39574077 Marcus Aurelius and the Later Stoics | Stoicism | Roman Empire




Qumm Smeaton.

am) tkJakrjJtoi(^

Vice -Principal








B528 .B98
Marcus Aurelius and the
later Stoics /



original of



is in

Cornell University Library.

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the United States on the use of the text.

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Marcus Aurelius
and the

Later Stoics





Previous Volumes in this Series :—

By By

Principal T.

F. J.

Snell, M.A.


By Arthur Lillie.

By James Sime, M.A., F.R.S.E.



Prof. J.

Herkless, D.D.

By Rev. G. M'Hardy, D.D.

By Rev. A.

Welch, M.A., B.D.

By Oliphant Smeaton, M.A.


D. G. Ritchie, M.A., LL.D.

By William Clark, LL.D., D.C.L.



HIS LIFE AND SYSTEM. By Thomas Smith, D.D., LL.D.

Mackintosh, D.D. his Influence on Philosophy AND Theology. By Prof. James Orr, M.A., D.D. ROUSSEAU AND Naturalism in Life and Thought. By Prof. W. H. Hudson, M.A. DESCARTES, SPINOZA, and the New Philosophy. By Principal Iverach, D.D.


By Rev.

By Rev.
gious Life


C. Carrick, B.D.

and Thought.


his Influence

on ReliPli.D.




THE WORLD'S EPOCH-MAKERS Marcus Aurelius and the Later Stoics By F. T.D. & T. Bussell. Vice-Principal of "Brasenose College. Clark 1910 . D. W. Oxford Edinburgh.


A. H. J. Gebbnidge






















look will betray


length of time



been under consideration hy several allusions to


which are now anachronisms.

But I have preferred

to leave the text as

I wrote


some time ago ; and


no change in the estimate of the Stoic teachers, although in



my own



not the same.




agrees fairly well with the valuation of a pure

Bampton Lectures of 1905 and I am glad of an opportunity of supplementing and supporting the general statements made there hy this
forth in the
' '

detailed inquiry into two or three of the most eminent
sincere expounders of


an untenable


MuNDHAM House,
December 1909.



General Preface

I. ,"

The Roman Emperor "



Stoic Philosoplier"


Development of Philosophy in Rome


"The Wise Man"

...... ..... ......








.18 .35



New Cynism
. ;

Epiotetfs, or the

Devotional Personification
. . .

of the Cosmic Order


A. The Religious transformation of Philosophic Dogma
B. The Gift of Free Will

the Fatherhood of



Divinity of Souls; the " Cosmopolis '^

the Special


C. Providence extending to Particulars

Sons of

in the

. .




Discipline of the

The Wise Man

Two Commonwealths



or the r61e of Contemplation

and Passivity



Conception of Stoicism in error

the essential

Expediency of Resignation and Abstention


B. Close Restriction of the Sphere of Missionary Influence

Rejection of Civic or Domestic Duties by the true




The Sage Spectator rather than Agent

in the Universe

III. Soul. 120 PART I. .. without real Contact with Things-in-Themselves. . the the World the Moralistic Standpoint . The Teaching Agent Emperor . Man and the World . Influence of the Conception of Afiyos on Greek Thought C. God Emancipation. . its 186 IV. Happiness II. The Constitution and Psychology of the Individual . .147 . ...... . Inherent Diversity of the Nature of World Absolute Subjectivity A. III.. . varying Definitions of C III... Meditations due to his . The two Commonwealths and the or Quietist . . . the PA8K 110 110 Minor Points.152 Agent A.122 132 136 . the .. . Htns . Death and Immortality B. . .. Special purpose and ... . GENERAL SYNOPSIS The Ultimate Problems A. 194 . Happiness and Destiny of Man's Spirit Self-sufficingness of the Soul . . Man . of Conflict Life of etc. A. the Nature of .X CHAP.. Man's Function and Place in the World Ec[uipment of each being a Key to its . .122 .. . . ... B. Chief Characteristics Office of his . "Koeric" C. .. D.194 . . . The Problem of "Conformity to Nature". and his Ti/me . V can assimilate and transmute into Material for own Nurture A. THE CREED OF MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS of the .. . . .. . Citizen. Some ... .. Complete Isolation of the Individual from Things and from his Fellow-men 175 181 B. B.152 158 Man and the 167 175 . Futility of mere Technical 117 Harmony between Epiotetus and Marcus Aurelius . "Pax Romana".. Moral Effort expires in Tolerance of Evil C.. . as .

—how far Intelligible . . of Morality 217 Appendix A. . ... Belief in Immortality essential to the logical Theory. . .. . — GENERAL SYNOPSIS CHAP. D. E.. . . " Deity ' within" C. The Problem of D.. The Universe... ? .. . . Creation and Providence. . Eternal 220 and Divine. . Contemptible.255 . Doctrine . 225 225 B.272 APPENDIX Translation of Passages cited from Epictetus ... xi PASS B. C V. VI. ' ' . 241 250 Scientific Study as a Meditation . The Uses and Methods of Philosophy the Sukkendbk . 288 . . 235 241 The Alleged Conciliation of the Two Natures A.. A. .. Monopsychism . How 262 General Conclusion . of Intellectualism C. On Eebellion and Apostasis from the World-order far possible ? . and Transient and . if not to the Pursuit. . B. . ... The Perpetual Flux and Monotony of the Worldprocess . .. on Death " . Mystical Tendencies and the . Immortality . . .. . .. . of . .202 204- 20^. Vanity and Insignificance of Human Life in the Measureless Gulf of Time B..


§ 6. Dv. Disappoimting in part results of M. to the problem of the eha/racter § 8.MARCUS AUEELIUS AND THE LATER STOICISM PART I. Honest attempts of " Five good Emperors " to rule as Presidents of a Free State (96-180 a. Av/relvu^ reign amd due to the sadness of his philosophical speculations. § 3. devoted Reconciliation of the Dya/rehy. Vagueness of Imperial ideal allowed oscillation between civil and military conception. INTRODUCTION I CHAPTEE Analysis § I. § 5. no recognition of the hereditary principle. history of its subsequent § 7. the Gmswr represented the Spirit of the Age in his choice. and as " Prvaceps " and Delegate of the Senaie. The Empire above Nationality. "the ROMAN EMPEROR" Roman Empire an The extempore expedient. by policy of non-intervention. failure (180-285 a.d. § 4.).d. official.). . amd by local autonomy) . This period an exceptional epoch.al aspect of the Emperor as "Overlord" of the provinces (where his personal caprice modified by continmty of tradition. The Emperor a Republican not a King . § 2.

who con- . all and. centralizing of authority in a and a single ruler. involved inconsistencies so absuvd and so fundamental." yet of the suspicion much and discord. which from experience we know is denied to the paper constitution and definite formulae of modern theoretic government. it was the slow growth of time. our dis- The paradoxes. which under the old titles and magistracies concealed a complete revolution. single city Augustus. but imperfectly guised by the Imperial mantle. would become permanent in his own Empire. which succeeded.2 MARCUS AURELIUS No political system that man's ingenuity has invented can ever equal in interest for us the Eoman Empire. Yet a stability seems to have attended it. that we wonder how the system survived for ten years the inquiry of reasonable men. Julius in measure and this and' Augustus contributed. after it had passed away. the strict sense The Eoman Empire was never a monarchy in to the very end the word " Eespublica " . § 2. to the very close of his his life cloaked power under a pretence of extempore expediency and masterly though this policy was in disarming the old classical prejudice against a " tyranny. but they could never have dreamt of the full significance of their work. indeed. He could never have foreseen that this hasty attempt to reconcile the traditions of the past with the needs of the present. would appear at subsequent times of human history as the of visionary Ideal towards which the aspirations race are directed. the mutinies and bloodshed. to this unification. was due to the singular indefiniteness and ambiguity of his new Constitution. took precedence of the title of the despot. in large answer to a tired world's demand. Like the British Constitution.

the strife above above monarchs raised have the bitterness of rival factions. The " nation. "THE ROMAN EMPEROR" trolled 3 and frequently enslaved (little it. prestige. because greater. into a serener atmosphere . and often mis- appreciated)." a vague name sometimes embodied in the real in the Senate. ia spite of the obscure inviolability of the Tribunitian power. single claim to sovereignty. and are by no means ! mere sentiments or convenient fictions of the law. of party. of " and possessing of himself no was the trusted minister . The Caesar. the methods of of the Imperial epoch upon which this wheel The divinity. honour. the rights of succession. the dynastic claims. the reverence to the person of a monarch. tumultuous shouts of frontier all and ultimate repositary of all lawful power . is all the elected by a free choice.! . no special sanctity surrounded the representative of the people. the accumulated titles of We have all these were utterly lacking. though it may election. Democracy. The King can do no wrong " " Le roi est mort Vive le roi " are two principles which lie at the background of the stability of Europe. Yet they involve ideas which a Roman in the most We servile period would have repudiated with scorn. of that central point of — Their influence be at the cost of their prerogative. the sacrosanct the enormously increased character of our modern sovereigns. it is indirect. and atoned for failure with his life. was the and we marvel that in the patient and accurate legislation no attempt was made to define with exactness the duties. the prerogatives. sometimes legions." the peculiar respect in speech and address. In spite of the Imperial apotheosis understood. government and society revolved. which to our modern eyes " doth hedge a king.

to seclude. Nothing . And this. had set itself to centralize. Theophylact could proudly boast of the contrast between the "legal and constitutional government " of the Byzantine. If we examine claims to Imperial the " dynasties " of this period from Augustus to Constantino xiv. till at the close. for sedition in their indisputable rank. Nor is did the hereditary principle meet this with recognition. and still more definitely of Justinian. or of nephew to the throne and the page of history is full of ephemeral families. the reign of Maurice (582-602). without ever expressly denying that the in Europe was open to any . no discontented faction saw a pretext centuries. we shall observe how common was the peaceful succession of son. But it must be continually remembered that this involved no recognition whatever of the heredi. tary principle. after the pattern of Oriental courts. and the capricious despotism after of of the irresponsible Chosroes. They sank unnoticed into private life no vengeance associated them in the misdeeds of their kinsman. each one increasing in duration and stability. the Comneni and the Palseologi divide between them nearly four hundred years. to consecrate the monarchical idea. Constantino.4 MARCUS AURELIUS and when the history of the Nineteenth Century is compiled by dispassionate critics. of brother. as we understand it to-day. The " Holy Eoman Empire " became monopolized by a highest secular office single family in later times. it will be seen how largely we have augmented the influence while circumAs late as scribing the direct power of the Crown. the policy of the rough but astute Diocletian. throughout period of fifteen more remarkable than the safe security of the family and relations of a deposed or murdered emperor..

and who breathe a purer air of patriotism and disinterestedness. just because the people are free. " brother§ 3. though humaner views of the hood of man " prevail. and with their instinctive good sense prefer to place power in those whose past traditions are a guarantee of confidence and good faith. . who refuses to be deceived by the harm- and necessary turmoil of democratic legislation and reform. apart from the narrow conservatism of officialdom and the intrigues of professional politicians. . in its firm loyalty to monarchs who are " born not made. European Society. And this. dividing the honour and the reality of authority. less But it is not too much to say that to the acute observer. yet there is np sign For this becomes of the decay of National feeling. but even of to much modern history. and the democracy of the classical peoples ex nobilitate. 5 From one brief but pregnant sentence in Tacitus we gather the remarkable difference between the aristocratic modern world of to-day " reges vii. and to the laws of succession and property. This is the key not only to mediseval.hereditary principle. relies for its surest foundations on the . itself we may see it appearing in the last days of the Western Sovereignty. duces ex virtute sumunt " (Germania." A similar respect produced in Japan the singular dualism of Shogun and Mikado and in Koman history for the long survival of effete dynasties. introduced a principle utterly alien to the spirit of the Romans.). when powerful barbarians like Eicimer." to a governing class that is never a bureaucracy.: "THE ROMAN EMPEROR" baptized and free-born Christian man. To-day. and are destined to triumph over war and the miseries of dissension.. We account in this way and the real business of affairs concentred in some " Major Domus.

He was a Spaniard. which so often amounts stronger in our hearts. indifference to immediate duties.) along with the decay of the Eoman race. He embodies the people's wishes. supposition or pretension to ofBce. —an .d. not an owner. He is a steward. Empire was the denial of nationality. The Emperor is merely the first subject of this comprehensive and invisible State. In its narrower significance. of heredity. whether The mediaeval or ancient. a Cyrenian. was an absolute stranger. this generous emotion. And the political system founded on the very negation of nationalism or separateness. a Syrian but he was something more. the Eoman family became extinct. It attempts to conceal the which it places in the hands of and seems ashamed or afraid to define them. in 213 a. formed a bond of union between tribes and civilizations the most iadverse and distinct. advanced to its goal of complete comprehensiveness (under an Antonine. but he exercises a sacred trust which has been freely delegated to a chief magistrate. pletely ignorant of the modem notions of kingship. feeling. The " Civis Eomanus" was one who enjoyed a supra-national privilege. as merely to the acceptance of certain theoretical proTo this positions. aspirations.6 MARCUS AURELIUS it is more genuine than a vague cosmopolitan sympathy. the Empire. In the son of Caesar there exists no inherent preabsolute powers representatives. a Neapolitan. Thus the Empire is com. The legitimate children by birth were succeeded by the adopted family of all " nations under heaven and adoption constituted in " the ancient world a tie no less sacred and binding than did physical descent. of nationality. and authority. The gradual extension of what may be termed the "franchise" .

finding few precedents and generally armed with a " mandate. Probably no government has ever existed unless favoured . none was more noble or conscientious than the policy of the five good Emperors whose names have brightened that period of repose. § 4. The reigning Caesar. either as a thinker or a governor. he represented the temper of the Roman world — public opinion and that plainspokenness of the populace which was tolerated even under the most savage reigns. introduction Enough has been said to suffice as a general to that "Imperium" of which Marcus Aurelius Antoninus was so bright an ornament. and perhaps of lethargy. He might. which seemed to Gibbon the " happiest " age in human records." as " primus inter pares. yet that there can be no doubt that in whatever capacity. rejecting the title Imperator. incline towards an Absolutism supported by the Sword or. the character. greatly though this change was due to the character of the Emperor and his his place." silent or expressed."THE ROMAN EMPEROR" 7 intangible network which held together in harmony and peace the last centuries of the decaying peoples of classical antiquity. the Senatorial fathers. to reverse and stigmatize his predecessor's methods. Among the various attempts made by generals or statesmen on their accession to define this strangely vague dignity. predilections for republican or military ideals. influence of this ruler and in attempting to estimate remarks by no means superfluous. In this oscillation. he might live and govern as " princeps. was at liberty to give prominence to whichever of his dual positions he preferred. shall We the try to portray . the work. the which precede will be found ." among his peers. even in time of peace.

the studies. Trained for the most part in no princely as soldiers or seclusion. always they seditious may be clear. but The approval of the citizens constitute a minority. perhaps rather to follow than to lead. The Tudor Sovereigns. acceptable to his subjects. a private station and gave unconscious expression to the popular voice. reposes undoubtedly upon the negative and contemptuous consent of the people. may be due to the sheer inertia of indolence or ignorance.voiced and bold. but moving freely citizens among a free-speaking people.8 MARCUS AURELIUS The and approved by the larger part of its subjects. acceding to a dignity which rarely dazzled them. An iafinitesimal fraction of the Russians have more than once imperilled a system of the which is set firm on the piety and veneration The Sultan of Turkey. . which offers a frivolous nation the comparatively harmless sport of a ministerial crisis in place of regicide and the fall of dynasties. were indififerent to the occupant of the throne. perhaps more cruel in their suspicions of our noble houses than any Caesar. Similarly. the Roman Emperors seem at each moment to embody the domiaant spirit of the age. where the real life The provinces of and progress of the Empire to-day. continued. Great as was the power of Csesar. and vast bulk of the nation. § 5. had the unfailing support of their subjects. in spite of the protests of a " Young Turkey " faction. and clearer utterance to vague murmurs of discontent. is The government of France. and live in their grateful memory. his personality was perhaps of less account than the character of the Constitutional monarch of Rome. or the profound doubt that any change can be for the better. the pre. they brought to the throne the dilections of tastes.

"THE ROMAN EMPEROR" Though the Roman civil service 9 never degenerated into a bureaucracy. yet these words might well illos epitomize view _ of I. Festus is full of eloquent testimony to the forbearance and toleration and his instinctive sense of the limits of government and the restrictions which should be placed upon State interference.. of the Emperor was an infallible and uncorrupt court of appeal . though the idea of sovereignty was incarnate in a rough frontiers the transient Dacian peasant or an effeminate Syrian boy. Rome. affluens jus supra omnem injuriam positum. yet there was a continuity of tradition. but his vigilance did not obtrude nor did his authority mischievously supersede the ancient local systems. which never snapt.) " is addressing his master during the golden age " of the Quinquennium the general its . ness as indifferent to the public order. and above all never to interfere in those debatable and uncertain matters which. Roman : administration during nulla whole supremacy. is yet the first State that dis- covered and practised religious tolerance. 2 "Multa qu§. though on the assiduity of Numismatics. alta. but it was to honour the liberties of the governed. . securitas . Lsetissima nisi forma RP**. unfairly weighted with the odium of the Ten Persecutions of the Christians. cui ad summam Ubertatem nihil deest . phantoms The in the purple bafSe the secret of Roman great- was her respect for individual rights and local autonomy. The of the New Roman Testament from Pilate to official. homine tardior est . are best left to in- dividual taste. cogunt ad banc confessionem (esse in felices). final The ear itself. Seneca {De Clem. The central government was to be strong and vigilant for the public cause. '. a uniformity of procedure.

And : of the conception of the perial position I. sincerus ac purus qui reliquit et curiam et forum et omnem admin"" nescientibus debet artes bonas. encouraged native traditions and creeds. secederet. nihil ipsa per se futura nisi onus et prseda si mens ilia Imperii subtrahatur. Thus the Empire clearly had two faces. illius ratione flectitur. magnam rem . . which for the iBrst time in history curbed and restricted the interference of government. over six administrations in India. . 5. well contaiaed in the following — probably " Ille vir ^Ep.. diligit eos per quos hoc ei facere tuto licet . . totum corpus animo deservit. ilia corpus tuum. Lxxiii." The whole the attitude is : temper of the more acquiescent of the provincials towards the Eoman and : new regimen. : ." If the EP"* vi ad ampliora . esse quam ipro se sciunt " " Quemadm.. quern hsec tot millia trahunt. Sic hsec immensa multitude unius animse circumdata (envelopiag like the body the soul of a single man) illius spiritu regitur." . ille spiritus vitalis. Imomnes non tarn s'u^a se and the familiar metaphor. .10 pereundi MARCUS AURELIUS lieentia. sub quorum tutela positus exercet wisdom of of the British is content to leave the anomaly hundred separate and distinct we have learned this lesson The Eoman world was no loosely-knit from the Eoman. lUe est enim vinculum per quod EP. watchful yet seldom obtrusive. Animus EP** tu es. 3 " quern : . congeries of independent satrapies behind the apparent licence of the urban life of Asia Minor was the strong hand of the central authority. and avoided that dangerous lethargy which a professional bureaucracy and over-minute supervision tend to produce in some modern States. The supreme merit of the system was due to this self-control. 4. . cohseret. .

the supreme magistrate in a mimicipahty." society and aspirations in 96 A. became once more The period of nearly overtly and distinctly Republican. Unfortunate misunderstanding drove the last of this family. the Senate of Rome. the other. and explain from homage which it other sources the gratitude and the "We have said that the Prince could on his civil or accession emphasize at his will the side of sovereignty . the real effect of the called forth. and reform " was the watchword of a tired society after the startling extravagance and heroic vices of the Claudian house. . the ii one as the benevolent and impartial warden of the world's peace. who might thwart but . an able administrator of a gloomy and suspicious temper.D. "Peace. " overlord " of a multi- who found union symbolized and . into that undying feud with the Senate which Tacitus so eloquently describes in the The tone of Roman opening chapters of the "Agricola."THE ROMAN EMPEROR" like Janus. besides. § 6. guaranteed person but he was. The individuality of Csesar mattered httle ia the provinces but his momentary temper was all-important in Rome. could scarcely help Caesar's Imperial ideas gossip while Sue- tonius interests his readers in the petty and malicious of the Court. While in his . Tacitus seditions devotes of almost exclusive attention to the terrified Senators. in its stricter relation to its immediate environment. we must look elsewhere for new system. The advent of Vespasian and the Flavian " dynasty " was in complete harmony with middle-class feeling. the military and that in making this choice he represented more truly than an heir-apparent to-day the general wish or pubUc sentiment. plicity The Emperor was the of States. retrenchment.

though he must have confessed an engine of government it was supine and incapable. artless. and this epoch's life. Marcus Aurelius). annals. Trajan managed to hold in solution the diverse elements of military enterprise and deference to the consultative Body. who camp or court." became the charter of his successors. The senatorial nominees. Pupienus and Balbinus or were scarcely fitted Tacitus some forty years later The offer of ^EmiUanus to the requirements of the time. Antoninus the Second of a lonely old age." and the source of the delegated authority which he exercised. but he rarely disregarded their dignity. and the counsel. With his death and the ominous (perhaps apocryphal) threat to Commodus. and influence not by ability. Antoninus the Pirst. The African Dynasty of Severus (bearing in the character. in whom the period closes not without sad and melancholy foreboding was fully persuaded of the ultimate authority of the Senate. continued in (or his event- the same policy of modesty and deference. " The Senate sends you this " ended the dream of reconciliation between the two disparate members of the Dyarchy. — — . and fortunes of its members so strange a resemto himself that as ! blance to the Flavian) broke entirely with this tradition. whether in Hadrian. almost saintly characters that raise to the throne the domestic virtues. " in " Wanderjahre the restless represents had reason to suspect the loyalty of the Senate. was formal and ineffective. one of those tranquil. " Gain the Army and despise all else. The apparent restoration under Severus ii.12 MARCUS AURELIUS one hundred years wasinarked by an honest attempt on the part of the adoptive Emperors to govern as Presidents of a free State. but by pure simplicity of less reign life and aim. which still remained in name the " fount of honour.

namely.) dwelt a vague reminiscence of this Only then was the theoretical truth of fortunate era. gained in theory as in practice."THE ROMAN EMPEROR to limit the " 13 powers of the Emperor to external policy and the guardianship of the frontier. or the pivot of The powers of the Caesar. in the turbulence menace of of the third century. . governed by a municipal body whose traditions were splendid. a provincial city. greater capital.d. as sentinel of Europe against Asiatic perils. and the revolutions of Diocletian and his successors recognised and sanctioned a state of affairs already exist- than dealt the blow or decreed the downfall Rome was seen to be what it had long become. but whose influence was ing. that in that body reposed the ultimate § 7. or of his sub- ordinate lieutenants. and exhad ceased to be the centre government. No doubt in the mind of Mmaiaix (253 a. rather of the Senate. and an almost prophetic sense of a sacred mission. the the interval which separated them from the Rome was rather the seat of the opposition The new residences than the centre of administration. Caesarian College seemed chosen for the members of the impending consciousness of danger to imply a widespread from the North. contemptible. it is sometimes called) was a deliberate attempt to sever and yet to conciliate the two provinces of civil-legal and military administration. must have been the " election placard " of an insecure candidate rather than the mature judgment of an unquestioned ruler. ternal The capital. interest and activity. Thus it must be readily conceded that the second Antonine belonged to an epoch altogether exceptional The " Dyarchy " (as in the records of Imperial Rome. the Constitution recognized by the Senatorial representative.

up from early years in the atmosphere of a Court. first among the sincere and unaffected. The peculiar danger of one " born in the purple " (Trop^vpoyevwjTOs:). is > which seems the clear lesson of the career of Commodus. but to duties already well defined and he was spared. which expresses in despotic formulae the limited or In b^^ vicarious action of a constitutional monarch. there is a deception which deceives no one. in the College of Cardinals. much uncertainty . Emperors. and sowed the seeds of incurable hatred iu so many promising reigns between the assembly and the executive. the inherent right of all Chris- tians to choose the Supreme Pontiff. who maintains that disguised absolutism veiled under popular forms is more dangerous than the open exercise of Brought power. not only to a throne secured by a profound loyalty. without any pretence of concealment.14 MARCUS AURELIUS Eoman people .^ authority of the and that the Emperors were but the chosen executive or delegates to/carry The two out their will during their good pleasure. . but we may well consider whether Bolingbroke is right. by pious glances at his model. significance — ^that uncertainty as to the power which embittered the character of Tiberius. in the conduct of affairs. contradicted (like most historic generalisations) by the example of his father. their chosen but distrusted represenHis reign was distinguished by no great adtative. The filial regard of Aurelius for Antoninus (to call them by their familiar titles) was He succeeded. limits of ' and As later. anomalous this representatives of ideal Antonines were system. the second Antonine had avoided many of its temptations and learnt much of its responsibilities. which sought to veil autocracy under republican forms in exact contradiction of the modern scheme.

Marcus Aurelius has thus certainly left no permanent mark upon the development of the Imperial His influence upon his successors was slight. § 8. 15 . while he failed to rouse new life and energy in the Senate. The desultory and futile campaign in Persia (with which this mutiny was connected) merely marks the recrudescence of that eternal quarrel between East and West which in this form lasted for seven hundred years. and we inust regret that Aurehus could not have foreseen the abuse of power in unworthy have rendered harmless the imcontrolled caprice of later times. Roman mind was of the peculiarly susceptible."THE ROMAN EMPEROR" ministrative reform. His wars were confined to the frontiers of the Augustan Empire. . and. But we may look in vain for any important contribution to the fabric Roman Imperial system . The absolute stillness which enfolds the reign of Antoninus is certainly broken under his successor by the din of Avidius Cassius is arms and the alarms of sedition. ideal. which Trajan had vainly attempted to enlarge and interest ixs only because they seem to forebode the great Barbarian movements of the coming centuries. derived from no classical ideal. . hands.The tranquil figure of Antoninus exercised a far more . while respecting the principle of heredity. and produced in all that time In internal policy I no lasting alteration of frontier. no eventful campaigns. which. must not forget the beneficial legislation for the weaker part of the community. the already familiar type of ambitious provincial governor who instigates a military " pronunciamento " but he may interest us as showing that Aurehus failed to secure the allegiance of the troops. *. depended upon a mixture of humanitarian Stoicism and unseen Christian influences and to both these the .

" treats him with astonishing irony. . which Ues bared before us in his "Meditations. which the Stoics brought with them from the East. with greater'genuineness. that honourable name. It is of Aurelius that when we pass to the philosophic opinions we meet some partial explanation for monarch or a reformer. .^ Among his own friends. the very pattern of sovereigns. we must turn from the public duties of the Emperor to the inner soul of the man. here. Pater. from impressing the age with If we wish to the permanent stamp of his influence. represents the secret doubts and amusement of the Emperor's audience. peneattempted to pervade Eoman society.^ we have the record of his life and spiritual conflict. if we may hazard a guess. it is true.1 MARCUS AURELIUS . produced with an unerring and inimitable instinct the peculiar "atmosphere" of the Antoninian age. In the Quietism. we must regret the Little weight which his character or his teaching carried. we shall discover dangerous and seductive foe of the trated the Eoman ' Sextus Aurelius. who has. Julian. when he lectured to them on the Stoic philosophy. appreciate this failure aright. ending in disgrace in who may be reckoned the eighth who bore. in his " Osesars. mthin his own family. and perhaps the third who sullied. perhaps. ' I except the naive and creditable autobiography of the Mogul conqueror Babar whose example the present Amir of Afghanistan and the Gaekwar of Baroda would seem to emulate. and his failure as a to review the various stages Common Life. We shall have by which Philosophy. speaks in his customary terms of vapid eulogy. and seems to forget that the imperial Stoic is the model for the imperial Cynic. that mind. self-revealed. as perhaps in the case of no other monarch.^ ^Something in his nature disqualified the noblest of Eomans. ' Mr. and a shadowy Dynasty of affec- tionate respect issued from him." There. potent fascination Heliogabalus.

his unaffected sincerity. his goodness of heart."THE ROMAN EMPEROR" speculator. i. . the most satisfsictory clue to the sadness of the Imperial — to the unwilliag disappointment life which his writings and his must finally arouse in all those who love him for his unselfish devotion.

with little emphasis on Absolute Truth. sole reality. § 6. and implying of endea/vour. 18 product of Greek called a native or a spontaneous and original . but Greek Thought desires a Unity. becomes despairing Theism. Ohieffeatv/res of the eclectic writers in the fksl two centuries. join the party of abstention and indifference. mystic. Roman Philosophy as Syncretist and Eclectic . Goncentration on the Inner Life as the . A Freedom encounters resistance and incalculaile forces. the dogmatic materialist becomes an a^giiostic and a § 8. and much on casuistry and individual needs. abstentionist . Roman aristocrats. Seneca. Geeek Philosophy cannot be soil. which as beyond the Multiple. "Supreme Unity. and aims at discovering a Law or Negation. Practical " Unity " achieved. Christian and Pckgan. Philosophical § 4. a Unity beyond conventional Sanctions and the Gity-State. Stoical docbrine transformed according to personal character of its chief Roman exponents." atfkstFate or Destiny. Glassical Gfreek temper delights in variety . condemned to idleness cmd introspection by the new government. Disappointment of the Sage who in the supposed new domain of % 5. Their futility a religion of devotional yet § 7.^ iO. § 1. § 9. becomes pure origin. Quietism in cordrast to vigorous democratic life. § 3. and Marcus Awrelius. in the political world by A lexander and by Augustus. Epictetus. Ctreek Philosophy (in the sphere of conduct) is foreign in its § 2.CHAPTEE " II THE SWIG PHILOSOPHER " Analysis § 1.

Egypt. all had been imposed before Eeason or these Dialectic. From the outset this stream of thought ran counter to the classical instincts. by a comparison of the various organs of intelligence or a more or less sifting patient scrutiny of physical processes. the particular. fringes of 19 in those It sprang up Hellenic civilization which bordered the barbarian peoples. in Italy. nevertheless. and esoteric with the priests of an proper In G-reece we meet with the late though splendid names of Socrates. The whole tone and temper of speculation from first to last is sharply contrasted with those features of Greek social and political life which are most famihar to us. Plato. marked by a bold attempt to unite the two unsociable sides (" principatum ac libertatem "). in Sicily.. True it is that the very aim of Eeflexion is to justify and explain this outer law to the subject. by a away of the nondescript. "THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" creation of the Greek mind. in the complete disclosure of their final incompatibility. by overcoming . until the pure but rarefied form appeared. ended. Obscure and alien influences comit bined to give to the it that peculiar complexion which bore end of its history. and Aristotle but the earliest discoverers and the later successors of the Golden and Athenian age were foreigners. and to accept voluntarily speculations which upon slaves. The Athenian period. or in Asia Minor. separatist reach a imity in the world of nature and of thought. For by the yet intrinsic nature of unifier. and subjective impressions take the place of exterior law. Vague hints and dark legends visit to connect every prominent sage with a a fabled intercourse religion. whether in Thrace. Philosophy in its birth is essentially Eomantic. and to the needs and aspirations of Hellenic life and culture.

(I do not speak here of the monastic rigour of States Dorians and a common the worship).20 MARCUS AURELIUS a discovery of a fixed the extravagant conceit of individual thinkers or impressionists. the two conflicting tengood feeling. whether in art. in ra1. or politics. so mature reflexion) obtruded itself in every sphere. loosely united by a traditional ancestry. where a final harmony was promised. Eeflexion. if and when attained. and in the ordinary hfe of any one of the group. which in the end knew no other restraints but those of native good taste and In the sage. proved to be void of content. and the unity. in its earliest stirrings due to barbarian influences. a variety which was not mere disorderly licence or caprice. variegation was the chief characteristic. until we lose sight of Hellenic sobriety and orderliness in the raptures and ecstasies of the bastard Platonism. or poetry. necessary function of unifying reason. suggested unity as the fitting goal for human thought and endeavour. The whole essence of the creative and progressive Hellenic life was In the commonwealth of Gityliberty and equality.ional norm in of all unanimity. was pursued with distasteful to its quiet persistency. while the Greek temper delighted in variety. Difference (so dear to the Greek spirit. But it is instructive to trace history the such attempts to arrive at a unity of conciliation between the universal and the individual failure of all reason. dencies constantly confront one another no less than in and the peace of mind of the one is sacrificed society no less than the harmony of the other. § 2. whether colony or metropolis. It was signi- — . for the supreme Eeality was indisThis search. which is the tinguishable from negation. .

The shadow whether the inordinate power of the . Greek morals. In the unimpeded interaction of independent units."THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" ficant 21 that they chose to find in an artistic sense of limit the real controlling force behind the multiple of turbulent society realize . and yet how sacrifice how brief a delay to legitimate ambition. they had neither did the problem of the universe press. and in the last resort could be defended by no perSimilarly. or incarnate in a final appeal to free. encouraged a hasty yet regular exchange of authority and obedience this . of despotism. appeal upon a sense of personal dignity and freedom. but on the unwritten law (aypa^os vofioi) of custom and precedent. some despotic monarch. law of " and could rely upon a willing deference to give-and-take " which was certainly unable always are) to enforce itself (as republics against a of calculating tyrant. limited number of free families and individuals. such a constitution demanded. the Greek State found a wholesome social life. multifarious duties of their civic leisure nor opportunity for speculation. § 3. which other nations are compelled to and arm in the full panoply of mail. stability. The citizens felt were satisfied little with the general caprice. whether emptory sanction. urging for solution. of law depended on no written constitution. based their and were controlled in outline and direction by propriety (as sesthetic among the Eomans in later times by a The ITo\«. Not among such happy and independent minds Engrossed as they were in the unceasing and life. in the unreflecting or self-conscious days. in the strictly conventional decorum). free alike from the lethargy of servile decay and from subversive But it must be observed that this recognition anarchy.

and the practical . or to supersede. may be confined to the aristocratic communities of Pythagoras and the personal influence of Socrates whose life as an obedient citizen.22 MARCUS AURELIUS of "man colossal the hour" in Greek tyrannies. was never again healed. the conventional fabric of society and of government. The religious. or Mystic. The con- servatism of unreflecting obedience (whether in a tyrant waged a higher to truceless warfare against the seekers after a sanction. whose belief was limited poetic tradition. the futility of existence. Certain it is that this thought. be interesting (though here out of plage) to trace the share which this consciousness of an unholy or a lawful unity exercised in the production of the reflecting habit among less the Greeks. whose death as a martyr to truth and to patriotic duty.outcome on the cities of the Hellenic world of so much meditation and dispute. no than the spectacle of factious democracy. whose . served only to emphasize the more vividly the discord of the two spheres. or figure of the Persian King. to the devout or in an Aristophanes) Catholic to-day. to deride. and the It would negative ethic of abstention and of quietism. The desire for a personal and individual apprehension of truth. largely contributed to the development of philosophy. which from the first set itself to correct. seemed as impious to their eyes" as the claim to immediate revelation by Protestant . once started. must fall the with sombre influence over these blithe and prosperous communities. This feud. apart from the sacred ministrations and mediation of the Family-State. The reason for this distrust and suspicion is not far to seek. by some deeper explanation than unconscious universal consent. before men can sit apart to muse on the substance of all things.

disputes of Even the popular ridicule or dislike betrayed on numberless petty occasions the uneasy sense of the community that Philosophy was the chief enemy of social life . which disappeared after a proper famiUarity with true wisdom."THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" practice 23 was bounded by the ceremonies and festivals of the State's authorization. fatal to all law and principle. of devotion to the commonwealth. concord into the turbulence of Olympus. was an age-long temper. . or an antiquarian and comparative study of the dogmatic tenets of the schools. saw nothing but impiety in the deeper scrutiny. direction of Eome. became a in brilliant Eoman ability . and enjoy the Imperial liberality without disgracing For by that time the such bounty by their quarrels. its earlier days Philosophy was in continual opposition Empire. must in the end prove a sceptical solvent. or This was not an evanescent prejudice of the It respect for the divine beings whose worship the State enjoined. which never wavered in the its distrust until indeed philo- sophy. In the age of the Antonines the four principal sects could exist together on amicable terms. in the inactively tolerant and pacific period of mere synonym for a extempore harangues. that the calm and im- partial discussion of those self-evident axioms on which of love a State in is founded. men of and attempted to bring some The practical business and affairs viewed with grave disthe the approbation citizen's withdrawal sage's of so many hours of a life into the meditative idleness or querulous leisure. But in but genuine and effectual. Hellenic mind. whether the family. pretentious claim of Philosophy to guide human life had in effect yielded to the more modest and indirect. which refused to acquiesce in the divinity of the obvious.

et Stoicorum sed utraque ad otium diversa vid mittit. Epicurus ait nou accedet ad RP. se nihil profuturus impendit. it is in dividing life's possible aims into voluptas. De Otio vel Secessu. In effect he became the sport of natural forces. vacuum. Philosophy. ocoupata est malis non nitetur Sapiens in supersi . "Nos oertesumus quidioimus et Zenonem et Ohrysippum majora egisse quam si duxissent exeroitus. si quid impedierit. nisi . Alter otium ex proCausa autem ilia lat^ patet Si KP. nemo non misit. . . ^ In seeking freedom in the develop: The irony of the whole Stoic position is admirably but unconsciously " Sequor Zenonem Oleanthem displayed by Seneca. a cosmopolitan. corruptior est . conclear where his real sympathies are. Accedet ad E. look forward to future progress or reform with unselfish joy. demanded an exclusive allegiance to a code above the current conceptions of it tended. useful duties of social routine. Tranq. Duse maxime in hac re dissident Sectse. truth only deprived him of the innocent excitement and and enslaved him to the more comprehensive unity which it professed to discover. it to the Hellenic soil Arising in foreign and under alien influences. . and to § 4. even in failure. Animi. . with ill-defined and often purely negative duties. Leaving the sole realm where human virtue can be efficient. 30. posito petit. : Zeno ait . the sage found himself in the presence of forces which he could not control or indeed understand.P. actio. withdraw the student from effort or endeavour into a life of contemplation and inactivity. . or the citizen of a supposed kingdom of the universe." And throughout the little treatise.24 MARCUS AURELIUS and classical spirit. gessissent honores. and can. while it taught the self- sufficiency of the wise man and promised him liberty to yet in expatiate larger sphere than the State. Sapiens nisi si quid intervenerit. under cover of practical maxims. § 1 Ohrysippum quorum tamen nemo ad Eempublicam acoessit. alter ex causa. Epic.^ duty. leges tulissent quas non uni civitati sed toti humane generi talere. neo 32. Above in a all. templatio. or the organ of impersonal reason.

Ixxxviii. they sought " The conquests of Alexander Eendall (ch. ethically as well as socially. Hegehanism is allied . it became impossible any longer to regard the irdXts as the supreme unit of morality." which was the achievement of Alexander for one brilliant moment. so. It charms man with hopes of a higher companionship. although it has often proved a noble ally. Divine " Unio. by abandoning what is especially his own. iv. its second birth in Italy heralds the Imperial stage in the destinies of the great republic. and of Eome perhaps for all time. too. "THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" 25 ment of his personality. whether as a secular or a spiritual monarchy. and to-day the quiescence of anything defiance to this system. Isxxv.) changed the moral as well as the political outlook of Hellenism for. to the discovery that social problems and inequalities are independent of the suffrage and representative institutions .. partly. Philosophy. he only learnt that freedom and personality are alike illusions. Historically. partly. is in some sort a protest against the finality of domestic and social life. in the ecstasy ! of the § 5. the." Though Eoman Stoicism adopted or simulated an attitude of systebiatic we may note that in modern times with recognition of Divine right and passive obedience." The undoubted decline of democratic zest at the entrance of the twentieth century may be attributed. and in great measure. alas in the end are to be reached only by laying down what is distinctively human in the philosopher. to that Imperialism which expatiates in a larger : world. which. duties. higher world for. " As Stoicism sprang historically out of the suppression of Greek by the expansion of Greece into the world-empire of Alexander. the Union. and unconsciously relaxes the tension of mind into civic and consoles the poor and oppressed for present misery of foreign power. by a hallucination from the pleasure City-States I cannot here refrain : of quoting this sentence..

proclaiming the : moral autonomy of the individual. if ineffectual. The pursuits of wisdom. disclaimed the strictly political bond and sanction to found morality upon bases that were universal. ' Again. They survived tion name and ' ' into the idea of a ' world-citizeuship. now defied the political system which it had called forth. " The Stoic philosopher. had long and stubbornly opposed the introduction of Philosophy and strange rites. because it transcended and controlled it. who hated and despised them. in much accountable for the decay of population and the old vigorous urban life. cxxxvii. averse to individualism.' And Eome especially was not disposed to regard the transcendent promises either of sage or Christian. but the thinness of their ethical equipment. in the midst of a surfeited democracfj^. but the association of citizenship were too deeply grafted into moral consciousness to be kUled out. It was almost an irony that drove the EepubUcan senators of as violations of the the early Imperial age to seek solace in those theories which their ancestors and models had relentlessly expelled. defiance and they forgot that removal would leave them without occupation. The civic obligation in its narrower applica^ was annulled. except compact which united the governors and the governed. the negative character of their its . and superseded by the Cosmic. The classical Eoman spirit. The Empire was the natural result of individualism and of disintegration it could tolerate diversity. It provided : these aristocratic sages of the opposition with a con- spicuous theatre for their noble.26 MARCUS AURELIUS may be attributed to the approaching educated republicanism prevalence of a similar outlook on the world. It is impossible to refuse our admiration to the heroes and martyrs in the cause of the Republic.

courage of a Stoical philosophy. or in the defiant. yet negative. must prevent us from regretting their failure. and a studied contempt of human ambition the sense of Eternity. yet never progressing.. — a penalty from which the hmited sovereign of modern times is exempt. the recreations of the aristocratic Eoman . events and effects in an unbroken the vanity of earthly the universe as an unceasing process. in spite of Vergil and Columella. There is no happiness in the world without endeavour. pursuits. none preached more assiduously the futility of human effort than the series) Stoics. The peculiar form which the Unity to of the common search took in these philosophers was Fate. in the pursuit of strange pleasures of sense and ear. in the Imperial era ceased to be rural. but well within the reach of envy. § 6. without practical work. "THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" 27 maxims. final and . Jealousy excluded them from responsible and important posts. all An irresistible current of Destiny (which united . from the very magnificence and uniqueness of his dignity. and an enforced leisure might vary with the voluptuous or austere. as their chief business ceased to be military. present here and now. Idleness settled down on Italy after the extinction of the yeoman class and free labour and. always in motion. a delegate of their own body one who stood in an exalted position . It was the merit of the Eoman to be happy only in working. indeed. or An unhappy new office accident want of straightforwardness in the constitution prevented the nobles from accepting under one who was but a member of their own order. Quietistic as all Greek schools tended the ing "practice" with Buddhist as become (banishdisease). and he exchanged his spear for the plough after the annual campaign.

who power to survey and to mourn the misery of life without the power to change practical duties of life. among the Eomans personal and individual bias of the various exponents . School mix in actual Mfe. a part of himself. the . as a single stable point in the flux of sense and matter. : Cynicism. its system and in a metaphysical dogmatic. whose sole business was to weld into a solid and coherent body. and become not a sect. of all striving. The earlier school (though possibly tinged with a latent Phenician gloom) had been indistinguishable from cruel gift. as . seemingly an aimless penalty of a jealous (or a suffering ?) god. a. yet gives as that without practical value. until his moral life can be summed up in a perpetual " non possumus " such are the chief tenets of the later Stoicism. all and the final equality of things and all men. Theism. except to point the moral . well as all inaction the conscience. passivity is the keynote of § 7. guarded by unassailable argument. slipping one by one from the grasp of the sage. No practical effort marked the earlier founders. though despairing. certain theory of Only when domiciled in Eome did the the world. good or bad. save in the logical completeness of of defence. but a The practical bent of the Eoman mind transreligion. or inner voice.28 fixed. to which Antisthenes had wisely remained a stranger. and such admirably suited the melancholy temper of Eoman abstentionists. . formed the Stoa from a mere house of dogmatic paradox into a temple of a devout. indifference to of the emptiness of our wishes. MARCUS AURELIUS with no hope for a brighter dawn a resolute human history. yet this takes of positive character dormant energy. a kind and their inertness is one of But this entirely depends upon the . Though negation — — Stoical Ethics.

is to be found only in communion with Eome and schism. materializing of dogma. The rules of the former are ascer- communicated instanThey are definite. politic tained by the pure Eeason (or taneously reservation of the whole truth. § 8. To the Western Catholic everything is subordinate to utihty and the honour of the Church or the welfare of souls : salvation . of the early dogmatism by the maxims of Epicurus and the sentimental dualism of Plato. nay. Epictetus. imalterable. to invite. To the present moment. Among the latter there are no Seneca tempers the rigour pure or unmixed schools. is the unpardonable offence. the "Western a citizen of a visible kingdom. orthodoxy is the supreme merit of Eastern Churchmen. transforms into a loving Father the ultimate and irresoluble physical force that lies behind the vain . of This distinction prevailed also in the philosophy Greek and Eoman. while it seemed to close so many avenues to wholesome effort. casuistry in the treatment of special events. to fit the urgent needs of their existence. But an earthly State demands certain concessions to the individual. as it were. the Koman philosophers were all eclectic. They followed with no servile adherence to a master's word. Never slaves to a system. or visible disaffection. by heavenly Grace). and oppor- tunism in the attitude of the spiritual to the secular powers. a " rosary " from many Schools."THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" 29 and on the common influence of the Eoman Empire. always placing practical value above logical symmetry. as heresy is the most heinous sin. another Socrates. which appeared to tolerate. and unchanging. but composed. criticism and reflexion. The Eastern is rather a member of a spiritual realm of truth.

and in his doctrine of the "deity within " transforms a mere physical connexion of the soul and the upper air into a mystical creed that was the very bulwark and supyet. Clement of Alexandria (it by the list) in- clusion of this name I may complete the adapts the Stoic precision of formula and definition to the growing science of Christian Ethics. a Dualist. Plutarch. Marcus Aurelius. in ultimate metaphysics. once separating the petty gods from single the great and Source of Life. with its new interest. in the gradual closing to the nobles of the arena of practical ambition under a . the last of the Stoics. or the tranquil discovery and enjoyment of eternal verities.30 MARCUS AURELIUS shadow. or the desire of applause. in the congregation of the most varied nationalities under a single sway. Sansara. In the decay or syncretism of various popular cults. Yet within this loose network they borrowed from many sources they laid no claim to completeness or For the mainspring of their studies was consistency. who has much in common with this School. . is and in practical life an admirer and (so far as the times allowed) an emulator of the simple and cheerful virtue of the ancients. port of the brighter side." of his Meditations. is. which. : To resume the victims of the Imperial regime gladly welcomed a somewhat frigid school as having an implicit power of sustenance and consolation in critical times. the first of the Neo-Platonists. the " southern front. in social life. at the same time. issuing from the pure passivity of the Millenarian or the patient sufferer for truth's' sake. and colours with personal piety the Buddhistic atheism of the academic Stoics. not intellectual curiosity. to re-create society in Europe. of existence. in the blurring of all distinct outHne. was destined.

"THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" socialist 31 monarchy which dispensed with their services. where all individual effort or tion to Stoicism. was occupied in a meaningless conflict with natural emotion. like all the subjective schools of the/ post. harmony. had faded into a world-empire. the eternity of type and the because it triviality of the fleeting particular. Stoicism preaches. none the less real was not explicit. as we have seen. we may see the chief causes of this passionate devo- and this gradual transformation of a scheme of materialism into one of the commonplace the most melancholy.Aristotelian age. and a belief in a common human brotherhood predominating above petty national or class . and gradually withdrew claims to occupy or to direct any portion of human life. The single free -J^ and to be perpetually repellent point of consciousness. the sage meditating profoundly on the unity of Being and the nexus of events. it speedily despaired of finding a its true sphere for his activity. an insistence on the unity. of all religions. and in society. § 9. that devotion to a purely typical {not all a personal) exceUen^^ wMch__charaBtfirizes tbought^/m_ t he field of morals. and order in the world. Centring all attention on the inner life I of the individual. lofty disdain of the outer world of nature or While the theoretical creed of the Stoic or the its Cynic proudly pronounced text to be a reasonable following of Nature. all idiosyncrasy. Where noblest. could only find con- solation in Mysticism. significance tended to disappear in a universal law. The universal order and unity (so strangely contrasted with Epicurean pluralism) could be approached only by " unselfishness " . the ethic^^ of abstention. the will (to which alone any value could be attached). if all separateness of feature.

in spite dogma of their philosophic creed. Neither was it a vain show. and : reconcile him to the indifference of sensations (or. not on their close adherence a logical system. this influence depends. have conse- crated the names of Seneca. its dogmatism. take the place of the certainty and the austerity . its But to moral harshness. and Aurelius. and from his fellows. the School not only sage in isolation from a world of fate or chance. A gentle melancholy of doubt. It is difficult to say what the Stoic universe its- meant for the wise man. and a delicate and refined consideration for others. . goal were alike undisooverable ness of so of personal and the kindly thoughts. the compassionate unselfish- many of the School. and devotion to a set purpose. It was impossible to regard the world as a field for moral discipline and trial (for the conception of Stoic immortality compels us to pronounce its asceticism either impious or superfluous). Epictetus. though it be. some primitive religious teaching. Under them. in their pure and genuine characters. again. the School loses all its distinctive features. earnest- ness of aim. but tortured him with a sense of dualism and unceasing conflict within the limits of his own nature. deed. may indeed sustain pilgrims in their own unsteady and failing footsteps. as a scene of perpetual distant towards a goal advance for the human race which belief. after § 1 0. nor. are not really his. Personal distinction. its author. inall. cold comfort . Its motive.32 MARCUS AURELIUS ended in setting the distinctions. the uneasy dreams of some sleeping God a theory which may amuse a pessimist speculator. were held as a legacy of some illogical remnant of the negative the noble sentiment of duty. but in the original sincerity of their sentiments. of hopes). temperament. which.

and prepared the way for that final leap into sentiment and emotion in which Greek philosophy was destined to perish. becomes mystical and feminine. to whom he stretches out pure hands. in the doom in human " — Mahometan. it is because his practice is better than his creed because he has supplanted the fate of positivism by a distant Providence. and effort into doubt. compassion. 33 The Eoman character. . they abandoned the chief tenet of their nominal system. both in politics and in letters. garments of a formal Stoicism fall away to disclose a . Only from the older school is is maintained of that barren article of faith which effort or enterprise in Stoic. . tempered by that admixture with Spanish influences which marks the first century. If Aurelius demands our sympathy and our praise in his unselfish efforts for the security of the Empire. . A like fate probably awaits all Schools which start from an assumption of original Unity."THE STOIC PHILOSOPHER" of the elders. and straining on the path of negative theology towards a purely spiritual conception. indeed. . into the harshest Dualism Pantheism into an impossible transcendence sternness. . full of mute but unavailing appeal But he is the last of Eoman Stoics Eational thought is swept away he founds no School. they did. one gleam of consolation in an alien world but in so doing. and resignation. rejecting the earlier physical interpretation. Brahmin or the divine Unity. by a torrent of Oriental mysticism or ceremonial and even while we read his private memoirs the empty . certainty. Utterly unable to " qualify describe this original and comprehensive Being. Stoicism is but one of many which end in a complete reversal Monism has passed of their most fundamental axioms. succeed in establishing a verbal kinship between the soul and its maker.

if soul glowing with an passion and emotion midway between comstirred to an activity (which his creed belied). but iirst will be fore- inquire into contributions of his runner?. not by enthusiasm. at least by a strong sense of loyalty and duty. . Our task in will lead us to examine in detail the points which the it. Emperor wise to deserts the philosophy of the Schools for the truer instiucts of his own the heart .34 MARCUS AURELIUS and love. and thus estimate his debt to Seneca and to Epietetus.

§ 4. those whose energies. and attcichef weight to "prcecepta" rather than § 5. motive i/n Science. Individualism . to " decreta." unable Decay of scientific dogmcUism. he repudiates utilitariam. His Dualism and Asceticism . Seneca seeks a moral Deity. It is perhaps a little unfortunate that we talk of " Stoicism " as the predominant philosophy at Eome among action. Absolute Irvwardness of the chief good. as Nominalist. or combine in a § 6. in appreciation of abstractions. § 2. debarred from political had passed into the fresh channel of speculation . The Empire not the cause. and distaMe for physical is to philology. Seneca defmes "Sunmmm Bonum" a^ a " Soul" . on natv/ralism a/nd without attempt at consistency. § 1.j CHAPTER III DEVELOPMENT OF PHILOSOPHY IN ROME Analysis § 1. and neither fmds nor demands correspondence in the outer world. and dissuades from public life. single Supreme principle. The leisure of the true Sage occupied with friendship or introspection. Rome's contribution to many symptoms. Egoism an attitude of of all § 9. hut one among a widespread Quietism. as mind which places happiness entirely in our own power. and reconcile natural order and the moral law. § 7. of § 3. § 8.philosophy (in ethics) superindwxd. Mini . Roman "Stoicism" as a fa/miliar phase of human thought faith . endefault of Hellenic courages the concrete and personal. The " chief good " as Tramqmllity of Oreek philosophy.

country. his as As completely as Maurice Maeterlinck in Andrew Seth in Man's Place in the Cosmos. and predestined automatism of the rest of Creation so the Eoman " through evil report and good report " preserved his sense of human dignity. to had implanted. as he completely separates ^ the human func- tion with its postulate of Freedom from the self-centred . or worse difficult . to the original and honoursocial and tradition example. give a name to a very familiar phase of the to stifle human mind and perhaps the interest of an ordinary reader. who will fancy he has to deal with profound truth or logical subtleties. and respected the claims which an exacting State or a capricious Fortune might make on his loyalty. to parents. or . ' but he was duty to act after the Divine sanctions might be . and to to They were unable or unwilling The thought of tearing up the roots of moral behaviour and examining critically the springs of action was abhorrent to them. able sentiments which instinct common with It held fast. the tenets are very different from what we can deem it certain in the older School. As Professor Huxley makes no pretence at accommodating his human practice to the laws of the analyze the ultimate motives of conduct. still To is to call Eclecticism again. in The Eoman character had indeed much the practical sobriety of the English. in the decay of local worships. or seKsacrifice. by heroic friends. on human conduct. independent If it is Stoicism at all. rather than with a moral attitude which is very likely nearly akin to his own. Syncretism. He could not explain or justify it convinced that somehow was old time-honoured fashion. —duty had ennobled and either illustrated to self.36 MARCUS AURELIUS of the civic sanction. forbearance. universe. his Kingdom of Matter.

which is mostly attributed to Imperial jealousy was really the long-seated evil which rendered Csesar indispensable. the decay. from Cicero to Aurelius. restraint and suspicion. The The most fanatical worshippers of past liberty in this age never ventured to propose a substitute for the Caesarian regimen. A democracy (real or imaginary) which affairs has disgusted the honest by spite its turbulence or venality . as creating an atmosphere of § 2. and competition. and that peculiar tutelage of gods for men which has so often supported in good hopes and joyousness the victim of Chance. and . of the distance. Seneca. a boundless leisure (save as an Imperial servant or of&cial). has but one resort. not merely of stirring municipal in- positive beliefs. states vanished. an almost terests limitless state coextensive with the human race. God was borne upon A boundless expanse of Nature. It is an error to suppose that the peculiar tendency of Koman thought. not a cause. of psychological analysis. No despotism has ever supported itself against the will Csesar of the majority. of brooding over wrongs and the injury of an enforced idleness. but of all except the vaguest ^these were the new facts to which the practical and conscientious spirit of the Eoman had to — adapt itself. so a sense of the unity. as the As the barriers of cityin world became one. of the reflecting mind. was due to the Empire. though they were ready at any moment to The distaste for change the particular representative. apotheosis of was a result.PHILOSOPHY IN ROME 37 mere fables. all his protestations. the strong hand of and Cicero in Aurelius. The institution of the Empire was clearly but one of the symptoms of an abnormal condition of humanity in that age.

while it revelled in the wild and unaccountable caprice of some spoilt favourite of fortune. was the highest kind of activity for those who claimed to be free. had passed away for ever. §§ 1. breaking up the Eealistic fabric inherited from Classical times. 4. To this attitude of reserve arid resignation. and that the temper of the times demanded a personal and embodied Sovereign.38 MARCUS AURELIUS recognized this. of and plenty. Speculation life than action . the Eoman It is the brought certain qualities of his own. as we have already seen. See Gierke's Politieal Ideals in the Middle Ages. i. 3. only reacted into a deification of the Absolute and the so-called Subjective of the Personal. 5. in the Eeformation. . querors as yet vigorous the independence of a wearied and and had at last sought its newest recruits among the conquerors themselves. supporting a republican form of government. This spirit had handed over to the condiffident society. indeed. consti- and development. which formed the secret its impulse of the Mediaeval Empire. in tution.^ Over the Eoman world had spread this sombre veil Quietism. But it will not be fair to forget the precious contribution of Eome. peace. brief . dispenser of the material benefits of justice. Greece. never rose to a full definition emphasis on the relativity of knowledge in the Sophistic age. and felt that the high Idealism. which resulted. ideals. fashion to-day ^ to attribute to the Germano-Christian influence that emphasis on the liberty of the individual and his immortal destiny. The Schools failed. was a higher § 3. and the movements of Emancipation within living memory. 1 They could only responsibilities ' See the undoubtedly sincere language of Seneca as to the Imperial and significance. De Clem. to justify or to explain individual consciousness.

whose approximations to Virtue are far more edifying Thrice than any solitary musing on ideal perfection. in days. so dear to the Porch. which before us. Instead of reverence for Zeno and Chrysippus. who had embodied and attained in some measure that human excellence of which all men were speaking. all the its nearest imitators have set more useful because they are imperfect. The Eoman. while the other names imply a far closer and implicit connexion between the ideal and per- .^ and irrespective of all particulars 'Both djoen} and "virtus!' are entirely mistranslated by "virtue. above and . before which all must be as practical as excrescences. Soul of ! No distant sea of impersonal goodness. and Brutus. no realm pure ideas. for The pages of Seneca are Socrates. he disparages logical symmetry. I think. Even that Ideal which (in default of discovering the Sage) must ever remain beyond human attainment. but an individual. shadowy type of ideal special or peculiar or relative qualities in each sacrificed man. and believes all time wasted which is spent in those dialectic subtleties. does Seneca startle us by calling the Chief Good a Summum Bonum. and with- out attempt at uniformity. masters of formula. He subordinates all to practice. an external standard which demands our obedience without question or compromise . we have respect for good men. pleasantly diversified by anecdotes of honest citizens. its early Megarian and Eristic Cicero and Seneca mingle impartially. knew nothing of these He refuses (with Horace) to bow the knee to any master. imitable form.PHILOSOPHY IN ROME point to a 39. the teaching of the Schools and the maxims Virtue or of many rivals. should be sought rather in the concrete. man of affairs abstractions." Virtus suggests. even in retirement. no unfaltering moral Law. Cato.

40 MARCUS AURELIUS life illus- could offer in the concrete circumstances of trations of its " method and value." optimumque perdueta. limits. " hcec et hujusmodi facta imaginem Twbis ostendere Virtutis "). which in man (as opposed to Stag or Tiger) was a " reasoned and consistent life. by an admiration at first impulsive and involuntary (Fabricius and Horatius Codes. he is averse to empty generalizations. The difficulty in Ethics (whether as a science or for individual guidance) is never the discovery of general principles." " Virtue is the sonal interest. This was due to the vague teleology which dominated Greek thought and its derivatives after Socrates. " by the distress or spiritual needs of his The mere idle repetition of Stoic commonThe good man alone is happy. He recognizes greatest profit. place. the 113th letter to Lucilius we find: § 4. Harmony of inward and outward was eiSaijiovla. All Seneca's writings are occasional. in est fortuita despiciens" is —and Summum Bmum in Letter 120. Sapientia " § 4. In precisely the same spirit. too. he believes the example of ancient merit and heroism stirred us to realize. is defined as Mem per- fecta vel ad summum the " Blessed Life. 'Aperi} was the means to this end desired by all . not in these formal " decreta." Justitia quid est ? § In Letter 117. urging us to tranand peace in the only certain region of our consciousness." but in the " prsecepta " of the casuist or the Director. Animus when he how the first rudimentary knowledge of and wrong came to us. (rvn^dvus. § 8. have their precise . quillity and where the lower motive. but their application. and are prompted friends. 12. 6/toXo7ov/i^i>(iis t^y rfj <p6tret (with its ambiguous meaning). In Animus quodammodo se haiens. So. to laws of conduct so universal that they cover everything and inquiring right counsel nothing." It is quite impossible to say where unselfish admiration for a lofty ideal of behaviour. and was attained by the development of the oUetov ipyov.

incoherent and even incon- Philosophy was in want of a again into life. ' M. was one. Nothing was left of it except a sense of immensity. none the less firm because it was inconsistent. The fabric of Certitude Cosmology of early Stoicism had crumbled into dust. . the great dogmatic § 5.. . With all his Stoic protest that Knowledge. new Socrates to bring down formula We for are certainly disinclined to-day to quarrel with him exchanging a earnestness barren and formal symmetry for moral just that personal. The earlier school has been materialist and positive its theology was a department of its physics its ethics merely " sounded the recall " from a corrupt and wearied society of civilized beings to a norm of nature and simplicity which no one cared to define precisely. The austere QuintHian . — . In all ultimate problems. But the first century had passed beyond the naive positivism which superimposed on universal automatism a doctrine of — . almost missionary. an impassable gulf yawns between his theory and his practice. ." did not interest him. agreed about the fundamental principles but few could apply the minor premise. Constant Martha among others. sometimes sistent. like Life. Seneca was an Agnostic. against which the Hellenic mind had from the outset striven nobly but in vain and a conception of a Unity beyond all human appreciation. interest writers ^ enables French to which compare him with the Catholic directors and father-confessors of the seven- teenth century. PHILOSOPHY IN ROME sole 41 Everyone re- end of life. bukes him for superficiality in his treatment but a really sincere casuistry must needs be opportunist and disconnected. with a firm hold on the dignity of the moral life.

" Though he Unity yearns." he to forced in the interests of identify is Him with every other known suit force. The partial names of special deities are all His. . The special sense of nearness to man. Universe. barrier (which we believe can never be transcended) separates man as a moral agent (or more clearly. of is fluid. within the Aurelius seeks consciousness of failure that solace he cannot find without. as it is to merge the forget the to bility. except the belief iu the final destruction of the world. or the secret and abstract law which guides it He is Nature or Fate. A . real in the Ideal. . and term narrowed the natural " to the passive resignation of an ascetic. as a consciousness burdened with a sense of moral responsi- which cannot be shaken off) from the rest of the Any attempt at a Supreme Synthesis. is destined The world is twofold and it is as foolish to failure. with Fichte. and together they make up the fulness of the Divine title but they disappear in the immense nothingness. name will Him. Their failure to discover any satisfactory clue to the Divine dealings produced that It is in this deepening sense of vanity and distress. The demand of the three Eoman Stoics is for a moral Author of the Universe. All Theology must be anthropomorphic or it ceases to be more than Natural Law. so any of existence . this is wanting. and becomes the first To Seneca all dogma the introspective Platonists. more clearly displayed than in a brilliant heaven and unerring laws.42 MARCUS AURELIUS " man's freedom and responsibility. He is the sum . of a sympathy something more than physical. to see is God in the moral order of the Universe. of an approval and favour. rather than colour or qualify it. from the side of either material or spiritual Law. As He everything.

§ 6. . and find some delight in the study of natural problems. events. semi - mystical tenet. Nature to our meant emphatically the wise man's inner nature his reasonable soul.PHILOSOPHY IN ROME special 43 of consciousaess of man in the processes a Because Seneca cannot see the finger of God in the world outside. to the Usurper Fortune. he brings into prominence a of the earlier school. the divinity of the certain dogma soul as a ray sent purely physical belief a down from heaven and gives this new and a moral significance. were abandoned. with whom the Sage could have no compromise. in a vague and general sense but the parts. To whose dominion was spirit entrusted ? To a blind or malevolent of caprice. " Touch not. . Epictetus. the special modem Stoic . . handle not " was written on the vestibule of the Stoic temple. the Devil and and the dispenser of every earthly blessing. All contact beyond pure necessities was disallowed as a scene of gaiety the world the " regnum hominis " over was forbidden ground no one else is the ruler of earth . builds his nificent appeal mag- to the children of a if common Father. to find Him somewhere. But the more particular enjoyment of her gifts was strictly interdicted. Early Stoicism doubted particulars : Providence condescended to the purified spirit the School ended in Aurelius with denying other that of God had any home except the individual. as defined by Aristotle. Upon this semi - naturalistic. a truer follower of Socrates. The course of the world might be termed Providential. taste not. and because he is determined causal series. And the vast Universe which was thus left it riderless. . As ^&ov XoyiKov man might admire the orbits of the stars. just as in the Stoical Christian Lactantius.

and that it was the fixed if unacknowledged resolve of the " The result. . which hindered this especial and condemned him to a leisure which he accepted with pretended reluctance." is too lawless. crvud^eia) ended in a most rigorous contrast of man and nature. The spirit. and welcomed to the somewhat frigid comfort of scielitific studies. a ludicrous hesitation to enter public the excuses made. strange the Many were pretexts accepted for Either the evasion of this obvious and classical duty.44 the MARCUS AURELIUS inanimate was a sacrilegious profanation." Stoic Masters to abstain from poKtics. Seneca is at least acute enough to see that these protests were insincere. he tells us. strictly without ulterior motive. As Macaulay rightly objected. or the Stoic the State forth. And again as ^wov ttoKitikSp man was in theory summoned to take part in a smaller world of . are exceptional. Society. . none of condemn seclusion unless them ever do issue followers to enter public and he notes their invariable counsel to their life. or there were peculiar if temporary obstacles. the actual State was too corrupt. and at the same time their invariable abstention. But the debates of the earlier Stoics exhibit life. " is the same in either school whether the Epicurean refuse an active life unless the circumstances Sage. Stoic (always in theory and generally in practice also) gave up the present and the visible to the evil quite as decisively as the most pessimistic and introThe doctrine spective anchorite among the Christians. § 7. of the sympathy of all things (av/iTrdBeia. Debarred from the life of the voluptuary or the ambitious. it was " only to be looked at " any utilitarian motive in scientific knowledge is impiety in the eyes of Seneca or of his pupil Lucilius.

He dilates almost con- vincingly on this calm constancy. left found this leisure but Friends found a place in his heart and in his time. Domestic hfe and friendly intercourse has gained from the decay of purely municipal interest. the creation of a public service. a perpetual " nonpossumus. from the delegation of power to a few. the fatigued or disappointed man of action." Seneca is like Cicero. a bureaucracy. This poradding little trait." entire teaching of Seneca may be grouped round his portrait of the Sage. who finds . covery of Epicurus and it to the writings of Seneca. the Tranquillity of the Wise Man. and to explaining some of the questions which arise from it. he honestly tells drawn as much to comfort and strengthen himself as his correspondent. touches at the call of some special need. distinctively Supreme Good in human. vacant by the disinterested scrutiny of natural pheno- mena. which he dehneates so us is carefully. a consolation iu abstract or psychological studies or in the encouragement of friends to fight manfully even a losing game against the allurements of sense or the caprice of rulers. All interest centred round the of the moral agent. The old Eoman spirit life was still keen.PHILOSOPHY the Stoic IN ROME scantily 45 occupied. All the rest are indeed side issues. . illustrating the the life of excellence. a " Mandarinate. and I shall devote the ensuing chapter to describing this Ideal. gives a certain modern tone The old Esau-like turbulence and suspicion of the intense city-state is as foreign to the modern temper as to the early Imperial age. even though this has retained The Uttle but passivity. This new value of friendship had been the dis. are episodes on the one unvarying theme.

. irrespective of any consequences to us or because plain common sense and experience of other men's folly son like) of the universal . I admit. As soon as inquiry into the wider world of Nature had dissolved the old religious allegiance to family and country. cf.sufficiency. The brief and Athenian School alone (and that very imperfectly) continued to recognize an objective. There is. (It is a mistaken and unfruitful labour to decide whether "virtue" must be followed because it is God's will. the piety of resignation "to the divine. from the point of view of the latter. and give them a new meaning and imiversality. and comprehensive " Providential Costheir large and mology. It attempted "to revive the old sanctions of patriotism and piety. Stobart. Fortnightly Beview. of the nial question.46 § 8. never settled to the last. MARCUS AURELIUS This as the guiding principle of actual life is as old as Democritus. you assures us that lasting peace of ' mind is only reached For a similar result in a modern mind.' or that ' my To-day we are inclined to place at opposite poles the heroism of sacrifice to the common Universe ? " good. Kirkengaard the Dane. the attainment of contentment and calm by a (if critical inquiry into the exact limits of man's powers and freedom.^ We connect the Stoics with the former . the perenlife classical interpretation of Nature. 1902. But the emphasis on Duty among the post-Aristotelians. 49). above all. A." cannot blind one to the egoistic aim of their speculation and practice. the sole aim of the personal was repose and self . as to the true " Which ? own. but it must be remembered that the motive for their philosophy was above all utilitarian and eudsemonistic . and any scheme of self-realization. quoted by M. — a compari- and the fecial Nature. January (see p. but.

' the of us artistic. of our nature 47 What system has ever clearly explained ? ^ There lies at the root an impulse to do good in which the overmastering joy of the emotion is strangely mixed with calmer recognition of " duty to one's neighbour and it would be impossible to determine whether mystical resignation springs entirely from love to God. 3 : " Nam pro voluptatibus et pro et conoordia illis qua parva et fragilia sunt et in ipsis flagitiis noxia. iv. . nay. 2. who have laboured gratuitously to able. VU.* swayed by " possessed.^ He is quite convinced of '' ." unworthy passion or ambition. He sees in their votaries creatures of impulse." "virtutem non ob aliud This is. the motive of unselfishness the folly of the lower lives.PHILOSOPHY IN ROME on this path. of course. but a real " tasted " and tested unity. which very few inquit. because make comfort in life unattain- diminish. but it becomes a mere question of words. contested ' e. slaves of their surroundings (for the rich are and are not real possessors). he himself refined. . the they strive only to increase. He lived in the midst of such . Beat.g. Seneca had seen through the illusion of a complex civilisation. to Seneca "virtue" and happiness were identical objective and subjective not a mere empty postulate of correspondence. quia aliquam ex speras voluptatem. instead of multitude of things they cannot do without.^) § 9. or entirely from a sense of the vainness of resistance. Beat. : ^ Serief. However this may be. ingens Gaudium subit incon- cussum et sequabile mansuetudine. can claim ^ Fit. Here is the "casus belli" between Seneca and Bacon as portrayed in Macaulay's famous essay." * turn pax animi et magnitude cum The " Marionnettes " of Aurelins (^'ei/poo-Trao'Toi). 9: "Sed tu quoque" ilia colis quam . . enjoyed the a command over the material.

fluida. It seemed to Seneca consummate folly to give hostages to fortune. had the early Stoics repudiated the Aristotelian and Peripatetic alliance. we may complain is that (even in the Churches) this wholesome caution of the Stoics is forgotten. rb. ' Civilization and its increased wants and complexity of living passed under the censure of both schools. Ilia rursus libera et invicta opera virtutis. : : sionis incestae. in quae dominium Casus exercet. travagant claims of science to-day. But satiety and disgust is the note of polished Eome in the early imperial age of which an exquisite sensuality was rather the effect than the cause. non ideo magis appetenda sunt si benignius a Fortuua tractantur si aliquot nee minus rerum iniquitate piemuntur. or compromise with the " outer . Not or the favour of a monarch. 2 sunt Ep. unassailable.48 to-day. eternal. inexhaustible. or to found one's spiritual happiness on an unsubstantial fabric of external wealth. vepiTiiu/mi." . serva pecunia et corpus et honores imbecilla. mortalia. or a people's praise. posses." The ordinary fastidious Eoman exacting city-slave was probably more and class to-day. 66 "Omnia enim ista. MARCUS AURELIUS and which was outside the wildest speculation of the apostle of the " Eegnum hominis. Stobaeus. something private. quse . goods. unselfishness. iroWi. ava^paiperov.^ Happiness must be something and in the face of the ex- altogether iBtov. xvii. Floril. Eesignation. 'EttikoCpoi ipuyrriBels wHs Slvtis irXow^o'eiei' j 06 toTs oSiri vpotmBeh (<pri t^s Si XP^^^ .^ for the most exalted indifference." itself Surely the content of a soul at peace with injure must depend on nothing which fortune could or take away. EngUshman of the middle and we know how little the terrors of than an cross and whip tempered the gaiety or controlled the mischievous intrigues of these happy and irresponsible children. but in piu-e common sense.

when he realizes. gives a continuity. desire to enjoy life.) alone by inwardness subjective conquest of the will. making in the direction of a consciousness of the value of the soul. unconsciously it may be. nor the motive.PHILOSOPHY IN ROME certainly 49 of not the centre. as an Eternal Entity. And here lies the difference of the two forms of living. —" It is perhaps by the expression. place in the and wishes to assure himself of a definite scheme of the universe . life are con- for the true . the transitoriness. responsibility. Jan.. with — the Preacher of old. he longs 4 to grasp himself as Soul. or. sport. by power reached (says K. they are conditions.) to everyone a time when he outgrows the spontaneous qualities of his child's nature. and when. —M. is lacking in the . they are relative to circumstances of time. their system. " There comes (says K.(Esthetic Life of Relativity. the eesthetia and the mcrrdl. whose spontaneity which of is action is controlled by a beyond his own limit of " Whereas in the Ethical. of joy and despair. the vanity. a teleological value to every action. that the Esthetic goal can most fitly be epitomized. in other words. when he becomes dissatisfied with a haphazard relationship to Time and to Existence. Stobart. A. 1902. " For the conditions attending the necessity to enjoy exist (says the if life Danish apostle) either outside the individual. is rather than as a fleeting Ego. contained within himself — as in shape of health. FoHn. of that upon which he had set his mind . or pleasure entering in any of a thousand forms —are of such a nature as to be beyond his own control . . and —despair the result. surroundings. as a portion of the Eternal Entity. and the inherited place in the world of the individual. the conditions of tained within and not outside the individual Ethical sphere is . which of the and as such is subject to fluctuating alternatives moment. country. by the evolution of a of will which. relationship to Destiny.

transitoriness being of its essence. He becomes. life is lays stress. which. At such a moment. and there will be made visible the Everlasting Power. but religion. which is and the It is moment of Despair may be the moment of the choice. consciousness unites its fragments. and what can never be forgotten. Not not evil. then wUl the heavens seem to divide." towards pietistic and exacting . and being conscious Then has the Soul of. Ethical.Esthetic. when the Individual becomes conscious of and chooses his Self as a portion of the Eternal Whole. and he is for the first time Himself. Nothing. despair. not but he becomes Himself . not as a limited relative Ego in a circumscribed existence. The JEsthetie The importance lies in the fact that what is chosen is the Self.' required patible with his own an open dealing with the world incommystical and recondite nature . Then will the Ego become for the first time conscious of. when all Nature around is hushed. but the Self as a portion of This choice Eternity. and the soul is alone in all the world.50 " Despair itself MARCUS AURELIUS is tlie culmination of the sesthetic life. according to his teaching in introduces us. on the importance of this choice that K. of the great and everlasting power. seen the Highest. and Religious. it is indifferent. serene as a starry night. will choose or rather accept his Self. that it is absolute as between good and evil. " This ethical (it is apparent in Kir. the significance of the moment. he says. . in life can equal the solemnity. ' Either. it for all Eternity. Or. —the Soul has received that knight- hood which ennobles another personality . what no mortal eye can ever see. constitutes in itself a treasure within each man that makes him greater than the angels. to which throughout his writings he The bias of his own mind was never towards the purely human moral.'s view) is but the rainbow-bridge to the last of the three great spheres.

Ma/n as spectator. depreciation of History . The "SuTnmv/in Bonum" as the Wise Man in Retirement. not as agent perpetually in history. as the realm of the contingent by the side of Natural La/iv. needs of man's moral nature plementary doctrine. External Natwre=God. § 5. Seneca more optimistic than Aurelius. as man's Soul with his body. 61 . Christian and perishing. a still more complete sepa/ration of the two spheres in Gnostics. and natural studies unfold the essence of the Deity (physical Pantheism). synthetic § 7. § 4." " The Fall" . § 2. . Let us now look at two or three passages in which Seneca depicts this ideal of quietism and self-sufficing calm. Church § 9. Summary of the variousjides of philosophic thought which meet in the System of Seneca. or the contemplation of the Eternal a/nd unchanging. an ascetie ideal which recurs to § 3. § 8. man's pectdiar nature as his power modern to criticise. without enjoying. His Psychology entirely Platonic and dualist . § 6.CHAPTER IV "the wise MAN" Analysis § 1. " The Golden Age. Stoic maxim "Follow Nature" the' exact converse Naturalism. Spiritual pantheism. Seneca's and monistic systems. Ideal of Quietism. demand as comGod contrasted Failure of all vnth the world. § 1. At the sa/me time. struggles against the Dualism a/nd Abstention of classical antiquity.

45 : MARCUS AURELIUS " Si vis utique verborum ambiguitates diducere. ut quae suis gaudeat Fortunae nee majora domesticis cupiat Libertatem est: negligentia. : "Ad primum revertamur et consideremus id quale Animus intuens vera. et interritum ac stabilem. neutri se FortunsB submittens. Ergo exeundum ad banc non illud alia tribuit quam Tum orietur inaestimabile bonum. hoc nos doce beatum non eum esse quein vulgus appellat." . non ex opinione sed ex Naturd pretia rebus imponens. intrepidus nulla quem Fortuna. inconcussus. — et hoc raro. ex aequo magnus ac vehemens.52 Ep. supra omnia quae contingunt accidunt- que eminens. nee adjiciens. qui mala in bonum vertit. 66 sit. qui hominem et sold est. quem aliqua vis movet. cum viribus sanus ac siccus. Vit Beat. peritus fugiendorum ac petendorum. qui NaturS. vi maximS. utitur. imperturbatus intrepidus. certus judicii. toti se inserens mundo et in omnes ejus actus contemplationem suam mittens. quem nulla vis frangat. quomodo Ilia praescripsit bona sua nulla perturbatj excutit. asperis blandisque pariter invictus." Ep. .. Talis quem nee attollant fortuita nee deprimant. liberum Animus Virtus est. unum malum turpitudo 1 Csetera vilis turba rerum. extra nee detrahens quicquam beatae ac detrimento vitae. qui neminem videt cum quo se commutatum velit . sic vivit ad j componitur. ex alto veniens.. intorsit. cogitationibus actionibus intentus. 4 dicere. magistrS. pulcherrimus ornatissimus cum decore. . nolit) Hunc ita fundatum necesse tinua et (velit sequatur hilaritaa oon- Isetitia alta atq. parte sestimat. ad quern pecunia magna confiuxit Sed ilium cui bonum omne in animo : erectum et ezcelsum et mirabilia calcantem . quies mentis in tuto coUocatae et sublimitas. res 5. nocentissimum. qui Ulius cui leges homo vis est." " Quid enim prohibet nos beatam vitam : Animum et erectum. quum quod habuit telum pungit non vulnerat. metum extra cupiditatem positum? cui unum bonum honestas. sine auctu Summi Boni est veniens ac recedens.

— We detachment. several exponents. to whom. or St. nor catholic. Theresa. xxxi. that he would not attempt to reform . Eenan. ." . "THE WISE MAN" Ep. peace. purely Oriental It is (Buddhist or Brahmin). any more than Madame de Guyon indebted to Plotinus. were The abstentionist tendency recurs its is without any historic or spiritual connection between The philosopher. represented as spectator rather than as a^ent. is so interesting in its distress M. and student neither Hellenic. . : illic serenum Ep. dabit animus Sapientis benejudicatitenax. . Deum deoeat.'' There is § 2. We . the world and sinfulness. sequalitas ac tenor vitas est per omnia consonans sibi. It is . Hanc . this perhaps nothing strikingly original in see the universal features of sage It is picture. . 53 "Perfeota Virtus ." ? qualis Mundi status Lunam semper xcii. relictis in quibus vinci te necesse eat. the " obscure night " of unconscious indifference. hoc Summum Bonum: ! quod occupas incipis Deorum esse socius non supplex " Summa beatse -vitse Ep. xliv. . ejus inconcussa fiducia. " Quid est beata vita Securitas et perpetua constantia tranquillitas. qualis Talis esse viri debet. dabit . as true man. indifference." : Ep.se sui ponens. Animi magnitudo. attitude of Compare the it. as student. watch the gradually extinguished fires of social action the faint flicker or the chilled embers of critical study ^ finally. nihil extra. aemulator humana se extollens. ." Ep. cxxiv. Animus est. dum est t ' in aliena niteris. . ad bonum reverti tuum ? ' Quod hoc Dei. solida securitas et si : . " Vis tu. for example. We ' are on the brink of the mystic precipice. super Animus scilicet emendatus ac purus. simply human and The early Greeks did not borrow from India. . super lix. : " Talis est sapientis .

the " non-ego. if the personal and the particular are illusion or a debased copy of the unseen. and exercising the distinctively human faculty in himself. We have seen how the outer world. Quintilian. in numberless passages. were purely verbal and academic. accepting his allotted destiny without murmur." free. in the clouds of formula or dogmatic dialectic. every claim upon the fragile and insecure environment. that the world exists for the trial and discipline of souls. is to be maintained by following nature." but has never spondent. He must abandon. This amounted to and the periodical contests between Stoic and Epicurean. of which Lucian gives us an instance a century later. interest in a denial of Providence. again. when the generalizations of the student are alone supposed to contain the truth. and happy. LuciHus. —an assumption which it is easy to ridicule as and on which reposes the whole complex of Western Ethics and European Society." — the double sense. emphasis on the " forgotten. in " anthropocentric. This rigid consistency and undeviating tenor of life. when the concrete particular of life is distrusted or despised . if he seeks perfection. though nominally to of subject providential ruling. every quaUty or equipment which he has in . § 3. If only the unchanging and permanent is real. the world's transformation gives place to the purely scientific respect. which we note in Seneca's correChristianity lays a similar Platonic world of true Being.54 MARCUS AURELIUS clear from ancient history that the critical attitude becomes a favourite. was yet really in the hands an incalculable caprice." which hems in his inward life and . by which a man becomes "his own. shows us how intimately connected was the thought of Providence with interest in public duty.

even in the Epicurean School. sublunary. incompatible with any true sympathy with Nature." "THE WISE MAN" common with schemes stances. in Socrates or Zeno. it If man had any their was with the the stars and automatic precision and unreflecting perfection. the sage could not. a com- bination implied in conscious happiness. a depreciation of the value of the present. Universal ? which convinced them of the essential opposition. the faculty which criticizes it and does not enjoy while by its own experiwas sadly convinced that the particular maniof this festation Eternal Intelligence. it corrupt civiliza- seems to recall men to a golden age of harmony It set with Nature. Hence its systematic trend towards Mysticism. It was this immediate query. towards a surrender of the visible world. throw off the spirit and become a child of Those who think that the Hellenic temper minimizes the gulf between man and the natural world. different. In spite of his own weakness to attain truth. are most assuredly blind. tion. The result was widely . could analyse as well as act. critical and analytic Nature. lower animals. up an ence altar to Eeason in the abstract. was imperfect and infirm. We often connect Naturalism with a whole-hearted devotion Eousseau and Thoreau. But the philosophic mind of antiquity was far more Eeacting against a selfish or austere. not with the God-forsaken region of Because man could criticize as well as enjoy. —and because the lower animals were ^«3a clear ciXo'^a could only act and enjoy. to name two in- of unreflective acquiescence would lead one back to the simplest pleasures and to impulsive emotion. of 55 to Nature. — who other it seemed that man's special function lay in the . " What is my nature in relation to the true affinity.

in spite of harmony with Nature this recurring which should have saved them problem in What § 4. is my peculiar nature. . duty. or happiness relation to the whole ? The sense of the " Fall.56 direction. Lucretius. of uniformity. more intolerable than the propitiable caprice of Be this as it may. abstention. truly into the heart of law. continuance in the life. at least. Nature never lost her old terrible character. Certainly no disciple of the School could place the special virtue of man in the feminine passivity of . forbearance. unstable. which marks the lower sphere. who The almost uni- versal transference of force from grotesque or malignant spirits to impartial this sense of foreignness mechanism failed to relieve man of and alienation. in a contemplative study which set familiar intercourse. because he seems to control by understanding it. into that blissful never entered. though Epicurus. his master. It and indifference or a veto on more seems clear that to the Greeks and Eomans. is yet to the sage as man." of the relapse from an . implies the attainment of liberty. insecure. or. mildness. it is certain the expelled Daemons. saw more and knew that mechanical more satisfying to the sage. exults in vain over an empty victory. human arena of that struggle for that boundless competition. MARCUS AURELIUS A modern Naturalism might find in the encouragement of the "ape and tiger" the true end of man a resolute egoism which saw our duty in the . and thinks the discovery of law. man that the Classical nations several efforts. like many another apostle of religious or social freedom. which she bears still to the superstitious savage haunted in every tree or grotto or river by jealous and unaccountable powers. a Siren lavishes her allurements only to slay.

secundum Naturam est . hsBc ejus proprietas est. id egit Eer." Ep. "Non — : non posset sine tot artibus vivere . xciv. Vit. He even attacks possible to return to this " State before the Fall. Quid . believes in man's innate goodness and his power to obtain happiness by limiting his wants and trusting Nature..: "Omnia Ep. : " Bonum Quid sine ratione nullum ? est . " Sic nos amantissima nostri Natura disposuit. ut . ad parata nati sumus . ut dolorem aut tolerabilem aut brevem faceret.." Ep. The writers of the Augustan age which it is with one consent sing the~praises of this lost felicity. Natura querimur est." —Ep. homo solus — : : sumus.— — "THE WISE MAN" 57 decay of early and primitive age of Gold. Natura ut ad bene vivendum non magno apparatu opus essefc. and advise all who can to revert to a simplicity they could not attain themselves." Brev. sequitur autem Naturam. (55) " Erras enim si existimas nobiscum vitia Nulli nos vitio Natura Supervenerunt. . : conciliat ilia integros ao liberos genuit. . ." Cons. Ixxviii.'' " Virtus secundum vitia inimica et infesta sunt. of this fertile earth itself. cviii. omnes ad omnia ista nati dedit.. of the gradual men. far Seneca thinks He. : vitia contra Naturam pugnant (aversandi diem Naturam est j et totam vitam in noctem transferendi). is visible in ancient authors.. more optimistic than Aurelius." Ep." the doctrine of " Original Sin " so : dear to Augustan (as well as Augustinian) speculators • nasci. Ep. : " Unde aliquid cognoscitur bonum ? .'' ? Ilia SB benigne gessit : vita si scias uti longa Ep. ratio Ixvi. Si perfects cxxii. xc.'' Ep. a Natura luxuria " Omnibus enim Natura fundamenta descivit. ingesta sunt. 1. 2 : : " Quid de Eer. est ergo ratio Naturae imitatio. cxviii. semenque virtutum f uit tarn inimica Natura. 5 : " Bona conditione geniti sumus si earn non deseruerimus . ad Helv. all of States.

sense. Lucan's famous line quodcunque moveris." He does not control the physical universe. Q. cum hoc — . He is like a parent in the folk-lore tales sending out his children into a world. Nature is paret. 45 L i." Seneca : the antithesis " Nonne intelligis. "Ergo nihil agis." (See also N. which are probably l>identical. omnium omniumque artium semina. scantily equipped with a few maxims of prudence and a setatum occulto father's blessing. " will not hear of (Bene/. 6). Bonorum unum propositum est eonsentire Naturae. nee Deus Naturae. ingratissime mortaUum. Quid est Deus ? quod vides totum et quod non vides totum " with which we may compare " Jupiter est quodcunque vides. prolog. MARCUS AURELIUS summum ." § 8. : . iv. hominis bonum 1 ex Naturae voluntate se gerere. His Nature and not God (as a Natura hsec mihi praestat. as in most parts of dicis. magisterque ex " Insita sunt nobis JDeus producit ingenia" it is collocutor rejoins that special providence). ii. But we have already seen how the moralizing of the Divine idea in the Eoman Stoics had shaken the hold of the Divine Being on the actual world. sed idem est utrumque nee distat officio. sed " Quia nee Natura sine Deo est. or the lot of individuals. so Seneca uses Nature and Qod interchangeably. qui te negas Deo debere. semel jussit. : ." sine Natur&. " Semper § 5.58 est . te mutare nomen Deo ? " " Quid enim est aliud Natura quam Deus et Divina Eatio toti mundo partibusque ejus inserta. . Just as it is imin the ordinary and current limits or essential possible in Lucan to decide on the diiference of Fate and Fortune. " Quid est Deus ? mens universi." But we cannot help noticing that the term He is not using it unstable and precarious.") Now here.

