Ballybetagh, 1609, Ulster: = 4 Quarters @ 6 Ballyboes = 16 Tath @ 60 English A in Monaghan = 960A in Monaghan = c. 1882.

35 A in Fermagh [100/51] in Cavan, 60A unit called a Polle = Tath Sessarh [Seisrach] = 1/3 of Ballyboe {seems wrong} Gnieve = plowland {?} // Gneeve = 1/6 Quarter of Townland Cantron = 1/4 Quarter, Limerick meere = 1/4 quarter gneeve or gniomh = "parcel of land" = 1/12 plowland 3 plowlands/Quarter, Kerry Gneeve = 1/6 of a Quarter = 1/24 of Townland, Connaught Cantron = 1/4 of a Quarter = 30 "native" Acres // if land could serve eight cows, that was one "cow," = 1/8 gneeve // cork plowland = 12 gneeve @ 4 cuss both plowland and gneeve of variable area 40,20,260,120,9,20,6,20,16,11 Acres //_Ireland 1170-1509_ at 265 19th cent summary in Irish Ordnance Survey 10A = Gneeve; 2 Gneeve = Sessiagh; 3 Sessigahs = Tate or Ballyboe 2 ballyboe = plowland, seisreagh or carrow [maybe townland] so 12 gneeve/plowland 4 plowlands = ballybetagh, townland 30 ballybetagh = trioch Cead, Barony // in Connach, the 12c King Toirrdelbach or his sun Ruaidri created _baile_ as holding of distinct lineage or sept ... if too small, assessed as a _leathbhaile_ or half-baile .... if too big, a double baile or _dhabhaile_ assessments notionally a fixed number of customary acres, but <> area! origin of these townlands maybe the pop. growth before the 7c Plague // Evans argues the gneeve is 1/12 of a townland, not a plowland distinct from a cow's grass, subdivided into 8 cleets (half of a foot) // from seminal article on townlands, 1861: traditionally 185 Trichaceds = 5550 bailebiatach = 66,600 seisreach "thirty hundreds" "victuallers town" "plowlands" assuming 30 bailebiatach/trichaced & 12 seisreach/bailebiatach "seisreach" means six horses; compare 1840 AD 62,205 townlands@326.4 if nom 120 Irish A/seisreach then 7,992,000 IA < 50% of Ireland's area explained as woods, waste, mountains & bogs ignored these plowlands also estimated not measured tricha-ced or cantred <> barony, eg 325 baronies or 271 if undivided ancient bailebetach maybe parish sized, by 1840 2422 parishes/Ireland actual townlands vary in size: 7012A ... 1.25A largest in mountains, smallest tend to be in valley bottoms size does _not_ vary by general productivity of the land county averages 457A in Down, 172A in Monaghan Monaghan featured "tates" nominally 1/16th Bailebetach or 60A Cavan 16 poll/ballybet; poll = 2 gal = 4pottle = 8 quarts = 16 pints

even if cumal = 6 cows {author insecure about ratio} concludes a 11.5 statutory A/local "acre" // 2004 article on meaning of _Baile_ in Ireland generally means settlement or settled place.13c _baile_ not larger that one farm or "rath" even the Ordnance Survey avoids "townland. 97 in all of Ireland ." (_not_ seisreach. effectively the size and meaning of _baile_ varies by context reads old grants to be worth oc-arie or half a bo-aire's farm c.rootsweb. here "thirds" not "sixths. or 12 units author argues these are "packages" of convenience for tax evaluation later evolved into the later visible balleybetagh. seisrach clachans and openfields.{if 960A/ballybet. av rural townland population "perhaps 50" claims size based on fertility hilly townlands as much as 2000A.1842) focus on plowlands. plowland) 100A and its appurtenances are the ballyboe Limerick quarter = 4 meeres.. 20A Westmeath = plowland of 120A earlier note 2.EIF at 594: 12 milkcows/ozAu.. plowland biatach is commoner paying food rent. pint = 3. old poem has 5520 _bailedha_ in Ireland. successor to oc-aire & bo-aire reading one cow per biatach religious taxes --> _baile_ is free farmstead such farmstead might use laborers.ancestry. as tuath – a petty kingdom. gneeve.. previously summer common pasturage cow's grass the effective unit in many parts of the country nws the Ordnance Survey (1830. an area under a chieftain. so nom. then poll = 60A.75A} author argues these 1/16ths of balleybetach makes small townlands cf Down" ballyboe "cowland" or carewe estimated as 60A 12/ballybetach {720A} as 3/quarter {180A} Armagh ballyboe = "town" of 3 sessighs. _ferann_ in Gaelic taxation bailebetach usually divided into 16. inherit land from kin some could be larger than oc-aire farm showing studied sources if heir had more land than manageable. gniomh. gort usually worked infield with ards light plow certainly cannot break outfield // 2 New History of Ireland n3 at 407 Munster. each of 6 _seisreacha_ {unclear is _seisreacha_ means only "sixth" or "plowland"} [Battle of Magh Leana." prefers seisreach.. each house in cluster had a small garden. best arable at 24 cows/_cumal_@34EngA compare area of townland of Fennor at 1047A. the rent to daer_biataig these are those also receiving a "fief" of land or non-livestock later these little farms integrated into larger estates. O'Curry. 1855] argues 60 ounces of gold = 1020 [Eng]A after Kelly. sudivided into gneeve gneeve nominally 1/12 of a plowland Kerry quarter of 360A = 3 plowlands of 120A town or villa generally means 60 or 120A. plus their appurtenances // Evans. 10A Connacht = 1/6 quarter.. 25. = 1/12 plowland so nom. matched to that grant . townland ===== http://archiver.30 EngA. _Irish Folk Ways_ av townland 325 A.

