder to the aircraft within the service area. It can be used to indicate problem areas due to multipath and interference. Unlocks 3.3.15 Areas where persistent unlocks occur should be investigated by further flight inspection to determine whether engineering action or promulgation is necessary.

Standby equipment 3.3.16 The standby DME transponder should be spot-checked to ensure that it meets the same tolerances as the primary equipment. This should be done at the most critical points during the facility check in order to obtain the comparison. These points are normally at the maximum orbit or radial distances. There should be no appreciable difference in the characteristics of the transponder (spectrum of pulses, energy radiated, etc.) between the primary and standby equipment. Standby power 3.3.17 The standby power check can normally be performed satisfactorily on the ground. During commissioning and periodic inspections, this provision may be checked by observing operation and noting any appreciable differences in radiated signal characteristics that result from a changeover to standby power. The transponder characteristics (spectrum of pulses, energy radiated, etc.) should not be degraded when switched to standby power. Charts and reports 3.3.18 The parameters from a DME inspection should be plotted on a graph relative to the distance or azimuth from the DME under test. When the DME is associated with ILS, MLS, or VOR, the DME details can be added to the report of this facility. In other cases, a separate report can be issued. Test equipment 3.3.19 Equipment. In addition to the test equipment required to perform the VOR and ILS flight inspection, the following equipment is needed for a DME. a) A DME interrogator or, if possible, two. Having a second interrogator in the aircraft provides standby equipment and makes it possible to compare the information given by the two interrogators in case of difficulties. It is desirable for the interrogators to have a certain number of outputs in order to: i) measure and record digital output with distance, and AGC voltage, from which the signal strength at the receiver input may be deduced. (Signal level errors of the order of 3 dB may be expected from the interrogator receiver and this should be taken into account when evaluating data from this source); and ii) make observations on an oscilloscope of the video signal before and after decoding; the suppression pulses, indicating that the transmitter is operating; and the coding signals of the interrogator, a particularly useful observation in case of anomalies during flight inspection. b) The corresponding antenna, the characteristics of which should be known, particularly its radiation pattern. Accurate calibration of the antenna radiation pattern may be arduous, and determination of the antenna gain with an accuracy better than 3 to 5 dB may be difficult to achieve. c) An oscilloscope with good performance for time measurement. Digital oscilloscopes have the capability to store waveforms and built-in functions for calculating the pulse shape parameters. Parameters and graphs should be recorded and documented. d) Spectrum analyzer. If it is desirable to measure the pulse spectrum with the flight inspection aircraft, UHF spectrum analyzer should be carried on board. The increased pollution of the electromagnetic environment at or near our airports provides many good reasons for having an airborne spectrum analyzer. Refer to Chapter 1 of this document for further information on this subject. 3.3.20 Calibration. Airborne DME equipment should be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and should conform to Annex 10 Standards and Recommended Practices. The following calibration instructions may be helpful: a) Interrogator pulse repetition rate. The pulse transmission should be repeated at a rate of 30 pairs per second, 5 per cent of the time spent in the SEARCH mode and 95 per cent in the TRACK mode. The variation in time between successive pairs should be sufficient to prevent false lock-on. b) Frequency stability. The centre frequency of the radiated signal should not vary more than 100 kHz from the assigned frequency.

c) Peak power output. The peak power output measured at the interrogator should be at least 100 watts. The constituent pulses of a pulse pair should have the same amplitude within 1 dB. Special care should be taken when using GPS reference systems with phase measurements and, in particular, when using the GPS L2 frequency. This frequency is close to the DME band and the maximum output power of the interrogator and the separation of the antennas should be kept in mind. d) Spurious radiation. Spurious radiation between pulses on any DME interrogation or reply frequency measured in a receiver having the same characteristics of a DME transponder receiver should be more than 50 dB below the peak radiated power of the desired pulses. The spurious continuous wave (CW) power radiated from the interrogator on any DME interrogation or reply frequency should not exceed 20 microwatts (-47 dBW). e) Sensitivity. The signal level required at the input terminals to effect a successful end-of-search nine out of ten cycles should not exceed 82 dBm when the input signal is a DME test signal having a 70 per cent reply efficiency. The required signal level should not exceed 79 dBm when the test signal contains 6000 random pulses 10 dB above the test signal level. The minimum signal levels are 85 and 82 dBm respectively to maintain tracking under the above conditions. f) Selectivity. The level of the input signal required to produce a successful end-of-search nine out of ten cycles should not vary in excess of 6 dB over the band 120 kHz above and below the assigned reply frequency. This includes receiver frequency stability requirements. The level of the input signal required to produce an average of not more than one successful end-of-search out of ten cycles (and that one to track for not more than five seconds) should be at least 30 dB greater than the on-frequency signal described above, and nine out of ten successful end-of-search cycles when the off-frequency signal is displaced by 940 kHz either side of the assigned channel frequency. Over the frequency range of 960 MHz to 1215 MHz, excluding frequencies within 1 MHz of the desired channel, the equipment should not respond to nor be adversely affected by an undesired frequency DME signal having a level 50 dB above the level of the signal on the desired channel. Note 1. In operational use, an adjacent channel transponder would provide at least 80 dB rejection of adjacent channel interrogations. Since the transponder effectively prevents replies to adjacent channel interrogations, no lock-on can occur. Note 2. Spurious responses. Over the frequency range of 90 kHz to 10000 MHz, excluding frequencies within 3 MHz of the desired channel, a CW signal having a level of 30 dBm should not adversely affect the receiver sensitivity. g) Decoder selectivity. The equipment should be calibrated to indicate distance satisfactorily when the spacing of the received pulses is varied from 11.5 to 12.5 microseconds for X-channel or from 29.5 to 30.5 microseconds for Y-channel, over the input signal level range from 48 dBm to the minimum tracking level. If the spacing between pulses is less than 10 microseconds or more than 14 microseconds for X-channel, or less than 28 microseconds or more than 32 microseconds for Y-channel, and the signal level is below 48 dBm, that signal should not be decoded. h) Search speed. Search speed should be at least 10 NM per second. i) Memory. To enable the detection of unlocks, the memory time of the equipment should be approximately 5 seconds upon the loss of the signal. The information displayed during this period should be that information which was being displayed at the time of the loss of the signal 1.85km (1 NM). j) Calibration. The indication Distance = 0 NM should correspond to time delay in responding to an interrogation of 50 s1s. k) Measuring accuracy. Measuring accuracy should be 20 m (65 ft), l) Identification signal. The equipment should be capable of providing an intelligible and unambiguous aural identification signal at all usable receiver input levels. m) Airborne antenna. The radiation pattern should be as omni directional as possible in the horizontal plane. It should be sited in such a way as to be free from masking effects of the aircraft structure. The use of two antennas may be a good solution. The characteristics of the antenna and associated feeder line should be taken into account when interpreting the results of measurements.

Positioning 3.3.21 The increased accuracy requirements of the DME system require a reference system with accuracy better than 20 m (65 ft). A three-dimensional reference system suitable for calibration of the ILS will be adequate for DME calibration. Table I-3-1. Parameter Coverage Summary of testing requirements - DME Annex 10, volume I, reference Testing 3.5.3.1.2 F 3.5.3.1.3 3.5.4.1.2 3.5.4.1.3 3.5.4.1.3 3.5.4.1.4 3.5.4.1.5 3.5.4.1.5.4 3.5.4.1.5 3.5.4.2.2 3.5.4.2.3 3.5.4.2.6 3.5.4.3.3 3.5.4.4, 3.5.4.5 3.5.3.6 3.5.4.7.2 F G G F/G F/G G G G G G G G G F/G G

Accuracy Transmitter Frequency stability Pulse spectrum Pulse shape Pulse spacing Peak power output Variation of peak power in any pair of pulses Pulse repetition frequency (PRF) Receiver Frequency stability Sensitivity (reply efficiency) Bandwidth Decoder Decoder rejection Time delay Identification Monitor Legend: F = Flight test/inspection G = Ground test

Table I-3-2.
Parameter Transmitter - Frequency stability - Pulse spectrum Annex 10 Volume I 3.5.4.1.2 3.5.4.1.3

Summary of ground test requirements DME


Doc 8071 3.2.4 3.2.5 Measurand Frequency Power Tolerance
Assigned channel frequency, 0.002% Output radiated within each 0.5 MHz band centred at 0.8 MHz from the nominal frequency is not more than 200mW; output radiated within each 0.5MHz band centred at 2MHz from the nominal frequency is not more than 2mW. Amplitude of successive lobes decreases in proportion to their frequency separation from the nominal frequency. Rise time 3s Duration 3.5s,0.5s Delay time 3.5s Amplitude, between 95% rise/fall amplitudes, 95% X-channel: 120.25s Y-channel: 300.25s Peak EIRP such that field density -89 dBW/m2 at service volume limits Power difference between pulses of a pair 1dB 700pps

Uncertainty 0.001% 1 dB

Periodicity 12 months 6 months

- Pulse shape

3.5.4.1.3

3.2.6

Time, amplitude

0.1s 1% 0.1s 1 dB

6 months

- Pulse spacing - Peak power output (see Note 1) - Peak variation - Pulse repetition frequency Receiver - Frequency stability

3.5.4.1.4 3.5.4.1.5

3.2.7 3.2.8

Time Power

6 months 6 months

3.5.4.1.5.4 3.5.4.1.5.6

3.2.9 3.2.10

Power Rate

0.2 dB 10 pulse pairs 0.001 % 1 dB 0.2 dB

6 months 6 months

3.5.4.2.2

3.2.11 3.2.12 3.2.13

Frequency Power Power

Assigned channel frequency, 0.002% Such that power density at antenna -103 dBW/m2 <1 dB for loadings between 0 and 90 % of maximum transmission rate Such that sensitivity degrades 3dB for interrogation frequency drift of 100kHz. No response to interrogations with pulse spacing more than 2 s from nominal X-channel: 50s Y-channel: 56s

6 months 6 months 6 months

- Sensitivity (see Note 3.5.4.2.3.1 2) 3.5.4.2.3.5 - Sensitivity variation with load 3.5.4.2.6 - Bandwidth Decoder 3.5.4.3

3.2.14

0.5 dB

6 months

3.2.15

Count

10 pulse pairs 1s

6 months

Time delay

3.5.4.4

3.2.16

Time

6 months

Parameter Identification

Table I-3-2. Annex 10 Volume I 3.5.3.6

Summary of ground test requirements DME(continued) Doc 8071 Measurand Tolerance Uncertainty 10 pulse Identification 1350 pulse pairs during key 3.2.17 pairs down periods proper Morse code sequence
dot length = 0.1 to 0.16s; dash = 0.3 to 0.48s; spacing between dot and dash = dot length 10 %; spacing
between letters 3 dots

Periodicity 12 months

10 s

Monitor action

3.5.4.7.2.2

3.2.18

Time

total length of one code sequence 10 seconds Monitor alarms when: Reply delay varies by more than 1 s(0.5 s for DME associated with a landing aid) Delay 10 seconds

0.5 s 0.2s 12 months

Monitor action delay

3.5.4.7.2.5

Time

0.5 s

12 months

Notes: 1. Peak power output should be as set at commissioning. 2. Receiver sensitivity should be as set at commissioning.

Parameter Coverage (see Note 4)

Annex 10, Volume I. 3.5.3.1.2

Table I-3-3. Summary of flight test requirements DME Doc 8071 Measrand Tolerance Uncertainty Signal strength such that field 3.3.5 to AGC density -89 dBW/m2 at limits 3.3.8 Level 1 dB
3.3.9 Distance
or operational requirements (see Note 4) 150 m 75 m for DME associated with landing aids. Rise time 3 s Duration 3.5s,0.5s Delay time 3.5s Amplitude, between 95% rise/fall amplitudes, 95 % of maximum amplitude X channel: 120.25s Y channel: 300.25s Correct, clear, properly Synchronized Note areas where this changes Significantly Note where unlocking occurs Same as primary transmitter Should not affect transponder Parameter

Inspection type
S, C

Accuracy

3.5.4.5

20 m 0.1s

S, C, P

Pulse shape

3.5.4.1.3

3.3.10

Time Amplitude

S, C, P 1%

Pulse spacing Identification Reply efficiency

3.5.4.1.4 3.5.3.6

3.3.11 3.3.13 3.3.14

Time Amplitude Identification Change in efficiency, position Unlocking Position Suitability Suitability

0.05s N/A N/A

S, C, P S, C, P S, C, P

Unlocks Standby equipment Standby power

3.3.15 3.3.16 3.3.17

N/A N/A N/A

S, C, P S, C, P S, C, P

Notes: 1. Site proving tests (S) are usually carried out to confirm facility performance prior to final construction of the site.

2. Commissioning checks (C) are to be carried out before the DME is initially placed in service. In addition, re-commissioning may be required whenever changes that may affect its performance (e.g. variations or repairs to the antenna system) are made. 3. Periodic checks (P) are typically made annually. 4. The uncertainty of 1 dB in coverage refers to the repeatability of equipment calibration, not to absolute accuracy.

Chapter 4 Instrument Landing Systems (ILS)


4.1 Introduction General 4.1.1 The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance on flight and ground inspection requirements applicable to the standard instrument landing system (ILS), as specified in Annex 10, Volume I, 2.7 and 3.1. System description 4.1.2 The ILS provides precision guidance to an aircraft during the final stages of the approach. The signals can either be interpreted by the pilot from the instruments or be input directly into the autopilot and flight management system. ILS performance is divided into three categories depending on the reliability, integrity and quality of guidance, with Category III having the strictest requirements. An ILS comprises the following elements: a) the localizer, operating in the frequency band from 108 to 112 MHz, providing azimuth guidance to a typical maximum range of 46.3 km (25 NM) from the runway threshold; b) the glide path, operating in the frequency band from 328 to 336 MHz, providing elevation guidance to a typical maximum range of 18.5 km (10 NM) from the runway threshold; and c) the marker beacons operating on the frequency of 75 MHz, providing position information at specific distances from the runway threshold. Note. On certain runways, a DME provides the distance information in place of marker beacons. Ground and flight testing 4.1.3 Adequate monitoring, ground testing and maintenance on a routine and continuing basis should be the normal means of ensuring that the ILS signal-in-space performs within the specified tolerances and that the operational integrity and serviceability of the ILS facility is maintained. Flight testing is required to confirm the correctness of the setting of essential signal-in-space parameters, determine the operational safety and acceptability of the ILS installation, and periodically correlate signal patterns observed in flight and from the ground. Both types of testing provide awareness of long-term changes in the operational environment caused by effects such as multipath from on-airport construction activities. In practice, it has been found that certain ILS performance parameters can be determined more accurately and with greater reliability by ground measurements than through flight inspection. If the ground and flight measurements show different results, the reason for the divergence should be investigated. 4.1.4 Reserved. Testing requirements 4.1.5 A summary of testing requirements for ILS localizer, glide path and markers is given in Table I-4-1, I-4-2 and I-4-3. Where measurement uncertainties are given, they are the two-sigma or 95 per cent confidence level values. 4.2 Ground testing General 4.2.1 The primary purposes of ground testing are to ensure that the ILS radiates a signal meeting the requirements of Annex 10 and to confirm correct monitor operation. Since ILS equipment varies greatly, it is not possible to define detailed tests applicable to all types. Therefore, only a high-level description of the tests are provided below, and manufacturers recommendations should be used for additional tests and detailed procedures of specific equipment. The periodicity shown for ground tests may be extended based on appropriate considerations as discussed in Chapter 1, such as the use of continuous monitoring techniques or good correlation between ground and airborne measurements of the same parameters.