/ie\j. qiiodcunque moveris " the thoughts of the good. . si totum me illi dedi. escape.T09 ^Bov^ of Plato. The Deity his body. the universe one and is the individual a part § 6. (Ot. implicitly in strongest contrast to the work of his hands. to control. when he bids^ us follow Nature. as are with epithets as contemptuous. So much Nature. practical or moral side approached. totum. the unseen world (such as a Eoman could conceive beyond . The unequally mated yoke-fellows spring apart aU the more vehemently for their brief and enforced companionship. Again and again does Seneca hymn the delights of Science for it is an inquiry into God it is the truest occupation of the Sage's leisure not the mere ctfiera. but a real insight into God's secrets and inmost side. for the conis templative Speculatively. secundum vivo. giving us a maxim Natura for practical life. Every attempt to unify the world in a gigantic and audacious synthesis issues in this strange Dualism. dismissed ascetic. . as of the ever found in the frankly Dualist Schools. and the tendency of all Pantheism is to separate more sharply than before the natural mechanism in which it starts. in which it invariably ends. 5 : " Ergo. But the is God is moment the . essence. just as man. . is not really f it) . 59 the Stoical physical ethics (an absurd attempt to unite we see two conflicting tendencies. So Seneca. as spirit. from the transcendent spirit. this postulated harmony at once disappears. The real essence Divine creeps into the soul of the wise man. as it were. from the creature which has passed There is even a certain chivalry to God is "quod non vides a fallen and exiled monarch. because Nature is God. as intelligence.J "THE WISE MAN" the irreconcilable). is to Universe and body are for practice.

§ 7. Underlying the word " nature " are two polar conceptions. perpetual contemplation the physical order. as from any hope for the future. me voluit et agere et contemplationi Utrumque facio quoniam ne contemplatio quidem sine actione est. Natura autem utrumque facere vacare. except to point the moral of the futility and nothingness of men. or as a counsel of perfection.") The wise man found the unity demanded by his reason only in theory from the life of action he felt himself debarred.6o si MARCUS AURELIUS illius admirator cultorque sum. to see the immense advance which Augustus (rather than Julius) had effected. It was reserved for foreigners in a later age. condemns him to of and some region the fiction of moral passivity and negation. like Eutilius. Earely does he mention a historic name. though he is feverish nightmare of life. in political ideals. corpore hospitantem ") . or Claudian. or Corippus. man on the the significance The Eomans could form no estimate of of the Empire. but the identification with G-od in the second sense lays stress on the special prerogative of man. The Emperor Aurelius is free from the slightest sympathy with the past. with such ironical modesty. — an eternal but unmeaning spectacle. his reason . and the things about which they toil and struggle in the brief and And Seneca. or even Dante. the pageant of stage of time. pleasures . It is consonant with this attitude that Seneca should depreciate history. The one would seem to banish reflexion and immerse in a life of natural wants and . not as blind as Tacitus or Suetonius to the meaning of . enshrines the deity in his inmost soul (" quasi Deum him in humane to enable to maintain in Unity.

original in nothing save in the power to clothe an ideal with flesh and blood. . quies. duties.^ yet has 6i no sort of appreciation for the and yet glorious attempt of Alexander. This is not the place to enter fully into Seneca's psychology. i. of dross or mud. Their practical teaching is a caricature of the Stoic Sage with its carelessness of externals. Yet Seneca only talks of the " latrocinia Alexandri. like all the Eomans. etc. 8." and turns in transient disgust to scientific studies. 4 : talibus plaoui electnsque vitae sum qui in terris Deoriun vice fungerer. he adopts the Platonic imagery of the imprisonment pure and divine element in a fleshly He rivals the mystic in the intensity of his desire to fly from this hateful companionof a tomb ship. Quam multa tibi non . cujus administratione et providentia contingit illi pingue licent quae nobis beneficio tno licent : " otium et arbitrium sni temporis. § 8. Ixxiii. especially § 18 " Oonfitebitur ergo multum se debere ei. probably sincere words on the Emperor's position. ' ' et imperturbata puhlids occupationibus Meliboee (quotes Seneca with approval) Deus nobis haeo otia fecit. Eome adopted his precedent and gave it life. etc. and give a frozen statue life. The Gnostics carried this tendency to its utmost limits. It will be enough to observe that.. 3. " Ego ex omnibus morZ>e Clem. The precise form of Eoman Empire soul from at this time tended to sever pantheism dominant in the body and any joint action. See also Consol. his and ego responsibilities. ad Polyiium with its eulogy of Claudius and conception of Imperial responsibilities and the whole of Ep. Against this tendency the Christian Church struggled persistently insistence this could not ' Cf. and so these were dismissed as superfluous or immaterial f) rfX&aa' 6/juofioj^ rf Se ^prjv dvm/ioro^. 2." : «THE WISE MAN" the. and its exclusive on the purity of the divine particle within be defiled by any bodily deeds. or of moral action. Empire. ! necisque gentibus arbiter.

as they may be collected in the disconnected writings. and poverty for the world outside.62 and not in MARCUS AURELIUS vain. pain. to the lasting prejudice They are certainly clearly visible in Seneca. but the vagueness of his definition must here preclude us from attempting Suffice it to point out in correction precise treatment. with a rapid summary of Seneca's tenets and character- istics. 19. with all its (17). that this DuaUsm was far more generally predominant in Pagan than in Christian Ethics. § 9. Pessimist. 88. 48. the simplicity of earlier life As a Monist. 83. 108(23. he teaches As a that the true life. but are blinded or warped by convention. 106. 114 : " Nihil tamen seque tibi profuerit ad temperantiam omnium . series of occasional As a practical Eoman seeking guidance for the single life. As a man who has mixed with men and courts. Breo. exile. . Epictetus and Aurelius both seek to depreciate the body. he believes all men are good by nature. already overlong. 82 (9."' of experience pursues false " goods " was the Golden Age. of a common error. 22). and calls us (whether we name her God or Providence or Pate) to enjoy her contemplation rather than abuse her bounty. he objects to the degradation of Philosophy to Philology. Vit. by harsh and contemptuous names. ° Epp." as the only End. the genuine philosophy. I shall conclude this episode. . 10. 49. epoch. Ep. 109 113 (17. 25) . 27 (16). 111.^ 1 is a perpetual meditation on death. 35). G-nostie ideas These Platonic and of were widely diffused and accepted in this morals. 45. and with it external action. he holds this Universal Nature as the true guide. and by ignorance which "Virtue.^ As a Stoic he adopts loyally the doctrine of the Sufficiency of "honestum. which has given us the special dower of Eeason.

iv. not the abilist. Benef. with whom the good can have no dealings. follows on popular acceptance rather than dogmatic teaching. iv. sed e& ire. this world-order is the Eealm of Chance or Fortune. 65. as ministering comfort weakness and failure the only true leisure from self-improvement is to study the universal of to our sense of : laws. on which he is very ambiguous. qua dncit Veri similitude. quoted on p. 4 : Deos." (Cf. the unity of the cosmic order flatter ." rather " than applaud the " heuretic power of the speculative reason. has no correspondence to the sage's "good will." and (unlike the theory of Descartes) the Deity cannot or will not bring about occasionalistic conformity. Sequimur qua Katio.^ declines to pronounce on As an Agnostic." the solidarity of the brotherhood."THE WISE MAN" 63 method and order. personal immortality. he any ultimate problem except the sufficiency of "Virtue. quioquid facias. records of human frailty. the " consensus gentium. " Nunquam exspectare nos certlssimam rerum " Benef. non qua Veritas ducit^ thus in the end a chasm yawns between the separate subjective reason and objective Truth. not by a priori qualification " Non surda numina et ineiSoaces of the God's nature. and the rerum quam cogitatio brevis sevi et hujus inoerti . also Ep. oxx.." Similarly. As a Prob- he is apt to follow the popular voice.* Finally. his aspirations are often devotional. as Mystic." fails to As a he appreciate the value of History as giving signs advancement and of progress. reapioB ad Mortem. : — . As a Personalist. conceived as a malignant spirit. 33 oomprehensionem quoniam in arduo est Veri exploratio . human a he does not himself he has reached truth. and has perhaps adopted the Stoic profession because he finds in the worthies of Eoman annals living (if unconscious) Scientist. patterns of scholastic "Virtue. he prefers example to precept. As a Manichee.) ^ The attentiveness of Heaven to our prayers is proved by the manifest concurrence of human opinion and practice.

" Non sunt ad coelum elevandae manus. . xxxi. juouDdum. The soul as Divine j Ep.^ Both view the world. malorum ' bonorumque : dbservator custos. the growing tendency to free the spirittud element (and notion) from the husk or envelope of physical constraint. without act. xli. . and to allow him the same opportunity as we shaU give to Epictetus and Aurelius. A 1. Ita dico Lucili. sacer intra nos et spiritus sedet . . met and blended with the single point and found there its highest and its only secure asylum. for both have made "il grani rifiuto. : Deus nvdvs eit. . xxxi. it may be human that he felt that the truly Divine in the outer of order consciousness. saying. .64 MARCUS AURELIUS Sage is the peer of God. Fama non faciet ." ." the great renunciation. the wise to contemplate rather than here. expression. intus est. Farem autem Deo pecunia non faciet Deus nihil haiet. Ep. . and elevate a transcendentcd concept of soul and deity. tecum est. In " Tutum iter est. and the true function of . Frsetexta non faciet instruxit. ad fin. " Animus rectus Quid aliud voces hunc. i. nee exorandus sedituus prope est a te Deus. nemo novit Deum. nostr. except in eternity. . . Dedittibi Ilia quse si nou deserueris par Deo surges. tantem ? " — : . " Haec omnia mea sunt " but only if neither attempt to control or to enjoy and . quam Deum in humano eorpore hospi: . We shall detect need of further comment or elucidation. APPENDIX In order to complete the portrayal of Seneca as a philosopher. in place of an immanent abstraction. ad quod Natnra te Ep. I subjoin certain selected passages on the subjects of chief Stoical import: the nature of man and of the world the divinity of the soul and its future life the scientific or religious interest.

sic Animus magnus et sacer. "THE WISE MAN" 65 unoquoque bonorum (' quis deus inoertum est ') hdbitqi. Vaga et impatiens si et novitate rerum ex illo laetissima: non miraberis primam ejus originem . . sed hseret origini susb. Nulla sine Deo mens bona est. Ixxiii. ." " An illud verum sit quo maxime Ot. Ixxviii. tanquam . est : ad Helv. Sapientis. scintillas hominem ? divini spiritus esse partem. multum cum meliore et divina parte versatur cum hac : qtierula ac fragili quantum necesse . " Hie Deos sequat. Totum hoc quo continemur. et' in hoc demissus ut propius divina nossemus. : — : .. . . " Gravi terrenoque detineor. illo tendit..." A 2.) "majore sui parte illic est. hospitalis loci sarcinas specta Detrahetur tibi hsec circumjecta transeundum est. Quemadmod. detrahetur caro . — Ep. ex iisdem quibus divina con- stant compositu(s) seminibus.. Semina in homines venit." supra quern nihil est Ep. . 6 quod " Mobilis et inquieta mens homini data quietis . . et . cxx. . 32 — : — : . unde desg^dil/. Quicquid circa te jacet rerum." Ep. originis sua memor Quid est autem cur non existimes in eo divini aliquid existere. cii. is impulse of Ep. Non ex terreno et gravi concreta corpore cselesti spiritu descendit . aspexeris." deducit a corpore. ac veluti quasdam sacrorum in : terras desiluisse atque alieno loco hsesisse Cons. : probatur. . conversatu? quidem nobiscum. et unum est et Deus et socii sumus et membra. The Body spirit. in corporibus humanis divina dispersa sunt." .iJ (The good man." Ep. immo quod propius est. contemptible. . "Miraris hominem ad deos ire ? Deus ad homines venit. Capax est noster animus. ossa novissimum velamentum tui cutis . radii solis contingunt quidem terrain se#r ii cant unde mittuntur . " Perfectum animum nisi mens Dei ex qua pars et in hoc pectus mortale defluxit quod nunquam magis divinum est quam ubi mortalitatem suam cogitat. . . qui Dei 'pars est. . a burden to the soaring " Vir magnus ac prudens : animum est. xcii.

illi . its Soul thus distinguished from the grosser envelope finds Ot. . quse voluptas? — quis animum tuum casus etc. Deumque inter ilia versantem. Corpusculum hoc custodia et vinculum animi. cjcx. Ixv. artis and contemplation. levant animum qui gravi sareina pressus ad ilia quorum fuit. &iXumspeotum omnium nobis dedit . Depone onus eti tiia. . . et chief delight in science suss 32 ac sibi pulcritudinis spectaoulis et conscia. . ." G. . . ai^AJIicris nnasi opertus es. sacra et sublimia aocedas. MARCUS AURELIUS . Ixv. . 19 " Eecipe te ad hsec tranquilliora. . In nos sui parte constituit.vfe)^vique.* "Nee domum . miremur in sublimi volitantes rerum (i. : — sunt. nee sed etiam ad oontemplationem facere tantummodo hommem.^kjuo Vacu^imitte JRta. in explicari cupit et reverti vinculis est nisi acoessit Philosophia. —Ep." (Ishtar's descent. sciturus ad sit hsec quae materia Diis. esse hoc corpus sed hospitium et quidem breve hoc evenire attollunt et .) Ep." Cons. vivendi atque moriendi scientia. ad Helv. . hino atque hinc tentamur et expellimur in alieno habitantibus. ubi nos a corporibus dimissas Natura componat ? (hence will arise) cupiditatum oblivio. solet tarn putre sortiti. — . . Iviii. ? ! . grave corporis mei "Mortale et fragile corpusculum .. erexit . . pondus. Sap. . Hsec libertas ejus est. ." jussit et a terrenis dimisit Ep. sublime fecit caput utrumque majora ! . omnium formas e.. Nam corpus hoc animi pondus ac poena estj premente illo urgetur. . speetatores medifi." Ep. alta intervalla consistimus rerum quies. (Philosophy) "ilium respirare Eer. 11: " hsec circumf usa gravis sareina . : Nos corpus " Ista enim omnia . tutiora. "Imbecilli fluidique per mittamus animum ad ilia quse seterna .66 . Ideas Platonicas) . stud corpus inhabitatum diu pone. "Curiosum nobis Natura ingenium dedit. Naturae speetaculo ad divina.. exspectet. xxiv. . Natura autem et contemplationi vacare. ." Ep.. ad haec quserenda me voluit et agere : nato. istis animo membra jam superQuid . . ." Brev.. nos tantis rerum genuit." etc. Vit.

. unde sit." etc. sibi. de animo unde esset. reseratur. Itaque quantum ilia resiliamus sciat : quod sola quo iturus sit. . Sursum vocant iUum initia sua. an aliunde alio transeat et domicilium mutet. . . et redditus cselo suo fuerit. . " Magna et spatiosa res . . fuerit et tempus. templum mundus redit. . . quid inferi quid in secundam Numinum formam animsa perpetuse. quum vitia disjecerit . . hac effugerit cavea . : "(Fortuna) neminem oecupat possumus ab que cognitio divinis : nisi hserentem . adhuc non fruitur bono luois. quum emissus his tenebris in quibus volutatur totem diem admiserit. . . ubi. ." —Ep. prsestabit sui Natures- ortus. (This study begun here in reverent spirit released souls) : the delight of heaven hereafter for the " Licet oontentus interim sit effugisse tenebras. . de humanisque discendum est an per se sit aliquid."THE WISE MAN" hsec evagatioj et caelo 6^ subducit interim se custodioe in qua tenetur reficitur. Deinde a corporalibus . . est Sapientia . an non amplius quam semel serviat et emissus. .. postquam de corpore abductus in sublime secessit. unde . quid agant. . . iste. Erit autem illie etiam antequam hac custodia exsolvatur. Innumerabiles quaestiones sunt de Animo tantum. . . . . Quid sint Dii qualesque et SU8B tradit. . . Ixxxii. . . (Philosophy) " ad beatum statum tendit qusB sint mala quae videantur ostendit totius Natures notitiam vagetur in toto ." Ep. quamdiu esse incipiat . . xc. in divinas cogitationes emicuerit. quamdiu. si tempus cum mundo CSBperit. et vim omnium csepit seminum inqxdrere singula proprie figurantem. . Ad initia Tum deinde rerum et jEternam Eationem toti inditam. . sed ingens omnium Deorum . deinde an aliquid ante tempus sit. ubi Hoc ejus initiamenta sunt. . ad alias animalium formas conjectus . quae non muniaipale sacrum. an et ante mundum quia fuerit aliquid. quomodo libertate sua usurus quum ex an obliviscatur priorum et illic nosse se incipiat. quum receperit locum quem occupavit sorte nascendi. . q^ualis sit. Ixxix. ." is —Ep. per consistant. Ep. . Ixxxviu.. Tunc Animus noster habebit quod gratuletur sibi.

68 se MARCUS AURELIUS transtulit. I. . . an Mundus liceat bodieque decernere et ex lege Fatorum aliquid derogare ! an majestatis deminutio sit et confessio erioris. mutanda fecisse Nisi ad hsec admitterer. . . so implicit is the notion of continued life in the mastery of eternal truth. conceptions of Pure Theology than the subsequent physical phenomena. and would delight Aristotle and Porphyry i " Virtus magnifica non quia per se beatum est malo caruisse. sit Deus totus in se intendat an ad nos aliquando respiciat aliquid. illi faciat quotidie . gratias ago . if he is sincere. Qucbs" Detrahe hoc insestimabile bonum " ( = theoretical tiones. spectat. Altera docet quid in terris agendum sit. Supra banc caliginem in qua volutamur excedit et Naturae Rerum tenebris ereptos illo perducit unde lucet. has a far more amiable outlook on the world than his two : successors. quse ad deoB excussit. Qu.prmf. quse Uni: versi materia sit. non fuerat nasci " (We may . . do these words refer to . non Majus esse . Seneca. . . . . In this half-Neoplatonic halfscientific emphasis on intellectualism. an semel fecerit . ." The secondary and cathnisi supra bumana surrexerit ! . artic value of moral purification is clearly put in a later section." (Here the division betw. .") quam contempta res est homo science) "non est vita tanti. as a necessary elficit qui in consortium Dei veniat. multum permisit quiddam suspicata est ac pulcrius quod extra conspectum Natura posuisset. quum secretiora ejus intravi : . altera quid agatur in c8b1o. sed quia animum laxat ac prseparat ad cognitionem caelestium dignumque (Morality.") sibi : "Altior est haec et animosior: fuit oculis contenta. . ad incorporalia Veritatemque et argumenta ejus " Nat." stage to be transcended. . For example. which stands in the way of the yet pure unimpeded energy of the rational soul. He can almost shelve the question of immortality as unmeaning. . in which centres the interest of the " Nat. " actio and " contemplatio " is called " quae ad homines. . pars Mundi sit. . . note here that this passage approaches nearer to our modern . and in itself only needful because of the body. . quis auctor aut custos quid .

quioquid vult. etc. eificiat. qua homini fas est. immiscear . ! ad Helv. expers esse cognoscerel aut ferri temeritate quadam aut sibi Natura nesciente quid . are correlative and ever in our power). as subject and object.. dum mihi lunam solemque intueri ortus liceat. so Seneca. quamdiu manebimus " (where propria. tamdiu I believe nobiscum mansura. et a ] magno Artifice (Non quia nonne cessat ars. in sublimi semper habeam quantum refert mea. —propria ipsi : nobis et perpetua. . . ad summa emicaturus. Interim quantum per moras membrorum et hano . his incubare. sed quia id in quo exercetur ssepe inobsequens arti est. et hoc autem Universum. atheism impossible. Dum cum his sim et caslestibus. hsBO discere. quid calcem? 11 (Lapides and aurum)non potest amare sincerus Animus ac naturse suse memor. 8 ejus : "Animus contemplator admiratorque Mundi. including " mundus hie " before. the two things which. dum animum ad eognatarum rerum eonspectum tendentem. dum . .) animum esse et sua et aliena: " Sunt qui putent sibi ipsis quidem providum ac dispensantem singula. : : . to be neuters. levis ipse et expers curse et quandoque emissus fuerit.— "THE WISE MAN" this life or the 69 next ? — " Tunc consummatum habet plenumque quum calcato bonum et sortis humanse. transilire est mortalitatem suam et in meliorem transcribi sortem? ." etc. in quo nos quoque consilii.. ceteris inhaerere sideribus. pars magnificentissima. scientific study of self and Nature. mensus Deum " Cons. dum eorum occasus intervallaque et causas investigare velocius meandi vel tardius. materiam ipse formet an data utatur ? prave f ormentur multa Deus. omni malo petit altum Tunc juvat inter (In this is sidera ipsa viigantem. As Marcus sees the absurdity of allowing man a reason denied to the outer world. in interiorem Naturae finem venit. si nihil aliud. faciat. hoc certe sciam omnia angusta esse. . divitum pavimenta ridere. . an in multis rebus ilium tractanda destituant.) Hseo inspicere. 9 " Dum oculi mei ab illo spectaoulo cujus insatiabiles sunt non abducantur. Quam possit? utile existimas iata quantum Deus .. et sumus.

^ternitatisque suae fuit . in omne quod futurumque est omnibus seculis." Ot. an diducta. . et hoc tonitrubus fulminibus ventorum flatibus ac nimborum nivisque et grandiuis tumultuosum spatium Tum peragratis — : humilioribus ad summa prorumpit. Summum Bonum esse Natura nos ad utrumque genuit actioni. ." secundum Naturam vivere et eontemplationi rerum et In spite of this happy- D. an multa ejusmodi corpora Deus sparserit? Continua sit omnis et plena materia . et pulcerrimo diviaorum memor. Animus ipse sacer et cBternus est. ad Helv. tunc quicquid inter caelum terrasque plenum formidinis interjacet perspicit. a as to the debt to the universal order. : modo se levioribus studiis oblectat.. there are not wanting passages of sceptical alternatives.. . later Stoic leaders. . . . vadit. . suum spectet. ut qtusramus quid sit virtus ? natura an ars bonos vLros f aciat 1 unum sit hoc quod maria terrasque complectitur. quid Deo prsestat! ne tanta ejus opera sine teste sint. an tractet 1 utrumne extrinsecus illi circumfusus sit. Sap. cursusque ejus alternos et recursus . On Death and Immortality. . dicere. . 17 (Soul best when) " animus omnis cogitationis expers operibus suis vacat liber et dis cognatus et . veri avidus insurgit. immo vero nescio an in otio melius. et solidis inane permixtum sit! Deus sedens opus. . . . death appearing as but an unimportant episode in the theoretic life which opens the gate of Truth still wider. celeri circumfueam gravem sarcinam divina perlustrat . modo ad considerandam suam Universique naturam. 31 " Huic majori Keipublicss et in otio deservire possumus ." Cons. outlook and vast pretensions. deinde conditionem circumet f usi maris. — . et vdlucri cogitations omni mundo omnique aevo par.70 MARCUS AURELIUS licet. Solemus spectaculo fruitur. Teiras primum situmque earum quserit . an toti inditus? immortalis sit Mundus an inter caduca et ad tempus nata numerandus ? Hseo qui contemplatur. then. rather than Death becomes. of much perplexity about the continued existence of consciousness. et cui non possunt injici manus.

propone tibi quandoque hoc eontuhernio carendum. ." Then Ep." — ! Ep. onere detracto Ixiii." Ep.— "THE WISE MAN" : — = 71 " the Platonic emergence from bodily prison.. contra Mem est feliciores esse liberis et in Universum datis clausas et obsessas. : " Mors quid est : ? aut iinis aut transitus " (Marcus' /xeraffT^j/ai) same strain. Cerberum Emissus Mors nos aut consumit aut . with in the . Aut heatus aut nullus est beatum deflere iuvidia est. . : — status restat. Naturae spectaculo f ruitur et omnia ex superiore loco despioit . . ad Polyb. . xxiv. . tuus termiaos intra quos servitur.. " labentibus cunctis." 26 (Maroia's father consoles her from his place in heaven) " Nos quoque f elices animse et seterna sortitee quum Deo visum erit iterum ista moliri " ( : destroy the world). loco persequar . Ep. . Ixxvi. last §) "recepitque nos locus aliquis." affici. Ep. Ixv. nam hoc timeat ! . ineptus ut Epicuream cantileest ut exuit. Gons. . . in eum restitutus locum in quo fuerat antequam nasceretur. Cito nos eo per- — venturos quo ilium pervenisse mseremus. prsemissus est. meliora restant. ..'' Epist.: " Si modo solutse corporibus animse manent /eZiCTor illis . nunc animus mei velut ex diutino carcere emissus tandem sui juris humana — et arbitrii gestit. nullum dementia. Excepit ilium magna et seterna pax. : " Non sum tam .: consumptis nihil restat. . divina vero. quam est dum versantur in corpore . Tacit. .. . quern putamus perisse. . Ixx. Ixxi. " Nunc cogita omnia mortalia esse. ad Marc. . jacuimus reponit Excessit filius nee potest miser esse qui nullus est. nullis def unctum malis Mors omnium dolorum et solutio est et finis nos in illam tranquillitatem in qua antequam nasceremur . quorum rationem tamdiu frustra qusesierat propius intuetur. Et fortasse. Si est aliquis sensus . fratris . et Ker. Cons. si modo sapientum verafama est" (of. Agric. evasit omnia pater mens vitae incommoda . 19: " Cogita. ." . nemo tam puer . 27 " Nam si nuUus defunotis sensus supereet. et ipsse parva ruinae ingentis acoessio in antigua elementa vertemur.: "Vis adversus hoc corpus liber esse tanquam migraturus habita . . expers omnis mali nihil timet nihil oupit nihil potitur.

et ex contubernio ascetic fervour foedi atque olidi ventris educat. Again with confident eloquence " Quum venerit dies ille qui mixium hoc divini humanique secernat. non momentum apud nos habet consensus hominum. si . . omnis vita Supplicium est." de I Quum leve conclude with a rhetorical. ille sit fulgor tot sideribus inter se lumen miscentibus illam suo ! Quid ? tibi videbitur divina lux quum loco videris " statement. .. : quantum potes. still most striking of any. Fruitur nunc aperto et stabili consistimus loco . .. and while PhiloStars. Per has mortalis aavi moras illi meliori vitas longiorique proluditur . . and recalling : clearly the antiquity (tov t^vvra fundamental note of pessimism in a reflective Oprp/iiv. . . as we see from a certainly sincere he falls back on popular belief . . reformidas. . Dio Chrysostom's Charide- " Si velis credere altius veritatem intuentibus. tandem ceternus est. ire." rerum status. . In the last resort. Hinc nunc quoque tu speraret rumque omnia ilia sic in vitam per vices et composita dissolvi. . nun- quam nuUus partus nisi mortis est. Dies quem tanquam extremum . tandem liber. corpus hoc ubi inveni relinquam ipse me Diis reddam. : utique iste . alius . .72 MARCUS AURELIUS : a similar vein to Marcus' musings on the need of death for the whole " Nobis ^olvi perire est pateretur. . . Aliquando Naturae tibi Imaginare tecum quantus . . subvola . tandem tutus. . it clearly has not strengthened its proof sophy may have inspired those magnificent hopes of a home among the " Animarum JEternitate disserimus. fortius finem sui suo- mortemque componi in hoc opere aeternam artem cuncta temperantis Dei verti. etiam necessariis quae cohserebunt alienus." cii. ceterni natalis est! . arcana retegentur. yet perhaps the somewhat lengthy quotation. . etc. Then with almost Christian rapture and " Veniet qui te revelet dies. in aUum NatursB maturescimus partum. alia origo nos exspectat. Ne itaque invideris fratri tuo quiescit. discutietur ista caligo." mus) : " In hoc profundum inquietumque projecti mare . dissoluta : — : : .

Virtus vocatur (So these four words arS interthe "good. qui solutas vineulis animas beato recipit libere vagatur Et nunc cum summa commune voluptate perspicit. si banc perfecit. Great emphasis on the peculiarity of endowment. Animus . — ." E. sed antecessit. est.'' (yoji'tSiov). nuUos sibi poni nisi communes et cv/m Deo terminos patitur.: commendat. omniaque Eerum Naturae bona Erras non perdidit lucem ! frater tuus sed securiorem sortitus est. chance. sed terminos Civitatis nostrce cum mea sole Ep. laudabilis est. in qua non ad hunc angulwn respicimus metimur.— "THE WISE MAN" libero emlo : 73 quisquis sinu ! ille ex humili atque depresso in eum emiouit looum. Ixxvi. Eeason. xxviii. and therefore of perfection = happiness)." the is eademque honestum est. velocitas cervum..) "Duas BespubUcas animo complectimur. me tibi venire in consilium Intratura es urhem dis certis hominibttsqiie communem omnia complexam list legibus SBternisque devinctam.'' 2. fertilitas Ep. et . The " Cosmopolis " and man's special function problem of the nascenti Two Natures. —and as there nothing in . of ( end. et homines continentur. " Omnia suo bono constant vitem : : . cui nascitwr. sapor vinum. Id in quoque optimum est." changeable. Quid fata deflemus ? Omnibus illo nobis non reliquit ille nos. quo censetur in homine quid optimum ? Homini Ratio hac animalia antecedit. Sap. Virtue. Deos sequitur. Illi patria est. alteram magnam et vere publicam qua Dii (followed of Nature's by a appreciation). . . cii. Cons. est iter. circuitu suo cingit.. fate." Ep. suum bonum Eatio est. . Mare.: hie est "Non sum uni angulo natus : " Magna et generosa res est Mundus. finem natv/rm suae attigit. ad. iudefatigata coelestium officia volventem" wonders written with evident (The greater Commonwealth has the more serious claims. Haec Eatio perf ecta. 18 : : or the " Puta. patria totus . quodcunque suprema et universa . 31. Nature: Highest End. Ot. . . like God.

xcii. 8 (How little the exile loses !) " duo qusB pulcerrima sunt. ad Helv. quocunque nos moverimus. minima. per est potens omnium Deus Ratio ingentium operum ille artifex sive divinus omnia. sive Fatum . Mutari certa non aut consilium meum Deue occupavit. Queeris quid sit ? Animus et Katio in animo perfecta. To an objector. Consummatur itaque ejus bonum si id adimplevit cui nascitur. oxxiv. Propria virtus.) etc. si si casus imperati . inquit (Epicurus objecting) " omne animal primum constitwtioni suae "homines autem constitu" (Bonum) hoc quod secundum naturam eujusque est. maxima. 8. (fin.74 tlie MARCUS AURELIUS objective world but God. et . conciliari" (Marcus' KaracrKeui. sequen: tur Natwra communis illo et propria virtus. . . and convertible (though he might be puzzled to put "Fortuna" in her right place as a mere attribute of the Supreme. sequali intentione diffusus. tionem rationalem esse. Quid est autem quod ab illo Batio heec exigit 1 rem f acillimam secundum naturam mam vivere. who not without cause complains that Reason's only benefit is to assure us of our slavery " ' Quid mihi prodest Philosophia si Fatum est ? si Deus . sive sive incorporalis Spiritus. xvi.) F." (See below.") is Ep. non caderent. nisi vilissima. sarum inter se cohaerentum series ut in alienum arbitrium. Gons." Ep. cxxi. as the unaccountable operations of Providence seen from the point of view of accidents). of. Cons. immutabilis cau. no need to multiply evidence But one or two passages are interesting. (Ep. Id actum est mihi crede ab quisquis formator Universi fuit." Ep. . . xli.. . : — : . . Traces found of a " Personalist " conception of Deity all Seneca treats names for the ultimate forces as synonyms. "Dicitis. ad Helv." —Ep. hsec in : consummata in nobis consummabilis. .) " Lauda in ipso quod nee eripi potest nee dari quod propriwm est hominis.. . illis only the " Batio " vero diis hominibusque communis est. so within there is to is : " good will " which be accounted . of There is his ample identification. deorevitque . rector est? : possunt — .

quid facerem, aut consilio




quid est ex his " (decides Seneca no

Fortuna permittit.' Quicless than Marcus) " vel si


hasc sunt,


Sive nos inexorabili

constringunt, sive


Devs universi cuncta
adhortabitur ut

disponit, sive casus res


sine ordine impellit et jactat,






libenter pareamus, ut

Fortunm contumaciter resistamus."

With which

curious yet vague division of the realm a complete Nature and human experience,

Manichean dualism,


will take leave of Seneca.






(A) The Eeligious Teansfokmation of Philosophic

deooutness towards
all classes

a personal god; Cynic missionary

sent to

with Gospel tidings;

idealism or indifference

of Buddhist; in Epict. two opposite tendencies (1) sympathy; (2) herrrdt isolation; Individualism (the will alone being free);
this is all that

God could bestow on His children {omnipotence

limited) ; mystic comm/union.

In Epictetus, a new phase passes over Stoicism. As St. Paul to Philo of Alexandria, so is Epictetus of Phrygia to Seneca of Eome. By the very urgency
of personal needs, of devotional requirements, the con-

ception of

an all-embracing Force, indifferent to the and too abstract to be the object of prayer or


" father of


transformed into the old traditional Zeus,

gods and men."

Without doubt

it is

in this

novel religious earnestness and unction that the student
detects the most significant feature.
of a




Cynic than a Stoic in principle, has a wider mission than the Imperial Minister he is sent to all men with

a kind of missionary consecration, to live in their sight
the perfect

of happiness

and peace.




before their eyes, like some later Stylite of the East,

or Western hermit


set apart, indeed,


men and


pursuits, yet in a very real sense their guide,


and was salvation

How easy and how accessible To him come wandering seekers after

truth, with troubled consciences, or restless desires, vague


unsatisfied aspirations after

When Seneca,

comprehensive sympathy, speaks only to direct a friend, Epictetus, knowing no caste, no restrictions in the human brotherhood, welcomes all without prejudice one instance only being shown where, as Socrates under

demonic dissuasion, he found himself unable to converse with an applicant, because there was no sort of common agreement on which to base discussion or appeal. Not
that this new interest in men as individuals recognizes as yet the " special endowment " of each as the startingpoint.






as the


organ of im-

personal Reason "

no longer the

aristocratic reserve of

quietism, no less narrow.

an intellectual confraternity, but the ascetic reserve of We must not look here for
the ability, equipment, opportunity of each constituent
in a hierarchy of function

the Christian conception of society, varying according to

and usefulness,

finding a

place for the burning devotee, the cold scholastic, the
taciturn recluse, the eloquent friar, the high-born lady.


The outlook

the lay brother at his menial task.
singularly cramped.

antiquity outside a restricted yet intense patriotism was

was seen quite early it is the inward temper only which ennobles or degrades the outward act, no use was made of this fruitful thought. As Anaxagoras disappointed Socrates in his use of vov<}, so we find the suggestive maxim irdma vTroXT/yjrt^ leadAlthough

that the motive alone counts, that

ing, not to the illumination of the


of the

circumstance of hfe, but rather to an egoistic Idealism,

which denied or disregarded the concrete, to Sophistic subjectivity, to pure Buddhistic indifference. The busy and conventional activity of an average citizen was abhorrent to reflexion. The philosopher, especially after the death of Socrates, turned away from the " flamboyance " and diversity (woiKiXla) of the Hellenic character to meditate upon the One, and exchange
eagerness for a passive role.

The old contempt for the handicrafts (natural enough community engrossed in civic feuds) tended to increase, and to include in the same conin a slave-holding

demnation, not merely



endeavour, but even

the more formal political duties of active

philosophic ideal was a perpetual straining after a

The more



the very last








remained luminous

disc " rather than a " well-rounded sphere " (KvxXoTep^i


bearing witness to the despondence and early

discouragement, not to the vitality or fortitude, of the
It was purely negative, if you like, Greek mind. " feminine ; and could only issue, in spite of profes" sions of cosmopolitan sympathy, in abstention and


" ;



In Epictetus two opposite tendencies contend for the
mastery, and their struggle and his effort at reconciliation

add to the pathos

of his character

and teaching.




are brothers, sons of a


God Himself; and


in this transcendental af&nity

that he discovers a sanction for those peculiarly


which seem at first sight so incongruous in any creature. For the sympathetic instinct is there, unquestionably the most puzzhng problem of philosophy is to rationalize, and, to speak frankly, from the standpoint to justify it Yet Epictetus, of Stoic materialism this was impossible. though he be a father confessor, has no special casuistry

to apply to the several needs of his applicants.



but one formula, one prescription for the cure of souls. The formula, too, sounds to us strange in the mouth of



apostolic " teacher.



" Physician, heal thyself



Our sympathy,^ one can do anything for another. our appeals, good of&ces, kindly services, only play about the surface, and never touch the deep-seated evil of the
" No man may deliver his brother, nor make agreement unto God for him." Virtue, like the knowledge of the Sophist, is incommunicable, although we


reverently repeat the






The missionary can only remind his hearer of absolute and immediate power to be wise, happy,



is strictly

against nature, which, in spite of the

co-ordination of the parts, forms of each creature an impenetrable monad,

immersed only in his special but selfish function, and with no legitimate end but self-culture: "You must not be angry with wrong-doers"
(Teubner, 61, dvOpoiire, el a-i Set irapa (|>vo-i,v iirl rois oXXorpCois KaKois SiwrWeaBai, IKiei airbv imKKov fj ulaei). Their conduct has nothing to do

with you


and, in a choice of two evils, the less culpable affection of the

is pity,

for it is less disturbing.



his inalienable prerogative of instantaneous

conversion, in spite of the long coils of evil habits, never

He can speak warmly, with fervour, unction, assurance, of the " grace of the Sonship," to be had for
the asking.
things, our

One simple

article of faith sufficed



the will alone



that all outward

own poor

bodily framework included, can

never be under our control, and are thus indifferent and As in Aurelius, there immaterial to our happiness.
tends to be a division between inexorable Fate and the

provident gods, dispensers of benefits,
in a true sense objects of worship.


alone can be


scientific inter-

pretation of the world can ever calm the individual's

anxiety or satisfy his sense of justice.

God Himself

Demiurge by a law or destiny anterior to Him. His goodness is saved by limiting His authority and we gladly exchange an unintelligible omnipotence for the more human faculty of merciful contrivance, which brings Him nearer our level, within the scope
sinks into a subordinate place, as the Platonic



limited in power


of our comprehension.
If this "

almighty power "
it is


in theory conceded, as

by a voluntary abdication, which leaves room for the reality
in the Christian system,

at once circumscribed


distinct coexistence of persons,


for the useful-

ness of moral effort.

these distinctions are allowed

evaporate in the night of the Absolute,


no further need of energy in search or action nothing but the speculative self-introspection of a Deity at last awake in man, and contemplating the results of his unconscious labours with some amazement and conEpictetus, with his practical motive and siderable pain.
religious sentiment, never hesitates a




like the wise man who follows in His footsteps " He came unto His own. that not. indeed." soul in a blissful 6 and world to Himself." " give us dominion " (as the for tangible blessings) " over the worthy Hebrew said in his gratitude works of His hands. such atomic isolation and reciprocal repulsion Such immurement of the individual in the narrow prison-house of his Such disappointing barriers to a larger consciousness Such natural evanescence and more vigorous sympathy or discouragement of corporate action Such oppressive despondency in the thought that. after this plausible commonplace. such is the staple and subthe brotherhood of man. and in undimmed lustre. The fatherhood of God." And yet. that tiny luminous jewel within us which is part of itself. . In reaction against the grossness anS unspirituality of Stoic teaching. " reconciling. and to that one dogma which in Marcus will absorb all — — ! ! ! ! : ! other articles of faith." pathetic in and helplessness it appeals to us to keep "holy and undefiled. in this reputed commonwealth of the Universe. stance of " the Gospel which " (as Eenan tells us) " will never grow old. the vague devotionalism which we call the mystical spirit has spread widely since Seneca. Latent there and disguised by rhetoric." untarnished. these pious aspirations to overcome the world of opposites and distinctions have now become the sum and centre of the Neo-Cynic creed. " the God is in us. things under our feet. and His own received Him not " Such wistful adherence against hope to the one sheet-anchor of moral instinct. God' is out of place in an alien world." is The Divine Being stillness a " God : of Sorrows." but the individual indissoluble union ! .THE NEW CYNISM given us all 8i He " possibly can all He could not put He could do no more. after all.

