CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGE

ANALYSIS OF BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS:

QUERY LARGE WEB PUBLIC RDF DATASETS ON AMAZON CLOUD USING HADOOP AND OPEN SOURCE PARSERS

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements For the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science

By Ted Garcia

May 2013

The thesis of Ted Garcia is approved:

___________________________________ Dr. Richard Lorentz ___________________________________ Dr. Diane Schwartz ___________________________________ Dr. George Wang, Chair

____________________ Date ____________________ Date ____________________ Date

California State University, Northridge

ii

Table of Contents Signature Page Dedication List of Figures List of Tables Abstract 1. Introduction 1.1. 1.2. 2. Survey of Big Data Semantic Web ii v vi vii viii 1 1 5 7 7 8 14 15 18 20 24 26 28 28 iii

Big Data Technologies 2.1. 2.2. Amazon Cloud Technologies Hadoop's Map/Reduce

3.

Semantic Web Technologies 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. Ontologies Rich Data Format (RDF) Parsers

4.

Related Works

5. Analysis and Design of QUERY Program 5.1. 5.2. Process Steps Common Crawl Corpus

Web Data Common Amazon Cloud Test Design 29 30 31 33 42 43 46 49 52 60 64 67 68 69 74 Results And Conclusion Future Work Reference Appendix A: Related Works Appendix B: Testing Result Data Appendix C: RDF Quads From Web Data Commons File Appendix D: Sample Output Appendix E: Parser and Amazon Configurations Appendix F: Computing Configurations Appendix G: Computing Cost Appendix H: Amazon Pricing (Amazon EC2. 5. 8.5. 6.3. 7.5.4. 5. 2013) Appendix I: Source Code iv .

Thanks for Hadoop. without whom we may never have experienced intelligent search. Finally.Dedication This work is dedicated to the caring computer science professors that entice our minds and help us explore extremely complex concepts in order to evolve this useful discipline. When everyone said it was impossible. my family has supported me through this challenging endeavor with compassion and patience in which I am very grateful. they continued to climb the mountain. And thanks to another set of courageous fellows that confronted the cataclysmic growth and rising complexity of data. I am also indebted to the pioneers of the semantic web. and most importantly. They threw away most existing technologies to wrestle the dragon and cobbled together some techniques from the past with incredible ingenuity. v .

Jena ...........1 Parser Performance.................4 HDFS Architecture (Apache Hadoop) .............4 RDF Graph Representing Eric Miller .....1 Amazon Computing Cost ................. 11 Figure 2...................................................................................... 68 vi ............. 8 Figure 2...................3 Parser Performance ............................List of Figures Figure 2...... 17 Figure 3............................................................... 37 Figure 6......................5 Parser CPU Cost by File Size ................................................................................................................................................................. 36 Figure 6....... 39 Figure G..................................1 Map/Reduce Directed Acyclic Graph ........................................1 The Semantic Web Stack ..............Any23 ............................................................... 38 Figure 6...........2 Main Entities and Relationships of the Innovation .......................... 27 Figure 6....................1 Query Program Architecture .............................................................................NXParser ......................3 Main Example Ontology (Innovation Ontology) ................................................................. 34 Figure 6......2 Parser Performance ...........................4 Parser Performance ............................................................................. 9 Figure 2.. 13 Figure 3......................3 Map/Reduce Chaining ... 10 Figure 2.............................. 35 Figure 6............ 19 Figure 5.............................................................................................5 Hadoop Job Management ........................................ 17 Figure 3..................................2 Map/Reduce Directed Acyclic Graph ...... 15 Figure 3.............6 Parser CPU Cost by CPU Count ....

....................................................................CPU Usage ................. 50 Table B.................. 49 Table B........................................List of Tables Table 5.Run Duration ............1 Component Descriptions ...........................2 Basic Process Steps.... 28 Table B....................................Memory Usage ................ 51 Table H..............................................................3 Test Data .......... 72 vii ...........................................................................................1 Amazon Pricing .................................................................................1 Test Data ............. 26 Table 5...................2 Test Data ......

AWS and Elastic MapReduce (EMR) have provided processing of large files with parallelization and a distributed file system. In particular. RDF technologies and methods have existed for some time and the tools are available commercially and open source. For example.Abstract ANALYSIS OF BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS: QUERY LARGE WEB RDF DATASETS ON AMAZON CLOUD USING HADOOP AND OPEN SOURCE PARSERS By Ted Garcia Master of Science in Computer Science Querying large datasets has become easier with Big Data technologies such as Hadoop's MapReduce. 2012) found on AWS which comprises over five billion web pages of the Internet. Web Data Commons (Web Data Commons. RDF Parsers and databases are being used successfully with moderately sized viii . 2012) has extracted and posted RDF Quads from the Common Crawl Corpus (Common Crawl. within the last couple of years. Technologies and methods are in their infancy when attempting to process and query these large web RDF datasets. Large public datasets are becoming more available and can be found on the Amazon Web Service (AWS) Cloud.

ix . 2012) are open source parsers that can process the RDF quads contained in the Web Data Commons files. In order to achieve the highest performance. especially in a distributed environment. is relatively new. parsing and querying will be done on the raw Web Data Commons files. Therefore. they will be analyzed with extract and parse functionality only. it is essential to work with large datasets without preprocessing or importing them into a database. this work explores several open source parsing tools and how they perform in Hadoop on the Amazon Cloud. This work includes challenges and lessons learned from using these parsing tools in the Hadoop and Amazon Cloud environments and suggests future research areas. Apache Any23 (Apache Any23. Since the parsers do not all have query support. and SemanticWeb. Apache Jena RIOT/ARQ (Apache Jena. However. 2012).com's NxParser (NX Parser. the use and analysis of RDF tools against large datasets. In order to assist the BigData developer.datasets. 2013).

storage. The ability to make timely 1 . data transformation and analysis.1. and diagrams.1. graphs. Storage is also an area of evolution since current solutions are not adequate to house and manage huge amounts of data. For example XML is often the source of or a destination of transformed data. 1. We've entered a data-driven era. Big Data and the Semantic Web. Visualization is its own subject domain and deals with how to show the results of Big Data analytics in reports.e. There are many transformation tools that can be used to move data from one format to another. this work will show how Big Data techniques and technologies can come together to solve some of the Semantic Web challenges. Survey of Big Data Big Data has three major components.there is no database. IEEE has big data visualization as number three on its top ten trends of 2013. i. It this paper. storage nor visualization. There are many databases and special filesystems being used for big data. i. Even though they both stand on their own as significant movements. Transformation tools are similar to those found in ETL (extract-transform-load) tools found in business intelligence solutions. Transformation can be done by the parsing tools in this paper but this paper's application does not require it.e. in which data are continuously acquired for a variety of purposes. and visualization. storage is being done by the Amazon cloud S3 service and it is only a temporary file-system . We will be taking care of data analysis and not doing any transformation. INTRODUCTION This work attempts to illuminate the currently evolving state of two fairly new topics.

better approaches are being sought to retrieve and analyze this data.decisions based on available data is crucial to business success. This 2013 theme issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications aims to highlight the latest advancements in solving the big data problems via visual means. Visualization has been shown to be an effective tool not only for presenting essential information in vast amounts of data but also for driving complex analyses. and variety in the last few years. (Top Trends for 2013. Additionally. the data is every growing in size and complexity. the data generated from large-scale simulations. Big Data is the next evolutionary step after Business Intelligence. astronomical observatories. cyber and national security. Government agencies and large corporations are launching research programs to address the challenges presented by big data. But in this case. clinical treatments. Computer magazine will also be publishing a special issue on big data in June 2013. Business Intelligence provides a 2 . Big Data is a continuation of computer science's attempt to extract answers from data. Almost all fields of study and practice sooner or later will confront this big data problem. and disaster management. high-throughput experiments. or high-resolution sensors will help lead to new discoveries if scientists have adequate tools to extract knowledge from them. However. 2013) Due to the explosion of data sizes. most data have become simply too large and often have too short a lifespan. complexity. Big data analytics and discovery present new research opportunities to the computer graphics and visualization community.

and complexity of virtual data. correlating sales data for a transactional system with web content such as Twitter conversations on the same product sales data. variety (range of data types and sources). Big Data also needs to process complex calculations to each row or row groupings for data mining and forecasting applications that currently cannot be done reasonably with conventional technologies. 2013). Querying and processing data sizes of hundreds of millions of records is what Big Data is aimed at. Definition: Big data usually includes data sets with sizes beyond the ability of commonly-used software tools to capture. as of 2012 ranging from a few dozen terabytes to many petabytes of data in a single data set. Big Data also attempts to attack problems relating to velocity (speed of data in and out). For example. Besides the increasing volume of data. Big data requires exceptional technologies to efficiently process large quantities of data within tolerable elapsed times (WikiPedia: Big Data. Big data sizes are a constantly moving target. link legal citations. semistructured. combat crime. Variety of data. Usage The trend to larger data sets is due to the additional information derivable from analysis of a single large set of related data. and process the data within a tolerable elapsed time. and unstructured is the focus of Big Data. allowing correlations to be found to "spot business trends. determine quality of research. But Business Intelligence falls short in tackling Big Data challenges. manage. such as structured. and 3 .sophisticated capability to analyze transactional data. as compared to separate smaller sets with the same total amount of data. prevent diseases.

The limitations also affect Internet search.determine real-time roadway traffic conditions. genomics. software logs. social networks. sensor networks. and other complex and often interdisciplinary scientific research. genomics. photography archives. and biological and environmental research. cameras. social data (due to the social data revolution). Fortune 500 companies have transactional data in this magnitude. Variety In recent years. Correlating different data types. Internet text and documents. if not all. military surveillance. logistics. biological. radio-frequency identification readers. astronomy. and many other purposes." Scientists regularly encounter limitations due to large data sets in many areas. medical records. complex physics simulations. video archives. The largest retailer in the world can benefit from Big Data for marketing.1 Volume Due to data explosion. atmospheric science. Internet search indexing. even though desirable. Data sets grow in size in part because they are increasingly being gathered by ubiquitous information-sensing mobile devices. and large-scale e-commerce. RFID. 4 . aerial sensory technologies (remote sensing). connectomics. Most. focus is on handling data types separately. processing 100's of millions of records is becoming commonplace. call detail records. microphones. biogeochemical. Examples include web logs. finance and business informatics. Even unstructured data has been dealt with individually. Walmart is certainly a poster child for Big Data regarding volume. and wireless sensor networks. including meteorology.

The 5 . In many ways. Grouping and using simple statistics has been done for some years with fast results. However. They state on their 2013 conference web page: Linked Data and Semantic Technologies are new disruptive technologies gaining traction in mainstream business providing access to rich analytics opportunity. The semantic web allows the contextualization of content created in web pages to be searched more effectively than just keywords. the need to correlate transactional sales data and web content has been desirable but too much of a challenge for current technologies. Because of this.2. research. Complexity Applying complex algorithms to even millions of records can take a very long time with current technologies. and academia. more difficult statistical methods such as standard deviation or other complex algorithms like recursion and pattern matching.has been challenging at best. 1. For example. For example. The semantic web has grown in popularity and has the attention of all domains of interest including industry. this is considered the new way to search the Internet and is requiring web content developers to add semantic web content to every page. the ISWC or International Semantic Web Conference is held every year and attracts many industry leaders to attend. cannot execute with acceptable performance. companies are crawling the Internet for these gems and providing insightful analytics for content on the Internet. Semantic Web The semantic web was envisioned many decades ago but has only been realized more recently as part of the Internet.