Ground performance parameters 4.2.2 Ground test requirements for localizers, glide paths, and ILS marker beacons are listed in Tables I-4-4, I-4-5, and I-4-6. Ground test procedures General 4.2.3 The procedures for conducting the ground testing of the parameters listed in Tables I-4-4, I-4-5 and I-4-6 are intended to provide basic guidance in the method of measuring the various parameters. These procedures should not be construed as the only means of accomplishing the intended purpose; individual administrations might find modified or new methods which better suit their requirements or local situation. Independence of ground measurements and monitor equipment 4.2.4 In most cases, these measurements will be made using equipment other than the monitors that are a part of the normal installation. This is because a primary value of ground test is to confirm overall monitor performance, and it is therefore desirable to make corroborative checks on monitor indications using independent equipment. However, especially where large aperture antenna systems are used, it is often not possible to place the monitor sensors in such a position that the phase relationship observed in the far field could be observed at the monitor sensing point. Therefore, it is recommended that these check measurements be made at more realistic positions. Significant differences in the correlation between the check measurements and monitor indications should always be investigated and resolved. Correlation between field and monitor indications 4.2.5 When checks are made on the monitor indications by means of portable test equipment, the following effects should be taken into account: a) Aperture effect: The extent of the near-field is a function of the aperture of the radiating antenna system. i) Localizer: For apertures up to 30 m (100 ft), negligible error due to the near-field effect will be introduced if measurements are made at points beyond a ten-aperture (twenty apertures preferred) distance from the localizer antenna. For larger aperture antenna, a minimum distance of twenty apertures is recommended to obtain readings that are more accurate. ii) Glide path: The equipment is normally adjusted so that the signal phase relationships existing on the runway centre line at threshold or beyond are correct. For this reason, the ILS reference datum represent a good position for glide path measurement. If possible, positions on the extended runway centre line should be used. However, any location is suitable if a good correlation between the measured and far-field conditions is obtained. b) Ground constants: In the near-field region the measurement accuracy may be adversely affected by changes in ground constants. Satisfactory drainage and soil stabilization would help to achieve stability. c) Diffracted and reflected energy: The alignment and displacement sensitivity of the localizer and the glide path may be affected by the presence of diffracted and reflected energy. This should be taken into account when such characteristics are determined for the first time. Correlation between ground and flight tests 4.2.6 Whenever possible, the correlation between simultaneous or nearly simultaneous ground and airborne measurement results on the same or related parameters should be analyzed. Good correlation will usually result in increased confidence in both measurements, and when rigorously applied, may be the basis for extending maintenance or test intervals, as discussed in Chapter 1.

4.2.7 Typically, the necessary conditions for correlation of measurement results include the ready availability of proper ground maintenance test equipment, traceable calibration programs for ground and airborne test equipment, availability of commissioning and recent test reports, and similar training between ground and airborne personnel on the meaning and value of measurement correlation. If feasible, a meeting between ground maintenance and airborne test personnel before the measurements is desirable, particularly if dissimilar test generators and receivers are used. If measurements do not agree within reasonable tolerances and cannot be resolved, actions such as tightening monitor alarm points, declassifying the facility, or removing it from service should be considered. Localizer Localizer course alignment 4.2.8 The measurement of localizer course alignment should be carried out in the far-field region of the localizer. There are several alternative methods that may be employed. One method, which is widely used, employs portable field test equipment which is located at pre surveyed points on the runway centre line or on the extended centre line. The course structure at the position selected for these measurements should be stable. By using this test equipment, the position of the course line relative to the runway centre line may be determined. This method enables single-point measurement of the course line to be obtained and is considered to be adequate for Category I and II facilities. 4.2.9 For Category III facilities, it may be desirable to employ a measurement procedure which is able to display the mean value of the course line over a significant portion of the runway. This test equipment may take the form of an ILS precision receiver, antenna and recorder mounted in a vehicle. An antenna height that approximates the height of an aircraft antenna on roll-out should be used, e.g. 3 to 8 m (10 to 26 ft). Typically, low-pass filtering of the raw cross-pointer signal is necessary to approximate the results obtained with an aircraft. The total time-constant of the receiver and recorder DDM circuits for the vehicle measurements should be referenced to an aircraft speed of 195 km/hr (105 Kt), for which the constant is approximately 0.5 second (refer to Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I, 2.1.7 for specific filter guidance). The test vehicle is driven along the runway centre line and a recording of the course structure obtained over the region from the runway threshold to ILS Point E. From this recording the alignment for each zone for application of structure tolerances may be determined as the average course position between runway threshold and Point D, and separately between Point D and Point E. To analyze the post-filtering low frequency spectral components, the guidance found in Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I, 2.1.4 and 2.1.6, should be used, with the structure tolerances referenced to the average course position in each zone. Displacement sensitivity 4.2.10 Displacement sensitivity of the localizer is measured with portable test equipment located at surveyed positions in the far-field where the course structure is known and stable. These test positions are typically on opposite sides of the runway centre line at the edge of the half-course sector. The test equipment reading obtained at each position is recorded, and the displacement sensitivity is calculated in units of DDM/metre as the sum of the absolute value of the two DDM values, divided by the linear distance between the two surveyed points.

Off-course clearance 4.2.11 The procedure to be adopted for ground measurement of off-course clearance will vary from station to station depending upon the layout of the airfield. Typically, pre-surveyed points will be provided at intervals throughout the 35-degree forward coverage area of the ILS localizer. In the case of localizers operating on the two-frequency principle, additional points may be provided at azimuths where the two patterns have equal signal strength on either side of the centre line. The portable test equipment is positioned at the pre-surveyed points and the off-course clearance signal conditions recorded. The results will be analyzed to assess the stability and repeatability of the clearance parameters. For localizers providing clearance beyond the 35-degree coverage sector, additional readings should be made. The spacing of the points may be greater here than the spacing employed within the coverage sector. Carrier frequency 4.2.12 This is usually measured at the transmitter output using a dummy load tap or test point connected to a frequency counter or frequency meter. For a two-frequency system, the carriers are arranged symmetrically about the assigned frequency. Checks on those systems should be made of each frequency and of the difference between the two carriers. Output power 4.2.13 The power into the antenna system may be measured using a wattmeter, preferably of the through-line type that is capable of indicating direct and reflected power. During installation, it may be convenient to relate this power measurement to field strength at the runway threshold. This can be done by measuring field strength on the course line at the threshold (at a height of 4 m (13 ft) for Category II and III) and at the same time recording the power into the antenna system. Subsequently, the power should be reduced by 3 dB and the resulting threshold field strength again recorded. Tone frequency 4.2.14 Measurement of tone frequency is made by use of a frequency counter or other suitable type of basic test instrument. Instructions on the method to be employed can be found in the equipment handbook. In cases where signal tones are generated from very stable sources, this measurement of tone frequency may be performed less frequently. Modulation depth (90 / 150 Hz) 4.2.15 Modulation depth is probably one of the most difficult quantities to measure to the required accuracy, and only high precision instruments should be used. The technique used to measure the modulation depths should preferably be one which analyses the waveform with both modulating tones present. If the measurement can only be made with one tone present, care should be taken to ensure that: a) the individual tone amplitude is not affected by the removal or the addition of the other tone; b) the modulator remains linear with both tones present; and c) the harmonic content of the tone is as low as possible. Modulation depth (1020 Hz) 4.2.16 measurement of the modulation depth of the 1020 Hz identification tone can be carried out by wave analyzer comparison between the modulation depth of the 90 Hz tone and the 1020 Hz tone or by portable test equipment, which can measure it directly. The wave analyzer is tuned to 90 Hz and the scale amplitude is noted. The wave analyzer is then tuned to 1020 Hz and the modulation depth of the 1020 Hz is adjusted to the appropriate proportion of the 90 Hz reading.

Harmonic content of the 90 and 150 Hz tones 4.2.17 This is measured at the transmitter cabinet using a detector feeding a wave analyzer from which a value is obtained on a root mean square (RMS) calculation basis. For future checks a distortion factor meter may be used, however, this can indicate a higher value of distortion than that contributed by the harmonics themselves. 90 / 150 Hz phasing 4.2.18 Measurement of the relative phase between the 90 and 150 Hz tones can most conveniently be made using one of the commercially available instruments specifically designed for this purpose. Where two frequency carrier systems are used, the relative phase of the 90/150 Hz tones should be checked separately for each system. An additional check of the relative phase of the two 90 Hz and two 150 Hz tones should then be carried out. 4.2.19 When such equipment is not available, a check that the 90/150 Hz phase is within the required tolerance can be made on the combined waveform using the following oscilloscope technique: a) with the modulation balance adjusted for the zero DDM tone condition, adjust the oscilloscope time-base to give a locked display of the combined tones, such that four adjacent positive peaks of the waveform are simultaneously visible two of a larger, equal or nearly equal amplitude, and two of a smaller, equal or nearly equal amplitude; b) measure, as accurately as possible, the amplitudes of the two largest peaks; and c) divide the lesser amplitude by the larger amplitude (for a ratio less than or equal to unity). The 90/150 Hz phasing is within tolerance if the ratio is greater than 0.906 for Category I and II localizers or greater than 0.930 for Category III localizers. (Note that any distortion of the tones will degrade the accuracy of the result.) 4.2.20 To measure the phase between the 90 Hz or 150 Hz tones of the two transmitters of a two-frequency system, connect the modulation signal from each transmitter to a separate oscilloscope channel. Configure the oscilloscope to display both channels simultaneously, such that the waveform for the transmitter that leads the other in time crosses the zero amplitude line at a convenient reference point on the horizontal axis. Measure the difference in time between the two waveforms at the point at which they each cross the zero amplitude line, and convert that time to degrees-of-phase for comparison with the tolerance. ILS carrier frequency and phase modulation 4.2.21 In addition to the desired 90 Hz and 150 Hz AM modulation of the ILS RF carriers, undesired frequency modulation (FM) and/or phase modulation (PM) may exist. This undesired modulation may cause centering errors in ILS receivers due to slope detection by a ripple in the intermediate frequency (IF) filter pass-band. 4.2.22 One method of measuring this undesired FM and/or PM is to use a commercial modulation meter. The RF input to the modulation meter may be taken from any convenient RF carrier sampling point on the ILS transmitter. The modulation meter and its connecting cables should be well screened, since any unwanted pickup of sideband radiation may be interpreted as FM or PM. It is preferable to use a sampling point with a high signal level and place an attenuator directly on the input socket of the modulation meter. 4.2.23 The audio filters used in the modulation meter should have a bandwidth at least as wide as the tone filters used in ILS receivers. This is necessary to ensure that undesired FM and/or AM on frequencies other than 90 Hz and 150 Hz, which could affect an ILS receiver, will be measured by the modulation meter. For standardizing these measurements, the recommended filter characteristics are given in the table below.

Recommended filter characteristics for FM / PM measurement 90 Hz band-pass 150 Hz band-pass Frequency filter attenuation filter attenuation (Hz) dB dB 45 -10 -16 85 -0.5 (no spec) 90 0 -14 95 -0.5 (no spec) 142 (no spec) -0.5 150 -14 0 158 (no spec) -0.5 300 -16 -10

Monitoring system operation 4.2.24 This test is essentially a check on the overall executive operation of the monitor systems. The total time periods specified are never-to-be-exceeded limits and are intended to protect aircraft in the final stages of approach against prolonged or repeated periods of localizer guidance outside the monitor limits. For this reason they include not only the initial period of outside tolerance operation but also the total of any or all periods of out-of-tolerance radiation, which might occur during action-to-restore service, for example, in the course of consecutive monitor functioning and consequent changeover(s) to localizer equipment(s) or elements thereof. The intention is that no guidance outside the monitor limits be radiated after the time periods given, and that no further attempt be made to restore service until a period in the order of 20 seconds has elapsed. Monitor course alignment alarm 4.2.25 The purpose of this check is to ensure that the monitor executive action occurs for a course alignment shift of the distances specified in Table I-4-4. One of the following methods may be used: a) The alignment of the ILS localizer course line may be offset by the operation of a control in either the transmitter cabinet or antenna system, as may be appropriate to the particular installation under examination. At the point where the monitor system indicates that an alarm condition has been reached, measurement of the resulting far-field course alignment should be accomplished. This test should, where possible, be carried out at the time of the course alignment check. b) The measurement of course alignment alarm may be carried out by the application on a precision ILS signal generator to the monitor input. The correlation between the resulting alarm indication and the location of the localizer course line in the far-field should be carried out periodically. Monitor displacement sensitivity alarm 4.2.26 The purpose of this check is to ensure that the monitor displacement sensitivity alarm action occurs for changes in displacement sensitivity specified in Table I-4-4. One of the following methods may be used: a) The ILS localizer course width may be adjusted by operating a suitable control (with control) until the monitor system indicates that a wide alarm is indicated, the displacement sensitivity in the far-field should be measured. Following this measurement, the width control setting needed to initiate the narrow alarm is selected and displacement sensitivity again measured using the ILS test method as described above. b) The measurement of displacement sensitivity alarm may be carried out by the application of a precision ILS signal generator to the monitor input. The correlation between the resulting alarm indication and the displacement sensitivity in the far-field should be carried out periodically.