This free wiU." shrinks to nothingness. poLis". which. bodily fell organs claimed as their contribution. ! or resist one another within us Within narrower and ever narrower proportions shrank that in One part the us. i. How once regarded as essential part of our personal self did we discover to be the resultant of influences that cross. confirm. indeed his very self. (B) . with heightened activity of the State. § 3). the realm of alien things loomed larger and larger. 1). work according to identical laws in all individuals.82 MARCUS AURELIUS The Gift of Fkee Will. because ever more threatening and hostile. iv. Mihrohosmus. struggling in " a vain pretence of freedom against overwhelming odds an earlier volume of my own " post-Aristotelian thought — {School of Plato. and the Spirit released itself from all that was not germane to its true life. gift beyond itself. of "one's " much of that we own. Such sacrifice had enriched the power of the enemy. as this effort was successful. It rose like a small point of rock . If I may be allowed to quote from : The entire aim of had been to set the personal spirit free of all earthly hindrance and encumbrance But in proportion to concentrate thought upon itself. the Fathekhood of God THE Divinity of Souls the " Cosmo. our realm of freedom. which we could really call our own. was God's best to man. and impoverished the territory of the man. ineffective iv. by no merit of their own. With increasing knowledge. that which is ruled and shaped by the freedom of our moral action. seemed to afford an asylum to our Eeal Self " (Lotze. The tiny sphere alone. THE Special Function § 1. ch. Bk. another beneath the general psychic forces.

if it allowed itself to . Within its lay the good and rights . If thou wUt TOlOVT0l<i TTW? oloV ." In this supreme gift. aatfian aw8eSe/iivov^ roiovTq> el<S TaVTU VtrO TWJ' 6«T0? firj " What saith Zeus ? ifiiroSi^eadai . if it had been possible. iirol'qaav. Tr/v '}(pri<Ti. thee. this Sovereign power of willing and not willing. 8' k. &<nrep oZv from the control of Deity. Epictetus. I would have made thy body of this But let it not escape substance free and unhindered. and mistook obstinacy for principle. The body. of life . a portion of Himself. rb tcpdriarTOV airavrmv fi^vov i^' r\fiZv to. " Since I could not do this. ei *Apd ye oTi ovK fjOeKov . God ill its giver and parent was free. sttI 7J7S k. Kvpievov ol 0eol Ttjv opdrjv T. not only of individual but of an entire scheme of anthropology. all this is not thine. It is the centre. : dissolved partnership with this proud yet ineffectual monad : just as the world (in spite of appeal to take everything as sent by God's goodness and mercy) had really slipped 5. iyct fiev Sok& oti ^SuWito KctKeiv Koivcavol^ av fjfuv eirerpe^av' k. not to act but to contemplate. because It was It it free.THE NEW CYNISM from the midst thing else.v (^avraaiah. covered with opprobrious epithets. dXSA T fjV irdvTto'i ouk tjSu'coito. God had exhausted His bounty. •yap 8vTa<. He could give us nothing more that was not the mere sport of chance and circumstance. good. was here. 83 of the waters. but mud artfully kneaded. which submerged everylife. I gave thee a part of us (/te/305 Tt ^fieTepov). that uses impressions. and let the lesson work its way in " for no man may deliver his brother. ^v a^iov. if it exercised soverei^ become perverted. ill. It was amenable to no power or influence but its own and to convert another is only to suggest. aW' ouk i^' rjiuv.

ixetvo fiovov aoi BiBoTai. 270. (Of. To (T&fia to •jttjXivov ttw? iBvvaTO vireTa^ev oZv t^ t&v OXav ' . (So Encheir. fijcet? dappmv. tcI irpoaipeTiicd fioi BiBwKev. . Eufus in the Eclogues of . KaKa. ITw? oZv 6Tt TOV di'eiiiroSioToi' <rwfUiT0<i . k. as much as he will. avOpeairoi. thou shalt never be stopped. Trj irpoatpi(rei Trj aavTOv.. What then ? do these gifts seem to thee trivial ? . aine^ova-tov . Sia-Tov.. rt? Bvvarai eK^aXelv iit' oiiS Zev^. . . never be hindered. § 48 f}>i\6(ro<f>o^ ^\a^7)v ef eavTov irpoaBoKa. Tai. nraaav ax^xXeMv 92. TTLcrrov. 256. o 6 Zei>i ovK avdp. AkiSKutov iroifjo'ai . "My brother has more than his share of the M^ ti oiv tov field. i-n tfioi ireirovqitev dvefiiroBiaTa dKciXura. avTO<. evSai/Mov e. Ti KaTeXiirev /Mil BiBtoKev ejMV k. inro- S dSouXeuTor avviroTaiCTOv. eivai ti BwaTat t&v ^ al^ioKoyov to ^vaei veKpbv . iitj Tt TOV ^t\aSe\4>ov .. tovt tL i. ovSkv e)(tov fcvpuoTepov irpoaipeaea'.) So 130. ireiaai Tvva i. avTrjv aSX^ Tainy tA aXKa k. Tivi. ovSe yhp rjOeh/ijaev oKfC otoi' ifioi avrb i'tt'oiiqaev ehcDKev A^^v auros dKiiXuroi' &vav&>fKa(nov avapairoii. ireptoBtp. alSi](ju)vo^. Stobceus. ^ ^ci\frai . . airpoaiperov ovBev ainrj B eavTvfv BiaaTpaipelaa. riBwrfOrj iroifjaai k. Ti<s el. Bt /ueya. e« 6 TawTijs yotp T^? ov<Tia<. Upoaipeaiv yap ovBev BwaTai . . art satisfied with these ? 218. 310. cravrov irelaai..') So ti ifiTroBi^eiv So 193 : IlpoaCpeaiv iri^vKev. ei 1*7) avTr) eamrjv. 330. . hi] K. 8 TO KoKXi'aTov m . never have need to fawn on another. K. /jLi] Ti T. TeToy/Jiiva. . 361." Let him. reproach. Mtf yhp BeBorai aoi KuXGcrai : TOVTo . but be always free from groan. . avTw .84 MARCUS AURELIUS guard this carefully and place in it all that is thine. & fwvca 6appelv ivBej(e- t£ TTiaTm t^ dKuXuru t^ Ava^aipira. tovt i. TravTat ay. iroi.

. ivravda to dya06v. complete abandonment of all externals to the "Temporal power" (for strangely enough the reign Seneca's eloquence. tovtov fjjTetre i. . ovSev e^ere eVeiSOepoi' Kal Tts vfiai. . tovto i^epyd^eade. tj>voei. vyieia . and appears with vinceasing assorance. . iirifiiXeaOe. so constant a is theme for here forgotten). avayKcia-ei. 174. the The Fatherhood ' of God " . Here are all the striking features of later Stoicism: contempt of body. avTi}<{. idv KaraBovXavaOai tov vsKpov he fwv Xdfie aiiTov. Svvarai a-vyKaradia-dai too tfrevSei ^acvofiivto e\e6depov ." he has no real hold. .^x\tLiv. ovk e'^to aoi okKo eiireiv rj on is dWorpia and under alien even though the tyrant say. a vague pietistic doctrine. . Kvpioi elfit. (pavTaai&v. (65) 6 ulov " iyo) aot Bei^eo on .'' IloOev av . and the complete exemption § 2. — . Tovt dK(4\uToi' ^vcrei TovT dvefiirohi<nov} S' Let others look to their principles (395. ivOdS ovv opdre ori. e. 'Efie itcelvot a-vvea-Tijcrev ifiavrm uitiraiev efiol is fuSi'u. control. is This summaTy dismissal of the foreign and alien in our lives leading doctrine of Epictetus. rijv i/iiji/ irpoaipEcrii' Sov9 xdvova^ 6(9 y^prjffiv . Tt oip . " I will show you who is master. ifie Zevi EXEuBepoc 6. TToid irpoaipea-K. *Ji SoKeK on e/j^Wev tov tSiov Kvpio'i el. 7^ 6 TTijXo? . ayaaov tov avup.THE NEW CYNISM 17 85 . . This last quotation will lead us imperceptibly to the second point in the Epictetan estimate of " man. . This alone in the strictest sense good com- pare Kant's famous exordium: (32) *Av fiov TrwOdvy Tt e.^ — All else but on this. eyat . . . rm 6e&. physical or social. ovre opOi) j(^pfjati irXovrofs i^' fifuv ov9' irk^u fiovov. k. of this one small point from other laws. 396) e)(a> nvi fie Bei dpiaxeiv rivt v7roTeTdj(dai . ti ev vfuv TaXahrcopoi. . of Fortune.

such an one will entertain no ignoble thought will av/j/iraOrjaai. his unfeigned interest in others. intolerable pride " iirapQrjo-ri . notable rather for his recall of exiled gods. to amfia /lev k. t^v oMrf^ivaw —So fiovov drux^ veKp&. with religious behef. iirl 7^9 yevvufievd re K. oKiyoi 8e Ttves iirl Trjv Oeiav k. who from a formal standpoint definition merely the author of and generalisation. a special mission. (j>vofieva. Tmv t' avdp. k. is 33.86 MARCUS AURELIUS Eome with practical endeavour. his " superstitious " belief in a special monitor. on Koivcoveiv Tov Ttwra Tre^VKe t^j 6ea \6yov iiriirewXeyfieva. he believes follow. by the warmth bafHes analysis which. if nevertheless represents a sincere. tjjs avvava<rTpo^rj<. the triumph of Faith over Reason. in similar fashion. himself {w^evve<i. The truly wise learns that this universe TO avaTrjfia to ef av0p. mitigates the coldness of unchanging law . that all From a recognition God else is our Father in a special sense. 6 Bcos iranip e. in the history of thought. of allegoric language Epictetus. irpo'} ryevea-ei TjfiStv iyKaTa/iificKTai. is. . ravra ev ry KOivov deovi. If " Osesar ? who could stand your el. Aios ui6s Taireivov). o \070s Se koivov vpo^ tow? ttjv dWot fiev iirX ravrr/v a/troKXlvovai K.ey uiro tou Oeou Travre? irpotiyovfiivo)'} k. Karci why not call such an one KocfMiov But ri fi^ utdf roG BeoG / Shall not this . YEYOfafi. is engrafted on the early materialism of the Porch by a natural alliance in with primitive instinct. 13. eh atravra fiev to. 6eS)v. and that from Him come all seeds. irpoTiyovnipm^ S' ei? tA XoyiKa. fiaxapiav.v. conviction. k.. vague. about you. deov. adopt av Se Swo r/v^ oTi TOU in ovK He : continues a strangely ascetic Platonic manner eVet'Sj. yvcofitj rh fma. Ei rt? rai Soyfian rovTtp kut a^iav Svvairo on. though it and is wholly inconsistent with the rest of his creed. Socrates.

ort rov AiSs the next pretext of absolute ownership with magnificent indignation and contempt for the material fabric bought him with my own To and social conventions. ov /lefivija-T) dp)(ei^ .. quite apart from religious conviction.THE NEW CYNISM sense of sonship take 87 if away all our pain. 13. KtjSe/iova ovKeri '^/idv e^ai. et<s TO ^dpaOpov. was never anxious about his children. Hercules. 6p<}}av6^.)&? 76 K. through his life. 289 ov arevrnv ovSk : TToOav ov^ o a)<! 6p<pavoii<! d<])iei'i' ySei k. No student of human life of it is history. you say Uw? oZv tk avdtTyrjTai. rl el k. o? e^et rov Aio k. vofiovf tS>v veKpSsv. 12. roii<i eU he tov^ rStv 0e&v ov jSXeTrew). or find the fire is out. When you get hotter water than you wanted from your servant. ort He sweeps aside dSeVifiwi' ^iaei. av6p. "But I " Do you see where money. irar^pa k. iii. : aavTov." you are looking ? earth. avTov floWpa ^eto avrov exaXel. k. on (rvyyev&v. eh Tov<i TaXaiirapovs tovtov. &Ticy6va>i'.p^(Terat Xvirwv K. St." or an accretion on Stoic Positivism. t^? 7). &irtrep ui6s e/c tS>v aiiT&v (TTrep/idrav fi&^ove (cf. avrrj'. For theoretic belief that Zeus it was no mere report or was the father of men (ftexpl k. and there's none to be had. Xoyov . ovk dve^rj tow aZeX^ov tov - — able "poetic hcence. <f)6^a)v . y^p on oiiSeiq i. KriSfSiieros. AvSpdvoBov. rivmv John i. irpoyoi'oi'. r&v ToiovTwv . dXXh nrdvTmv to Hercules del Bir/veKm^ 6 nan^p 6. heroic effort and martyrdom but in our author an unwarrant- 49. . not to the eternal laws of heavenly ordinance " (ets rijv yriv. affinity to an earthly Caesar makes one arrogant? (Juvenal's "tumidumque Nerone propinquo ") to he rov Oeov -TToirjTriv ey(eiv k.. will doubt the absolute efficacy of such an assurance for a . avtaOev Kara^oXrjis. spent in perpetual toil and exile. to ! these miserable legal fictions of dead men. to this pit of confusion.

—But rbv is ^ye/jiova. i. and exposes all in turn to a like personal danger. nay. he could always live happily (yravra^ov i^v avTm Ztar/eiv evSaifiOvo)^). aTTotSewTow? d/ieXel on KaXws StoiKet tA oXa dvSpl k. as yet undiscovered: he has superseded Socrates in popular reverence for saints. seek Him " (Heb. a common purpose unites the general common justice. . For our father has made us for happiness. — 338. He has become it a supreme type of holiest ascetic renunciation (but is the ready sacrifice of limbs by the Star-fish. in and through this consciousness. incomplete and unconvincing a common a with his soldiers. . runs no danger himself. r&v avrov iTTiTevy/jLaTav . k. av Se oTi vap' avTov aTV)(el. " Yet saw I never the righteous arvx^. . like to evffTa^eti. With superb rt? yct. The philosophic Exemplar is now Diogenes. eerrt. ot(.mv " Yes.p — forsaken. 0eo? afieXei . when He gives them ? no food. but the Stoical Deity has no purpose. (287) nifiVTjtro 0eos ttbi'to? av6p. " What. And there- fore. oiire l^mvTi ovt' diroQavovri. = " that He and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently 6). dyadm ovSev is. iirl 'O faith. nor his seed begging their bread. dKo\ovd&. the Psalmist. which allows no favourites. the nearest approach to the Wise Man. 311. and : Tolstoian non-resistance to vile) and this because the . SiaKovav . KaKov. dyadb^ (TTparrjyo^ aea-'^fiayKev ireiOoftai. avTov t^ the analogy peril. and maintains no correspondence between desert and recompense. ovk rmv dvOpairivcov irpay/idrmv. EuSaifioi'Eii'. v/iv&v &<. and allows them to starve dvaKXijTiKov fioi i'7r€V(j}rjp." OuTtos o . to xi. k. /Miprvptov oh jiovoi^ j^pryrai irapaSeiyfiaa-iv tt/Oo? Toixi k.88 7rpo9 MARCUS AURELIUS eKeimv cu^op&v errpaTrev a eirpaTTev. iirl t4 £iroiT|o-ei'. it is our own fault if we put not our hand to the fruit hanging within our reach. epya.

what use. . fioi TTiv 122 : ovk e-)(ay tov MdvTii' eo-w. Souls." are particles of God knows and sympathises with their every movement. tov elprjKOTa ovaiav tov ay. ufiirepoi ioTiv. ? to me of birds or of entrails The notion : of God has really receded into the purest atmosphere of Idealism. When aW' ye shut the doors and /iTiBeirore create darkness within. . of It is curious to note. and are outou Kivrifiaro<i . k. El fiaXKov KT^qaeto'i eVeXa/Sou. . K. : "^Bei iroQev ep^ei k. then. ivBeBefiivai k. k. a Pantheism of Nature. but only of Thought. . tovtov aicoip/riTov d-rrapaXoyta-Tov. dlOC oii Trporjyovfieva ovBk (i^pr) Be&v.\T]9ii<oils irpoYoraus T0U9 6eous tw of ovri irarpiSa ovBeirtoiroT iyKareXiirep. k.THE NEW CYNISM present ingless life. vaph av Tivoi K. in the metaphors used this central power. eoTiv. 6 0eo<: aiaddveTai . av dTr6ffiracr(*a ei . ktX. . fiovot iare' oi haiiuair fie/ivrja-Qe Xeyeiv '6ti yap eark 6 ©eos evBov i. (rucoijieis tw ©eoj Deity. or conscience. friends. TTJis rj meanavrrjv to him. § 3. how could it be otherwise? 50. the voice. So nay. iirl riaiv Xa^mv. eiriTpoirov sKoaTm irapearrjaev tov CKaaTov . 51: at i^uj^ai fiev ovrto^ e. with leg or whole body (o-«e\o9 acquaintances. tov kukov . the between the helplessness of a sacred charge and the sternness of a divine monitor in Aurelius. fatherland (TtofiaTiov). ttjv Tov<i fiev y d. and has left the realm of created things it is no longer Ti olv. Si> Be irpo^yovfievov el. " sons gods. aiiTi^v. irapiBtOKe ^vKcuraeiv 52. 89 is with croi its kinship and association. are oiKelov avp^vov^ k. diroonrdo-fiaTa. jiiipia oSaai k. it is rather we who have to keep the inner idol of the shrine clean and unspotted. then. will. k. than expect guidance from vacillation . Trai'TO? S avT&v Aaifiova k. a^fJKev av rjKoKovOrjaev Bi . OVK iaTi de&v epya Kaxeiva.

If you are a separate entity. § 4. — . rpi^eK.ou k. 8t iicelvo .. . . .itovovTo%. 6ebv K. 157. you if all your time be given to externals (ja this squalid eiero^) k. ' OTmv vvv . deov . . «b? XeyofJ-evr)^. think and do what you would not dare before his image in the (f>v(Teoa<}\ cravrov (of. ro . . voarjaai Kadi^Ket aTropridrjvai . . Trpb topa^ a/irodavelv Ti oiv o/yavaKreK. . . detachable from the rest {diroXvTov). yv/ivd^eii Oebv ToKaf e^op&vTov to irdvra avrov rod deov irapovro^ eaadev k'rTu. the true man avovei/Mv kov oXiyov ypSvov tw aavrov . . riKwv aWa r&v irporjyov/ievav . — . are you not k. T^ the " SioiKovvTi TO. KtvBvvevaai . . ovk otSa? Trepi^epeK on K.90 Tov Seov' MARCUS AURELIUS ej^ertt? iv (raxn^ (i^pos eKeivov . }i. el /iiKpov ttj? o\j. . What is precise meaning can be attached to to notion impossible define . where irapaKoXovdeip oka is coupled with eKeivov ev aavrar ! irepiipepeiv). . ttJs tI yap K. avOptoiroi . ov^ tv r£v VTnjpe. TOV K6o-(i.ipo^ °oXoo Tivo<i (TKOTTety. T/s oSv iirayyeKia . fiev . . sometimes the Deity within " is a sort of burnished silver idol sometimes a guardian angel with plenary powers sometimes an insulted and forgotten sovereign sitting apart 373.. . — eyyicrTa 131. w dvaiadjiTe t^s Temple 156. jidpo^ avrov. rioXiTT). man with God in a highly spiritual sense. ashamed to.9 fii/jurjfia. leads naturally a subordinate part and man's duty as 117. . i. by all means live your own life et Se ws of a great whole. troOey £\r]Xu6d$. 'HyefiovcK^' aicei^ai rl ttot ep^et? toOto k. This doctrine of the essential kinship of to the doctrine of the Cosmopolis. The Soul is in a palace where rebels carouse. ayvoelv ! . . . fi^pos ttoKeus tt/owttjs /jiev T'^? e« Qe&v dvdpairav fierh ravra Se ^rts e. will keep and neglected {pvirapov aTrj/jLeX/rjTOv). . irXevo-ai.

is under no contract or obligation to be consistent) seeks to unite the two aspects. Kvpuorepov ficpovs K. ! . all harshness and loving acquiescence callous expediency. ^ov\evea-dai m? This due to your power of divine k.— THE NEW CYNISM iroKirov . hand had reason (Xoyiaficxi).one thought all radiance and peace and the other. of abstract to concrete. —which will dominate a certain phase . " If the If foot or true gentleman philosophers). that famine is to oppose the Will of God. We may so in note. the superiority of whole to part. we must remember." knowing that airo — TJj? tS)v "0\a)v Siard^eco^ tovto aTTOvifierai. here we have full-fledged that tyrannical Eealism. and how very the sense of being which is emphasised here the. of thought throughout mediaeval times discouraging is how comforting was the sense of being a portion God. modern India. they would never desire or aim except in reference to the welfare of the whole body (^ iiraveviyKovre'} iiri to "OXov). . of semi-mystical thirdly. fj/rjSev — : 91 irepl firfievof e'^eiv ATr<5\uToc. ISia av/Kpepop. ! . first. rj Be TO "OXov TOV ttoXk tov TToXiTou. to adopt means to control plague or second. The end justifies the means the individual is nothing the agent is a mere instrument and this in the interests of the higher morality but clearly an ethical relation implies a personal object. of name to thing. illness knew the future " (so well speak our "he would have co-operated in his own and death and mutilation. that it is hard to distinguish a very proper resignation to the inevitable from a culpable negligence or indifference to ordinary preventive measures . Sometimes Epictetus (who. — . by dwelling on the absoluteness also a part of a physical universe. rationally following OrjTiKO^ the ordering (trapaKoXov- ry 9eia BioiK^a-ei tov 6^? iviKoyia-TiKO'i).

and " cut him asunder. again. again. ivOdS' olKoSeo-irorrjs eKaara hiardaawv. K. left to the prenatal choice of mortals. "taking leave of his servants. when the lion You be a bull. 'O Koa-fw^ oiiToii — fiia iroXis 6. . giving to each their role (which Plato dvairio'i). for a professed Theodicy." appointing K. : Xva 6 KoVfios (jJq la-TrjTai fjuriS i/iiroBL^iiTai. so be Agamemnon. aXKxov SXKoK — : where we may note Aurelius' favourite apology. can lead an army to Troy. the rearrangement of constituents scattered by the dissolution of an organism. <f>6apfjvai Sei. — correspond- ing exactly to that meditation on the transience of physical objects. SeBrjijiiovpyrjrai -irapa-^fatprftriv fiia. which comprises the whole of Aurelius' speculative knowledge. IBmv avTov ao^apSi<. come forth and fight for this is your fitting You. . as in and arbitrary power of God. be you Achilles!" 288. him. you. So 371 aira^ /iaOciv on t6 yevofievov k. e\Kva-a<. the consubstantiality of the world. him his due portion). BiaraaffOfievov. the need of this to keep the whole bright and new by perpetual change. brief compounds soon resolved. " I ought to be steward " <f>el^ the Gospel. shall repent. somewhat unwisely . k. You can meet Hector in single combat. and is all the lesson the Universe has to teach him. " You be the sun comes. else you . — otJro) ryiverai ry fieyoKr} Tavrri HoXei' e'ffTt <^dp Tt? k. 264. a heifer. In suddenly say to Se fir]. deix." may . 7] avdryKij vepioSov ovala ef i^9 riva elvai k." as he ip ("The Lord turned and looked upon beating his fellow-servants. do your part function. the fleetingness of the part. as a master a well-regulated household no one himself.92 MARCUS AURELIUS of slaves. — et iwta-Tpa- 6 Kvpioi erefiev is K.

. like Hercules. demand a special providence. ." Scientific law is transformed into Heaven's will. but abandons the particular to itself (Svrtov eirifieKovfievoiv el firjBefiia SidSoffii! eh ? av6p. — 45. God persons (Socrates)." Hws oZv irifjiVKev . or ruled by Providence but I am not going to let other and meaner men see that I am puzzled. . " I cannot understand the Universe. com. He firihevoi S : dismisses etrifieKov- irm vyih earai he will not be content even with the current Stoic K. . a daemonic tutelar. in the toils which the tashmaster imposes. a harsh task- master's arbitrary apportionment to slaves . . a continual change of standpoint from Pietism to caUous which latter is the proper attitude of Cynic and Stoic. is all § 5. for instance. nor on what ground I call it a moral sphere. e'f air&v can reached KAI the NH AIA TE KAI 'EIS 'EME). .) father's tender solicitude. : — 6e\r). Catholic a patron (elal /Mev. . 93 Discipline oe the Sons of God Analysis § 5.THE NEW CYNISM (C) Providence extendikg to Pabticulass. the Son of God. eo? av 0eos indifference. belief that God looks to general laws. saint Epicurean compromise . the in such as Appuleius. how be salutary doctrine that to this again Sqcratic conviction We have he personally This and his doings were interesting the gods. ws ire<f>vKev. for Epictetus goes far to meet the popular Isis. unconscious and blind into conscious personal purposive 7. discovers in Boman fievoi) . e. The Good must be happy. There pounded of a in such a Universal Law (. " Use all the indifferent externals. Natural Lorn becomes God's mil . interested even in § 6.

. and this alone! It is this sense lost in the materialism of Aurelius' system. y\ni. . God sends his saints to Gyara and fiurel yevoiTO' Ti? Se to prison ov fiia&v firj tov apiarov t&v vTrrjpeT&v t&v avTov . In a similar strain Seneca. ' ovB' dfieX&v Ss ye oo8e aXXet yuiivdiav '' k. De Provid. S' aoKva's . torch of this purposeless fortitude ? For the end ov yiryverai. . like Stoic comparisons. aXX . fieXXei KeKpayevai k. . again.evos . society is after all a voluntary association is . SpaKKrj^ inr' Eiipvadecoi oiroi. . which is and retained Seeing anomalously in the candour of Aurelius' piety. only half true God is sending whom He you labours. and he again may pass on the . what escape or asylum there for the disillusioned citizen of the world ? So. drfavaicTelv." which is no Very good argument or justification that your stout fight may be an example to another. . So 304. al toix. chastening "every son receiveth " and Hercules is a type of such . this. breaks down human . fidpTvpi : t&v fitKpoTaTmv Ttvo? irpo^ tovs dXXov^ " Omnia adversa exeroitacum fortissimis confligere. Patrium habet Deus adversus . The analogy here.vat6f). tiones etc. dOXodficvos .94 is MARCUS AURELIUS religion. is "va 'OXunmoi'iKYjs : 'i^vrj' Stj^a S' lZpSno<i So 272 'EKeivoi ov ireireiarai 8' b rt hv vdayrj 6 fiev TovTcov. . oTi avrov wtto ryvfivd^ei . but for what ulterior motive ? not surely for the " advance to infinity. eireriXei iravra' tov J to? . 2 Athletas videmns putat.(a Tfjs -irdXcus. OTi o 0eo9 ae . afteXel. . AXeiTmjs Tpaj(ei veaviaKtp (Tufip^pXriKei'. . Marcet sine adversaTio Virtus. toils cheerfully borne : 74 : Al TrepurrdaeK orav ifiweiTT) i. avBpa<s Sei/cvvovaaf fiifivrfa'O Xoiirov (£9 irepLaraaii. . the good man t^v avrov yvaifirjv uiroT^roxei' t^ SioiKovvn ra "0\a aawep o'l ctyadol iroXiToi rm v6fi. . is which. again. all on life's trials he uses another simile.

. . . KaTaT€Tayfievo^. : . . . ut satis spectare verum colligant robur . . et 'operibus' doloribus ao damnis exagitentnr. dioit ' male de me imperator metuit. ' . indurat. k. . 4: "Hos . k. exercet in castris quoque periculosa fortissimis imperantur mittit . the scientific intermingled bonos ' and the religious aspects Mia and confused. This of of course. . . yufivo^ k. vos supra. " Deo in quibua experiretur quantum humaua natura (The misleading and fallacious character " Quid mirum si durfe of this simile has been already pointed out. .) . In 352 the Svti r£ — sum of practical happiness is (as always in Epictetus) of gathered up into a brief formula. rw k. . here. spectacle in a universe this struggle and is no triumph to achieve. animum. . itaque Deus quos probat quos amat. diffioiliori parte se ostenderet " (where the comparison of such a deity to a sanguinary spectator of the arena is fully justified)." nunquam virtutis moUe documentum : (Perhaps this language of pious resignation scarcely conceals " Hoc est quo Deum antecedatia Ille extra the latent defiance 6 patientiam malorum est. K. curiously. '^p' &<Tiv ofioioi KaKw^ Bioie-rrifieXeiTat 6 Zeh<i r&v ^auroC avT& evhaifiovef. uUl tw iavrov. is merely the sanguinary gladiatorial exhibition which endeavour. avofiia<i . .) . ." So 312: irapel-^ev k. . . " Morituri ov diXei Caesar oiiSe . . Deua ille the world are ctti 6Bo<i evpoMv inquit ! Viros si et illos fortiter amat. . 95 Elv TTjOo? TOMVTTjv 6irr)p£ffiai' . § 6. in bonorum amantissimus. sed ' bene judicavit' . Surely the good must be happy.THE NEW CYNISM j(pa>/JLevo<i. Non fuit Diia Catonem semel retenta ac revocata Yirtus est ut . reoognoscit. . where there gratifies the vanity of a despicable tyrant . digni visi sumua posset pati. etc. te 7A/3 salutant. . generosQS spiritus Deus tentat? est. emotional and monistic but quite inadmissible. ovy(l o\os TOP deov rerafiai pietistie. Keirai n-oXiTuv. o S" eirovei iyvfivdlero d7ra<Tjj9 yfj^ 6a\aTT7j<} apj(wv . . is. 290: Tt? Be Ka\6^ re arfa66<i el fir) Svarv)(el. Dux leotissimos ' Nemo . fiiScos. ravr iiroiei. Miraris tu Imm. . ^efimv KadapTT}<i aSiKia<i K. . k. ra "0\a. Tpv<f>av fie TO 'HpaKket hre^daaeTO k.

ro irapaiovvai iravra r& Saifiovup. ru> . MARCUS AURELIUS . a/iroa-raa K r&v airpoaiperav. TT/sos the evl it undeserving pAvq) rich IBtq) ot)<: k. . in tone. . airoOavelv OiXao' ffTpe^XMdrjvai In 385.g6 . ae oti firj TroTe ae SvaripeaTija-a . Tovrmv ovic '^fiiXrjaa' . purely religious ^iKhs tov t& dKcoXvrm. ©eXei otrv /i Trvpitraetv Oika deXta. .p ?iv TrdvTa. Tt9 ^itov Sd yh. troia KaTatTTpo^r] evSat/jL0V6<TTepa 370 yap : del fioXKov eKeivo 6&\ja to yivofievov. iiriTpovovi treirol/ijKev avr&v eivai iroirjarcurdai. "I have never been prevented willing. . comforting death. 345: ii^wv treiOuftai 'EXeiiOEpos yap el/it 6eov. op/irjv . d(j)opfiel<} irp6<i to aivdeadai ifiefiyjra/MjV X°'P''^ ^X*" SfotK». o Zevf and powerful).4? eXa^ov K. 17 Kpelrrov rjyovpMi. o 0eos OeKei o eyw. o K. . ov leaTya-^vva . . p. . KaraTa^ov eh ^v 6eXei<i jfoapav. to fi/rjBev tSiov Tvj(r). ry eKeivov. . Epictetus Christian addresses a personal Deity quite after -the fashion: (TOV Tj)? *. •^eltrdat. UpotTKeiaojiai trvvopeyofiai SidKovo<: dKoXovdof ixeivq). KpeiTTiov . av fioi aird SeSeoKa<i . Iv " 328. HaKiv avTct dirdXa^e k. avTov Se —Here avra. nor unwilling forced /iov TTjv Kdyii otiv how is this ? •irpo<rKaTaTeray(a eKelvo<. . rm again is k.c7e<B? dKo\ov6fi<Tai avTy. &e&. avvopfiSt airXw^ (TUfGeXu. . dpKel fioi. . (viz.e av iyevvqaa^ &v eSwKas' e^' oaov i'^prjffdfiijv rot? <7ot?. .

Pure sole selfishness and personal expediency aim duty of reflexion. is under our control. Black as the pit from pole to pole.. an modern temper. Nothing is . however. wholly contemptible another boldly forces the invisible power out of dull natural law into personality." THE WISE MAN IN THE TWO COMMONWEALTHS OPPOBTUNISM. is ours for the asking. deprecation. j CHAPTEE II " Out of the night which covers me. Befoee the Unknown. with humbled and fawning . defiant . one nature. is superbly another in doglike resignation creeps back to the hand that smote it. not. I thank whatever gods there be For my unconquerable soul. Benan) absolute contrast to the . Erroneous view of ancient Stoicism (Arnold. to conminee us that iivma/rd peace. and compels with its 7 it to hold intercourse poor creature across the void. the recognised § 2. like Ajax. the only good. OB THE BOLE OF CONTEMPLATION AND PASSIVITY (A) Modern Conception of Stoicism in eeroe: THE ESSENTIAL EXPEDIENCY OF EeSIGNATION AND Abstention Analysis § 1.

we remember how far we are separated in thought from his how the process of never-ending analysis has placed moral same category as theological. but to be evaded." gotten starting-point. ideas in the . nineteenth century for these Surely its it has absolutely for" raison d'etre. is social. the action Marcus Marcus exhibits. anything but worshipped as divine. tyranny in to stagnation in . " In general.98 MARCUS AURELIUS to notice the universal approba- more astonishing than two latter its tion of the enlightened characters. true. how little of a merely local or temporary character. entirely unreason- Nature creation ." the Age of Eeason.'' he writes of Aurelius." Fetich-worship of the natural order able. forced. deceived. valid. The whole presupposition on which Epictetus' and Marcus' ethic depends is that we have no control over things recognise as right. to superstition in the religious " whatever is all. It is difficult to understand how Matthew Arnold could have written the following words " : ^ "It is remarkable. stronger than poor humanity. the is. ' Even if standpoint. how little that the morality of even admits of doubt and question. showing that either they depend mutually on each other. is not God's will at but mainly it is oiu" own a useful quarry for our comforts and discoveries. in this complacent appeal to teleology of Nature and our rational faculty. right. cajoled. how little of those scorice which a reader has to clear away before he gets to the precious ore. of very The essence depressing modern spirit is to expel the abomination which hands men over to the the politic. or that both are equally insecure." prescribes is action — which every sound nature must and the motives he assigns are motives which every clear reason must recognise as We might be back in the eighteenth century.

aucun changement. Since he cannot detect that the whole hypothesis of life has changed after the liberation of the citizen and the discoveries of verte. aWrj^ av drj (TKeyJreaxs for here the Stoics with their intense self-consciousness and intense scorn of personality cannot help us we cannot meet on equal terms and there is no common starting-point for our of the rod. plac^e en face de I'univers. : . if it is found merely active in the material realm. Equally eulogy. is Eenan's which would apply with equal exactness either " La religion de to Epictetus or to his pupil Marcus Marc Aur^le est la religion dbsolue. discussion. alike. EUe n'est d'aucune race ni d'aucun pays. circumstances. celle qui resulte du : simple fait d'une haute conscience morale.— SELFISHNESS or 99 destiny. and must bow to Since . it is not much concern of ours. Aucune —ne revolution. all we have utterly rejected this belief and schemes of improvement. there is no such Manichean belief in its independence or its authority. As to the : ." . Bacon's time. rest in large of measure upon our confident transformation As to that reverential " kissing no place any longer for such a primacy of this inner spark. fallacious. or rather self -deceptive. pourront la changer. and we will drive it as we have driven gnomes and fairies from their " Great Pan is dead. aucune d^couAnd we have this inconsiderate and meaningless praise from one who is a high priest of the Scientific Spirit. secular and religious our surroimdings. in the instinctive hope of the race for another life." rustic domains If traces of its footsteps are rather to be discovered in the historic and social life of humanity." there is theory. still more clearly perchance in individual life. As to the Supreme Centre of Life in the universe.

standard never for a moment elevates an altruistic never speaks in vague and lofty Mnguage of It the calls of duty. was the mere determination to be unassailable. ' If we '' anticipate " (as it were) ^ the disappointis For all particular : morality. scientific. or with the open revolt of Nietzsche of We human . confronted with the problem of the Universe. A conand unperturbed life could be secured by mastering a few rules. . misconception. these rhetorical eulogists seem to have little penetrated but Stoicism. § 2. apart from personal interest. will either. no hostage to fortune. Indeed. Stoicism have severed finally and completely the two realms The Moral Consciousness. and He . by making up one's mind that the control of things and events and persons could never be weak spot sistent ours. the recognition of the minor premise itpappuyyii tuiv trp6Mi\j/ewv rais ivl /t^/Mus oiarlais. proceed through the curious foreignness of the moral instinct to the three corollaries. to offer no in the fort. and Epictetus at least shows that here tion for his supreme justifica- maxim . a demand for pleasure. but for mere justice). life and activity. with Kant. despairing of correspondence in an alien Stoics deny world with its inward aspirations (not. which or. it will range itself with the complacent and scholarly pessimism of Schopenhauer. behaviour in detail. the only road.loo MARCUS AURELIUS waste time to enlarge on his total is just the one phase of semisemi-mystical thought which can never recur. that along this path of least re- sistance lay the road. into the inner core of this practical Eesignation was pure is expediency. indeed. — testing power of the will applying the touchstone of preconceived rules which could assuredly never be derived from individual experience. to happiness peace. it is modern thought. or Gorki.

IT. He fir} eh to koivov a^iXt/io^ y. ri eri. k. ri k. no recompense (which to the Christian rational is a prerequisite of morality. iroiel. auTT) ap^rj iraaiv 7rpo<} < ^^^ > oiKeia)<ri<. ev. not as a vulgar reward in kind. Triii'Ta ^moV eivai auToo tv^Ko. opa<i titles. no recognition. constant appeal to the divine will or to God's special care for His children blind one to the fact that gives us already all He He can. Kat yap TlaTr/p o 'JTXtos avT. — the true heaven). iva Tt? •tr&'i airoary avrov fiui K. then. That ." We expect no more from Him. iroiEi. Here the only way realise one's to serve the public is to develop.. subject) Freedom before tyrants (a TOVTO ovK eari (ptkavrov' fyeyove yap 65. e/cSej^j.17 TcTto? av «. a rule of ! and life Beneficence is only incidental to favourite owto)? to self -culture. than is self-preservation. that he cannot attain such functions or such Such. tow ISloa^ <rvii^epovTO<i . but the eternal sense of God's approval. an "unconquerable soul. SELFISHNESS loi ments or the shocks of life by this firm assurance.. in special grace. He is far more in agreement with modern thought when he recognises that the neither ultimate impulse at all costs. Unselfishness Epictetus demands nor expects. instinct of survival is preaching abstention and rudimentary impulse of life takes when he this acquiescence. 'EtriKaptrioii k. Owtojs oAk^ti ^Eirel Ti &Koii'(in)Toi' t6 ir<£i'6' auTou iroieii'. Koi e. own specific nature. el<s to koivov yiverai. aW' otoj* ^eX. How faith frank of is the following confession. we shall not be shaken from our moorings into the raging nor does the sea of passion and suspense and fear . avSp&v re 6ewv re. irpoatj)ep7)TaL iveKO. to "Koitrov avTO<i o Zev<i. made the nature of rational beings ha /j/rjBevo^ t&v : ISuov ar/a6a>v hvvrjrai Tvy}(av€iv ikv oi)<f)i\ifiov iirjTt.

. 145. 17 eV EXeuOEpiai* ayei. fir) 6e\ovTO<s yiverai . Sia n 0e\ovTo<s aov 11 ov yiverai. 306: Ov yap virep iraXi)^ k. i^ iinaToX&v dXXorpiui' (Seneca's emphatic " aliena opinio ") ^pT7)/iein]v e^fov Tr)v ifiavTov dirdSeioi'. TO TaKa<i iyco. — 49.^wti. aXk ixeivo jieXeTac €|£Xeii> tow expediencyi does not in the least alter historic character — Individualism. avrr) fiovr) diraXXayfi SouXeias. TO oi fiot K. k. fir] afieXeiv tSsv ixet' tovto yap i<}>' o diroBeS^/xrjKev ovSev e. ^oi>K'q<Tiv avvapfioaai Tot? yivofiipoii flfi&v fi'^Te aKOVTcav firj ktK. TT^fGr) K. tovt iariv lauTu irap^x^ii' irpdytiara. ro Svjn)9rjvak ttot' ehreiv i^ oXij? '^v^V'S to ayov Se fi' & Zev. <t6^ 0S09 Xp& elfii.. The deofidx"^ who fights against Heaven's decrees. 161: Ala Tb hvaTV)(ei<i . on (is Set t^v ainov ri . 71 eya yhp we^VKa Trpo? t6 ifithv au|ji. Xoiirov et? : . is always anxious and miserable.. . irayKpaTiov 6 dymv .(|>^poi'. irepiTriirTeiv. dXiSirus d(^6pci>s drapiixus '/2? diriiXXaYji^i'os SouXeias ToKfir)a-ov ava- ^iyfra^ ttjoo? top Qebv. oifMi>Y^s K. — 305. . KaKoSaifxovias. ktX. . irpoii iraarav airayyeKiav Tpificov. . . — 335 fioi.^i'os the fool who will not be free Kadrjao Toivvv Trpof travTa Tavra Suoruxui' itevdSiv druxflc ef aWow rfpTrjfikvo^. To : he says in contempt Eirrorip. jStoi.102 MARCUS AURELIUS a somewhat different trend in man. — 158 . like the tragic sufferers. . The epyov — : — TOW ^iXoao(j}ovvTO^ yivevdai. . . and seems to overleap the span of mortal existence with a sense of wider its original and In 1 7 he condemns scientific research (ewl ttjv iv rot? ^i^Xlok e^iv Teraa-dai) because it in no way assists this inner life he bids him straightway go home k. eiiretv on o av diXrji' ofioyvwfiovS) aoi. 291. The Xp^aiv ^avToai&y alone in your control ti oiiv etria-irai aeavrm Tavd' &v avv7rev0vvov el. . is this. aTToSet^ts yap avTrj fieytarT) Suirpoias k. airo- Tvyy(aveiv SiE^dYEii'. fir) : '£| o5 irepUaTi.

. oti v/jlwv fii^Bevo<s KVKCofiivav dopvfiov- fxevwv t^ a^ia. 378. ov yiveTat iyo) Atux*|S The proficient who k. non concuti. yet it obvious that he sympathy with the maxim of Lucretius. k. — 103 SELFISHNESS irpoKeiTac . Hanc stabilem animi sedem Grseci eiSv/jUav voeant. /iTfSevi KeiaOai ah irpdyfiaTa. ix. Though Epictetus repiidiates this as vulgar is display. . — elvai to &Tdpa\oy to iirl 3 68: Ti Kou<|>us K. Si. So happiness.. a purely personal matter. pJri KwXvecdai} — 362 to cu8ai|ji. Laert. iroielv. de qua Demooriti egregium volumen est . completely under one's control. ijv yaXriviis k. dTdpa-)(p<i' dyvoeiTS "jrepl & av&. ^rjalv " el Ti dyaOov BeKeK. is vain and proud fir) of his advance says." Compare Diog.. is (as to Marcus) secretly in full .0a'iv6iv Bvvdfjteva irpdmii ixBe'^^ofievov . . est ' ' : . irdv6' mf OeKei Ov 0e\ei^ dcjiels rofts auTo. ego Tranquillitatem voco. jiaOrfTr]^ k. OeKoo ti k. SimpdwTai ^oi^dEia. The foolish et/i'- man says. OiiK ei 'Hpa/cXrj^ : k. Kevhv k. This personal assurance. Seneca." 'AXKa to KwXvei. . a\\' virep avTT]<. inward calm. ii.Baaicd\o<i — 352 SXXous : oZv Tama Travra. airad'q'i elfii k. 45 'EiSv/ilav Kaff' . o Jfijret Tra? avdpmiTO^. 383 yap : @eXrjaai Set k. TO. Trariq. curuxias k. peace. fiovo'i iym is dTn^XXayjiai irdarji. ^opriKov. iroXi) "KdXal ai dTraSij 'Adrjvai. EuSaifiofias. vapa o-eourou \a/Se ") that other : men 158: ' interest the introspective philosopher but little. ^ijv ciuSaifiofeii' KciWiov Tct. ov Svvrj KaOaipeiv rdXXiSTpio Animi " Quid desideras autem magnum et summum Deoque Ticinum. 'Eo-uOei' i<TTi dir(iXeia k. yeyovev. 1. . eui\vi<as irdvTa av/j. . . rapaxiis. <TauTu yeveaOai "A^ies k. subjective happiness is what all men : seek : ri yap i. It follows naturally from this emphasis on the inner temper (91 Tovtov tov vofiov o 0eos Tedeixe k. . Suave mari magna alterius spectare laborem. 320. . EfioraOijaai.oi^<rai. eiKTroBSs fj r) \j/vx^ diiyei iri /iridivos TapaTTOnivi) ipb^ov fj SeimSai/iovlas tfXXou rivos vi$ovs.

he sometimes refers to his religious mission. irpoa-hehepAvov ISuotikok . § 4. Set tov Kvvikov oKov irpo'i %\. . 266 ElSivai Set Trepi dyaO&v OTi aYY^^os OTTO ToO Aioi dir^o-ToXToi but it is : . irivav. with clearer vision than the rest. he is a spy or scout sent forward into the land of promise to reconnoitre. men.I04 MARCUS AURELIUS Tct KaKOL a\\' ovZe Qijaevi "pa t6 orauTou Kddapof. rolf dvdp. K. <])i\a k. &^tK€lv drdpciirous. True. —Or dWa^oS : 6. _ The Cynic an eicemplwr rather than active consoler of ties. . Domestic Analysis § 3. nraa-iv. ri iroteh . Uoiav di^eXeiav . . imijioiTav av6pdnroi<i Ka6-^K0V<riv Svvdfievof.aKovifi Tmi Oeov. irpoTpe-ffrac . KaKmv. 245 Evdecof ws a-o<f)ol Sidyeiv iOiKofiep k. dve'xpfievo'i. . firj owtws avToins m^iXei ! Kwreiipo. 'AW^ . o KvviKO'. riva iroXefiia. xnroSei^cov avTOi<s Srt ireirXdvTjvTai. rather than as active teacher and consoler. This mission home-life. as a passive example. Onostic and Manichean scorn of human § 3. avT&v TO a-avTov (fyKey/ia (S) Close Eestkiction of the Sphere of Missionaey Influence Eejection of Civic ok Duties by the teue Anchoeites . quite incompatible with ordinary ties of : 273 ry oil 'AnepicnracrTov elvai. '$v yap TToiei irpoTerpe^p-ai itiiXo(ro<|>ia. . — fii) (jiKvdpei. eiiciov k. Tov Tiva is e. rrji ^ATTiK^f Ka0df»)<!' He : Controls the eager and meddle- some philanthropist whose zeal outruns knowledge and discretion. Sei^ov ! uvtok o-eauTou oious K. aavTov •yap 0)<f>iXr]<ra<} . avToii<s eiri 6e\ei^. to tell where Tw yap ovti KardaKOTriJs true happiness may be found fijToOfft TTjv oiiaiav of these two. k. ecrO'uov. almost a lay figure.

dXX* . rijp&v hk airoKu tov ayyeXoc k. the Cynic to the Pharisee in the temple centred complacence ethical behaviour. KaTaaKOTTOv k. A young man asks him if he would accept a friend's invitation to come to his house and be tended in sickness (a>o"re voaoit is not difficult to see — Ko/Mjdrjvai) —347 . KrjpvKa t&v OeStv. His contempt for universal mission ticular ties. oii tok avdp. 273. tfiaurov TavTa Koryco TOTe Kal eyw fjiidpTavov vvv h\ ovksti' It xdpK Tw 06CO. to who owed an assumed or pretentious. " How imperturbable he was under provocation " \iav yb. . not to change them ! . not Diogenes. whence came the practical ascetic ideal of anchorite and monk. KaKoi]6co<! ovS' itticrTpi^o. interest in others. he replies Tovra eir' : rioO Se ^i\6v fioi Baxretv Kui/ikou . hermit and ascetic for Epictetus is nearer Simon Stylites than to a preaching friar in a more robust and social age. DETACHMENT ovB' ifiveTrXey/jkevov 105 irapa^aivav fiev ayfeaeaiv^ — a? ovKeri acoaei to tov KaXov Koyadov irpoamirov. to that type or to the Heya\6-<^vj(p<i of Aristotle He than to any modern ideal of with his sympathy for his influence to a real.p d(rcf>a\&^ i/ii/ivrjTo oti ovhei<i dXKoTpiov ffyefWviKov Kvpievef ovBev oiv dXko ^deKev rj to iBiov (desired that only 'which was in his power). would be very unfair to assimilate . Then cares final follows a curious passage in depreciation of and duties — 274—and life is home in standard of but that of spoilt any other detached serenity. : AoiTTov Trpoae'^m K. by being restricted to par- have been bestowed (and sometimes wasted) upon demonstrating the doctrinal debt of the Christian Church to Greek philosophy but Great pains . iV ej^M ylriyeip el KUTtvyeXm dfiapTavo) . Tiva <^a<rl wms rj KivovVTai.. 354. goes too far in attributing this passive toler- ance to Socrates. is but such self- more akin clearly.