Industry track at ISWC 2013 will provide a platform for key players in the field to share their insights and experience of using these technologies in the wild. etc. the following:  Applications of Semantic Technologies in various industrial domains (automotive. healthcare and life sciences. energy industry. Topics of interest include.)    Applications of Semantic Technologies in community and governmental services Industrial trends related to the usage of Linked Data and Semantic Technologies Financial and strategic investments in Linked Data and Semantic Technologies 6 . financial. but are not limited to.

BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES Big Data is difficult to work with using relational databases. time series analysis and visualization. hundreds. pattern recognition. classification. this work will explore a handful of the more popular ones. the Internet. Amazon Cloud Technologies Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud platform. 2013). It already has Hadoop's MapReduce Framework available for use. Additional technologies being applied to big data include massively parallel-processing (MPP) databases. cluster analysis.2.1. neural networks. genetic algorithms. crowd sourcing. and visualization software. datamining grids. simulation. and three open-source parsers. We store the large RDF files in Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) (Amazon S3. statistical software. supervised and unsupervised learning. Massively parallel software running on tens. one of the most popular cloud platforms. ensemble learning. cloud computing platforms. sentiment analysis. association rule learning. natural language processing. In particular the Amazon Cloud. Even though there are many suitable technologies to solve Big Data issues as indicated in the list above given by the McKinsey report. or even thousands of servers is more suitable for Big Data. regression. A 2011 McKinsey report suggests suitable technologies include A/B testing. distributed file systems. 2. search-based applications. data fusion and integration. machine learning. Hadoop's MapReduce. distributed databases. predictive modeling. 2013) and use 7 . and scalable storage systems (WikiPedia: Big Data. signal processing.

1 Map/Reduce Directed Acyclic Graph 2. Multithreading requires semaphores. which require tedious testing to ensure there is no race or dead lock conditions.2. Hadoop eliminates the shared state completely and reduces the issues mentioned above. 8 . etc.the Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) (Amazon EMR. Multithreading requires adept knowledge and skill for the programmer in that coordinating each thread and critical sections can cause many problems. Figure 2. 2013) to run the parsers. Hadoop's Map/Reduce The Hadoop Map/Reduce architecture provides a parallel processing framework that might be a better solution than multithreading. locks. 2013) framework running on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) (Amazon EC2.

where a “reduce” function is used to merge the values (of the same key) into a single result. 9 . Each of these elements will then be sorted by their key and reach to the same node.This is the fundamental concept of functional programming. functions in the directed acyclic graph can run anywhere in parallel as long as one is not an ancestor of the other.3. The code snippet below shows a typical map and reduce function. Several may be chained together to implement a parallel algorithm for different use cases as shown in Figure 2. In this case functions are connected to each other in the shape of a directed acyclic graph. Figure 2. Data is explicitly passed between functions as parameters or return values which can only be changed by the active function at that moment.2 Map/Reduce Directed Acyclic Graph Map/reduce is a specialized directed acyclic graph which can be used for many purposes. It is organized as a “map” function which transforms a piece of data into some number of key/value pairs. Since there is no hidden dependency (via shared state).

3 Map/Reduce Chaining HDFS The distributed file system is another innovation essential to the performance of the Hadoop framework.. emit(k1. emit(k2. HDFS can handle large files in the gigabytes and beyond with sequential read/write operation.has_next) { aggregate = merge(values.. These large files are broken into chunks and stored across multiple data nodes as local files. } reduce (key. values) { aggregate = initialize() while (values. DataNode reports all its chunks to the NameNode at bootup.. v1) ... aggregate) } Figure 2. v2) . 10 .map(input_record) { . There is a master “NameNode” to keep track of overall file directory structure and the placement of chunks. This NameNode is the central control point and may redistributed replicas as needed.next) } collect(key..

but this change is stored in a buffer of each DataNode. the primary will response to the client about the success. client API will first contact the NameNode who will designate one of the replica as the primary (by granting it a lease).To read a file. which determines an order to update and then push this order to all other secondaries. the client API will calculate the chunk index based on the offset of the file pointer and make a request to the NameNode. The NameNode will reply which DataNodes has a copy of that chunk. Figure 2. To write a file. the client send a “commit” request to the primary. the client contacts the DataNode directly without going through the NameNode. The response of the NameNode contains who is the primary and who are the secondary replicas. From this points. After all secondaries complete the commit. Then the client push its changes to all DataNodes in any order.4 HDFS Architecture (Apache Hadoop) 11 . After changes are buffered at all DataNodes.

then the TaskTracker will notify the JobTracker. as well as the input and output path of data. It sorts the key/value pairs and for each key. The key/value pairs are sorted into one of the local files created by reducer nodes. A periodic wakeup process will sort the memory buffer into different reducer nodes by invoking the “combine” function. it invokes the user provided “map” function. ~16-64MB) from the input path. For each record parsed by the “InputFormat”. When all the TaskTrackers are done. There is one key/aggregatedValue per reducer node.Job Management The job execution starts when the client program. then the JobTracker sends the task requests to those selected TaskTrackers. the JobTracker will notify the selected TaskTrackers for the reduce phase. which collects the key/aggregatedValue into the output file. Each TaskTracker will read the region files remotely. All splits are complete when the map task completes. and select some TaskTracker based on their network proximity to the data sources. submits a job configuration to the JobTracker as well as the Java jar file that specifies the map and reduce functions. which emits a number of key/value pair in the memory buffer. in this case the Amazon EMR GUI. It must be noted here that the job configuration has many properties that can be configured. it invokes the “reduce” function. Each TaskTracker will start the map phase processing by extracting the input data from the splits. The JobTracker will first determine the number of splits (each split is configurable. 12 .

That way all map and reduce tasks will be completed. The JobTracker keeps track of the progress of each phase and periodically checks the TaskTracker for their health status.5 Hadoop Job Management Note: Elements of this section excerpted from (Ho. the JobTracker will reassign the map task to a different TaskTracker node. After both phases complete. When any of the map phase TaskTracker crashes. the JobTracker will unblock the client program. Figure 2. If the reduce phase TaskTracker crashes. the JobTracker will rerun the reduce at a different TaskTracker. There may be several outputs correlating with how many reducers were created. which will rerun all the assigned splits. 2008) 13 .The Hadoop Map/Reduce framework is resilient and attempts to prevent crashes of any components.

" (Semantic Web) 14 . the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web dominated by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a "web of data". The Semantic Web is a collaborative movement led by the international standards body. and community boundaries. enterprise. which oversees the development of proposed Semantic Web standards.0". SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES The semantic web has become more realized in recent years.3. The Semantic Web stack builds on the W3C's Resource Description Framework (RDF). "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application." The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee. Microsoft BING uses semantic search to help users find information from ontological association. The standard promotes common data formats on the World Wide Web. By encouraging the inclusion of semantic content in web pages. the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The evolution from keyword-based search on the Internet to semantic-based search is becoming more apparent. The semantic web is sometimes referred to as "Web 3. According to the W3C. the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium . He defines the Semantic Web as "a web of data that can be processed directly and indirectly by machines.

It can be used to model a domain and support reasoning about entities. Ontologies are the structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence. In theory.1 The Semantic Web Stack 3. and the relationships between pairs of concepts. an ontology is a "formal. as well as their properties and relations. Ontologies In computer science and information science. systems engineering. an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain. explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation". software engineering. 15 . An ontology renders shared vocabulary and taxonomy which models a domain with the definition of objects/concepts. the Semantic Web.Figure 3.1.

Canadian. etc. library science. a formal upper ontology designed to support scientific research 16 .biomedical informatics. UK and U. enterprise bookmarking. a formal ontology for enterprise architecture being developed by the Australian. and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. lexicalized in many languages  Basic Formal Ontology. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework (Ontology (Information Science)). Examples of current published ontologies include:  IDEAS Group.S. a very large multilingual semantic network and ontology. a simple ontology for documents and publishing BabelNet. Defence Depts    Plant Ontology for plant structures and growth/development stages. Dublin Core.

3 Main Example Ontology (Innovation Ontology) 17 .2 Main Entities and Relationships of the Innovation Figure 3.Figure 3.

RDF has features that facilitate data merging even if the underlying schemas differ. represented by the graph nodes. Rich Data Format (RDF) RDF is a standard model for data interchange on the Web. it allows structured and semi-structured data to be mixed. Using this simple model. labeled graph. RDF extends the linking structure of the Web to use URIs to name the relationship between things as well as the two ends of the link (this is usually referred to as a “triple”). 18 . This linking structure forms a directed. and it specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without requiring all the data consumers to be changed. This graph view is the easiest possible mental model for RDF and is often used in easy-to-understand visual explanations. where the edges represent the named link between two resources. exposed.2.3. and shared across different applications.

4 RDF Graph Representing Eric Miller <?xml version="1.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:contact="http://www.w3.w3.0"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.</contact:personalTitle> </contact:Person> </rdf:RDF> 19 .w3.org/People/EM/contact#me"> <contact:fullName>Eric Miller</contact:fullName> <contact:mailbox rdf:resource="mailto:em@w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#"> <contact:Person rdf:about="http://www.org"/> <contact:personalTitle>Dr.Below is an RDF graph and the RDF represented in XML describing Eric Miller (RDF): Figure 3.

this work is using this module. processing and writing RDF data in XML. Jena graduated from the Apache incubator process and was approved as a top-level Apache project (Apache Jena. Jena provides a collection of tools and Java libraries to help you to develop semantic web and linked-data apps. a rule-based inference engine for reasoning with RDF and OWL data sources. a query engine compliant with the latest SPARQL specification servers to allow RDF data to be published to other applications using a variety of protocols. 2013). 2012) and can only be parsed directly with a small handful of parsers. The Jena Framework includes:  an API for reading. the more popular format is supported by almost all RDF parsers and tools. including SPARQL In April 2012. stores to allow large numbers of RDF triples to be efficiently stored on disk. tools and servers. Apache Jena ARQ RIOT Apache Jena is a Java framework for building Semantic Web applications. "RDF has an XML syntax and many who are familiar with XML will think of RDF in terms of that syntax. Parsers The Web Data Commons files are stored in RDF NQuads (RDF NQuads. N-triples and Turtle formats . This is mistake.      an ontology API for handling OWL and RDFS ontologies.3.3. Triples. RDF should be understood in terms of its 20 .