Monitor power reduction alarm 4.2.27 The purpose of this check is to ensure that the monitor power reduction alarm action occurs for the change in power specified in Table I-4-4. The ILS localizer output power is reduced by operation of a suitable control (transmitter output power) until the monitor system reaches an alarm condition. At this point, the output power should be measured. A calibrated signal generator input into the monitor can also be used for this measurement. Far-field monitor 4.2.28 A far-field monitor usually consists of a number of antennas and receivers located at the middle marker-to-threshold region to provide continuous measurement of localizer parameters for ground inspection purposes. It may also function as a monitor of course position, and optionally, of course sensitivity. The far-field monitor indications are normally readily available to the ground maintenance staff to facilitate the assessment of localizer performance. A continuous logging or display of localizer parameters is preferred. In the interpretation of the results, it should be remembered that the indications will be disturbed by aircraft overflying the localizer and far-field monitor as well as other vehicle movements at the airport. Periodically, the correlation between the far-field monitor and the localizer signal-in-space should be established. Glide path Path angle 4.2.29 The recommended means of measurement of a glide path angle () is by flight test. However, it may be measured on the ground either at the normal monitoring location or at a distance of at least 400 m (1200 ft) from the transmitting antenna, preferably on the extended centre line of the runway. 4.2.30 The measurement location used will depend on the type of glide path, its monitoring system and the local site conditions. Where the monitoring system is attached to the glide path antenna structure, or where the signal at the monitor location may be affected by local conditions, e.g. accumulation of snow, change in ground characteristics, etc., then the angle measurements should be made at least 300 m (1000 ft) in front of the glide path as suggested above. In any case, it is preferable at the time of commissioning to measure the glide path parameters at this location for future reference. 4.2.31 When measurements are made beyond the normal monitoring location, a portable ILS ground checking installation should used comprising a vehicle or trailer suitably equipped for measuring glide path signals. The facilities should include lifting gear to enable the antenna of the test receiver to be raised to a height of at least 22 m (70 ft). Means should be provided for determining the height of the test antenna above ground level to an accuracy of 5 cm (2 inches). The figures obtained as a result of this test may differ from those derived from an in-flight measurement, by an amount which will depend on the siting of the test equipment relative to the transmitter antenna and the type of transmitting equipment used. Displacement sensitivity 4.2.32 The recommended means of measurement of displacement sensitivity is by flight test. However, ground measurement of this parameter should be made using the method described for the glide path angle, but test antenna heights should be determined additionally at which 0.0875 DDM occurs below and above the glide path. The heights obtained will enable figures to be derived for the representative standard upper and lower half-sector displacement sensitivities at the position at which the checks are made.

Clearance below path 4.2.33 Ground measurement of below path clearance is not normally required for null reference system. For other systems the measurement may be made as described for the glide path angle. Test antenna heights should be determined and DDM values recorded to enable a curve to be plotted showing DDM between 0.3 and the lower half-sector. From the curve of DDM versus angle plotted, the representative standard clearance below path performance may be obtained. A value of 0.22 DDM should be achieved at an angle not less than 0.3 above the horizontal. However, if it is achieved at an angle above 0.45, the DDM value should not be less than 0.22 at least down to 0.45. Carrier frequency 4.2.34 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.12). Output power 4.2.35 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.13), except that the threshold power measurements should be made at the zero DDM height. Tone frequency (90 /150 Hz) 4.2.36 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.14). Modulation depth (90 / 150 Hz) 4.2.37 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.15). Harmonic content of the 90 and 150 Hz tone 4.2.38 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.17). 90 /150 Hz phasing 4.2.39 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.18). ILS carrier frequency and phase modulation 4.2.40 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.21). Monitor system operation 4.2.41 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.24). Monitor angle alarms 4.2.42 The purpose of this check is to ensure that the monitor executive action occurs for a change in glide path angle specified in Table I-4-5. Some facilities may require monitor executive limits to be adjusted to closer limits than those specified in the table because of operational requirements. One of the following methods may be used: a) The alignment of the ILS glide path may be offset by the operation of a control in either the transmitter cabinet or antenna system, as may be appropriate, to the particular installation under examination. At the point where the monitor system indicates that an alarm condition has been reached, measurement of the resulting far-field path alignment should be accomplished. This test should, where possible, be carried out at the time of the path alignment check. b) The measurement of the path alignment alarm may be carried out by the application of a precision ILS signal generator to the monitor input. The correlation between the resulting alarm indication and the location of the glide path in the far-field should be carrier out periodically.

Monitor displacement sensitivity alarm 4.2.43 The purpose of this check is to ensure that the monitor displacement sensitivity alarm action occurs for changes in displacement sensitivity specified in Table I-4-5. One of the following methods may be used: a) The ILS glide path width is adjusted by operating a suitable control (width control) until the monitor system indicates that a wide or narrow alarm condition has been reached. When an alarm is indicated, the displacement sensitivity in the far-field should be measured. Following this measurement, the width control setting needed to initiate the alternate alarm is selected and displacement sensitivity again measured using the test method as described above. b) The measurement of displacement sensitivity alarm may be carried out by the application of a precision ILS signal generator to the monitor input. The correlation between the resulting alarm indication and the displacement sensitivity in the far-field should be carried out periodically. Monitor power reduction alarm 4.2.44 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.27). Marker beacons Carrier frequency 4.2.45 The carrier frequency should be checked using an accurate frequency standard to ensure that it is within tolerance. Reference should be made to the instructions supplied with the frequency standard which will give the detailed procedures for its use. RF output power 4.2.46 Since the power output of the beacon transmitter directly affects the coverage obtained, it is important to keep the power output as close as possible to the value recorded at the time of commissioning. On most equipment, a meter is provided to read the reference output voltage (or some other measure of output power) of the transmitter. This indication may be checked by using an independent power output meter. The voltage standing wave radio (VSWR) should also be checked using the formula below based on measurements of forward and reflected powers. Any change in the output level or VSWR from its initial value at commissioning could be due to a change in the power delivered from the transmitter and/or a change in the characteristics of the antenna system. Changes should therefore be investigated, as the performance of the beacon will be affected. SWR = 1+p / 1-p where p = Forward power / Reflect power

Modulation depth 4.2.47 The modulation depth can be measured using a modulation meter (it may be built into the equipment) or by an oscilloscope. Using an oscilloscope, the modulated signal from the beacon is displayed (usually by direct connection to the deflection plates), and the modulation percentage obtained by measuring the maximum and minimum of the modulation envelope. If Amax and Amin are the maximum and the minimum of the envelope respectively, then Modulation % = Amax - Amin / Amax + Amin 100 % Modulation tone frequency 4.2.48 This test is the same as for the localizer (4.2.14). Harmonic content of modulating tone 4.2.49 This is the same as for the localizer (4.2.17).

Keying 4.2.50 An audible indication of keying will usually be available from a test point on the equipment or monitor. The keying can therefore be checked audibly for clear, correct identification. A more exact check can be made by using a suitable oscilloscope. Monitor system 4.2.51 The monitor system should be checked to ensure it will detect erroneous transmissions from the marker beacon. Some monitors include switching functions that permit out-of-tolerance conditions to be simulated. Detailed procedures can be found in the manufacturers instructions. Charts and reports General 4.2.52 The objective of the collection and analysis of data on the various ILS parameter measurements is to build up a record-of-performance of the equipments in order to determine whether its performance objectives are being achieved. In addition, these records can show performance trends and long-term drifts which, in some cases, will enable preventive maintenance to be carried out prior to an unscheduled service outage. Although the methods used by different authorities to carry out ground inspections and the analysis of results will vary, there are certain general principles to be observed and precautions to be taken.. Equipment failure analysis 4.2.53 It is important that records be kept and an analysis be made on equipment failures and outage times to determine if the reliability objectives appropriate to the category of operation are being achieved in service. Details of the type of data to be collected and the method of analysis can be found in Attachment F to Annex 10, Volume I. Performance analysis General 4.2.54 In order that the performance determined from measurements over a long period will be statistically valid, unnecessary adjustment should be minimized. The equipment settings should not be modified if the parameters listed in Table I-4-4 through I-4-6 are within 50 per cent of the given tolerance. Analysis of alignment and sensitivity measurement 4.2.55 The localizer and glide path alignment and displacement sensitivity measurements should be analyzed to determine the mean and distribution of these parameters. Some States are installing on-line data processing systems, which will automatically collect and analyze these parameters and produce the performance statistics. The radiating equipment should then be adjusted so that, on a long-term basis, the mean of the parameter corresponds to the proper nominal value. The distribution should be analyzed to determine whether 99.7 per cent of the measurements are contained within the adjust and maintain limits of Annex 10, Volume I, 3.1.3.6.1 and 3.1.3.7.3 for localizers, and 3.1.5.1.2.2 and 3.1.5.6.6 through 3.1.5.6.8 for glide paths. If this is not being achieved, then the cause needs to be investigated. Test equipment 4.2.56 The test equipment inherent errors should be at least five times smaller than the tolerances specified in Tables I-4-4 to I-4-6.

4.2.57 Test equipment list. The following recommended list of test equipment, or equivalent, is necessary to make the measurements described in this chapter: a) a frequency meter covering the 75, 108 112, and 328 336 MHz bands and having an accuracy of at least 0.001 per cent; b) an audio frequency meter or standard frequency source having an accuracy of at least 0.5 per cent for the modulating frequency measurement; c) a modulation meter or oscilloscope for modulation percentage measurement; d) an audio wave analyzer or a spectrum analyzer for harmonic distortion measurements; e) an RF power output meter, preferably of a directional type; and f) a portable ILS receiver. 4.3 Flight testing General 4.3.1 The purpose of flight testing is to confirm the correctness of the setting of essential signal-in-space parameters, determine the operational safety and acceptability of the ILS installation, and periodically correlate signal patterns observed in flight and from the ground. Since flight testing instrumentation varies greatly, only a general description of the test methodology is given below. 4.3.2 Flight tests constitute in-flight evaluation and sampling of the radiated signals in the static operating environment. The signals-in-space are evaluated under the same conditions as they are presented to an aircraft receiving system and after being influenced by factors external to the installation, e.g. site conditions, ground conductivity, terrain irregularities, metallic structures, propagation effects, etc. Because dynamic conditions, such as multipath due to taxiing or overflying aircraft or moving ground vehicles, are continually changing, they cannot be realistically flight-tested. Instead, these effects on the signal-in-space are controlled by the establishment of critical and sensitive areas and by operational controls. Flight test performance parameters General 4.3.3 Flight test requirements for localizers, glide paths and ILS marker beacons are listed in Tables I-4-7, I-4-8 and I-4-9. Schedules of flight inspection 4.3.4 Site proving inspection. This flight inspection is conducted at the option of the responsible authority, and its purpose is to determine the suitability of a proposed site for the permanent installation of an ILS facility. It is often performed with portable localizer or glide path equipment. The inspection is sufficiently extensive to determine the effects that the ground environment will have on the facility performance. The site-proving inspection is not a recurring type inspection. 4.3.5 Commissioning and categorization inspections. The basic type of inspection, serving either of these purposes, is a comprehensive inspection designed to obtain complete detailed data relating to facility performance and to establish that the facility, as installed, will meet the operational requirements. This type of inspection is conducted under the following circumstances: a) Commissioning: i) Initial. Prior to initial commissioning of an ILS: ii) Re-commissioning. After relocation of an antenna or installation of a different type of antenna or of transmitting equipment. b) Categorization. At the time when categorization of an ILS is required.

4.3.6 Periodic inspections. These are regularly scheduled flight inspections conducted to determine whether the facility performance continues to meet standards and satisfy its operational requirements. Typically, the transmitters are flown in both normal and alarm conditions, and path structure is evaluated. If the available flight inspection equipment dictates that the structure cannot be measured during every periodic inspection (e.g. theodolite equipment is not available), then the structure should be measured every other periodic inspection at a minimum. 4.3.7 Special flight inspection. This is a flight inspection required by special circumstances, e.g. major equipment modifications, reported or suspected malfunctions, etc. During special flight inspections it is usually necessary to inspect only those parameters that have or might have an affect on performance; however, in some cases it may be economically advantageous to complete the requirements for a routine or annual inspection. It is impractical to attempt to define all of the purposes for which special inspections will be conducted or the extent of inspection required for each. Special inspections may also be requested as a result of ground checks of the performance, or flight inspection, in which case the nature of the suspected malfunction will guide the inspection requirements. 4.3.8 Flight inspections following ground maintenance activities. Certain ground maintenance activities, as well as changes in the ground environment near radiating antenna systems, require a confirming flight inspection. This is because ground measurements cannot duplicate the operational use of the signals in some respects. Although engineering judgment should be used in individual cases to prevent unnecessary costly airborne testing, the following changes typically require a confirming inspection: a) a change in the operating frequency; b) significant changes in the multipath environment within the antenna pattern limits; c) replacement of antenna arrays or antenna elements; and d) replacement of radio frequency components, such as bridges, phasers, amplifiers, and cabling, when ground measurements prior to and after the changes are not available, or the results do not support restoration without a flight inspection. Flight test procedures General 4.3.9 The procedures for conducting the flight inspection of the parameters listed in Tables I-4-7, I-4-8 and I-4-9 are intended to provide basic instruction for positioning the aircraft for proper measurement, analysis of performance data and application of tolerances. These procedures should not be construed as the only means of accomplishing the intended purpose; individual Administrations might find modified or new methods which better suit their equipment or local situation. 4.3.10 Some requirements in the procedure can be fulfilled concurrently with others, thereby simplifying the conduct of the flight inspection. These procedures assume that the deviation indicator current, flag alarm current and AGC will be recorded, and that the recorder event marks will be made as required for analysis. 4.3.11 During inspections, certain parameters require the use of aircraft positioning or tracking devices to provide accurate aircraft position relative to the localizer course or glide path for adequate analysis of the performance. The position of the tracking device with respect to the facility being inspected is critical to obtaining good flight inspection results. Further guidance on tracker positioning and use is given in Chapter 1.