' but such scornful language of pride and isolation seems to (^Kevov k. k. but that while they acted according to their nature. there is no animosity. . Bvvap. . It is quite easy to induce in some minds a kind of by dwelling on the squalid side of natural by pitying Hooker very much when he is found rocking the cradle. TtVos d/ieXovai TO irpoariKov all this is very true in a way. no reproof . Marcus will be found even more emphatic he analyses ascetic morality processes. in the efei. (popTiKov) partake of that vulgar complacence which he rightly repudiated above. He left is quite aware of the general impression which by Cynical preaching. oZv B' en Biaacocrei ttjv rov deov ij <toi ! fiei^ova euepyeTovaiv av- Bvo ^ rpia KaKoppuyxa fraiBia avd" avT&v ol rj iirKyKOTrovvre^ irdvTa^ Kara ." ' ' . Opayirov^ ol elcrdyovre^. rjBvvaro. you do your part I will do mine.. .' — ^For is 361 : 'Exelva fiovov aoi to <tout6i' irelaai. physical passion until nothing remains but the sordid ' off my You must out So to the tyrant.i. avBpo<s anrepivraTOv Ixoi^os ^'{\t£ yuraiK* T^KKa (ii^Te -irctTpiSa f) ^CKah^ rj o-uyy«''"S> ^^ ^V k. KafiTTTeadai. He glad. : !!&<. ri trapoi. to be able more social days of the Eoman Empire have is : the figure of Socrates to set up for men's imitation. he might also keep to his (otto)? eKewcav tA tZia irobovvTtav <b? aurot? So/cet. k. head ? Very well. however. d\\' — the interlocutor inquires Koiveovlav. § 4. dedaai y. /xi^Te Kal Xva fir) So^rj'. irepiairaadai. . iralBia e'^pma.io6 MARCUS AURELIUS TovTo ryap dWoTpiov. by exciting and stimulating a disgust (ready enough to hand in most minds) at the mysterious union of the noblest and the most ignoble in human love. avrof fiT)8ev ^TTOV Karci ^vtriv BeSorat. "Ka^e ^wKpari] w? oKXoTpia' He is much annoyed when on his discountenancing matrimony. ttws Bidyovaiv. . iroiovcriv. — 339 OTt irapdSeiy/jLa BeUvv/ii.v dvdp.

(C) The Sage Spectator kathek than Agent THE UNIVEKSE Analyisis in § 5. world merely § 5. however. or a sincere interest in the human community. comes into this to look on. . sympathize with 107 secretly While many may perhaps this. appointment when Epictetus dismisses relationship of parent and child with a In a word. has interwoven with these coarser threads the more and respect for Nature. holding a cynical isolation to be the highest life. Epictetus rightly insists on the " difference of function. foiled or impotent in his attempts at reform. is at root profoundly for and subjectivist. the moral system of Epictetus and Aurelius is a revived Cynism which. and harmonises ill with refined curiosity larger the Stoical impersonality of the creative energy (22.'' though his teleology is childish. Man. It substitutes Socrates as the typical man a figure of Diogenes seen through a halo of saintship which he was far from deserving for . The philosopher.DETACHMENT and contemptible. Citizen of the commonwealth. like the gentry at a fair or race-meeting. it may compromise and modify and make concessions ordinary to common sense and anti-social decorum. no one can help feeling disthe holiest realistic epithet. in that attitude of semi-mystic contemplation and worship which effectually prevents a utiHtarian attitude to things. and the it is not without interest to notice that the Emperor Julian has the same extravagant admiration least estimable of Hellenic moralists. 23). he surveys the Universe as spectator.

tillage. aWh iii]yr\Ti\v avr&v. KaraX'^yetv ottov rh oKoya. ov fiovov Oearijv i. a\Xh (mWov evdev p^v ap^eadai. another to give cheese. avdpeoTTov .S>v 97 Aval's. Tov S .evo(. For in the Stoic scheme (hedonist in all but name) there is no real distinction between wise pleasure and the aim of our being. and men.-^—such their duties.r) dd^aroi tovtcov aTroddvTjre. 22. oW' av fir] Kara rpoTTov K. . another to help in toi. Be Tive<i e. KareXtj^ev Oewpiav k. ^/jl&v Bk irapaKoKov- 6ovvrcov Ty vpv<^eirjiuv eKetvoK fi^P apxei to ivBieiv kt\. God has need of animals and of men. allotted task without reflecting and impulse. re k. Be . ovKSTi ravT k. The animals have does so reflect. Nothing except the gradual abatement Buddha's system. but KoyiK}) ^pfjac. awapKei. oi icarh Oe&. j^ptofievcov Tat?. 'Opdre oJiv. . . 210) is instinct not bare xp^vif (pavraariAv. rh rfpirepa ta? ev TracKiyiipei' flocks 148. the will-to-live is becalmed and neutralized. 9 oXliyoi to be sold. . Gea-rfii' elaijyajev Avrov k. irapaKoXovdrjcnv k. K. Toiavr e. KaraK. some to sell. some to buy results ? what of Instinct. dp'xeadai k. (pavraalaK. and do their Man on their mission. His "differentia" (i^aiperov. And this is his highest pleasure and therefore his highest duty. p. TeToyfiivfo^ aKoKovBca^ Ty eKaarov (^vaei KaTacKevQ irpaTTcafiev oiiK&ri tov t^Xous Tev^ofieOa eavr&v. avp^mvov Sie^ayoay^v Tjj tftvaei. eKeivov : . . One to be eaten. Man no more acts he only contemplates. Xifyeiv S" iirl S' e</)' o KariXTj^ev e<^' ^p. . t^s 7ravr}yvp€a)<}. And when Eeason thus awakes to guide and hallow Instinct. Aih T^ avBp. which puts an end once for all to our pa^radisaic innocence and enjoyment the irapaKoXovBrjTiK^ SvvafiK.io8 MARCUS AURELIUS The distinction of men and animals is just this reflection.. as in . . : .v ipj(^6p. t&v epyeav TOVT at<T'^pbv K.

t& ttjv travrj^vpiv uiro l<rropr)advTa<i aireXdeiv KaTayeX&VTai is.: DETACHMENT TTw? 70VT0 yiperai k. told in the pseudo-Pythagorean texts. oKlr/oi 8' 6. not merely.pa 7' rj aiiTov 7670- vpo<i ri epyov K. . and sum up in set formulae. The only proper business of the elect origin to reflect on the conclusion. Tive<s iravr^vpiv some forms like So in this great world-fair beasts think of nought but food. . rt? . 109 oi Ti6evTe<i ttjv hih tC k. d Kofffioi. to display the sterile which allows no room pretend to These never men. iirl rivi. ttow? Tt? K. people. avTov BioiKei . . fields. in the Imperial age. Mystics to-day.. stance. riva iTrnrXoKrjv . a new form of of the familiar story of Pythagoras and the tyrant the Phliasians. This of course. Tt? iroT ovv . that simple acts are better than indolence. and use of being. Other influences govern men to-day but for qualification. AvTov er')(i<Tiv ovBefiiav. exhort . come (no doubt) to a negative and resign as soon as may be the burden in those days It must be remembered that wisdom professed to guide men in life . . zeal (even though mistaken) than indifference. No still one can regret did not penetrate far into the heart of the was something and the Gospel reinforced the old instinctive belief of mankind. like our unity of existence. and by is Cicero. . control things. Men believed that there for . worth living and fighting . twv itoXK&v. e. or elevate ideals. oi nravrjyvpi^ovTe's av6. only to understand the given. ({)iXo6cd)jiofes . e'j^o/tei' . Tovrtp fiovw tTy^pXa^ovai . philosophy seriously claimed to that this esoteric regulate religion life. all are but food in different . of life. office. 7rw9 vafiev TTjoo? K. Sk Tivef ovt£<s vtr 5. slaves. for subk. ly/icts .

as mere a release not to friendly gods but to man.CHAPTER III THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS (A) Death and Immortality Analysis § 1. a virtue of necessity. Ambiguous phrases. rotic Such unscientific Science is closely akin to neumysticism and it is for this reason that both Epictetus and Aurelius regard with so little perturbation § 1. frigid elements expediency {in face of the uriknown) is the end. votional ! death. as in Aurelius. Man really excluded from both worlds. in a physical and Life. § 3. Virtue recognised neither in this world rior the next . Life." return to Qod" . §2. death. as profoundly moral and significant. resignation. so purely a matter of physical science. is treated. animal and divine. physical dissolution. Buddhism. The ultimate problem of death. the " Thanatistic " hypothesis. the sole motive. . the dissecting-room! curious to turn from the absorbed pietism and self-abandonment of his prayers to Zeus. " Thy will." to . . so profoundly moral and deun-moral light. be done. It is of the scalpel. as end of material and spiritual life. not a fellow-worker with God in any real sense. hut a captive forced into the curena to make sport. not mine. Death welcome as the haven of all woes. dissolution of body and extinction of character.

Xeyei croi "Epy^pv. the personal and loving relation so conspicuous in the Cynic's life is not. \ course.: THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS his iii of — 104 fiariov chilling : pedantry in ri ia-ri . and the invulnerability of the true Ego almost if What . oaov Tjv yrjSiov "Oaov ^v els ypSiov. " OvSels ABtjs ovS' ^A')(epcov ovBe Kcokvtos ovSe . .va>v. ^ vvv el . cra/Ji^driov Set i^fwpicrBTJvai rj tov vpojepov eKe^wpiaro. Ti oZv rov dyavaKTSK KocTfiov Sk . rrjv Ovpdv rjvoi^ev k. Let us hear what Epicurus says after this discovery that the gods take no thought of men. Epictetus' thin veil cannot abolish the fundamental inconsistency the religious and the scientific view of the world. ovSey — jj He will not practise this destructive theory but logic- ally it is complete of pietism of and irrefutable. someone should come and slay me ? " M&pe. and that at death the 179. alSa>^ fiaipla ttcos iraTrjp ovSev i. IIvpi(j>\eye6eov dWd irdvra deaiv (leaTa k. Here the dualism is acknowledged. is almost comical "Orav Se fir) irape'^y rdvayKaia. ttiSs o vlo^ . to be cut short at death gods ei? ? Uov . the • explanations death. ktX. is. TL otiv . els avyyevi] — ovBev Seivov of aW' 66ev iyevov. to dvaKKrjTiKov (TTjfmivei. ^arepov. . QdvaTOi fiop/jiokvKeiov arpi'^a'i ! avro irvev- KardfiaOe' ISov ttw? ov BaKvei of Theocritus). . and appraiser of the divine works. is this all el<s ' trvp he has to tell us ? aireiaiv. So far so good . tre ov dXKa to orfofidTiov. i] SiKaiocrvvT) ovSev earl ttoj? i. The contrast. rd aroiyeia We are amazed iv aoi irvpot. after all. though painful. to the . Iva rj irepioSoi} dvvrjTai j(peiav yelp S' ej^et t&v fiev ivurraiMevcov t&v /neWwreBv tuv this spectator r)vvap. in no way superior to an animal. et? rd ? (f>iKd k.e. So this child of God. Tavra . Xa/Se vvv. ovk dpeaKei aoi soul is extinguished. Baifioveov. 7r«s e. then. . d)<s (a little reminiscence To vvv . 244.

irov Bvvarai rt? oXov eire fiepov^ tivo<s. Kar avTtjv dvaipovfieva dirwrav ara'^yav. fiera^oXrj <OVK>. ." To kindred gods his soul The thought. . MARCUS AURELIUS Like Acis. dXXd. is not further pursued in this passage.atvei dW fiera^oXal. eK^aXeip e^a rov Kaafiov . 645 TO " OuK^Ti ouv EO-o^al . . 6t? TO /M^ OV dXV ')(peiav fiei^tov ix VVV Tt tov fit] vvv 6v. . k. 300. " returns. —He occasion very outspoken and straightforward is on on the unfeeling or unconscious cruelty or design of dealing Law in death . Kal yhp aii iyevov ouj^ ore cru dXX' ore 6 Koa-iios )^pe(av eo-^^ei/. @dvaro<i . UdvTa yap Tama twv irporepeov elaiv elf erepa <Trip. . unsuccessfully with this mechanical automatism he attempts to combine the idea of a Creator and of Providence.^ 1 break down utterly. ipj(i<Tdco orav Oikr) ^vyi] . " ouk eaei. over death without an explanation possible it is therefore just (but to me by no means probable) that he intends the assurance and comfort of the last sentence to extend also to the disembodied spirit. confronted with such a passparticularly fond of this simile (is rif . . ATriSXeia. oirov B cLv aireXOa ixei TJfKiois eid' e'/eet <rekijvrj e«et avrpa evvirvia olavol t] "rrpo^ deoins ofiiXia. K6a-fJL0<! aW aWo ov vvv 6 ^OeXTjo-at ex«. soldiers to whom a wise general sounds the recall. iraaa f} airo TSiv''0'Ka)v . hut seems taken up somewhat later. 301 Olov yap e. . rerayjiivi] Ti<i oiKocofiia k. ov rov Koa/iov. toiovtov i. He is of. ouk 8ioiKr)o-is. OVT0<!. 266 To awfmTiov B' ovSev irpo^ ifie' ra tovtov : fiepr) oiiBev irpbi ifii. irepLaTao'i'i irpoi ret \eiav yap . : •)(eifjmv trpoi} </vkov.112 dogmatised. however. Qdvarof. All the picturesque metaphors of Sons of God. 94 : 'E4v Si irriniivrj rif rh ivaKKifTiKhv SoiKpirei welBeaOai Set T(p (rrifialvovTi Cis ffTparriyiff. It will be noted that he here passes rapidly . athletes tried at Olympia. .

and then himself be tary risk . in which the pure spirit is clogged and imprisoned). rjoij Kaipa ttjv vmjv ef cov irpayfia a\\ eitre cos e^ei avvf)\6ev eii eKelva iraKiv d'TroKaraaTrjaai.Ei'. prevalence of an emotionalism which can never unlock life's secrets.THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS age ! 113 The sole analogy is the wretched captive in the Roman amphitheatre. Ti deKeK airoOavelv imaginary tyrant and his power over men. airoKvari TavTi\% t^s iir7}pea-ia<. the . I am myself perhaps without sufficient data. Even the gladiator takes volun- he enters his " school " ore ^dekrjae.. but I am convinced that no modern Western mind 8 is suited for . arjixrivrj : ! K. § 2. ^apovvTtov (the true later Stoic duahsm and ready acceptance of Plato's antithesis of soul and body. and from an intuition hard to explain. who. 'ATTON- eirl ivoiKOvvT6<s ravTrjV Trjv ^copav els rjv eKeivos Aurelius has. rti'e? tov &eov of such passages as i. has to slay his comrades for the spectators' pleasure. "Avdpcoiroi. same unfortunate ambiguity in his language inclined. (on the a favourite theme with the poor slave. as we shall see. the compelled. a<^6<s 'fjiia'i direXdeii' oOei' eXTjXijSafi.e\\ej aTroWvaOat t&v iv rm Kotrfxa) . to believe that Aurelius had a stronger personal hope than his master . eKSe^aade rbv &e6v 'Orav iKeivo<. whose idea of Caesar was Mi} TpayoiSei to formed from Nero and Domitian). We must not be misled by the apparent sincerity crvyyevei<. forced into the arena. Kal ri Seivov . tot Sk 'AIIEAETtov irdpovTo^ SESSE nPOS avaayeaQe vfids era^ev. n /x. slain. — . — 369. 9 (34) iafiev KUKeWev ikrfKvda/J^v . and not This craven resignation to a Power which in the end is not personal. shows the complete bankruptcy of logic or clear thought in this age. a<|)es XuStjcai iroTe tuv SctTfiuc toutui' t&v e^pTtjfiivcov K.

114 MARCUS AURELIUS It is the task of such interpretation. your leg be broken " SiceXoi} oSv fiot yeviadai ireTrrjpeofievov . 'AvBpdiroBov (a favourite method of address) elra St ^v aiceKvSpiov rp . insignificant part of the vast universe. oti . like a vessel unballasted. but whose exemption from all canons of ordinary morality or logic threatens the whole fabric of human duty and convention We cannot get any further. ovK eTTiSwo-ets avTo rot? OXots . OVK 6la9a ^Xikov oiiBe fiepo'} el irpo<s adds or corrects). j^aiptov irapayeop'^aei's toi<." the divine dTroairaa-iui. . Here there a faint inclination to the old Stoical . Who is not merely superfluous. K. The convinced dualist of the Hegemonic (the true " Inner Self ") and the miserable envelope. in congenial solely is whose faith Nir-v§. forgets the " deity within. Nay. Biera^ev rh "0\a . is by no means not Buddh- ism the most sympatheticand kindred system to the Porch ? For it is free from the hypothesis of God. " How dare you. Koafiq) eyKaXeti . to a Buddhist. rolling in a tremen- dous arc between two irreconcilable dogmas. «? Kara. and professes to be content with a purely physical explanation of the return ! of atoms or particles to their like.eyeOot ov /iiJKet ovB KpiveTai aXKa S6yp. each of which he believes so long as he plain ? is uttering it.aa-iv. tovto Be (he fioKpoTepoi. Se iKeivo<s /jLera tov Aib^ SiareTttypAvoK (a t&v Moipmv irapovamv apiae k. ye tov \6yov ^(eipcov t&v is OeSiv ovBe ui/ret y^p p. com- What if matter to the sum of things which knows ? not decay.na universally defined as annihilation. vtto rm SeBmKOTt . when he comes to the supreme moment of the severance of Soul and Body. Arfyou hnKkwdovaSsv aov t^v yevea-iv. ar/avaKT'q<rei'. Kark to a-mpM. we are compelled to leave the question in unsatisfactory suspense. We have therefore Epictetus.

: THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS rivalry of . as in Marcus." the frail earthen Yet how power in curious often does he make use of the appeal to " pietas. Man is truly for him that indefinable incomprehensible complex ^mov XoyiKov Ovqrov (128). ? pettiness. 145. He makes no serious attempt to correlate or coordinate these antitheses . —but purely a matter of expediency. . dXuirus &<|>6pids drapdxws. confident of the answer. So in the last resort. is : that the very nature of the supreme good ovaLa Tov ayaObv trpoaipea-K iroia) to its sole Will (91 duty is remove us from earthly companions and simple and to bestow in recompense the sad privicontemplating the mechanism of a unilege of pleasures. " Man not flesh. He is armed with a passport which excludes him from both worlds. k. KaKoBai/iovla BeSorai. 288: yet what is the value of reason except. when the practical reason will have its say. Xv a6\ioi. nor willing concession to a loving Father. — Epictetus. 'iva •jrevdovvrei. ^daprjvai In vain he assures K/aea? us. . but Will" (ov ov rptj^es aXSA irpoaip^a-Ky^lS)." to the duty of cheerful submission as to an earthly father ? emphasises not the nature § 3. SiareX&fiev . the motive for resignation is neither fatal obedience to an negative the divine absolute tyrant or cosmic law. to impress on us the conviction of decay. and to assure us of the vanity of striving Set. puts to his audience the query. " vessel. but the dignity of human and (47). nor hair. 146). 115 but it leads to the Sage with the gods the presence of this used to explain and is not nothing. 'Hfuv oZv Xoyos eVi aTV^iof. and the individual who may not rank himself with the beasts finds in this and empty prerogative no admittance to company. 371 : aira^ fiaOmv on to '^evofievov is k.

: . . 387. 6 Ta? fieylo'Tas elairpaaaofievo'} KoKdaei^ irapa fteyitTTa afiapToCvovrmv. "What the the punishment of the renegade. . .. There is no correspondthe measure of recognised ence between the deserts of his man and in recompense . Death ovt(o is the quiet haven of Xifi. neither by gods no Ajax '0 direihov\o<i nor men. T&v Tcl But the is in the end sub- these Sinaitic fulminations jectivity of vanish in pure reward or penalty. diroOvqaKovTa del(o<. tone of profound pessimism iii.iav ehai diroOi'i^a'KEii' irpof IXeuficpiac ro cukcSXus (a saying all of Diogenes). o QdvaTO<i. but a timorous OEdipus 6mv Ty deia XvTreladm eiTT(o raireivo's earto e^^oj/etVo) Sva-TvxeiTco dprjveirco. the ? runaway SioiKT^crei. and Virtue is effect neither in this world nor in the next.. 318: p. ? ov Kairvi^y. Ka. ivravda veveTwcrav oi Xoyoi iravTei. and death true liberty of. . to diroQavelv. —The eia-r]- eXeetVo). in vain that the . rd diTK-qpuTa dvayvmcriiaTa k. Epictetus paints ! defiant even in death. avrr) k. 313) ends with the 'EttI tovtov (death) ovv fwi yvfi- vd^ov. t-ie hearth smoking if you can leave house !) —No wonder (Is your to this last compliance of thj Sage with a fateful ordinance he appUes the word ^eios/ 127: voaovvra 6ei(0<i. a just Judge 6 i/o/ao? 6eio<! k. Book (p. el rdXa^ €^j]\de<i. rb Ke^aXaiov iravrmv. 6 Xifi}]v trdvTcov. where the study itself firri'yavrjv of death is the vestibule. el/u. . apostate. Orav deXrji. . . . cannot be mistaken unmistakable words TO.Tot^v>ff\.ii6 verse which It is MARCUS AURELIUS we can neither justify nor understand. . fj B' i. the gate of ovra /iovM? eKevBepovvrai. . OTTO'S i. Cosmic Process is sometimes invested with the stern and inexorable attributes of dva7r6SpaaTo<.Tji' our woes OvTO<i ' .

Minor Points . .'). etc. t&v eVi 7?}? avatrrpe^o/iivrnv toiovtcop. I may notice one or of interest. . (fiophv k. He would be inclined to deal sharply with any Social" istic Christianity. cvii." others a-ol Se irepl Trj<i sKeLvov 6pyi]<. iv. TOP fjiev Kaiaapa irpo^ ro vdpov d<j)a/jLev. that we are thankful when (316) he invites us to leave Csesar alone for a moment 'Edv aoi SoKTJ. 6eo<. ovSev eya Xeyeiv. 46 Aiera^e Se 6ipo<} elvai will not : He — : K. a<j)opiav. dperrjv k. § 4. my article "Subordinate Dualism'' in the Studia Biblica. K. advancing slightly beyond a monistic universe he beHeves in the Pythagorean dualism or systoechy of antitheses whose mutual play and reaction bring to birth the visible world.. blame or reprove the person accused before " Bring him here and I will speak to him. Again. with the j(peLav <yap e^et Koa/iov toIovtov (0 'See vol." So constant is his reference. but he is Epictetus has quite got rid of Seneca's perpetual declamation against For- a slave himself to the classical " tyrant. where the like moral TTacras to. ei'aiTi(5Ti]Tas. The same commonplace can be found in Seneca.^ roiavra^ virep avii<j)a)vla<s Similarly (94). . ." asked an applicant (52) " that he be no more angry with me " Ovk iira/yyeKXeTai. . . KUKiav k. ^ikocroipla tS>v skto^ Tt vepifiroirjaeiv rm dvQpmtrtp. "OXaiv} t&v same implication. " Who made me a ruler and a judge ? " Speak to my brother. two detached points tune. Ep. Before influence I close with an anticipation of his on Marcus Aurelius.! THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS (B) Some 117 the the " Pax Eomana " WoELD OF Conflict the Moealistic Standpoint THE " NoEEio " Life of God Futility OF MERE Technical Emancipation. k. jfetfiSsva.

irpoi. p. fiunt debuisse fieri putet. . as by the finger of end. in the soul") oti 'fjfia'i. twv ixTois airpoaipermv ovBev iyco fiev »]6e\oi' t^i' dTid-niji' ravrqv i^ ^i ^/j. . Tj oTTov AlA*OPA. in his stress on practical life of truth. and prefers.evoi<! auTj}?. et Deum quo . deXere' and dTapdy(<o^ ^iidxreadai.iya iv dvOpmiroii} kukov k. magnum sumere animum quo fortiter fortuita patiamur et Natures consentiamus optimum est pati quod emendare non possis. his blessedness and IIov oZv to fi. dBvva- Trepl rdvayKoia. Hanc rerum conditionen mutare . opa iirj rm KotvcoviKoi. t& avver^ if . rm is iria-Tm. regnum mutationibus . . . .^ : . discipline will at first increase their pain rather . therefore. He is on occasion less of an Intellectualist than most Greek thinkers. . dirro- ffwaia-BrjaK t^? avTov dadepeun} k. flant invicem venti. . and it this " differentia " that prescribes. noctem dies sequitur . of sends them to the Lecture Hall and . auctore cuncta proveniunt sine murmuratione comitari " ! § 5. .eWov evp6(o<i K. a useful error : to the glare El dp' i^aTTaTi\Bivra eSei fiaQelv ( = " the lie i. . non possumus.ia<} tok . hoc quod vides . Ad banc legem Animus noster aptandus est . . . .el<s S' o^eaff avroi ri " differentia " of man to the (/8) finds the animal world not in the epithet voepoi or \oytKo?. rm alhrjp. nubile serena succedunt. 89 opafii) rm TrapaKoKovdeiv 6l<s iroiel. . 18 and happiness. . his function. Chris- tian ideas as well as that wholly inadmissible 'Ap^Ti ^iKoao(f>ia^ (134) irapd ye p. God. in moral qualities.ovi. dyaOov . . vp. unrest and this This sense of inner want. rm daiffaXei. p. —He has much much in is common with axs Set . . but Tivi ovv Bia^epei. queecumque .ii8 MARCUS AURELIUS from the spectacle and uncertainty : of acquiescence is derived of Nature's violent contests " Natura autem temperat . contrariis rerum ^ternitas constat. and. id possumus.. sin.

dvaToX&v iwl envy ? Bvafidi. No. : e^at oxJTe Trjv Aorjvav ova . and was always at Hellenic in classical times." a noeric life of God independent of his counterpart. " Zeus does not bewail himself or his loneliness Td\a<s iya> ovre rijv 'Hpav recalling — . and pessimistic. ev iirivoiaK yiverai is a dim trace of Aristotelian which school. earthquake. feud. 243 : 'Opdre yap OTi elprjvqv fieydXrjv 6 Kaiaap fjiiiv SoKel irapej^eiv OTi ovK elalv ovKen •jroXejioi ovSe fia'^al ovBe XrjaTrjpia irdffri fieydXa ovBe ireipaTiKa. to hvvaadai avTov eavTW &pKelv. . . 285 : larpelov i. had least in common.a\X' e^eoTiv TrXeiv ott' &pa ? oBeveiv. in this alone can philosophy exemption. the visible the middle of faithful universe (a passage Dio Chrysostom's oration on the decay and renovation of the world). THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS than remove its 119 to tov cause. § 6. grief. k. <T')(p\etov 06 Set ^afl^rras i^eXOelv dXK' dkyrj- In one passage he distinctly seems to recognise in " the purely physical eKirvpeoa-n: or Eagnar6k. viro tov Qeov KeKTjpvy/ievTjv Bia TOV \6yov. § 7. But can he save you from give fever. . avSpe<!. And as he would have rejected any . with —Here o'ia i. ^a-vy(d^ei i<j) eavTov k. and provide a safe prophylactic ensuring an inward peace. evvoei ttjv SioiKrjffii/ TTjv eaVTOv irpeTTovaaK eavToi. 7rpo9 TovTo Trapaa-KevTjv ey^eiv. He recognises yet circumscribes the exterTial benefits of Csesarism in a striking passage. influence. diro TOV (pvffet KoivaviKOv elvai. OvBev '^ttov Bel Tiva K. k. viov . shipwreck. ij oiiyyevrj ! For men judge him only by his beneficent functions. lightning From love. eavTW avvecvar <b?' o Zevi avTO'i eavTm avveanp. ^CKoao^ov adpTa<s. the Porch.. as the most sober and Oriental.

Marcus will borrow his constant query. wot ^ayj. his of belief in natural tendency of for specific all men to the good. . They disand pupil and . (C) Haemony between Epictetus and Marcus AURELIUS § 8." "Av a<f)e6S) " (^aiv. Tropevo/Mai oirov OiXio. movement which at one time saw salvation 319: 'O SovXo^ evdh ei'xerai d^edrjvai eKevOepo^ . the slave has taught the "purple-born" the solitary pathway to Indifference. anticipation we have already in understood tinctly stand in the relation of master Marcus Aurelius. k. All the special dogmas agree. as he surrendered over the whole world of things and chattels to the strong hand without criticism or expostulation. their proper lords and masters (eKeivav the Eeform so he would discountenance in the multiplied vote.. " Who is there to preas well as the main points vent you?" (rt? fi dvayKcicrei ." Then comes the " disillusionment. k. o/JLoio<s XdKm. 78). ovSevo^ hrKTrpe^ofiai. as the " white slaves of England.. eiiBw fiev ovk ej((ov Ti'va emancipated serf in Russia. 200 ." the unity of the Greater Commonwealth. From Epictetus.I20 MARCUS AURELIUS modern scheme of elevating the masses by change of environment. iraaiv w? i<to<. If we have fully mastered the secret maxims or the open counsels of Epictetus. ep')(pfiai orav 6ek(o. and the duty of submission. Eha ^ifrei KoXuKevar) k. knowledge and analysis 217. " ev9ij<i iraaa evpota. the plea particulars. or the aTrrjXev6ipo)Tat. : the distinction of " mine and not mine.). Kvpio<. irda-^ei ra SeivoTara' : enir^irrcDKcc els SouXeidi' TToXO TTJs irpoT^pos j^aXeiraiTepav the whole long passage is interesting and significant.

philosophy as a mere . and. 164 the scanty influence of . ful All these minor resemblances and points of contact and the common atmosphere of and pietistio resignation. study of this last moment . 173. the firm of wist- hold on Providence. convince us of the essential harmony between the philosophy ^ emperor and slave. the contempt of the pretation of body and its parts the physical interdeath's meaning. 110 . except as a silent model. the Sage on others. in spite of all. the uselessness 163.THE ULTIMATE PROBLEMS the blaming neither of 121 books and logic. God nor man.^ The latest references throughout in Epictetus are to the pages of the Teubner edition. .

or society. not world. melancholy tone. THE NATURE OF MAN THE AGENT {A) Chief Characteristics of his Meditations DUE TO his Office and his Time Analysis § 2. his writings. THE CREED OF MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS CHAPTEE I THE TEACHING OF THE EMPEROR. dualism. Such tern/per the natural result of complex and well-equipped cvDilixation. relief in Mysticism. § 1. Dulness of Socialist routine. his supreme duty. §4. but to himself. We may expect from them the result of a ripe. No genuine interest in the world. Troubled period of history . sadness of Aureli/us . §1. § 5. a complex. to ^ § 6. a private to his stimulant own flagging faith. the Nothing can well be more interesting to the ordinary mind than the meditations of a king. . straitened outlook. Deadening effect of order a/nd security wider Flavian amd Antonines(y 0-180). Earnest yet Sceptical tone . God.PART III. his Ascetic § 3.

It is entirely suitable to a peaceful and opulent monarch who has never been braced by war or other emergency. In such times of peace the . But there is nothing improbable in the tone. We may. and cynical and ironic. but that they might be reconciled to it through hope. and. drawing nearer a never-realised goal or ideal the for in moment of attainment satisfaction dies. anxiety. The sense of " having achieved. the circumscription of the regal power of doing good. as of one 123 to who has mounted we the summit of the hill. detect in it the effect of that Oriental sadness conspicuous in most Greek philosophers. can look beyond in a wider survey on the nature of things and the future destiny of man and the race. which forms so striking a contrast to the sober yet abiding optimism of the Jewish character. if The Book of Ecclesiastes may surely represent. the hollowness of court life. in gradually . Ennui and lassitude follow of necessity the certain fruition of good things and Leopardi is profoundly true when he depicts Zeus sending disease and misfortune to men. and change. dispirited and disillusioned. which marks off this from all other Canonic Scripture. Exceptional opportunities of comprehensive view seem never to result in buoyancy or cheerfulness. Yet the meditations of kings are by no means frequent. indeed. So — true is it that all pleasure lies in process.TEACHING OF THE EMPEROR a unique experience. not to make life more painful. combine to produce a peculiar temper of mind apathetic. and their verdict on life and experience is universally sad. suspense. tolerant. at least the traditional attitude of King Solomon. embracing all the sides of severally play our the landscape below in which less conspicuous part. not the exact words." of monotonous enjoyment of stationary dignity. .

while we have instruments for testing and registering human sensitiveness to pain. pestilences. letters. Who nowadays supposes that the Italian peasant is happier (whatever we " may mean by that figurative and elusive term) under the new regimen than in the careless squalor. foundling hospitals. of the days before unification ? It is the slave who has a native minstrelsy. The Parthian war. comfort. which should avert their covetous eyes from the treasure-house of civilization The Emperor could not have been ignorant either of the fears of the historian or of the real menace of these untamed tribes. the light-hearted ease. But the Quadi might well seem to Aurelius to be in deadly earnest. famines. Gibbon believes in the extreme felicity of the Antoninian age but. with earth- quakes. though his time is amply filled with all that complex public service of the State now centred on the shoulders of one man. orphanages. was an almost annual pageant or tournament of the Eomans.124 MARCUS AURELIUS fall. Tacitus had believed that Eome had no hope unless she could keep these tribes quarrelling internally in a purposeless animosity. or even advance of culture. and campaigns. § 2. not the citizen. sanitation." certainly did not The realm of Nature. Yet. allied with the Danubian the land. which his colleague Verus took an unworthy part. reign of Marcus Aurelius. like much of our traditional feud with France neither combatant was serious. our " philosopher-king. we have none so barbarians to disquiet in ! delicate as to chronicle the excess or defect of happiness. there is the same profound melancholy in the busy sovereign that we detect in the satiety of Solomon. with benefactions. Blithesome . What is to be our criterion ? Certainly not outward prosperity.

indeed (for is not everything open to the worthiest in our society ?). in reading the origins of European society. It is not the decay of belief which makes much of modern literature pessimistic . and urges us to penetrate the realms romance or actual enterprise. with a strange sense of contrast to the present day. the elimination of that mystery. is a " place under Government " and the son of these permanent officials has no ambition except to follow in his father's cautious but uninteresting footsteps. 125 which is one mark of happiness. that is. room for private venture and endeavour. the career veritably " open to the talents. and not the stereotyped monomanence. we are told but if it is gone or superseded. that the dazzling vision of Grand Wuzir or Chief Sultana haunts the waking dreams of the slave boy or slave girl. It is under despotic monarchies. ." strikes us again and again.. TEACHING OF THE EMPEROR gaiety. The spirit of the of the knight-errant or boy-hero of adventure evaporates with the certainty of life and estate. . possible. yet extremely improbable and as the axiom of equality is now everywhere assumed . half eager and delighted expectancy. it is difficult to say what a nation gets in compensation. the shrinking of the globe. Eussia. in nations in an incomplete state of development. per- deny that what average yet human nature demands is uncertainty. the United States. The ideal of most inhabitants of countries essentially democratic. China. such as France. The tendency of all well-ordered communities is to crystallize into caste. which surrounds unknown world. belongs to a low and imperfect stage of civilised life. half fear. it is Order. idle to — tonous comfort of equitable distribution. The sudden rise of the mediaeval administrator and churchman. security. it is the vanishing of hope.

we lack all those signal instances of successful merit which roused our admiration in the earlier days of Christendom. and at the end of a prosperous family career the third in descent may look forward to the dignified retirement of of the House Commons. by right of immemorial lineage. Now. and the classes. the State was open to anyone but the entire policy gains. remain at core impenetrable and unsympathetic. excited no passionate loyalty. ." heirs. whereas to-day our interest frankly centres round our First Family. § 3. There is no actual bar to such ascent to power and responsibility. in spite of the plutocratic basis of society and taxation.^ by a steady and uniform succession of adopted Did this regularity rob life of its zest. A standard of mediocre attainment has superseded the exceptional brilliance of some favoured and infrequent individual. next the Antonines." the " man of the hour. while it ' Diocletian found himself obliged to repeat this practice after the turmoil of half a century. in spite of some show of social intermixture. The " General Post " and topsy-turvydom anticipated by the political reformers of the nineteenth century has by no means been verified. . was in every soldier's haversack hence the anomaly of a hereditary dynasty which yet For the ideal was still republican. more measured and continuous. first the Flavian dynasty. had to eliminate this awful risk of the " man of talent. .126 MARCUS AURELIUS and conceded. was far more democratic in its temper and its possibility than we The highest post in shall see Europe in our lifetime. Otho. Vitellius. the Eoman Empire. abstract . The nation and is all the more secure for this curtailment of possibilities but the interest of life dwindles. of the successors of Galba. impersonal. without in theory abandoning the principle that the supreme office. . the b4ton of the Empire. but the approach must be less rapid.

prescription. far § 4. incomparably scantier occult. The impulse towards Christianity was by no means universally a longing for moral regeneration.— TEACHING OF THE EMPEROR cleared it 127 ? of the danger of excited competitors It is The literature of the second century is just everything except civic or political. born of and destroyed in Aristotelian " infinite time. and mis- amusement . but adverse to the future welfare of an imperial people. the religious. with a straitened outlook. round the limbs of a tired world. — mys- all coupled with indifference to conduct. once boundless and full of mystery. the ." We see this clearly in the specu- lative eagerness of the Gnostics. hereditary caste of noble or official or soldier all — agreeable to the present safety. lack of interest in civic concerns. became fixed and crystalline . Decay and dwindling of the population. the Empire satisfied its children. multiplication of the- Basilidian heavens. the deadening effects of order and security were found at work. satirical silent. a world which would one day wake up and remonstrate. giving them order. sustenance. them from the the dulness and satiety of or from . the increased zest of esoteric teries. So as a worldly power can. the romantic. inexorable work of Roman legists. the coils custom. — much like our own. just as in cosmic life the " infinite universes " of Ionia. In this most freely organized community. or group of equal States. though so the same keen curiosity for the frivolous of the the personal. who were routine. and behind folding this foreground the patient. but in great part the desire of a fresh domain. but it could not protect Socialism." were replaced by the well-ascertained frontiers and modest extent (and therefore all mediaeval) cosmogony. and. " new worlds to conquer. The horizon.

the occupations. While avowing adhesion to the formula. animated in all its parts by the same spirit of life and order and permanence through change." a constant appeal to bear the of inevitable with patience. never restraining for a moment the passionate and lawless egoism of everyday life. materialism and sensualism (in its theoretic sense). the pleasures of life. of Christendom. the most absolute divorce of practice and theory. the vanity and nothingThe Stoic School. no Gnostic or Christian ascetic can exceed the harshness the poor inoffensive framework and (as he felt it) imprisoned his " Vital Spark of Heavenly Flame." In order to keep himself free from any suspicion of attachment to the flesh. of the visible substrate and the unseen spiritual energy. Church. is gradually veering round to a complete Platonic Dualism. of . note tion. which show the profoundest reverence for ideals. the details. — . nay. even with devout resigna- or a contemptuous vilification the material. stood alone (as he tells us himself) in the midst of men with whom he had nothing in common. while respecting the outward forms and this will explain the curious anomaly of the Middle Ages. for it is clear that their master possessed the unfortunate faculty of taking his chief delight in melancholy. he seeks to excite his own disgust with the foulness of human reproduction. while professing ness of human life. We know not which is the predominant of his " meditations. human While he protests that the universe is a single whole.128 MARCUS AURELIUS its chievous effects of vigilance. its own over-conscientious To the Sovereign this sense of weariness He and fatigue came more acutely than to others. of Empire.^ own gifts. Let us at least hope they had some satisfaction even on a lower scale . " man a of the language for encircled which ^ The invaders rebelled against this childish tutelage.

Marcus in his self-centred aloofness from any real concern in the world. both of which must be evident to the merest tyro in philosophy or religion that we have here the ultimate and absolute poles of thought. or the hope of immortality. For Religion implies a personal relation between the worshipper and the object of his worship. was common to all the later schools the especial creed was a matter of temperament. — it is indistinguishable from the grossest material- ism. To apply the term theology " to Biedermann's system ' ' a sacrilege and an absurdity. self-restraint. finds himself confronted by a Monistic interpretation of the world. but scarcely of conviction. and is. interest after all of the individual from social lies. he takes dogma much more than the Greeks. but cannot merge or interpenetrate.incompatible with any theory of Emanation and Keabsorption . of logic. and is unworthy of the term "Religion" at all. and that there can be no truce or compromise between the two disputants. differed was that Biedermann disallowed alike the personality of God and the following words the continuance or persistence of the individual Lipsius strenuously upheld. in which manhood with its tolerance. Except for the thin veneer of sentiment. which excludes prayer. "Might is Right"). consistent life in The unruffled calm. § 5. the deliberate which the Ideal of the Hellenic world was to be realised. 9 . of convenience. like all the Eoman seriously proselytes. and endeavour for a common good. for personalities may (which constitute the sole ultimately real experience) harmonize. which even in a Schleiermaoher failed to hide the true outline of is his desponding creed.^ ^ I read with extreme surprise in the Easpository Times. fails to supply any single adequate motive for moral action (which though natural and instinctive requires some encouragement and justification for its abandonment of the obvious law. "Nobly one were they (Biedermann and Lipsius) Where they mainly in championing the cause of scientific theology. educated as a devout Eoman to belief in gods of the earth and nation. this But. : May 1902." it succeeds in detaching the life . is the true and unmistakable disciple of the Porch. Marcus.: TEACHING OF THE EMPEHOR political 129 and social being. " It spirit.

