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Classification of plants according to their complexity of their body: a) unicellular their body contains 1 eukaryotic cell that is responsible for all living functions b) multicellular their body is composed of groups of cells of the same type associate together to form tissues, the cells in a tissue act together to perform common function Histology is the study of the microscopic structure plant and animal tissue

Classification of plant tissues

According to their function & structure: 1. Ground tissue (is classified according to the thickness of the cell wall) a. parenchyma - its cells are usually loosely packed, cubed-shaped or elongated - cells contain a large central vacuole and have thin, flexible cell walls - fills internal parts of the plants organs alive, contain - may be adapted for storage, support, photosynthesis chloroplasts in the - e.g. onion bulb, mesenchyme of leaf cells b. collenchyma - their cell walls are irregular in shape and thickened at the corners to provide strength and flexibility - support the growing parts of plant - e.g. stem of the fruits of pumpkin or cucumber, stem of potato, stem of dead nettle c. sclerenchyma - sclerenchyma cells have thick, rigid cell wall - support the non-growing parts of the plants - e.g. pit of plum, apricot - there are two types of cells: i. fibres = cells up to 50 cm long that occur in strands, e.g. linen, flax ii. sclereids = thick wall lignified cells that cause gritty texture of a pear


Vascular tissue - carries water and nutrients throughout the plant and helps support the plant - are typical for higher plants in which they form vascular bundles - there are two kinds of vascular tissue: a. xylem - moves water and minerals upward from roots to leaves - is composed of two types of cells: i. tracheids are long, thick, narrow sclerenchyma cells with thin separations between them ii. vessel elements are short, wide sclerenchyma cells with no end walls; are wider than tracheids and more water move through them

they conduct water when they are dead and empty Angiosperms contain tracheids and vessel elements Gymnosperms contain only tracheids



phloem - moves sugar or sap in both directions throughout the plant originating in the leaves - contains: i. sieve tubes are stacked to form long sieve tubes with perforated end walls called sieve plates ii. companion cells are parenchyma cells that enable sieve tube tubes to function

they are vital cells

Types of vascular bundles: 1. concentrical vascular bundle 2. collateral vascular bundle 3. bicollateral vascular bundle 4. radial vascular bundle



Protective tissue = Dermal tissue - forms the outside covering of the roots, stems and leaves - its cell are arranged closely together , there are no intercellular spaces - has protective function above the ground = epidermis prevents the plant from drying out by reducing water loss from evaporation, also secretes waxy layer called cuticle below the ground = rhizodermis protects the root, forms root hairs that absorb water and nutrients - special structures are derived from epidermis for keeping some specific functions a. cuticle thin waxy layer over the epidermis which helps to reduce water loss b. stoma/ stomata openings in the epidermis that regulate the passage of gases and moisture into and out of the plant, contain chloroplasts c. hydathodes water excreting epidermal structures, thatare formed from the stomata which lost the irability to open and close d. trichome = hair - are epidermal outgrowths i. glandular pelargonium ii. stinging nettle iii. absorptive root hair Meristematic tissue - contains cells continuously divide are responsible for plant growth - forms meristems = growing regions of plants Classification of meristems according to their location:


Classification of meristems according to their ability to divide: primary meristems - derived from apical meristems - have ability to divide during whole life a. dermatogen = protoderm - gives rise to epidermis b. plerom gives rise to vascular cylinder = stele c. periblem gives rise to primary cortex secondary meristems - are derived from differentiated cells of mature tissue - restore their ability to divide a. vascular cambium produces vascular tissue secondary xylem and phloem b. corc canbium produces cork (bark) latent meristem = resting meristem - is activated during the special conditions, e.g. pericycle produces lateral roots



Classification of plant organs according to their function: 1. vegetative roots, stems and leaves they provide nutrition and growth 2. generative flowers, seeds and fruits they provide the production of gametes

root = RADIX roots are structures that usually grow underground

Functions : to anchor the plant in the soil to absorb water, minerals and oxygen from the soil to transport water and nutrients from the soil to the rest of the plant to store energy reserves for the plant gas exchange Root anatomy:

1 = root cap is a protective covering of the root tip produces a slimy substance that functions like lubricating oil which allows root to move easily through the soil as it grows 2 = root tip contains apical meristem 3 = rhizodermis protective tissue of the root forms root hairs 4 = cortex is composed of parenchyma cells with numerous air spaces storage place for starch or other metabolites 5 = vascular cylinder = stele is the core of the root contains: o pericycle = 7 o phloem = 8 radial vascular o xylem = 9 bundle o pith = 10 6 = root hair root hairs are tiny, hairlike structures increase the absorpting surface of a root system pith rays = vascular rays (strov le)

The growing part of a root is divided into three zones (they are not sharply delimited but intergrade into each other): 1. Meristematic zone - includes the apical meristem plus nearby portions in which cell division occurs - between the apical meristem and the root cap is a region of slowly growing cells known as the quiescent centre 2. Zone of elongation - is immediately behind the meristematic zone - elongation of cells in this zone causes increasing in root length 3. Zone of differentiation - here develop the differentiated tissues of the root

