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COUNC!L OF REPRESENTATIVES ACTION !TEM # 3 ETH!

CS

JULY 31 & AUGUST 2,2013

POLiCY RELATED TO PSYCHOLOGtSTS' W O R K !N NATtONAL SECURtTY SETTiNGS AND REAFF!RMAT)ON OF THE APA POStTtON AGAtNST TORTURE AND OTHER CRUEL, iNHUMAN, OR DEGRADtNG TREATMENT OR PUNtSHMENT SUMMARY

The Counci) of Representatives is asked to 1) adopt a poticy that reptaces current Associ the area of psychotogists' work i n nationat security settings and reaffirms APA's position against torture and other cruet, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and 2) receive the Report of the APA Member-tnitiated Task Force to Reconcite APA P o i i c i e s Reiated to Psychotogists' Work i n Nationa) Security Settings. An APA member task force has devetoped a sing!e, consoiidated poticy statement that witt current APA poticies: 1) 2005 Report of the Presidentiat Task Force on Psychoiogicat Ethics and Nationat Security; 2) 2007 Reaffirmation of the American Psychotogicat Association Position against Torture and Other Cruei, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and t t s AppticaCon to individuats Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants;" and 3) 2008 Amendment to the Reaffirmation of the American Psychotogicat Association Position against Torture and Other Cruet, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and t t s Apptication to tndividuats Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants." The rationate for this substitution i s to c t a r i f y APA poiicy i n this area by resotving any confticting tanguage so that the poticy w i t t provide dear guidance to psychotogists who work i n nationat security settings. The Report of the APA Member-initiated Task Force to Reconcite APA Poticies Retated to Psychoiogists' Work i n Nationat Security Settings i s shown as Exhibit 1. The poiicy has benefitted from numerous comments from individual and groups representing range of perspectives on the psychoiogists' work i n nationat security settings. The Ethics Committee, the Committee on Legat tssues, and the Poticy and Ptanntng Board a t ) contributed comments that were considered i n the drafting process. RATtONALE

The evotving nature of APA policy addressing psychotogists' work in and retated to nation detention settings has created severat chattenges. F i r s t , the iarge body of at times redundant or c o n f l i c t i n g poticies i n this area makes i td i f f i c u t t to discern and communicate coherent and meaningfut ethica) guidance to inform the w#fk of psychotogists i n national security settings. Second, due to the evotving nature of APA policy since 2005 and with the passage of the 2008 Member Petition Resotution and changes to the APA Ethics Code i n 2010, there now e x i s t contradictions within APA poticy. As such, some e a r l i e r poticies are no longer v a l i d as a resuit of subsequent policy statements. For example, a central aspect of the PENS policy ( r e t a t i n g to Ethicat Standards 1.02 and 1.03) i s now out of date following the 2010 change to the Ethics Code. Also, a core definitionat provision of the 2007 Councit resolution retated to torture was rescinded and reptaced the fottowing year. Third, with muttipte poticies, i ti sd i f f i c u t t to determine how individuat poticies retate to one another and to the APA Ethics Code, and which policy takes precedence when p o t i c i e sc o n f l i c t .F i n a t t y , the piecemeat nature of the p o t i c i e s lends i t s e l f to viewing individuat poticies i n isolation, out of the context of APA's position i ni t s entirety, and thereby r i s k s APA's position being misinterpreted. As such, the human rights principles at the heart of these documents can become obscured. 21

STRATEGY GOAL/OBJECTtVE l(a) FUNDiNG None needed. !MPLEMENTATtON Upon approvat of main motion #1 by the Council of Representatives, the Reconcited Poticy Psychotogists' Work i n Nationat Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, w i t t be ptaced i n the Councit Poticy Manuat. The 2005 Report of the Presidentiat Task Force on Psychotogical Ethics and Nationat Security, the 2007 Reaffirmation of the American Psychotogicat Association Position against Torture and Other Cruet, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and t t s Apptication to Individuats Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants," and the 2008 APA poiicy. Amendment to the Reaffirmation of the American Psychologicat Association Position against Torture and Other Cruet, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and t t s Apptication to Individuats Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants," w i t t be removed from the Councit Policy Manuat.

tt is intended that the reconcited poticy be published in the American Psychologist and p Ethics Office home page of the o f f i c i a l APA website with t i n k s from the PubttcJnterest and Practice Directorate pages where guidetines and policy are posted for educational and dissemination purposes, t t i s likewise intended that this poticy be disseminated through APA Access and APA governance, Division, and SPTA l i s t s e r v s .t ti s further intended that the poticy be disseminated to the United States government (inctuding the President, Congress, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, and the Centra) tntettigence Agency, where psychologists' work may be affected by this reconcited poticy). The Ethics Committee, P&P, and COLt w i l t coltaborate with staff on imptementation strategies, including key a r t i c l e si n the Monitor on Psychotogy and Practice Update, among other print and web-based pubtications.

Upon Councit voting to receive the "Report of the APA Member-Initiated Task Force to Reco P o l i c i e s Related to Psychotogists' Work i n Nationai Security Settings," the report wit) be pubtished with the appropriate disclaimer ( i n keeping with APA Association Rutes) and with the accompanying poticy on the o f f i c i a t APA website as information, with l i n k s on appropriate homepages, and w i t t be distributed via APA a r t i c l e s . RECOMMENDAHON The Board of Directors and the Ethics Committee recommend approva) of the main motions.

The Policy and Ptanning Board commends the Member-tnitiated Task Force and Ethics Committ their efforts to c t a r i f y existing APA poticy on psychologists' work in nationat security settings and recommends approvat of Motion 1. P&P recognizes that the piecemeat creation of poticy over time, a l t with the best of intentions, ted to potentiat c o n f t i c t and confusion i n existing policy. The work of the Task Force i s an effort to c t a r i f y existing APA poticy so that we speak with one voice on this important issue. P&P encourages these sorts of efforts to update, c t a r i f y , reconcite, and streamline poticy where to do so would benefit the f i e i d and the pubtic. P&P chose not to make a recommendation on Main Motion 2.

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MAtN MOT!ON 1 1 That 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 Counci): 1) Rescinds the 2005 Report of the Presidentia) Task Force on Psychotogical Ethics and Nationa) Security, the 2007 APA poticy, Reaffirmation of the American Psychotogica) Association Position against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and I t s Apptication to Individuals Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants," and the 2008 APA policy, Amendment to the Reaffirmation of the American Psychologicat Association Position against Torture and Other Cruet, inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and i t s Apptication to individual Defined i n the United States Code as "Enemy Combatants." 2) Adopts as APA poticy the following Poticy Retated to Psychotogists' Work i n National Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: Poticy Retated to Psychotogists' Work in Nationa) Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruet, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment' Statement 1: According to the 2008 APA Petition Resotution Poticy, Psychotogists and Untawfut Detention Settings with a Focus on Nationat Security, "psychotogists may not work in settings where persons are he)d outside of, or in viotation of, either tnternationat Law (e.g., the UN Convent/on /tgamsr Torture and the Geneva Convenfmns) or the US Cbns#fu#on (where appropriate), untess they are working directty for the persons being detained or for an independent third party working to protect human rights."" APA i n recognizing that torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment can resutt not only from the behavior of individuats but aiso from the conditions of confinement, expresses grave concern over settings i n which detainees are deprived of adequate protection of their human rights, affirms the prerogative of psychotogists to refuse to work i n such settings, and w i t t continue to expiore ways to support psychotogists who refuse to work in such settings or who refuse to obey orders that constitute torture. Statement 2: t f the APA ffMcs Code estabtishes a higher standard of conduct than i s required by taw, psychotogists must meet the higher ethicat standard, t f psychotogists' ethica) responsibitities conftict with taw, regutations or other governing tegat authority or organizationat demands, psychotogists make known their commitment to this ffA/cs Code, and take reasonabte steps to resotve the conftict in a responsibte manner in keeping with basic principtes of human r i g h t s . " ' Ethica) Standard 1.02, ffn/ca/ Pr/nc?p/es of Psycho/og/sfs and Code of Conduct, Confticts Between Ethics and Law, Regutations, or Other Governing Legat Authority: t f psychologists' ethicat r e s p o n s i b i t i t i e sc o n f t i c t with taw, regulations or other governing t e g a t authority, psychotogists c t a r i f y the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the ffh/cs Code and take reasonabte steps to resolve the c o n f l i c t consistent with the Genera) Principles and Ethicat Standards of the Ffh/cs Code. Under no circumstances may t h i s standard be used to j u s t i f y or defend viotating human rights. E t h i c a t Standard 1.03, Ftn/ca/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sfs and Code of Conduct, Confticts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands: t f the demands of an organization with which psychotogists are a f f i l i a t e d or for whom they are working are i nc o n f l i c t with this ffn/cs Code, psychoiogists c l a r i f y the nature of the conftict, make known their commitment to the ftn/cs Code and take reasonabte steps to resolve the c o n f t i c t consistent with the General Principtes and Ethicat 23

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Standards of the fth/cs Code. Under no circumstances may this standard be used to j u s t i f y or defend viotating human rights. APA i s an accredited non-governmentat organization at the United Nations and so i s committed to promote and protect human rights i n accordance with the United Nations Charter and the (Jn/versa/ Dec/arat/on of Human R/ghts. Statement 3: Psychotogists shat! not knowingty engage in, assist, toterate, direct, support, advise, facititate, ptan, design, or offer training in torture or other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment under any and a t t conditions, nor shat! they participate in any procedure where such treatment i s threatened. Psychotogists may not entist others to emptoy these techniques in order to circumvent this poticy's prohibition. Moreover, psychotogists shatt not provide knowingty any research, instruments, or knowtedge that f a c i t i t a t e s the practice of torture or other forms of cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. APA unequivocally condemns torture and cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, under any and a i i conditions (app)icabte to a t t individuals, i na l t settings and i na l l contexts without exception), including detention and interrogations of any persons regardtess of designation ( e . g . , tawfut and unlawful enemy combatants as defined by the US M///tary Comm/ss/ons / S e t 0/2006*" or priviteged vs. unpriviteged enemy bettigerent as defined by the US M///tary Comm/ss/ons . A c t of 2009"). APA defines torture i n accordance with A r t i c l e i of the UN, Oec/araf/on and Cont/enf/on /tga/nst Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment (hereafter referred to as UN Convent/on ^ga/nst Torture): The term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physica) or mental, i s intentionatty i n f t i c t e d upon a person for such purposes as obtaining from him [ s i c ] or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or i s suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering i si n f l i c t e d by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public o f f i c i a ) or other person acting i n an o f f i c i a l[ e . g . , governmenta), religious, p o l i t i c a t , organizationat] capacity, t t does not inctude pain or suffering a r i s i n g onty from, inherent in, or incidentat to lawfut sanctions [ i n accordance with both domestic and international taw]. APA defines the term "cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment" to mean treatment or punishment of any person i n accordance with the United States Reservation i . l of the Reservations, Declarations and Understandings to the United Nations Cons/ent/on y3ga/nst 7brfure, which deSties this term as "the cruet, unusuat and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the F i f t h , Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Const/fut/on of the L / n / t e d States.""' APA further unequivocally condemns a t ) techniques considered torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment under the United Nations Convent/on ^go/nst Torture; the Geneva Convenf/ons; the Pr/nc/p/es of Med/ca/ Fth/cs Re/evant to the Ro/e of Hea/th Personne/, Part/cu/ar/y Phys/c/ans, / n the Protect/on of Pr/soners and Defa/nees aga/nst Torture and Other

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Ore/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment; the Bas/c Pr/nc/p/e5/or the Treatment of Pr/soners; or the Wortd Medicat Association Dec/arat/on o/ To^ryo. An absolute prohibition against the fottowing techniques therefore arises from, i s understood i n the context of, and i s interpreted according to these texts: Mock executions; water-boarding or any other form of simulated drowning or suffocation; sexual humiiiation; rape; cutturat or r e t i g i o u s humiliation; exptoitation of fears, phobias or psychopathology; induced hypothermia; the use of psychotropic drugs or mind-altering substances; hooding; forced nakedness; stress positions; the use of dogs to threaten or intimidate; physicat assault including slapping or shaking; exposure to extreme heat or cotd; threats of harm or death; isoiation; sensory deprivation and over-stimutation; steep deprivation; or the threatened use of any of the above techniques to an individual or to members of an individuals family."" This poiicy statement/section conforms to the Eth/ca/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sts and Code o/ Conduct: Principle A, Beneficence and Nonmaieficence ("Psychologists s t r i v e to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm, t n their professionat actions, psychotogists seek to safeguard the wetfare and rights of those with whom they interact professional^ and other affected persons..."), and Ethica) Standard 3.04, Avoiding Harm ("Psychotogists take reasonabte steps to avoid harming... others with whom they work, and to minimize harm where i ti s foreseeable and unavoidabie"). Statement 4: Psychotogists shat! be atert to acts of torture or other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. Shoutd such acts evotve during § procedure where a psychotogist i s present, the psychotogist shatt attempt tQ intervene to stop such behavior, and f a i t i n g that, the psychotogist has an ethica! responsibitity to exit the procedure and report these acts to the appropriate authorities. APA asserts that any APA member with knowtedge that a psychotogist, whether an APA member or non-member, has engaged i n torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, inctuding the specific behaviors l i s t e di n Statement 3 above, has an ethicat responsibitity to abide by Ethicat Standard 1.05, Reporting Ethicat Viotations, i n the Fth/ca/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sts and Code of Conduct (2010) and directs the Ethics Committee to take appropriate action based upon such information, and encourages psychotogists who are not APA members also to adhere to Ethica) Standard 1.05. APA further asserts that a t l psychotogists with information retevant to the use of any method of interrogation constituting torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment have an ethical r e s p o n s i b i t i t y to inform their superiors of such knowtedge, to inform the relevant office of inspector general when appropriate, and to cooperate f u l t y with a l t oversight a c t i v i t i e s , including hearings by the United States Congress and a l l branches of the United States government, to examine the perpetration of torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment against indjviduats i n United States custody, for the purpose of ensuring that no individuai i n the custody of the United States i s subjected to such acts. The ethica) responsibility to report i s rooted i n the fth/cs Code Preamble, "Psychologists respect and protect c i v i l and human rights... the devetopment of a dynamic set of ethica) standards for psychotogists' work-retated conduct requires a persona) commitment and t i f e l o n g effort to act e t h i c a t t y [and] to encourage ethicat behavior by ... colteagues," and Principte B, F i d e t i t y and Responsibility, which states that psychotogists "are aware of their professiona) and s c i e n t i f i c responsibiiities to society and to the specific communities i n which they work" and Ethica)

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Standard 1.05, Reporting E t h i c a t Violations, " I f an apparent ethical violation has substantially harmed or i sl i k e l y to substantialty harm a person." APA commends those psychotogists who have taken dear and unequivoca) stands against torture or crue), inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, especiaity i n the t i n e of duty, and inctuding stands against the specific behaviors (detaited i n Statement 3) or conditions l i s t e d above; and that the APA affirms the prerogative of psychotogists under the ff h / c s Code (2010) to disobey taw, regulations or orders when they c o n f l i c t with ethics i n keeping with Ethica) Standard 1.02. Statement 5: Psychoiogists in nationa! security settings sha!! work in accordance with internationat human rights instruments retevant to their rotes/'" Psychologists working i n nationat security settings shoutd review vita) human rights documents retevant to their rotes, such as: Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions: the United Nations Convent/on ^qq/nst Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Dearad/nq Treatment or Pun/shment: the Geneva Convent/ons: the Pr/nc/p/es of Med/ca/ Fth/cs Re/evant to the Ro/e of Hea/th Personne/, Part/cu/ar/y Phvs/c/ans, / n the Protect/on of Pr/soners and Defa/nees aaa/nst Torture and Other Crue/. /nhuman. or Dearad/na Treatment or Pun/shment; the Bas/c Pr/nc/p/es rbr the Treatment of Pr/soners: the United Nations Pr/nc/p/es on the fr7#et/ve /nvest/qqt/on and Documentat/on of Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Deorad/na Treatment or Pun/shment; and the World Medica) Association Dec/arat/on of TMyo. Gu/de//nes for Phys/c/ans Concern/nq Torture and other Crue/, /nhuman or Dearad/na Treatment or Pun/shm^nf / n Re/af/on to Detent/on and /mpr/sonment. Statement 6: When psychotogists serve i n any position by virtue of their training, experience, and expertise as psychotogists, inctuding psychotogists working in nationat security settings, they are bound by the APA CfMco^ Pr/nop/es of Psycho/og4ts ond Code of Conduct, in i t s e n t i r e t y . ' " Based on the Principtes and Standards of the APA fth/co/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sfs and Code of Conduct, psychotogists working i n nationat security settings shatt: * Abide by the Fth/cs Code i n any professionat role, including roles outside traditionat heatth-care provider retationships. * Seek to safeguard the wetfare and rights of those with whom they interact professional and other affected persons. This principte conforms to Ethics Code, Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmateficence: "Psychotogists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm." * Seek to understand individuals' cutture and ethnicity to avoid misunderstandings and potentiatharm. Faiture to understand aspects of individuals' cutture and ethnicity may generate misunderstandings, compromise the efficacy of work i n nationat security settings, and potentialty resutt i ns i g n i f i c a n t mentat and physical harm. (Principte E, Respect for People's Rights and Dignity, "Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual, and role differences, inctuding those based on ... race, ethnicity, culture, nationa) origin ... and consider