Briefly. doctrine. that from the blank and dumb fatalism of objective Nature (where Stoics sought God in a physical power). the pure subjective certainty . the soul of man was repelled. — manifold or chance. intensely emotional in essence. next. then Marcus' incongruous (yet so sincere of science admixture and faith . the likelihood of survival or sipation. Way . to follow right at all costs and all hazards. from first. Stoic Positivism !) . and forced into seeking for himself a nearer and a more propitious deity. the careful dis- guidance or neglect of the gods.) appeal. then. which though highly scientific in outline. remained open to him. one course alone the ingratitude of our fellow-men. that in spite this earnest yet sceptical tendency . Two very interesting points emerge. not which those from love of one's neighbour.I30 '^ MARCUS AURELIUS He writes his "meditations or commentaries" to himself to comfort his soul in the stress of doubt." which in essence differs not in Aurelius we have Logic and from materialism Emotion." to . that whatever the constitution of the Universe. to remind it that Ethics are independent of metaphysic one. is of Salvation." § 6. Pure Eeason and Faith. contesting for the mastery in a bosom agonizing with conflict of doubts In Platonism we mark reaction to a and hopes. but from a stern duty to one's higher self and next. but mainly to himself and that conscience of Duty and of work which he loves to call the " Deity within. a self-absorbed introspective brooding on the " " social " acts {koivcdvlkoX irpd^eis. In Stoicism proper we have a cold and " scientific theology. from a duty owed partly indeed to the Inscrutable Cause of all. — of its threatened dissolution it is his own personality that really concerns him.

is also robbed of all hope. " To man. that man highest product of this scheme." Science accepts . 1895)." its . We to have in the foregoing brief introduction to a detailed inquiry into Aurelius' tenets. or the human soul. and there step of is left for us (after hinting at the considerable direction which the Emperor took in the Platonism) to examine closely his often inconsistent views on man's nature. there was no satisfaction for a pious and an affectionate of his time correspond to our nature . the human personality. own and how little the removal of political disabilities or the assurance of a competence can reconcile men to a life which. but is Feeling will in due course a Sin against the order of the Universe. where the " Desire of Mankind " is found in no outer communicable system. belongs to a system of existence which is inspired to struggle upwards by a power which makes for " His relations to such a power would be outraged by righteousness. in everlasting companionship.^ • We may following remarks of Mr. . as the last and due progress seems to be specially oommitted consequently. be expected from a reflecting " philosopher king. . but within — the soul itself. . delivered indeed from anxiety. secure and permanent. petitions for the disturbance of this order. ' ' here insert as an illusfa-ation of modern Stoicism the Norman Pearson (Nmeteenth Century. is not only an offence against his own highest interests. We Roman have seen how nearly the circumstances . maintained that the pectiliar tone of melancholy pervading the volume is all. . conduct which impedes his own struggle upward. We have ascertained that in the peculiar system to which he attached himself in common with all earnest Romans. fortiiied by logic and preserved by iterated maxims. For this is the real starting- point of all the subjective schools. May : which already to ns sound strangely confused and archaic ." above Caesar in that epoch of from a lethargy. .TEACHING OF THE EMPEROR of 131 Platonism.

132 MARCUS AURELIUS (B) Influence of the Conception of ^1670? ON Greek Thought Analysis § 1. \6yos tends to become detached and transcendent. inseparable correlates). but freed from the trammels of theological dogma and priestly mediation . all science. frank adoption of strict Platonic dualism. and be attuned to those higher conceptions which religious thought has already reached. Stoics none . and though it may draw man away from the altar. With an almost endless follow in the footsteps of Thought the prayer of the future will . in man's soul and Hfe. trained. or subjective of and no school Aristotle's successors. it will embody the religious aspiration of man. main purely personal this more true than All Greek thought is an is attempt to find the A6yo<} in things. atmosphere. gradually perthe starting-point sonified. in the State. though more robust than the prayer of to-day. desire to forces.ctual. Incurable " teleology " of the Classical period . to a truer apprehension of Nature and Nature's God. For this dualism." The joy of knowledge and discovery. Not less reyerent. § 2. Manichmam. such are the motives which impelled It is in the of Hellienic speculation. — . § 4. springs from the accommodate and explain the world to the A purely disinterested search for Truth has self. it will lead him nearer to the throne ! . probably " never entered into the heart of man. Personal need of practical philosophy \6yos=: principle of order and consistency. Gnostics had some fwncifvX explanation. the control of natural § 1. In progress of Stoicism. Awelius only kept by his busy life and Roman training from complete surrender of the a. All philosophy. least. (f>va-is and \6yos become interchangeable terms (at § 3. in words. or the necessity of satisfying the deeper needs of the heart. indeed.

and becomes. learnt to refer all to a single aim. in the dogmatic creed of the Stoics. it is identified with a person." or of a " raison d'etre " community ." § 2. in language either literal or symbolical. or Christian. looked afield in the wider world for a similar " reign of Law. The Philosopher. " Like is known by like. detected amidst the chaos of the empirical world clearly in the self-congruous fitness and consistency which appeared all behaviour and action. it always conveys . the term it .4 070? is employed just before passes into this final and mystic stage. the deliberate policy. the order and harmony that Heraclitus . which I may . It . by little ^this purely logical and abstract term acquires a kind of objective existence and a mystical significance and we cannot wonder that in the Hellenistic writers. not the discovered synthesis of things. It is the world-order. because he alone partakes in consciousness of the same spiritual force which regulates the world as in the well-known saying. the principle of life. community " of certain fixed principles. and permanence through change. Now. but the actual Creator and Sustainer of the Universe. when one has and to subordinate Little every minor detail of life to a guiding principle. conscious in himself and in his . whether Pagan. DRIFT TOWARDS MYSTICISM and perplexing variety from all 133 of meanings.. and was free was the universal notion that underlay and bound together the complex of individual phenomena the definition which must be ascertained before the discussion of terms can proceed the sense of order. the " rationale. consistency personal connotation. method. Jewish. appreciable by man." The fortuitous infinities " of Ionia (with its astoundingly at Evolution) pass of modern guesses curious away before that and abiding phase thought.

if we find this A<570s takes the Olympian Zeus in the Syncretism prevalent throughout the Imperial Age is. Every colloquy with a Sceptic or a so Sophist was ended in favour of the Eationalist. enjoyed a vogue. its happiness or satisfaction lay in discovering the cause and in " doing its duty." We may pause a moment to wonder at the admirable simplicity of mind which tolerated this fundamental assumption. identified with that rational Principle. itself. recognised but a single Principle but the ineradicable it feels dualism of intelligence sets akin and cognate to itself. . the So we get to the limited universe of Aristotle and to the unshaken conviction that everything created had a purpose and a meaning and that the secret of ' . after whose original exemplar the World-Soul fashions her ^ We need feel familiar garb of . or in the most popular form of the thought that 17 (fivai^ ov8ev fidrrjv iroiei. The A6yo<. each thing an epyov. as we have seen. and that which in violent contrast to the un- conscious and formless substrate.^ § 3. material in complete docility. The Stoics. was from a cloudy or logical abstraction gradually assuming the and the object of its being. on the other hand.134 MARCUS AURELIUS teleology of perhaps term the incurable or invincible Greeks. This Nature or this . . then. starting from complete materialism.^0709 were interchangeable terms and while the former retained all that notion of spontaneous energy and beneficent creativeness which Aristotle gave it. the latter. and from being immanent and implicit in things to become It is doubtful if any system that has transcendent. has ever been strictly and severely no surprise. from of the world tends more and more to detach itself its works. — — — lineaments of a Personal Intelligence. soon as he had secured the admission that Nature had an end.

or groups of opposites. with its blunt carelessness of our wishes or deserts. for which the unnatural or theatrical austerities of the earlier heroes have already prepared us. and siderable truth. as applicable. spirit. arrangement. and abandons the course of the secular series to § 4. itself. had and consistent.DRIFT TOWARDS MYSTICISM Monistic. Now the Gnostics. seems to be too dangerous ground for us to repose on we must abandon it. It retreats further and further from things. with no ulterior object save ceaseless repetition. When .40709 exterior nature. " Que diable allait-il faire dans cette galere ? " arises to our lips. or : with undue impatience) to the universal . in adopted a word. but also to the Parent of all such imperfect emanations. that things are in pairs. while he pronounced this world perfect and unique. sick mediaeval saint. on a Dualistic hypothesis. of For our own physical frame no language contempt was too exaggerated and. and rest modern endeavour. which had somehow fallen into the snares of matter. frankly the opposition of matter and Platonism and the nature of man suffered a like schism. we read Seneca are in or Epictetus or Aurelius. though still murmuring the commonplaces of its divine order and . without deliberate irreverence. of individual ^10705 hastily to unite itself indeed. The common consciousness assures with the early Pythagorean systcechy. that we may say with conall "most modern thought. not merely to this incompetent imprisoned ray of Universal Reason. The query of the Trench dramatist. Stoicism. 135 us." imported into Roman territory. though fantastic answer it . like some love. the Stoic recluse sighed for deliver- ance. be at least a logical remarked in passing. is The aim (not. we feel we the too a Manichsean atmosphere.

. how many divisions in soul ? (increas- . Aurelius has no sympathy with Matter. Stoics could admit to this problem of the intermixture of . (C) The Constitution and Psychology of the Individual Ajstalysis § 5. Only in ma/n's Man may . no such explanations to solve the difficulty. In Stoic world. reunion with But the . without in theory abandoning any of the tenets or axioms of the profoundest optimism and content. of Soul and Body. everythitig necessary and perfect. Universal Eeason. sole interest in Spiritual § 8. dualistic) was at variance with their reasoned philosophy. yet there are not wanting symptoms of that somewhat morbid mysticism." his Divine Counterpart or Original retreated from an alien world. which elevates as the supreme goal of the rational being the overcoming of its " otherness " in unconscious ecstasy. voluntary as well as compulsory § 7. he owes this (doubtful) blessing to his share in Xd-yoy yet in no true sense is he critic err agent.136 MARCUS AURELIUS mind and matter. it was impossible to discover stout Eoman character of Aurelius and the exigencies of his busy and responsible position keep him still faithful to the social instinct. Their instinct (like all humanity. and descending from a Hand in hand the Sage and single " Source of Life. each in its several place. "freedom" . Problem of Psychology . . Man was made for a purpose but precisely and whUe the what. which pronounced things good. § 6. and prevent the final plunge. you may neither complain nor hate nor service he reform. no account of the relation poA-t.

§ 5. else it would neither is exist nor happen. which explains . be found in its which marks it off from the rest of creatures. Instantaneous Conversion. civilization and Christian As to the ultimate equality of things. with our centric selfish ideas of is human convenience. substance. % 14. Aurelius had no resource in Metempsychosis . The Inner Self. or relation in outer things Spirit's — thoughts on things alone worlds as spirits" .) fiye/toviKov interchangeable ? vovs § 10. is morally inconceivable . {Are voCs cmd senses. "As many how im/prisoned ray intellectual to of Deity our very self? {transition § 12. Aurelius errs in good company. Antoninus a stranger to that anthropo- conception of the world on which European faith is founded." this doctrine recalls the modern school. PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EMPEROR ing tendenoy in 137 Monism to multiply differences rather than used in several reconcile contrasts). (Some luses of i/fux^ 'i™ higher sense. Like all Pantheists. have their own appropriate use and intrinsic beauty and are not to be set aside as bad merely because they do not fit in as the . because nothing in such a world is superspecial The function of each to " differentia. But Pantheism. "good and bad" (as the words are currently employed). no quality. § 9. Spirit always free if it will: Solipsism . moral differentia). intellectually incontestable. his Spirits the moral personality. On nothing can you pass judgment. from § 13. There is no evil. real. menacing grin of leonine jaws." that quality or faculty fluous or disorderly.— . for is everything necessary. His psychology has no pretence to consistency {hints even of a — fourth element). thing has In this realm of law (without a lawgiver) everyits appointed place. their "indifference. and contributes to the welfare of the whole. is this § 11. Even unlovely or terrible things.

Their service is perfect indeed. progress is altogether eliminated. and all searchers after truth are like Saint Christopher. all the Stoics placing the precarious paradise of immortal heroes in closer contemplation of the mysteries of stars their orbits . But clearly in man's special conformation there is something exceptional and peculiar. too. is is reform it. once and for all. § 6. Each improvement. If to complain of such it to attempt to alter or no questioning of the ways and methods of Providence. world's —Marcus guiding every trivial detail of the will not venture to decide which of these views is correct. so the very notion of change. — or with careful and particular solicitude may be even course now . "With man enters a new factor : that almost invisible point of Freedom. of valuing and admiring the works of Creation. first. tells of and also permits him is to criticize it. in the very limited realm of Liberty . but involun- tary and automatic. have settled on the course of events. which gathers up and embraces the turmoil and contrast of a lower sphere in the peace and silence of the Absolute. The impulse to philosophic thought curiously interwoven of the passionate desire to be free and the correlative yearning to discover and obey the Highest Law . so. of determining himself freely and without reserve. its character and circumstances are all divinely appointed by that Power which may either. Man has this double power . and second. As there of destiny.138 MARCUS AURELIUS the seeming conflict of ultimate principles as a mere passing phase. and written out in anticipation the whole book a world is impiety. The rest of the creatures form an orderly but^unconscious retinue in the train of the King. thing is in its place. which at once his close affinity to the Universal Intelligence.

spectator of the world. which we should not try and discover in the system of Aurelius to but we may mention it here. § 7. show how assailable. startled and amazed when. and confined in a narrow prison-house of " nonpossumus. which somehow can consecrate it lower element while keeping He exhausts on this innocent envelope of the striving . This very doubtful the privilege he owes to his the conscious participation ^1070?: indeed. may represent but the waking vision of a Somnambulist Creator. . he is restricted by ascetic " taboo to speak from finding enjoyment even in the innocent diversions of life. approaching true being . emphatically like it. An Enghsh bishop and Christian apologist has pronounced our body to be a "mass of matter with which we are for a time associated " and most Idealists would relegate it. The same sense Marcus. has has no knowledge of the the in proper subordination. how open to logical attack. not yet reached that genial Platonism which reconciles the two opposing factors Christian faith . PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EMPEROR still left 139 to him in in the universal dominion of physical law. with all its pleasures and pains. is the will-to-live. is his doctrine on human nature." His nature is conceived as abrupt dualism his ethics is limited to passivity and resignation. . a Thing. the deliberate moral agent. it beholds the universe which its blind and undirected efforts have called into being? This is clearly a modern and romantic belief. as we have seen. to the dim phantom-region of the external world. he is forbidden agent. Is Reason. who is of " f oreignness " may be found in far more an ." . idealist than any prede- cessor in the Stoic School who. Critic. neither more nor less cognate to us. reaching consciousness in man. nor more nor less .

for Marcus makes not the slightest effort to be conSometimes the invisible and truer portion of sistent. could write more severely this ." threefold. sensations. rather than reconcile. Our modem society and hopes of progress rest upon a sense of " otherness " and conflict. like our " body. Now here we are met by a considerable difficulty. . But a system avowedly monistic. roOs" crco/iaToi alaOrjaeK. innuendo. and we shall substantiate For he never accurately defines matter. . or enters into the difficult problem of the interaction of soul and body.I40 spirit all the MARCUS AURELIUS vocabulary of sarcasm. " body and soul " at others. and not upon any fatigued or impatient assumption of oneness. that no Gnostic. for it is only on occasion that definition . if we wish to find his function and his " differentia. . soul. (^v^v) violently opposed to the higher mere animal life now Now it is true that or is even identical. find a&fia. man is twofold. But our honest and sincere it is not without significance student of human nature cannot really find satisfaction himself in the Unitarian tenets he professes. as with us. and spirit. we find in Scripture the triple and generally and in common parlance we in are quite satisfied with the popular dualism. we must therefore pass to the unseen or spiritual part of man. Now it is. In iii. no early Christian ascetic. here repeat what was said under a similar heading in Epictetus. we it find soul principle." § 8. we are puzzled when we meet with this increasing tendency to multiply difference and accentuate. as the vital element of includes it. we are perfectly familiar with this looseness . '^V'^fj's opfial. contempt We may he might well be Saint Thomas k Kempis. vov Boyfiara. impulses. by a fuller examination. contrasts. principles. '^frv^rj. 16 we .

(in the soul). we find the higher yjrvxv. irvev/uiTiov. atrea'xi. also For the two other elements he has to vepcKeifiivov acofianov. are ? vov'i and 3 rjyefioviKov inter- changeable terms called (for again in Sal/icov. Now we may ask. but each moment the Ruling Principle longer to be a slave. ' Despise the first . . PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EMPEROR To be impressed with with the beasts . what am I making it ? it of it at this is it what use am I putting e'ffTt). yrj \v0poi). supreme an inner (loi iaTl to 'HyefioviKov to . to be at the mercy of the " pulls of impulse " (vevpoaTraaTeladai). In ii. with beasts and bad while even the bad use vov<i as guide to obvious duties. : Kal TO 'HyefjLoviKov. to aiifi^vTov irvevfiaTiov. aapKia earl le. being our god within. and closely allied with the lower nature " Whatever I am. instead of the 'Hyef/.' . Gruide." <TvviaTijKa<}' first thou art old suffer this no So in xii. iii. of these the two are ours only so far it our duty to tend them is {fiexpl rod imfieKeiaOai Seiv) but the third alone truly our own {to Be TpiTov fiovov Kvpiwi aov). § 9. the bond of fellowship ? Surely not (npocrTeTrjKo^ engrossed dvaKeKpa/JLevov t^ aapKihlcp) is from senses this that and ingrown into the flesh ? It Marcus employs vov<s in two identical clear different (j8) — (a) with 1776/*. including k. Not always like Ti. vow and the lower. a vapour. the >frvxv now being termed nTvevfianov. 2 there is the same division. nor always the same. 24. with customary fervour. . — see what the Third second is is ! a breath. for in X. it appears more sanctuary which we have to keep clean a . 3 rpia iariv ef mv : a-a/juiTiov irvev/jLaTiov . 141 phantasies. exhaling and again inhaled. we have in common men . vov<!: is .a-iJLevov {firtTi icevov Nov (aTToXvTov Koivfoviai) divorced from k.. is moment ? empty of Mind ? k..

" of aXadrjai/i in animal appetite. which man has indeed an Clearly. " not things. whatever its past. of /jitivToi hindrances we meet. such access by sensuality. imlike the Gnostics. but can lose he believes that the Spirit (for so I may perhaps translate vyefi. into inlet too. when : showing the various in body. this nothing in the world can touch. even in physical crime and degradation the " ^ <y\&<7a untarnished Nov? remains always pure to . and colours efforts." " Yet in viii. Spirit can recover "in the turning of an oyster-shell. not tyrant. What it thinks. not is not steel. truer to nature and experience. about habit and . The will is always free. whom — o/MOfiox' n 8e ^jO^v opixr) ava)fiOTo<. the tyranny of custom. is . the gradual absorption of will- power in repeated unaided action.. and becomes the victim only of itself. for it is the voluntary servitude of the Spirit which can disgrace it. fleshly cares. Spirit it it with its own hues." "in the twinkling of an eye. But just in this there long-sighted Hedonism it is proof against any assault from without. has an immeasurable power completely transforms the whole world. he continues ta Tov cou 'iSia ovSeK aXKo^ elcodev ifitroBi^eiv for fire. . When freed by its own . not ill-fame. but thoughts on things" really matter (teaching alike of ." this lost sovereignty. as to lose its liberty .142 referring to MARCUS AURELIUS the higher Universal Eeason. One of Marcus' most striking and often iterated convictions is that at any moment. no real divergence. and requires only to see the good to follow Thus we have the Socratic and Platonic optimit. 41.) can be so immersed and engrossed in . when it becomes the mere handmaid of body in § 1 0. in the " Averroistie " usage. ism and immediacy of repentance without Aristotle's caution.

perhaps. it wiU be seen i. &pA ye S. before they have any character in themselves at eS i'xei. at once that. airo it Qikei. and it is the substance and sum of Stoic teaching. even creating. . the external fact. this almost " If mirage in the desert.g. 143 and Epictetus). iv. not to change things. . § 11. Epictetus. dissent. that what happens and bad men equally can be in itself Similarly vi.a we form is. which in itself is blind and yoiceless oft . ii. verdict on this unreal phantom. 16 (p. ri iriXayos . Teubner) : Ti offc fie rapda-iret. 155. a the poor body " (always the away. to arrange the chance alphabet into a language of our own invention. is 11 : Ti S' iari tovto. approval. k. yet its let 39) " be cut or burned. Now e. passes judgment. that 1j ^Sofee iifup where it the so 86yfi.PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EMPEROR Epicurus neutral. Now gives it is Spirit viToXdfi^avei. iravra that (see on 'T-ir6Xr]-\jrK). This is true freedom. olov . the complex jectivity material things. tovto /mt] viroXafi^aveTm k.. diminutive. besides &n as * Compare. and baffle our search) but to make things ours. from its personal side. : i.^ For all the objective is an array of indifferent atoms or complex phenomena which wait for our notice. . pure . to claim full knowledge (the " ding-an-sich " live apart inaccessible. absolutely representing. 8 neither bad nor good. or even chaotic and indecipherable. dXXi rh S6yiM. can make itself its what it wishes of can construe exactly according to This is desire this neutral. without not even. sub- to which Philosophy always aspires . fester or rot that in thee which passes judgment take alike to good knowing this. TO eavTo iyeipov elvai deXr). Tpeirov. ttoiovv fiev eavro olov S' av iroiovv eavrS It <j>abveaOai irav of to avfifialvov. imaginary objective. interpretation.Wo in fullest freedom." To 'HyefioviKov ease {'^a-vy(a^6Ta)). all. k.

the special idiosyncratic in man. of the Spirit.144 MARCUS AURELIUS . pure truth and the Soy/iara. interpretations are Spirits of the ("quot homines tot senworld as there got back in the most have almost tentise"). and ? be If it reis absorbed all the great central Reservoir the universal (mathematical and logical) principles of sound judgment and right reasoning. Jin. viz. indeed. with uniform and universally valid axioms and regulations. rather than that " typical " reason which is the same in all. the moral personality. but the moral sense recognising. the passage from to an intellectual a moral conception or. is that subjective though and incommunicable. yet equally momentous and valid. it Will the not.). but in the end. along with the more moral. must it not In fact. a refraction of the Universal Mind. there are certain grave difficulties (a) there must be as many various. the conscience. more personal. singularly scanty influence of Stoicism in public (6) again (as we have already hinted). the Gnostic in Mon and Christ. of like the Averroistic the moment death desert poor contemptible in clay soul. and needing logical training. be exactly alike and identical in all men ? we have here one of the most striking features of this transition period. . a of very portion case. '^yefioviKov) its not the cold speculative reason." in which how can it be our " very own " ? {aov. Aurelius so often assure. § 8. . The Spirit is (whether vov<! as Aurelius prefers. Christian teachers. is this " Spirit. and real this recognition true. God. the will. and we dogmatic of ancient schools to the sophistic standpoint that avdp(oiro<! (each individual man) fierpov drravTcav feeling. becomes Thus Marcus. may account for the . the variation of nomenclature. as Epictetus and. like Nov<s.

Intellectually. To him the 'Hye/ioviKov than intelligence. in common with the abandon all rational symmetry and dogmatism for ethical certainty. call personklity difficulties. is from the moral or the And Marcus. is (as of philosophic system Whether the starting-point ? intellectual side depends on the one question. it is unthinkable. there is but one world he would not hear of a missionary . it Lewes acutely remarks on " Spinoza ") inevitable morally. isolated point with the Supreme Being. and vanishes away. all when ready soul were equally He had long not of the the solution. in Metempsychosis. unattainable unless we 10 . Pantheism is not only logical. in the Many from divine ! the One. Now the whole difference § 12. telling of the " other world " without a shudder at his impiety. is ready to Spinoza about the cause of Error process of the . of all the East. struggling. which do honour to his is from the human rather what we Hence his avowed candour. like the Moto. trace of this belief. and remind is us that perfect symmetry prefer to sacrifice truth. For him. PSYCHOLOGY OF THE EMPEROR 145 and therefore involved in perpetual trouble when he tries to identify this separate. sufferer. It is obvious that he is as puzzled as rest of his age. or for this inward pertinacious conviction. of Plato and Pythagoras. as Plotinus. which in most good men is a substitute (or no unequal compensation) for demonstrable proof. as for Emerson. pure and indifferent. different in the training He shows no through lives and fortunes.. in accouating for the diversities of the Spiritual principle in men. He had not the Gnostic and Averroistic each remains uncon- belief that the divine particle in taminated by corporal contact. Christ.

we have the popular dualism expect the hour. all MARCUS AURELIUS In vi. Indeed. . eV y to yjrv^apiov aov tov eKvrpov iKireaeiTai. 14 '^Irv^r}. Again. on a peaceful departure from life. . vii. avTrj'i evepyj^fiara) power (iravTa iir' vi. . he adopts first another system of bipartite or tripartite division. ravTa fieTci^aWov. when occupied with man's invisible Hfe. apart from the deity within. When he is speaking of the whole human complex. where they are homonyms (? e'/e whereas 36. 3. KaOoXiKTjv K. which like some attendant on a sacred shrine (vecoKopof) has to keep the silver image . oara fir) i. avTO ovBev in ix. . while in . i^eikeiTai. to the other all that are not its own proper functions (t^ . 32 we find that the higher nature is included in the term ^v^'?. § 14. he terms it. but with of little hope making the Psychology Syncretist as he is. . vivifying TouTtov et? = the vital now one now another complex of matter. 16. to irvevfiaTLov transitory). Marcus clearer. ey/cdXw? to sfrv^apiov cltto tov o-m/iaTo^ are entirely in its and these avTy). ^v^ij ivo'^Xei is identified with the higher nature (Eendall's Inner Self). to 'Hye/wviKov Be 'y^v)(apiov . ^^"^ "''''M^'''^"^ ^'/*' *• "^v^fji. of We have added these passages. iavTm ovk fir) to ircidrj. one and then after is immemorial fashion.146 § 13. ix. there is not wanting trace he of an " Ego " above the vital centre of animal Hfe. and d yjrvxrjv XoyiKrjv. represents spirit. . Similarly and in a similar context. but to the one all are indifferent {dSia^opa). he has to define more guardedly. " body and soul " . with the addition XoyiKT]. Here Bidvoia = yjrv^Tj . Be Siavoia aS. Again. where it may very well current. iroKiriK-qv TifiSsv cares nothing for any other interest. -kov) (like all other things unreal and aXKo toiovtov.

"Mutual part. separable from the will and the personality. whether the Ideas pre-exist. § 17. The difi&culty is perhaps after all purely formal and logical. forming thus a fourth element in the indi- But it would be easy to parallel the sliglit Is the confusion in any religious writer. service of men" (enshrined in rigid formula. and form the exemplar to the artizan Deity. conceived sort of Divine "deposit" (vapaKaTadijKr}) to be carefully TTw? ? guarded ? or the very man himself. and the still older but similar question in Plato. priori teleology. His § 16. 147 unsullied. common to all animals. what is man made for? "Social intercowse. as a moral ideal. or are to be identified with his thoughts. and of the vital force and dust of earth. (D) Man's Function and Place in the Special Equipment of each Being a ITS World: Key to Purpose and Happiness Analysis §15." "Reasonable beings made for each other" (list of axioms or "dogmas" kept ready fm' crisis or temptation). a. what good for whole is good for § 15. And of the here we come to the most ingenuous assumption whole .THE SPECIAL FUNCTION vidual. e'^av or the ? voice of an inward daemon or spiritual monitor ties He who can discriminate the intricate subtle- such a question will be able to settle the Mediaeval problem whether God created or obeyed the of Moral Law. this We have now to inquire what is the function of curious' creature. particle of compounded of an actual the divine essence. indiis vidualism excluded) .

impresses To bring together here the this axiom on himself. as to any comfortable use and adaptation of phenomena. where the subject Av is suicide aud death : x^lpu voUi S. T7)\iKovrov ^ftaprev ffroi K." "the gods could not do any injury to their There is an absolute and exasperating want of empirical creatures. is closed by some preconceived idea as to the goodness of God and Nature. "Nature could not" (such either through lack of power or lack of ! . For a fine instance of this superb adhesion to teleologic axioms. and which abides Why then this sense of pain in our soul. dv8p. KaKci. extinguished is for ever. he. and governs the universe and " otherness " ? Why this constant solace and reminder ? his magnificent skill. which so unreasoning)." Every avenue verification: there is no real inductive inquiry at all. In such contexts and usages words cease to have any meaning. in his solitude and repetition tedious with almost recourse to the hoyfiara. To the man racked unjustly. the universe yet "the best of all possible worlds. those isolation.vBpwTov vws ij toOto jSiox fiTj AvBptin-ov xelpu Trovqaeieu . in Marcus (like It is clear that the attitude of is ' ' devout resignation is " and in Epiotetus entirely borrowed from popular religiosity so admirable the compassionateness of Secularists to-day." Again and again of life. Oifre Sk /far Ayvoiay oUt elSvuk ^v dwa^Uvfj 5k wpotpV' \dia<r8ai fi Stop8ii<TaaBai raOra. and ment of torture. 11. k. t' d7a9ct dy. to accurate knowledge. both of station and of temperament. have made such a blunder as to let good and evil indifferently befall the good and bad indiscriminately. Everyis thing has an end . is and amazing faith).evws av/i^alvri. 8 dk commend me /ii) to ii. MARCUS AURELIUS No wonder Marcus had to have perpetual fundamental and yet startling axioms of the Stoic faith which alone could encourage him in the disappointments and vicissitudes " Man is made for society.' iva ri.148 treatise." and Providence supreme. with every refineand dying as he knows the death of a dog. iirlarii toU t twv "OXuk $iJ(ris irapeiSev Kv oih' &v trap' dSwa/dav tj vap' dTep^cia. toU KaKots !rc<f>vpiJt." An almighty power which can do no wrong. ^ may not be out of on this teleology passages bearing place. nothing wrong. as they build up the syllogistic fabric is " . that for which he born the ' It is the same kind of teleology which anticipates all experience with the barren formula and syllogism: "Nature can do nothing in vain.

) : t0 tov p.. irdXai SeSeiKTai. — vii. 6. to. 18 El vi. . to.<s ttw? vireTa^e. : : to. to.ev eKaaToif k.^ 44 : ^ ^Vai^ XoyiKr/ K. 16 Ovirep eveKev eKacrrop KaTeaKevaarai. TToXlTlKIJ. — to. there is the useful and the good relatively to him. man is horn for nothing that is good for the reciprocity and social life community can be bad for the citizen. T6\o? avTov' OTTOv §6 TO T6\os. 55 : UpaKTeov Se eKda-T^ TO fiev Xoiird t<ov KUTeaKevaarai Se to. oXa SooiKovera' el tovto. '^eipova t&v ifj. ^xi. 10 : Hdaai M ye Te'^vai t&v KpeiTTovasv xoivr) ^(elpai irotovaiv ovkovv ^v<rK. K. 19 Tl Oav/id^ei'} K. Xelpco Tmv KpeiTTOvcov eveKa k. tcl Se XoyiKa dXXijXcov KaTaaKevrj' ovv TfpoTjyovfievov e. ttj avvrjyaye. self-seeking at the expense of " unnatural. — v. ^oaov. . eveKev. KpeiTTW dXKrjXoi'i avv/jpfiocrev. ep.'^vj(a.. \oyiKa ^&a dWtjT^Mv eveKa o v. ev tovt^ to K. 1 j^etjoes . eKeKev to fiev KaTa<TKevr) to koivwvikov (jyvait rj — iv (i. 01 Xoiirol &eoi. •77(005 — — others is iv." yeyove. Otl yap Is it tt^o? koivcovmv yeyovafiev. : • — 3 ' : competition. K. TleTroirjKe yovv to. not obvious (he asks) that x^^P^ Tmv KpeiTTOvcov Similarly eveKev to. Trpbi ToSe <j)epeTai' ^eperai Se. to kut d^iav direvei/j. aTOfioi." eicacrrov tt/jos Tt yeiyovev iTTTro? a/A7re\o9. THE SPECIAL FUNCTION end for each .. twv Se k. Ta Se KpeiTTO) dW'^Xcov KpeiTTO) Se Toiv fiev di^u)(oav xi. avveTa^e k.rj dv6. KpaTiaTevovTa et? : 30 ofiovotav dWijT^MV e^<. to. KpeiTTOvwv eveKev. XoytK&v eveKev. and man is born for association Feyova/jiev yap irpoi trvvepyiav d)? TroSe? cos ii. 149 where is the end. 'OpS. UXto? epet tt/jos ti epyov yeyova. 'O ToO oXov Nov<! koivwviko'. \oyiKd. eKsl eKacTTq)' ' TO (rvfi<f)epov Ayadov Koivtovia. to.. to apa dyadov tov XoyiKOV tci . viii. TavTa Se dXX-^Xaiv. TO o^v avTurpdo'aetv dWiyXot? irapa (jtiVti/ . j) ifiy^.

saved further . or denial. our Inner Selves one made for we ever so much So viii. . k. 7 voepov k. vav to XoyiKov iravfmv avdp. is for me vXi) aperrji. Thus we shall find with the label koivcdvikov or ttoKi/tikov. : : — — crisis. viii. . 4 Ki^Seadat v. trouble proof.150 MARCUS AURELIUS denying Monopsychism and inon freedom and peculiar independence of each centre of consciousness. " Be aXK'^Xayv eveKa yeyava/iev another. ^coov viii. XoyiKrji. while sisting . . "^Irv^rj — k. Man is defined. 'Pa/jLaiov vi. ei to irapov epyov k. rj dvdpd>7rov iroXiTiKTi 0eov. 29. he allows. will despise.? yhp T&v oXav which maxims evsKev aXK^Xtov. 2 K. As a rh "KoyiKh Karea-KevaKvia^ <^i5o-6ft)9 fwa T?." sovereign have each their own fj SiSdffKe ovv rj aXKi]\mv evcKev . ix. as 16: \oyiKov km k. XoyiKov KoivaviKov iroXiTiKov ^&ov. 44. el Kal on fidXiaTa where Eendall transl. . — (as above. xi. § 17. k. least see In this perhaps tedious recital we shall at (what might escape us in a translation) how conviction profound a was this of the affinity and . oTi aW^Xwi. Karat Trjv tov avBpayirov (jjvaiv i. avOpcoiroi yeyovaaiv premise. and the of philosopher f. irpea^vTov iii. k. My Xoyixi) The present occasion iroXiTiKrj^ ^vii. 5 fwow dppevo<s k. to awoXov Tey(yT)i "Whatever ^ XoyiKr) k. — 14: XoyiK^ KadoXtKT} nature is vi. : rt irXeov em^rfrS). voepov KotveoviKov laovofiov dem. — — 68. iii. ^&ov. 1.<s = the nor Spirit. 56. KoivoiviKov . 1 8 in a list of short he is ever to keep on his tongue's tip to meet any sudden § 16. the Inner SeK) find it to be neither voepov — KoivmvtKov.) vii. — — : iii. 59 oi rights. ^dov. — ( 72. : — doubt ix. hvvafii. for evexev yeyovajxev. k. without fear of K. ttoXltikov iroXiiTiKov iroXtTiiKr) •jToXiTiKT). ap')(ovTO<!. irrefragable fundamental and <j>lpe. the whole argument man's social virtue crvyyeve<s is assumed.

ovSe tov iroXirrjv jSXaTTTet. X. 45 oVa fwva e. the bee. 54: to t^ a/iijvet 117) avfj. — : ' . eKdoTtp avfi^aivet. 'Pm/J/rj ws Be av&ptoirrp 6 Kocrfio<i. -rrdrpiii w? fiev 'Avrtovivcp Ta racf voXeaiv vi. is bad for *0 rrj iroXet ovk v.— THE SPECIAL FUNCTION 151 mutual service of men.(j}epov. the man. for the swarm. 44 : jj Se b/jlt) (jjva-i's XoyiKrj fioi. and how rigid the formula or language which expressed it. v. 33 oXws Be fiefiv^ao oti tov <f>vaei iro\LTr)v oiiSev jSXaTTTet o TToXiv ov ^Xdirrei. x. therefore. 6 ovBev yap fiXa^epov : — — : : — TOO fiepei o TO) 0X9) a-vfjL(f)ep€i.. ovSe ry fieXiaiTri avfjLcf)ep6i. — : vi. r] K. ravra tw 0X(o av/jbipepet. ovv TavTai<. 22 citizen. e. axjiiXifia. x. 20 Svfi^ip^i kKOLffT^ o ^epei eKaarat r] t&v oXmv $va"t?. for the universe. that happens well for the community. woXinKT)^ TroXt? k. ^Xa^epov. Nothing. fioi dyadd.

) = Passive and active §4. two chief relations (which will by the following series of quotations). {Insistence § 3. human society. Eesignation and acquiescence in the world-order. world and State {nearly alwanjs carefully coupled). . loth virtues pass into mystic piety. will he ever attain this perfection f) § 5. There are.CHAPTEE II MAN AND THE WORLD {A) Thb two Commonwealths and the Agent or Quietist Analysis Citizen.) side of morality. or vigorous beneficence Disappeared has all that fulmination and social virtue. is complementary to the active side. best be described . Marcus is nearly always careful to couple them rarely do we find one apart from the other in independence. of two societies. Holiness and Justice include all others. ( in the end. each with its duty. as § 1. to on duties gods and men. to the lesser community. Resignation and Benevolence § 2. 152 . This he has learnt § 1. and defiance against " Fortuna " which characterized the more theatrical pages of Seneca. the greater city the other. one to the world and God. Acquiescence and Resignation at last given the chief place among Virtues . Man is member . then. (= perfect contentment with both. the passive side.

" Perhaps no subject is more frequent than this twofold conception of duty. and recognise in them the same affinity. and in our last section we shall show how this. passes again into a mystic and almost ecstatic consciousness that the true home of God is the human soul . Everything that comes to us is . . To this wide diffusion of interest we may attribute the somewhat rarefied patriotism of Marcus wherein all active endeavour for the Empire of Eome and its especial responsibilities seems (save in a few passages) to have evaporated in a sad and neutral tolerance for every human creature. a self-centred attitude. the true end of man. therefore no one can hurt a man but himself. agreeably to the "unselfish and feminine nature of the Emperor. the avrdpKeia (self-sufficingness) of earlier sages . Marcus being chiefly a moralist. the same sublime source of their being. Thus we are integral parts of the greater city and the lesser the " whole company of rational people. and have a spark of His essence within we are akin to our fellows here. 153 is a direct providence." and the cosmopolis of the human brotherhood. " Nothing that is according to nature is evil : nothing that happens every event to us can make us worse . We shall see in the end how the extreme comprehensiveness and universality of this resigned and affectionate disposition leads insensibly to indifferent — : . we shall have advanced far towards a complete understanding if we notice the emphasis put upon the correlate virtues of Resignation and Benevolence. and. . or our criticism is disarmed because the " canon " or rule to apply is ready. though it may be debased and shrouded.MAN AND THE WORLD from Epictetus. The reason is in both cases the same we are akin to the Creative Principle. not mere acquies- .

Always remembering itrl in each action ttj? dfi^orepeov irpoi. . To iii. this dual attitude the iroKtriicov constant collocation voepov noted above has reference.. ri OvTS yap dvOpminvov dvev rij? — for the divine (and almost personal) providence hitherto discussed). irpdcraas Here the (f)v<7i<. 15 (Best service : . but the personal need of peace § 2. . ep^w 6 (le o /te vvv universal Nature. olKeiaxTiv k. irpoKTjSofijivov.. 5 : v7roTeraxoTo<s eavrov (like avOp. k. — are alBiffi/ia iii. greater and less. rots e/c tS)v oKwv dirove/iopAvoK (where we notice substitution of natural causes. gives way before the new or newly-read teaching of the Deity within . . to« r&v iii. uKoKovdlav. r) stated his position so clearly 6e\ei. the latter <f>iKk 8ia a-vyyiveiap.1 54 MARCUS AURELIUS among the brethren. for the call to philosophy is not the misery of the world of men. dXXrjXa avvBecrem'! rh deia avvava(f>opa<. ovt eftvaXiv (here we have the close association of the two complementary halves of man's iv. fiev irapa Oeov ^kei (Tvyy6vov<. or the beauty or inexorable sequence of Nature. of God within first is) Kadapov tA ek irdOovi SiaTT/pecv k.j>v\ov K. which at this stage in his Meditations sup- . K. «. what is it aimed at ?) duty). avOpwircav ytvofieva. and the aperrjv. 3. avOpmirovi 11. . ev Trpd^eii. 7. ii. and tersely as in koivt) ifir) vvv e^eiv 6eXei Trpdcraeiv 17 25: 'Eyw vvv ^vaK. rr/p — (XoyiKov) 9 : rrjv trpo<s to« 6eoi<. — some Socrates) and iii. At each event say tovto Tov <Tvp. in fate. Nowhere has he v. and salvation. with the Author of —Thus the soul's oneness the twofold duty. ry T&v dvdp. (On discontent. but the essential cence in fate nor work serene contemplation of all. hvaapeaTrjaeoi^ ttJ? Trpos 6ewv 8i 6eoi<. — . KaKia . or recognition of the objective State and Law. tovto Se irap^ 13.

irpoi dvdp<mrov<. evapeareiv k. half -conciliation of the " Natures'. ev/j. tok 6eo2<s crv/Mcfjcovov. dirove/jLo/jLevotg. joy is is 155 the and sorrow instinct of difficult law of destiny. Upda-ato hi dvdpdnrwv . 66.. .MAN AND THE WORLD plants the gods. that note anticipation of Marcus' final the personal within seems to compensate for the Tieuter and fatalistic without. k. Aaifimv eKaarov vow \0709. ffw^e dvOpdoTTovi.va><j>e\rj'. He asks Socrates if he can be thus contented. Man's duty divided into side of morality : jjassive and active apeffKOfiivrjv uev tok . the recurrence ewl of 52 : evra/CTOTepos •Trpo's rot? Trapopdfiara. (where. — — : vi. rots av6p. (Though is such interdependence and side. dpKelaOai tw — 54: — 55 . opposed T&v irpaKreav viro aov. 16. — : we may note vii. implication to insulate any one two yet it_ will he necessary to speak more fully upon this half-contrast. viii.^daei 6eoae^5)<. koivwviko^. orthodox phrases). avfi^aivova-iv . severally. .. TTOiovaav Se Sera ^ovXerai K.. my peculiar nature to each : the social it man. We can avoid blaming heaven and hating men (fiefiyjrdaOai ^eots k. oaio<. Toi<i 7rpoa<f)epeadai.eveaTepo<! tt/ ra rmv ifKyjaLov irapovaj] avfj. evdp/jMcrrov k. k. Kara BiKMOcrvvijv Bia — SlKaioi elvai — to. in Here it may not be altogether fanciful to mysticism. after an interval. because in this consisted the great crux of the whole Stoic philosophy.) — vi. 23 : Ilpdaam rt . by knowing that only ra i(ji r/fiiv are good and evil then will there be no reason either to 5ec3 : er/KaXiaai or ffrrjvai crTaaiv iroKefiiov irpof dvdp. in Koi. apportioning. V. avdp<oTrov<s /iiarja-ai). to Bia tmv av/jL^aivovTiov aoi. 27. vii. . aiSov vi. ret ttjOO? deovi. 41.) § 3. irapovaiv dvdpcoirov'. 30 Sidvoia 6eov<!." the world's and ours. Eeverence for your makes you apearbv to yourself.

riT airofiijTe tl t&v dvdpcoTroii true health. — irdv to irapd tjj? exros AiTLa<s avfi- ix.) if — is in others the very opposite. (where.- 7roXiT€vea6ai ti aiTov<Si firjre kutu- . 34. The joyful satisfaction of my nature reached. . rj o aKOiviovTjTov ti irpdaamv. Calvinism. r) and content: nrapovaa irpa^i'i irpo's KoivmviKr) irapovaa Biddeaii. my Inner Self turn from none of our fellows and find dvOpmirav Tiva. his soul will Marcus somewhat despondingly asks ever be such as to live with gods and k. ^Arapa^ia fMev irepl t&p dm tjJ? cktos eK AItm'S (TVfi/SatvovTwv' BiKaiorr]^ Se iv Tol's irapd ttjv aov ahiav ivepyovfiivoK. — uytes e'xeiv to 6. evapeaTiKT} ^alvov. we mixture of the personal and placable providence of the gods. 'Hye/iopiKov. of x. with find a the scheme of predestinarian Fatalism). a-cofiariov (for I feel § 4. viii.^aiv6vT(ov). 43. . Stoicism. is fault with nothing (TTpei^ofievov fxryv which happens to men. men in fullest sympathy. In for atTiov) : Tpel<. . This ix. or at least set side by side. . identified. may be noted.e(i<f)ea6ai dvdpayn-oK avp. 0eots re S<s fiijTe fji. As hand or any other limb cut from body. off — viii.IS6 MARCUS AURELIUS . Sey(^oiJiai evl Tov? ffeoii^ ava<f)epa)V «. 31.' rj rj r] p. in some points . a-vp. What suffices (dpKei) for moral judgment and so f) for perfect happiness k. {p. . cr'^e&ei<. Sv/i/Saivei tL fioi . he irpo'i Toil's ffu/i/Siowras. eviroiiav avatfiepcov. so is o fii) — if diXcov TO cvfi^atvov viii. (Here note in passing the clear emphasis on the freedom of the will man's agency is the single exception in the chain of fatal and predetermined series.ev Trpo? ro trafiaTiov to irepiKeifiivov' TTcicn travra' Sg irpo's rr)v Oeiav alrLav a^' ^? av/M/Saivei. 1. the very counterpart. 27 he adds another relation to the body compelled to adopt Coraes' reading. rijv TrdvTwv it irrf^iiv a<j>' rji iravTa Ta ryivo/jueva avfi/iripveTai.

de Guyon. devotes himself to two things. the " You can at once have all. though. TTJ to vvv airovefiofievov iavTco. . far We . again. Thus ocrtoTT. . . <f>vaei evKaipov.MAN AND THE WORLD '^ivtoffKeadai inr citizen's Tal<! 157 of atirwv. These two are included in the thought of world-communion. iva . . Be'xj) to vvv rrj t&v oXcov xi. ^v<ret . of course. A man recognising near approach of death. 6. Kal yap Tavra Se Trpea^vTepa : iv eiSei icrri t^? evKoiv(ovr)aia<. SiKaioa-vvtjv . (Eendall (Our Inner Self) is made for holiness and God-fearing no less than for justice. k. Ujoos oaioTfjra yap rj ffeoae^eiav KareaKevaarat ou'^ rjrrov BiKaio- <7Vvr)V.? and hiKaioavvq include all other virtues. irpoiovTot Sta irpd^ecov rot? iroKioLv XvcrireXuv oirep q airovefirj tovt the aaTra^o/ievov (which. 1. x. are here commonwealth in the pilgrimage to the soul's true home Marcus is. like Mme. SiKaioirpayeiv to vvv irpaaaofievov 13. and xi. fidWov t&v hiKawirpap/TjpATcav. a Quietist. after all. the former. 11. avrjKev oXov eavTov St/caioavvy fiev eh ra i^' eavrov ivepyovfieva iv Se rot's — Commonwealth of Nature and aWot? avfi^aivovai k. for here. if>iKeiv rfj t&v oXeav . are prior even to the dues of justice. 20. a wonderful tt/so? readiness for cheerful endeavour. {to irdpov excellently " — : fiovov) 7rp6<i qtrtoTTjTa k. § 5. A very noticeable passage. for business. iav airevBvvgi. he assigns the first place to the passive virtue of acquiescence and resignation. — TO cj)V(Tei To such a man. — x.") xii. what evil can befall ? el wotew aov oiKeiov k. whole Duty of Man compass the whole end of life. nay. he visible on our road from the shows wonderful aptitude K. The happiness iro\i<! the life (evpoia). appHes both to greater and the lesser of human society. Svo rourots apKovfievo<. for the first time.