Secondary growth of the root

begins when the vascular cambium and cork cambium are formed between xylem and phloem the vascular cambium produces secondary xylem toward the middle part of the root and secondary phloem outward the root cork cambium produces cork


Root systems
1. Taproot system - contains 1 main root = taproot and numerous lateral roots - the main root can grow deep, reaching water far below the surface of the ground, it is often fleshy and adapted to store food - the lateral roots absorb water and nutrients from a large soil area - typical for dicots, e.g. beet, carrot, dandelion, oak

2. Fibrous root system - contains numerous extensively branched roots which are equal in size - the main root is usually short-lived it is hard to distinguish it - roots grow near the surface and can collect water in a wide area - don't grow as deep as taproots, but they spread laterally and hold the soil together they are good ground covers to prevent erosion - typical for monocots, e.g. grasses

3. Adventitious root system - roots that form on a stem or leaf (adventitious = arising from an unusual place) - e.g. corn, bulb of onion

Task 1 Assign the type of the root system in the following examples.

adventitious fibrous taproot

Shapes of roots

Filamentous root annual herbs Cylindrical root horseradish Conical root carrot, parsley Fusiform root dahlia Cylindrical-conical root Beetlike root - beet

Metamorphosis of roots
typical of plants which live in unusual places because they form highly specialized roots

Prop roots support a plant in the muddy ground, they exist partly in the air and partly in the waterlogged soil e.g. corn, mangrove plant Air roots - obtain water and mineral nutrients from the air e.g. typical of epiphytes such as orchids and bromeliads, philodendron Storage and tuberous roots - specialized for food storage e.g., carrot, beet, sweet potato Mycorrhizae is a beneficial association between roots of plants and fungi Root odules - itrogen-fixing bacteria - is a beneficial association between rhizobium bacteria and roots of plants of the bean family Haustoria - parasitic plant roots that invade the tissues of a host plant and transfer nutrients from host to parasite e.g. mistletoe

Characteristics: - stem = CAULOM - aboveground part of higher plants - produces leaves up to the sunlight Functions: mechanical function to form main axis of a plant, to increase the plant surface by forming its lateral branches to hold vegetative and generative organs of the plants to transport water and mineral substances from the roots and products of photosynthesis from leaves to other parts in some cases it has also storage function: cactus water, tuber - nutrients

Structure of the stem:

Stem contains: a) odes regions where leaves attach to a stem b) Internodes regions = segments between nodes c) Axillary bud = Lateral bud is at the point of attachment of each leaf, is capable of developing into a new shoot d) Apical bud = Terminal bud is at the tip of each stem, contains an apical meristem which is enclosed by specialized leaves called bud scales

Stem anatomy: 1. Epidermis protective tissue of the stem is composed of tightly packed cells can produce cuticle or may be impregnated by silicon dioxide, e.g. horsetail Primary cortex is composed of parenchyma cells can contain resin, essential oil ducts and laticifers Vascular cylinder contains: pericycle, vascular tissue = phloem (tovard the outside) and xylem (toward the inside), pith, pith rays



vascular tissue is continuous between roots and stems, but the arrangement of it is different in stems than in roots

Task 1 Compare the arrangement of the vascular bundles in monocots and dicots.

Stem branching:

1 = monopodial stem - lateral branches do not grow out the main stem 2 = sympodial stem - lateral branches grow out the main stem 3 = pleiochasial stem the main stem stops its growth and its apical tip is divided into 2equal tips

Secondary growth in stem (typical for woody stem)

It is done through: a) vascular cambium - produces secondary xylem = wood to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside of the stem springwood is produced during spring and contains cells that are wide and thin walled; is light =early wood summerwood is produced in summer and contains cells that are smaller with thicker walls; is dark = later wood

Annual rings = growth rings are produced as result of changing between small summerwood cells and the following year's large springwood cells

b) cork cambium produces : a. b. cork = phellogen waterproof, insulate and protect underlying tissue phelloderm (zelen kra)- carries metabolic functions

Rhytidome protective layer of mostly dead cells that covers the outside of woody stem, is produced by the activity of the cork cambium Lenticels pores in the stems of woody plants that allow gas exchange

Metamorphosis of the stems

Above ground:

elongate, above ground growing stem, with long internodes, rooting runner at the tip forming new plants; e.g. strawberry, raspberry stolon tendril - long, slender, coiling branch, adapted for climbing, e.g. vines, lianas, pumpkin tiller - a grass shoot produced from the base of the stem, e.g. couch-grass cladode a flattened main stem resembling a leaf, e.g. cacti, asparagus thorn - a sharp-pointed branch, e.g. hawthorn, blackthorn dwarf shoot a lateral branch that is much smaller than the main one which carries leaves, e.g. pine , juniper, apple tree flowers

Below ground: rhizome a horizontal underground stem, e.g. lily of the valley, iris tuber an underground storage organ, e.g. potato, kohlrabi bulb an underground stem surrounded by fleshy leaves, e.g. onion corm a stubby underground stems that store food, e.g. crocus, daffodil, sword lilly cormel a small corm produced at base of parent corm