Localizer front course Identification 4.3.12 The coded identification that is transmitted from the facility should be monitored during the various checks over all of the coverage area. The identification is satisfactory if the coded characters are correct, clear and properly spaced. The transmission of the identification signal should not interfere in any way with the basic localizer function. Monitoring the identification also serves the purpose of detecting frequency interference, which is primarily manifested by heterodyne, or noise which affects the identification. Voice feature 4.3.13 Where the facility has the capability of ground-to-air voice transmission on the localizer frequency, it will be checked over all of the coverage area in generally the same way as the identification. It should be checked to ensure that it adequately serves its purpose as a ground-to-air communication channel and does not adversely affect the course. Modulation 4.3.14 Modulation balance. Although the modulation balance is most easily measured on the ground, it may be measured from the air while radiating the carrier signal only. Position the aircraft close to the runway centre line and note the cross-pointer indication. 4.3.15 Modulation depth. The percentage of modulation should be determined only while flying in-bound and on course at a point where the receiver signal strength corresponds to the value at which the receiver modulation depth calibration was made; therefore, this requirement should be fulfilled concurrently with the alignment check. If the receiver modulation depth indications are influenced significantly by the RF level, measure the modulation depth near Point A. (An adequate preliminary check of modulation can be made while the aircraft is crossing the course during the displacement sensitivity check.) Modulation percentage is determined by the use of calibration data furnished with the individual receiver. Displacement sensitivity 4.3.16 There are two basic methods of measuring the displacement sensitivity approaches on the edges of the course sector, and crossovers or orbits through the course sector, at right angles to the extended runway centre line. For site tests and commissioning, the approach method is recommended. For all flight inspections the correlation between ground and air measurement should not exceed 10 per cent of the promulgated displacement sensitivity; where this degree of correlation is not achieved, the reason for the discrepancy should be resolved. On initial categorization, the displacement sensitivity should be set to the nominal value for that installation. 4.3.17 To determine the half-sector width in degrees using the approach method, fly the aircraft on either side of the course line so that the average cross-pointer deflection is 75 (or 150) microamperes in each instance. Note that deviation of the aircraft toward the runway extended centre line will reduce the accuracy of the measurements normally the average cross-pointer deflection should be within 15 (or 30) microamperes of the intended value. The average angular position of the aircraft, measured by the tracking device on each side of the course line, will define the angular value of the half-sector width. If the displacement sensitivity corresponding to the measured half-sector width is beyond the tolerances, the displacement sensitivity should be readjusted. 4.3.18 The crossover or orbital method of displacement sensitivity measurement is typically used during periodic inspections.

4.3.19 The measurement is made at a point of known distance from the localizer antenna; a distance of 11 km (6 NM) from the localizer, or the outer marker, is usually convenient for this purpose. To best calculate the displacement sensitivity, it is necessary to use several samples from the linear DDM area and find the slope of the straight line that fits the data. In order to provide an accurate reference for subsequent use, and to correlate the results with the half-sector width measurement, this abbreviated procedure should initially be carried out during the commissioning or major inspection. Experience has shown that the results of subsequent routine checks using the orbital method will show good correlation with the measurements obtained during the initial tests. It may be possible to combine this abbreviated procedure with orbits flown for other measurement purposes. 4.3.20 The following is an example of measuring course displacement sensitivity by this method. Fly a track at right angles to the localizer course line so as to pass directly over the outer marker, or selected checkpoint, at a height of 460 m (1500 ft) above the localizer antenna site elevation. The flight should begin sufficiently off course to assure stable airspeed prior to penetration of the course sector. Follow the aircraft position with the tracking device and measure the angles at which 150, 75, 0, 75 and 150 A occur. The full sector from 150 to 150 A should be flown so that linearity can be assessed by examining the recordings. Off-course clearance 4.3.21 The localizer clearance is checked to determine that the transmitted signals will provide the user with the proper off-course indication and that there are no false courses. Conduct an orbital flight with a radius of 9 to 15 km (5 to 8 NM) from the facility and approximately 460 m (1500 ft) above the antenna. Where terrain is a factor, the height will be adjusted to provide line-of-sight between the aircraft and the antenna. 4.3.22 Clearance should be checked only to the angular limits of coverage provided on either side of the front course (typically 35 degrees), unless the back course is used for approaches. In such cases, clearances will also be checked to the angular coverage limits of the back course. An annual 360-degree orbit is recommended in order to check for possible false courses in the out-of-coverage area. These false courses may be due to antenna pattern characteristics or environmental conditions, and may be valuable in establishing the historical behaviour of the facility. High angle clearance 4.3.23 The combination of ground environment and antenna height can cause nulls, or false courses, which may not be apparent at all normal instrument approach altitudes. High altitude clearance should therefore be investigated upon: a) initial commissioning; b) a change in the location of an antenna; c) a change in the height of an antenna; or d) installation of a different type antenna. 4.3.24 Normally, high-angle clearance is investigated within the angular limit of coverage provided, in the same manner as for off-course clearance, at a height corresponding to an angle of 7 degrees above the horizontal through the antenna. If the minimum clearance at this height, in an orbit of 9 to 15 km (5 to 8 NM), exceeds 150 microamperes, and the clearance is satisfactory at 300 m (1000 ft), the localizer will be assumed as satisfactory at all intermediate altitudes. Where the clearance is not satisfactory, additional checks will be made at lower heights to determine the highest level at and below that which the facility may be used. In such a case, procedural use of the localizer should be restricted. 4.3.25 If approach altitudes higher than the height of 1800 m (6000 ft) above the antenna elevation are required locally, investigation should also be made at higher heights to determine that adequate clearance is available and that no operationally significant false courses exist.

Course alignment accuracy 4.3.26 The measurement and analysis of localizer course alignment should take into account the course line bends. The alignment of the mean course line needs to be established in the following critical region before the appropriate decision height: Category I in the vicinity of ILS Point B Category II ILS Point B to ILS reference datum Category III ILS Point C to ILS Point D 4.3.27 A normal ILS approach should be flown, using the glide path, where available. The aircrafts position should be recorded using the tracking or position fixing system. By relating the aircraft average position to the average measured DDM, the alignment of the localizer may be determined. 4.3.28 Where there are course line bends in the area being evaluated, they should be analyzed so that the average localizer alignment may be calculated. Course structure 4.3.29 This is an accurate measurement of course bends and may be accomplished concurrently with the alignment and displacement sensitivity checks. Recordings of approaches made during the course alignment check and during the course sensitivity checks can be used for the calculation of course bends. The centre, or mean, of the total amplitude of bends represents the course line for bend evaluation purposes, and the tolerance for bends is applied to that as a reference. If the evaluation is made on airborne data, low pass filtering of the position-corrected cross-pointer signal is necessary to eliminate high-frequency structure components of no practical consequence. The total time-constant of the receiver and recorder DDM circuits for the measurements should be referenced to an aircraft speed of 105 knots, for which the constant is approximately 0.5 second (refer to Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I, 2.1.7 for specific filter guidance). From the recording of airborne measurements, the alignment for each zone for application of structure tolerances may be determined as the average course position between the runway threshold and Point D, and separately between Point D and Point E. To analyze the post-filtering low frequency spectral components, the guidance found in Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I, 2.1.4 and 2.1.6, should be used, with the structure tolerances referenced to the average course position in each zone. 4.3.30 For the evaluation of a course centre line structure, a normal approach should be flown, using the glide path, where available. For Category II and III localizers, the aircraft should cross the threshold at approximately the normal design height of the glide path and continue downward to the normal touchdown point. Continue a touchdown roll until at least Point E. Optionally, the touchdown roll may be conducted from touchdown to Point D, at which point a take-off may be executed, with an altitude not exceeding 15 m (50 ft) until Point E is reached. These procedures should be used to evaluate the localizer guidance in the users environment. Accurate tracking or position fixing should be provided from ILS Point A to the following points: for Category I ILS reference datum for Category II ILS reference datum for Category III ILS Point E 4.3.31 For Category III bend evaluation between the ILS reference datum and ILS Point E, ground measurement using a suitably equipped vehicle may be substituted for flight inspection measurement, as described in 4.2.8 and 4.2.9. 4.3.32 If the localizers back course is used for take-off guidance, bend measurements along the runway should be made for any category of ILS.

4.3.33 Guidance material concerning course structure is provided in 2.1.4 to 2.1.7 of Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I. Note. Course structure should be measured only while the course sector is in its normal operating width. Coverage 4.3.34 This check is conducted to determine whether the facility provides the correct information to the user throughout the area of operational use. Coverage has been determined, to some extent, by various other checks; however, additional procedures are necessary to complete the check of the coverage at distances of 18.5, 31.5 and 46.3 km (10, 17 and 25 NM) from the antenna. 4.3.35 Flights at appropriate heights are required for routine and commissioning inspections to ensure the following coverage requirements are satisfied. Adequate coverage for modern aircraft systems may be defined by a signal level of 5 microvolts (from a calibrated antenna installation) at the receiver input together with 240 microamperes of flag current. If the ground installation is required to support aircraft fitted with receivers having a sensitivity poorer than 5 microvolts, a higher signal input (up to 15 microvolts) should be used when assessing coverage for these aircraft. The localizer coverage sector extends from the localizer antenna to distances of: 46.3 km (25 NM) within 10 o from the front course line; 31.5 km (17 NM) between 10 o and 35 o from the front course line; 18.5 km (10 NM) outside of 35 o , if coverage is provided. Where topographical features dictate or operational requirements permit, the limits may be reduced to 33.3 km (18 NM) within the 10 degree sector, and 18.5 km (10 NM) within the remainder of the coverage, when alternative navigational facilities provide satisfactory coverage within the intermediate approach area. The localizer signals should be receivable at the distances specified at and above a height of 600 m (2000 ft) above the elevation of the threshold or 300 m (1000 ft) above the elevation of the highest point within the intermediate and final approach areas, whichever is the higher. 4.3.36 At periodic inspections, it is necessary to check coverage only at 31.5 km (17 NM) and 35 degrees either side of the course, unless use is made of the localizer outside of this area. Polarization 4.3.37 This check is conducted to determine the effects of undesired vertically polarized signal components. While maintaining the desired track (on the extended centre line), bank the aircraft around its longitudinal axis 20 degrees each way from level flight. The aircrafts position should be monitored using an accurate tracking or position fixing system. Analyze the cross-pointer recording to determine if there are any course deviations caused by the change in aircraft (antenna) orientation. The effects of vertically polarized signal components are acceptable when they are within specified tolerances. If this check is accomplished in the area of the outer marker, the possibility of errors due to position changes will be lessened. The amount of polarization effect measured also depends on polarization characteristics of the aircraft antenna, hence the vertical polarization effect of the aircraft antenna should be as low as possible.

Localizer monitors 4.3.38 Localizer course alignment and displacement sensitivity monitors may be checked by ground or flight inspection. A suggested method of flight inspection is given below: a) Alignment monitor. Position the aircraft on the exact centre line of the runway threshold and ensure that the aircraft voltages are satisfactory and that adequate localizer signals are received. To ensure that excessive course displacement will cause an alarm, request the ground technician to adjust the localizer equipment to cause an alarm of the alignment monitor. The precise displacement in microamperes may be taken from the recording in each condition of the alarm to the right and left of the centre line and converted mathematically to metres (feet). The computation for conversion of the microampere displacement at the threshold into distance should consider the actual (measured) displacement sensitivity. After the course has been readjusted to a normal operating condition, its alignment should be confirmed. b) Displacement sensitivity monitor. Request the maintenance technician to adjust the displacement sensitivity to the broad and narrow alarm limits and check the displacement sensitivity in each condition. This check should follow the normal displacement sensitivity check described in 4.3.16 to 4.3.20. The crossover or orbital flight method should be used only if good correlation with a more accurate approach method has been established. After the alarm limits have been verified or adjusted, it is also necessary to confirm the displacement sensitivity value in the normal operating condition. Note. During commissioning inspection or after major modifications, clearance may be checked while the displacement sensitivity is adjusted to its broad alarm limit. The tolerances of 175 microamperes and 150 microamperes specified for application during normal displacement sensitivity conditions will then be reduced to 160 microamperes and 135 microamperes, respectively. c) Power monitor (commissioning only). The field strength of the localizer signal should be measured on course at the greatest distance at which it is expected to be used, but not less than 33.3 km (18 NM), while operating at 50 per cent of normal power. If the field strength is less than 5 microvolts, the power will be increased to provide at least 5 microvolts and the monitor limit adjusted to alarm at this level. Note. Fifteen microvolts may be required see 4.3.34. Phasing 4.3.39 The following phasing procedure applies to null reference localizer systems. Alternative phasing procedures in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations should be followed for other types of localizers. To the extent possible, methods involving ground test procedures should be used, and airborne measurements made only upon request from ground maintenance personnel. If additional confirmation is desirable by means of a flight check, the following is a suitable example procedure: Note. Adjustments made during the phasing procedure may affect many of the radiated parameters. For this reason, it is advisable to confirm the localizer phasing as early as possible during the commissioning tests. a) Measure the displacement sensitivity of the localizer if it is not already determined. b) Feed the localizer antenna with the carrier equally modulated by 90 Hz and 150 Hz and load the sideband output with a dummy load. Note the cross-pointer deflection as X (90) or X (150) microamperes. c) The aircraft should be flown at a suitable off-course angle (depending on the type of localizer antenna used) during the phasing adjustment and should not be closer than 5.6 km (3 NM) from the antenna. d) Insert a 90-degree line in a series with the sideband input to the antenna and feed the antenna with sideband energy. e) Adjust the phaser until the deviation indicator reading is the same as in b) above. f) Remove the 90-degree line, used in step d) above.

4.3.40 This completes the process of phasing the carrier with the composite sidebands. As an additional check, displacement sensitivity should be rechecked, and compared with that obtained in step a) above. The value obtained after the phasing adjustment should never be greater than the value obtained before the phasing adjustment. Localizer back course 4.3.41 The back course formed by some types of localizers can serve a very useful purpose as an approach aid, provided that it meets specified requirements and that an associated aid is available to provide a final approach fix. Although a glide path is not to be used in conjunction with the back course, landing weather minima commensurate with those of other non-precision aids can be approved. The display in the aircraft cockpit will present a reverse sensing indication to the pilot; however, pilots are well aware of this and it is not considered significant. 4.3.42 Under no circumstances should localizer equipment be adjusted to enhance performance of the back course, if the adjustment would adversely affect the desired characteristics of the front course. 4.3.43 Where the localizer back course is to be used for approaches to landing, it should be evaluated for commissioning and at periodic intervals thereafter. Procedures used for checking the front course will normally be used for the back course, the principal difference being the application of certain different tolerances, which are given in Table I-4-7. As minimum, alignment, sector width, structure, and modulation depth should be inspected. Glide path 4.3.44 Most glide path parameters can be tested with two basic flight procedures an approach along the course line , and a level run or orbit through the localizer course sector. Variations include approaches above, below, or abeam the course line, and level runs left and right of the extended runway centre line. By selecting suitable starting distances and angles, several measurements can be made during a single aircraft maneuver. Glide path angle (site, commissioning, categorization and periodic) 4.3.45 The glide path angle may be measured concurrently with the glide path structure during these inspections. To adequately check the glide path angle, an accurate tracking or positioning device should be employed. This is necessary in order to correct the recorded glide path for aircraft positioning errors in the vertical plane. The location of the tracking or positioning equipment with respect to the facility being inspected is critical for accurate measurement. Incorrect siting can lead to unusual characteristics being shown in the glide path structure measurements. The tracking device should initially be located using the results of an accurate ground survey. In certain cases, initial flight results may indicate a need to modify the location of the tracking device. The arithmetic mean of all deviations of this corrected glide path between ILS Point B represented by a straight line will be the glide path angle, as well as the average path to which tolerances for glide path angle alignment and structure will be applied. Because of the normal flare characteristics of the glide path, the portion below ILS Point B is not used in the above calculation. 4.3.46 At commissioning, the glide path angle should be adjusted to be as near as possible to the desired nominal angle. During periodic inspections, the glide path angle must be within the figures given in Table I-4-8.

