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Name: Lee, Anita S. Year/Section: 1A7 Subject: Biology Date Submitted: July 9, 2012
and fried foods. whereas those generated by physical agents such as heat or pressure can lead to a variety of health problems. markedly increasing the risk of heart disease. Source: http://en. Trans fatty acids both raise the 'bad' (LDL) cholesterol and lower the 'good' (HDL) cholesterol levels in blood.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19514.nlm. Source: http://www. trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. What are Trans fatty acids? Trans fatty acid is an unhealthy substance that is made through the chemical process of hydrogenation of oils.asp?articlekey=13668 Trans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). They may be particularly dangerous for the heart and may pose a risk for certain cancers. trans fats give many snack foods a desirable taste and texture. and snack foods. Source: http://www.com/article/519977-negative-effects-of-trans-fats/ . processed foods. The distinction is important because trans fatty acids generated naturally by enzyme action are generally beneficial. Source: http://www. crackers). Hydrogenation solidifies liquid oils and increases the shelf life and the flavor stability of oils and foods that contain them. In addition to prolonging the shelf life of foods. Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond.medterms. crackers. which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature.nih. fast foods. This allows for easier transportation and more uses. Trans fats do exist in nature but also occur during the processing of polyunsaturated fatty acids in food production.com/script/main/art. cookies.wikipedia. Many fast food restaurants use trans fats for frying because oils with trans fats can be used over and over in commercial fryers. Also known as trans fat. which are also known as partially hydrogenated oils. Trans fatty acids are found in vegetable shortening and in some margarine. but never saturated. commercial baked goods (donuts. are created in a process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid. cookies. The American Heart Association(AHA) notes that food companies like using trans fats because they're inexpensive and last a long time.livestrong.1. Trans fatty acids are also found in abundance in many deep-fried foods.org/wiki/Trans_fat Trans fatty acids are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenated fats are used in stick margarine.htms Trans fats.
They not only raise total levels." Another recent review in the journal Lipids concluded that one would need to eat 4 percent of your total calories as manufactured trans-fat to raise your bad cholesterol. Trans fats scrape the inside of the blood vessels. o One such natural trans-fat is called conjugated linoleic acid. causing inflammation. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. trans fats go a step further. which helps protect against heart disease. And inflammation is the environment in which cholesterol plaque can start to accumulate. Natural trans fats might even be good for you. but also deplete good cholesterol (HDL). cheese and beef – raise total cholesterol levels. Preliminary research suggests that its benefits may include actually reducing the risk of certain cancers and heart disease. such as milk. which is a process by which human body responds to injury. or CLA. Inflammation o Trans fats increase inflammation. What are the good and the bad effects of trans-fat to human health? Good Effects Natural trans fats can also be present. mostly in meat and dairy foods. It is also associated with hypertension. But it's not quite the same as the partially hydrogenated stuff. A key feature of endothelial dysfunction is the inability of blood vessels to dilate fully.go. and about 6 percent to lower your good cholesterol. yogurt and cheese. It's present mostly in meat and dairy foods. stated that natural CLA trans-fat "has no effect or may actually lower LDL cholesterol and has little effect on HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. published recently in the journal Lipid Technology.com/Health/Diet/story?id=3069206&page=2 Bad Effects Cholesterol "double whammy" o While it is true that saturated fats – found in butter. .2. It is thought that inflammation plays a key role in the formation of fatty blockages in heart blood vessels. A review of clinical research over the past 16 years. Source: http://abcnews. Endothelial dysfunction & Atherosclerosis o Several studies suggest that trans fats cause endothelial dysfunction.
Diets rich in trans-fat cause a redistribution of fat tissue into the abdomen and lead to a higher body weight even when the total calories are controlled. conferring a substantially increased risk at low levels of consumption (1 to 3 percent of total energy intake). Obesity trigger o Trans fat has a very powerful association with weight gain . For someone with a 2.more so than other types of fat. but in the presence of underlying insulin resistance may increase the probability of developing clinical disease. Infertility o New research suggests trans fats may also increase a woman’s risk of infertility. diabetes. In other words. trans fats appear to increase the risk of coronary heart disease more than any other macronutrient. coronary artery disease. chronic heart failure. o Scientists found that every increase of one percentage point in the portion of calories from trans fats translated to a two-pound weight gain over eight years. an amount that could be found in a single doughnut or portion of French fries.000 calorie diet. Obtaining just 2% of total energy from trans fats instead of healthier monounsaturated fats was associated with a doubled risk for this type of infertility. Heart disease: multiple cardio toxic effects o Numerous studies have found that trans fats raise the risk of heart disease. Breast milk. Fetal and Infant Development . On a per-calorie basis. According to the comprehensive Nurses’ Health Study – the largest investigation of women and chronic disease – trans fats double the risk of heart disease in women. Some researchers speculate that the effects of trans fatty acids are not sufficient to cause diabetes. this level of intake could be achieved by consuming just 4 grams of trans fats a day. a woman who was consuming 6% of calories from trans-fat would be 12 pounds heavier after eight years than a person eating no trans-fat. inconsistencies across studies and methodological problems make it premature to draw definitive conclusions at this time. Diabetes & insulin sensitivity o Although there is some support from observational and experimental studies for the hypothesis that high intake of trans fats may increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. and chronic renal failure. The researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health found that women with ovulation-related fertility problems tended to eat more trans fats than fertile women.
trans fats doubled the risk of heart disease. reports the UMMC. Trans fats compete with the essential fatty acids for the enzyme systems involved in these reactions Source: http://www. or good cholesterol.healthassist. trans fats promote inflammation and reduce the responsiveness of the cells lining blood vessels. notes MayoClinic. Eating a diet high in trans fats for a long time clogs the pipes that feed your heart and brain. Malabsorption of healthy oils o Essential fatty acids are converted in the body by a series of reactions to long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. and specifically the baby’s brain and nervous system. which may contribute to hardening of the arteries. The University of Maryland Medical Center compares the negative effects of trans fats to what bacon grease does to a kitchen sink.com/cs/cholesterol/a/Transfat. a type of fat in the blood. Long-Term Effects o Over time. Source: http://heartdisease.about. Trans fats decrease the overall fat content in mother's milk. and lower your high-density lipoprotein.htm . which is essential for tissue growth and development.net/blog/food/how-trans-fats-ruin-health/ Short-Term Effects o While scientists don't know exactly why. In the Nurses' Health Study. Additionally. the AHA reports. trans fats can lead to clogged arteries. the largest investigation of women and chronic disease to date. This can lead to a heart attack or stroke. Trans fats also increase levels of triglycerides. It's also thought that eating foods with trans fats makes them more difficult to digest. to grow and develop. trans fats in human milk displace essential fatty acids (such as omega-3) that help the baby. including arachidonic acid. trans fats increase unhealthy cholesterol levels more than other types of fat. Trans fats raise your low-density lipoprotein. In addition. or bad cholesterol.com. o Trans fats in the mother’s diet also contaminate their milk. Trans fats have also been implicated in promoting obesity and raising the risk of developing diabetes. thus compromising the nourishment to the infant.