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these factors when working with members of such groups"; E t h i c a t Standard 2.01(b), Boundaries of Competence, "Where s c i e n t i f i c or professionat knowledge i n the d i s c i p l i n e of psychotogy establishes that an understanding of factors associated with ... race, ethnicity, culture, nationa) origin ... i s essentiat for effective imptementation of their services or research, psychologists have or obtain the training, experience, consuttation, or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of their services, or they make appropriate referrats ..."; and Ethical Standard 3.01, Unfair Discrimination, " I n their work-retated a c t i v i t i e s , psychotogists do not engage i n unfair discrimination based on... race, ethnicity, cutture, nationa) origin . . . " ) . * Be aware of the potential r i s k s involved i n multipte relationships, and fottow the guidance contained i n Standard 3.05 to minimize those risks. ( E t h i c a t Standard 3.05, Muttipte Relationships, "A psychologist refrains from entering into a muttipte retationship i f the muttiple retationship coutd reasonabty be expected to impair the psychotogist's objectivity, competence or effectiveness i n performing his or her functions as a psychologist, or otherwise r i s k s expioitation or harm to the person with whom the professiona) retationship exists"). * Be aware of and c t a r i f y their rote i n situations where the nature of their professiona) identity and professionat function may be ambiguous. Psychotogists have a special r e s p o n s i b i t i t y to c t a r i f y their rote in situations where individuats or other professionats may have an incorrect impression that psychologists are serving i na heatthcare provider rote. ( E t h i c a t Standards 3.07, Third-Party Requests for Services, "When psychoiogists agree to provide services to a person or entity at the request of a t h i r d party, psychologists attempt to c t a r i f y at the outset of the service the nature of the retationship with a t t individuats or organizations involved. This c t a r i f i c a t i o n includes the rote of the psychotogist.. an identification of who i s the ctient, the probabte uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be t i m i t s to confidentiatity"; and 3.11, Psychotogicat Services Detivered to or Through Organizations, "(a) psychologists delivering services to or through organizations provide information beforehand to c l i e n t s and when appropriate those d i r e c t i y affected by the services about (1) the nature and objectives of the services, (2) the intended recipients, (3) which of the individuats are ctients, (4) the relationship the psychotogist wit) have with each person and the organization, (5) the probable uses of services provided and information obtained, (6) who w i l t have access to the information, and (7) t i m i t s of confidentiatity"). Regardless of their rote, psychotogists who are aware of an individual i n need of heatth or mental heatth treatment may seek consuttation regarding how to ensure that the individuat receives needed care (Principte A, Beneficence and Nonmateficence). * C i a r i f y for themseh/es the i d e n t i t y of their c t i e n t . This poticy statement conforms to E t h i c a l Standard 3.07, Third-Party Requests for Services, "When psychoiogists agree to provide services to a person or entity at the request of a third party, psychotogists attempt to c t a r i f y at the outset of the service the nature of the relationship with a t l individuals or organizations involved. This c l a r i f i c a t i o n inctudes the role of the psychotogist... an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of who i s the ctient, the probabte uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be l i m i t s to confidentiatity." * Retain ethical obtigations to individuats who are not their clients.

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Regardless of whether an individua) i s considered a client, psychotogists have an ethica) obligation to "avoid harming their... organizationat ctients and others with whom they work, and to minimize harm where i ti s foreseeabie and unavoidabie" ( E t h i c a t Standard 3.04, Avoiding Harm). Psychotogists' ethical obtigations are especialty important where, because of a setting's unique characteristics, an individuat may not be f u t t y abte to assert relevant rights and interests (Principle A, Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, " ) n their professiona) actions, psychotogists seek to safeguard the wetfare and rights of those with whom they interact professional and other affected persons"; Principte D, Justice, "Psychotogists exercise reasonable judgment and take precautions to ensure that their potentia! biases, the boundaries of their competence, and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices"; Principte E, Respect for Peopte's Rights and Dignity, "Psychotogists are aware that speciat safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and wetfare of persons or communities whose vutnerabitities impair autonomous decision making"; and Ethicat Standard 3.08, Exptoitative Retationships, "Psychologists do not exploit persons over whom they have supervisory, evatuative or other authority..."). * Make clear the t i m i t s of confidentiaiity.

Psychotogists take care not to leave a misimpression that information i s confidentia) when i n fact i ti s not (Ethica) Standards 3.10, tnformed Consent, and 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiatity, "(a) Psychotogists discuss with persons (inctuding, to the extent feasibte, persons who are l e g a l l y incapabie of giving informed consent and their t e g a t representatives) and organizations with whom they estabtish a s c i e n t i f i c or professionat retationship (1) the relevant timits of confidentiatity and (2) the foreseeabte uses of the information generated through their psychotogica) activities"). * Be mindful that individuats hetd i n nationa) security settings may not have engaged i n untoward behavior and may not have information of nationa) security interest. Ethica) obtigations are not diminished by the nature of an individuals acts prior to detainment or the tiketihood of the individuat having relevant information. At a t t times psychotogists remain mindfut of and abide by the absotute prohibitions against engaging i n or f a c i l i t a t i n g torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment (Principte E, Respect for Peoptes' Rights and Dignity, "Psychologists are aware that speciat safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and wetfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making"; and 3.01, Unfair Discrimination," t n their work-reiated a c t i v i t i e s , psychoiogists do not engage i n unfair discrimination based on ... race, ethnicity, culture, nationa) origin ..."). * Be aware that certain settings may i n s t i l )i n individuals a profound sense of poweriessness and may ptace individuals i n considerabte positions of disadvantage i n terms of asserting their interests and rights. Psychologists are mindful that prisoners represent a vulnerable population. (Principle E: Respect for People's Rights and Dignity, "Psychotogists respect the dignity and worth of a l ) people, and the rights of individuats to privacy, confidentiatity, and setf-determination. Psychologists are aware that speciat safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and wetfare of persons or communities whose vutnerabitities impair autonomous decision making." Atso, Ethical Standards 1.01, Misuse of Psychoiogists' Work, " I f psychologists learn of misuse or misrepresentation of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct or minimize the misuse or misrepresentation,"

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and 3.08, Exptoitative Retationships, "Psychologists do not exploit persons over whom they have supervisory, evatuative or other authority ..."). * Consutt with others when they are facing d i f f i c u l t ethicat dilemmas. (Preambte to the Fth/cs Code, "The development of a dynamic set of ethicat standards for psychotogists' work-retated conduct requires a persona) commitment and t i f e l o n g effort to act ethically... and to consuit with others concerning ethica) probiems;" and Ethica) Standard 4.06, Consultations). * * Be w i t t i n g to take ethicat r e s p o n s i b i t i t y for their own behavior. Abide by the APA Eth/co/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sts and Code of Conduct, i ni t s entirety.

Statement 7: APA affirms that there are no exceptionat circumstances whatsoever, whether induced by a state of war or threat of war, interna! p o t i t i c a ti n s t a b i t i t y or any other pubtic emergency, that may be invoked as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, inctuding the invocation of taws, regutations, or orders. This poticy statement i si n keeping with A r t i c t e 2.2 of the UN Convent/on ^gq/nst Torture. Actions to be Undertaken by APA As a means to advance human rights i n the national security context, APA s h a t t continue to carry out the foilowing three broad a c t i v i t i e s : 1. APA shat) cat) upon the US government, i n instances where such action i s indicated, inciuding the President, Congress, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, and the Centra) )ntettigence Agency, to prohibit the use of torture or crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment i n any interrogation and APA shai) continue to inform retevant parties with the US government that psychotogists are prohibited from participating i n such methods, in order to protect against torture and cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, and i n order to mitigate against the liketihood that unretiabte and/or inaccurate information i s entered into iegat proceedings, APA s h a t t continue to c a l t upon the US lega) system to reject testimony that resutts from torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. 2. APA s h a l t offer ethica) guidance and support especiatty to psychologists working i n national security settings at the beginning of their careers, who may experience pressures to engage i n unethicat or inappropriate behaviors that they are t i k e t y to find d i f f i c u l t to r e s i s t . The APA Ethics Committee s h a t t deveiop and distribute a casebook and commentary, as well as additiona) guidance for psychotogists, which i s consistent with internationat human rights instruments, inctuding those cited eartier, as wett as guidetines deveioped for health professional, as i i s t e di n the coroiiary to Statement 5. The Ethics Committee shai) a)so devetop a consuttation process whereby psychotogists whose work invotves c l a s s i f i e d materiat may seek ethicat guidance for assistance and support. 3. APA shai) disseminate and pubiicize this reconcited APA policy against torture and other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, both within the Association (to boards, committees, and the membership at targe), to the United States government (inctuding the President, Congress, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, and the Centra) intettigence Agency) and to the wider pubtic to safeguard individuat wetfare and to advance human rights.

29

MAtN MOTtON 2

1 That Councit receives the Report of the APA Member-tnitiated Task Force to Reconcite AP 2 Poticies Retated to Psychotogists' Work i n Nationat Security Settings. SUMMARY/BACKGROUND

New Business ttem 25C, Reconcitiation of Policies Retated to Psychologists' Work in Natio Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruel, inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment was introduced at Councii's February 2013 meeting and referred to the Policy and Pianning Board and the Ethics Committee. Kathleen H. Dockett, EdD, and Wittiam J . Strickland, PhD, movers of the item, have agreed to withdraw the New Business ttem and support the main motions as presented above. Councit w i t t receive a separate item at i t s Juty 31 & August 2,2013, meeting requesting withdrawat of the o r i g i n a t new business item. EXHtBtTS

1. Report of the APA Member-tnitiated Task Force to Reconcite APA Policies Retated to Psy Work in Nationat Security Settings (2/13). 2. Council New Business ttem #25C (2/22/13). F//en G. Garr/son, PhD Execut/ve Qff/ce

The A m e r i c a nP s y c h o l o g i c a lA s s o c i a t i o nr e a f f i r m su n e q u i v o c a H yt h e 2006 R e s o l u t i o nA g a i n s tT o r t u r ea n dO t h e rC r u e l ,t n h u m a n .o rD e g r a d i n g T r e a t m e n to rP u n i s h m e n ti ni t se n t i r e t yi nb o t hs u b s t a n c ea n dc o n t e n t ,w h i c ha p p l i e st ot h e work o fp s y c h o t o g i s t si na l lc o n t e x t s . "tt is clarified by a footnote in the Member Peh'tfon Reso/uh'on "that mititary clinicat f o rm i l i t a r yp e r s o n n e l .

A primary text for determining the intended scope of the Member Pef/f/on Reso/ut/on, give S e t t i n g sw i t haF o c u s on N a t i o n a lS e c u r i t y , "i sf o u n di nt h eb a t t o tm a t e r i a l sd i s t r i b u t e dt ot h e APA m e m b e r s h i pd u r i n gt h ev o t i n gp r o c e s s .T h i s t e x ts t a t e s :

The referendum is specific, provides clear context, and sets a high bar: in setting where t h el a w— p l a c e s where t r e a t i e ss u c ha st h eG e n e v aC o n v e n t i o n sa n dC o n v e n t i o nA g a i n s tT o r t u r ea r ei g n o r e do rd e d a r e d n o tt oa p p l y-p s y c h o l o g i s t sc a nw o r ko n l yf o rt h o s ed e t a i n e d . U . S ." j a i l s ,p r i s o n s ,p s y c h i a t r i ch o s p i t a l s . . . "a l lf u n c t i o n w i t h i nt h el e g a ls y s t e m . E v e ni ft h e ya r ef o u n dt ob ei nv i o l a t i o no ft h ec o n s t i t u t i o n ,t h ef i n d i n gi t s e t fd e m o n s t r a t e st h a t t h e yf u n c t i o nw i t h i nat e g a tf r a m e w o r k ,a n dt h u s do n o t meet t h a tb a r . No m a t t e r how b a dc o n d i t i o n sm i g h tb ea tt h o s e d o m e s t i ci n s t i t u t i o n s ,t h e yc a nb ec h a l l e n g e do p e n t yi nU . S .c o u r t s ,a n de v e r y o n eh e t dt h e r eh o l d st h er i g h t so fh a b e a s c o r p u s ;t h u st h e yd i f f e rs i g n i f i c a n t l yf r o mt h es e c r e t ,e x t r a l e g a ls e t t i n g st h a ta r et h es u b j e c to ft h i sr e f e r e n d u m .

For additional information about the intended scope of the Pet/t/on RKo/ut/on, please see on t h ef r n p f e m e n t o t / o no ft h eP e t ? # o nR e M ( H f < o n :

How is it to be determined whether the policy applies to a particular detention setting a i nv i o l a t i o no f ,i n t e r n a t i o n a ll a w ? "

A determination of whether a particutar detention setting is "in violation of internation The U . N .a n di t sc o m m i t t e e sc a nd e c l a r eas i t et ob ei nv i o l a t i o no fi n t e r n a t i o n a ll a w ,a sc a na n yi n t e r n a t i o n a lb o d yt h a tt h eU . N . t a k e st o be a u t h o r i t a t i v e .As e t t i n gt h a th a sb e e nc e n s u r e d due t or e a s o n sr e f l e c t e db yt h i sp o l i c yb yt h eC o u n c i lo fE u r o p e ,t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a lC o m m i t t e eo ft h eR e dC r o s s( I C R C ) ,o ro t h e ri n t e r n a t i o n a l l ya c c e p t e db o d ya s" o u t s i d eo f ,o ri nv i o l a t i o no f , i n t e r n a t i o n a )l a w "w o u l da l s ob ec o n s i d e r e dap r o s c r i b e do rp r o h i b i t e ds e t t i n g . The f a c t o r st a k e ni n t oc o n s i d e r a t i o nb yt h eU . N .a n d o t h e ri n t e r n a t i o n a l l ya c c e p t e db o d i e si nm a k i n gs u c had e t e r m i n a t i o n may i n c l u d eal a c ko fh a b e a sc o r p u sr i g h t so ro t h e rf o r m so f j u d i c i a lr e v i e wf o rd e t a i n e e s ,d e n i a lo fa c c e s st ot h es i t ea n dt od e t a i n e e sb yU . N .m o n i t o r s ,a n dt h eu s eo ft o r t u r eo ro t h e rf o r m so f c r u e l , inhuman, o rd e g r a d i n gt r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n t . The d e t e r m i n a t i o no fw h e t h e ra p a r t i c u l a rd e t e n t i o ns e t t i n gi so p e r a t i n g " o u t s i d eo fi n t e r n a t i o n a ll a w "r e s t s on w h e t h e rt h ea u t h o r i t yg o v e r n i n gt h es i t ed e c l a r e si t s e l ft ob eu n b o u n db yt h er e l e v a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a lo rc o n s t i t u t i o n a ll a w ,t h e r e b yi n d i c a t i n gi t su n w i l l i n g n e s st oa b i d eb ys u c hl a w s .R e l e v a n te x a m p l e si n c l u d ean a t i o n 30

s t a t i n gi tw i l lt r e a td e t a i n e e si n a manner " c o n s i s t e n t "w i t ht h el a wr a t h e rt h a ni nc o m p l i a n c ew i t ht h el a w ;as t a t et h a ta c c e p t st h e l a wi np a r to rw i t hr e s e r v a t i o n s ;a n dag o v e r n i n ga u t h o r i t yt h a ta v o i d st h eu s eo fi n t e r n a t i o n a l l ya c c e p t e dc a t e g o r i e s ,e . g . ,b yn a m i n g i t sd e t a i n e e s "enemy c o m b a t a n t s , "at e r mt h a td o e sn o te x i s ti ni n t e r n a t i o n a ll a w . The p r e s e n c eo fa n y one o ft h e s ec o n d i t i o n sd o e s n o ta u t o m a t i c a l l y mean t h a tas i t ei su n l a w f u li nt e r m so ft h i sp o l i c y .B u ta l o n e ,o ri nc o m b i n a t i o n ,t h e y do s u g g e s tt h ep o s s i b i l i t y t h a tas e t t i n gf a i l st oc o m p l yw i t ht h es t a n d a r d so ft h i sp o l i c y ;t h e i re x i s t e n c ep r o v i d e ss u f f i c i e n tb a s i sf o rc o n c e r na n df u r t h e r i n q u i r y .