   RDF/XML. but understanding the syntax is secondary to understanding the data model. 21 .org) CSV: Comma Separated Values with separator auto-detection. XFN and Species   HTML5 Microdata: (such as Schema. hListing. License.1 prefix mechanism Microformats: Adr. Geo. Turtle. hReview. 2013).com and sig. hCalendar. hCard. 2013) Anything To Triples (any23) is a library. Apache Any23is used in major Web of Data applications such as sindice.org. a web service and a command line tool that extracts structured data in RDF format from a variety of Web documents.data model." (Apache Jena Tutorial.  As online service API available at any23. at this time.ma. However. it is not listed in the formal list of Apache Projects (Any23 Incubator. It is written in Java and licensed under the Apache License. Any23 which is based on Sesame Parser. Apache Any23 can be used in various ways:   As a library in Java applications that consume structured data from the Web. Notation 3 RDFa with RDFa1. hResume. As a command-line tool for extracting and converting between the supported formats. appears to have ended its incubator status in August of 2012. RDF data can be represented in XML.

the NxParser will not parse certain valid N-Triples files where (i) terms are delimited with tabs and not spaces. It ate 2 million quads (~4GB. If you just want to parse Nx into memory. It comes in two versions: lite and not-so-lite. a extension for the N-Triples RDF format. YARS is Yet another RDF store. Ireland. The NxParser is non-validating. which some may find useful. most of which is not needed for this work.NxParser is a Java open source. For more details see the specification for the NQuads format. Overall. Quads. or any other number. non-validating parser for the Nx format. DERI Galway. YARS is a data store for RDF in Java and allows for querying RDF based on a declarative query language. which offers a 22 . the Digitial Enterprise Research Institute is an institute of the National University of Ireland. The focus of the research in DERI Galway is onSemantic Web (NxParser Deri. The latter is provided "as-is" and comes with many features. use the lite version. (ii) the final full-stop is not preceded by a space (NX Parser. 2. it's more than twice as fast as the previous version when it comes to reading Nx. There is some code for batch sorting large-files and various other utilities. 2012). Note that the parser handles any combination or number of N-Triples syntax terms on each line (the number of terms per line can also vary). meaning that it will happily eat non-conformant N-Triples. The NxParser comes from YARS created by DERI Galway. (~240MB compressed)) on a T60p (Win7. This work used the lite version. Galway located in Galway. streaming.16 GHz) in approximately 1 minute and 35 seconds. Also. 2012). where x = Triples.

23 .somewhat higher abstraction layer than the APIs of RDF toolkits such as Jena or Redland. 2012). YARS uses Notation3 as a way of encoding facts and queries (Nxparser Yars.

4. RELATED WORKS This work is considerably unique. Many days of research were spent looking for exactly the same kind of work. The IEEE was searched as well as the Internet but nothing was found that deals with these three parsers in Amazon Hadoop. Furthermore, there is not many benchmarks yet done for BigData technologies. Let this work be one of the first. Even though this work seems to be unique, the following three theses have similarities to this paper. See Appendix A for a complete abstract for each of the other related works. The Data Intensive Query Processing for Large RDF Graphs Using Cloud Computing (Mohammad Farhan Husain, 2010) paper is working with RDF, Hadoop in the Cloud like this paper but it is using a database and triples instead of no database and NQuads. This paper is also not concerned with the Web Data Commons content containing most of the Internets pages of RDF. This paper describes an algorithm that determines the performance cost of executing a SPARQL query on the RDF. The RDF query language SPARQL is used to query an RDF repository. In Mohammad's paper, RDF needs to be converted and it is handed over to the Hadoop cluster to process. In some ways Mohammad's paper is a performance analysis of an algorithm that uses Hadoop. On the other hand, this paper compares the performance of three parsers being testing on the Amazon application services. The RDF on Cloud Number Nine (Raffael Stein, 2009) paper covers using SimpleDB on the Amazon Cloud. The team created an RDF store which acts as a back end for the Jena Semantic Web framework and stores its data within the SimpleDB. They stored RDF triples and queried them while checking performnace against the Berlin SPARQL Benchmark to evaluate their solution and compare it to other state of the art 24

triple stores. This paper is a great example of using Jena and the Amazon Cloud to query RDF. However, this paper, like the one above, use databases to store and process RDF. There is still challenges using databases when data sizes are in gigabytes, terabytes, and beyond. The RDF Data Management in the Amazon Cloud (Bugiotti, 2012) paper also uses SimpleDB in the Amazon Cloud. This team attempts using various indexing techniques to try to guess the query path in order to optimize performance. Finally, the Web Data Commons – Extracting Structured Data from Two Large Web Corpora (Hannes Mühleisen, 2012) paper reports about the content of the entire Internet represented by RDF Quads and shows the popularity of various format types found within the pages.

25

5. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF QUERY PROGRAM This section will cover the design of the program that will compare performance of three open source parsers by querying large RDF data sets. Included will be an overview of the process and methods of performing such work on the Amazon Cloud using Java technology. This section will describe the components of the system used to compare the parsers. Component RDF Files Amazon EC2 Amazon S3 Amazon EMR Parsers Description Web Data Commons' RDF NQuad files Highly scalable, parallel computing infrastructure Scalable and distributed storage running on EC2 Implementation of Hadoop's MapReduce services running on EC2 Jena, NXParser, and Any23 open source parser programs used to manipulate the RDF NQuad files Java Language used to write the query program with Hadoop libraries that compares parser performance

Table 5.1 Component Descriptions

26

Amazon EC2 Computing
Java Application Jar Job Data Input – RDF Quads Amazon Hadoop EMR

HDFS RDFParseParallelMain.java Hadoop Library Jars All Parser Jars (Jena, NX, Any23)

Job Data Output Summarization

Amazon S3 Storage

Figure 5.1 Query Program Architecture

This work will query the Web Data Common RDF extraction from the Common Crawl Corpus which comprises over five billion web pages on the Internet. The query will be performed by three open source parsers running separately on Hadoop in the Amazon Cloud. They are run separately to compare their performance extracting and parsing the RDF NQuad files. This will allow us to perform analytics on the entire Internet by scanning the RDF files and performing query functions on the NQuads. The high level process is described below:

27

5.1. Process Steps Design Steps Raw web pages containing RDFa Component Common Crawl Corpus

Compressed RDF NQuads converted from RDFa Web Data Commons (WDC) Decompress WDC files and store them on Amazon S3 Run Amazon Elastic Map Reduce (Hadoop) and This Work: RDFParseParallelMain.java parsers on decompressed files Combine Hadoop's distributed analytics ouput files into one report file (see Appendix B) (see Appendix F) This Work: File Utilities This Work: File Utilities

Table 5.2 Basic Process Steps

The general way to use Hadoop: 1. Determine the number of jobs needed to answer a query 2. Minimize the size of intermediate files so that data copying and network data transfer is reduced 3. Determine number of reducers Note: Usually we run one or more MapReduce jobs to answer one query. We use the map phase to select data and the reduce phase to group it. 5.2. Common Crawl Corpus Common Crawl is an attempt to create an open and accessible crawl of the web. Common Crawl is a Web Scale crawl, and as such, each version of our crawl contains 28

This work will use the August 2012 RDF files which is about 100 gigabytes. the largest and most up-to-data web corpus that is currently available to the public. Microdata and RDFa data from the Common Crawl web corpus. 2012) 5. Web Data Commons calculates and publishes statistics about the deployment of the different formats as well as the vocabularies that are used together with each format. Microdata and Microformats data from the August 2012 and the 2009/2010 Common Crawl corpus.g. events. In addition to this. organization. Web Data Common More and more websites embed structured data describing for instance products. 2012) 29 . Webpages are included into the Common Crawl corpora based on their PageRank score. people. location. product.). performing data processing operations on a dataset this large requires parallel processing techniques. and cooking recipes into their HTML pages using markup formats such as RDFa. thereby making the crawls snapshots of the current popular part of the Web. (Common Crawl. Microdata and Microformats. resumes. In addition. Web Data Commons plans to rerun their extraction on a regular basis as new Common Crawl corpora are becoming available. For the future.3. and a potentially large computer cluster. making transfer of the crawl to interested third parties costly and impractical.billions of documents from the various sites that we are successfully able to crawl. organizations. places. The Web Data Commons project extracts all Microformat. Web Data Commons has extracted all RDFa. This dataset can be tens of terabytes in size. etc. and provide the extracted data for download in the form of RDF-quads and also in the form of CSV-tables for common entity types (e. (Web Data Commons.

or context or count occurrences of a query string in a specified node type.4. After "jarring" up the RDFParseParallelMain program with the parsers jar files. this jar file is saved to the S3 as well. value = count. The parser comparison testing was done using the former capability of counting occurrences of the node type. object. The EMR provides fine-grain metrics of many aspects of the running job. The Hadoop implemented by Amazon Elastic Map Reduce (EMR) framework will be used to analyze the large set of RDF data. value = count. Since WDC has done some of the difficult work for us. The map for the testing is key = node type. i.e. predicate. The map and reduce functions are fairly simple. Amazon Cloud This work will use several services with the Amazon Cloud. We have provided extensive argument passing so we could run the tests in various modes using each of the parsers separately. The EMR will run the RDFParseParallelMain program on as many processors as we indicate and write output files to the S3. From these metrics. These files are stored in the Amazon S3. we start with fairly structured and validated RDF NQuad files. subject. 30 . RDFParseParallelMain The capability of the program RDFParseParallelMain is to either count entries for each node type in the NQuad.5. The reduce function simply adds the reoccurring words and outputs the total to the report file. The map for the query is key = query string. To run RDFParseParallelMain we go into the EMR control panel and start a new job. We also put the input files on S3 and setup an output directory for the report files. we produce the test results charts.

In other words. This ensures there is sufficient control to yield more accurate performance results. These quantities are not entirely random. 16. The final Java jar file was a jar of jars along with the main Java program. several for each. The last file size of 24 was used to reduce the cost of processing uploading the files as well as processing. The file sizes were established based on a nice progression. NXParser. 24. and 90 cpu's. The RDF NQuad files sizes are 1. Earlier testing. Jena. and Any23 application jar files. More specifically. The CPU count was established with similar justifications but furthermore. The RDFParseParallelMain program was written such that no processing would be done within it. 5. Unfortunately.The complexity in this program is in the parsers. Each parser must break down the NQuad into separate nodes. not documented in this work.5. Amazon has a significant cost increase over 100 CPU's. Test Design The testing of each parser is done separately. 64. Instead. The RDFParseParallelMain only provided transport between the input and the Hadoop "reduce" method. the Any23 and Jena parsers used callbacks to process whereas the NXParser parser used a tight loop. 4. all processing was handed over to the parsers. the Hadoop. This parent jar file is what is used by the Amazon EMR to run the tests. the program passes the node to the reduce function where it eventually gets counted. gave a basis to establish amounts for this testing. cost became an issue in determining how much 31 . and 24 gigabytes and the CPU count is 10. Once that is done. were all "jarred" together with the RDFParseParallelMain Java program.

Irrespective of the cost issue. the results and testing methodology will be useful to other Big Data and Semantic Web practitioners. the paper will cover the test results and what we can conclude from them. Hopefully. In the next section. the results of the testing are very sound as shown in the graphs. 32 .of the Amazon would be reasonable for a college graduate project.

33 . Therefore. The performance comparison will include looking at the performance curve to see where each parser did their best. In the same way. it is important to understand a few points. However. we can look at the CPU cost curve and see where the best cost occurs. We have suggested in the future work section of this paper to run more tests for statistical validity. the performance comparison and CPU cost of the parsers. if we rerun the tests again will we get significantly different results. Before looking at the results.e. The main question is. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION We will analyze two aspects of the results.7 GB moderately sized file with 64 CPU's. due to the stability and consistency of the Amazon Cloud infrastructure. i. outcomes of the testing are taken with full face value. parser X did its best when processing the 4. For example. there is value in the final results of the testing.6. Statistical integrity was not achieved in this testing due to the cost to run the jobs. It is highly unlikely that running these simple parsing programs several times will show significant differences.