Displacement sensitivity (site, commissioning, categorization and periodic) 4.3.47 The mean displacement sensitivity is derived from measurements made between ILS Point A and Point B. Make approaches above and below the nominal glide path at angles where the nominal cross-pointer deflection is 75A and measure the aircrafts position using an accurate tracking device. During these measurements, the average cross-pointer deflection should be 7515A. Note that any aircraft deviation toward the zero DDM course line will decrease the accuracy of the measurement. The displacement sensitivity can be calculated by relating the average cross-pointer deflection to the average measured angle. Glide path angle and displacement sensitivity (routine periodic inspections) 4.3.48 During certain periodic inspections it may be possible to measure the glide path angle and displacement sensitivity by using a level run or slice method. This is only possible where the glide path is relatively free from bends so that there is a smooth transition from fly-up to fly-down on the level run. This method should not be used with systems that inherently have asymmetrical displacement sensitivity above and below the glide path. 4.3.49 Level run method. Fly the aircraft towards the facility at a constant height (typically the intercept altitude), following the localizer centre line, starting at a point where the cross-pointer deflection is more than 75 A fly-up (more than 190A recommended). This flight is usually made at 460 m (1500 ft) above the facility unless terrain prevents a safe flight. If a different height is used, it should be noted on the flight inspection report and facility data sheet. During the flight, the aircrafts angular position should be constantly tracked. By relating the recorded cross-pointer current to the measured angles, the glide path angle and displacement sensitivity may be calculated. The exact method of correlating the angle and cross-pointer measurements is dependent on the particular flight inspection system. Clearance 4.3.50 The clearance of the glide path sector is determined from a level run, or slice, through the complete sector during which the glide path transition through the sector is recorded. This measurement may be combined with the level flight method of measuring the glide path angle and displacement sensitivity. 4.3.51 This flight is made using the level run method, except that the run should commence at a distance corresponding to 0.3and should continue until a point equivalent to twice the glide path angle has been passed. The aircrafts position should be accurately measured throughout the approach. Cross-pointer current should be continuously recorded and the recording marked with all the necessary distances and angles to allow the figures required in Table I-4-8 to be evaluated. This recording should also permit linearity of the cross-pointer transition to be evaluated. Glide path structure 4.3.52 Glide path structure is an accurate measurement of the bends and perturbations on the glide path. It is most important to employ an accurate tracking or positioning device for this measurement. This measurement may be made concurrently with the glide path angle measurement. Guidance material concerning course structure evaluation is provided in 2.1.5 of Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I. Modulation 4.3.53 Modulation balance. The modulation balance is measured while radiating the carrier signal only. Position the aircraft close to the glide path angle and note the cross-pointer indication.

4.3.54 Modulation depth. This check can be best accomplished accurately while the aircraft is on-path therefore, final measurements are best obtained during angle checks. The measurements should be made at a point where the receiver input corresponds to the value at which the receiver modulation depth indications are influenced significantly by the RF level, measure the modulation depth near Point A. For measurement systems that do not provide separate modulation level output, preliminary indications of modulation can be obtained during level runs at the time the aircraft crosses the glide path. The depth of modulation (in per cent) can be obtained by comparing the glide path receiver-flag-alarm-current to the receiver-flag-current-calibration data. Obstruction clearance 4.3.55 Checks may be made beneath the glide path sector to assure a safe flight path area between the bottom edge of the glide path and any obstructions. To accomplish this check, it is necessary to bias the pilots indicator or use an expanded scale instrument. Position the aircraft on the localizer front course inbound at approximately five miles from the glide path antenna at an elevation to obtain at least 180 A fly-up indication. Proceed inbound maintaining at least 180 A clearance until the runway threshold is reached or it is necessary to alter the flight path to clear obstructions. This check will be conducted during monitor checks when the path width is adjusted to the wide alarm limits during which a minimum of 150 A fly-up is used in lieu of 180 A. When this check has been made during broad path width monitor limit checks, it need not be accomplished after the path is returned to the normal width of the normal approach envelope, except during the commissioning inspection. Glide path coverage 4.3.56 This check may be combined with the clearance check using the same flight profile. If a separate flight is made, it is not necessary to continue the approach beyond the intercept with the glide path lower width angle. At site, commissioning, categorization and periodic checks this measurement should be made along the edges of a sector 8 o either side of the localizer centre line. Coverage will normally be checked to a distance of 18.5 km (10 NM) from the antenna. Coverage will be checked to a distance greater than 18.5 km (10 NM) to the extent that it is required to support procedural use of the glide path. Monitors Note. If checks are required, see Note 2 of Table I-4-8. 4.3.57 Where required, monitor checks may be made using identical measurement methods to those described for glide path angle, displacement sensitivity and clearance. The level flight method for angle and displacement sensitivity should not be used if there is non-linearity in the areas being evaluated. 4.3.58 Power monitor (commissioning only). The field strength of the glide path signal should be checked at the limits of its designated coverage volume, with the power reduced to the alarm level. Alternatively, if the monitor alarm limit has been accurately measured by ground inspection, the field strength may be measured under normal operating conditions and the field strength at the alarm limit may be calculated. This check may be made at the same time as clearance and coverage checks. Phasing and associated engineering support tests 4.3.59 The glide path site test is made to determine whether the proposed site will provide satisfactory glide path performance at the required path angle. It is extremely important that the site tests be conducted accurately and completely to avoid resiting costs and unnecessary installation delays. Because this is functionally a site-proving test rather than an inspection of equipment performance, only one transmitter is required.

4.3.60 A preliminary glide path inspection is performed upon completion of the permanent transmitter and antenna installation. But prior to permanent installation of the monitor system. This inspection is conducted on one transmitter as a preliminary confirmation of airborne characteristics of the permanent installation. Additionally, it provides the installation engineer with data that enables the engineer to complete the facility adjustment to the optimum for the commissioning inspection. This requires the establishment of transmitter settings for monitor alarm limits. These settings will be utilized by ground personnel to determine that the field monitor is installed at its optimum location and that integral monitors are correctly adjusted to achieve the most satisfactory overall monitor response. 4.3.61 The procedures for conducting various glide path engineering support tests are described below. Normally, these checks will be performed by ground methods prior to the flight inspection, and airborne checks will be conducted at the option of the ground technician. It is not intended that they will supplant ground measurements, but that they will confirm and support ground tests. The details of these tests will be included in the flight inspection report. 4.3.62 Modulation balance. Although the modulation balance is most easily measured on the ground, it may be measured from the air while radiating the carrier signal only. Fly a simulated on-path approach recording the glide path indications. The average deviation of the glide path indication from on-path should be noted for use in the phasing check. Ground personnel should be advised of the result. The optimum condition is a perfect balance, i.e. zero in the precision microammeter. If the unbalance is 5 A or more, corrective action should be taken by ground personnel before continuing this test. Note. Level runs are not satisfactory for this test since shifting of centring may occur in low-signal or null areas. 4.3.63 Phasing Transmitting antennas. The purpose of the phasing test is to determine that optimum phase exists between the radiating antennas. There are several different methods of achieving airborne phasing and these tests should normally be made using the manufacturers recommended methods. Where difficulty is experienced in achieving airborne phasing to a definite reading by normal procedures, the flight inspector should coordinate with the ground engineer to determine the most advantageous area for conducting the phasing test. When this area and track are determined, it should be noted on the facility data record for use on future phasing tests of that facility. 4.3.64 Phasing monitor system. Some types of glide path integral monitor need flight inspection checks to prove that they will accurately reproduce the far-field conditions when changes occur in transmitted signal phases. Procedures for making such checks should be developed in conjunction with the manufacturers recommendations. 4.3.65 Glide path antenna adjustment (null checks). These checks are conducted to determine the vertical angles at which the RF nulls of the various glide path antennas may occur. The information is used by ground staff to assist them in determining the correct heights for the transmitting antennas. The test is made with carrier signals radiating only from each antenna in turn. The procedure for conducting this test is by level flight along the localizer course line. The angles of the nulls will be computed in the same manner as the glide path angle is computed. The nulls are characterized by a sharp fall in signal level.

Marker beacons Keying 4.3.66 The keying is checked during an ILS approach over the beacons. The keying is assessed from both the aural and visual indication and is satisfactory when the coded characters are correct, clear and properly spaced. The frequency of the modulating tone can be checked by observing that visual indication is obtained on the correct lamp of a three lamp system, i.e. outer marker (OM) blue, middle marker (MM) orange and inner marker (IM) white. Coverage 4.3.67 Coverage is determined by flying over the marker beacons during a normal ILS approach on the localizer and glide path and measuring the total distance during which a visual indication is obtained from a calibrated marker receiver and antenna or during which a predetermined RF carrier signal level is obtained. The calibration of receiver/antenna and the determination of the required RF carrier signal level is discussed in Chapter 1. 4.3.68 At commissioning, the coverage should be determined by making a continuous recording of the RF signal strength from the calibrated aircraft antenna, since this allows a more detailed assessment of the ground beacon performance. The visual indication distance should be noted for comparison with subsequent routine checks. For routine checks, measuring the distance over which the visual indication is received will usually be sufficient, although the above procedure of recording signal strength is recommended. 4.3.69 The signal strength recording should be examined to ensure that there are no side-lobes of sufficient signal strength to cause false indications, and that there are no areas of weak signal strength within the main lobe. 4.3.70 At commissioning, a check should be made that the centre of the coverage area is in the correct position. This will usually be over the marker beacon but in some cases, due to siting difficulties, the polar axis of the marker beacon radiation pattern may have to be other than vertical. Reference should then be made to the operational procedures to determine the correct location of the centre-of-coverage, with respect to some recognizable point on the ground. The centre-of-coverage can be checked during the coverage flights described above, by marking the continuous recording when the aircraft is directly over the marker beacon (or other defined point). On a normal approach there should be a well-defined separation (in the order of 4.5 seconds at 180 km/hr (95 kt) between the indications obtained from each marker. 4.3.71 At commissioning, categorization and annual inspections, a check should also be made to ensure that operationally acceptable marker beacon indications are obtained when an approach is made on the glide path but displaced 75A from the localizer centre. The time at which the indication is obtained will usually be shorter than when on the localizer centre. Monitor system 4.3.72 At commissioning, the coverage should be measured with the marker beacon operating at 50 per cent of normal power and with the modulation depth reduced to 50 per cent. An operationally usable indication should still be obtained; if not, the power should be increased to provided an indication and the monitor adjusted to alarm at this level. 4.3.73 Alternatively, the coverage under monitor alarm conditions can be determined by analyzing the field strength recording as detailed in 4.3.67 to 4.3.71. Standby equipment (if installed) 4.3.74 At commissioning, the standby equipment is checked in the same manner as the main equipment. It will usually not be necessary to check both the main and standby equipment at each routine check, if the equipment operation has been scheduled so that the routine checks are carried out on each equipment alternately.

Charts and reports General 4.3.75 The ILS flight inspection report records the conformance of the facility performance to the Standards defined in Annex 10 as well as the equipment specific standards established by the authorized flight inspection organization and the responsible ground maintenance organization. Table I-4-7 and I-4-8 list the parameters to be measured for localizer and glide path facilities, as well as localizer back course approaches. Table I-4-9 summarizes the parameters to be measured for ILS Marker Beacons. It is recommended that the flight inspection report include an assessment of the parameters listed in Table I-4-7 through I-4-9, which are appropriate for the type of inspection. Flight inspection reports should allow for As found and As left results to be entered for routine documentation of the adjustments made to facilities. Report contents 4.3.76 The ILS flight inspection report should contain the following minimum information: a) basic identification items such as the aircraft tail number, facility name, facility identifier, category and type of inspection, date and time of inspection, names of the pilot and engineer or technician; b) a summary listing of the run numbers, chart recordings or data files, which were analyzed to produce the report; c) a general comments section where pertinent information regarding the conduct of the inspection can be included; d) a results section for each measured parameter indicating the value obtained, whether or not it conforms to requirements and the recording or data file from which the result was measured. e) a status section indicating the operational status of the facility; and f) the type of flight inspection system used (AFIS, theodolite, manual, etc.). Sample flight inspection report 4.3.77 Flight inspection reports can take several forms varying from hand-filled paper forms to computer generated text files or database forms. Appendix A to this chapter shows a sample computer generated flight inspection report for a routine ILS inspection. The cover page provides many of the basic identification items listed above, along with the operational status of the facility and configuration of the system software used. Page one includes a run directory, antenna calibration data, and comments entered during the inspection. Pages two to five contain the numeric results for alignment, structure, course width and clearance parameters. They are organized by As found and As left for each transmitter inspected. The figures in the Appendix are sample plots that can be added to the report to enhance the meaning of the numbers reported in the body of the report. Analysis 4.3.78 General. This section provides brief material related to special topics involved with analysis of ground and flight testing of ILS facilities. In addition, considerable material on the analysis of ILS testing results is published in Attachment C to Annex 10, Volume I. 4.3.79 Structure analysis. Analysis of localizer course line and glide path angle structure is dependent upon aircraft speed, the time constant of receiver and recording equipment, and various other factors. Guidance on these topics can be found in Attachment C, 2.1.4 and its preceding note, and 2.1.5 through 2.1.7.