"Etn/co/ Pnnc<p/e$ o/Psycno?ogM& ancf Code of Conduct, Retrieved from htto://www.aoa.org/

"Defined as both unlawful enemy combatants and lawful enemy combatants as set forth in th 47A; S u b c h a p t e rI : A§ 9 4 8 a .D e f i n i t i o n s ) : ( 1 ) UNLAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT. ( A ) The t e r m' u n l a w f u l enemy c o m b a t a n t ' means( i )ap e r s o n who h a se n g a g e di nh o s t i l i t i e so r who h a sp u r p o s e f u l l ya n dm a t e r i a l l ys u p p o r t e dh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e d S t a t e so ri t sc o b e l l i g e r e n t s who i sn o tal a w f u l enemy c o m b a t a n t( i n c l u d i n gap e r s o n who i sp a r to ft h eT a l i b a n ,a l Qaeda, o r a s s o c i a t e df o r c e s ) ;o r ( i i )ap e r s o n who, b e f o r e , on, o ra f t e rt h ed a t eo ft h ee n a c t m e n to ft h eM i l i t a r yC o m m i s s i o n sA c to f 2006, h a sb e e nd e t e r m i n e d t o be an u n l a w f u l enemy c o m b a t a n tb yaC o m b a t a n tS t a t u sR e v i e wT r i b u n a lo ra n o t h e rc o m p e t e n tt r i b u n a le s t a b l i s h e du n d e rt h e a u t h o r i t yo ft h eP r e s i d e n to rt h eS e c r e t a r yo fD e f e n s e . ( B )C O B E L L I G E R E N T .-I nt h i sp a r a g r a p h ,t h et e r m' c o b e l l i g e r e n t ' ,w i t hr e s p e c tt ot h eU n i t e dS t a t e s , means a n yS t a t eo r armed f o r c ej o i n i n ga n dd i r e c t l ye n g a g e dw i t ht h eU n i t e dS t a t e si nh o s t i l i t i e so rd i r e c t l ys u p p o r t i n gh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s t a common enemy. ( 2 ) LAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT - The t e r m' l a w f u l enemy c o m b a t a n t ' means a p e r s o n who i s ( A ) a member o ft h er e g u l a rf o r c e so faS t a t ep a r t ye n g a g e di nh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ; ( B ) a member o fa m i l i t i a ,v o l u n t e e rc o r p s ,o ro r g a n i z e dr e s i s t a n c e movement b e l o n g i n gt oaS t a t ep a r t ye n g a g e di ns u c h h o s t i l i t i e s ,w h i c ha r eu n d e rr e s p o n s i b l e command, wear a f i x e dd i s t i n c t i v es i g nr e c o g n i z a b l ea tad i s t a n c e ,c a r r yt h e i r arms o p e n l y , a n da b i d eb yt h el a wo f war; o r ( C ) a member o fa r e g u l a ra r m e df o r c e who p r o f e s s e sa l l e g i a n c et oag o v e r n m e n te n g a g e di ns u c hh o s t i l i t i e s ,b u tn o tr e c o g n i z e d b yt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s .

"Defined as both privileged belligerent and unprivileged enemy belligerent as set forth i 47A; S u b c h a p t e rI :§9 4 8 a .D e f i n i t i o n s ) :

(6) PRIViLEGED BELLIGERENT.-The term privileged belligerent' means an individual belongin e n u m e r a t e di nA r t i c l e4o ft h eG e n e v aC o n v e n t / o nR e l a t i v et ot h eT r e a t m e n to fP r i s o n e r so f War. ( 7 )U N P R t V I L E G E D ENEMY B E L U G E R E N T . T h et e r m' u n p r i v i l e g e d enemy b e l l i g e r e n t ' means a ni n d i v i d u a l( o t h e rt h a nap r i v i l e g e d b e l l i g e r e n t ) who- ( A )h a se n g a g e di nh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e so ri t sc o a l i t i o np a r t n e r s ;( B )h a sp u r p o s e f u l l ya n dm a t e r i a l l y s u p p o r t e dh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e so ri t sc o a l i t i o np a r t n e r s ;o r( C ) was a p a r to fa l Qaeda a tt h et i m eo ft h ea l l e g e d o f f e n s eu n d e rt h i sc h a p t e r .

"Specifically, United States Reservation 1.1 of the Reservations, Declarations and Unders T o r t u r es t a t i n g ,' t h et e r mc r u e l ,i n h u m a no rd e g r a d i n gt r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n t ' means t h ec r u e l ,u n u s u a la n di n h u m a n et r e a t m e n to r p u n i s h m e n tp r o h i b i t e db yt h eF i f t h ,E i g h t h ,a n d / o rF o u r t e e n t h Amendments t ot h eC o n s t i t u t i o no ft h eU n i t e dS t a t e s . "

Amendment V. No p e r s o ns h a l lb eh e l dt oa n s w e rf o rac a p i t a l ,o ro t h e r w i s ei n f a m o u sc r i m e ,u n l e s s on a p r e s e n t m e n to ri n d i c t m e n to fa G r a n dJ u r y , e x c e p ti nc a s e sa r i s i n gi nt h el a n do rn a v a lf o r c e s ,o ri nt h eM i l i t i a , when i na c t u a ls e r v i c ei nt i m eo f War o rp u b l i cd a n g e r ;n o rs h a l l a n yp e r s o n be s u b j e c tf o rt h e same o f f e n c et o be t w i c ep u ti nj e o p a r d yo fl i f eo rl i m b ;n o rs h a l l be c o m p e l l e di na n yc r i m i n a lc a s et o be a w i t n e s sa g a i n s th i m s e l f[ s i c ] ,n o r be d e p r i v e do fl i f e ,l i b e r t y ,o rp r o p e r t y ,w i t h o u t due p r o c e s so fl a w ;n o rs h a l lp r i v a t ep r o p e r t y b et a k e nf o rp u b l i cu s e ,w i t h o u tj u s tc o m p e n s a t i o n . Amendment VIII. E x c e s s i v eb a i ls h a l ln o t be r e q u i r e d ,n o re x c e s s i v ef i n e si m p o s e d ,n o rc r u e la n du n u s u a lp u n i s h m e n t si n f l i c t e d . Amendment XIV. S e c t i o n1 .A l lp e r s o n sb o r no rn a t u r a l i z e di nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ,a n ds u b j e c tt ot h ej u r i s d i c t i o nt h e r e o f ,a r ec i t i z e n so ft h eU n i t e d S t a t e sa n do ft h eS t a t ew h e r e i nt h e yr e s i d e . No S t a t es h a l l make o re n f o r c ea n yl a ww h i c hs h a l la b r i d g et h ep r i v i l e g e so ri m m u n i t i e s o fc i t i z e n so ft h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ;n o rs h a l la n yS t a t ed e p r i v ea n yp e r s o no fl i f e ,l i b e r t y ,o rp r o p e r t y ,w i t h o u t due p r o c e s so fl a w ;n o r d e n yt oa n yp e r s o nw i t h i ni t sj u r i s d i c t i o nt h ee q u a lp r o t e c t i o no ft h el a w s .

""it should be noted that voluntary exposure to many of these techniques as part of milit c r u e l ,i n h u m a n ,o rd e g r a d i n gt r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n tu n d e ri n t e r n a t i o n a ll a wa n d d o e sn o tc o n s t i t u t et o r t u r eo rc r u e l , inhuman, o rd e g r a d i n g t r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n tu n d e rt h i sr e c o n c i l e dp o l i c y .S E R E( S u r v i v a l ,E v a s i o n ,R e s i s t a n c e ,a n dE s c a p e )i sap r o g r a m ,b e s t known b yi t sm i l i t a r y a c r o n y m ,t h a tp r o v i d e sU . S .m i l i t a r yp e r s o n n e l ,U . S .D e p a r t m e n to fD e f e n s ec i v i l i a n s ,a n dp r i v a t em i l i t a r yc o n t r a c t o r sw i t ht r a i n i n gi ne v a d i n g c a p t u r e ,s u r v i v a ls k i l l s ,a n dt h em i l i t a r yc o d eo fc o n d u c t . 31

" ' " A l t h o u g hp s y c h o l o g i s t st ow h i c ht h i sr e c o n c i l e dp o l i c ya p p l i e sa r ee x p e c t e dt oh a v eg e n e r a lk n o w l e d g eo rr e l e v a n tl e g a la n d human r i g h t s c o n c e p t s( e . g . ,t h ea b s o l u t ep r o h i b i t i o na g a i n s tt o r t u r ea n dc r u e l ,i n h u m a n ,a n dd e g r a d i n gt r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n t ) ,p s y c h o l o g i s t sa r en o t e x p e c t e dt oh a v ee x p e r t i s ei ni n t e r n a t i o n a ll a wa n d human r i g h t sr e q u i r e m e n t sa n da r et h u se n c o u r a g e dt os e e kg u i d a n c ef r o mi n d i v i d u a l sw i t h s u c hk n o w l e d g e .

'"The reconciled policy does not amend the Ethics Code and does not constitute Ethics Com E t h i c sC o m m i t t e ea n dt h eE t h i c sO f f i c ea r ea v a i l a b l et o members a n dt h ep u b l i cf o rc o n s u l t a t i o n .

32

Report of the A P A Member-Initiated T a s k Force to Reconcile A P A Policies Related to Psychologists' W o r k in National Security Settings

Members: Linda M. Wootf, PhD (Chair) Laura Brown, PhD Kathleen Dockett, EdD Julie Meranze Levitt, PhD William Strickland, PhD

Reports of the American Psychotogkat Association (APA) synthesize current psychoiogica! knowledge in a given area and may offer recommendations for future action. They do not constitute APA poHcy nor commit APA to the a c t i v i t i e s described therein. This particuMr report originated with the APA Membert n i t i a t e d Task Force to ReconcHe APA Pohcies Reiated to Psychotogists' Work in Nationa! Security Settings. The Task Force i s comprised of APA members but i s not an APA-sponsored task force and i s not under the purview of any APA board, committee, task force, or directorate.

33

Introduction

Over the past eight years, there have been ongoing discussions of American Psychotogicat p o l i c i e s addressing psychoiogists' work in and r e l a t e dt on a t i o n a ts e c u r i t y detention s e t t i n g s . Recent discussions h i g h t i g h t the need f o rar e c o n c i t i a t i o n of APA's t a r g e body of p o t i c i e sr e t a t e dt ot o r t u r e ,p r o f e s s i o n a t ethics, detainee wetfare, and i n t e r r o g a t i o ni n the n a t i o n a ts e c u r i t y context. These p o t i c i e s date back 27 years and inctude f i v e Councit r e s o t u t i o n s (t986, 1987,2006,2007, and 2008), the PENS r e p o r t poticy of 2005, and the membership p e t i t i o nr e s o t u t i o n of 2008. In t h i s context, i ti sa t s oe s s e n t i a tt o consider the APA Ethics Code change of 2010, which fundamentatty a t t e r e dE t h i c a t Standards 1 . 0 2( r e l a t e dt oc o n f t i c t s between e t h i c s and taw, regutations, or other governing t e g a t authority) and 1 . 0 3( r e t a t e dt oc o n f t i c t s between e t h i c s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands). These p o t i c i e s emphasize the i n v i o t a t e nature of human r i g h t s and s t a t e unequivocally t h a tt o r t u r ei sa v i o l a t i o n of both human r i g h t s and psychologists' p r o f e s s i o n a le t h i c s and as such i s always p r o h i b i t e d .

Currently, there is no integrative document outlining att of APA's policies retated to t wetfare, and i n t e r r o g a t i o n . There has been s i g n i f i c a n t work on p o l i c yr e l a t e dt o the r o l e of psychotogists i n n a t i o n a ts e c u r i t y ,p a r t i c u l a r l y since the d r a f t i n g of the 1986 Opposition t o Torture Resolution, the 1987 Human Rights Resolution, and t h e 2005 APA P r e s i d e n t i a l Task Force on Psychotogicat Ethics and Nationat S e c u r i t y (PENS) r e p o r t . These newer p o l i c i e s are more extensive i nt h e i rc t e a rp r o h i b i t i o na g a i n s t psychotogist involvement i n any form of t o r t u r e or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment as defined under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and hence, t h e s ep o t i c i e s must be moved i n t ot h ef o r e f r o n t of a l l general policy concerning the r o l e of p s y c h o l o g i s t si ni n t e r r o g a t i o ns e t t i n g s . ChaUenges Associated with Multiple Policy Statements

The evolving but seemingly disconnected nature of APA policy addre&sing psychologists' w n a t i o n a ls e c u r i t yd e t e n t i o ns e t t i n g s has created s e v e r a l chattenges. F i r s t , the l a r g e body of at times redundant or c o n f l i c t i n gp o t i c i e si nt h i s area makes i td i f f i c u t tt o discern and communicate coherent and meaningful e t h i c a l guidance t o inform the work of psychotogists i nn a t i o n a ls e c u r i t ys e t t i n g s . Indeed, i ti sd i f f i c u l tt o determine how i n d i v i d u a tp o t i c i e sr e t a t et o one another and t o the APA Ethics Code, and which poticy takes precedence when p o t i c i e sc o n f l i c t . Unfortunately, the human r i g h t sp r i n c i p t e sa t the h e a r t of these documents can a t s o become obscured.

Second, due to the evolving nature of APA policy since 2005 and with the 2008 passage of Resolution and changes t o the APA Ethics Code i n 2010, t h e r e now e x i s tc o n t r a d i c t i o n s within APA policy. As such, some e a r l i e rp o l i c i e s are no longer v a l i d as a r e s u l t of subsequent poticy statements. For exampte, a c e n t r a l aspect of the PENS p o l i c y( r e l a t i n gt oE t h i c a t Standards 1 . 0 2 and t .03) i s now out of date fottowing the 2010 change t o the Ethics Code. Atso, a core d e f i n i t i o n a t provision of the 2007 Council r e s o l u t i o nr e l a t e dt ot o r t u r e was rescinded and replaced the fottowing year.

Finally, the piecemeal nature of the policies lends itsetf to viewing individuat policie context of APA's p o s i t i o ni ni t se n t i r e t y , and thereby r i s k s APA's p o s i t i o n being m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . Goal

Based on the above, the Member-Initiated Task Force to Reconcile Poticies Retated to Psy Involvement i n National S e c u r i t yS e t t i n g s was formed i n January 2012, comprised of APA members, with the following goat:

To reptace the PENS report and related Council resolutions focused on torture, ethics, d and i n t e r r o g a t i o n with a u n i f i e d , comprehensive APA p o t i c y document t oo f f e rc l e a r guidance f o r psychologists i nn a t i o n a ls e c u r i t ys e t t i n g s . This document woutd a l s o incorporate, but not replace, the 2006 Council r e s o l u t i o na g a i n s tt o r t u r e , the membership p e t i t i o nr e s o t u t i o n , and the amendments t o the APA Ethics Code, which woutd a l l remain i ne f f e c t as APA p o l i c y .

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The following p r i n c i p l e s are underscored i nt h e proposed r e c o n c i l e dp o l i c y and are drawn from e x i s t i n g APA p o l i c i e s : * Torture is atways a viotation of human rights and psychotogists' prolessionat ethics; * Psychologists are always prohibited from engaging in torture or other cruet, inhuman, treatment or punishment;

* Abusive interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding and sensory deprivation, const cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment and are always prohibited;

* The role of psychologists in unlawful detention settings is limited to working on beha providing treatment f o rm i l i t a r y personnel;

a There is absolutely no defense to a violation of human rights under the APA Ethics Cod APA Policies included in the Proposed Reconciled Policy * 2010 Amendments to the Ethics Code: 1.02 and 1.03

p 1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regutations, or Other Governing Legal Authority psychologists' e t h i c a tr e s p o n s i b i l i t i e sc o n f t i c t with law, regutations, or other governing t e g a l a u t h o r i t y , psychologists c t a r i f y the nature of the c o n f l i c t , make known t h e i r commitment t o the Ethics Code, and take reasonable s t e p st o resotve the c o n f t i c tc o n s i s t e n t with the General P r i n c i p t e s and E t h i c a t Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances may t h i s standard be used t oj u s t i f y or defend v i o t a t i n g human r i g h t s .

o 1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands. If the demands of an organiz with which psychologists are a f f i l i a t e d or f o r whom they are working are in c o n f t i c t with t h i s Ethics Code, psychotogists c l a r i f y the nature of the c o n f t i c t , make known t h e i r commitment t o the Ethics Code, and take reasonabte s t e p st or e s o t v e the c o n f l i c tc o n s i s t e n t with the General P r i n c i p l e s and E t h i c a t Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances may t h i s standard be used t oj u s t i f y or defend v i o t a t i n g human r i g h t s .

* 2008 Petition Resolution Battot and the related Report of the APA Presidential Advisor Implementation of the P e t i t i o n Resolution

* 2008 Amendment to the Reaffirmation of the American Psychological Association Position Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and I t s Apptication t o I n d i v i d u a l s Defined i n the United S t a t e s Code as "Enemy Combatants" * 2007 Reaffirmation of the American Psychologicat Association Position Against Torture Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and I t s Application t oI n d i v i d u a t s Defined i n the United S t a t e s Code as "Enemy Combatants"

* 2006 Resotution Against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or P * 2005 APA Presidentiat Task Force on Psychotogicat Ethics and National Security (PENS) * 1987 Human Rights Resolution * 1986 Opposition to Torture Resolution

This consolidated poticy witl reptace the PENS report, atong with other Councit resotuti s e c u r i t ys e t t i n g s , but w i t t not reptace the broader 2006 Councit Resotution Against Torture and Other Cruel,

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Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the membership p e t i t i o nr e s o l u t i o n , or the amendments t o the Ethics Code, a l l of which w i l l remain i n t a c t as APA poticy. Brief History of the Member-tnitiated Task Force and Process APA members approached the APA Board of Directors with concerns about how APA poticies e t h i c s , detainee welfare, and i n t e r r o g a t i o n were being presented i nd i f f e r e n t contexts. The Board of Directors encouraged these i n d i v i d u a l st o combine e f f o r t s and develop a j o i n t ,g r a s s r o o t st a s kf o r c et o pursue t h e i r shared v i s i o n of a u n i f i e d , comprehensive, and c o n s i s t e n t APA poticy r e l a t e dt ot o r t u r e ,e t h i c s , detainee wetfare, and i n t e r r o g a t i o n .

Since January 2012, the Member-Initiated Task Force has met regularty via conference ca d i s c u s s i o n with a dedicated t i s t s e r v . The Task Force announced the c r e a t i o n of the group and developed a website f o r dissemination of m a t e r i a t s and transparency of the process - h t t p : / / w w w . u n i f i e d p o t i c v t a s k f o r c e . o r e . Our goat was t oc r e a t ead r a f tr e c o n c i t e dp o t i c yt h a t woutd undergo t h r e es t a g e s of review: Two s t a g e s of review p r i o rt oi n i t i a l submission t o the APA Council of Representatives (CoR) and an APA Board/Committee review p r i o rt o submission f o r a vote by CoR. Routine CoR process r e q u i r e si n i t i a t submission of a new business item a t one meeting, a governance review, and then a vote by CoR a t a subsequent meeting. Prior t o submission t o CoR, the f i r s t stage of the review woutd be a s e t e c t consultant review and the second stage woutd be an open, public c a l lf o r comments.