For the important test where the largest size of file meets low CPU count and therefore CPU utilization. In other words. Any23 and NXParser out-performed each other in different permutations of file size and CPU count. If we look at each file size and then the CPU count we can see that there is a different winner in different permutations. However. the testing produced unexpected results. Jena is the slowest overall.7 GB file the NXParser parser was the fastest in the extreme cases of 10 CPU's and 90 CPU's. For the most part. It was the slowest in the middle CPU counts. the charts show unusual behavior of many of the tests but there is reasonable justification. NXParser is the clear winner. the results seem to have some consistency within the overall testing.1 Parser Performance This chart shows parser performance based on file size. Then the NXParser parser was the fastest in the 24 and 90 runs of 34 . In general. For the 0.Figure 6.

35 . it was much slower in the 4.Any23 The Any23 parser was in the middle of almost all permutations except it was faster in the 4. In the following.7 GB.7 GB. 64 and 90 CPU runs. Strangely. For the final 15.the 4. 10 CPU and 15. the NXParser parser was the fastest at 10 and 24 CPU's.7 GB file and slowest on 64 and the middle on 10. As mentioned before. For the smallest file is slow at first.9 GB file. we explore each of the parsers and their individualized performance curves. Any23 Figure 6.2 Parser Performance . gains momentum and then quickly slows down again. Apparently the overhead of CPU's slows it down. We have taken the parser performance chart above and created separate charts for each parser to ensure the individualization is apparent. each parser does better or worse at a particular file size to CPU count permutation.9 GB. 90 CPU run.

The optimal time on the medium size file is 24 CPU's and does not take advantage of more CPU's. it improves over the initial progression of CPU count but falters slightly at the 90 CPU count. For the large file.3 Parser Performance . it optimizes performance at the 24 CPU count. It appears the NXParser parser won more times than Any23. The NXParser also has the best CPU usage index as noted in the next section. The large file performance improves as expected with more CPU's until the use of 90 CPU's where there is a minor dip.NXParser The NXParser Any23 parsers had very similar performance characteristics which makes it difficult to see who the ultimate winner would be. NXParser Figure 6. 36 . The NXParser shows normal time increases for the small file but speeds up when using 90 CPU's.For the medium file size.

performance increased as the number of CPU's increased until the 90 CPU count. was the slowest of all and used the most CPU time. 64 CPU run. This section compares the three parsers with CPU usage and therefore cost on each of the runs. CPU Cost It is not always enough to see how fast a program runs but also the cost of running it.Jena Figure 6. for the most part. 37 . Finally. Oddly.4 Parser Performance . For the small file it progressed negatively as the CPU count increased. it was the best performer in the 0. especially in the 15. Jena took full advantage of throwing CPU's at it.Jena The Jena parser.7 GB. Especially when running on cloud environments where there is a fee for everything and costs can grow quickly. On the medium file size.9 GB file runs.

It shows the total time spent running the job by adding together the CPU utilization for each of the CPU's.5 Parser CPU Cost by File Size This chart shows CPU utilization per parser based on file size. 38 .Figure 6.9 GB file. The dip correlates to the performance graph of each of the processors. The Parser CPU Cost by File Size chart correlates with the Parser Performance chart. There seems to be a dip at the 90 CPU test for all the parsers. The chart shows that the parsers CPU usage is normally distributed for the smaller file sizes but not for the 15. This may indicate there is a diminishing return as the CPU's increase for each file size.

39 . Therefore the NXParser would be the least expensive to run in most cases.6 Parser CPU Cost by CPU Count This chart shows CPU utilization per parser based on different number of processors. The chart is similar to the CPU utilization by file size as it show the same dip in the 90 CPU column. The NXParser seems to be the least greedy when utilizing compute resources. This last chart shows CPU utilization from a slightly different perspective. This chart may help to strengthen the other perspective. Reviewing bother charts it is very clear that Jena utilizes the most CPU than either of the other two.Figure 6.

then the NX Parser or Any23 are recommended. if the application with extremely large datasets is not subject to quality requirements or data validation has already been performed on the dataset. Computing speed. Any23 and the NX Parser are doing simple format validations before writing to the destination output.e. the Jena parser has a larger codebase and is performing validations while parsing. That is up to more testing of the RDFParseParallelMain program which could be done in some future 40 . Jena may not be feasible. On the other hand. However. For some extremely large datasets. i. At the large 15. it is not clear where the best or optimal cost to performance curve might be.7 GB.Conclusion It is clear that the NX Parser is the most efficient and may be the best for applications needing no validation. It is also clear that there is acceptable speedup when using the Amazon EMR with the smaller file sizes. If the application has extremely large datasets and quality is critical. Usually we want processing to be instantaneous regardless of the dataset size but this is not realistic. then we will have to give up speed and use the Jena processor. dataset size and quality of output are the critical parameters to be considered when determining an application's needs. the performance seemed to level off and the results were similar or worse than the smaller files.9 GB file size. A pre-validation step using a specialized format checker may be required for some applications that require both quality and performance when using the NX Parser or Any23. 0. In order to understand why Jena is the slowest.7 and 4. The Any23 parser is comparable to the NX Parser in performance but not in efficiency.

And. this work has provided a rich set of information about tackling Big Data and Semantic Web challenges. when your challenge is to query large RDF datasets. more specifically. the determination of which parser to use may now be much easier. Hopefully. This work has been an exhausting challenge. But with any activity. The charts can be used for each parser as a starting point when the file size is know. This could prevent overspending of CPU usage for any given test. 41 .work. there is always more to do. But it is interesting to witness the various performance curves within the permutations of file size and CPU count. The next section highlights some of the areas where future investigation will be valuable.

there are many CPU combinations that could be considered for the best result. un-validated datasets could tested and. the use of different CPU models could give the optimal approach for running certain application types. A chart could be developed based on the application type. CPU analysis could also indicate where there is a diminishing return. a better heuristic could be developed for the determination of use for a variety of applications. 42 . And. In other words. along with the above observations. Even though this work was performed on pre-validated datasets. For example. a very large dataset requiring an average level of validation. FUTURE WORK This report did not have the time or budget to perform extensive testing. In other words. first-generation instances. Even though the testing program and methodology are very effective and produced reasonable results.7. Using more and faster CPU's could result in a better understanding of the speedup curve. more testing could solidify the observed trends. Larger dataset sizes would put higher stress on the parsers and CPU's. might optimize at 200 large standard. there may be combinations of parsers and validators that could run in a sequence of steps optimized for a particular application.

).d. Retrieved 02 2013. Retrieved November 2013.com/elasticmapreduce/ (n. Retrieved October 2012.).).org/wiki/DERI_Galway (n. from NxParser Deri: http://semanticweb.d. Retrieved February 2013.apache.org/ (n. http://lists.com/ec2/ (n.org/wiki/Big_data (n. from Apache Jena Tutorial: http://jena.apache.wikipedia.google.).apache.com/p/nxparser/ redirected from http://sw.apache.d.).org/ (n. Retrieved October 2012. from NX Parser: https://code.8.d.d.amazon.d. Retrieved October 2012.d.com/s3/ (n. Retrieved February 2013.). Retrieved January 2013. Retrieved October 2013.org/ (n. from Apache Hadoop: http://hadoop. from Common Crawl: http://commoncrawl. Retrieved February 2013. Retrieved October 2012.org/tutorials/rdf_api. from Apache Any23: http://any23. from Amazon EC2: https://aws. (n. from WikiPedia: Big Data: http://en. REFERENCE (n. from Any23 Incubator: http://incubator.html#graduated (n. from Amazon S3: http://aws.). Retrieved October 2012.org/ 43 .d.).).d.d. from Web Data Commons: http://webdatacommons. Retrieved October 2012.org/2006/08/nxparser/ (n.apache. from Apache Jena: http://jena.d.amazon.d.org/index. from Amazon EMR: http://aws.). Retrieved October 2012.).org/projects/index. Retrieved April 2013.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/2001Aug/0007.deri.). from Nxparser Yars.html (n.d.d.).html (n.). from RDF NQuads: http://sw.org/2008/07/n-quads/.amazon.html (n.).w3.d.deri.

org/wiki/DERI_Galway (2012). DanaC 2012 .html (2012).com/elasticmapreduce/ (2013). RDF Data Management in the Amazon Cloud.org/ (2012). Retrieved October 2012. from Common Crawl: http://commoncrawl. Retrieved February 2013.amazon. Retrieved April 2013.org/projects/index.apache. http://lists. from Apache Jena: http://jena.apache.wikipedia.html (2013). from Apache Jena Tutorial: http://jena. Retrieved 02 2013. from Apache Any23: http://any23.org/2008/07/n-quads/. (2012). from NX Parser: https://code. Retrieved October 2012. Retrieved October 2013. from RDF NQuads: http://sw.org/tutorials/rdf_api. Retrieved October 2012.org/ (2013).html (2013).apache.com/ec2/ (2013). from NxParser Deri: http://semanticweb.deri.amazon. Retrieved October 2012.org/Archives/Public/www-rdf-logic/2001Aug/0007. from Any23 Incubator: http://incubator. Retrieved February 2013. Retrieved October 2012.org/ (2012).com/p/nxparser/ redirected from http://sw.amazon.com/s3/ (2013).google.(2012).deri. from Nxparser Yars.org/wiki/Big_data Bugiotti. Retrieved February 2013. 44 . F. from Amazon EC2: https://aws. Retrieved October 2012.html#graduated (2013).apache. from Amazon S3: http://aws. Retrieved October 2012. from WikiPedia: Big Data: http://en. from Amazon EMR: http://aws. (2012).org/index.org/2006/08/nxparser/ (2012). from Web Data Commons: http://webdatacommons. Retrieved November 2013.w3.

ischool. Web Data Commons – Extracting Structured Data from Two Large Web Corpora. (n.com/articles/how-hadoop-mapreduce-works Innovation Ontology. (2008. Ho.umd. (n.org/portal/web/membership/13-Top-Trends-for-2013 45 .).dzone.computer. from Wikipedia: http://en. a. IEEE .org/RDF/ Semantic Web. How Hadoop Map/Reduce works. from Wikipedia: http://en. IEEE . Retrieved March 2013. (2010). Retrieved April 2013.). R. a.org/wiki/Ontology_(information_science) Raffael Stein. Data Intensive Query Processing for Large RDF Graphs Using Cloud Computing.). 12 16). (n.wikipedia. from STICK .html Mohammad Farhan Husain. Retrieved 2013. (2013).d.wikipedia.d. RDF on Cloud Number Nine.w3. a.d. e. (2012). e. RDF. (n.). from W3C: http://www.Science & Technology Innovation Concept Knowledge-base: http://stick. Retrieved January 2013.org/wiki/Semantic_Web Top Trends for 2013.d. from IEEE Computer Society: http://www. (2009).Hannes Mühleisen. Retrieved February 2013. Retrieved March 2013. Ontology (Information Science). e. from DZone: http://architects.edu/innovation_ontology.

One such standard is the Resource Description Framework (RDF). we show that our framework is scalable and efficient and can easily handle billions of RDF triples. With the explosion of semantic web technologies. we describe a framework that we built using Hadoop. unlike traditional approaches. large RDF graphs are common place. Semantic web technologies can be an ideal candidate to be used together with cloud computing tools to provide a solution.Appendix A: Related Works Data Intensive Query Processing for Large RDF Graphs Using Cloud Computing Tools Abstract—Cloud computing is the newest paradigm in the IT world and hence the focus of new research. Current frameworks do not scale for large RDF graphs. We describe a scheme to store RDF data in Hadoop Distributed File System. to store and retrieve large numbers of RDF triples. RDF on Cloud Number Nine Abstract—We examine whether the existing 'Database in the Cloud' service SimpleDB can be used as a back end to quickly and reliably store RDF data for massive parallel access. In this paper. We use Hadoop’s MapReduce framework to answer the queries. These technologies have been standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Furthermore. Towards this end we have implemented 'Stratustore'. We present an algorithm to generate the best possible query plan to answer a SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) query based on a cost model. Companies hosting cloud computing services face the challenge of handling data intensive applications. Our results show that we can store large RDF graphs in Hadoop clusters built with cheap commodity class hardware. an RDF store which acts as a back end for the Jena Semantic Web framework and stores its data within the 46 . a popular open source framework for Cloud Computing.