4.3.80 Computation of displacement sensitivity. Displacement sensitivity is typically measured with orbital flights on localizers, and level inbound runs on glide slopes. Analogous measurements can be made for ground testing. In each case, the azimuth (localizer) or elevation (glide path) angles, at which nominal DDM values of 150A (75A) occur, are determined, and the sensitivity computed, taking into account the distance from the antenna system at which the measurements were taken. Particularly on glide path measurements, it is common for the DDM recording to be non-linear if significant multipath conditions exist. In these cases, the measurements may need to be taken at DDM values other than those stated above between which linearity is maintained, and the calculated sensitivity scaled to the nominal value. 4.3.81 Reference datum height (RDH). For commissioning and categorization flight tests, it may be necessary to determine the glide path RDH. This is done using a high-quality approach recording, from which the angle and structure measurements are made. Position-corrected DDM values for a selected portion of the approach (typically Point A to Point B for Category I facilities, and the last nautical mile of the approach for Category II and III facilities) are used in a linear regression to extend a best-fit line downward to a point above the threshold. The height of this line above the threshold is used as the RDH. If the tolerances are not met, an engineering analysis is necessary to determine whether the facility has been sited correctly. A different portion of the approach should be used for the regression analysis, or another type of analytical technique should be used. Test equipment General 4.3.82 As described in Chapter 1, a flight inspection system is composed of two distinct subsystems, one dedicated to the measurement and processing of the radio signals provided by the facilities to be inspected, and another dedicated to the determination of the positioning of the flight inspection aircraft. 4.3.83 The following paragraphs define minimal performances of the equipment constituting the radio signals in flight measurement subsystems and recommend calibration procedures to reach them. They highlight the level of equipment needed to verify compliance with the requirements specified in Annex 10, volume I, for the different facility performance categories of ILS. 4.3.84 A flight-testing system may use equipment other than ILS receivers normally used for aircraft navigation (e.g. bench test equipment or portable ground maintenance receivers). Care should be used to ensure that this equipment performs the same as conventional, high-quality aircraft equipment. 4.3.85 For convenience reasons, the assessment of the accuracy of the reception and processing equipment of the radio subsystem will be made in units suitable to parameters to be measured in microamperes. To ensure a simple equivalence between the different units in which tolerances are expressed, the following relations are used: 1A = 0.01 o for a distance of 4000 m (13000 ft) between the localizer antenna and the threshold, and 1A = 0.005 o for a glide path angle of 3 degrees. Accuracy 4.3.86 Uncertainty. Whatever the measured parameter, the uncertainty on the measure has to be small by comparison with the tolerances applied to the measured parameter. A ratio of five is the minimum required. 4.3.87 Treatment of error sources. The evaluation of parameters such as course alignment and displacement sensitivity is performed by the radio electrical and positioning subsystems. These measurements are polluted by the specific errors of these two subsystems. By nature, these errors are independent, and it is allowable to consider that the global statistical error on the parameter to be measured is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the equally weighted errors of the two parts of the system.

Flight inspection equipment 4.3.88 General. To reach the fixed goal concerning accuracy, it is necessary to consider the performance of the reception and processing parts of the flight inspection. 4.3.89 Aircraft ILS antennas. To minimize the errors due to implementation, antennas should be installed according to the recommendations listed in Chapter 1. As an example of this importance, note that when the aircraft is over the runway threshold, a vertical displacement of 6 cm (2.5 inches) is equal to approximately 0.01 o in elevation angle, observed from the glide path tracking site. 4.3.90 The ILS flight inspection receiver. The receivers used should measure, at a minimum, the DDM, SDM, signal input level and modulations depths. For integrity and technical comfort, the simultaneous use of two receivers is strongly recommended. This redundancy offers a protection against errors that might occur during the flight inspection because of unexpected short-term changes in a receivers performance. A divergence of their output signals can therefore be noted immediately. 4.3.91 Acquisition and processing equipment. Equipment constituting the acquisition and processing subsystem should have such a performance that it does not degrade the acquired parameters. It is necessary that signal acquisition occurs synchronously with the positioning determination of the plane, to compare measurements that correspond in time. It will be possible to convert, by the use of calibration tables, the radio electrical signals into usual physical units with a convenient resolution, and to take into account the actual functioning of the receiver in its operational environment. The graphic display and record should be such that they will allow the flight inspector to evaluate fluctuations of signals against the required tolerances. Calibration General 4.3.92 The data provided by the reception and acquisition subsystem will vary with changes in working conditions, e.g. changes in the ambient temperature, the supply voltage, the input signal level, the frequency of modulating tones, the operating frequency, etc. Before using a given type receiver for flight inspection purposes, its comportment in the different working conditions should be known, and calibration procedures as complete as possible should be developed to establish a quantitative relationship between the output of the receiver and probable changes in the operational environment. It is also necessary to evaluate the stability of the receiver to determine the maximal time interval that separates two consecutive calibrations. Integration of an ILS generator on board 4.3.93 To guarantee the accuracy required, the integration, in a permanent position, of an ILS signal generator is strongly recommended in any flight inspection system. The availability of the generator allows the flight inspector to: a) perform receiver calibration in the plane rather than in the laboratory on the ground, allowing calibration of the complete subsystem in its environment; b) resolve divergence of the two receivers during the flight; c) update, if necessary during a mission, the calibration tables; d) refine measurements on the actual ILS frequency to be inspected, since the provided calibration tables are usually established on two or three frequencies (middle and extremity of the band); and e) compare, before the flight, the standard of measurements with that used by ILS ground maintenance people, avoiding decorrelation between ground and in-flight measurements, saving wasted flight hours. Calibration standards 4.3.94 A signal generator having identical performance to those used by ground maintenance people should be used to calibrate the flight inspection measurement subsystem.

Calibration procedures 4.3.95 Calibration procedures of the reception and acquisition subsystem cannot be defined by a universal procedure. These procedures essentially depend on the chosen equipment that can behave differently in a given operational environment. In every case, it will be necessary to refer to the manufacturers recommendations. 4.3.96 In the case where receivers deliver electrical voltage characterizing signals to be measured, calibration tables are first necessary to provide changes of units. Some equipment delivers the flight inspection parameters directly in the desired units, and calibration tables converting the different voltages into suitable units are not required in this case. Nevertheless, it is necessary to correct some errors of the subsystem (for instance, receiver centering error), and limited calibration procedures have to be defined accordingly. It is necessary to establish enough calibration tables so that those established for a given frequency may be transposable to nearby ILS frequencies without significant error. 4.3.97 The tables to be developed are outlined below.

4.3.98 Localizer. For a given VHF frequency: a) Vagc = f (input level), input level varying from: - 104 dBm to 18 dBm Idev = f (input level), Input level varying from: -90 dBm to 18 dBm and for: DDM = 0 DDM = 0.155 in the 90 Hz DDM = 0.155 in the 150 Hz b) Iflag = f (input level) input level varying from: - 90 dBm to 18 dBm and for modulation depths varying from 17 per cent to 23 per cent c) V90 Hz and V150 Hz = f (modulation depth), for different values of the modulation depths, their sum remaining constant, and at different values of input level. 4.3.99 Glide path: For a given UHF frequency: a) Vagc = f (input level), input level varying from: - 104 dBm to 18 dBm Idev = f (input level), Input level varying from: -90 dBm to 18 dBm and for: DDM = 0 DDM = 0.088 in the 90 Hz DDM = 0.088 in the 150 Hz b) Iflag = f (input level) input level varying from: - 90 dBm to 18 dBm and for modulation depths varying from 34 per cent to 46 per cent c) V90 Hz and V150 Hz = f (modulation depth), for different values of the modulation depths, their sum remaining constant, and at different values of injection. Note. The different values to be chosen for localizer and glide path calibration tables depend on the receiver response and on the generator possibilities.

Positioning General 4.3.100 The evaluation of some parameters includes a combination of errors coming from the radio electrical outputs and from the positioning subsystem. By nature these errors are independent, and it is acceptable to consider that the global statistical error on the sum of the squares of the equally weighted errors of the two parts of the system. Whatever the measured parameter is, the measurement uncertainty should be small compared with the tolerances for that parameter. A ratio of five is the minimum required. Accuracy required 4.3.101 The required accuracies are calculated by converting tolerances on the different ILS parameters into degrees, using the following formulas: Loc alignment tolerance = (tolerance in A nominal sector width /150) degrees GP alignment tolerance = (tolerance in A nominal sector width /150) degrees Loc or GP sector tolerance = nominal sector [150 / (150 tolerance in A)] degrees. 4.3.102 In Table I-4-10, the minimum accuracies of the positioning are calculated from adjust and maintain tolerances. The tables show that the accuracy of the aircraft positioning measurement has to be better than 1/100 of a degree for Category III localizer and glide path. Error budget 4.3.103 The different components of the error budget relative to the positioning measurement of the plane are listed below: a) the uncertainty on the database, describing geometrically, the field and the facility to be inspected (definition of every characteristic point in the runway reference coordinates system); b) the uncertainty on the platform coordinates (x, y, z) on which the positioning system is set up (definition of some of them within one centimetre); c) the lack of care in setting up the positioning system on the ground; d) the instrumental error within its operating limits defined by the manufacturer; e) the error due to the atmospheric refraction if optical or infra-red tracker is used; f) the parallax error due to the fact that the positioning system and the phase centre of the facility to be measured are not collocated; g) the error due to the fact that the reference aircraft positioning point and the localizer or glide path antenna are not collocated; and h) the conical effect of the radiated pattern of the glide path in the final part of the approach and the fact that the ground reflection surface is not a perfect plane. 4.3.104 To reduce the three last components listed above, it is necessary to use high accuracy devices providing distance (to a few metres), heading and attitude ( to about 0.1 degree each) information. If distance, heading, and attitude parameters are not available, a crosswind limit should be set allowing measurement accuracies to be within the limits required. 4.4 ILS Relate topics General 4.4.1 This section deals with technical issues that are not solely related to ground or flight-testing.

Two-frequency system issues Localizer receiver capture performance 4.4.2 When receiving signals from a two-frequency capture-effect localizer system, some receivers exhibit a strong capture performance. Where the signals differ in strength by more than 5 or 6 dB, the receiver will completely ignore the weaker signal. Other receivers require the signals to differ by more than 10 dB before the weaker signal is completely ignored. 4.4.3 This effect shows its presence when inspecting a localizer with a combination of clearance signal reflections onto the centre line and poor clearance carrier suppression on the centre line. If the receiver detector is not completely captured by the course signal on the centre line, it will respond to clearance signals. The result of this will be an increase in the measured amplitude of centre line bends. 4.4.4 The outcome of this effect is that on localizers with poor clearance suppression on the centre line, the measured bend amplitude is dependent on the receiver used for the measurement. Normally this effect is not noticed, but if an inspection of such a localizer is made using different types of receiver, the results can be confusing, unless this problem is understood. Receiver passband ripple 4.4.5 Some flight inspection (and user) receivers have up to 6 dB of ripple in the IF passband. This can give rise to unusual results when inspecting a two-frequency capture-effect system. In regions where either the course or clearance signal predominates, a high passband ripple has little effect. Problem are only caused in the transition region where course and clearance signals are of equal signal strength. 4.4.6 As an example, some two-frequency systems are operated with the course and clearance frequencies interchanged between the main and standby transmitters. This can result, for example in the course signals of TX1 being received on a peak in the IF passband response, and the clearance signals being received in a trough of the passband response. The reverse is true when receiving TX2. The result is that in certain areas, TX1 and TX2 will have differing flight inspection results although ground measurements will show no difference between the two transmitters. 4.4.7 The largest discrepancies between the two transmitters for glide paths are normally seen when checking the azimuth coverage at 8 o , at 0.45 and when examining the above-path signal near 1.75. This is not considered a serious problem, but awareness of it can save time by avoiding ground tests for discrepancies which in reality do not exist. Receiver DDM processing 4.4.8 Several types of receivers that are in common use for flight inspection and navigation process the received DDM before providing an output to the recording or navigation equipment. This can affect measurements made on localizers where the modulation sum in the clearance region rises to values much higher than the nominal 40 percent. (These high values of measured values are common for many antenna systems with small apertures, e.g. a small number of elements installed on longer runways requiring smaller course widths. Paragraph 3.1.3.5.3.6.1 of Annex 10, Volume I, is limiting the SDM to a maximum value of 60 per cent for equipment installed after 1 January 2000. (This limit is not applied to arrays installed before that date.) 4.4.9 There are several different processing algorithms used by receiver manufacturers. One commonly used algorithm normalizes the DDM whenever the modulation sum exceeds 40 per cent. The process divides the absolute DDM by the modulation sum and then multiplies the result by 40. This means that if the modulation sum is 80 per cent, the absolute DDMM figure sill be halved.

4.4.10 This does not represent a problem for flight inspection use, but it is essential that the exact processing algorithm is known.. This is particularly important where a flight inspection is being made to examine cases of false localizer capture. It is also important to know the processing algorithms in the navigation receivers fitted to the aircraft reporting the problem. Localizer false capture 4.4.11 If a localizer with regions of high modulation depth outside the course sector is examined by a flight inspection system with no DDM processing, it will show a high value of DDM over the entire clearance region and would appear to conform to published specifications. However, an aircraft whose navigation receivers have the DDM processing described in 4.4.8 to 4.4.10 could make an auto coupled approach to the localizer from a wide angle. As the aircraft enters the region of high modulation depth, the processed DDM from the receiver will fall rapidly and may be interpreted by the autopilot as entering the course sector and a capture maneuver will be instigated. There are other factors involved in this problem, such as the capture level setting of the autopilot, but the various DDM processing algorithms have a great influence. 4.4.12 With certain types of localizer antenna systems, it is difficult to eliminate the regions of high modulation depth without affecting the sector width. It is very important to know exactly what processing has been applied to the DDM being recorded. It is then possible to calculate whether the localizer could cause problems for any of the aircraft, which may use it for auto coupled approaches.

Summary of testing requirements Localizer Annex 10, Parameter Volume I. Testing Voice feature 3.1.3.8 F Modulation balance and depth 3.1.3.5 F/G Displacement sensitivity 3.1.3.7 F/G Off-course clearance 3.1.3.7.4 F High-angle clearance N/A F Course alignment accuracy 3.1.3.6 F/G Course structure 3.1.3.4 F/G Coverage (usable distance) 3.1.3.3 F/G Polarization 3.1.3.2.2 F Monitor system 3.1.3.11 F/G Phasing N/A F/G Orientation 3.1.3.1 G Frequency 3.1.3.2 G 3.1.3.2.3 G Spurious modulation Carrier modulation frequency 3.1.3.5.3 G 3.1.3.5.3 d) G Carrier modulation harmonic content 90 Hz Carrier modulation harmonic content 150 Hz 3.1.3.5.3 e) G Unwanted modulation 3.1.3.5.3.2 G Phase of modulation tones 3.1.3.5.3.3 G Phase of modulation tones dual frequency systems 3.1.3.5.3.4 G Phasing of alternative systems 3.1.3.5.3.5 G Sum of modulation depths 3.1.3.5.3.6 F/G Sum of modulation depths when utilizing radiotelephony communications 3.1.3.5.3.7 F/G Frequency and phase modulation 3.1.3.5.4 G DDM increase linear 3.1.3.7.4 F Voice no interference to basic function 3.1.3.8.2 Phase to avoid null on dual frequency systems 3.1.3.8.3.1 F/G Peak modulation depth 3.1.3.8.3.2 G Audio frequency characteristic 3.1.3.8.3.3 G 3.1.3.9.1 F Identification no interference with guidance information Identification tone frequency 3.1.3.9.2 G Identification modulation depth 3.1.3.9.2 G Identification speed 3.1.3.9.4 G Identification repetition rate 3.1.3.9.4 G Monitoring total time of out-of-tolerance radiation G 3.1.3.11.3 Back course sector width N/A F N/A Back course alignment F N/A F Back course structure Back course modulation depth N/A F Legend: N/A = Not applicable F = Flight inspection G = Ground test

Table I-4-1.