In mid-June, the Task Force sent out a Cat! for Consultants (see Appendix A) to a broad f o ri n d i v i d u a l st o review the d r a f tc o n s o l i d a t e d policy. Our c a t t went t o APA Divisions; State, Provincial, and T e r r i t o r i a l Psychological Associations (SPTAs); four Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (EMPAs); Psychotogists f o r Social R e s p o n s i b i l i t y (PsySR); the Coatition f o r an Ethical Psychology; Psychologists f o r an E t h i c a t APA; some i n t e r n a t i o n a l psychologica) organizations; and t o psychotogists involved i n the n a t i o n a t s e c u r i t ys e c t o r . Our goal was t o draw on the e x p e r t i s e of a broad range of c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and perspectives t o devetop a coherent and u s e f u lr e c o n c i t e d APA p o t i c y going forward. Betow are the i n d i v i d u a l s who have votunteered or were appointed by t h e i ra s s o c i a t i o n st o serve as c o n s u t t a n t s and provided commentary. Note t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a ti d e n t i f i c a t i o n does not s i g n i f yo r g a n i z a t i o n a t endorsement of the p o t i c y . AHan Omoto, PhD (Division 9) Wendy Williams, PhD (Division 9) Metvin A. Gravitz, PhD (Division 13) Cathleen CavieHo, PhD (Division 13) WatterPenk, PhD (Division 18) L. Morgan Banks, PhD (Division 19) Larry James, PhD (Division 19) David N. Elkins, PhD (Division 32) Joseph B. Juhasz, PhD (Division 34) Chris Meissner, PhD (Division 4t) George Hough, PhD (Division 48) Arthur Kendall, PhD (Division 48) Robert Younger, PhD (Division 55) Holly Sanger, PhD (Iowa Psychotogicat Association) Wendy Peters, PhD (Indi<# American Psychotogicat Association) Jesse Aros, PhD. ( N a t i o n a t Latina/o Psychological Association) Robert Roland, PhD (National S e c u r i t y Sector) Thomas Wittiams, PhD (Nationat S e c u r i t y Sector) Brad Johnson, PhD (No o r g a n i z a t i o n a ta f f i l i a t i o n ) Corann Okorodudu, EdD(No o r g a n i z a t i o n a la f f i l i a t i o n ) J u d i t h Van Hoom, PhD (No o r g a n i z a t i o n a ta f f i l i a t i o n )

An announcement disseminated via APA tistservs regarding the selection of consuttants a names and d r a f t poticy were posted on the Task Force webpage.

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The Member-Initiated Task Force thanks the work of the above named c o n s u l t a n t s who reviewed and commented on the f i r s tr e c o n c i l e d poticy d r a f t . Based on t h e i r comments and suggestions, the f i r s td r a f tp o t i c y underwent s i g n i f i c a n tr e v i s i o n s .I t shoutd be noted t h a t not a l l suggested r e v i s i o n s were possible as the goat of t h e Task Force was not t od r a f t new policy or r e v i s e policy but r a t h e r to r e c o n c i l ee x i s t i n g policy. Alt consultant comments were placed f o r pubtic review on the Task Force webpage.

In early January 2013, a second draft policy was announced for public review (see Append d r a f t was a l s o ptaced on the Task Force website. Feedback was encouraged and a f i n a lc a l l was posted v i a t i s t s e r v si n February. Based on the feedback received, minor r e v i s i o n s were made r e s u l t i n gi n the f i n a t proposed r e c o n c i l e dp o l i c y below. W e thank a l l who sent comments t o the Task Force about the proposed r e c o n c i t e d p o t i c y .

In tate February 2013, foltowing submission of a new business item to CoR, the draft pot a d d i t i o n a ls t a g e of review and minor r e v i s i o n . We thank the t h r e e governance groups within APA responsibte f o r reviewing t h i sr e c o n c i t e d policy d r a f t (Committee on Legal Issues; Ethics Committee; Poticy and Ptanning Board) f o rt h e i r time, c a r e f u la n a l y s i s , and valuable feedback. Organization of the Proposed Policy The document is divided into two sections:

Section One contains the reconcited Policy Related to Psychotogists' Work in Nationat Se Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The r e c o n c i l e dp o t i c yi s comprised of seven statements and r e s p e c t i v ee o r o t t a r i e s grounded i n e x i s t i n g APA poticy. When possible, the o r i g i n a l wording of a l tp o l i c y statements was r e t a i n e d . In cases of c o n t r a d i c t o r y wording, the most recent p o l i c y wording was s e l e c t e df o r use in the reconciled poticy. The poticy s t a t e m e n t s are organized as fotlows: Statement One: Member Petition Referendum Statement Two: Ethics Code 1 . 0 2 and 1 . 0 3 Statements Three - Four: P o l i c i e sa g a i n s tt o r t u r e and crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment Statement Five: I n t e r n a t i o n a t Human Rights Instruments Statement Six: Ethics Code i ni t se n t i r e t y Statement Seven: No exceptional circumstances can be used to j u s t i f yt o r t u r e and cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment

Section Two contains Addttionat Resource Material retated to specific Statements in Sect s e c t i o n coutd be q u i t e extensive, we e l e c t e dt o only i n c t u d em a t e r i a ld i r e c t l yr e t a t e dt ot h e Statements inctuded i n Section One or referenced i n previous APA p o l i c y documents. As such, other groups may e l e c tt o independently or within APA expand t h i sa d d i t i o n a t resource m a t e r i a l with the caveat t h a ti t does not c o n t r a d i c t or circumvent the Policy Statements contained i n Section One. Additional Feedback from Reviewers

Throughout the Task Force process and review, we received suggestions for future actions concerns. Due t ot h et i m i t e dn a t u r e of our goal, we coutd not address every concern or suggestion. W e could not i n j e c t new p o l i c yi n t o die process as we were working s o l e t yt or e c o n c i l ee x i s t i n g policy.

Nonetheless, we agreed to include comments/suggestions with our report. Betow are some o comments/suggestions r a i s e d by c o n s u l t a n t s and o t h e ri n d i v i d u a t s who p a r t i c i p a t e di n the review process. Other groups within APA or Councit may e t e c tt o address these i s s u e si n the f u t u r e . Ptease be aware t h a t these i s s u e s a r e not presented i n any order of preference. Moreover, t h ei n c l u s i o n does not r e p r e s e n t an endorsement f o r a c t i o n but r a t h e ri s based simpty on having been mentioned by more than one reviewer/commenter.

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*

Several i n d i v i d u a t s argued f o r the need f o r an absolute p r o h i b i t i o n against psychologist involvement in any form of i n t e r r o g a t i o n or c o n s u l t a t i o n with any i n t e r r o g a t i o n process.

* Concerns were raised that the term "national security settings," in the title and docu

* Concerns were expressed about the role of international laws for which the United Sta s i g n a t o r y . As s t a t e d by one reviewer, "AH f e d e r a l employees are required t o follow the US C o n s t i t u t i o n . This inctudes any i n t e r n a t i o n a t instruments t o which the US i sas i g n a t o r y .I f the US i s not as i g n a t o r yt oap a r t i c u l a r instrument, then i t may not be l e g a lf o raf e d e r a l emptoyee t o follow t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a t instrument."

It should be noted that according to the Legat Information Institute, ComeM University L "Documents such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaim the i d e a t s of n a t i o n sa s p i r i n g t or e s p e c t the human r i g h t s of people of a t l nations. Legally, however, these documents do not bind countries. Rather, t r e a t i e s such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention on the Elimination of Atl Forms of Racial Discrimination; the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenant on C i v i l and P o t i t i c a t Rights; and the I n t e r n a t i o n a t Covenant on Economic, Social and C u l t u r a l Rights provide the i n t e r n a t i o n a tl e g a l framework to p r o t e c t human r i g h t s " (http://www.law.cornett.edu/wex/humanjrights). The United S t a t e si sas i g n a t o r yt o t h e s et h r e e major human r i g h t s documents. The United S t a t e si sa l s oas i g n a t o r yt o the Convention Against Torture and the Geneva Conventions. Nonetheless, APA may want to exptore t h i si s s u ef u r t h e r , not j u s ti nr e l a t i o nt ot h i s document but a t s o the APA Ethics Code. * Some reviewers suggested that APA conduct a review of the PENS process, highlighting problems a s s o c i a t e d with t h a t process.

* Some reviewers suggested that APA shoutd have an independent review to examine any "c past mistakes i nr e l a t i o nt o the i s s u e of t o r t u r e and i n t e r r o g a t i o n s .

* It was suggested that the policy be expanded beyond just U.S. policy but to inctude o Codes of Conduct.

* Concerns were expressed about the inclusion of "sensory deprivation" as a form of tort inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. As noted by a reviewer, "a reference t o sensory deprivation i n the context of t o r t u r e must d i s t i n g u i s h between reduced stimulus i n p u t as a research, t h e r a p e u t i c , stress-management, and performance-enhancing technique t h a t follows a l l of the r u l e s of e t h i c a t research and treatment with human beings, with an extensive empirical l i t e r a t u r e , and stimutus reduction used t o enhance t o impact of a c t u a tt o r t u r e techniques. This d i s t i n c t i o nt e dt ot h e abandonment of the term ' s e n s o r y deprivation' by the r e l e v a n t research and p r a c t i c e community i n the 198O's and t h e r e a f t e r ,i n favour of the term " R e s t r i c t e d Environmental Stimulation Technique," or REST.'"

Again, we provide the above list based on feedback received during reviews of the reconc n e i t h e r endorse nor not endorse such f u t u r ea c t i o n . Regardtess, a t t of the above suggestions woutd have invotved expanding the scope of our work and/or invotved the d r a f t i n g of new policy.

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A P A PoMcy Retated to Psychotogists' W o r k in National Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the A P A Position Against Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Additional Resource Materiat

This section provides additional information and reference materials for several of the statements included in the reconciled policy. The material referenced in this section does not represent A P A policy unless specifically included in the policy section of this document.

Additional Information concerning Statement 1: According to the 2008 APA Petition Resol Psychologists and Untawful Detention S e t t i n g s with a Focus on Nationat Security, "Psychotogists may not work i ns e t t i n g s where persons are hetd outside of, or i nv i o l a t i o n of, e i t h e rI n t e r n a t i o n a l Law ( e . g . , the UN Convention Against Torture and t h e Geneva Conventions) or the US C o n s t i t u t i o n (where appropriate), unless t h e y are working d i r e c t l yf o rt h e persons being detained or f o r an independent t h i r dp a r t y working t op r o t e c t human r i g h t s . " [ l ] Statement t: A primary text for determining the intended scope of the Mem&gr Pefift'oM given the t i t l e "Psychotogists and Untawfut Detention S e t t i n g s with a Focus on National S e c u r i t y , "i s found i n the b a l l o tm a t e r i a l sd i s t r i b u t e dt o the membership during the voting process. This t e x ts t a t e s :

The referendum is specific, provides ctear context, and sets a high bar: in setting wher are detained outside of the law - ptaces where t r e a t i e s such as the Geneva Conventions and Convention Against Torture are ignored or dectared not t o apply - psychologists can work only f o r those detained. U.S. " j a i l s , prisons, p s y c h i a t r i ch o s p i t a t s ..." a l l function within the l e g a t system. Even i f they are found t o be i nv i o l a t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , the f i n d i n gi t s e l f demonstrates t h a t they function within a l e g a t framework, and thus do not meet t h a t bar. No matter how bad conditions might be a t those domestic i n s t i t u t i o n s , they can be challenged openly i n U.S. courts, and everyone hetd t h e r e holds the r i g h t s of habeas corpus; thus they d i f f e rs i g n i f i c a n t l y from the s e c r e t ,e x t r a l e g a ls e t t i n g st h a t are the s u b j e c t of t h i s referendum.

For more information about the intended scope of the Petition Resotution, please see th APA P r e s i d e n t i a l Advisory Group on t h e Imptementation of t h eP e t i t i o n Resolution: Guidance information from the Rep#f% o/^Ae APA PresMfenfM/AJvisory Growp ow %Ae [2]: M meant &y ; / M ;grm " o M f y t a ' e q^ or M A determination of whether a p a r t i c u l a rd e t e n t i o ns e t t i n gi s "in v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a t law" i st o be derived from m u l t i p l e sources. The U.N. and i t s committees can dectare a s i t et o be i n v i o t a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l taw, as can any i n t e m a t i o n a t body t h a t the U.N. t a k e st o be a u t h o r i t a t i v e .As e t t i n gt h a t has been censured due t o reasons r e f t e c t e d by t h i s poticy by the Councit of Europe, t h e Intemationat Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), or other i n t e m a t i o n a t t y accepted body as "outside of, or i nv i o l a t i o n of, i n t e r n a t i o n a t taw" would a t s o be considered a proscribed or p r o h i b i t e ds e t t i n g . The f a c t o r s taken i n t o consideration by the U.N. and other i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y accepted bodies i n making such a determination may include a l a c k of habeas corpus r i g h t s or other forms of j u d i c i a t review f o r detainees, d e n i a t of access t o the s i t e and t o detainees by U.N. monitors, and the use of t o r t u r e or other forms of cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. The determination of whether a p a r t i c u t a r d e t e n t i o ns e t t i n gi s operating "outside of i n t e r n a t i o n a t taw" r e s t s on whether the a u t h o r i t y governing the s i t ed e c l a r e si t s e t ft o be unbound by the r e t e v a n ti n t e r n a t i o n a l or c o n s t i t u t i o n a t taw, thereby i n d i c a t i n gi t s unwillingness to abide by such taws. Relevant examptes inctude a

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nation s t a t i n gi tw i t tt r e a td e t a i n e e si n a manner "consistent" with the law r a t h e r than i n compliance with the law; a s t a t et h a t accepts the taw i np a r t or with reservations; and a governing a u t h o r i t yt h a t avoids the use of i n t e m a t i o n a l t y accepted categories, e . g . , by naming i t s detainees "enemy combatants," a term t h a t does not e x i s ti ni n t e r n a t i o n a t taw. The presence of any one of t h e s e conditions does not a u t o m a t i c a t t y mean t h a tas i t ei s untawfut i n terms of t h i s poticy. But alone, or i n combination, they do suggest the p o s s i b i l i t yt h a tas e t t i n gf a i t s to compty with the standards of t h i s poticy; t h e i r existence provides s u f f i c i e n tb a s i sf o r concern and f u r t h e ri n q u i r y . 7b w/Mtf HMfAonfy c<3M pyycMogMfg tMrn^?r gMMfawcg?

Relevant information about whether a specific site operates outside of, or i i n t e r n a t i o n a l law can be accessed by c o n t a c t i n g the APA Office of Intemationat A f f a i r st o obtain a s s i s t a n c ei n reaching the U.N. Office of the High Commissioner f o r Human Rights or through t h a to f f i c e , the Speciat Rapporteur Against Torture. Information can a t s o be obtained by c o n t a c t i n g nongovernmental organizations, such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a t Committee of the.Red Cross (ICRC), the American C i v i lL i b e r t i e s Union, Amnesty Intemationat, the Center f o r Constitution! Rights, or Physicians f o r Human Rights f o r information. Wow M fwferMattowaJ ^aw ^e^weJ?

As a non-governmental organization accredited by the United Nations, the APA the U.N. as an i n t e r n a t i o n a ll e g a te n t i t y through which member S t a t e s are abte t o define i n t e r n a t i o n a l taw as r e l a t e dt op r i n c i p l e s of human r i g h t s and j u s t i c e . Through a process of tengthy n e g o t i a t i o n and consensus building, the U.N. has developed i n t e r n a t i o n a l taw i n the form of conventions on various a r e a s of human r i g h t s and humanitarian taw t o cover s i t u a t i o n s of armed c o n f l i c t or war. M meant &y tAe Mje qff/M ferw ' w / : e r e appropriate' w%A respect t ot / : e "Where appropriate" r e f e r st os e t t i n g s where the U.S. Constitution i s the law of the tand and s e t t i n g st o which the U.S. Supreme Court has decided t h a ti t applies, inctuding the 50 s t a t e s , U.S. embassies, and a r e a s within the U.S maritime and t e r r i t o r i a lj u r i s d i c t i o n .I ta t s oa p p l i e st o U.S. c i t i z e n s everywhere.

M%af abay "wording Jtrecf/y^r tAe ^etafnee" mean, ana* wAaf :s /t! ^tgM(/:ca

A direct relationship is one in which the psychologist is acting independent a t t times f o r the s o t eb e n e f i t and i n the i n t e r e s t s of the person being detained. This would inctude a psychotogist being h i r e d by and f o r detainees ( e . g . , by a d e t a i n e e ' sa t t o r n e yt o evaluate the mental h e a t t hs t a t u s of the detainee), i n much the same way independent a t t o r n e y s have worked t or e p r e s e n td e t a i n e e sa ts i t e st i k e Guantanamo. An independent psychologist i s one without c o n f t i c t s of i n t e r e s t s or duat t o y a t t i e s as r e t a t e dt ot h i s poticy. WAat M weawf &y tAe reference to a pyycAo/ogMt worA:Mgybr "aw i t o profA/:M?MaH W The new [ p e t i t i o nr e s o t u t i o n ]p o l i c y envisions two p o s s i b i l i t i e si n the case of an independent international recognized and a u t h o r i z e dt h i r d party: (1) t h a t an organization such as the I n t e r n a t i o n a t Committee f o r the Red Cross (ICRC) might gain access t oas i t e covered by the poticy and t h a t psychotogists working within t h a t independent organization woutd be attowed t o evatuate the mental h e a l t h of detainees; or (2) t h a t such an independent organization would bring psychotogists i n t o such a s i t e as human r i g h t s monitors or t o provide treatment f o r , or engage i n the assessment of, a detainee. In e i t h e r case, the psychotogists are not working " d i r e c t l yf o r the detainee."