Characteristics: - leaf = PHYLOM - grows from the node of the stem - leaf + stem = shoot Functions: Types of leaves: is the primary site of photosynthesis because it contains chloroplasts provides a flat surface for maximum exposure to sunlight is place of transpiration - the evaporative loss of water from leaf surface gas exchange mineral intake in the form water solution

1 = broad like leaf 2 = scale-like 3 = needle-like

Leaf morphology: 1 = stipule - flat, often leaf-like flap below a leaf, e.g. rose. Not all leaves have stipules. Stipules can be highly modified into tendrils, spines, scales 2 = petiole - the stalk of a leaf 3 = base 4 = midrib = primary vein venation 5 = secondary vein 6 = blade = lamina - the flat, expanded portion of the leaf a) monofacial leaf upper and lower part of the blade are the same, e.g. lily of the valley, iris, tulip b) bifacial leaf - upper and lower part of the blade are the different, e.g. maple, linden, dandelion 7 = apex leaf sheathing is typical for monocot plants

Types of leaf venation:

a. b. c.

parallel venation- with all the main veins parallel, e.g. grasses, plantain pinnate venation - with a main midrib and secondary veins arising from it at intervals, e.g. cherry tree, apple tree, linden palmate venation - with the main veins all arising from one point at the base of the leaf, e.g. maple

Forms of leaves according to their complexity:





compound Leaf attachment: Petiolate - the blade is attached to the stem by a petiole.

Sessile - the blade is attached directly to the stem without a petiole.

Leaf arrangement on the stem:

A = opposite leaves are arranged two per node B = alternate leaves are arranged one per node C = whorled leaves are arranged three or more per node

Task 1 Read the text.


The leaf is the primary photosynthetic organ of the plant. It consists of a flattened portion, called the blade that is attached to the plant by a structure called the petiole. Sometimes leaves are divided into two or more sections called leaflets. Leaves with a single undivided blade are called simple, those with two or more leaflets are called compound. The outer surface of the leaf has a thin waxy covering called the cuticle (A), this layer's primary function is to prevent water loss within the leaf. (Plants that leave entirely within water do not have a cuticle). Directly underneath the cuticle is a layer of cells called the epidermis (B). The vascular tissue, xylem and phloem are found within the veins of the leaf. Veins are actually extensions that run from to tips of the roots all the way up to the edges of the leaves. The outer layer of the vein is made of cells called bundle sheath cells (C), and they create a circle around the xylem and the phloem. One the picture, xylem is the upper layer of cells (D) and is shaded a little lighter than the lower layer of cells phloem (E). Recall that xylem transports water and phloem transports sugar (food). Within the leaf, there is a layer of cells called the mesophyll. The word mesophyll is Greek and means "middle" (meso) "leaf" (phyllon). Mesophyll can then be divided into two layers, the palisade layer (F) and the spongy layer (G). Palisade cells are more column-like, and lie just under the epidermis, the spongy cells are more loosely packed and lie between the palisade layer and the lower epidermis. The air spaces between the spongy cells allow for gas exchange. Mesophyll cells (both palisade and spongy) are packed with chloroplasts, and this is where photosynthesis actually occurs. Epidermis also lines the lower area of the leaf (as does the cuticle). The leaf also has tiny holes within the epidermis called stomata (H). Specialized cells, called guard cells (I) surround the stomata and are shaped like two cupped hands. Changes within water pressure cause the stoma (singular of stomata) to open or close. If the guard cells are full of water, they swell up and bend away from each other which opens the stoma. During dry times, the guard cells close. Task 2 Colour and name the structures desribed above. Make sure that the entire picture is coloured.

Task 3 Answer the questions. Questions: 1. What two tissues are found within a vein?

2. What does the word "mesophyll" mean?

3. What two layers of the plant contain chloroplasts? 4. The outermost layer of cells: _________________________ 5. The waxy covering of the leaf.: _______________________ 6. These cells function to open and close stomata. _____________________ 7. Outer layer of the vein: ________________________ 8. Column like cells that lie just under the epidermis. ___________________ 9. Openings that allow for gas exchange. _________________________ 10. The stalk that connects the leaf to the stem. ______________________


Anatomy of bifacial leaf: - mesophyll consists of palisade and spongy parenchyma - lower epidermis contains stomata - there are collateral vascular bundles Anatomy of monofacial leaf: - mezophyll is not differentiated - stomata are located on the both parts of epidermis Leaf categories: a) cotyledon embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, e.g. monocots = 1, dicots = 2, conifers = more than two b) assimilatory leaf photosynthesis, transpiration c) stipule d) bract - a modified leaf or leaf like part just below and protecting an inflorescence e) bracteole a small bract f) flower a modified leaf Leaf shapes:

Leaf margins:

Metamorphosis of the leaf

hairy leaf surface to lessen water loss waxy leaf surface to prevent water loss small, shiny leaves to deflect the suns rays thicker leaves to store water, e.g. rhubarb spines e.g. cactus, acacia, barberry leaves to trap insect , e.g. carnivorous plant bulb to store food , e.g. onion tendril e.g. bean, pea scales protect leaf bud