In this paper we propose a novel architecture for the distributed management of RDF data. The goal of the index is to efficiently identify the RDF datasets which may have answers for a given query. We study the problem of indexing RDF data stored within AWS. namely Amazon Web Services (AWS). organizations. exploiting an existing commercial cloud infrastructure. places. RDF Data Management in the Amazon Cloud Abstract—Cloud computing has been massively adopted recently in many applications for its elastic scaling and fault-tolerance. people. We devised and experimented with several indexing strategies. due to the very limited expressiveness of SimpleDB's query language. we discuss experimental results and avenues for future work. by using SimpleDB. and route the query only to those. a key-value store provided by AWS for small data items. events. Our results point to the need for more complex database services as well as the need for robust. We used the Berlin SPARQL Benchmark to evaluate our solution and compare it to state of the art triple stores. and cooking recipes into their 47 . Our results show that for certain simple queries and many parallel accesses such a solution can have a higher throughput than state of the art triple stores. possible query dependent index techniques for RDF. At the same time. resumes. more complex queries run multiple orders of magnitude slower than the state of the art and would require special indexes. given that the amount of available RDF data sources on the Web increases rapidly.SimpleDB. However. Web Data Commons – Extracting Structured Data from Two Large Web Corpora Abstract—More and more websites embed structured data describing for instance products. there is a constant need for scalable RDF data management tools.

the largest and most up-to-date web corpus that is currently available to the public. 48 . we give an overview of the project and present statistics about the popularity of the different encoding standards as well as the kinds of data that are published using each format. and provides the extracted data for download in the form of RDF-quads.HTML pages using encoding standards such as Microformats. In this paper. The Web Data Commons project extracts all Microformat. Microdatas and RDFa. Microdata and RDFa data from the Common Crawl web corpus.

nq Context node 10 24 64 90 15.Run Duration 49 .nq Context node CPUs Parser 10 Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Read Bytes Written bytes 787041922 787018185 786981516 787160454 787374602 787412259 788053416 787738358 788103627 788577935 788963450 788412289 4816137515 4816106734 4816124304 4816400441 4816328340 4816317810 4816686743 4817320732 4816815092 4817275442 4817200487 4817351024 16262076703 16262106475 16262110795 16262113002 16262058040 16262091673 16262018304 16262095994 16262228177 16263315015 16263477957 16262706669 38058409 38058410 38058866 38058865 38058865 38058866 38058865 38058865 38058866 38058409 38058410 38058866 220294173 220294179 220297617 220297611 220297616 220297617 220297611 220297616 220297617 220294173 220294179 220297617 735910914 735910825 735910926 735910914 735910825 735910926 735910914 735910825 735910926 735910914 735910825 735910926 Date 3/2/2013 3/3/2013 3/7/2013 3/7/2013 3/7/2013 3/7/2013 3/8/2013 3/8/2013 3/8/2013 3/4/2013 3/3/2013 3/7/2013 3/4/2013 3/4/2013 3/9/2013 3/8/2013 3/8/2013 3/9/2013 3/9/2013 3/9/2013 3/9/2013 3/4/2013 3/4/2013 3/9/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/11/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/12/2013 3/13/2013 3/13/2013 3/13/2013 End 5:07:43 20:27:13 2:42:11 18:01:51 18:04:27 18:01:24 18:37:22 5:30:47 5:08:05 4:49:25 21:13:36 4:21:55 22:47:30 17:59:55 20:47:36 19:24:55 19:36:59 21:04:12 1:13:37 1:36:04 21:06:31 23:20:59 18:52:50 22:32:03 5:18:48 5:43:12 5:59:28 23:16:40 0:53:57 4:53:21 6:40:08 22:40:19 23:11:24 0:24:40 1:18:45 1:51:35 Start 5:05:00 20:24:53 2:39:04 17:59:24 18:01:31 17:58:49 18:33:12 5:25:32 5:04:04 4:44:12 21:08:33 4:16:27 22:40:41 17:50:09 20:36:52 19:21:07 19:33:21 20:58:18 1:08:34 1:30:46 21:01:23 23:07:19 18:45:28 22:24:31 5:00:38 5:27:07 5:27:37 23:07:17 0:45:43 4:38:42 6:34:50 22:34:32 23:03:10 0:18:00 1:11:29 1:43:35 Run Dur 0:02:43 0:02:20 0:03:07 0:02:27 0:02:56 0:02:35 0:04:10 0:05:15 0:04:01 0:05:13 0:05:03 0:05:28 0:06:49 0:09:46 0:10:44 0:03:48 0:03:38 0:05:54 0:05:03 0:05:18 0:05:08 0:13:40 0:07:22 0:07:32 0:18:10 0:16:05 0:31:51 0:09:23 0:08:14 0:14:39 0:05:18 0:05:47 0:08:14 0:06:40 0:07:16 0:08:00 24 64 90 4.0-5.7 GB (4703019) 6 files ccrdf.22-24.html-rdfa.html-rdfa.0-7.9 GB (15880165) 19 files ccrdf.html-rdfa.7 GB (768480) ccrdf.0.1 Test Data .1218.Appendix B: Testing Result Data Size (GB) 0.nq Context node 10 24 64 90 Table B.26.

3547 6023880 100.3976 1117590 18.7678 16305780 271.7525 839480 13.0338 1180780 19.0660 6736580 112.09 1.0.31 7.4740 1915620 31.1763 6089120 101.84 0.08 0.68 1.0-5.5387 6645660 110.78 0.8047 16855950 280.5145 2270580 37.5913 1666510 27.Size (GB) 0.1155 5965360 99.92 0.93 3.html-rdfa.1218.2070 946520 15.3781 1252500 20.07 1.nq Context node CPUs Parser MapsReds 10 Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena 50 49 48 119 113 109 269 252 314 372 341 422 82 83 83 113 113 121 298 307 320 435 412 443 256 256 255 270 270 263 301 302 302 401 412 420 24 24 22 60 59 58 158 150 144 212 212 215 20 21 20 52 51 52 152 141 144 229 212 221 19 20 20 52 50 48 135 136 135 206 211 206 24 64 90 4.9307 1984420 33.49 4.06 0.CPU Usage 50 .58 11.2186 713970 11.66 0.nq Context node 10 24 64 90 15.44 1.77 0.2286 4031140 67.html-rdfa.1632 17428550 290.3342 1820270 30.7 GB (768480) ccrdf.nq Context node 10 24 64 90 CPU Time Spent ms minutes min/CPU 586460 9.39 0.1215 Table B.99 0.76 1.9680 4758400 79.2 Test Data .7543 4466540 74.4858 2559350 42.8698 5060930 84.3301 351300 5.40 1.17 1.9423 4060650 67.93 0.4340 5705640 95.2440 1083540 18.1859 1526620 25.7994 15935020 265.4388 910160 15.22-24.34 3.44 0.78 0.42 0.html-rdfa.0-7.1753 1804710 30.2307 4345130 72.88 0.90 0.28 1.76 27.19 2.5169 475340 7.68 6.26.7 GB (4703019) 6 files ccrdf.63 0.35 3.86 0.9 GB (15880165) 19 files ccrdf.9774 263260 4.48 4.42 9.

nq Context node CPUs Parser Heap Usage 10 Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena Any23 NX Jena 8156758016 8300728320 8458510336 19680710656 19054542848 19369521152 54352261120 52172595200 54052204544 74637078528 72900059136 73963462656 18524577792 17823592448 18985467904 20976795648 20894695424 24289488896 54276911104 54462210048 55959166976 75766259712 72837414912 75489120256 49172262912 49546944512 53056798720 57510166528 58101813248 61345497088 66611113984 66891079680 68070436864 75611803648 75303985152 83700068352 Vir Mem 27679924224 27678363648 27693436928 67032420352 65101975552 65122095104 178811256832 175045496832 178911289344 247519703040 241716736000 245695819776 44107022336 44108169216 44120936448 67987701760 67977109504 68059758592 178459533312 179824758784 178466717696 246615392256 240707973120 246677336064 127899938816 127861673984 127985336320 140348903424 140391297024 140423589888 182585167872 181576900608 179750244352 245068771328 245038436352 242795454464 Phys Mem 9479708672 9567363072 9879961600 22982283264 22095044608 22883553280 63157911552 60996018176 63759601664 87260676096 85121056768 87905366016 19254026240 18768084992 19854336000 24200663040 24014401536 25861545984 63309889536 63345123328 65252413440 88381861888 85138845696 89436454912 54412804096 54340096000 57638412288 62076719104 62031343616 64983293952 71972220928 71595692032 72793137152 88245620736 88108773376 93066227712 Map Out Recs Red Out Recs 3604970 3605106 3605106 3604970 3605105 3605106 3604970 3605105 3605106 3604970 3605106 3605106 21708560 21711697 21711698 21708560 21711693 21711698 21708560 21711693 24 64 90 4.1218.9 GB (15880165) 19 files ccrdf.html-rdfa.html-rdfa.nq Context node 10 24 64 90 15.0.7 GB (4703019) 6 files ccrdf.22-24.nq Context node 10 24 64 90 21711698 21708560 21711697 21711698 73199143 73208681 73209186 73199143 73208681 73209186 73199143 73208681 73209186 73199143 73208681 73209186 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 610352 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 3489507 11073880 11073879 11073880 11073880 11073879 11073880 11073880 11073879 11073880 11073880 11073879 11073880 Table B.html-rdfa.7 GB (768480) ccrdf.Memory Usage 51 .Size (GB) 0.0-7.26.0-5.3 Test Data .