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The f u l l Report can be accessed a th t t p : / / w w w . a p a . o r g / e t h i c s / a d v i s o r y g r o u p f i n a l . p d f .

Questions have been raised about the applicability of Statement 1 to psychologists work domestic j a i l s and prisons. The drafters of the Member Petition responded to t h i s question in the 2008 APA P e t i t i o n Resolution Ballot - Rebuttal to the Con Statement [3], which stated:

The referendum is specific, provides clear context, and sets a high bar: in settings whe people are d e t a i n e d outside of the law - ptaces where t r e a t i e s such as the Geneva Conventions and Convention Against Torture a r e ignored or declared not t o appty - psychologists can work only f o r those detained. U.S. " j a i l s , prisons, p s y c h i a t r i ch o s p i t a l s . . . "a l l function within the l e g a t system. Even i f they are found t o be in v i o l a t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n , the f i n d i n gi t s e t f demonstrates t h a t they function within a t e g a t framework, and t h u s do not meet t h a t bar. No matter how bad c o n d i t i o n s might be a t these domestic i n s t i t u t i o n s , they can be challenged openly i n U.S. courts, and everyone held t h e r e holds the r i g h t s of habeas corpus; thus they d i f f e rs i g n i f i c a n t l y from the s e c r e t ,e x t r a t e g a ts e t t i n g st h a t are the s u b j e c t of t h i s referendum.

Additional Information concerning Statement 2: If the APA EfMcj Coae estabtishes a high conduct than i s required by taw, psychologists must meet the higher e t h i c a l standard. I f psychologists' e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e sc o n f l i c t with law, r e g u t a t i o n s or other governing l e g a la u t h o r i t y or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l demands, psychologists make known t h e i r commitment t ot h i sE f r M ' c y Coae and take s t e p st or e s a t v e the c o n f t i c ti na r e s p o n s i b l e manner i n keeping with b a s i cp r i n c i p l e s of human r i g h t s [4].

In 2000, APA received consultative status as a non-governmental organization (NGO) at th Nations (UN) i nr e c o g n i t i o n of evidence provided by APA of i t se f f o r t st o promote human r i g h t s . As an a c c r e d i t e d NGO a t the UN, the APA i s committed t o the s p i r i t , purposes, and p r i n c i p l e s of the Charter of the U N and other r e t e v a n ti n t e r n a t i o n a t instruments, such as the <7n:v#Ma/ Declaration o/rYM APA's s t a t u s as an a c c r e d i t e d NGO a t the UN c a r r i e s the commitment t o promote and p r o t e c t human r i g h t si n accordance with the Charter of the U N and the Universat Dectaration of Human Rights and t o c o n t r i b u t ei t se x p e r t i s e and resources t o the implementation of the v a r i o u s human r i g h t sd e c l a r a t i o n s , conventions and other standards of the UN. Consistent with i t sh i s t o r yi n supporting human r i g h t s , APA i s s u e das t r o n g statement i ni t s 1987 Human Rights Resolution t h a t "the d i s c i p t i n e of psychology, and the academic and p r o f e s s i o n a la c t i v i t i e s of psychologists, are r e l e v a n tf o r securing and maintaining human rights"; and undertook t o promote knowledge of and comptiance with U N instruments by r e s o l v i n gt o commend t h e main U N human r i g h t s instruments and documents t o the a t t e n t i o n of i t s boards, committees and membership a tl a r g e .

The APA Human Rights Advocacy webpage provides information about human rights. The s t a t e s :

APA's vision statement inctudes serving as an effective champion of the appticatio psychotogy t o promote human r i g h t s . In order t o support t h a tv i s i o n , APA seeks t o promote a t t e n t i o nt ot h ec r i t i c a lr o l e of human r i g h t si n the work of p s y c h o t o g i s t s across the broad range of the f i e t d and i d e n t i f y resources f o r educating psychotogists about human r i g h t sa ta t t t e v e l s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development, with p a r t i c u l a ra t t e n t i o nt ot h ei d e n t i f i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a t s appropriate f o r psychotogy graduate t r a i n i n g programs. APA aims t o ensure t h a t the next generation of psychotogists has resources t h a tw i l t hetp inform them about the r o t e of human r i g h t si nt h e i rc a r e e r s .

This site provides access to APA human rights policies as wett as activities, reso h t t p : / / w w w . a p a . o r a / a b o u t / s r / i s s u e s / h u m a n r i g h t s / i n d e x . a s p x

Additional information also can be found on the United Nations Human Rights webpag http://www.un.org/en/rishts/

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Additional Information concerning Statement 5: Psychologists i nn a t i o n a ls e c u r i t ys e t t i n g ss h a l l work i n accordance with i n t e r n a t i o n a l human r i g h t s instruments as r e l e v a n tt ot h e i rr o t e s .

Psychotogists working in national security settings shoutd review vital human rights doc t h e i r rotes, such as Common A r t i c l e 3 of the Geneva Conventions; the f / n t f e a *J V a t i o n s Convention Against TbrfMre ana* OfAer CrMei, /nniMMan, or Degrading Treatment or PMnMAfMenf; fAe Geneva Conventions; the P r i n c i p l e s o/Medica/ Ethics Relevant to fne Ro/e o/Nea/f^ Personnei, P a r f i c M i a r / y Prtyyfctan^ t nf / : e Protection o/Prisoners ana* Detainees against TbrtMre a n c fO f / : e r CrMei, /nnMman, or Degrat/mg Treatment or f MnfyAwenf; the Rasic Pnnc:pJe^^?r tne Treatment o/Prisoners; f n e Untfe^ Nations P r i n c i p / e s on f / t eE j ^ e c f i v e/ n v e s f i g a f i o n ana* DocMmentafion o/TbrfMre and Ofner CrMei, /nnwrnan, or Degrading T r e a f w t e n f or PMnMAwenf; and the W^brM Me^:ca/ Association Declaration o/TbAyo, G M ! ' a * e / t n e . s . / b rP r : y y t c f a n s Concerning TbrtMre ana* ofner Z , /nnMman or Degrading Treatment or PMnMHmenf w Refatfon t o Detention anJ /mprMonmenf.

Atthough psychotogists to which this reconciled poticy applies are expected to have gene of r e l e v a n tt e g a t and human r i g h t s concepts ( e . g . , the absolute p r o h i b i t i o na g a i n s tt o r t u r e and cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment or punishment), p s y c h o l o g i s t s are not expected t o have e x p e r t i s e . i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l taw and human r i g h t s requirements and are thus encouraged t o seek guidance from i n d i v i d u a l s with such knowledge. t / n i t e a * Nations DecJaratfon ana* Convention Against TbrtMre ana* O t / : e r CrMe^ /hAMman, or Degrading T r e a t / w e n t or PMnisnment http://www.ohchr.Org/EN/ProfessionatInterest/Pat:es/CAT.aspx Geneva Conventions http://www.icrc.ora/apptic/iht/iht.nsf/INTRO/305?OpenDocMSient&redirect=0

Article 3 is the most commonly cited Articte in retation to treatment of prisoners

Art. 3. Prisoners of war are entitled to respect for their persons and honour. Wom s h a l l be t r e a t e d with a l lc o n s i d e r a t i o n due t ot h e i r sex. Prisoners r e t a i nt h e i rf u l tc i v i t c a p a c i t y . Principles of Mea*ica/ Etnics re/evant to t%e Ro/e o/AfeaM Personnel, particMiaWy Protection o/Prisoners ana* Detainees against TbrfMre a / M ? Ofner CrMe^, /n/mman, or Degrading Treatment or PMntsnmenf http://www.ohchr.orp/EN/ProfessionatInterest/Pa^es/MedicalEthics.aspx

APA policy conforms to and upholds the provisions outtined in the (/nifed Motions of Medica? Etnics f o r psychologists working i nah e a l t h care c a p a c i t y . The APA 1986 Human Rights Resotution i ss p e c i f i ci ni t s support f o r the United Nations P r i n c i p l e s o/AfeaYca/ Efnics r e / e v a n ft of % e RoJe o//feaM Personnel, p a r f i c M / a r ( y Physicians, i n fne Protection o/ Prisoners a n ^ f Detainees against TbrfMre anJ OtAer CrMe/, /n^Mmaw, or Degrading Treatment or PMnisnwenf, which i n c l u d e sP r i n c i p t e 4a: It is a contravention of medicat ethics for heatth personnel... to appty their knowledge and s k i t t si n order t oa s s i s t in the i n t e r r o g a t i o n of p r i s o n e r s and detainees i n a manner t h a t may adversety a f f e c t the p h y s i c a l or mental h e a t t h or condition of such p r i s o n e r s or detainees and which i s not i n accordance with the r e t e v a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a t instruments. The Principles o/AfeaYca/ Efnics inctude:

Principte 1: Heatth personnel, particularty physicians, charged with the medicat c p r i s o n e r s and detainees have a duty t o provide them with p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r physical and mental h e a t t h and treatment of disease of the same q u a l i t y and standard as i s afforded t o those who are not imprisoned or detained. 10

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P r i n c i p t e 2: I ti s a gross c o n t r a v e n t i o n of medical e t h i c s , as welt as an offence under a p p l i c a b t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l instruments, f o rh e a l t h personnet, p a r t i c u t a r l y physicians, t o engage, a c t i v e t y or passivety, i na c t s which c o n s t i t u t ep a r t i c i p a t i o n in, complicity in, incitement t o or attempts t o commit t o r t u r e or othe rc r u e t , inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, (a)

Principle 3: It is a contravention of medicat ethics for heatth personnel, particular t o be invotved i n any p r o f e s s i o n a tr e l a t i o n s h i p with p r i s o n e r s or d e t a i n e e s the purpose of which i s not s o t e l y to evaluate, p r o t e c t or improve t h e i r physical and mental h e a l t h .

Principle 4: It is a contravention of medicat ethics for heatth personnel, particular (a) To apply their knowledge and skills in order to assist in the interrogation of p r i s o n e r s and d e t a i n e e si n a manner t h a t may adversely a f f e c t the physical or mental h e a t t h or c o n d i t i o n of such p r i s o n e r s or detainees and which i s not i n accordance with the r e t e v a n ti n t e m a t i o n a t instruments;

(b) To certify, or to participate in the certification of, the fitness of prisoners o detainees f o r any form of treatment or punishment t h a t may adversely a f f e c tt h e i r physical or mental h e a t t h and which i s not i n accordance with the r e t e v a n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l instruments, or t op a r t i c i p a t ei n any way i n the i n f l i c t i o n of any such treatment or punishment which i s not i n accordance with the r e l e v a n ti n t e r n a t i o n a l instruments.

Principte 5: It is a contravention of medicat ethics for heatth personnel, particular t op a r t i c i p a t ei n any procedure f o rr e s t r a i n i n gap r i s t m e r or detainee untess such a procedure i s determined i n accordance with purety medicat c r i t e r i a as being necessary f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the physical or mental h e a t t h or the s a f e t y of the p r i s o n e r or detainee himsetf, of h i s fetlow p r i s o n e r s or detainees, or of h i s guardians, and p r e s e n t s no hazard t oh i s physical or mentat h e a t t h . Principte 6: There may be no derogation from the foregoing principtes on any ground whatsoever, i n c l u d i n gp u b l i c emergency. (a) See the Declaration on the Protection of AH Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ( r e s o l u t i o n 3452 (XXX), annex). (b) Particularly the Universat Declaration of Human Rights (resotution 217 A (III)), the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants on Human Rights ( r e s o l u t i o n 2200 A (XXI). annex), the Dectaration on t h eP r o t e c t i o n of Atl Persons from Being Subjected t o Torture and Other Cruet, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment ( r e s o t u t i o n 3452 (XXX), annex) and t h e Standard Minimum Rutes f o r the Treatment of Prisoners ( F i r s t United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders: r e p o r t by the S e c r e t a r i a t (United Nations pubtication, Sates No. E. 1956.1V.4, annex LA)). * f/nifed Nations Rasic Princip/es^?r f%e Treatment of Prisoners httpy/www.ohchr.ore/EN/Professionallnterest/Pages/BasicPrinciptesTreatmentOfPrisoners.aspx

* t/nifed Nations Principies on fne Ej^cfive /nvesfigafion and DocMmenfafion of Tbrf CrMei, /nnMman, or Degrading Treatment or PMnisnwenf http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionatInterest/Paees/EffectiveInvestigationAndDocumentationOfTortu

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TAe Wor/dMedica/Association Declaration of T b / r y < ? . GMideiines^br Pnysicians Concerning TbrfMre and o f / t e r Cruei, /nnMman or Degrading Treatment or PMnisnmenf i n Relation t o Detention and /mprisonmenf - http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/1 O p o l i c i e s / c 18/ Commentary: APA poticy conforms to the provisions outlined in T/te W^br/d Medica/ Association Declaration of To^yo. GMide/ines^br Pnysicians Concerning TbrfMre and ofner CrMei, /nnwrnan or Degrading Treatment or PMnis/tmenf i n Relation t o Detention and /mprisonmenf f o r psychotogists working i nah e a t t h care capacity. The P r i n c i p l e s include:

1. The physician shall not countenance, condone or participate in the practice of tortur other forms of cruet, inhuman or degrading procedures, whatever the offense of which the v i c t i m of such procedures i s suspected, accused or g u i t t y , and whatever the v i c t i m ' sb e l i e f s or motives, and i na l ts i t u a t i o n s , inctuding armed c o n f l i c t and c i v i ls t r i f e .

2. The physician shatt not provide any premises, instruments, substances or knowtedge to f a c i l i t a t e the p r a c t i c e of t o r t u r e or other forms of cruet, inhuman or degrading treatment or t o diminish the a b i t i t y of the victim t or e s i s t such treatment.

3. When providing medicat assistance to detainees or prisoners who are, or who coutd la under i n t e r r o g a t i o n , physicians should be p a r t i c u l a r t yc a r e f u lt o ensure the c o n f i d e n t i a t i t y of a l l personat medical information. A breach of the Geneva Conventions s h a l l in any case be r e p o r t e d by the physician t or e l e v a n ta u t h o r i t i e s . The physician s h a l l not use nor allow t o be used, as f a r as he or she can, medical knowledge or s k i l l s , or h e a t t h information s p e c i f i ct o i n d i v i d u a l s ,t of a c i l i t a t e or otherwise a i d any i n t e r r o g a t i o n ,l e g a lo i fi t t e g a l , of those persons. 4. The physician shatl not be present during any procedure during which torture or any forms of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment i s used or t h r e a t e n e d . 5. A physician must have complete ctinical independence in deciding upon the care of a f o r whom he or she i s medicatly responsible. The p h y s i c i a n ' s fundamentat r o l ei st oa l t e v i a t e the d i s t r e s s of h i s or her fetlow human beings, and no motive, whether personal, c o l t e c t i v e or p o l i t i c a l ,s h a t tp r e v a i la g a i n s tt h i s higher purpose.

6. Where a prisoner refuses nourishment and is considered by the physician as capable o forming an unimpaired and r a t i o n a l judgment concerning the consequences of such a voluntary r e f u s a t of nourishment, he or she s h a t l not be fed a r t i f i c i a l t y . The decision as t o the capacity of t h ep r i s o n e rt o form such a judgment should be confirmed by a tl e a s t one other independent physician. The consequences of the r e f u s a l of nourishment s h a l l be explained by the physician t o the p r i s o n e r . 7. The World Medical Association witt support, and shoutd encourage the international community, the Nationat Medical Associations and fettow physicians t o support, the physician and h i s or her family i n the face of t h r e a t s or r e p r i s a t sr e s u l t i n g from a r e f u s a tt o condone the use of t o r t u r e or other forms of cruet, inhuman or degrading treatment.

[t] It is ctarified by a footnote in th^ Member Petition Resotution "that military ctin be a v a i t a b t et o provide treatment f o rm i l i t a r y personnel."

[2] Report of fne APA Presidential Advisory GroMp on fne /mp/emenfafion of f/te Petition from www.apa.org/ethics/advisorv-group-finat.pdf [3] 2008 APA Petition Resotution Ballot - Rebuttal to the Con Statement, Retrieved from h t t p : / / w w w . a p a . o r g / n e w s / p r e s s / s t a t e m e n t s / w o r k s e t t i n g s c o n r e b u t t a t . a s p x [4] Efnicai Princip/es of Psycno/ogisfs and Code of CondMcf, Retrieved from h t t p : / / w w w . a p a . o r g / e t h i c s / c o d e / i n d e x . a s p x 12

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Appendix A

Call for Consultants - July 2012 (Sent to all Divisions, SPTAs, EMPAs, and other psychol organizations ( e . g . , PsySR, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology) Dear Colleagues,

In February, we announced the formation of an APA member-initiated Task Force to Reconc t oP s y c h o l o g i s t s ' Invotvement i n National S e c u r i t yS e t t i n g s . The goat of t h i sg r a s s r o o t st a s k force i st o devetop a c l e a r , comprehensive policy statement t h a tc o n s o l i d a t e se x i s t i n g APA p o l i c i e si n t oau n i f i e d ,c o n s i s t e n t document. The consotidated poticy document w i l th i g h l i g h t the foltowing p r i n c i p l e s drawn from e x i s t i n g APA p o t i c i e s : * Torture is atways a violation of human rights and psychotogists' professional ethics; * Psychologists are atways p r o h i b i t e d from engaging i nt o r t u r e or other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment; * Abusive i n t e r r o g a t i o n techniques, such as waterboarding and sensory deprivation, c o n s t i t u t et o r t u r e or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment and are atways prohibited; * The r o t e of psychotogists i n untawfut d e t e n t i o ns e t t i n g si sl i m i t e dt o working on behalf of detainees or providing treatment f o rm i l i t a r y personnel; * There i sa b s o t u t e t y no defense t oav i o l a t i o n of human r i g h t s under t h e APA Ethics Code.