§ 6. is Nature f which nature is to guide us f § 7. Result . % 9. Xe7»7S raXriOr) k. man has no other duty than to be still . . was beginning to have a paramount MrjSev fieya ^avrd^ov rj ro w? /tiev xii. The "differentia" of conflict to-day man something isolated and unique. §10. between scientific and Demooratic (Christian) § IL In a chomgeless and mvprogressive universe. without even to Marcus. Post-Aristotelians preoccupied % 8.158 (j}i\y<! MARCUS AURELIUS TO uTTove/iofievov. with their own peculiar natu/re unknowable and surrendered to Fortune. included in the social. man out of a place in a realm of faxd law . aax^pova. is. iirl Be rmv e^wdev xii. Difficult task of disguising difference of world man to be identified or contrasted vnth and man. ." Had it any place in a Diaine yet transient world? belief in the world outside. Now this last quotation will link to unite the series just form an excellent completed with a new set. 32 interest). ayei TTOielv. 6eoi<. . we noted once before doubt. Trao-p^eti' Se m<s rj KOivij ^va-i<i <j}epei. irpda-a-r)'. pwre subjectivity . . — Te — . ra Kara vofiov k. . promised or assumed unity and affinity in the two cortvmonwealths disa/ppears. the latter. . 24: eVt ^h &v irotel^. "va . but which. — : 7j ai] <f>vat<. personal deities revives (Boissier). 27. eirofievov (where aa^pova adds the piirely personal which usually relation to self. Nothing more worthy of Philoa-vfi^aivovTtov. kut a^iav. (B) The Problem of " Confoemity to Nature Definitions of ^vo-t? VARYING " Analysis § 6. sophy than to make oneself BiKaiov. no assured confidence in efficacy of " Virtue.

had attempted to conceal or expel the distinctively human in man. The Phenician (?) founder of the School. in the ample leisure for reflexion after Alexander's conquest. This recalls one of the most interesting phases in the early history of the Stoic School. indifference to who so stoutly professes in- natural phenomena. lay down TravTi yhp avf/voifi/rj ro Xhiov ayadov ^tjtovvti . and it is by a supreme irony that later ages looked on Socrates as a Cynic. occasionally (as in this cutting across difference them. most unselfish of men. had ingenuously proposed the rule " Follow Nature as the end of life and the only certain guide to happiness. while boasting the citizenship of the world his . new disciple of the . was to them inconceivable. For to the Hellene there was no question as to the interested end of all speculation or practice. 16 ? Now the acute Greek mind was not long in discovering the worthlessness of such ambiguous advice. my peculiar the Nature of the Universe. of and the complete separation the active and theoretic life. human society alone for all he knew and But. and that universal power with which we are sometimes identified and absorbed. An unselfish objective standard based on the needs of the State or of individuals. Does not Marcus himself. flattered and indulged and deemed almost divine because they sank below the ordinary average. sometimes set in more or less conscious contrast. The Cynics. spoilt children. They reverted to certain Oriental gravity to the primitive barbarism. adapting a *' maxims of the Cynics. And these point to an essential or disparateness in the nature of man and nature. xi.— MAN AND THE WORLD case) 159 very similar to the foregoing. and his debtedness to cared about.

addressed to oneself. was certain in her workings. there is nothing to prove that the School interfered with It may be to-day condemned as unnatural.'^ It was a recall to simplicity. . " but it was never included in any condemnation of tcI Trapi (pitriv. : assurances. and out of range of human understanding or sympathy." — is the rigidity of these formulae learnt off in the School. ' ' . luxury and complexity of civilized life for there is nothing to show that they seriously contemplated what we should call a higher ethical standard. that the " Universe good.i6o MARCUS AURELIUS Which Phenician saw the need for clearer definition. his resolution "to give up boy-favourites. and no harm befalls the wise. invalid for Stoical dogmatism only threw a anyone but himself. . but to Antoninus. Source and Guide of all. veil over this mournful doubt and even if it was that sincerely believed. whether . and was certainly For Aurelius did not owe to practised or allowed by Stoic leaders. that TUttiimlly Koival al yvvaiKet. or Epicurean or Sceptic. But the keynote is of all these post-Aristotelian Schools the sense of solitariness. of subjective The Stoic Greek or Roman. and inexorable. seems to show how superficial was their professed contentment with the world as it is. is always " Athanasius contra Mundum " shut up in the very narrow limits of his own impressions. For example. or the inexternal Nature was to be our guide ? the ward the the general or the peculiar and special ? Clearly founder meant to inveigh broadly against the ? . The frequency of these and incommunicable perfection. and (like most Hellenic systems) a protest against the conventions and tyranny of City-life. of enforced inaction. Stoicism. § 7. could only amount to this Nature. and held in readiness in the mental arsenal for any emergency." Epictetus (in common with most Cynic and Stoic dogmatists) believed ' Hellenic ipus.

and so must accept with the best grace possible. But ambiguous maxim are still sober and commonplace. But man was really left alone in a foreign element and in the middle of a society which. of the School becomes pure sophistic subjectivity. II . the actual " Nature " around the wise man was the realm of a Chance. though of kindred origin." The workings of the other nature he could never understand. it was . like the still pursued by the voice of eulogy and thanksgiving. mire either their unswerving allegiance to erroneous logic. At any rate. now (in their theatrical declamation) as a fanciful and malevolent sprite. Man's special nature was to be " logical " and " social. never disguised their conviction of aliena- They " protested too much " and we may adtion. MAN AND THE WORLD into the region of the . or their pious resignation . i6i Gradually the Divine element or Nature retreated unknowable though. for others with greater . the solidarity of human brotherhood.. Thus the dogmatism in practice age that God could be born in the of believer's heart or was. borrowed somehow from Aristotle's half -serious impeachment of the " sublunary sphere " and its uncertainties. which appeared now as a mere result of natural forces. and prepares the way for the wonderful discovery of the Imperial § 8. And a new potentate was (illogically) admitted to share the monarchy of the world: Fortune. already there. was out of harmony. find help. It was clear that this domain of fickleness could provide no safe criterion for human behaviour. Their encomium the earliest correctors the of the unity of the world. He was thrown back upon his own resources and there alone could he gods of Epicurus. unseen and unsuspected.

of progress. tyrants though they were. divine and therefore stationary. minds to turn from the frank materialism of the early School to a more spiritual conception. whereas physical fate is inexorable. which had existed from all eternity. was therefore both impious and inconceivable. no result at all.) and the more comforting personal sense of gods in the : universe. blind. existed in this complex of automatic perfection a thing apart. For it is impossible to see what function virtue or moral effort can perform in such a world. a " Eagnarok. The moral life of man. of advance. or at least from a far-off catastrophe of fire. apportioning to each man his lot. except the serene composure in the good man's soul which on occasion could be exchanged for the defiant hatred of the disillusioned Brutus w rXrjfiov 'Aperrj. as we have seen.070? ap ri<Ta eym oe ae o? epyov ^<7kovv.1 62 MARCUS AURELIUS had from the same data proved the world Let us examine of what kind was this divine environment. strange and uncomfortable. they were at least propitiable. in which the Sage felt It was a complex system of himself so little at home. plausibility to be the devil's work. There was no efficacy in virtue." The notion in which even the gods were reabsorbed. on which they laid so much stress. . Epicurus is very pregnant and commendable in his well-known query " What is the use of ridding ourselves of the fear of heaven if we are to bow to natural law ? Better were our former masters for. uniform. unalterable law. It was ." Marcus. and to ally themselves with religious faith. fire-born We may readily expect the truly earnest and therefore transitory. continually wavers between the impersonal Nature (17 rmv oXeov <f>v(ri<. : § 9. ^.

The "differentia" contemplation of man. instinct. the theoretic of laws of being. wUl surely drive average men to careless indifference repetitions or pleasure .MAN AND THE WORLD 163 assuredly the urgent need in morals of some reinforce- ment. was the personal finite reason protesting against the cold or immoral dictates of the " Pure or Speculative The former can never be satisfied with Intelligence. indeed. the fallacy of the Law of his sense of . but they were dimly and uneasily conscious of It in his Evolution the gulf. common with man's moral and social for its exercise or 10. from tradition and popular sentiment. divulged in so many words by the Stoics indeed. had nothing in and provided no certainty usefulness. between the effort and recompense. He will seek relief in the most unexpected and It unpromising quarters. in the case of moral action. then. lasts well into our own days . was Professor Huxley who clearly proand Ethics what had been long suspected. that led to this new alliance (called Syncretism) between the exiled deities and the new mechanical theory of the universe. the his olxelov epyov. the labour and the success. sympathy with his kindred. § The outer Nature. or with an assurance of its own nothingness. that there was no affinity whatever between pounded . Boissier in his Roman Religion has well described the revival of Faith in the of first two centuries after Christ. was something utterly distinct and abhorrent from the rest of natural things. The utter lack corre- spondence in Scientific Fatalism. as prescribing morality. and no will ceaseless Buddhistic of formulae save the sensitive soul from despair." general laws. it was not in the same plane. Nature. This was never.

and must be primitive instinct of rapine. less ' He must cordially have approved of one passage in oiir author. though happily only a and gifted individuals.^ should never obscure the intense initial contrast. " Upwards. to us in the past thirty years ence. calls for an end of this cease- warfare and carnage. by a return to the plunder. on which depends our European fabric and our personal Only such fantastic anarchists in theory as hope." The axioms of Naturalism have become wearisomely familiar . " the struggle for exist- " the weakest to the wall. can afiPord. in innocent speculation to follow logically on the lessons of Nature and show that . self-forgetting. round and round (R. Nietzsche. " Maxim Gorki.") . downwards." " the survival of the and (may we add ?) " the Devil take the hind- most. is rectified scientific strength and cruelty.6rrep6p ti k. frequent analogies. or perhaps are bold enough. But the motion of virtue is none of these . : I " v<yr(Tif irpo'iovira rfoSet. believe there is only one set There may be pleasant and of laws in the universe." M^r^jowsky. it pursues the even tenor of courses unimagined. course the elements. or unlooked-for harmonies . of some : diviner mould. quite in All wild theory of a few kindly accordance with Nature's advice to the nascent soul." No wonder that a compassionate democratic Socialism. Drummond. at least in the human family and others desire to include even the animals in the The nineteenth century ends in a general truce." fittest. and the pride of this.1 64 MARCUS AURELIUS The " onus probandi " rests with those who. the subservience of a once aristocratic world to democratic Christianity is one long mistake. feminine. like Dr. built on the substructure of Christian ethics. but these the two realms. 17 "Acu k&tiji kAkXip ipopal t&v armxelav H Si T^i d/jer^s Klvriais iv oiSe/Uf rairav dXX4 9ei. 6S<f Svcreiri. where the discontinuity and essential diversity of natv/ral and moral are recognised with unusual force vi.

this is the normal attitude of the educated mind not.). not to reason. to others a eulogy of brute strength and natural appetite. 1 : "B<r?. and to a moral instinct which they cannot expel. . indeed. the Actual to Aurelius. to a personal hope which they Secular Science and Christian Democracy are at issue on this point. by the rather in this conviction (. to encourage this seemingly fruitless endeavour. ." in which the river of patriotism. a pure and holy cult but. &v9puiros tf|ios yeviiiri<r&i>Tos ' ' Spartam hano exorna. The former are more concerned for the freedom of truth and discovery. then expanding into a very exuberance of corollaries . fflv t9)% irarptSos. evil principle. control. the creation of a more perfect race by selection and find it hard to explain.. . . wSKeixos koX ^ivov iwiSri/ila. iroAaxi i. J Dualism. for II.. n. but to a common consciousness. To justify this attitude. than for the preservation or enlightenment of the tiresome weaklings who crowd our overgrown will see the fresh varieties cities. from the same premisses. and subordinate material forces to contradict the blind or remorseless advance of the Cosmic Process. The twentieth century ' Bead the whole of the Pesaimistic conclusion of Book 6 ii pios. confined in narrow banks. but at first negative. and the Sage will ever be a stranger . and snatch from its jaws the weaker and even unpromising members of the human family. to attack.ho% es. and postulates and is ^ . especially the words the true toB home and fatherland of man is the Cosmopolis. or is now for a time entirely administered. adaptation. xii. . runs deep and strong but a call to a worship of fTature. in the haunts of men cf. This is no sober advice nactus : . in the Gnostic or Lactantian sense that the physical world was created originally. that our nature and " differentia " essentially distinct from anything else in the world that our duty is . tight MAN AND THE WORLD 165 In spite of some laughter at the " water- compartments " of scientific knowledge and religious faith. K6(r/iou. . they appeal.

face to face Acquiescence is therefore the sole virtue. partly to a religious sense of impiety. indeed. It was a " counsel of utility " as weU as a " counsel of perfection. Science. of the age-long contest of logic with the forces and prejudices of " unregenerate " human nature refusing. Seneca might.1 66 MARCUS AURELIUS and abstract speculation." or modern scientific improvements. with the workings of . to be made a tool for the furthering of the kingdom of . and that sense of self-sufficingness in simplicity which was the starting-point of the Cynic and Stoic system. the advance of the Millennium. believed it was sacrilege either to explore practically the secrets of Nature or to adapt such knowledge to human uses." 11." As for any anticipation of the Baconian " regnum hominis. wealthy nobleman. enjoy and use as a but he could not justify as a . we look in vain. or the of the " triumph Over-man. and that you could not foresee or avoid the certainty of its operations. as Nature or as Fate for it is surely superfluous to remind the reader that the three terms are inter. Clearly. unknowable law of and sequence and the constant rebuke discontent (Swo-ajoeffTijo-t?) may be due. This humiliating ignorance or impotence is thinly concealed beneath hymns to the majesty of God. What seems most to have impressed the § Greeks in their criticism of the Universe was that you could not know its purpose in the same way you could understand the motive of a friend or fellow-citizen. changeable. Lucilius and Seneca. to name two instances. partly to a of more practical dislike of the folly temper and grumbling at what cannot be helped. in a strong sense of personal value. Both struck across that curious religious feeling which identified God and the world.

iut he cam/not § 14. only a ro«?'e appendage. ca/reful "physiology" necessa/ry for virtue. Science and System teach him nothing he did not know before. We may now examine the passages in which man's special nature is contrasted with the Universe. he feels.) he veers round to a complete negative attiiude to Nature and men . eternal (at least in relation to us). in this changeless world. deavour in a society which (G) Inherent Diveesity of the Natuee of Man and the woeld Analysis § 12. effort is of avail. no and Quietism remains the sole rule of may add that we shall find the same to social rela- depressing consciousness of vanity. § 15. so each of our kindred is in his soul a " windowless monad. positive to himself . Each man a law suhjectioity . .MAN AND THE WORLD philosopher. "Follow own constitution" . Stoic creed no real support for his nature {or instinctive) goodness. We we hope for no advance. § 12. of the futility of striving tions. man's nature and the world's. (Texts of dveersity hetween § 13. Man-cus errs communicate or corvoince." inaccessible to our influence. § 16. aristocrat that keeps Marcus not only is to the passive tolerance of men he cannot understand. comforts. 167 and the multiplication of conveniences Therefore. and endeavour. An independent disaggregated Atomism is the result of this boasted unity and affinity and it is only the wholesome instinct of the Eoman and the . when we come the Universe is As in the last resort impenetrable by knowledge and prayer. guidcmce only from within. but to active enincurable and unchanging. in believing himself indebted to Stoicism . conduct.

Harbour in the Inner Self no thought (vTroXij'^ts) which is dvaKoKovQoii rfj ^va-ei k. MARCUS AURELIUS 9 : Tovrtov del Set i/jL^ fiSfivrjaffai rk fi rmv oXmv $u<rt? K. Here note that or is Marcus gets no active or practical encouragement advice from the world's course. TO Kard t'^v Ihiav KaTaa-Keiriv tovtov dvpl^ This law of one's being. its positive content. more cogent severally than the outer Law. iiraj? avTi) tt/jo? sKelpTjv e'^pvcra k. he regard. to voice calling to works of mercy and which there So 32: ment." the iroieiv is no clue outside.<i. The life of the good man dpea-Ko/iepov fiev rot? e« T&v ''OXav Trpd^ei d7rove/iofiivoi. 5. 'i'xeadai. k. and always in similar contexts). where Eendall translates " reason of its con- .1 68 ii. the "special It is '' endowment is k. a-Kevri (this is which iv. His he gets from an inner fellow-feeling." that to be the guide. iii. 9. ottoiov Ti /xepof oiro'iov tov oKov oJiaa. used for man's physical and mental conformation about fifteen times. SiKata hiadeirei evfievel. is called 6 Xoyoii t^? wapaa-Kevrjv." This defiance he restates as pietistic resignation. or equip- diversity of gift. ttj tov XoyiKoO ^dtov Kwra: — — : — — the first technical occurrence of this word. iv. rh ravTij? efyya yvTj<Tio)<s coiceico/iivcp (well translated by Eendall " Him only who is in harmony with Nature and her sincere familiar "). He speaks of his iii. words carrying conviction only to reS tt/so? rrfv ^v<nv k. 1. dpKOV/iivov Se t^ IStq. is 25. This class is termed in the old and almost obsolete phraseology of the earlier School r&v OfioXoyovfiepioi} ry ^va-et fiiovvrmv.. t/? ^ K. merely motionless before that negative in this befalls : which "Beneatli the bludgeonings of Chance My head is bloody but unbowed. iii. practical life. 4.

and leaves each man free and un" Does Sun demand to criticized to go his way. aKoKovd&v t!} ^vaei ry ihlq. t§ Koivy' fiia Se afi(j}0ripcav tovtcov r) oh6<i. Notice the immediate subdivision of the ambiguous term into enrX tL ae 17 ^vtri^ oBryyei. in a favoured aristocracy . rj ar) hia . I do that which (17 eijj) my own special nature wishes me ^vaisi). vi." correcting the old impossible ideal of a purely " typical " excellence. of the co-operation of things and faculties essentially diverse. I Jiave what the do " universe's nature wishes (^ Koivr) $i. trouble not for others eiiBeiav irepahe. 43. rov \6yov 20. The positive guide always KaraaKiVT) tow avOpuiirov. tjJs 0-779 ^uereeoq ovSeU KwXvo-er Trapa rov Xoyov t^? ^vaeoxi oiihev aoi avp-^rjaeTai. 55. 58 : Kar^ vii. but look straight in front " ^aivovTcov aoi t&v avp.o-t?). Again. and differences of operation. perform the part of the Kain ? Again. even an- we are veering round to a complete subjectivity. Think not. ^ re rov o\ov Bia k. ere — vii. § 13.: MAN AND THE WORLD stitution. The way of both is one here Marcus may conscientiously beheve. but he cannot : — . as I eavrov Karahave learned in the Schools. both rational and yStow Koivrj<i social). <f)vaiv (and is my constitution. convince the reader. that of an intelligent being. 44 : Sv/i^epei. B' eKaa-Tep to Kara ttjv (TKevrjv K. and tagonistic. k. own nature "Look not on others with their Inner Self. him look to his own and to I can't be troubled it is his nature. — v. " (oup^t Sid^opa fiev a-vvepya Be irpo^ rairov." 169 namely. "the diversities of gifts.). 25.r&v irpaKTetov viro aov. " Let . 3. fault . which cuts the ground from any universal moral judgment. yet all co-operating to the ? — — 17 same end ^vi. and seeing the value StUl. — his vii. each single star — are not all different. v.

o<. 26) eix^poavvrj dvOpmirov iroieiv iSta dvdpco'irov. 14: For . MARCUS AURELIUS which are more or less incompatible. viii. evvoia Trpo? to tjj? t&v oXav ^vaeo}<} k.^ et'Sois o Tt itrrl Kocrp. remember that oti Karh rrjv KaToaKevrjv aov iari k. in and appraiser of Nature. el k. 52. life For Marcus of is- struck by the laborious failure of the satisfaction. TToKiTLKov. Koa-fia. " When you rise gives no positive guidance. and therefore (so ran the syllogism of Teleology) his abiding contentment. evepyoirj ev It n TOVTwv dnroXnrmv ovBe tt/so? o Tt irii^vKev eiiroi. . -and." : but is common Br) to man with tovto the unreasoning animals oliceiorepov o Be Karh <^v(tiv eiedartp irpoatjiveaTepov Kal xal irpoar/vearepov. Whatever e')(pt befalls Tov i/jLov Aalfiova iXeav Kara to e^ij? ttj IBLa /caraa-Kevy. 45. . § TO.170 its parts.T) elBai Trpos o Tt 7ri(f)VK€v OVK olSev oari^ i. whereas the faculty it of sleep is no k. . Knowledge of self and of world (two quite different studies) indispensable for correct moral action 'O fiev p.. . and agent . Here is man's function. — sluggishly in the morning'' (a special failing of the Emperor. pleasure and self-indulgence. in his perfectly finds frank search for personal in social action alone his pecuhar duty. Kara rrjv avOpmirucr)!) <f>V(nv TO •TTpd^eK KQivooviKa<i aTToSiSovai. 1 2. double r61e of critic smaller world this finition XoyiKov. e^o) — corresponds with the deviii. (viii.ov eirt0ea)pr]ai<i T&v Kar in . 'O Be p. 'O Be : — . pari materil". "iStov Be dvOpafiTov. " differentia. as would seem). oiiBe n i.the avTTjv '^ivop^evav. Science has always exerted a benumbing infiuence on the eager- . may be questioned whether Marcus found that the (f^va-ioXoyia wider knowledge (the really of the later books) threw much light on man's social duty. ovk olBev oirov eariv. not " in and note also that the outer Nature viii. ofio(j>vX.

is the life which (by a somewhat called "self-denying" (for ey^ei to This civic virtue flourishes independent of his creed. encouragement. it must be remembered that is the so-called Stoic " theology " natural investigation." and because he is " permeated with faith in a Providence which Stoicism proper religious best to expel. — but a department of rj 29 : iroirjaov h vvv (j)vaK a formula which recalls the old inexactness of the two duties the canon." but his empiric conviction. he would still have found his highest pleasure (for he never shrinks from hedonistic terms) in " showing mercy and pity What we want logical " . to doubt the sincerity of the Emperor's Had he been convinced of the fortuitous atomism of the worldprocess. Ovrm does a e^et to dvdpa>7ro<s evepyeriKO'} Tre^w/iccbs. gains " fullest satisfaction (limbs of body) Karh t^ l^iav Karaa-Kewjv : evepyovvTU direx'^i to iSiov (where Eendall 6 Find their "). — — ix. far from our purpose experience. and iv. trick fulfils common to all Pantheistic systems. which philosophic — led him to the social life. eavTOv. explanation. § 15." did its x. reward in realising the law of their being K. Man and the purpose of his nature. and we should admire him no less. among his fellows." and gets over the difficulty of reconciling by confusing them. o Karea-KevaaTai It is. lives agreeably to his constitution in moral agency therefore. of course. That it was ultimately " no School maxims. for foolish *au-w>u). 42. by a : certain (optimistic) law. 33. " Follow Nature. airaiTel. still because he is " Antoninus and a more Eoman. to point out is that his abstract and Monism anomaly) gives no better support.a MAN AND THE WORLD ness of 171 common life . ireirotTjKe irpbi. kindly action. when he k. is clear again (as to ^BviraBova-iv .

Ixxvi. For Marcus. . convinced himself of the superiority of the social of tolerance and self-denial and concession. civium tu§. Si hoc facturus es. So the ultimate test is this left subjective feeling. though life. . .'irrovari'i {}\i. peace " his subjective delight (incommunicable to others) sets the stamp of Nature's approval It is only by accident or carelessness on his choice. . and does not attempt to. . 36. operis peracti nullus ad defunctum exemptumque rebus futuri operis humanis per tineat. Tpv^) . libertatem patrim. joy. It may here perhaps be remarked that in a sense all systems. . deontology. . are in the of last resort is " hedonistic " for the only reason acceptance is approbation.' ipsa tamen contemplatio juvat : et vir fortis et Justus quum mortis suae pretia ante se posuit. so it should come natural to you to eVi rij? . volwptate est et periculo sua fruitur. is On this final " hedonistic " standard a very beautiful and acute passage in Seneca. even of the austerest . Man's function is now. . ' ' . by quibus dependit — . and approbation of the good the highest form there of pleasure. . : . him . nullum aliud bonum est omnia relinquis ut hoc habeas (' went and sold all that he had for here is the pearl of great price '). salutem omnium pro animam. that he acts otherwise. Such action " love.172 fj MARCUS AURELIUS .? iroieiv to. canhot convince others. viroiri. quanta vis honesti sit ? Fro Bepuhlicd morieris interdum ex re pulcerrima magnum gaudium etiam tempore brevi ac exiguo capitur et quamvis frtietus Ep. in summ§. and everyone else must be to follow his own particular bent. "Pro patria moriaris salutem omnium redimas non tantum patienter sed libenter. . olKeia jy tov avBpmirov viroKafjij^aveiv KaraaKsvy' atroKavcnv y^p Set irav is o to e^ea-Ti xarct ttjv i8iav (j>vaiv evepyeiv. Vide." x.

to conclude. All outward circumstance. •irdvTm'i Se ^ t&v "OXcov.) § 16. the 17 second. . 23. While. It never seems to occur to that the life two seem sometimes to of devotion to an ideal. we have in the final citation already given above.: MAN AND THE WORLD oft 173 beyond all controversy to tBiov e6o<s The whole position is put very clearly Tovro Se irw? KaXm^ Ti<s aov 97 rixyi] . Biaa-to^ew. who by constant changes of the parts keeps the whole Universe ever fresh and vigorous. the right time and limit some.) — . . TTOteii'. He suffers much if he. " Nature sets (R. born of his temperament. this : The sum of the whole matter seems to be Marcus finds in himself an eager and uncon- impulse. him pain. tov opov BiSeoa-iv rj ^v<n<. and not a maxim derived from scientific study. and neither trollable training. discover opportunities for this exercise overlooked. towards charitable and social endeavour (of a somewhat restricted kind. (17 irdox^"' Se KOivij Aval's ^epei. In proving " Death no Bane. is the success of his kindly . times the individual nature with its bidding of old age. Ay"®"" ^tv*'ylverai fj iic decopTjfidrtov. t&v fiev irepX ttJ? tov oKov repetition. 32. . in this daily self-examination. 5.") distinction rule. $W(76(»? Twi/ Se vepi TTjs (S/af tov dvOpmirov KaTacncevfj^ ." rbv Kaipov k. xi. TTore fiiev Koi 7] ihia OTav iv y^pi}. enthusiastic nor self -forgetting). a good and crrj between the passivity (quietism) activity . realized not in oneself but in others. is an absolute defiance flung in the face of Natural Law and the Cosmic Process. xii. him that the come into conflict lessons of the — ' : ' . This sense of failure in the is only sphere of his free agency of causing the sole thing capable quite immaterial. xii. even efforts. early and high station. but in any case Nature at large. of the first <f>va-i<. . the of .

and in face an accidental world.174 " MARCUS AURELIUS . and shines and burns like the good deed in a naughty world. Emperors. of the noblest of Eoman His devotion gets no confirmation from an unprejudiced survey of the world nor can he make others think like him. . that the " Beauty of Holiness " is the aim of the rational creature. But his character is a beautiful and divine gift. rather these latter are incapable of obscuring the innate kindliness." says Cardinal Newman and Marcus would have been unselfish. among of the certain dissolution of souls in savages. the religious unction. in the same curious desponding way. . irrespective of any fuel derived from Stoic tenets. Nay. No one can change his character.

why then blame or despise? (no Standard or Value left except (Hegelian) /act of existence). There must be such people in a world of all sorts . mind and motive of other men beyond reach and understanding. >7S and with many phrases . a to "mndowkss monad.CHAPTER III ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY (A) Complete Isolation of the Individual from Things and from his Fellow-men Analysis §1. but also from its " Forget also thine own people and especial kindred. which has we must advance further towards the isolation of the personality. duty. absolutely still and lifeless. And this doctrine of the impenethy father's house. (2) Things § 2. Duty to others = negative tolerance. § 4." trable solitude of each Soul is all the more astounding because it is combined with a genuine belief in the solidarity of all rational beings. After the emphasis on the " peculiar " propriety (iSiov) of emerged still man's character. merely from the rest of creatures. § 3. not in our last series of passages. Others cannot help their acts. (I) Personality." impenetrable (later te contrasted with his psychic solidarity). and it is va/in to be indignamt or eager to reform. § 1. and nature.

has no existence. What they say about one and the wise man should pay Sometimes the reason no attention to report or fame. is final in the second. On a closer survey. We may be thankful that Marcus makes no attempt to be consistent or symmetrical we are content to find in this . the single irrefragable fact of experience it in the the real Which of these dogmas is is a pure Marcus. anger. TideaOai is even Marcus we realize how rijv evjioipiav. the absurdity of the belief life and movement in themselves. indignation at their faults. is the general Stoic belief that happiness cannot depend on anything external to consciousness (iv raiv a\Xai<s is indifferent. assurance of his perfect sincerity. \jrv)^al<. I know not I incline to belief of . We must put side by side (1) those sections where he pronounces the Soul (the real or Inner Self ") '' be inaccessible to his influence. when unable to conceal his contempt. or. because worthless is the judgment or the gossip . (We shall in the next strictly. personality . even to his sympathy. think he felt his solitariness too keenly to give more than " lip service " to the hypothesis of a Single Soul or to all men. . very confusion of his thought. the distinction. In the one. of other men to chapter note those passages in which he theorizes on the ultimate unity and identity of all Soul. In the . the it separateness. or even sway or control our consciousness. § 2. one is case. the social duty is attenuated into a negative tolerance of other men a duty which is rather to oneself than to others. illusion. 6) sometimes.) shall add (2) those very striking passages in which he shows the intelligence common We absolute stillness of things. ii. of never feeling annoy- that they have .176 of the MARCUS AURELIUS most uncompromising Monopsychism. other. ance.

11 cardinal axioms. and the — : . afiapTavei — dfiapTtivtov iv. Here the mind. ri (rot.. v. for it im- plies anxious interest. : vi. . pJr) eTnTpeireiv rot? dvO. iii. . .. eKeivoi' fiev ai) 3. self and the " even tenor " {evpota) of makes it difficult to reprove and correct others ^Ey^ to i/iavTov Kadrjxov nroiSy ToKKa fie oi vepuTirS: ijToi ydp d'\jrvy(a 17 akoya 57 veTrKavrjfjLeva Concentration of life a consistent : (iii. ayvoovvTo<. 11) § 3. He uses a is somewhat show how fruitless it to quarrel with or seek to alter another person's nature or function. K. vii. 63. the beyond our reach and understanding irepi^Xiirov. TTjv 6S0V dyvoovvTa. iv. " All such men. 27 Um? atfwv i. iv. 38. ra ^yefJioviKh avT&v while in the next section we are warned not to suppose our evil or our good dwells — there V. 2. there. yap fir) 18101' '^fiefioviKov e')(pv<Ti. of other men. ^^(ei. iv. fii^Ti opyl^y . iSia opfiyxpayvraf a motive of others. dfiaprdvef 6 invited eavrS afiaprdvei. is the verb here is quite consistent with scrutiny. 28 : tS ypdamvi. vi. ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY of 177 gratitude. inlike are due to ignorance of the (Tvyr/evov<. pleasure. But eavrm are his fault has nothing to Ti<. 26: 'O o^ikmv eavTov dBifcet. v. 25 : dWov dfiaprdvei ri el<s oyjrerai' r) ihiav e'xei Siddecnv Ihiav ivepyeiav (so that even offensive analogy to el iroKk's ^iKdirrerai ovk opyitTTeov Tat ^XdirrovTi. 3. opfiav and T^ ^aivofieva uvtok olxeia k. . We at the Inner Self hid^ikeire. o^offTo/M^ — v. . 22). OTav dyavaicTyi} OTt ctfiap67rt 12 . 62. to look — do with the Sage. iv AXXorpiu -qye/ioviK^ kukov aov ov^ v^iararai. 18). xi. avficjiipovTa this you don't do. k. 38. 7roii]<rei . tolovtov arofia — fjLrjri t& 22. Other men's wrongdoing. . (levToi b Ti avT& Kara (fjvcriv ioTLv for of nothing is Marcus more certain than of the Platonic dictum. : vice is ignorance " (ii. a piercing — but momentary ifie .

Complete " inwardness : or aim " You can escape your own evil other men's you cannot " {yeXoiov i. —The if tj t£ ttjOos ttjv only legitimate is and (not very persuasion . k. fJLT). Very show them k.) . then. : : k. etratei. fiefivv- ffofxai OTt dvayxd^erai oiiroo iroieiv. characters can see the cogency of his arguments iii. ix. Kav trv viii. MARCUS AURELIUS ^ipovrai avToi<s. avra iroi/rjcrovcn. 42 "OXws . vii. Be e^ea-Ti a-oi /tero- /iifivriao on ir/so? tovto 11 . You will never reform them Bi. wiceuofievai." (We may perhaps wonder. similarly. Trpatcreov eKoarTq) to 71. ? What El : the sinner refuses to recognize the postulates el Be ix. SeUvve Similarly 28 Bec^ov. — ! ovSev ^ttov to. oil "TravTi Tridavcb fiovcp Bk yvr}a-[m<. 3 jToXSA ToiavTa ^vcriv . . even if Marcus will not. yap " trdvTco'! «s isn't iiri av/MtfiepovTa well. — '^yefioviKo. effective) instrument of moral reform but one asks.appay^<. 14. the fir) way aya- without vexation va/cT&v). fiev Swdcrai fieTahihaaKe' eifiheia aoi BiBoTai. "I shall not be . 4. if there is nothing surprising he behaves so E. . r-qv hk rmv subjectivity of this moral . for his entire system is founded on the absolute freedom at any given —The moment of the soul relativity of the standard is Ev(f>paivei. 43: aXKov aXko' ep£ to •^ye/ioviKov. El yap 55 : Oepairevaeii ov xP^^"' . But and : it so. ttjv fiev iZiav Kaxiav /jlt) ^eiyeiv o Koi SvvaTov e. aXKtov <f)evyeiv otrep aSvvaTov). teach them " that.. very clearly put in he ihv i/yte? e-)(a) viii. that he should avow that only certain natures or . It is natural. at this use of " compulsion " to choose the right. . virofuviiffov ! o/'7»7?--"— vii." — otKeia " k. — viii.8 rdvovcri. surprised or shocked at his doing such and such things I shall remember that he cannot do otherwise. . (ovkovv SiSaaxe v.17. M^ '' 7rej0t/3\e7rov dW^rpio 6^? ry KaraaKevfi. If he has such principles (Soy/iara).

) diraiBevTo<! tov we must against gently protest the assumption in the last senIf all these different characters are needed for tence." —why. straightway ask yourself Avvavrai oiv ev rS Koa-fico dvaiajQjvTot jm) elvat. Ti Sal kukov rj ^evov yeyovev el rd diraihevrov nrpdatrei . viii. only an apparent inconsistency between the earlier contrast Std^eve and irepi^Xewov " Let others see your principles.ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY SiSdffKetv Tov ireirXavrjfiiuov. . fxoni the reciprocal struggle of discordant powers. . oStos e. Tfj/jLa 179 eKel Set KaTokcTreiv. : . dSwuTov i. your motives and do you take their measure.. a final we ask. 20 To dWov afidp61 El<nevai eh to : : ^ye/iovticbv eKdarov '^y^ irapijieiv Be k. and every kind of sinner (to yevo<i twv tolovtcov. et? yap k. the furtherance of the World's Purpose (whatever that may be). irepip Travrl eiativai . we may clearly see his . fir) vwdp'^eiv. ov Swavrai (" offences must needs M^ o5v diraiTei ro dSvvarov. eh TO eavTov § 4. Apply the same canon in case of the villain. — In — ix. After there could be no standard of merit except the fad of existence. the traitor. T&v dvaia-yvvTCdv. units ? It is not as all." The whole of the last paragraph in the Ninth Book is interesting: " When you stumble on the shamelessness of another. Yet while Marcus here outstrips the proper limits of indulgent and indifferent critic. draws out the harmony of the Universe. " we have that action and counter-action which in the natural and in the . so that. be "). We have — — political world. as Burke says. ofis dvd/^Kr) ev tw KofffKp elvai. does Marcus apply a bad and contemptuous name to any one of these diverse. and see if their judgment should carry weight. . if standard had been agreed upon. yet (in their proper place) meritorious.

the world of a little strange to meditate upon the possible consequences to well-placed severity in the early treatment of his * son. of any God anticipation of a better state of mankind. therefore. xi. neverrepulsive in W. God . boasted a still closer Therefore in a City affinity with the Source of Life. a-otfi' i/uii Heaven's desertion (vii. indeed the universe was divine or cannot develop . in which. the whole is no use to extirpate abuses mirage of life is meaningless. : How deeply pathetic is his double for where he comforts himself K. which. 4 same tedious commonplace. Pater's "Marius" about the Caesarism ? broiled kitten). hiBda-Keiv evfieuw Kal to 'rrapopmfiepov SeiKVwac. plainly emerged the ill-conditioned brutality or the madness of precocious It is noticeable that the Emperor never It is speaks of the remedial power of punishment.^ repetition of the old tragic line. rj El Se firjSe ereavTov. and time." succession of the is mere monotonous In x. 6) . which is surely a dangerous virtue in a supreme ruler what would our Liberals say to the dethronement of — their noble Discontent ? El fjuev a^aXKerai. — we have the better side of this tolerant Indifferentism.Oai. instead of makit . ing for some " far-off divine event. therefore it were impious to connect change for the better either with the greater Commonwealth of Natural Law.l8o MARCUS AURELIUS A profound conviction of the uselessness of reform. in some unaccountable way. el d' iiiu\iiB7iv ix $e(ip ?x" ^oyov Kal tovto 41. or the lesser state of reasonable beings. aeairrbv alriua. is What of if curious chance (as he the here speaking episode dSwaret? by some the young Oommodus and some theless in boyish escapade.

from his own time. maxim. bluff and ttv/rdy reconstruct fabric of Empire. vii. X. 3. If we follow another series of passages in is which man's inalienable freedom shall decide that it brought out. Is it force of habit. and the evoiKovc-a afiapria). or result of bad principles ? § 5. it would certainly imply daemonic possession. Denies reality to Sin as to Evil only ignorance (omdahility § 7. on ovk avOpdvoav o/ioSoyfiarovvTcav croi r] airaXKayr] earai. (Soy/Mara). a soldiers slame-morality " . Excuse for the sinner: ^id^eraf -ri yap which Eendall well translates " He cannot help himself what else can he do ? " el Svvaaai a(f>e\e aiiTov TO ^la^ofievov (we have already seen the slight air of mystery attaching to this " compulsion "). The real and pathetic remoteness of Marcus. avdekkKev etv k. Cause of foAlwre . or ignorance. and can be removed by the Will. 30. fir] ofioSoy/iareiv Se. . may be discovered in the sad 'O/MoOafiveiv fikv. then. : " So. But here it appears to be In some later Platonist sand some coeval Christians. . xi. Excuse for sinners ca/rried to verge . § 6. —one at core if not in creed. ix. . 8 admirably paraphrased or modernized by Eendall's at pleasure a real hindrance. he a/TT finds consolation for death in the thought. a fault in a ruler). : . of denying moral ohligation {no spiritual criterion) Absolutism in every age.ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY {B) i8i Moral Effoet expires in Tolerance of Evil Analysis § 5. the interval or bridgeless gulf between the Emperor and his courtiers and family. iToiriaei. the enslavement of the Will (as in Eom. . we is imaginary." So. xareixeu ev r^ TovTO yelp p.6vov . Awelius has '' all the feminine virtues.



^^v, el av^rjv e<^etTO T019

ojoa? otro? d /cotto? ev

ra axnh Soy/iara irepiireTroir)TJj Sui^mvLa t^s






TTov K. avTo^ e7ri\d0o)/juii, efiavrov."

& 0avaTe


Karabe not






his I




will look



found doing or saying aught deserving

of contempt.)





iyai evfieviji k. iXeto? travTi














18 comes ovBe

afiapTavovcn xaretXiyc^as" iroXXu

yap Kal kut' olKovofiiav XTjirnKm


irporepov jiadelv iva rt? irepX aXKorpcav irpa^em^ xara-

"You cannot even be many actions depend upon some secondary end.^ " In short, one has much to learn before one can make sure and certain about
Tt dirotfyijvrjTai.


they are doing wrong


another's action."