Table I-4-2.

Parameter Angle Alignment Height of reference datum Displacement sensitivity Clearance below and above path Glide path structure Structure Modulation balance and depth Obstruction clearance Coverage (usable distance) Monitor system Phasing Orientation Frequency Polarization Unwanted modulation Carrier modulation frequency Carrier modulation harmonic content 90 Hz Carrier modulation harmonic content 150 Hz Unwanted amplitude modulation Phase of modulation tones Phase of modulation tones, dual frequency systems Phase of modulation tones, alternative systems Monitoring total time of out-of-tolerance radiation Legend: N/A = Not applicable F = Flight inspection G = Ground test

Summary of testing requirements Glide path Annex 10, Volume I. Testing 3.1.5.1.2.2, 3.1.5.1.4, 3.1.5.1.5, 3.1.5.1.6 3.1.5.6 3.1.5.3.1, 3.1.5.6.5 3.1.5.4 N/A 3.1.5.5.1 N/A 3.1.5.3 3.1.5.7 N/A 3.1.5.1.1 3.1.5.2.1 3.1.5.2.2 3.1.5.2.3 3.1.5.5.2 3.1.5.5.2 d) 3.1.5.5.2 e) 3.1.5.5.2.2 3.1.5.5.3 3.1.5.5.3.1 3.1.5.5.3.2 3.1.5.7.3.1 F/G F/G F/G F F F/G F F/G F/G F/G G G F G G G G G G G

Summary of testing requirements Markers Annex 10, Parameter Volume I. Keying 3.1.7.4, 3.1.7.5 Coverage indications and field strength 3.1.7.3, 3.1.7.3.2 Monitor system 3.1.7.7 Standby equipment N/A Frequency 3.1.7.2.1 N/A RF output power Carrier modulation 3.1.7.4.2 Carrier modulation frequency 3.1.7.4.1 Carrier modulation harmonic content N/A Monitor system 3.1.7.7.1 Legend: N/A = Not applicable F = Flight inspection G = Ground test

Table I-4-3.

Testing F/G F F F G G G G G F/G

Table I-4-4.

Ground test requirements for ILS performance Categories I, II, and III localizers

Parameter
Orientation Frequency

Annex 10 3.1.3.1 3.1.3.2.1

Doc 8071
4.2.12

Measurand Orientation Frequency

Tolerance Correct Frequency single: 0.005% Dual: 0.002% Separation: >5 kHz <14kHz <0.005 DDM peak to peak As set at commissioning . see Note 2. As described in Annex 10 Within 10A of the modulation balance value 18 22% Cat I: 2.5% Cat II: 1.5% Cat III: 1% < 10 % < 5 % (Cat III) < 10 % < 5 % (Cat III) Modulation depth < 0.5% Cat I, II: < 20 o Cat III: < 10 o Cat I, II: < 20 o Cat III: < 10 o

Uncertainty Periodicity Annual Annual 0.001 % 0.0005 %

Spurious modulation Coverage (usable distance) Course structure (Category III only) Carrier modulation - Balance - Depth Carrier modulation Frequency Carrier modulation harmonic content (90 Hz) Carrier modulation harmonic content (150 Hz) Unwanted modulation Phase of modulation tones Phase of modulation tones dual frequency Systems (each carrier and between carriers)
Phasing of alternative systems

3.1.3.2.3 3.2.3.3.1 4.2.13 3.1.3.4 3.1.3.5.1 4.2.8, 4.2.9 4.2.15

DDM, Deviation Power

0.001 DDM 1 dB 0.001 DDM 0.001 DDM 0.2 %

Quarterly Quarterly

DDM DDM, Depth

Quarterly Quarterly

3.1.3.5.3

4.2.14

Frequency

Annual 0.1 % Annual 0.5 % Annual 0.5 % 0.1 % 4o 2o 4o 2o Semi-annual Annual Annual

3.1.3.5.3 d)

4.2.17

3.1.3.5.3 e)

4.2.17

3.1.3.5.3.2 3.1.3.5.3.3 3.1.3.5.3.4 4.2.18 to 4.2.20 4.2.18 to 4.2.20

Total 2nd harmonic Total 2nd harmonic Ripple LF phase LF phase

3.1.3.5.3.5 3.1.3.5.3.6 3.1.3.5.3.7

Sum of modulation depths Sum of modulation depths when using Radiotelephony communications Course alignment

4.2.18 to 4.2.20 4.2.15 4.2.15

LF phase Modulation Depth Modulation Depth

Cat I, II, nominal:20 o Cat III nominal: 10 o Modulation depth< 95% Modulation depth <65%10 o , <78% beyond 10 o

4o 2o 2% 2%

Annual Quarterly Monthly

3.1.3.6.1

4.2.8 4.2.9 4.2.10

DDM, Distance CCM/metre

Cat I: <10.5 m. see Cat II: <7.5 m Note 2 Cat III: <3 m
0.00145 nominal. see Cat I, II: 17 % Note 2 Cat III: 10 %

0.3 m

I- Quarterly II- Monthly III-Weekly


I,II- Quarterly

Displacement Sensitivity

3.1.3.7

3 % 2 %

III-Monthly

Table I-4-4.

Ground test requirements for ILS performance continued

Categories I, II, and III localizers Annex 10 3.1.3.8.3.2


3.1.3.8.3.3 3.1.3.9.2 3.1.3.9.2 4.2.16

Parameter Peak modulation Depth Audio frequency characteristic Identification tone Frequency Identification modulation depth Identification Speed Identification repetition rate Phase Modulation

Doc 8071

Measurand Modulation Depth Modulation Depth Tone Frequency Modulation Depth Tone Frequency Time <50 % 3 dB

Tolerance

Uncertainty

Periodicity Quarterly Annual Annual Quarterly

2% 0.5 dB 5 Hz 1%

102050 Hz As commissioned

3.1.3.9.4 3.1.3.9.4

102050 Hz As commissioned

1%

3.1.3.5.4

4.2.21 to 4.2.23

Peak Deviation

Limits given in see Note 5 FM Hz/PM radians: 90 Hz 150 Hz (dif Hz) Cat I: 135/1.5 135/0.9 45 Cat II: 60/0.66 60/0.4 20 Cat III: 45/0.5 45/0.3 10

3 years 10 Hz 5 Hz 5 Hz

Monitoring -Course shift

3.1.3.11.2

4.2.25

DDM, Distance

See Note 2. Monitor must alarm for a shift in the main course line from the runway centre line equivalent to or more than the following distance at the ILS reference datum. Cat I: 10.5 m (35 ft) Cat II: 7.5 m (25 ft) Cat III: 6.0 m (20 ft) 2m 1m 0.7 m IQuarterly IIMonthly III-Weekly See Notes 3 and 4

- Change in displacement sensitivity

3.1.3.11.2 f)

4.2.26

DDM, Distance

Monitor must alarm for a change in displacement sensitivity to a value differing from the minimal value by more than: Cat I: 17 % Cat II: 17 % Cat III: 17 % Required only for certain types of localizer 3 % 3 % 3 %

- Clearance signal

3.1.3.11.2.1

DDM

Monitor must alarm when the off-course clearance cross-pointer deflection falls Below 150A anywhere in the off-course coverage area.

5A

Table I-4-4.

Ground test requirements for ILS performance continued

Categories I, II, and III localizers Annex 10 3.1.3.11.2 d) and e) Doc 8071 4.2.27

Parameter -Reduction in power

Measurand Power field strength

Tolerance Monitor must alarm either for A power reduction of 3 dB, or when the coverage falls below the requirement for the facility, whichever is the smaller change. For two-frequency localizers, the monitor must alarm for a change of 1 dB in either carrier, unless tests have proved that use of the wider limits above will not cause unacceptable signal degradation (>150A in clearance sector). Cat I: 10 s Cat II: 5 s Cat III: 2 s

Uncertainty

Periodicity

1 dB relative

-Total time, out-of-tolerance radiation.

3.1.3.11.3

4.2.24

Time

5A 0.2 s

Notes: 1. In general, the equipment settings should not be modified if the listed parameters are within 50 per cent of tolerance. See 4.2.54 and 4.2.55. 2. After the commissioning, flight check for the localizer, ground measurements of course alignment, displacement sensitivity, and power output should be made, both for normal and monitor alarm conditions. These measurements should be noted and used as reference in subsequent routine check measurements. 3. The periodicity for monitor tests may be increased if supported by an analysis of integrity and stability history. 4. These tests also apply to those parameters measured by the far-field monitor, if installed. 5. This measurement applies to the difference in peak frequency deviation between the separate measurements of the underived 90 Hz FM (or equivalent PM) and the 150 Hz FM, using the filters specified in the table in 4.2.23.

Table I-4-5.

Ground test requirements for ILS performance Categories I, II, and III glide paths

Parameter Orientation Path angle

Annex 10 3.1.5.1.1 3.1.5.1.2.2

Doc 8071
4.2.29 to 4.2.31

Measurand Orientation DDM, Angle

Tolerance (See Note 1) Correct See Note 2. Cat I: Within 7.5 % of nominal angle Cat II: Within 7.5 % Car III: Within 4 % Single 0.005 % Dual 0.002 % Separation >4kHz,<32kHz 0.002 DDM peak-to-peak As commissioned. 0.002 DDM 37.5% to 42.5% for each tone

Uncertainty

Periodicity Annual Quarterly

Cat I:0.75% Cat II:0.75% Cat III:0.75%

Frequency

3.1.5.2.1

4.2.34

Frequency

Unwanted modulation Coverage (usable distance) Carrier modulation - Balance (See - Depth Note 3) Carrier modulation Frequency

3.1.5.2.3 3.1.5.3 3.1.5.5.1 4.2.35 4.2.37

DDM Power Modulation Depth

0.001% 0.0005% 0.0005% 0.004 DDM 1 dB 0.001 DDM 0.5 %

Annual

SemiAnnual Quarterly Quarterly

3.1.5.5.2 a), b), and c)

4.2.36

Carrier modulation Harmonic content (90 Hz) Carrier modulation Harmonic content (150 Hz) Unwanted amplitude modulation Phase of modulation tones Phase of modulation tones, dual frequency system (each carrier and between carriers) Phase of modulation tones, alternative systems Displacement sensitivity Phase modulation

3.1.5.5.2 d)

4.2.38

3.1.5.5.2 e)

4.2.38

3.1.5.5.2.2

Frequency of modulation tones Total 2nd harmonic Total 2nd harmonic Ripple

Cat I: 2.5 % Cat II: 1.5 % Cat III: 1 %

Annual 0.01%

< 10 % < 5 % (Cat III) < 10 % < 5 % (Cat III)

Annual 1%

1%

Annual

<1% 3.1.5.5.3 3.1.5.5.3.1 4.2.39 4.2.39 Phase Phase Cat I, II: Cat III: < 20 o < 10 o 4o 2o 4o 2o
Cat I: 2.5% Cat II:2.0% Cat III:1.5%

Annual < 20 o < 10 o 4o 2o Annual

Cat I, II: Cat III:

Annual

3.1.5.5.3.2

4.2.39

Phase

Cat I, II: Nominal20 o Cat III: Nominal10 o Refer to Annex 10,Volume I, 3.1.5.6 See Note 2.
Limits given in see Note 5 FM Hz/PM radians: 90 Hz 150 Hz (dif Hz) Cat I: 150/1.66 150/1.0 50 Cat II,III: 90/1.0 90/0.6 20

Annual Quarterly Quarterly Monthly 3 years

3.1.5.6

4.2.32

DDM, Angle Peak Deviation

3.1.5.5.4

10 Hz 10 Hz

Table I-4-5.

Ground test requirements for ILS performance glide paths continued

Categories I, II, and III Annex 10


3.1.5.7.1 a) 3.1.5.7.1 d), e)

Parameter Monitoring (See Note 4) - Path angle


- Change in displacement sensitivity

Doc 8071
4.2.42 4.2.43

Measurand DDM, angle

Tolerance (See Note 1) See Note 2. Monitor must alarm for a Change in angle of 7.5% of the promulgated angle Cat I: Monitor must alarm for a change in the angle between the glide path and the line below the glide path at which75 A is obtained, by more than 3.75% of path angle. Cat II: Monitor must alarm for a change in displacement sensitivity by more than 25% Cat III: Monitor must alarm for a change in displacement sensitivity by more than 25% Monitor must alarm either for a power reduction of 3 dB, or when the coverage falls below the requirement for the facility, whichever is the smaller change For two-frequency glide paths, the monitor must alarm for a change of 1 dB in either carrier, unless tests have proved that use of the wider limits above will not cause unacceptable signal degradation Monitor must alarm for DDM < 0.175 below path clearance area Cat I: 6s Cat II, III: 2s

Uncertainty

Periodicity Cat I, II - Quarterly Cat III - Monthly

4A

DDM, angle

- Reduction in power

3.1.5.7.1 b), c)

4.2.44

Power

1 dB

0.5 dB

- Clearance signal

3.1.5.7.1 g)

DDM, angle 4.2.24 Time

- Total time of outof-tolerance radiation

3.1.5.7.3.1

Notes: 1. In general, the equipment settings should not be modified if the listed parameters are within 50 per cent of the given tolerances. See 4.2.54 and 4.2.55. 2b) After the commissioning, flight check for the glide path, ground measurements of glide path angle, displacement sensitivity, and clearance below path, may be made, both for normal and monitor alarm conditions. These measurements may be used as reference in subsequent routine check measurements.

2b) After the commissioning, flight check for the glide path and ground measurements of the glide path power should be made, both for normal and monitor alarm conditions. These measurements may be used as reference in subsequent routine check measurements. 3. The tolerances given are for routine checks only. All parameters should be set to nominal values at the time of commissioning. 4. The periodicity for monitor tests may be increased if supported by an analysis of integrity and stability history. 5. This measurement applies to the difference in peak frequency deviation between the separate measurements of the undesired 90 Hz FM (or equivalent PM) and the 150 Hz FM, using the filters specified in the table in 4.2.23.