Since the 2005 Report of the APA Presidentiat Task Force on Psychologicat Ethics and Na Report), t h e r e have been s i g n i f i c a n t changes t o APA policy, i n c l u d i n g (he 2010 r e v i s i o n st o the Ethics Code, the 2008 P e t i t i o n Referendum ( i . e . , Member Petition), and the 2006,2007, and 2008 Council r e s o t u t i o n s . Moreover, some e x i s t i n g poticy no tonger i si n comptiance with the Ethics Code. As such, i ti s imperative t h a t APA policy be updated and divergent p o t i c i e s reconcited. In a d d i t i o n , we hope t h a t the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n process w i l l hetp i d e n t i f yi s s u e ss t i l li n need of c l a r i f i c a t i o n and/or f u r t h e r devetopment a tal a t e r time.

We recognize the importance of transparency and feedback as we work through this process w r i t i n g today t oi n v i t e APA Divisions, State, P r o v i n c i a t and T e r r i t o r i a l Psychological Associations (SPTAs), and o t h e r psychotogicat organizations t os e l e c ti n d i v i d u a l st o provide feedback on e a r l yd r a f t s of the consolidated p o t i c y . We hope mat those groups who are i n t e r e s t e dw t t l appoint one or p o s s i b t y two i n d i v i d u a t st o serve as c o n s u l t a n t st o our Task Force. As the t a s k involves APA poticy, i ti sp r e f e r r e d , but not required, t h a ti n d i v i d u a l s be APA members.

As we are not drafting new APA policy, the responsibitities of consuttants wilt be reta a b s o t u t e t ye s s e n t i a t . W e are looking f o ri n d i v i d u a t s who are knowtedgeabte about r e l e v a n t APA p o t i c i e st o review i n i t i a ld r a f t s of the consotidated p o l i c y and provide s u b s t a n t i v e feedback s h o r t l ya f t e rr e c e i v i n g the document. The goal i st o comptete t h e s ei n i t i a l reviews by mid t ol a t e M y and then post the r e v i s e d document f o r secondary as wetl as broader review on our website a th t t p : / / w w w . u n i f i e d p o t i c y t a s k f o r c e . o r g . Consuttants' names w i l l be t i s t e d on the website. Our goat i st o submit the document as a new business item a t the APA Councit of Representatives meeting i n August, with c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s contents a t the Council meeting i n February, 2013. This process w i t t provide t h e opportunity f o r review of the consolidated poticy document by APA Boards and Committees, as v s A J t t as more general d i s c u s s i o np r i o rt o a February vote.

We hope that Divisions, SPTAs, and other psychotogical organizations witt submit names b Consuttant names or questions can be sent t o me a t j u t i e . l e v i t t @ v e r i z o n . n e t . Thank you i n advance f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of your p a r t i c i p a t i o ni nt h i s process as we work t oc l a r i f y APA poticy r e t a t e dt ot h e invotvement of p s y c h o t o g i s t si nn a t i o n a ts e c u r i t ys e t t i n g s .

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Appendix B Call for Feedback, sent to Division and SPTAs listservs - January and February 2013

Presidents and Officers: Please forward the following notice again to your tists. Thanks! Dear Cotteagues,

We are writing you today to provide an update concerning the work of the Member-Initiate Reconcile P o l i c i e s Related t o Psychologists' Invotvement i n National S e c u r i t yS e t t i n g s . In p a r t i c u l a r , we want t o i s s u eaf i n a li n v i t a t i o nt oi n d i v i d u a l st o become invotved in the t a s t phase of our Task Force POLICY DOCUMENT review process. We w i t t be submitting our f i n a ld r a f t of our r e p o r t and the r e c o n c i l e d poticy i n February t o APA Council (CoR) where i tw i l l undergo an a d d i t i o n a l approximately six-month review and i n d i v i d u a l s can provide f u r t h e r feedback through APA a tt h a t time.

As we announced earlier tast year, we are working to reconcite APA policies concerning p c o n s u t t a t i o n si nn a t i o n a ts e c u r i t ys e t t i n g sf o r the purpose of bringing the Member P e t i t i o n Resotution/Referendum, the changes t o the Ethics Code h i g h l i g h t i n g the i n v i o t a t e nature of human r i g h t s , and the a n t i t o r t u r e Council r e s o l u t i o n st o the f o r e f r o n t of APA p o l i c y .

To date, the Reconcited Policy has undergone several revisions. A broad range of consult various APA Divisions; State, Provincial, and T e r r i t o r i a t Psychotogical Associations (SPTAs); Ethnic Minority Psychotogicat Associations (EMPAs); and other APA members with experience d r a f t i n g previous poticy volunteered or were nominated by t h e i ro r g a n i z a t i o n st op a r t i c i p a t ei n the process. The c o n s u l t a n t feedback i s a v a i l a b l e on the www.unifiedpoiicytaskforce.org website, as i s the previous d r a f t of the Reconciled Poticy. W e thank a t l who were involved in t h ec o n s u l t a n t phase of the POLICY review. The feedback was invaluable.

The current revised draft of the poticy is available at http://www.unifiedpolicytaskforc p o t i c y and send feedback t o unifiedpolicytaskforce@yahoo.com.

Ptease send feedback by February tO, 2013. After that date, please contact your Division Representative or APA t o provide a d d i t i o n a l feedback. After Feb. 10, you may a l s o submit a d d i t i o n a l feedback t o the our email address (unifiedpolicytaskforce@yahoo.com) and we w i l l forward your comments t o APA. The COR meetings are February 22-24,2013 and during the Convention in August.

Ptease be aware that we are only reconciling policy and not drafting new policy. As such elements t o the poticy d r a f t . However, we ptan t o include i n our f i n a lr e p o r t ,as e c t i o nt h a th i g h l i g h t sa d d i t i o n a l recommendations and concerns submitted during the feedback process.

Again, thanks to atl who have been or will be invotved in this process. We believe it is i n d i v i d u a t members t o be abte t o weigh i n on the p o l i c y but a t s ot h a t the policy undergo review by r e l e v a n t APA Boards and Committees, as wett as Councit. We w i l l be f i n i s h i n g up the f i n a l stage of our work i n terms of outside review/feedback in February and t h e Council/APA review period w i l t begin a tt h a t time.

Note that we are not an APA Task Force and we are not backed by any group within the APA Board of Directors. Rather we are APA members who have come t o g e t h e rt o work on t h i sp r o j e c t because of our abiding b e l i e fi n the importance of human r i g h t s and s o c i a tj u s t i c e . Feet free to visit — http://www.unifiedpoticytaskforce.org -- and review our materiats, our "Frequently Asked Questions." W e have l i n k st o a range of APA p o t i c i e s , United Nations and other Human Rights documents t h a t we reference i n the poticy, as welt as a l i n kt o the Coalition f o r an E t h i c a t Psychotogy ( f o r those wanting more information about the Annut PEN movement).

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FEBRUARY 2013 LEG!SLAT)VE COUNCtL NEW BUStNESS tTEM Date Submitted: February 22, 2013 Agenda Item #

Subject: Reconcitiation of Poticies Retated to Psychotogists' involvement in Nationa) Se Interrogation or Detention Settings Mover: Witliam J. Stricktand, PhD Kathteen H. Dockett, EdD

Representing: Divisions 19 (Society for Military Psychotogy) and 48 (Society for the Stu C o n f t i c t , and Viotence: Peace Psychotogy D i v i s i o n ) issue: A recent petition by the Coatition for an Ethicat Psychotogy to annut the Report APA P r e s i d e n t i a t Task Force on Psychoiogicat Ethics and Nationat Security (the PEMS report) has h i g h l i g h t e d the need for a carefu) examination of APA's t a r g e body of p o t i c i e s retated to torture, professionat ethics, detainee welfare, and interrogation i n the national s e c u r i t y context. These p o t i c i e s date back 27 years and inctude f i v e Councit r e s o t u t i o r t s (1985,1986, 2006, 2007, and 2008), the PENS report p o t i c y of 2005, and the membership p e t i t i o n resotution of 2008. I nt h i s context, i ti s atso e s s e n t i a t to consider the APA Ethics Code change of 2010, which fundamentaHy attered E t h i c a l Standards 1 . 0 2( r e t a t e d to c o n f t i c t s between ethics and taw, regutations, or other governing t e g a t authority) and 1 . 0 3( r e t a t e d to c o n f t i c t s between ethics and organizationat demands). These p o t i c i e s state urtequivocaHy that torture i sav i o l a t i o n of both human r i g h t s and psychotogists' professionat ethics and i s always prohibited. Yet, there i s currently no i n t e g r a t i v e document o u t t i n i n ga t t of APA's p o t i c i e s retated to torture, ethics, detainee wetfare, and interrogation.

Retation to APA Goats/Objectives: This item buitds upon APA's vision to be 'The primary /or a?/psycho/og/sfs" by d i r e c t t y supporting APA's core vatue, "fth/ca/ act/on ? n aW that we do." t n addition, consotidating these p o t i c i e s , etiminating duptication, and deteting p o t i c i e s that have been superseded d i r e c t t y support APA Goat 1 (Maximize Organizationa) Effectiveness), Objective la (Enhance /4P4... commun/caMons to mcrease member engagement and va/ue).

Estimated Costs/Staff Resources: Pubticizirtg the existence of the consolidated poticy d (press retease, Mon/for a r t i c t e , etc.). Main Motion: Attached

Expected Outcomes/Products: This unified poticy wilt result in the reptacement of exist that are outdated, redundant, or confusing; i tw i t tr e s u t ti nac l e a r and accurate statement of APA p o t i c y as r e l a t e d to the work of psychologists i n nationat s e c u r i t y settings.

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APA'S GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ( A P P R O V E DB Y COUNCIL-AUGUST 2009) Goat 1: Maximize Organizationa! Effectiveness Objectives The / 4 R 4 ' ss t r u c t u r e s and systems support the o r g a n / z a t / o n ' ss t r a t e g i cd / r e c t / o n , growth and s u c c e s s . ^ * a . Enhance APA programs, s e r v i c e s and communications to i n c r e a s e member engagement and value; Q b. Ensure the ongoing f i n a n c i a )h e a l t ho f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; PI c . Optimize APA's governance s t r u c t u r e s and f u n c t i o n . : Expand Psychotogy's Rote in Advancing Heatth Objectives / f e ys t a ^ e h o / d e r sr e a / / z e the un/que b e n e / / t s psycho/ogy p r o v < d e st oh e a / t f t and wetness and the d / s c < p / / n e becomes more / u / / y/ n c o r p o r o t e d/ n t oh e a / t hr e s e a r c h and d e / <v e r y systems. Q a . Advocate f o r the indusion of a c c e s s to p s y c h o l o g i c a ls e r v i c e si nh e a l t h care reform p o l i c i e s [D b. Create i n n o v a t i v et o o l s to a l l o wp s y c h o l o g i s t s to enhance t h e i r knowledge of h e a l t h promotion, d i s e a s e prevention, and management of c h r o n i cd i s e a s e ; PI c . Educate other h e a l t hp r o f e s s i o n a l and the p u b l i c about p s y c h o t o g y ' sr o l ei nh e a l t h ; Q d . Advocate f o r funding and p o l i c i e st h a t support p s y c h o l o g y ' sr o l ei nh e a l t h ; [ " " ] e. Promote p s y c h o l o g y ' sr o l ei nd e c r e a s i n gh e a l t hd i s p a r i t i e s ; Q f . Promote the a p p i i c a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a ) knowledge f o r improving o v e r a l lh e a i t h and w e i l n e s s a t the i n d i v i d u a ) ,o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and community l e v e l s . increase recognition of psychotogy as a science Objectives 7 * h e /tM's c e n t r a /r o / e/ np o s ; ' r / o n ; ' n g psycho/ogy as t h es c / e n c e o/behav/or / e a d st o/ n c r e a s e dp u b / t ' c awareness o/the b e n e ^ ' t s psycho/ogy b r / n g st od a / ' / y/ < v / n g . ] Ia . Enhance p s y c h o i o g y ' s prominence as a core STEM ( S c i e n c e , TechnoJogy, E n g i n e e r i n g , and Mathematics) d i s c i p l i n e ; ] I b. Improve p u b l i c understanding o f the s c i e n t i f i cb a s i sf o r psychology; ] [c . Expand the t r a n s i a t i o n of p s y c h o t o g i c a ls c i e n c e to evidence-based p r a c t i c e ; Q d . Promote the a p p l i c a t i o n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a ls c i e n c e to d a i l yl i v i n g ; I ] e. Expand e d u c a t i o n a lr e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e si np s y c h o l o g i c a ls c i e n c e . APA CORE VALUES (APPROVED BY COUNCtL- FEBRUARY 2010) The American P s y c h o l o g i c a lA s s o c i a t i o n commits to i t sv i s i o n through a m i s s i o n based upon the f o l l o w i n g values: [ ^ C o n t i n u a lP u r s u i to fE x c e l l e n c e [^Knowledge and ) t sA p p l i c a t i o n Based Upon Methods of S c i e n c e [^Outstanding S e r v i c e to I t s Members and to S o c i e t y QSocial J u s t i c e ,D i v e r s i t y , and I n c l u s i o n > E t h i c a )A c t i o ni nA l )t h a t We Do

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Main Motion: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 WHEREAS, the l a r g e body o f( a tt i m e s ) redundant o rc o n f l i c t i n gp o l i c i e si nt h ea r e ao fp s y c h o l o g i s t s ' invotvement i n n a t i o n a ls e c u r i t yi n t e r r o g a t i o n or d e t e n t i o ns e t t i n g s makes i td i f f i c u l tt od i s c e r n and communicate coherent and m e a n i n g f u le t h i c a lg u i d a n c et oi n f o r m the work o fp s y c h o l o g i s t si nt h o s es e t t i n g s ; APA Reconciled Policy Retated to Psychologists' Work i n Nationa! Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Crue!, tnhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

8 WHEREAS, some poiicies listed in the Council Policy Manual are no ionger valid as a resul 9 10 11 s t a t e m e n t s( f o r example, a c e n t r a la s p e c t of the P s y c h o l o g i c a lE t h i c s and N a t i o n a i Security—PENS—poiicy r e l a t i n g to E t h i c a lS t a n d a r d s1 . 0 2 and 1 . 0 3i s now out of d a t ef o l i o w i n g the 2010 change t ot h eE t h i c s Code, and a c o r ed e f i n i t i o n a l p r o v i s i o no f the 2007 C o u n c i lr e s o l u t i o nr e l a t e dt ot o r t u r e was r e s c i n d e d and r e p l a c e d the f o i l o w i n g year);

12 WHEREAS, it is difficult to determine how individual policies reiate to one another and t 13 p o l i c yt a k e s precedence when p o l i c i e sc o n f i i c t ;

14 WHEREAS, the piecemeai nature of the policies lends itself to viewing individual policies 15 16 17 o fA P A ' sp o s i t i o ni ni t se n t i r e t y , and t h e r e b yr i s k s APA's p o s i t i o nb e i n gm i s i n t e r p r e t e d( f o r example, the PENS r e p o r ti s s t i i lb e i n gi d e n t i f i e da tt i m e sa s the s o l eo rp r i m a r y APA p o i i c yi nr e t a t i o nt op s y c h o t o g i s t invoivement i nn a t i o n a )s e c u r i t y s e t t i n g s ) ;

18 WHEREAS, the human rights principles at the heart of these documents can therefore become

19 THEREFORE, BE )T RESOLVED: That Council APPROVES the attached "APA Reconciled Poiicy Rela 20 21 Work i nN a t i o n a lS e c u r i t yS e t t i n g s and R e a f f i r m a t i o no f the APA P o s i t i o nA g a i n s tT o r t u r e and Other Crue), Inhuman, or D e g r a d i n g Treatment or Punishment" a s APA p o i i c y .

22 BE )T FURTHER RESOLVED: That Council RECEtVES the attached "Report of the APA Member-Ini 23 R e c o n c i l e APA P o l i c i e sR e l a t e dt oP s y c h o l o g i s t s ' Work i nN a t i o n a )S e c u r i t yS e t t i n g s "f o rp o s t i n g on the APA Website.

24 BE )T FURTHER RESOLVED: That the 2007 Council Resolution, Rea#?rmat/on o/the Amer/can Ps 25 26 27 p o s / t / o na g a / n s tt o r t u r e and o t h e re r n e / , /nhuman, or d e g r a d / n g treatment or pun/shment and / t sa p p / / c a t / o nt o / n d / w d u a / sd e / ? n e d/ nt h eU n f t e dS t a t e s Code as "enemy combatants," a l o n gw i t hi t s 2008 amendment, s h a l l be p l a c e di n t h e APA P o l i c yA r c h i v e .