Appendix C: RDF Quads From Web Data Commons File <http://www.com/news.com/steelenk> .captaindynamic.org/schema/title> "VolleyClub"@en-gb <http://www.html> .com/news.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.eurovolley2011.com/Logo.eurovolley2011. <http://www.com/news.html> <http://www.com/news.com/2008/fbmladmins> "670253587"@en-gb <http://www.eurovolley2011.facebook.facebook.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.eurovolley2011.html> .com/en/news.com/"@en-gb <http://www. <http://www.eurovolley2011.org/schema/type> "sport"@en-gb <http://www.org/schema/url> "http://www.jpg"@en-gb <http://www.com/en/news.com/en/news.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011. <http://www.com/en/news.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011.html> .com/steelenk> <http://www.com/en/news.eurovolley2011.eurovolley2011. <http://www. 52 .html> <http://opengraphprotocol. <http://www.html> .html> .html> .html> <http://www.com/2008/fbmlapp_id> "120179524728527" <http://www.facebook. <http://www.org/schema/image> "http://www.captaindynamic.com/en/news.com/2008/fbmlapp_id> "164305600261698"@en-gb <http://www.com/news.com/news.

com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.html> <http://ogp.politicshome.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.jpg" 53 .org/schema/site_name> "youritlist.com/tag/movie/> . <http://youritlist.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor. <http://www.politicshome.com/tag/movie/> <http://opengraphprotocol.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_may or.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.html> <http://ogp. <http://www.html> .politicshome.politicshome.politicshome.html" <http://www.politicshome.politicshome.politicshome.com/tag/movie/> <http://opengraphprotocol.html> <http://ogp.com" <http://youritlist.me/ns#image> "http://www.me/ns#title> "Westminster: Boris has achieved little of note as Mayor |" <http://www. <http://www.<http://youritlist. <http://www.org/schema/type> "article" <http://youritlist.politicshome.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.me/ns#type> "article" <http://www.html> .com/tag/movie/> .html> .com/images/articles/article_1492.html> <http://ogp.me/ns#url> "http://www.

com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.com/2008/fbmladmins> "simonrbowler" <http://www.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.fm/item3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.aukcje.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.org/schema/app_id> "3003280012" <http://www.html" <http://www. <http://www. w serwisie aukcje. <http://www.html> .fm" <http://www.fm/item3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.aukcje.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.html> .politicshome. 54 .facebook. <http://www.org/schema/url> "http://www.jpg" <http://www.politicshome.aukcje.<http://www.fm/item3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.html> .fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.org/schema/title> "Niestety szukana aukcja jest ju? niedost?pna .html> .html> .fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.org/schema/image> "http://www.aukcje.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.aukcje.html> .aukcje.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.fm/uploaded/3280012/128x96/3280012_1.politicshome.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.Aukcja zosta?a usuni?ta lub przeniesiona do archiwum AUKCJE FM.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.com/uk/westminster_boris_has_achieved_little_of_note_as_ma yor.aukcje. <http://www. <http://www.aukcje.aukcje.aukcje.html> <http://www.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.

fm" <http://www.org/schema/type> "product" <http://www.w3.aukcje.aukcje.shareware.Aukcja zosta?a usuni?ta lub przeniesiona do archiwum AUKCJE FM.fm" <http://www.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_. _:node16oaq1dg6x9541 <http://www.data-vocabulary.org/#Breadcrumb> <http://www. 55 .data-vocabulary.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.aukcje. <http://www.shareware. _:node16oaq1dg6x9541 <http://rdf.shareware.w3.org/#Breadcrumb> <http://www. _:node16oaq1dg6x9540 <http://www.html> <http://opengraphprotocol.org/#url> <http://www.de/3dmodeleditor/> .org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.html> .org/schema/site_name> "Aukcje.de/3dmodeleditor/> .aukcje.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.de/3d-modeleditor/> . <http://www.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.fm/item3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.data-vocabulary.data-vocabulary.aukcje.org/#title> "Foto & Grafik" <http://www.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_. _:node16oaq1dg6x9541 <http://rdf.shareware.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_. to aukcja o numerze numer 3280012. zapraszamy do zakupu produktu na www.de/foto-grafik/> <http://www.<http://www.html> .org/schema/description> "Niestety szukana aukcja jest ju? niedost?pna .html> <http://opengraphprotocol.fm/item-3280012_nowe_apple_iphone_3gs_najtaniej_32_gb_.aukcje.aukcje.de/3d-modeleditor/> .html> .shareware.

w3.de/3dmodeleditor/> . _:node16oaq1dg6x9543 <http://rdf._:node16oaq1dg6x9542 <http://www.org/#title> "3D-Modeleditor" <http://www.shareware.de/3dmodeleditor/> .w3.data-vocabulary.shareware.shareware.data-vocabulary.de/3dmodeleditor/> . _:node16oaq1dg6x9544 <http://www.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#Breadcrumb> <http://www.org/#Breadcrumb> <http://www. _:node16oaq1dg6x9542 <http://rdf.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf. _:node16oaq1dg6x9543 <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.shareware.de/3d-modeleditor/> .de/3dmodeleditor/> . _:node16oaq1dg6x9543 <http://www. _:node16oaq1dg6x9542 <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#url> _:node16oaq1dg6x9545 <http://www.org/#Breadcrumb> <http://www.org/#title> "CAD Software" <http://www.de/3dmodeleditor/> . _:node16oaq1dg6x9544 <http://rdf.shareware.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.org/#url> <http://www.de/grafikprogramme/> <http://www.data-vocabulary.org/#title> "Grafikprogramme" <http://www.data-vocabulary.org/#url> <http://www.shareware.shareware.de/3d-modeleditor/> . 56 . _:node16oaq1dg6x9544 <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.shareware.data-vocabulary.shareware.shareware.de/3d-modeleditor/> .shareware.w3.de/grafikprogramme/cad-software/> <http://www.de/3d-modeleditor/> .

net/article/codeigniter-handling-errors" <http://phpcamp. <http://phpcamp.de/3d-modeleditor/> .shareware.data-vocabulary.net/article/codeigniter-handling-errors> .data-vocabulary.org/#itemreviewed> "Shareware User geben 3D-Modeleditor" <http://www.org/schema/url> "http://phpcamp.net/> <http://www.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#type> <http://rdf.data-vocabulary.de/3d-modeleditor/> .de/3d-modeleditor/> .data-vocabulary.org/#votes> "7" <http://www.org/#rating> _:node16oaq1dg6x9547 <http://www. _:node16oaq1dg6x9546 <http://rdf.shareware. _:node16oaq1dg6x9546 <http://rdf. <http://phpcamp. _:node16oaq1dg6x9547 <http://rdf. _:node16oaq1dg6x9547 <http://www.de/3d-modeleditor/> .de/3dmodeleditor/> .w3.de/3d-modeleditor/> .data-vocabulary.org/#average> "67" <http://www.org/#Review-aggregate> <http://www._:node16oaq1dg6x9546 <http://www.org/schema/title> "Codeigniter: Handling errors | PHPCamp" <http://phpcamp.com/2008/fbmlpage_id> "123036123222" <http://phpcamp.org/#Rating> <http://www. <http://phpcamp. 57 .facebook.shareware. _:node16oaq1dg6x9547 <http://rdf.w3.net/> <http://opengraphprotocol.shareware.shareware.org/#best> "100" <http://www.net/article/codeigniter-handling-errors> .shareware. _:node16oaq1dg6x9547 <http://rdf.net/article/codeigniter-handling-errors> .net/> <http://opengraphprotocol.de/3d-modeleditor/> .shareware.data-vocabulary.

<http://www.org/schema/image> "http://files.me/ns#url> "http://www.com/goodnews2011/goodnewsfromfinland-logo.phpcamp.goodnewsfinland.png" <http://www. <http://www.net/article/codeigniterhandling-errors> .com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> .goodnewsfinland.net/article/codeigniter-handling-errors> .com/> <http://ogp.com/> <http://ogp.net/images/logo.com/" 58 .com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> .net/> <http://opengraphprotocol.goodnewsfinland.org/schema/site_name> "PHPCamp" <http://phpcamp.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/" <http://www.goodnewsfinland.me/ns#image> "http://www.net/> <http://opengraphprotocol.jpg" <http://phpcamp. <http://www.com/> <http://ogp.me/ns#title> "Leading cancer researchers meet at Turku BioCity Symposium at the end of August" <http://www.goodnewsfinland.<http://phpcamp.goodnewsfinland.goodnewsfinland. <http://phpcamp.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> . <http://www. <http://www.me/ns#image> "http://www.goodnewsfinland.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> .com/> <http://ogp.me/ns#type> "article" <http://www.goodnewsfinland.goodnewsfinland.com/> <http://ogp.goodnewsfinland.goodnewsfinland.

goodnewsfinland. which is held in Turku at the end of August.goodnewsfinland.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchersmeet-at-turku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> . The event is organized by the..goodnewsfinland..com/> <http://www.com/> <http://ogp.<http://www. brings together the top of the world's cancer research now for the 19th time. 59 . <http://www." <http://www.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> .goodnewsfinland.goodnewsfinland.com/archive/news/leading-cancer-researchers-meet-atturku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> . This year's Symposium's theme is Tumor Microenvironment in Cancer Progression.goodnewsfinland. <http://www.me/ns#site_name> "Good News from Finland" <http://www.me/ns#description> "BioCity Symposium.com/archive/news/leading-cancerresearchers-meet-at-turku-biocity-symposium-at-the-end-of-august/> .com/2008/fbmlpage_id> "101220519492" <http://www.facebook.com/> <http://ogp.goodnewsfinland. <http://www.

sanalika.com/user/ 2 8 2 2 http://1057thehawk.com/destek/vip/soru/fisildama-ozelligini-nasil-kullanabilirim 1 http://.sanalika.sanalika.com/user/ http://0wishfulthinkr0.sanalika.com/destek/vip/soru/anemon-sitesinden-nasil-villa-satin-alabilirim 1 http://.sanalika.Appendix D: Sample Output This output is the number of occurrences of unique context nodes found in the Web Data Common uncompressed RDF NQuad files.com/show/jonesey/ http://1057thexrocks. http://.www.com/destek/oyunlar http://.www.www.com/bruce-brunch-12411/ http://1057thehawk.com/destek/uyelik 1 1 http://.sanalika.com/user/ 2 http://0o0graciex0o0.buzznet.com/destek/vip/soru/monitte-loungea-nasil-giris-yapabilirim 1 http://0foreverth.sanalika.buzznet.www.com/ 7 60 7 .buzznet.com/hawk-2-0-playlist-11611/ 8 http://1057thehawk.www.www.sanalika.com/user/ http://10.com/destek 1 http://.www.com/destek/genel/soru/sanalika-nedir 1 http://.buzznet.com/destek/vip/soru/arkadaslik-ozelligini-nasil-aktiflestirebilirim 1 http://.www.

com/Watch-Movies-Online/Two_Mules_For_Sister_Sara_1970/ 1 http://10x10.com/Watch-Movies-Online/No_Direction_Home_Bob_Dylan_2005/ 1 http://10starmovies.com/10-reasons-establish-data-center-collocation-presence-kansas-city/ 14 http://1102grand.com/2009/11/ http://1102grand.buzznet.com/5-data-center-temperature/ http://1102grand.com/5-grand-questions-greg/ http://1102grand.com/1102-grand-reviews-green-announces-practices-choosing-datacenter/ 14 http://1102grand.com/user/ 2 http://1102grand.com/2010/04/ http://1102grand.http://10starmovies.com/1102-grand-history/ 6 http://1102grand.com/2010/01/ http://1102grand.com/category/green-it/ 2 http://1102grand.com/category/1102-grand/ 2 http://1102grand.com/2010/07/ 2 2 2 2 2 14 15 http://1102grand.com/category/raised-floors/ 2 http://1102grand.com/2009/08/ http://1102grand.com/collocation-commodity/ 14 61 .com/Watch-Movies-Online/Rooster_Cogburn_1975/ 1 http://10starmovies.