000 fighting men.250 square yards Cunningham perch – six and a quarter yards . pre-Norman territories occupied by the native Irish barony / cantred –civil areas divided within county boundaries. soum – unit of grazing of mountain commonage equal to a collop horseman bed – in Kilkenny and Waterford equivalent to a cowland elsewhere equivalent to a capell townland – the smallest civil division of land. over 60. one thirtieth of a barony carrow / quarter / quarterland – four to a ballybetagh (abt.000 in all of Ireland great acre – 20 statute acres English / Statute acre – amount of land ploughed in a day by a yoke of oxen 4. varying 8-20 acres gnieve – an Irish unit of spatial measurement.840 square yards (0. two to a sessiagh capell land – in Kilkenny equal to a ploughland in Tipperary about 400 statute acres ploughland / carucate / villate – the amount of land worked by one plough in a year.840 square yards Scottish / Cunningham acre – 6. stint – not actually a land measurement but an allowance of grazing rights on commonage. 120 acres cartron – in Connacht 30 acres in Longford 60 acres collop / colpach – the amount of grazing land that would support a horse. two cows or equivalent.404 hectares) Irish acre – 7. 240 acres) ballboe / cowland – three to a quarterland (about 80 acres) tate / tathe – about three or four to a quarter (about 60-80 acres) sessiagh – an Irish unit of spatial measurement. 273 in all of Ireland ballybetagh . abt.tricha-cét – an area supporting 3. For instance one tenant may have a stint of two soum and another maybe four soum.a measure of land.

Dorsetshire = 5 modern acres 48 " = 240 modern acres = Dorsetshire & Lincolnshire hide where cacrrcate or plowgang = 120 modern acres Eyton finds domesday pertica = 16. aka [small] virga 4 virgae = linear acre [linear] quarentina = 660 feet = 40 perches league = 12 quarentina = 120 [linear] acres e. from Ine's laws of 7c hyd. or wards or corn ferling = quarter furlong = furrow long = length of a furrow of 10 modern acre field modern acre: 40 perches [= 1 furrow length] x 4 perches [acre breadth] hida or hide. 20. 30¼ square yards Rood – quarter of a statute acre.1 hide pasture sometimes Edw Confessor's hide relate to WmI's carucates 6 carucate. 18. arability and convenience 100 acres.yds = 43. 16. wood at Wichampton is 1 quarentine long x 8 acres breadth square or areal or extent pertica = 30. as poor tiller could not maintain a such a "suit" hydeland = area worked by one plow.30. this is a small area.560 sqft .5 modern feet. but probably variable Devonshire hide of 4 "virgates" each of 4 "ferlings" .60 acres usually 4 or 8 virgates/hide and 4 virgates/wista vineyard by arpent of twice forty perches. ferling. five and a half yards ===== domesday acre. 40 square perches Chain – 22 yards Irish perch – seven yards perch – a quarter of a chain. rest of England usually 8 bovates/hide note Lancs "acre" = 7840 sqyds. 170.g.32.5 carucate. about 10 or 15 modern acres distinct from town fourths. 120 (six score) Devon usually 480 acres [sometimes 2x or 4x in area] incl 24 acre meadow. Quarentine = 120 modern acres c. moderate number of people in familia argues: area of hyde varies by fertility.216 modern acres = sulung of Kent = 80 acres Norman sulung or solin = aratrum = mansa = viculus sulung is a plowland but <> carrucate Domesday virgate is highly variable 15. ASaxon "house" or "habitation" cf modern hut or hat ("covering") Bede's maintained }_familia_ implies family of some importance. 13.1 acre wood.Lancs 6 bovates = hide.Statute perch / square perch – 160 to a statute acre.25 sq yd 160 sq pertica = areal acre = modern acre 10 sq quarentine = 40 modern acres 1 areal League = 12 sq. Cheshire "acre" = 10240 sqyds when statute [modern] acre = 4840 sq. 18 carucates cf so.. 96. oldest historic areal unit.24.

cd mean an ASaxon hide of 288 A taxed as if 120 A . also measured wheat and ale by AngloSaxons 2 ombra [amber?] = mitta sextaria of uncertain amount. eg estimate 36 as if 30 etc so if valuation is AngloSaxon land. pays hearth-penny but not tribute e. 288+ parts/£ [Danes and Normans divided by 12s] reconcile this by ommitting acres.g. compare to Norman at 24 {unclear if he's hinting at grains troy but oversimplifying} if only "wara" taxed.coteri.Kentish jugum = half a plowland = oxen's worth. multiples of 12s & 240 parts/£ compare treaty with Alfred and Guthrum uses 5d shilling ie multiples of 5s. cottar are servile lead waggon-load = 1680# = 15x112# = 21x80#.2 miles coscet." all used for woodland area = 480 perches long = 12 quarentines [or furlong] @ 40 perches long = linear league = 1. usually of washed bronze ===== Dove argues original AngloSaxon shilling = 4 "pennies" cuz divide £ like the romans. the actual area is 120% given Dove concludes the ASaxon denarius was 20 units.8 London bushels mitta = 8 or 10 bushels. 80 = "small hundred" 5#/cutts 14 cutti/fontinel = 70# 24 fontinels = carreta = 1680# = plaustrata = 10 tabulae@168# summa = horseload of salt = 15 bullio = c. works Mondays for the lord & 3 days/week in August cf cotarii. free cotter. gets 5+ acres.. often a liquid measure mite = minuta = half farthing = old styca.5 miles. so 4 ox/plow cf Ellis argues 4 juga/solin and jugum<>jugera leuca = leuga = leuua = "league. though range 1. cotmanni.

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