28 BE )T FURTHER RESOLVED: That the 2005 "Report of the Presidential Task Force on Psycholo 29 S e c u r i t y "s h a l l be r e s c i n d e d .

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30 31 32

APA Reconcited P o t i c y Reiated to Psychotogists' Work i n Nationa) Security Settings and Reaffirmation of the APA Position Against Torture and Other Cruet, inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

33 Be tt Resotved that Councit adopts the foiiowing eight statements and respective coroiia 34 poticy:

35 Statement 1: Psychologists may not work in settings where persons are hetd outside of, o 36 of, either I n t e r n a t i o n a t Law ( e . g . , the UN Cont/enr/on Ago/nsf 7brfure and the Geneva Convent/onsj or 37 the US Con^r/rur/on (where appropriate), untess they are working d i r e c t t y for the persons being detained 38 or for an independent t h i r d party working to protect human r i g h t s * .

39 APA in recognizing that torture and other cruet, inhuman or degrading treatment or punis 40 r e s u l t not onty from the behavior of i n d i v i d u a t s but atso from the conditions of confinement, expresses 41 grave concern over s e t t i n g si n which detainees are deprived of adequate protection of their human 42 r i g h t s , affirms the prerogative of psychotogists to refuse to work i n such settings, and wit! continue to 43 explore ways to support psychotogists who refuse to work i n such s e t t i n g s or who refuse to obey orders 44 that constitute torture.

45 Statement 2: If the APA Frn/cs Code, as amended in 2010, establishes a higher standard of 46 i s required by taw, psychotogists must meet the higher e t h i c a t standard. I f psychotogists' e t h i c a t 47 r e s p o n s i b i t i t i e sc o n f t i c t with taw, regutations or other governing t e g a t authority or organizationat 48 demands, psychotogists make known their commitment to t h i s Frh/c$ Code, and take reasonabte steps 49 to resotve the c o n f t i c ti n a responsibte manner i n keeping with basic p r i n c i p t e s of human r i g h t s ^ . 50 Ethicat Standard 1.02, Ffn/co/ Pr/nc/p/es o/Psycno/og/sfi ond Code o/Conduct, Confticts 51 and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legat Authority

52 tf psychotogists' ethical responsibitities conflict with taw, regutations or other gover 53 psychologists c t a r i f y the nature of the c o n f t i c t , make known t h e i r commitment to the ftn/cs Code and 54 take reasonabte steps to resotve the c o n f t i c t consistent with the Genera) P r i n c i p t e s and E t h i c a t Standards 55 of the f f h / c s Code. Under no circumstances may t h i s standard be used to j u s t i f y or defend v i o t a t i n g 56 human r i g h t s . 57 Ethical Standard 1.03, Erh/co/ Pr/nc/p/es o/Psycno/og/srs ond Code o/Conduct, Confticts 58 and Organizationat Demands

59 tf the demands of an organization with which psychologists are affitiated or for whom th 60 are i nc o n f l i c t with t h i s ffn/cs Code, psychotogists c t a r i f y the nature of the c o n f t i c t , make known t h e i r 61 commitment to the F r h / ' c s Code and take reasonable steps to resotve the c o n f t i c t consistent with the 62 Genera) P r i n c i p t e s and Ethica) Standards of the F f n / c s Code. Under no circumstances may t h i s standard 63 be used to j u s t i f y or defend v i o t a t i n g human r i g h t s .

*I ti sc l a r i f i e db yaf o o t n o t ei nt h e Member P e f / t f o nR e : o / M h ' o n" t h a tm i t i t a r yc l i n i c a lp s y c h o l o g i s t sw o u l ds t i l lb ea v a i l a b l et op r o v i d et r e a t m e n t f o rm i l i t a r yp e r s o n n e l . " ^ fr n / c o /P r m d p f e so / P s y c h o / o g < s t :o n dC o d eo / C o n d u c t ,R e t r i e v e df r o mh t t p : / / w w w . a o a . o r g / e t h i c s / c o d e / i n d e x . a s o x

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64 65 66

APA i s an accredited non-govemmentat organization at the United Nations and so i s committed to promote and protect human r i g h t si n accordance with the United Nations Charter and the Un/versa/ Dec/arat/on o/Human R/ghts.

67 Statement 3: Psychotogists do not knowingty engage in, assist, toterate, direct, support, 68 f a c i l i t a t e , ptan, design, or offer t r a i n i n gi n torture or other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or 69 punishment under any and a l t conditions.

70 APA defines torture in accordance with Articte t of the UN Dec/arat/on and Convent/on 4ga 71 and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shmenf (hereafter referred to as UN 72 Convent/on/\ga/nst Torture):

73 The term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physicat or me 74 i n t e n t i o n a t t yi n f t i c t e d upon a person for such purposes as obtaining from him [ s i c ] or a t h i r d person 75 information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a t h i r d person has committed or i s suspected 76 of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a t h i r d person, or for any reason based on 77 discrimination of any kind, when such pain or s u f f e r i n gi si n f t i c t e d by or at the i n s t i g a t i o n of or with the 78 consent or acquiescence of a p u b t i co f f i c i a ) or other person acting i n an o f f i c i a t[ e . g . , governmental 79 r e t i g i o u s ,p o l i t i c a ) , organizationat] capacity. I t does not inctude pain or s u f f e r i n ga r i s i n g on)y from, 80 inherent i n , or incidenta) to tawfu) sanctions [ i n accordance with both domestic #nd internationa) tawf. 81 82 83 84 85 The APA defines the term "cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment" to mean treatment or punishment of any person i n accordance with the United States Reservation LI of the Reservations, Dectarations and Understandings to the United Nations Convent/on < 4 g o / n s t Torture, which defines t h i s term as "the cruet, unusuat and inhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the F i f t h , Eighth, and/or Fourteenth Amendments to the Const/tut/on o/the Un/ted 5fate5"".

86 APA further unequivocatly condemns at) techniques considered torture or cruet, inhuman or 87 treatment or punishment under the United Nations Convenf/on / 4 g a / n s t Torture; the Geneva 88 Convent/ons; the P r / n c / p / e s o/Med/'ca/ E t h / c s Re/evanf to the Ro/e o/Hea/th Personne/, P a r t / c u / a r / y ^U n i t e dN a t i o n sC o n v e n t i o na g a i n s tT o r t u r ea n dO t h e rC r u e l ,I n h u m a no rD e g r a d i n gT r e a t m e n to rP u n i s h m e n t : h t t o : / / w w w 2 . o l i c h r . o r E / e n E l i s h / ] a w / c a t . h t m

* Specifically, United States Reservation 1.1 of the Reservations, Declarations and Und T o r t u r es t a t i n g ,' t h et e r m' c r u e l ,i n h u m a no rd e g r a d i n gt r e a t m e n to rp u n i s h m e n t 'm e a n st h ec r u e l ,u n u s u a la n di n h u m a n et r e a t m e n to r p u n i s h m e n tp r o h i b i t e db yt h eF i f t h ,E i g h t h ,a n d / o rF o u r t e e n t h Amendments t ot h eC o n s t i t u t i o no ft h eU n i t e dS t a t e s . "

Amendment V. No p e r s o ns h a l lb eh e t dt oa n s w e rf o rac a p i t a l ,o ro t h e r w i s eI n f a m o u sc r i m e ,u n l e s so nap r e s e n t m e n to ri n d i c t m e n to faG r a n dJ u r y ,e x c e p ti n c a s e sa r i s i n gi nt h el a n do rn a v a lf o r c e s ,o rI nt h eM i l i t i a , when i na c t u a ls e r v i c ei nt i m eo f War o rp u b l i cd a n g e r ;n o rs h a l la n yp e r s o nb es u b j e c t f o rt h e same o f f e n c et ob et w i c ep u ti nj e o p a r d yo fl i f eo rl i m b ;n o rs h a l lb ec o m p e l l e dI na n yc r i m i n a lc a s et ob eaw i t n e s sa g a i n s th i m s e l f[ s i c ] , n o rb ed e p r i v e do fl i f e ,l i b e r t y ,o rp r o p e r t y ,w i i ^ o u td u ep r o c e s so fl a w ;n o rs h a l lp r i v a t ep r o p e r t yb et a k e nf o rp u b l i cu s e ,w i t h o u tj u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n . Amendment VIII. E x c e s s i v eb a i ls h a l ln o tb er e q u i r e d ,n o re x c e s s i v ef i n e si m p o s e d ,n o rc r u e la n du n u s u a lp u n i s h m e n t si n f l i c t e d . Amendment X)V. S e c t i o n1 .A l lp e r s o n s bom o rn a t u r a l i z e di nt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ,a n ds u b j e c tt ot h ej u r i s d i c t i o nt h e r e o f ,a r ec i t i z e n so ft h eU n i t e dS t a t e sa n do f t h eS t a t ew h e r e i nt h e yr e s i d e . No S t a t es h a l l make o re n f o r c ea n yl a ww h i c hs h a l la b r i d g et h ep r i v i l e g e so ri m m u n i t i e so fc i t i z e n so ft h eU n i t e d S t a t e s ;n o rs h a l la n yS t a t ed e p r i v ea n yp e r s o no fl i f e ,l i b e r t y ,o rp r o p e r t y ,w i t h o u td u ep r o c e s so fl a w ;n o rd e n yt oa n yp e r s o nw i t h i ni t s j u r i s d i c t i o nt h ee q u a lp r o t e c t i o no ft h el a w s .

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89 90 91 92

Phys/c/ans, / n the Protect/on o/Pr/soners and Deta/'nees aga/nst Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment; the 8as/c P r / n c / p / e s ^br the Treatment o/Pr/soners; or the Wortd Medicat Association Dec/arat/on o/To^yo. An absotute prohibition against the fottowing techniques therefore a r i s e s from, i s understood i n the context of, and i s interpreted according to these texts:

93 Mock executions; water-boarding or any other form of simutated drowning or suffocation; s 94 humitiation; rape; cuttura) or r e t i g i o u s humitiation; exptoitation of fears, phobias or psychopathotogy; 95 induced hypothermia; the use of psychotropic drugs or mind-a)tering substances; hooding; forced 96 nakedness; stress positions; the use of dogs to threaten or intimidate; physica) assautt inctuding stapping 97 or shaking; exposure to extreme heat or co)d; threats of harm or death; i s o t a t i o n ; sensory deprivation 98 and over-stimutation; steep deprivation; or the threatened useof anyof the above techniques to an 99 i n d i v i d u a t or to members of an individual family. 100 101 102 103 104 APA unequivocaMy condemns torture and crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, under any and a ) ) conditions ( a p p ) i c a b t e to a ) ti n d i v i d u a t s ,i na ! )s e t t i n g s and i na t ) contexts without exception), inctuding detention and interrogations of any persons regardtess of designation ( e . g . , tawfu) and untawful enemy combatants as defined by the US M / / / t a r y Comm/ss/ons / \ c f o/206#* or p r i v i t e g e d vs. unpriviteged enemy b e t l i g e r e n t as defined by the US M / / / t a r y Comm/ss/ons < 4 c r o/2009%

105 This unequivoca) condemnation by APA inctudes an absoiute prohibition against psychotogi 106 ptanning, designing, p a r t i c i p a t i n gi n or a s s i s t i n gi n the use of a t ) condemned techniques at any time and 107 that psychotogists may not e n t i s t others to emptoy these techniques i n order to circumvent t h i sp o l i c y ' s 108 prohibition.

109 Moreover, psychologists shall not provide knowingty any research, instruments, or knowte 110 f a c i l i t a t e s the practice of torture or other forms of cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or 111 punishment.

^D e f i n e da sb o t hu n l a w f u le n e m yc o m b a t a n t sa n dl a w f u le n e m yc o m b a t a n t sa ss e tf o r t hi nt h eU . S .M i l i t a r yC o m m i s s i o n sA c to f2 0 0 6( C h a p t e r 4 7 A ;S u b c h a p t e rI : A§ 9 4 8 a .D e f i n i t i o n s ) ( 1 ) UNLAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT. ( A )T h et e r m' u n l a w f u le n e m yc o m b a t a n t 'm e a n s ( i )ap e r s o n who h a se n g a g e di nh o s t i l i t i e so r who h a sp u r p o s e f u l l ya n dm a t e r i a l l ys u p p o r t e dh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e so ri t sc o b e l l i g e r e n t s who i sn o tal a w f u le n e m yc o m b a t a n t( I n c l u d i n gap e r s o n who I sp a r to ft h eT a l i b a n ,a lQ a e d a ,o ra s s o c i a t e df o r c e s ) ;o r ( I i )ap e r s o n who, b e f o r e ,o n ,o ra f t e rt h ed a t eo ft h ee n a c t m e n to ft h eM i l i t a r yC o m m i s s i o n sA c to f2 0 0 6 ,h a sb e e nd e t e r m i n e dt ob ea n u n l a w f u le n e m yc o m b a t a n tb ya C o m b a t a n tS t a t u sR e v i e wT r i b u n a lo ra n o t h e rc o m p e t e n tt r i b u n a le s t a b l i s h e du n d e rt h ea u t h o r i t yo ft h e P r e s i d e n to rt h eS e c r e t a r yo fD e f e n s e . ( 8 )C O B E L L I G E R E N T .-I nt h i sp a r a g r a p h ,t h et e r m' c o b e l l i g e r e n t ' ,w i t hr e s p e c tt ot h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ,m e a n sa n yS t a t eo ra r m e df o r c ej o i n i n g a n dd i r e c t l ye n g a g e dw i t ht h eU n i t e dS t a t e si nh o s t i l i t i e so rd i r e c t l ys u p p o r t i n gh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s t a common e n e m y . ( 2 ) LAWFUL ENEMY COMBATANT - T h et e r m' l a w f u l enemy c o m b a t a n t 'm e a n sap e r s o n who i s ( A ) a member o ft h er e g u l a rf o r c e so fa S t a t ep a r t ye n g a g e dI nh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e s ; ( B ) a member o fa m i l i t i a ,v o l u n t e e rc o r p s ,o ro r g a n i z e dr e s i s t a n c e movement b e l o n g i n gt oaS t a t ep a r t ye n g a g e di ns u c hh o s t i l i t i e s ,w h i c h a r eu n d e rr e s p o n s i b l e command, w e a raf i x e i fi n s t i n c t i v es i g nr e c o g n i z a b l ea tad i s t a n c e ,c a r r yt h e i ra r m so p e n l y ,a n da b i d eb yt h el a wo fw a r ; o r ( C ) a member o far e g u l a ra r m e df o r c e who p r o f e s s e sa l l e g i a n c et oag o v e r n m e n te n g a g e di ns u c hh o s t i l i t i e s ,b u tn o tr e c o g n i z e db yt h e U n i t e dS t a t e s .

^ Defined as both privileged belligerent and unprivileged enemy belligerent as set fort 4 7 A ;S u b c h a p t e rI :§9 4 8 a .D e f i n i t i o n s ) ( 6 )P R I V I L E G E DB E L L I G E R E N T . T h et e r m' p r i v i l e g e db e l l i g e r e n t 'm e a n sa ni n d i v i d u a lb e l o n g i n gt oo n eo ft h ee i g h tc a t e g o r i e se n u m e r a t e di n A r t i c l e4o ft h eG e n e v aC o n v e n t i o nR e l a t i v et ot h eT r e a t m e n to fP r i s o n e r so f War. ( 7 )U N P R i V I L E G E D ENEMY B E L L I G E R E N T . T h et e r m' u n p r i v i l e g e d enemy b e l l i g e r e n t 'm e a n sa ni n d i v i d u a l( o t h e rt h a nap r i v i l e g e db e l l i g e r e n t ) who- ( A )h a se n g a g e di nh o s t i l i t i e sa g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e so ri t sc o a l i t i o np a r t n e r s ;( B )h a sp u r p o s e f u l l ya n dm a t e r i a l l ys u p p o r t e dh o s t i l i t i e s a g a i n s tt h eU n i t e dS t a t e so ri t sc o a l i t i o np a r t n e r s ;o r( C ) was a p a r to fa lQ a e d aa tt h et i m eo ft h ea l l e g e do f f e n s eu n d e rt h i sc h a p t e r . 52

112 113

P s y c h o t o g i s t ss h a t l not knowingty p a r t i c i p a t ei n any procedure i n which torture or other forms of crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment i s threatened.

114 This poticy statement/section conforms to the Ffh/ca/ Pr/nc/p/es o/ Psycho/og/sts and Co 115 P r i n c i p t e A, Beneficence and Nonmateficence ( " P s y c h o t o g i s t ss t r i v e to benefit those with whom they 116 work and take care to do no harm. I nt h e i r professionat actions, psychotogists seek to safeguard the 117 welfare and r i g h t s of those with whom they i n t e r a c t professional and other affected persons ..."), 118 and E t h i c a t Standard 3.04, Avoiding Harm ( " P s y c h o t o g t s t s take reasonabte steps to avoid harming ... 119 others with whom they work, and to minimize harm where i ti s foreseeabte and unavoidabte."). 120 121 122 123 Statement 4: APA affirms that there are no exceptionat circumstances whatsoever, whether induced by as t a t e of war or threat of war, interna) p o t i t i c a ti n s t a b i t i t y or any other pubtic emergency, that may be invoked as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, inctuding the invocation of taws, regutations, or orders.