com/tag/1102-grand/ 2 62 15 15 14 14 .com/podcast-darren-bonawitz-featuring-cloud-computing/ http://1102grand.com/tag/102-grand/ 2 http://1102grand.com/protecting-data-investment-potential-fire-hazards/ http://1102grand.com/kansas-city-data-center-internet-hub-holds-golf-tournamenttechnology-companies/ 17 16 http://1102grand.com/kansas-city-data-center-1102-grand-profiles-itkc/ http://1102grand.com/podcast-greg-elliott-business-development-director-1102-grandkansas-city-midwest-internet-hub-collocation-facility-featuring-healthcare/ http://1102grand.com/racks-holding-data-equipment-information-place/ http://1102grand.com/secs-ruling-climate-change-effects-data-center/ http://1102grand.com/installation-cooling-towers-1102-grand-significantly-lowersenergy-bill/ 14 14 http://1102grand.com/greg-elliot/ 6 16 15 http://1102grand.com/green-save-millions-energy/ 15 http://1102grand.com/healthcare-design-magazine-data-centers-heart-hospital/ http://1102grand.com/podcast-darren-bonawitz-principal-1102-grand-kansas-citys-datacenter-internet-hub-collocation-facility-featuring-lowpower-consumption-highheatservers/ 15 http://1102grand.com/darren-bonawitz-principal-1102-grand-kansas-citys-data-centerfeatures-department-defense-poll-cloud-computing-podcast/ http://1102grand.http://1102grand.com/darren-bonawitz-comments-epa-finalize-energy-star-rating-datacenters/ 14 http://1102grand.

com/tag/data-center-security/ http://1102grand.com/tag/data-management/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/co-location/ http://1102grand.com/tag/cage/ 2 2 2 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/boulevard-brewing-co/ http://1102grand.com/tag/epcot-center/ http://1102grand.com/tag/envirotech/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/bandwith/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/apps/ 2 http://1102grand.http://1102grand.com/tag/gmail/ 2 2 63 2 .com/tag/caged-space/ http://1102grand.com/tag/cost-effective/ 2 2 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/boulevard/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/energy-tips/ 2 2 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/call-center/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/g-talk/ http://1102grand.com/tag/collocation/ http://1102grand.com/tag/data-suites/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/cabinets/ http://1102grand.com/tag/electricity/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/cbiz/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/darren-bonawitz-podcast/ 2 http://1102grand.com/tag/environmentally-conscious/ http://1102grand.

*.Path.*.apache.io. import org. The Java program required the following packages to run Hadoop: import org.util. All of this is orchestrated by Amazon EMR control software that launches and manages the Hadoop cluster. Hadoop clusters running on Amazon EMR use Amazon EC2 instances as virtual Linux servers for the master and slave nodes.hadoop.mapred. You can also move data into and out of Amazon DynamoDB using Amazon EMR and Hive.Appendix E: Parser and Amazon Configurations Amazon Cloud Amazon EMR has made enhancements to Hadoop and other open-source applications to work seamlessly with AWS. Amazon S3 for bulk storage of input and output data.apache.fs. This process is called an Amazon EMR job flow. and Amazon CloudWatch to monitor cluster performance and raise alarms.hadoop.apache. No special parameters or bootstrap actions were required to run the jobs. import org. (Amazon EC2. 64 .0.*.hadoop.hadoop. 2013) The Hadoop version used was 1.*. import org. import org. The debugger was turned on to capture performance metrics and potential issues.apache.apache.conf.3 and was built and distributed by Amazon.hadoop. For example.

ParserConfig.ArrayList.70 and the following Java packages were required to build the test program: import java.yars.Apache Any23 Parser The Any23 parser version used was 0. import org.openrdf.*.RDFParser.openrdf.NQuadsParser. import org.rio. import org.openrdf. 65 . import org.apache.nquads.nx.rio. import org.yars.nx. import org.helpers.semanticweb. import org.3 and the following Java packages were required to build the test program: import org.nx.openrdf. (see Note) import org.rio.openrdf.yars.model.semanticweb.helpers.openrdf.rio.any23.RDFHandlerBase.openrdf.BinaryRDFWriter.rio.rio. The NXParser parser version used was 1.semanticweb. import org.rio.openrdf.RDFHandlerException.io.2.StatementCollector.binary.RDFParseException.Node.Statement.util. import org. import org.Node.

import sun.hpl.SinkWrapper. import org.Node.jena.atlas. import org.openjena. Note: There was a conflict between org.atlas.hp.The Apache Jena parser version used was 2.riot.4 and the following Java packages were required to build the test program: import java.hpl.7.vocabulary.lib.openjena.RDF.Node which required implicit declarations.riot.lib.graph.util.riot.openjena. import org. import org.org.internal.openjena.jena.hp. import java.atlas.util.SinkNull.hpl.hp.graph. import com.Map.hp.4 and Jena Riot ARQ 2. import org.core.hp.Lang.*.openjena.yars.riot.javascript. 66 . import org.lib.nx.mozilla.HashMap.Sink.sparql.hpl.ErrorHandlerFactory.RiotParseException.Node and com. import org.RiotReader.semanticweb.openjena. import com.jena.jena.9.graph.Context. (see Note) import com. import com.Quad.openjena.hpl.jena.

1 EC2 Compute Unit (1 virtual core with 1 EC2 Compute Unit).7 GB of memory. 160 GB of local instance storage. Without naming all of them. As mentioned before between 10 and 90 CPU's where used in the testing. The type of CPU instance used was the first generation (M1) Standard instances. 2013) 67 . purchasing. On-Demand Instances also remove the need to buy “safety net” capacity to handle periodic traffic spikes. According to Amazon these instances provide customers with a balanced set of resources and a low cost platform that is well suited for a wide variety of applications. OnDemand Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. 32-bit or 64-bit platform.Appendix F: Computing Configurations There are several cost models that can be chosen from on the Amazon EC2 platform. The exact system configuration follows: M1 Small Instance (Default) 1. we used the On-Demand instance cost model. This frees you from the costs and complexities of planning. (Amazon EC2. and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs.

1 Amazon Computing Cost 68 .Appendix G: Computing Cost Figure G.

Amazon EC2 running SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. 2008 R2 and 2012). Amazon EC2 running Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Amazon EC2 running IBM that are priced differently. and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. Amazon also provides you with additional instances for Amazon EC2 running Microsoft Windows with SQL Server.192 per Hour 69 .Northern California Standard On-Demand Linux/UNIX Usage Windows Usage Demand Instances Small (Default) Medium $0. Each partial instance-hour consumed will be billed as a full hour. 2008. The pricing below is based on data transferred "in" to and "out" of Amazon EC2. This frees you from the costs and complexities of planning. from the time an instance is launched until it is terminated or stopped. Region: US West .096 per Hour $0.Appendix H: Amazon Pricing (Amazon EC2. purchasing.065 per Hour $0. 2013) On-Demand Instances On-Demand Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no longterm commitments.130 per Hour $0. Pricing is per instance-hour consumed for each instance. The pricing below includes the cost to run private and public AMIs on the specified operating system (“Windows Usage” prices apply to Windows Server® 2003 R2.

or Amazon SimpleDB in the same AWS Region Amazon EC2.00 per GB $0.768 per Hour Data Transfer Data Transfer IN To Amazon EC2 From Internet Pricing $0.384 per Hour $0.00 per GB Amazon S3. Amazon SQS. Amazon RDS and Amazon ElastiCache instances or Elastic Network Interfaces in the same Availability Zone Using a private IP address $0.00 per GB Another AWS Region (from any AWS Service) $0. Amazon DynamoDB. Amazon Glacier.00 per GB Using a public or Elastic IP address $0.260 per Hour $0.01 per GB 70 .Large Extra Large $0.520 per Hour $0.

01 per GB $0. or Elastic Network Interfaces in another Availability Zone in the same AWS Region Another AWS Region or Amazon CloudFront $0. Amazon Glacier. Amazon DynamoDB.01 per GB $0. or Amazon ElastiCache instances. Amazon SimpleDB in the same AWS Region Amazon EC2.02 per GB Data Transfer OUT From Amazon EC2 To Internet First 1 GB / month $0. Amazon Elastic Load Balancing.00 per GB $0. or Elastic Network Interfaces in the same Availability Zone Using a private IP address $0. Amazon SQS.Amazon EC2.01 per GB Amazon EC2. Amazon RDS and Amazon ElastiCache instances or Elastic Network Interfaces in another Availability Zone in the same AWS Region Data Transfer OUT From Amazon EC2 To Amazon S3.000 71 .00 per GB Using a public or Elastic IP address $0. Amazon Elastic Load Balancing. Amazon RDS or Amazon ElastiCache instances. Amazon RDS.

Amazon 72 . Amazon RDS. Amazon S3.070 per GB Next 350 TB / month $0.090 per GB Next 100 TB / month $0.050 per GB Next 524 TB / month Contact Us Next 4 PB / month Contact Us Greater than 5 PB / month Contact Us Table H.120 per GB Next 40 TB / month $0.1 Amazon Pricing Rate tiers take into account your aggregate usage for Data Transfer Out to the Internet across Amazon EC2. Amazon Glacier.per GB Up to 10 TB / month $0.

73 . except that Data Transfer OUT from Amazon Elastic Load Balancing in EC2 to another AWS Region or Amazon CloudFront is priced at "Internet" rates. Amazon SNS. Data transferred OUT from Amazon Elastic Load Balancing in Amazon VPC to another AWS Region or Amazon CloudFront is priced at Inter-region rates. Data transferred "in" to and "out" of Amazon Elastic Load Balancing is priced equivalent to Amazon EC2. Amazon DynamoDB. Amazon SQS. and AWS Storage Gateway.SimpleDB.

openrdf.hadoop. import org.util.Iterator. import org. import java.mapred.io.RDFHandlerBase.hadoop. NX Parser. import org.io. /******** END Any23 Imports *********/ /******** START NxParser Imports *********/ 74 .Date. import org.conf.rio.RDFParser.util.Statement.*.apache.RDFParseException.io.apache. /******** Hadoop *********/ import org. import java. import org.io.apache.FileInputStream. /******** START Any23 Imports *********/ import java.nquads.rio. import org.io.fs.rio. Northridge (CSUN) * Completed: February 5.Path. Count occurrences of a query string */ /******** Common Imports *********/ import java. and Elastic MapReduce * Two primary features are: * 1. S3.helpers.openrdf.io.io. object.*. predicate.apache.util. import java. import org.*.rio.PrintWriter. import org.rio.InputStream.StatementCollector.*.io. Count occurrences of words in the subject.StringReader.rio. import java. import java.openrdf.ArrayList. import org.hadoop.openrdf.ByteArrayInputStream.hadoop.FileOutputStream.openrdf.apache.ParserConfig.model.any23. import org.util.apache. import java.io.IOException. any use requires citation or permission * No warranties or guarantees are given * * Hadoop program that runs Any23.FileNotFoundException. import java. * Tested on Amazon's EC2. import java.BinaryRDFWriter. and Jena Riot on raw NQuad RDF files.rio.io.Appendix I: Source Code /* * Ted Garcia * Computer Science Graduate Program Spring 2013 * Thesis titled: * ANALYSIS OF BIG DATA TECHNOLOGIES AND METHODS: * QUERY LARGE WEB PUBLIC RDF DATASETS ON AMAZON CLOUD USING HADOOP AND OPEN SOURCE PARSERS * California State University.helpers.openrdf.hadoop.binary.openrdf.RDFHandlerException. import java. import org. import org. or context * 2. 2013 * Copyright owned by Ted Garcia and CSUN. import org.NQuadsParser.openrdf.

nx. /******** END Riot ARQ Imports *********/ /* 1.jena. value = count */ public class RDFParseParallelMain { private static InputStream is = null. N=NxParser.hpl.internal. predicate.Node.semanticweb.S=subject. object. import org.util.Node import org. import org.hp.Sink.RiotParseException.openjena.yars.graph.nx.atlas.mozilla. private static String sOutFileName = "". O=object.riot.jena.*. Process query output * * Design Notes . // Conflict with com.HashMap. value = count * 2.not Hadoop * 3. import sun. private static NodeItem NodeItemSelected = NodeItem. import org.graph.SinkWrapper.openjena.lib. import com. import java. Open files . Count occurrences of query string in node type * key = query string. 75 .hp. // Conflict with org.NxParser.hpl. Count entries for each node type (subject.nx.openjena.atlas.atlas. import org.NONE.hpl. private static Parser ParserSelected = Parser. P=predicate.Map.jena.yars.riot. /******** END NxParser Imports *********/ /******** START Riot ARQ Imports *********/ import java. import org.Node.openjena. import org.lib.semanticweb.nx. import com.hp.semanticweb.Node import com.hpl.yars. import org. Setup parser environment * 4.riot.SinkNull.vocabulary. private static PrintWriter out = null.Quad.org.ALL.A=Any23.openjena.semanticweb. which part of the RDF '-n' .sparql.RiotReader.ErrorHandlerFactory.graph.hp.javascript. R=RiotARQ * (optional) node item.*.Lang. //import com. private static String sParserSelectedString = null. context) * key = node type. C=context * (optional) query string '-q' * 2.openjena.hp. private static FileOutputStream outs = null. import org.Key Features * 1.nx.Context. private static String sInFileName = "".openjena.semanticweb.jena.util.//import org. import org.RDF.parser.yars.hpl.Node. Get arguments: * (required) input filename * (required) output filename * (required) parser to run '-p' . private static FileInputStream in = null.yars.core.lib.riot.jena.