Parameter Frequency
RF output power Carrier modulation Carrier modulation frequency Carrier modulation harmonic content Keying

Table I-4-6. Ground test requirements for ILS marker beacon Annex Doc Uncertainty Measurand Tolerance (See Note 1) 10 8071 3.1.7.2.1 4.2.45 Frequency 0.01 % 0.001 % (0.005 % recommended) 4.2.46 Power 15 % 5% 3.1.7.4.2 4.2.4.7 Modulation 91 99 % 2% depth 3.1.7.4.1 4.2.48 Frequency Nominal 2.5 % 0.01 % of tone 4.2.49 Modulation Total < 15 % 1% depth 3.1.7.5.1 4.2.50 Keying Proper keying clearly audible
OM: 400 Hz, 2 dashes per Second continuously. MM: 1300Hz, alternate dots and dashes continuously The sequence being repeated once per second. IM: 3000 Hz, 6dots per second continuously. Alarm at: 0.1 s 0.1 s

Periodicity Annual Quarterly Quarterly Semi annual Annual Quarterly

0.03 s

Monitor system

3.1.7.7.1

4.2.51

Quarterly See Note 2.

- Carrier power Power -3 dB 1 dB - Modulation depth Percent > 50 % 2% Loss or continuous - Keying Presence Notes: 1. The tolerances given are for routine checks only. All parameters should be set to nominal values at the time of commissioning. 2. The periodicity for monitor tests may be increased if supported by an analysis of integrity and stability history.

Table I-4-7. Annex 10, Parameter


Identification Voice feature

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances


Inspection Measurand Morse code Tolerance Uncertainly S
C,C

For localizer Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071


4.3.12 4.3.13 Proper keying, clearly audible Subjective To the limit of the range. assessment Audibility, Clear audio level similar to Subjective DDM identification, no effect on assessment course line DDM See Note 1. modulation, 0.002 DDM 0.001 DDM Depth 18 % to 22 % 5 % DDM Cat I: Within 17% of the nominal value Cat II: Within 17% of the nominal value Cat III: Within 10% of the nominal value See Note 2. Off-course clearance 3.1.3.7.4 4.3.21, 4.3.22 DDM On either side of course line, linear increase to 175A, then maintenance of 175A to 10 o. Between 10 o and 35 o, minimum 150A. Where coverage required outside of 35 o, minimum of 150A except in back course sector. Minimum of 150A. 3A 3A 2A for nominal 150A input 5A for nominal 150A input

Volume 1,
3.1.39 3.1.3.8

P X X

X X

Modulation - Balance - Depth Displacement sensitivity

N/A 3.1.3.5 3.1.3.7 4.3.14 4.3.15 4.3.16 to 4.3.20

X X X X X X X X X

High-angle clearance

N/A

4.3.23 to 4.3.25 4.3.26 to 4.3.28

DDM

5A for nominal 150A input

Course alignment accuracy

3.1.3.6

DDM, Distance Angle

Equivalent to the following displacements at the ILS reference datum: Cat I:2 m Cat I: 10.5 m (35 ft) Cat II: Cat II: 7.5 m (25 ft) 1 m [4.5 m (15 ft) for those Cat II localizers which are adjusted and Cat III: maintained within 0.7 m 4.5 m] Cat III: 3 m (10 ft) 10A of the modulation balance value. See note 3. >180A (Linear increase from 0 to >180A) No interference

Phasing DDM increase linear Voice no Interference to basic function Phase to avoid Voice null on dual frequency systems 3.1.3.7.4 3.1.3.8

4.3.39, 4.3.40

DDM DDM DDM Speech Speech

X X X

X X X

3.1.3.8.3.1

No null

Table I-4-7. Annex 10, Parameter


Course structure

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances continued


Inspection Measurand DDM Tolerance Outer limit of coverage to Point A: 30A all categories Point A to Point B: Cat I: Linear decrease to 15 A Cat II: Linear decrease to 5 A Cat III: Linear decrease to 5 A Beyond Point B: Cat I: 15A to Point C Cat II: 5A to Reference datum Cat III: 5A to Point D, then Linear increase to 10 A at Point E. See Note 4 for application of tolerances. From the localizer antenna to distances of: 46.3 km (25 NM) within 10 o from the course line. 31.5 km (17 NM) between 10 o and 35 o from the course line. 18.5 km (10 NM) beyond 35 o if coverage is provided. (See detailed procedure for exceptions.) Field strength DDM >40 microvolts/metre (-114 dBW/m 2 ) For a roll attitude of 20 o from the horizontal: Cat I: 15A on the course line. Cat II: 8A on the course line Cat III: 5A within a sector bounded by 20A either side of the course line. 3 dB X X Uncertainly See Annex 10, Volume I, Att. C, 2.1.5. From Point A to B 3A decreasing to 1A From Point B to E, 1A S X
C,C

For localizer Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071


4.3.29 to 4.3.33

Volume 1,
3.1.3.4 See Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment C, Note to 2.1.3

P X

Coverage (usable distance)

3.1.3.3 See Annex 10, Volume I, Att, C, Figure C-7 And C-8

4.3.34 to 4.3.36

Flag Current DDM

- Field strength Polarization 3.1.3.2.2 4.3.37

1A

Table I-4-7. Annex 10, Parameter


Back course - Sector width - Alignment - Structure N/A N/A N/A

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances continued


Inspection Measurand DDM, Angle DDM, Distance DDM Tolerance Not less than 3 .
o

For localizer Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071


4.3.41 to 4.3.43

Volume 1,

Uncertainly 0.1
o

C,C

P X

Within 60 m of the extended Centre line at 1 NM. Limit of coverage to final Approach fix: 40A FAF to 1.85 km (1 NM) from threshold: 40A Decreasing at a linear rate to: 20A 18% to 22% approximately 9km(5NM) from the localizer See Note 1. See Note 2. Monitor must alarm for a shift in the main course line from the run way centre line equivalent to or more than the following distances at the ILS reference datum. Cat I: 10.5 m (35 ft) Cat II: 7.5 m (25 ft) Cat III: 6.0 m (20 ft)

6 m Annex 10, Volume I, Att. C, 2.1.4

X X

X X

- Modulation depth

N/A

Modulation depth 4.3.38 DDM, Distance

0.5%

Monitor system - Alignment

3.1.3.11

2m 1m 0.7 m

- Displacement sensitivity

DDM, Distance

Monitor must alarm for a Change in displacement sensitivity to a value differing from the nominal value by more than: Cat I: 17% Cat II: 17% Cat III: 17% 4% 4% 2% 5A 1 dB relative

- Off-course clearance

DDM

Required only for certain type of localizer. Monitor must alarm when the off-course clearance cross pointer deflection falls below 150A anywhere in the off-course coverage area.

Table I-4-7. Annex 10, Parameter


Monitor system - Power

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances continued


Inspection Measurand Tolerance Uncertainly S
C,C

For localizer Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071 Volume 1,

Power field strength

Monitor must alarm either for a power reduction of 3 dB, or when the coverage falls below the requirement for the facility, whichever is the smaller change. For two-frequency localizers the monitor must alarm for a change of 1 dB in either carrier, unless tests have proved that use of the wider limits above will not cause acceptable signal degradation (>150A in clearance sector)

5A

Notes; 1. Recommended means of measurement is by ground check. 2. Recommended means of measurement is by ground check, provided that correlation has been established between ground and air measurements. 3.Optional, at the request of the ground technician, unless good correlation between airborne and ground phasing techniques has not been established. 4. Course structure along the runway may be measured by flight inspection or by ground vehicle. Refer to 4.3.79 for guidance on structure analysis. Legend: N/A = Not applicable S = Site C, C = Commissioning Categorization P = Periodic Nominal periodicity 180 days

Table I-4-8. Annex 10, Parameter


Angle - Alignment 3.1.5.1.2.2

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances


Inspection Measurand DDM, Angle Tolerance Cat I: Within 7.5% of nominal angle Cat II: Within 7.5% of nominal angle Cat III: Within 4% of nominal angle Cat I: 15 m(50 ft)+3 m(10 ft) (See Note 3) Cat II: 15 m(50 ft)+3 m(10 ft) (See Note 3) Cat III: 15m(50 ft)+3m(10 ft) (See Note 3) Refer to Annex 10, Volume I, 3.1.5.6 Uncertainly Cat I:0.75% Cat II:0.75% Car III:0.3% of nominal angle 0.6 m X S X
C,C

For glide path Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071
4.3.45 4.3.46

Volume 1,

P X

- Height of reference datum

3.1.5.1.5 3.1.5.1.6 3.1.5.1.4

DDM

Displacement sensitivity - Value - Symmetry Clearance - Below path

3.1.5.6

4.3.47 to 4.3.49

DDM, Angle

Cat I:2.5% Cat II:2.0% Cat III:1.5%

4.3.50 3.1.5.6.5

DDM, Angle

Not less than 190A at an angle above the horizontal of not less than 0.3.If 190A is realized at an angle greater than 0.45, a minimum of 190A must be maintained at least down to 0.45. Must attain at least 150A and not fall below 150A until 1.75is reached. See note 5. Cat I: From coverage limit to Point C: 30A. Cat II and III: From coverage Limit to Point A: 30A From Point A to Point B: linear decrease from 30A to 20A. From Point B to reference Datum: 20A. See Note 1. 0.002 DDM 37.5% to 42.5% for each tone Safe clearance at 180A (normal), or at 150A(widealarm).

6A for a nominal 190A input

- Above path

3.1.5.3.1

Glide path Structure

3.1.5.4

4.3.52

DDM

X Cat I:3A Cat II:2A Cat III:2A

Modulation - Balance - Depth Obstruction - Clearance 3.1.5.5.1 N/A 4.3.3.53 4.3.54

modulation depth

DDM 4.3.55

0.001 DDM 0.5% Subjective assessment

X X X

X X X

X X X

Table I-4-8. Annex 10, Parameter


Coverage - Usable distance

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances continued


Inspection Measurand Flag Current Tolerance Satisfactory receiver operation in sector 8 o azimuth either side of the localizer centre line for at least 18.5 km (10 NM) up to 1.75and down to 0.45 above the horizontal, or to a lower angle, down to 0.3 as required to safeguard the glide path intercept procedure >400V/m(-95 dBW/m2) (Refer to Annex 10 for specific signal strength requirement) See note 2. Monitor must alarm for a Change in angle of 7.5% of The promulgated angle. Cat I: Monitor must alarm for a change in the angle between the glide path and the line below the glide path at which 75A is obtained, by more than 0.037. Cat II: Monitor must alarm for a change in displacement sensitivity by more than 25%. Cat III: Monitor must alarm for a change in displacement sensitivity by more than 25% Monitor must alarm either for A power reduction of 3dB, or when the coverage falls below the requirement for the facility whichever is the smaller change. For two-frequency glide paths The monitor must alarm for a Change of 1 dB in either carrier, unless tests have proved that use of the wider limits above will not cause unacceptable signal degradation. No fixed tolerance. To be optimized for the site and equipment. See Note 4. Uncertainly 3 dB S X
C,C

For glide path Category (Cat) I, II, and III Doc 8071
4.3.56

Volume 1,
3.1.5.3

P X

- Field strength

Field strength 3.1.5.7 4.3.57, 4.3.58 DDM, Angle

Monitor system - Angle - Displacement sensitivity

4A

DDM, Angle

4A 1 dB

- Power

Power

0.5 dB

Phasing

N/A

4.3.59 to 4.3.65

N/A

Notes: 1. Recommended means of measurement is by ground check.

2. Recommended means of measurement is by ground check, provided that correlation has been established between ground and air measurements. 3. This requirement only arises during commissioning and categorization checks. The method of calculating the height of the extended glide path at the threshold is described in 4.3.81. Analysis Reference datum height (RDH). For Category 1 approaches on Code 1 and 2 runways, refer to 3.1.5.1.6 of Annex 10, Volume I 4. Optional, at the request of the ground technician. 5. Tolerances are referenced to the mean course path between Points A and B, and relative to the mean curved path below Point B. Legend: S = Site C,C = Commissioning, Categorization P = Periodic Nominal periodicity is 180 days N/A = Not applicable

Table I-4-9. Parameter


Keying

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances For ILS marker beacon Doc 8071
4.3.66 Measurand Keying Tolerance Proper keying, clearly audible OM: 400Hz, 2 dashes per Second continuously MM: 1300Hz alternate dots and dashes continuously. The sequence being repeated once per second. IM: 3000Hz, 6dots per second continuously. Proper indication over the Beacon or other defined point. When checked while flying on localizer and glide path, coverage should be: OM: 600m200m (2000ft650ft) MM: 300m100m (1000ft325ft) IM: 150m50m (500ft160ft) On a normal approach, there should be a well-defined separation between the indications from the middle and inner markers. 0.1 s 0.1 s Uncertainly Inspection S
C,C

Annex 10, Volume 1,


3.1.7.4 3.1.7.5

P X

0.03 s

Coverage - Indications - Field strength

3.1.7.3 3.1.7.3.2

4.3.67 to 4.3.71

Signal level distance Field strength

40 m 20 m 10 m 3 dB

Table I-4-9.

Flight inspection requirements and tolerances For ILS marker beacon continued Doc 8071
Measurand Tolerance Measurement should use the Low sensitivity setting on Receiver. (Refer to Annex 10 for specific field strength requirements) An operationally usable indication should be obtained for reduction in power output of 50%, or a higher power at which the equipment will be monitored. See Note. Same checks and tolerances As main equipment. Uncertainly Inspection S
C,C

Annex 10, Parameter


Coverage Continued

Volume 1,

Monitor system

3.1.7.7

4.3.72, 4.3.73

X 1 dB

Standby Equipment

4.3.74

Note. Alternatively, this can be checked by analyzing the field strength recording. Legend: S = Site C,C = Commissioning, Categorization P = Periodic Nominal periodicity is 180 days N/A = Not applicable

Table I-4-10.

Minimum positioning subsystem accuracies Category II Constrait Point Accuracy T 0.007 o, 0.01 o (See Note) 0.003 0.19 km (0.1 NM) Category III Constrait point Accuracy D 0.006 o,0.008 o (See Note) 0.003 0.19 km (0.1 NM)

Measurements Angular - Localizer - Glide path Distance

Category I Constrait point Accuracy C 0.02 o, 0.04 o (See Note) 0.006 0.19 km (0.1 NM)

Note. Extreme figures are calculated for the limit values of the localizer sector (3 o and 6 o) taking into account the different runway lengths.