124 This poticy statement is in keeping with Articte 2.2. of the UN Convent/on ,Aga/nsf Tort 125 126 127 128 Statement 5: Psychotogists s h a t t be a t e r t to acts of torture or other cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment and shoutd such acts evotve during a procedure where a psychotogist i s present, the psychotogtst s h a t t attempt to intervene to stop such behavior, and f a i t i n g that, the psychotogist has an e t h i c a tr e s p o n s i b i t i t y to e x i t the procedure.

129 Statement 6: Psychotogists shatt be atert to acts of torture and other crue), inhuman, or 130 treatment or punishment and have an ethica) r e s p o n s i b i t i t y to report these acts to the appropriate 131 a u t h o r i t i e s .

132 APA asserts that any APA member with knowledge that a psychotogist, whether an APA membe 133 member, has engaged i n torture or cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, inctuding 134 the s p e c i f i c behaviors t i s t e di n Statement 3 above, has an e t h t c a ir e s p o n s i b i t i t y to abide by Ethica) 135 Standard 1.05, Reporting Ethica) Viotations, i n the Eth/co/ P r / n c / p / e s of Psycho/og/sts and Code o/Conduct 136 (2010) and directs the E t h i c s Committee to take appropriate action based upon such information, and 137 encourages psychotogists who are not APA members atso to adhere to Ethica) Standard 1.05.

138 APA commends those psychotogists who have taken dear and uneqwvocat stands against tortu 139 crue), inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, e s p e c i a t t yi n the t i n e of duty, and inctuding 140 stands against the s p e c i f i c behaviors ( d e t a i ) e di n Statement 3) or conditions t i s t e d above; and that the 141 APA affirms the prerogative of psychotogtsts under the Eth/cs Code (2010) to disobey taw, regutations or 142 orders when they c o n f t i c t with ethics i n keeping with Ethica) Standard 1.02.

143 APA asserts that att psychotogists with information retevant to the use of any method of 144 c o n s t i t u t i n g torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment have an e t h i c a t 145 r e s p o n s i b i t i t y to inform t h e i r superiors of such knowtedge, to inform the retevant o f f i c e of inspector 146 genera) when appropriate, and to cooperate f u l t y with a ) ) oversight a c t i v i t i e s , inctuding hearings by the 147 United States Congress and a ) ) branches of the United States government, to examine the perpetration 148 of torture or crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment against i n d i v i d u a t si n United States 149 custody, for the purpose of ensuring that no individua) i n the custody of the United States i s subjected 150 to such acts.

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151 152 153 154 155 156 157

The e t h i c a tr e s p o n s i b i t i t y to report i s rooted i n the E r h / c s Code Preambte, "Psychotogists respect and protect c i v i l and human r i g h t s ... the development of a dynamic set of ethica) standards for psychotogists' work-retated conduct requires a personal commitment and ) i f e ) o n ge f f o r t to act e t h i c a t t y [and] to encourage ethica) behavior by... cotteagues," and P r i n c i p t e B, F i d e t i t y and Responsibitity, which states that psychoiogists "are aware of t h e i r professionat and s c i e n t i f i cr e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to society and to the s p e c i f i c communities i n which they work" and E t h i c a t Standard 1.05, Reporting E t h i c a t Viotations, " i f an apparent ethica) v i o l a t i o n has substantiate harmed or i sl i k e t y to substantiate harm a person."

158 Statement 7: Psychologists in nationa) security settings shat) work in accordance with i 159 human r i g h t s instruments retevant to t h e i r rotes. 160 Psychotogists working in nationai security settings are obtigated to review vita) human 161 retevant to their roles, such as Common A r t i c t e 3 of the Geneva Convent/ons; the United Nations 162 Coni/ent/on / S g a / n s t Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment; the 163 Geneva Convenf/ons; the P r / n c / p / e s of Med/ca/ E t h / c s Re/evant to the Ro/e of Hea/fh Personne/, 164 P a r t / c u / a r / y Phys/c/ans, / n the Protect/on of Pr/soners and Deta/nees aga/nsf Torture and Other Crue/, 165 /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment; the Bas/c Pr/nc/p/es/or the Treatment o/Pr/soners: the 166 United Nations P r / n c / p / e s on the E f / e c f / v e/ n v e s t / g a t / o n and Documentat/on o/ Torture and Other Crue/, 167 /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment; and the Wortd Medica! Association Dec/arat/on of 168 T o / r y o , Gu/deZ/nes/or Phys/c/ans Concern/ng Torture and other Crue/, /nhuman #r Degrad/ng Treatment 169 or Pun/shment / n Re/at/on to Detent/on and /mpr/sonment.

170 Statement 8: When psychotogists serve in any position by virtue of their training, exper 171 expertise as psychoiogists, i n c t u d i n g psychotogists working i n nationa) s e c u r i t y settings, they are bound 172 by the APA Eth/ca/ P r / n c / p / e s of Psycho/og/sts and Code o/Conduct, i ni t se n t i r e t y .

173 Based on the Principtes and Standards of the APA Eth/ca/ Pr/nc/p/es of Psycho/og/sts and 174 Conduct, psychotogists working i n nationa) s e c u r i t ys e t t i n g s shal):

175 * Abide by the ffh/cs Code in any professiona) ro)e, inctuding rotes outside traditiona) 176 provider retationships. 177 * Seek to safeguard the welfare and r i g h t s of those with whom they i n t e r a c t professional and 178 other affected persons. 179 This principte conforms to Ethics Code, Principte A: Beneficence and Nonmateficence. 180 "Psychotogists s t r i v e to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no 181 harm."

182 * Seek to understand individuats' cutture and ethnicity to avoid misunderstandings and p 183 harm. 184 Faiture to understand aspects of individuats' culture and ethnicity may generate 185 misunderstandings, compromise the e f f i c a c y of work i n nationa) s e c u r i t y settings, and 186 p o t e n t i a t t yr e s u t ti ns i g n i f i c a n t mentat and physicat harm. ( P r i n c i p t e E, "Psychologists are 187 aware of and respect cuttura), individua), and r o t e differences, i n c t u d i n g those based on . 188 .. race, e t h n i c i t y , cutture, nationat o r i g i n ... and consider these factors when working 189 with members of such groups"; E t h i c a l Standard 2.01(b), Boundaries of Competence,

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190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

"Where s c i e n t i f i c or professionat knowtedge i n the d i s c i p t i n e of psychotogy estabtishes that an understanding of factors associated with ... race, e t h n i c i t y , cutture, nationat o r i g i n ... i se s s e n t i a t for e f f e c t i v e imptementation of their services or research, psychotogists have or obtain the t r a i n i n g , experience, consuttation, or supervision necessary to ensure the competence of t h e i r services, or they make appropriate r e f e r r a t s ..."; and Ethica) Standard 3.01, Unfair Discrimination, " t nt h e i r work-retated a c t i v i t i e s , psychologists do not engage i nu n f a i r discrimination based on ... race, e t h n i c i t y , cutture, nationa) o r i g i n ...")

198 * Be aware of the potentia) risks invotved in mu)tip)e retationships, and fottow the guid 199 contained i n Standard 3.05 to minimize those r i s k s . 200 Ethics Code Standard 3.05, Muttipte Retationships, "A psychotogist refrains from 201 entering into a muttipte r e t a t i o n s h i pi f the muttipte r e t a t i o n s h i p coutd reasonabty be 202 expected to impair the p s y c h o t o g t s t ' so b j e c t i v i t y , competence or effectiveness i n 203 performing h i s or her functions as a psychotogist, or otherwise r i s k s exportation or harm 204 to the person with whom the professiona) r e t a t i o n s h t pe x i s t s . "

205 * Be aware of and ctarify their rote in situations where the nature of their professionai 206 and professionatfunction maybe ambiguous. 207 Psychotogtsts have a speciat responsibitity to ctarify their rote in situations where 208 i n d i v i d u a t s or other professional may have an incorrect impression that psychotogists 209 are serving i n a heatthcare provider rote. ( E t h i c a ) Standards 3.07, Third-Party Requests 210 for Services, "When psychotogists agree to provide services to a person or e n t i t y at the 211 request of a t h i r d party, psychotogists attempt to c t a r i f y at the outset of the service the 212 nature of the retationship with a ) ti n d t v i d u a t s or organizations invotved. This c t a r i f i c a t i o n 213 inctudes the r o t e of the psychotogist... an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of who i s the c t i e n t , the 214 probabte uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the f a c t that 215 there may be t i m i t s to c o n f i d e n t i a t i t y " ; and 3.11, Psychotogica) Services Delivered to or 216 Through Organizations, "(a) Psychotogtsts d e t i v e r i n g services to or through organizations 217 provide information beforehand to c t i e n t s and when appropriate those d i r e c t t y affected 218 by the services about (1) the nature and objectives of the services, (2) the intended 219 recipients, (3) which of the i n d i v i d u a t s are c t i e n t s , (4) the retationship the psychoiogist 220 w i t t have with each person and the organization, (5) the probabte uses of services 221 provided and information obtained, (6) who w i t t have access to the information, and (7) 222 t i m i t s of c o n f i d e n t i a t i t y . " ) 223 Regardtess of their rote, psychotogists who are aware of an indtvidua) in need of heatth 224 or mentat health treatment may seek consuttation regarding how to ensure that the 225 individua) receives needed care. ( P r i n c i p t e A, Beneficence and Nonmaleficence) 226 * Oarify for themsetves the identity of their client. 227 This poticy statement conforms to Eth/cs Code Standard 3.07 Third-Party Requests for 228 Services, "When psychotogists agree to provide services to a person or e n t i t y at the 229 request of a t h i r d party, psychotogists attempt to c l a r i f y at the outset of the service the

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230 231 232 233

nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p with a t )i n d i v i d u a l s or organizations invotved. This d a r i f i c a t i o n inctudes the r o t e of the psychotogist... an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of who i s the c t i e n t , the probabie uses of the s e r v i c e s provided or the information obtained, and the f a c t that there may be Hmits to c o n f i d e n t i a t i t y . "

234 * Retain ethica) obtigations to individuats who are not their ctients.

235 Regardtess of whether an individua) is considered a ctient, psychotogists have an ethica 236 obtigation to "avoid harming their... organizationa) c t i e n t s and others with whom they 237 work, and to minimize harm where i ti s foreseeabie and unavoidabte" (Ethica) Standard 238 3.04, Avoiding Harm). Psychotogists' ethica) obligations are especiaHy important where, 239 because of a s e t t i n g ' s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , an individua) may not be f u t l y ab)e to 240 assert retevant r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s .( P r i n c t p ) e A, Beneficence and Nonmaleficence, " I n 241 their professiona) actions, psychoiogists seek to safeguard the welfare and r i g h t s of 242 those with whom they i n t e r a c t professional and other affected persons"; P r i n c i p t e D, 243 Justice, "Psychotogists exercise reasonabte judgment and take precautions to ensure 244 that their potentia) biases, the boundaries of t h e i r competence, and the [ i m i t a t i o n s of 245 t h e i r expertise do not l e a d to or condone unjust practices"; P r i n c i p i e E, Respect for 246 Peopte's Rights and Dignity, "Psychotogists are aware that specia) safeguards may be 247 necessary to protect the r i g h t s and wetfare of persons or communities whose 248 v u t n e r a b i l i t i e s impair autonomous decision making"; Ethica) Standard 3.08, E x p t o i t a t i v e 249 Retationships, "Psychotogtsts do not exptoit persons over whom they have supervisory, 250 evatuative or other authority...") 251 * Make dear the timits of confidentiatity. 252 Psychotogists take care not to teave a misimpression that information is confidentia) 253 when i n fact i ti s not. ( E t h i c a ) Standards 3.10, Informed Consent, and 4.02, Discussing 254 the Limits of C o n f i d e n t i a t i t y , "(a) Psychotogists discuss with persons ( i n c t u d i n g , to the 255 extent feasible, persons who are ) e g a l ) y incapabie of g i v i n g informed consent and their 256 t e g a l representatives) and organizations with whom they e s t a b l i s has c i e n t i f i c or 257 professiona) r e t a t i o n s h i p (1) the reievant i i m i t s of c e n f i d e n t i a t i t y and (2) the foreseeable 258 uses of the information generated through t h e i r psychotogica) a c t i v i t i e s . " )

259 * Be mindfu) that individuats hetd in nationa) security settings may not have engaged in 260 behavior and may not have information of nationat s e c u r i t y interest. 261 Ethica] obtigations are not diminished by the nature of an individuals acts prior to 262 detainment or the t i k e t i h o o d of the individua) having retevant information. At a ) i times 263 psychotogists reAain mindfu) of and abide by the absotute prohibitions against engaging 264 i n or f a c i t i t a t i n g torture and other crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or 265 punishment. ( P r i n c i p l e E, Respect for Peoptes' Rights and Dignity, "Psychologists are 266 aware that s p e c i a l safeguards may be necessary to protect the r i g h t s and wetfare of 267 persons or communities whose v u t n e r a b i t i t i e s impair autonomous decision making"; 268 and 3.01, Unfair Discrimination, " i n their work-retated a c t i v i t i e s , psychotogists do not 269 engage i n unfair discrimination based on ... race, e t h n i c i t y , culture, nationa) o r i g i n ...")

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*

Be aware that c e r t a i ns e t t i n g s may i n s t i ) )i ni n d i v i d u a t s a profound sense of powertessness and may ptace i n d i v i d u a t si n considerabte positions of disadvantage i n terms of asserting their i n t e r e s t s and r i g h t s .

273 Psychotogists are mindfut that prisoners represent a vulnerabte poputation. (Principte E: 274 Respect for People's Rights and Dignity, "Psychotogists respect the d i g n i t y and worth of 275 a ) [ peopte, and the r i g h t s of individual to privacy, c o n f i d e n t i a t i t y , and s e ) f 276 determination. Psychotogists are aware that s p e c i a t safeguards may be necessary to 277 protect the r i g h t s and wetfare of persons or communities whose v u t n e r a b i t i t i e s impair 278 autonomous decision making." Also, E t h i c a l Standards 1.01, Misuse of Psychotogists' 279 Work, " ) f psychotogists team of misuse or misrepresentation of t h e i r work, they take 280 reasonabte steps to correct or minimize the misuse or misrepresentation," and 3.08, 281 E x p t o i t a t i v e Retationships, "Psychotogists do not e x p t o t t persons over whom they have 282 supervisory, evatuattve or other authority...") 283 * Consutt with others when they are facing difficuit ethicat ditemmas. 284 Preamb)e to the Eth/cs Code, "The devetopment of a dynamic set of ethica) standards for 285 psychotogists' work-retated conduct requires a persona) commitment and t i f e t o n ge f f o r t 286 to act ethtcatty... and to consutt with others concerning ethica! probtems"; and Ethica) 287 Standard 4.06, Consuttations. 288 * Be witting to take ethica) responsibitity for their own behavior. 289 * Abide by the APA Ethica) P r i n c i p t e s of Psychotogists and Code of Conduct, i ni t s entirety. 290 As a means to advance human rights in the nationai security context, APA shatt carry out 291 three broad a c t i v i t i e s :

292 1. APA shat) continue to cat) upon the US government-induding the President, Congress, th 293 Department of Defense, and the Centra) ) n t e ! ) i g e n c e Agency-to prohibit the use of torture or 294 cruet, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment i n any interrogation and APA shaH 295 continue to inform retevant parties with the US government that psychotogists are prohibited 296 from p a r t i c i p a t i n gi n such methods, t n order to protect against torture and cruet, inhuman, or 297 degrading treatment or punishment, and i n order to mitigate against the ) i k e ! i h o o d that 298 unre)iab)e and/or inaccurate information i s entered i n t ot e g a t proceedings, APA shat) continue to 299 c a l ) upon the US )ega) system to r e j e c t testimony that r e s u t t s from torture or crue], inhuman, or 300 degrading treatment or punishment. 301 2. APA shal) offer ethica) guidance and support especiaMy to psychotogists working i n nationa) 302 security s e t t i n g s at the beginning of their careers, who may experience pressures to engage i n 303 unethica) or inappropriate behaviors that they are t i k e t y to f i n dd i f f i c u t t to r e s i s t . The APA E t h i c s 304 Committee sha)) devetop and d i s t r i b u t e a casebook and commentary that shaH set forth 305 gutdetines for psychologists that are consistent with internationa) human r i g h t s instruments, 306 including those c i t e de a r t i e r , as we)) as guidelines devetoped for heatth professional, such as: 307 Common Artide 3 of the Geneva Convent/ons; The UN Convent/on / S g a / n s t Torture and Other 308 Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shmenf; The U N P r / n c / p / e s of Med/ca/ Eth/cs 309 Re/evant to the Ro/e of Hea/th Personne/, p a r t / c u / a r / y Phys/c/ans, / n the Protect/on of Pr/soners 310 and Deta/nees aga/nst Torture and Other Crue/, /nhuman, or Degrad/ng Treatment or 311 Pun/shment; and The Wor)d Medica) Association Dec/arat/on o/To^yo; Gu/de//nes/or Phys/c/ans

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312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319

Concern/Jig Torture and other Crue/, /nhuman or Degrad/ng Treatment or Pun/shment / n Re/at/on to Detent/on and /mpr/sonment. The E t h i c s Committee s h a t t aiso devetop a consuttation process whereby psychotogists whose work invotves c l a s s i f i e d materia) may seek ethica) guidance for assistance and support. 3 . APA s h a t t disseminate and p u b t i c i z et h i s new reconcited APA p o t i c y against torture and other crue), inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, both within the Association ( t o boards, committees, and the membership at targe) and to the wider pubtic to safeguard individua) wetfare and to advance human r i g h t s .

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