// convert String into InputStream // Determine which parser to use and then run it /**************** Any23 Parser ****************/ if (sParserSelectedString. NONE } private enum NodeItem { // ALL is the default ALL.println("Map: Any23: Unrecoverable Parse Error"). IntWritable> { private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable(1). OBJECT. 3-context private static boolean DEBUG = false. private static int iLineCount = 0. OutputCollector<Text. Text.println("Map: Any23: IO Problems"). o = output.g.private static int NodeItemSelectedNo = 3. 1-predicate. e. SUBJECT.err. // default to NX Parser private static int NodeItemSelectedNo = 3.setRDFHandler(sc).getBytes()). sNodes = new String[4]. RIOT.err. e. e. } catch (RDFHandlerException e) { // handle a problem encountered by the RDFHandler System.equalsIgnoreCase("A")) { // Any23 Parser RDFParser rdfParser = new NQuadsParser(). try { rdfParser.err. } catch (RDFParseException e) { // handle unrecoverable parse error System. // default to context private static String sQueryString = "". the file could not be read) System. IntWritable> output. rdfParser. } catch (IOException e) { // handle IO problems (e. private static String sParserSelectedString = "N". private static OutputCollector o = null. } } /**************** Nx Parser ****************/ 76 . // default to context public void map(LongWritable key. private static String[] sNodes. private Text word = new Text(). // 0-subject.parse(is.printStackTrace(). NXP.printStackTrace(). private static int sQueryCount = 0.printStackTrace(). Text. Reporter reporter) throws IOException { String line = value. PREDICATE. CONTEXT } public static class Map extends MapReduceBase implements Mapper<LongWritable. is = new ByteArrayInputStream(line. "rdfParser. Text value.toString().parse-filenameStringIsEmpty"). 2-object. StatementCounter sc = new StatementCounter(). private enum Parser { ANY23.println("Map: Any23: RDFHandler Problem").

mapWord.printStackTrace().parseQuads(is. IntWritable. Text mapWord = new Text(). new IntWritable(sum)). 77 . 1-predicate.getInt("NodeItemSelectedNo". NodeItemSelectedNo = job. } catch (IOException e) { e.next().equalsIgnoreCase("N")) { // Nx Parser NxParser nxp = new NxParser(is). sink).get(). 3). 3-context sNodes[0] = ns[0]. // Only do one node type mapWord. sNodes[3] = ns[3]. } output. 2-object.collect(key.else if (sParserSelectedString.collect(mapWord.set(psNodes[NodeItemSelectedNo]).hasNext()) { Node[] ns = nxp.hasNext()) { sum += values.next(). RiotReader. while (values. IntWritable> output. } // end else if } // end of map method @Override public void configure(JobConf job) { sParserSelectedString = job.toString(). Text. try { o. while (nxp. } catch (IOException e) { e.toString().NQUADS. Iterator<IntWritable> values. if (ns. OutputCollector<Text. } } } } /**************** RIOT Parser ****************/ else if (sParserSelectedString. Reporter reporter) throws IOException { int sum = 0. sNodes[2] = ns[2]. try { output.length == 4) { // sNodes = 0-subject. } } } // end Map class public static class Reduce extends MapReduceBase implements Reducer<Text. } public static void SendToReduce(String[] psNodes) { Text mapWord = new Text().equalsIgnoreCase("R")) { // RIOT Parser SinkQuadStats sink = new SinkQuadStats(new SinkNull<Quad>()). one). null.set(sNodes[NodeItemSelectedNo]). sNodes[1] = ns[1]. IntWritable> { public void reduce(Text key. one).collect(mapWord.toString().get("sParserSelectedString").toString(). Lang.printStackTrace().

switch (pArg) { case 'A': ParserSelected = Parser.startsWith("-")) { arg = args[i++]. printUsageWithExit().length) sOutFileName = args[i++]. default: System. printUsageWithExit().println("RDFParseParallel: illegal -p value '" + args[i-1] +"'"). break.charAt(0).RIOT.println("arg: "+arg).err. String arg.length && args[i].ANY23.length) printUsage(). j. switch (flag) { case 'p': if (i < args. else if (i > args.length) { sParserSelectedString = args[i]. while (i < args. case 'N': ParserSelected = Parser. break.} } public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { int i = 0.println("RDFParseParallel: -p needs value"). 3-context 78 . 2-object.NXP. /******************************************/ /*********** PROCESS ARGUMENTS ************/ /******************************************/ //"Usage: RDFParseParallel infilename outfilename -p A|N|R [-n S|P|O|C] [-q querystring] //"Example: RDFParseParallel Myinfilename Myoutfilename -p A -n S -q Myquerystring if (i < args.err.charAt(0). case 'R': ParserSelected = Parser.out.length) { char pArg = args[i++]. char pArg = args[i++]. char flag. if (DEBUG) System. flag = arg. } } else { System. 1-predicate. break.charAt(1). break.length) sInFileName = args[i++]. sNodes = new String[4]. // sNodes = 0-subject. case 'n': if (i < args. } break. if (i <= args.

} break.toString()). case 'P': NodeItemSelected = NodeItem. conf. case 'O': NodeItemSelected = NodeItem.println("RDFParseParallel: -n needs value").toString()+"NodeItemSelected: "+NodeItemSelected.setOutputKeyClass(Text.class). break. default: System.OBJECT.err.err. else { System. case 'C': NodeItemSelected = NodeItem. break. break. printUsageWithExit().length) sQueryString = args[i++]. } } else { System. default: System.println("ParseCmdLine: illegal option " + flag).switch (pArg) { case 'S': NodeItemSelected = NodeItem. case 'q': if (i < args. NodeItemSelectedNo = 0. NodeItemSelectedNo = 2.PREDICATE. } } // end while if (DEBUG) printUsage().setOutputValueClass(IntWritable. break. printUsageWithExit(). NodeItemSelectedNo = 3.err.SUBJECT. 79 .err.setJobName("RDFParseParallel: ParserSelected: "+ParserSelected. conf. break. printUsageWithExit().class). } break. NodeItemSelectedNo = 1.println("RDFParseParallel: illegal -n value '" + args[i-1] +"'").println("RDFParseParallel: illegal -n value '" + sQueryString+"'"). break. /*********************************************************/ /************************* HADOOP CODE *******************/ /*********************************************************/ JobConf conf = new JobConf(RDFParseParallelMain.class). conf.CONTEXT. printUsageWithExit().

System. C=context"). P=predicate.setOutputFormat(TextOutputFormat.println("NodeItemSelectedNo: "+NodeItemSelectedNo).out. System.class).S=subject.err. "+psNodes[3]). System. iLineCount++. new Path(sOutFileName)). N=NxParser. new Path(sInFileName)).err. FileInputFormat.println("node item.exit(-1).err. JobClient. 80 .setReducerClass(Reduce.class).err.setInputFormat(TextInputFormat.toString()).toLowerCase())) sQueryCount++.println("Usage: RDFParseParallel -p A|N|R [-n S|P|O|C] -q querystring infilename outfilename"). FileOutputFormat. System.setCombinerClass(Reduce. } static void printNodes(String[] psNodes) { System.setInt("NodeItemSelectedNo".err.println("output filename (required)").class).err. R=RiotARQ"). System.println("NodeItemSelected: "+NodeItemSelected). conf.runJob(conf).err.println(psNodes[0]+" . NodeItemSelectedNo). } private static void printCurrentDate() { Date date = new Date().contains(sQueryString.println("RDFParseParallelMain Hadoop Program").setInputPaths(conf.err.out. conf. System.setOutputPath(conf. conf.println("sOutFileName: "+sOutFileName). } static void countQuery(String[] psNodes) { String s = psNodes[0]+" "+psNodes[1]+" "+psNodes[2]+" "+psNodes[3].err.setMapperClass(Map.conf.class).println("sQueryString: "+sQueryString). which part of the RDF (optional) .println("sInFileName: "+sInFileName). System.println("ParserSelected: "+ParserSelected). conf. System.class). conf. System.err.println(date.err.err. System.err. sParserSelectedString). } private static void printUsageWithExit() { printUsage().println("input filename (required)"). "+psNodes[1]+" . O=object. System. System.println("parser to run (required) A=Any23. "+psNodes[2]+" .println("query string (optional)"). if(s. } // End of Main private static void printUsage() { System. System. System.set("sParserSelectedString".toLowerCase(). conf.

getObject(). } } class SinkQuadStats extends SinkWrapper<Quad> { private long count = 0 . countedStatements++. localsNodes[2] = stm.Map.jena.SendToReduce(localsNodes).Node p = quad.graph.toString(). localsNodes[3] = stm. 1-predicate. } } // end of SinkQuadStats class 81 . localsNodes[2] = quad. localsNodes[1] = stm.System. } public int getCountedStatements() { return countedStatements.getContext().send(quad) .getObject(). } public SinkQuadStats() { super(new SinkNull<Quad>()) .hpl.toString(). } } // End of RDFParseParallelMain class class StatementCounter extends RDFHandlerBase { private int countedStatements = 0.getGraph(). // Context RDFParseParallelMain. //Subject localsNodes[1] = quad.toString(). 3-context String[] localsNodes = new String[4].toString().graph.println("LineCount: "+iLineCount).hp. localsNodes[0] = com.Node.jena.getNameSpace()). 1-predicate. localsNodes[3] = quad.Map. super.SendToReduce(localsNodes).getSubject().toString().toString().getPredicate(). @Override public void handleStatement(Statement stm) { // localNodes = 0-subject.toString(). 2-object. } @Override public void send(Quad quad) { // localNodes = 0-subject.getPredicate().createURI(p. RDFParseParallelMain. // Predicate String[] localsNodes = new String[4]. localsNodes[0] = stm.hpl.toString(). public SinkQuadStats(Sink<Quad> output) { super(output) . 2-object. 3-context com.hp.out.getPredicate().

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.