This tendency


leading slowly but

surely to an absolute denial of the moral standard





philosophers of



who, determined to reach Unity somewhere,

abandon the ethical standpoint as perfect, and perhaps feel enamoured
^ I

and im-

of a speedier route

word with the familiar " adaptation of means to ends, condescension to human capacity, scheme of salvation accompanied by many seemingly incongruous details in the pursuit of the grand aim, all the somewhat misty complex of ideas bound up in the idea of the Divine Stewardship, which
inclined myself to connect this difficult


Patristic usage


need scarcely remark), in the Latinized "Dispensation," disappears
^ e.g.


what would some people make

of this,




Tois tois Idlas


-rapaKoXovSoSvTos dviyKij



substantive suggests any spiritual criterion



and while the maxim the purity of Quakers' "Inner Light," it might also condone

the excesses of the


of Munster.



knowledge than by a process retaining the " otherness " of s^ihjeet and object. " Judge not another § 6. St. Paul's constant advice, man's servant," and his insistence on the subjectivity of Ideals, yet never disturbs the grand and broad But Aurelius warping outlines of the moral fabric. his better Eoman judgment in a school where all " offences are equal," and " all men either wise or fools, saved or lost," where everything is bluntly black and white, and nothing shades off in an indistinct borderland goes far towards denying reality to sin and evil altogether. At most, it is but subjective folly, result of poor principles try and persuade the sinner, gently remonstrating, and he may mend his ways. In the Ninth, xi. 18 Trpaw? irapaivrjis k. /ieraSiBda-Krj<{, in words which strongly recall the aged and indulgent (" Seize the moment when he is bent on mischief; Eli. try quietly to convert him to a better frame of mind " " Not so, my son, we are Tnade for other ends ; you cannot Mr), tekvov hurt me, you hurt yourself, my son." E.).








fiev oil



<tv he




an unanswerable argument

against Plato's "Philosopher-King," that the essential
qualities of a

to be mischievous in a Euler.

Sage are precisely those which are likely Let us, as leaders of

strivers for

men, have no cynics, but rather eager and enthusiastic what they believe to be right. Lewis xvi.,
In spite of this loving formula, we find Marcus, certain aspect) even fellow-men among ASid^pa.
oUcioTaTov &v8pi>nros, inasmuch as

20, arranging




one sense

ilfuv i.

we must do good

bear patiently with
Ip Ti



Kofl' biror S' tvlirravTai. nt/es els

them and ri oUeia (pya,

Twv idia^pav

ylverai 6 AvSpawos oi% ^aaov ^ ijXios




(= " in

so far as individuals


my proper




into the category of things indiffermt."







not an incapable, was a " philosopher-king " yet the of that unaccountable movement, the French


was due to




Marcus' rules.
sublime, of that


point of view so lofty, an outlook so

man and his

petty passions and struggles

a judgment so but the turmoil of an ant-heap, these tolerant that it finds excuse for every misdoer,












surely nothing gained by belittling



by depreciating human concerns.

Nor does
fails is

the ascetic advance morality by arousing contempt for the body.


politician or the king



the one who takes a side and boldly embraces even his

proved mistakes


but the one


loses faith in himself,

has no convictions, and sees everything in one dim and dreary atmosphere of grey.


the end of the section he reaches a climax,
his pathetic

and decks

maxim with

poetical trope

" Tenth,

a quite Platonic


so please you,

from Apollo, leader of the choir" {el he ^ovXei, koI BeKarov 'rrapk tow MovarjyeTov B&pov \d0e, oti to fi,ij a^iovv dfiaprdveiv fiaviKov aBvvdrov yap e^LeraC). It is madness to ask that evil should cease, or that the bad should stop sinning. xii. 12: to e^v ttj ^vaei (for natural consequences), /iifre Oeoi^ fie/iirTeov ovBev yap


^ aK0VTe<s dfiapTavovaf


dvdpmTroif ovhev

ykp oi^i aKovTef.






suspension of judgment for want

either of materials to

any standard whatsoever,

form a criterion or from lack of you will not find in Sextus





OeXtov tov <f>av\ov dfiaprdveiv,
. . .



6eXovTb T-qv a-VKrjv ottov




^pe^v KXavd/Mvpb^eaOai,







oaa aXKa


TC yap




ToiavTTjp; el oiv 70/370? el ravTrjv depdirevaov.



heart being what


is ?







" sins


comings" of the particular are necessary (dvayKaXa) and indispensable " partial evil is universal good." viii. 50. An angry critic, stung by a bee, or annoyed
that a
fig is unripe,

or a thorn in the track, asks crossly

Ti Be Kal


Tavra ev

tS> Koafitp ;






by any student




(answers Aurelius) w? &v


you were

to be aggrieved that in his workshop,

ev TO/ epyaaTTfpi^ ^eafiara






Nature, divine


she be,

must have her


her misfits, her refuse,


she has no place outside herself to put the rubbish.




and with God there are no

tinctions, for all is perfect.

have not the slightest wish in the foregoing to No light underrate the personal character of Marcus. treatise or settled could destroy the beauty of words the man, devoted to the undeviating pursuit of the But he is to us right, or undermine his fair fame. respect and homage, not because, but in worthy of so
spite, of his tenets.



Stoic school nearly spoilt the

noblest of the Eomans, and certainly helped to sadden
his life with a sense of failure





the Christian virtues (except joy), which Nietzsche

stigmatizes as " feminine."


is distinctively

a " slave




as a ruler because he sees too

far as a philosopher.




In his eyes nothing is worth our and the faults of others concern themselves. more righteous indignation, a harder line




between essentials and " indifferents " in behaviour, and the world might perhaps have been spared the sanguinaryTruly, when turbulence of the next hundred years.
Diocletian rebuilt the shattered palace of civilization,



he forgot any the the Camillus, the second founder of the Empire. crumbled






of Marcus.


was not

for that

(C) Soul,

without real Contact with Things-inCAN ASSIMILATE AND TRANSMUTE INTO Material for its own Nurture

§ 8. Absolute independence towa/rds outwa/rd things be




transmuted from dross into gold by Soul as in a crucible

§ 9.


can become material for Virtue. of phenomenon has no substa/ntvve existence; a glittering mirage {Porch-Materialism ends in pure Idealism) ; attitude

as of
§ 10.


to Spirits.
it is


of them really come to us;

we who


them in"

source of impressions unknowable.
§ 11.


in Solitude;

spite of



dtimnthdp in two

worlds; prevalent "inwardness" or mysticism of the age leaves clear trace on Ma/rcus.



The Sage,






circle of

prerogative, cannot issue forth

own principles, I had almost said " impressions " but he has the complete mastery and control of these

from the magic

he can transform the sense-message at will for irdvra vTToXrii^i'i and his viroXrpJri'i is free and final. Now what is his relation to the events, to the " things " of the world ? A similar and absolute independence. Each man is accountable to no earthly power save




" Inner Self "


and has found the secret

transmuting the base metal of outward occasion into
the alchemist's gold of noble choice.



virtuous action.




clearest passage


this subject is at the

opening of the
aeX Trpo? to

Fourth Book



evBov Kvptevov orav Karh (jsvaiv

owT(B9 earrjKe irpo^

rh avfi^aCvovra aoTe

SiSofievov fieraTidea-dai paSia^.






Power within



attitude towards outward circumstance

that of ready





"TXr^v yhp cuirorerar/iievijv oiBe/jiiav


on no determinate material) dXK' = " keeps ( each impulse and preference conditional and subject to reservation "). To Se avreia-ar/ofievov ijXrjv eavrm nroiei, uxTirep TO irvp OTav iiriKpaTy t&v eirep/iri/irTovTav (" Obstacles (y(j>' S>v av iiiKp6<i Tts Xv'^vo'i ia-^eadrj).
its affections

= sets

opfia TT/ao? TO, rfjoviieva fied' vire^aipiaetoi



converts into material for


just as

lays hold


accumulations" [?gets the mastery the fuel flung upon it], " which would have

choked a feebler light


he \a/iirpov irvp Tdj(^LaTa






ef avT&v

For a blaze of fire at once assimilates all that is heaped on it, consumes it, and derives new vigour from the process." Eendall, iv. 1.) So V. 20. UepiTpeirek <ydp k. fieOia-Ttjai irdv to tij? (" For ivepyeia^ KdXvfui ij AidvoLa eh to irpoijyov/jbevov. the Understanding modifies and converts every hindrance So that to action into furtherance of its prime aim. checks to action actually advance it, and obstacles in the way promote progress.") For Marcus, to whom nothing is in unqualified fashion " good but the Good
iirl fiei^ov rjpdt].

Keep the " weapons most ready to hand.") § 9. who draw them to ourselves. or a quick fire burns everything you throw on it into flame and light. tending even towards solipsism. 3. <b? to Xap/irpov irvp 1) oTt av pdXri'! ^Xoya e'f avr&v k." lays no claim to extensive sovereignty. but stand . and submit them to the In themselves they have no alchemical process." ev roh -irpo! — ^etjOOTaTot?. may be remembered that Fichte. and philosophically facing the facts of Persevere. So vii.oXoyeov rdv t& 0im> . ripdyfiaTa drpeftouvTa" ij^jreo)^. : (Eendall " What are they all but exercises for Reason. then. these two convictions.1 88 MARCUS AURELIUS It Will. d><s o ipptofiivo<i = iv. substantive existence: the world of phenomena is a glittering mirage. i<m]Kev ai Be oj^XTyaets e« p. To such scientifically idealism. colourless and immovable. ravra. things are depends upon the Soul. kv p. Now it must be noted that this process entirely In themselves. Uav : Meve ( oiv p^XP''^ lloiKewioTjs a-avTm k. 3 1 Xoyov empaKOTO'i dKpi^&<! k. has the early materialism among of the Porch been forced iv. rests upon this noble feebleness of the will in the exterior world. <f)vcn. just as the healthy stomach assimilates its food. 68 ael lydp fioi to trapov — : yap to avfi^alvov 6e^ fj avOpmirm eSoiKtiouToi (adapts and assimilates to itself). till you make them part of your life ? own being. Tt f^ap ea-ri iravra ravra aXKo irX^v yvfivdafuiTa X. call them as it were within range of our Reason.ovr)<! tij? evBov vttoX- ("Things cannot touch the Soul.ev ou^ arrrerat r^s ^uj^tjs. it is mdyd (or illusion). It is we blind and dumb. aropM^oi rrdvra IIoikeioT. avyr]v 7ro(6(. dXK' c^u on rci. vXr} aperfj<} ktK. in one of his eloquent popular writiags. a supreme argument for human immortality.

Kivfjaai. it 189 stationary . cannot touch the Soul in any way whatever." E. e<j)' into an alphabet. nor have power to sway or move it. vTToXafi^dveiv — k. all which makes itself just befalls seem to itself deceptive semblances. iroiovv fiev eavTO &v OiKy TTOiovv Se eavT^ ^aiveadai irdv to avfi^aivov olov avTo 6e\£i { = " self . Trpoav^ea-r&Ta.. yfrvxTiv K. for our call. k.) Thus an outer world.) tumult can arise only from views He repeats this with emphasis 19 : Ta ofiS' ripdyiAaTa Ix^i aira ovB' owatrTtovv ^uj^^s airrerai. called 6. self -moved modifying the objects upon which it plays into accord with the judgments which it approves. separate domain of each consciousness where no other guest or companion can be admitted.v 15 Ta TIpap/pMTa obedient eju 6upui' servitors.t. Swarat. imsubstantial fabric of impressions to the creation of which we contribute so much. meaningless congeries of letters expectant of an arrangement avTo. Kivei avrrj eavrrjv av KpifidTcav KaTa^iooar} eavrijv rotavra (" Things material eavTT} iroiet to. oidov Soul is self -swayed. eio'oSoi' tt/jos "^v^VV. yielding to its impress. 52 : "E^ea-Ti wepl tovtwv -^vto. iroirjTiKT|i' t&v rjiierepoiv laT<\K. up or exorcized at our will.excited and self - swayed. that ." E. —So ripdYfiaTa ouk i\ii ix.") ^aivo/jt-eva mere exercising no power or influence at all on our judgments. — — — 8 : this Heraclitean is a phantom olov vi. iavr&v /xijBev eiSoTa ain&v firiT airo^aiv6iJi>eva. reading ourselves into it rather than. They have no message or . : what what it it wills to be. fir] oy^XelaOat t§ '^^XVi^uo'ii' yap Ta Kpitremv. to 'Hye/ioviKov TO eavTo iyelpov K. Tpeirei Se k. (stand without the doors waiting rational irepl . ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY without V. ouSe Tpeyp'ai ovSe jiovi). Tpeirov k. nor find entrance there. fj/r/Sev — vi. within ourselves. fjLijTe a sentence). and that wills.

Se Kav TTov \d9ri E. i^ov p. remain stationary. of themselves." {KaXXiara Sia^fjv) comes under our power fiefivrjfiivo^ on ovSev avTmv VTroXrjyjriv irepl avTOv fifuv ep/TTOiei ou8' cpxETui «<}>' i^fias.el<. not stirring a foot inside and well-disposed Ariels). undeterred by the the notion that disconcerting yet harmless gibbering of the Spectres. like docile E. Tl oZv wiro^alverat solitude. inscribe them upon our minds. . and their side will your magic : circle. (fivyal Oopv^ovai ere. and. " . . he who summons them at pleasure. 'Hye/jLoviKov. oKKh. It is only the craven soul who "Lupi Mcerim they can tyrannize.." the individual the most perfect freedom in assent and i^aXeitfrai. 16. Si icrfiev oi ra? Tre/st avrmv Kpiaeif} yevp&vre^ k.6v ei9ii<. as it were. do not come to you rather you go to them only let your judgment of them holds its peace. when we need inscribe nothing. The fairest life from " indifference " to all things not {otov) ypd^ovre'i iv eavTOi<. videre priores. 11 IpxETai Eirl ak ra UpAyiiara &v at Bico^efi k. AXKa Ta fiev dnpe]iel r)p.I90 MARCUS AURELIUS first rather like ghosts. they cannot and dare not burst into his to nrepl avr&v . Tpoirov Tiva avro^ eV eKeiva epxVTo yovv Kpifia to irepl avr&v rjcrvjfa^ira). . cannot speak unless interrogated yields to by a mortal. — . or can instantaneously efface any inscription The Sophists had claimed for written there unawares. El fj-ev oiv ouk So once more xi. § 10. xi. fir) : ypdtfteiv i^ov " Nothing can imbue us with a particular view about itself or enforce an entrance things are stationary it is we who originate judgments regarding them. Kaiceiva Eather it is — : fi^nl drpenoui'Ta (not budging. The things it so perturbs you to seek or shun." The bold magician confronts the apparition in his own good time.

" Again. rejects with ridicule and indignation the pretensions of mystical egoism. like the supposed fabric of the moral and Social Law. taught a complete subjective impressionalism and as man in his social life had no real guide or criterion but utility. following the custom of the country " half-agnostic. the early Sophists. which neglects. " as God in the world. Terv^cofiivov iXtrt^MV. partly also by advancing the policy of abstention. pure hallucination. estimates. Hermotimus). ovSev aXKoKOTOv K. so in his more personal side he was alone in the middle of incommimicable sensations which were valid only for himself. . It is perhaps reserved for Marcus Aurelius to declare that the unknowable source of these varying feelings and emotions is itself. but they exist will purely and at the and pleasure or the mind. He lays down " the rule that happiness is found only in the Common Life. o-vfiirokiTevari Tots TToWots. the "Aufklarung" of ancient Greece. as to leave a loophole for evading its responsibilities partly by preaching the claims of the wider TroXt? of Nature with which they supposed themselves in fuller sympathy. wisdom of and Lucian the popularizer this half-dogmatic reaction in favour of society. The Stoic while seeming to canonize the social aim. while preserving this fundamental subjectivity or relativity in theory. in the terms of . had insisted " in of practice on the . employs. so the Sage in society. the existence of phenomena subjectively. It is true that he does not commit himself to denying — . the Sceptics (as Empiricus shows us throughout his work). and in wise submission to commonplace " (^iov KOivov diraai ^tovv a^i&v k. it speaks and writes about in such a way .ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY acceptance of 191 Sextus convention .

192 Seduced by slavery. the imwary rebus soul submits itself to a voluntary "adaptation subjungere conor. the Earth-Soul. significant We are now approaching the most Philosophy." But the Sage. who like Voltaire had no originality. Excluding Lucian. locamus. yet inviting mirage in life's wilderness." cleverly interweaves with a well-known romance certain significant episodes. the Sage driven that back into himself. Appuleius. with the study of nightly the soul that borderland of in which two consciousnesses may be distinguished (see Von Drel's Philosophy of Mysticism). Aristides unites the beliefs of " Christian Science " visions. Dio Chrysostomus last preserves the somewhat narrow common-sense. in spite of theoretical citizenship is in natural and social commonwealth. is Of the extant authors in that age. as " Cupid and some aUegorist of " Cinderella " . which we usually associate with Stoicism. mental balance. and belonged to no recognized school but that of opulent who the " bourgeois " respectability. gives names and values to things which in "me to themselves have neither meaning nor coherence. : — all the rest are tinged with mysticism meditation or undreamt-of vulgar. to which access the was found by through the sense of worlds orgiastic cult. the acquiescence in superficial verities. § 11. like and " Jack the Giant-killer. Thus. and the " astral body " be united to its cognate spirit. part of Marcus' of — just notable point of transition in which the influence of Plato supersedes that Zeno and Chrysippus. MARCUS AURELIUS this motionless." the modem environment " (a phrase which the Emperor must have condemned as abandoning life's " Te facimus Fortuna deam Coeloque central truth). like Adam amid the lower creatures.

links Numenius." with a view to a Platonic moral. 13 ." or the intrinsic . and finds work of of Isis on behalf of her votary. Nor are we disappointed. one the the obscure in the to transmission of the Platonic tradition. general tendency to but we need not doubt that his ethical system founded on this was a direct and represents us rather Trinitarian doctriue. we Soul. was the predominant idea and look confidently in Marcus for further illustration. personal illumination.ABSOLUTE SUBJECTIVITY in the deliverance from carnal snares the 193 Psyche. treasures of "Inwardness.

The impregnable fastness of the Soul. '' . oprj when it is at any moment within our power to . where we seem to be reading Plotinus a century before his time and conclude the survey of the Doctrine of Man with a collection of those phrases which speak of the " Deity "Within.. " Serenity " the synonyms. We identification of voepov irvp in Man and in God. 194 . unva/rying aim of the Schools (various will first examine those passages in which on the " Self-sufficingness of the conscious he dwells shall then notice the unquestionably mystical spirit we language of certain sections. Contentment with Self the supreme End . of mystical Theology. ai^iaXoiif k. elevate a system. " Coelum " ." § 3. more or less complete. to be left to aest and uncertainty of old life. Little success in coiwincing others of \6yos indwelling . . a self-centred peace "our true amd intri/nsic good cannot depend on a/nother. §2." and from the crude materialism of early Stoic § 1. amerage man prefers § 4. . non animum currunt similarly mutant qui trans mare Marcus reproves himself for desir- ing artificial seclusion. ar^poiKiaf k.CHAPTER IV HAPPINESS AND DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT (A) Self-suffioingness of the Soul Analysis % 1. .

if he can discover anything better (jcpelrTov) than justice. in of soul with — which iii. tovtov . diroVd^T) yviopiari 28 JSlS o-auTOf auifEiXoG. iroielv to Kara rr)v went after other gods. mission to follow the — dpREio-Sai laurfj Ttjv Aidvoiav. 32. The verb apKem impersonal neuter sense dpKel. Coupled with contentment with the apportioned lot is the truer and inward satisfaction of the man. truth. . specially he who hath stores within. of life and the eauT^i/ : emotions) k. ttjv iZiav aira^ vii." For the soul is free if it will but recognise and claim its empire (one of independence rather fiiyvvTai Xeuu. " it is enough. ovk einvital rpa^eo)? Kivovp^eveo irvevfiaTi (pneumatic current iireihav i^ouaLav. el<. trap' in its lauru dpKETaOai SiKauyrrpayovpTi ' HyefiOViKov avTO tovto yaXrjvqv ej^ovri. it suffices. but its chief technical use iu the passive. ovSafiov y^p eviov ovff '^a-v^idtrepov ovr tv)v airpayp^oveaTepov avdp(oiro<i ey(€i eidiiis avaj(a)pei eavTOV '^VXW} /ioXiaS' o<ttk EyKuij/as TOMvra : 6(9 a ev irdarj ev/iapeia yiverai. 25. dpRouneVou t§ IBia irpd^ei. " Nowhere can man find retirement more peaceful and untroubled than in his own soul .HAPPINESS OF MAN'S SPIRIT retreat to 195 soul. jj Aidvoia. courage. it refers to the 6." ISioi' KaraaKEufji' k." is used in a technical sense about a dozen times of the " sufficiency " of things before us as {a^opfirj) for is an occasion contentment moral action itself. — " — ^iv. He pities the foolish strivers of yesterday. ^vaiv ycip evei TO XoyiKov K. temper^which he sums up as xaddira^ rov ance. He gives himself full per- new Ideal. rj than actual mastery). who a^evTa. the undisturbed fastness of our find own and there €^01' ij? a peace which passes understanding: i6eX'qar]i eis eavThv di'axupEii'' av ctpa^ ^ K. dead and forgotten now. iv. a glance at which straightway sets him at perfect ease.

v Tqv a-'^p ti. dpKoufj. 14: "Reason and the reasoning process are in themselves and their action self-sufi&cing faculties" (Swa/iew elaw caurais § 2. the performance There is nothing beyond the individual act in accordance .196 MARCUS AURELIUS avpi^ e'^ea-dai k. KareaKevaoTai. cannot but lead vii. tovtw dpK£i<r6ai. — Socrates — — the ordering of its own constitution. 26 : 'Av€r\r](} /ivpia Sia rb a. The word. there is no real assurance that the Right will ultimately for by the very terms of his creed Marcus prevail cannot put off to some future time in a gradual process (to which even his poor actions could contribute) a with eternal . — He forgets. occurs six times in the Eighth Book. 'ApKeirai jrda-a ^va-ii iouTTJ evoSoiiarr). but. but a sense of futility.ei'ai). § 45 (already quoted). m? et 6 6<j)0aX/jbb^ afioil3rjv airyrei on of /SXeiret. the deity within ApKoiijicros. — rm 42 : cTrpa^a? OvK dpKti rovTw on Kara <j)vat. pregnant with a technical meaning. We must was then content (el iSvvaTo &pKEi<r6ai Tw StKOio? ehai ktK. 66. does but lead to a scepticism which is far from attain truth . unpleasing . The Self-sufficing Soul invincfir/ ^ix. iroiovvn ravra ets ix. perhaps. aXKa rovrov fiiaOov fj^ret? . that the exercise of the intellectual faculty is " its own reward. v. however comforted by eulogy ask if of the initial act of willing." if it in any way whereas the soul cannot but mourn the Doubt of the former ineffectiveness of moral effort. of which the more interesting are § 7. — &pK£V6i) tauTu. — § 48 lauro 'AfcaraiidyrjTov yivefat <7uoTpo<|>ei' to 'HyefioviKov orav el<s ible. "if it can feel and act after in the other sphere to pessimism. " — . what is far more dispiriting. dpKEiirOai (T^ 'HyefioviKw. dogmata " there is no recompense here or elsewhere." R.

is etfioipos. his subjedive usage and definition of the objective ri di cvpioipos. iyaOiiv ixoipav ircavTip itrovelnai. { 4iri. iv. . . "which most men deem external to themselves. its always under — control. — .o<s 6 admirable translation perhaps " of misses the sadness of . Marcus has but scanty hope that the will identify himself." Get of the assumption ' there- with you get rid man. See also xi. — is a process of variations : a process ^prai . ii.) (where Eendall's (ad a 7 " little K6<r/j. without violence to language and prejudice.'}' 3 /St'os uiroXrulrts 'O Jm. xpi^eis.: HAPPINESS OF MAN'S SPIRIT Perfection which was ever present. to " ^efikafjbfiai. 40. The world views "). dp/xal &y. for purpose without a personal aim is inconceivable. in any not beneath their direct control. 197 So.' " — the sense. for justification of its behaviour." § 3. : " The understanding view") maintains ^ to its is cahn. Soul looks within to the peace which arises from a view of hie essentially negative. (voluntary) judgments. viii. and abstentionist. be termed an end-in-itself.and you stand unassailable. Thus Teleology influences ethics. or lucks and the "good fortunes case. as he advises. Mere mechanical interaction of parts cannot. Here is a little Take away your own view of what you regard as painful. : — its uTroXij'^t?. liUit §. are irfaBai rpoiral ^vxv< ^fFor it is incredible that our true good could be in any one else's hands. with average colloquy man : but impotent Eeason. the diction life. and the "Inner Self unimpaired. But of this abstracted " ' ' Very noticeable Y. but is not permitted to reconstruct metaphysics . —Nothing iv. in abstraction " (or " according its E. ttjv I am an injured icark vii. 11. *Apov rid of ttjv vvoXip^iv. or to be obtained by propitiating capricious deities.. : Eeason except its and this Ildv umSXrulds 15 aWoicaai.f^l'l'"' ov 'xeipov ro 'Hye/ioviKov yiyove. here and now. 33 : 'H Aidvoia lauTijs yoX^i^nii' ^'^Tiy/jet K. exists for the own is . self-centred.

the passages in which Marcus in theory recognises the monopsychism. the Soul.4070s. is beset with doubts and problems. and in The whole the the vast majority of men never reaching belief. what is this Aoya in the other man. Now. .^ relation of this Nov<s dvpadev eltrioov to complex human framework.198 MARCUS AURELIUS is But Eeason and 'Of Eeason. six or seven selves Indian mysticism. let it keep that view to itself" {ihv what you this true ' ' ? I are not the same. efficiency. the Dianoea. useless The nature of man soul tends to break up from the popular dualism of and body into a number of of distinct parts. like aU mystics. Now in the average light of common with human man refuses to consider " himself the an organ of impersonal Eeason." A divine indwelling. and must be awaked. avTOi ev aa^MKevTaTtji T/? auTOS. which every now and again have a sharp we know very well they are ' contrast of outline. ." or as a character in someone else's dream.' . a puzzhng and. — — the the 'Hye- /iovwbv.' Very good then spare Eeason (?) the pain of giving itself pain and if some other part of you is amiss. of whose very presence he is unconscious ? " Perchance he sleepeth. though in the end identical : —and See the last scene in Alice through the Looking-Glass. which in his practice he so clearly rejects. . but solely in potentiality (Bvvd/iei). where it is for a time and to no purpose imprisoned. a^eXr)^ Trjv cr/v eifTTi/Kas uiro\ir]«|<ii' — . perhaps. when we approach the Universe from the objective side. the . "Eara real kt\. . identifies his spiritual with attenuated divine principle which has nothing in interests. self Aurelius." o Aoyos ^"AW ouk CI)XI XiSyos. Here an is a difficulty and a new and feature in Stoicism. We shall have to examine.

because efw aW' evhov ev Tok uTro\i^\|(eo'i). the Yet for Cosmic Process as cruel and meaningless ? the average man. it retains its charm and zest. §* 4. KaKov S>K ava^aCvei. . fir] opfii} viroXafi^dveip k. happy in his delusion. — i. and harm only their souls. flir6\rn|rii'. they have no real objective and exist in no concern of ours. unhesitatingly condemns. Among maxims and iravra uin5\tn|(is .HAPPINESS OF MAN'S SPIRIT most 199 difficult of all the constant representation of the Soul " as the pious verger of an Idol in an unspotted — Temple. of —an " Ion " without his unreflecting joyousstill The question remains. . rfTOi t& a-a/MiTi kukov ovkovv airocfjaiviffOm. aaTrep Ka/M'^dvn aKpav." bids fair to be perennial. xi. being 18 (7): ov^ al irpd^ei'. on kukov. 8. — ope^ii k. Uaaa yap Kplcri<i K. who then. oTui Ksifiiva. 28 'O irovo<. on so 22. We return to simpler topics. air&v iv(y)(Kovcnv r/fuv sKetvai ycip oW' al rjiierepai ' : uiroXTJvltEis. : eKKKi(n.i IkSoc k. y^M*^" : — Sui<j}v\d(T(reiv k. viii. The feud between Philosophy and the people of which Plato spoke. in its new phase of " Science versus Democracy. ev rots iiceivtov r)yefioviKol<. aov —The same is true of other men's unkind actions existence. he reminds himself iravra uTr6XT)<|/is" k. mouthpiece of the Almighty or his very self. 26 On avrrj iiri aoi. tj-Taaiv ovK rjv i^e^aXov iracrav irepL(he corrects the words i^\6ov. ''Apov oiv tt/v ore fleXet? ttjv k.. " What is a particle ? God doing in that impromising dungeon " Is it true even with the Pantheist that the source of attains " self-conscioiisness " life in man ? Is it not true that it only reaches this doubtful blessing in the rare and infrequent Sage." ness. xii. definitions. ovSep 13 : irepKrtra nrepieXeiv tSiv iirl Trj uiro\iii|(£t ivo'^XowTtov aoi Bwaffai. fj Trj '^v'^TJ' a)OC e^eariv avry t^v i8iac al6piaf k. So 32 iroXKa ix.

there So 25 is calm. : ! outside corresponding to your fears.200 YoXilinrj MARCUS AURELIUS cTTaOepa iraina k. he delights to employ the terms of Hedonism. to airatOpidcrai (" gain unclouded (a Democritean word). aton^pia. J3a\6 e^a) -rriv mSKxy^iv. 1. though Marcus inserts some of his Above all. evGvfiia evfidpeia. — . evo8ia. There's nothing . evtjipoaw'ri. aXvirla. : . and a waveless bay "). and evoBeiv several times. in an are mostly common to other Stoic writers. yaXijvT}. 4). — and permanence. k. <j)ai. he uses once only (just as ainapKeia and evSai/iopia occur but once) aWpia.Bpvveiv while : aTTokaveiv is used now of lower pleasures . eiifioipia. The words used single to convey this imperturbable serenity. sensationalism the language of voluptuous enjoyment. arapa^la. and in same section where calm. iii. aeaaaai. hopes. still water. as religious writers sometimes seem to profane heavenly raptures by the similes of earthly love. A unique instance. 6 . One term in very general use. vyieca. x. evpov<} and evpoeiv. and that rests with yourself. view at will and behold the headland rounded. K^Xiros &. eva-Tadeiv. ^ad'^ay is used in a good sense.Kif. point of equilibrium unstable and dissolving world. and ev<j)paiveiv often. so Marcus takes from the Cyrenaic school of own. eva'x^oXeiv.av (a beautiful passage though the ore 5e\ets is untrue to the experience of most men which Eendall thus translates " The view taken is Disown the everything. ev^coelv." ii. As Seneca borrows his texts for the Lucilian sermons from Epicurus. evpvj((opia (recalling the Psalm " Thou hast set my feet in a large room "). anxieties. and coupled with dpKea-Brja-y. ^Sovr) is used in its it invariably is lad sense for in twenty-three places that which the good man shuns and the vulgar identify with the Good) dvfirjhta (in good sense).

13. : . where the . he puts k. in a.. . whether as epithet of Daemon (ii. .^ 1 and x. v." B. ttii' iSiai' ^6<riv ivepyeiv (whereas three times in notation). perfect accord between objective truth and inner desire or Clemens Alexandrinus' Heiretpcurat yap irepl vbaa ascent from rlirns to yvuKns So viii. of delight in the higher life. 9 . . 1 the word has a bad con- In the same direction points the frequency of the word li'Soi' to express the true life of man. we shall have to notice oSira later. 6Tav r6 ivTaiiTTOv iwurTrinortKrjs SvvAfieus eiipovv 4v irouri. vevpoa-waa-Tovv ia-Tiv . . x. and Tl \0i7r0v diroXaiJeii' TOV X. : . or in another metaphor of the will (to cvZov Kvpievov. . 13 : otfirM <re tA eiepyeretv. virtue results from the discovery that there are pleasures more intense and lasting than those of "sense" {In iiSCw roiirwi/). 9. . halting flow of its intelligence and apprehension. vii. 16). 17. now (xii. for that matter. 1 wXavqSeU oiSafioO eipes t4 e? {^k vii. del dva^Xv^eiv hwafievrj idv KaX o-KdirTyt. . no one can doubt who reads Marcus carefully (or. 67 iy S\lyurTois kcZtm ri . as for the followers of Epicurus. as embodying something of TrapaKo\ov07inK^s k. avvdiTTovTa aWo iir aW<p ar/adov.ijB^i ("Smooth un. Epiotetus the iinal criterion. As with Socrates in the Memorabilia. *Ei'8oi' yap ij vijy'rj tov 'Ayadov vii. cvijtpaivci Again. To the objector that sensual gratification is TrpocrriviffTepov. ^rjv 29). after the pure ttjs Tnoral virtues) ri irpoff'qviffTepov . Uore yap rj dirXoTTiTO^ diroXai}<rEis. : HAPPINESS OF MAN'S SPIRIT Tov 201 apioTov evpuTKOfievov am-okave . 1) ^EkSov /SXeTTe. a is and experienced satisfaction. speculative knowledge. . and again (Js (rairrbv eS iroiSv. ixeivo to eyhov (el exeivo ^ayrj ixeivo Sei ehrelv) felt That for the Stoics. ciircikavaeK Tfhov&v. 33 : 'AiroKavatv ydp Set iwoXafi^dveiv irav o ri e^ecrriv Kara viii. iii. iv. he eagerly denies the position it is due to inexperience Bedcai el tepo<rr]vi<rTtpov lieyaKo^vxta i\ev- — 6epia dirXArijs eiyyioiioaivq offiArijs. Air^s y&p <l>por/i(Teo)S (which. 59 K. X. . test of attainment is the pleasure derived from a virtuous action it is the stage where to the wise iiBia are t4 ^i)(r« ijSia.). 38 — : — : Mefivijao oti to eyKeKpv/ifievov ^ . and not an outward code. either). ivBvii.

. fjL'qre trvvt^dvy ttjv aXSA k. as a Dmmon within. This preoccupation with the interior disposition vague mystical language. ^ So rrjv viii." ^(patpa •^uj^?79 avToeLZ7]<i orav /itJt' eKreivrjTai iiri rt issues in rhapsodies . but shines with the light by which it sees all truth without and truth within. the Power within which pulls the wires in Hfe's puppet show. We have now reached definitely the final stage. ").) {B) Mystical Tendencies and the Doctkine of "Deity within" Analysis § 5. 2 : " God sees men's Inner Selves stripped of their material shells and husks and impurities._ KaOapfidrav opa. MARCUS AURELIUS (The "Will. when the soul of man is pronounced not merely Divine.. ' ' fji/qr earn ervvrpi'^^'r] /injTe a-ireiprjrai. hke later Platonic xi. 41 : : KVKkoTepri<i fievei (where E. dXrjOeiav opa UdvTwv TTjv iv avTy. </)<BTt XdjjjirTjTai.202 avdpmiro'i. Mind mind. Soul as a "self-roimded sphere" . as an Emanation from God. ^yefioviKo. dirwxeTev/iivmv. the most notable passage " The soul becomes a when it self -rounded sphere neither strains outward nor contracts inward by selfconstriction and compression. yvfiva r&v vKlk&v diyyeimv k. Movm <yap TO) 'EavTov voepm /jlovcov airTeTai twv i^ 'EavTOv eh ravTa ippurjKOTOJv k. (jiXoitov «. § 5." 'O 6eo<s nravra to. " "Orav yipriTai aj>aipo<s The freehold of the Mind so long as it abides ' none other ' may contravene . His mental being touches only the like elements in us derivative from Him. perhaps. poised as a sphere self -orbed — to xii. 1 2 is. but a part of .

. 6 : TOV iviBpvfievov iv aol Aaifioras. "Every part of man touched God. 3) . da-ivrj." vovv — K. " eye of . — ii. . 3 : To /mev yap vov^ k. remedy. — : .ui'. . for all his theory of unity and acquiescence. 5 : 6 iv a-ol Oeb^ earw . Aaijj. . . TTjpeiv. for God was all. ui. 4 : 'lepevi rt? virovpyoi Be&v. . V. . and we may remember that in Marcus' lips these words are no trivial or idle metaphor as in early Stoicism.oi>a 12 Tov eavrov Aaifioca KaOapov ear&ra Tov Se evSov iv t^j arrjdei tSpvfievov ^ui. Saint Cadog's in the soul man. — . — . of iii. K. TrpoeKofievoii oi Aai)j. 12. — — — 17 : {(f>iKocro^la) iv Tp rrjpeiv . o jap tov eavrov . — 4 : Set alaOitrdai rCvo'i Sioikovvto<! VTre<rT7j<!. elvai. ( y(pa)fi6vov K. . 203 the remaining passages need no comment. — — Aaifioi'a iii.o<}.6Toy(. The companionship was never riven apart.HAPPINESS OF MAN'S SPIRIT God's very essence . We can see how the Emperor. .. part is ttw? aTTTerat deov avdpcoTroi Kara ri eavrov orav reservations are entirely out of place in These any monistic system still more in a scheme of materialistic monism. using also as some sacred oracular shrine that deity planted in his breast definition of conscience. . tov evSov AaiiJiofa yt] ^iii. God . Eeason's k. irpoa-raTr)!." The indifferent Gnostic was far more logical in his doctrine of the uncontaminated indwelling of the divine spirit quite irrespective of any act of the animal complex. \vdpoi. 16 aXXh iKecov BiUTTjpelv. they speak for themselves. trrevd^ei. 10 u^ <j)vpeiv : . 1 : ^etas dironoipas fj. ii. but the profoundest truth. : ( = iii. . — tov Koafiov to dir<Sppoia 13 : apxei irpo^ fxovtp rm it evSov eavrov Aaifioci consider fiepoi k. to Se ui. trembles on the brink of a dualism so unabashed that mysticism becomes the only TTws ZiaKerfTai to tov avdpcoirov tovto jiopiov. Tw evSov iSpvfievip aiiTov = priest and minister of the Gods. «.

all from voepbv has " inlet " at will (Emerson).oipa. : e^co rov ifiov : 19 rfj rovro arifio- rjTTwpAvov . Averroism and its problems . and poor Ka\ yhp el on fiaXurra uXKriXtov eveKev yeyo- . 45 AaifLova 'iXeoav ( = satisfied. airoyxerevp^eveov. 7 'H rov K. rjr^efiova o Aaifi. repa k. " vessel of o God " 26 eKcurrov coGs 6e6s ixeWev ippwjKev. —xi iv .—-V. — viii. We of problem after have now to consider (1) the strange Monopsychism already hinted at. 21 : T&p iv aol to KpariaTOV Tifia' . 56 T^ irpoaiperiKw rov rrpoaiperiMov irria-ri'i aBid(jiopov iariv. rov iv p. avOpdyrrov K. K. ippvrjKOr xii. : <toi Beiorepov fiepov^ : eav ro 3 iXew? k. $6 TOWTO TO 'Eiceiv^ ofioyevh. "Solidarity of Soul-nature" . — Ovqrri xii." — v. § 7. Qeiov cravrov 6 (cf.& men's clearly forth rrkijaiov in viii. — 23 Bern). just as his tiny vital force flesh. . eari . and (2) the ultimate destiny of the (so-called) individual soul death. ^utrew? voepai. St/eaia?. <toi . i^ 'Eavrov : . eStOKev. 5) : 6 Zev<.204 oiiSeli 6 K. " how can the true fied with this alien portion of to which man self be identir God ? " § 6. 27 ^vj(r}V . Kara ravra 2 : iaovofwi — 6em. iroiovaav ( oaa ^ovXerai K.a»> ov eKotTTtp TrpoaTarTjv dir(5cnra(r(io = iii. 2 : Souls rmv K. — 1 fi^poi iariv avep. t^ Ovrca E. apKovp-evov). — r&v — xii. eavTOV.rroSia'Tov viii. <l>v<ri<. rip-rjarj^. Aai)jion Bia^i&vai. MARCUS AURELIUS avar/Kaaayv tovtov rrapa^rjvai ( = rov : ifiov veov AaijAora). souls We ro note set the " indifference " of : other ep. . : yap : 0eo<|>ip»)Tos ^epo/ievos viii. {G) The Problem of Monopsychism Analysis §6. -xii.

XoyiKov k. K. rovro. . ervve')(&<i ttw? rrrnt eh aiadrjffiv rovrov irdvra dvaBlBorai. He ^iv. i. el tovto 6 aadvei iroXi^ Tfj<. dW avfi^poveiv r] 'ir€pik'}(pvTi irdvra No€pu. 54 : MrjKeTi ^St] k. Noepov ye&Bi^ Br/ K. ffVfifi'^pvaK (" the and concatenation of the web").. fiovov avfiirveiv tw vepii'^ovri aepi. as Emerson might say. into the Over-Soul. and appears with is. : certitude in the later Books ? Por What could weU be more " Averroistie " . o'Ca rii f] <Tvvvr]<Ti<s k. k. . mairep yeip ro . and but seldom exercised. vofio^ Koivo^' el TovTo. K. — iftv^ijv : t^? t&v \oycK&v 4 El ro voepov fjiuv Koivhv. o Xo'fo'. . ovrto rb Noepof This doctrine expressed in general terms. Man has thus an "inlet" at pleasure into the rational element. . /loi drro rivof 7^? dirofiefiApiarai. . 40 rr]V : 'if2? ev ^&ov rbv Koa-fiov. •jroXeo)?. ro depfwv trvp&Be's ex rivoi lBia<i irrjy^'s rjKei iroOev. . opfiy fu§ irdvra irpdaarei k. . . iroKlrai eafiev Koa-fjioi} . kt\.. Kaff ov \oyiKol iafiev koii'^s. as is rh ff^efwviKh ^fi&v efcaarov rrjv Ihlav Kvpikv we saw above. k. soul Still. the independence of each . /ilav ovaiav evivoeiv. . maintained iva fir) eV aW^ t^ ^ to ifie drvy^eiv. an offshoot separated from the State. K. o r^v IBiav aTTOcrj^tfetfj' |xios ovar)'.. . Ov yap ^ttov voepa BvvafiK iravrq /ce'^vrai Svvafiev(p rjirep is rj Biwrre^OiTrjKe rat ffTrdaai dvairvevffai. 29. . ip'V'xijv jiioi' fiiav iirey^pv. . DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT vafiev o/UA>¥ e^ei. (the intermediate steps of are the progressive Syllogism xoivfj^ unimportant). . vofiiKov rjuiv . El . ' is but rarely How then can we reconcile this with the statement of absolute identity such as example. 205 Here. iv. is af&rmed in some 8 of the previous citations. K. is . avrb rb k. T^ — depdoSrii iv. . contexture but this section implies that the privilege claimed. k. 'EKeldev Be ex Tavr7j<s k. . K. .

as we saw.ev. he uses absorptionist language but it is not clear whether he here wishes to express the resumption of the logical as well as the physical part of his nature. that is is portioned out the among the rational. xii. The souls are. § 7. and so too the Soul 7?7 e<TTLv airdvrtov : instinct with mind. ]^H. some foimt or lake ippvqKora and eppvTjKe. and body. though. he speaks of ry irdvTa SiBova-Tj k.roi\ airo voepa<s irdvTa <bs kvX a-mfiari.") combine and fit together as for a single Although cast in the form of an alternative. In .eva). like the several channels all owing origin to So in xii. he may weU be supposed to iwclude mare k. 8e T^ XoytKO. substance. . just as earth one in all things earthly. and the light one by which we 39 : see. . — Bi^prjraf aairep rmv yemBSiv k. d'7reo')(erevp. .") Again. p. — . eiceidev 32 apportionment eKaar^) of tiny piece o\ri<i of time. Similarly 14. spoken of as flowing forth from God. iroarov he t^? 6\T]<i fjrvxv^ where he seems to include the mvijlc and the .2o6 than this pression) : MARCUS AURELIUS ? (to use an inaccurate but convenient exra aXoya ^&a (iia Ek fJ^v ^v^V eh K. soul. ravra dvaXr)ip6rjvat ets rov rov 6\ov Aoyov eire Kara irepioSov iKirvpovfiivov eir' aiZioi<s diioi^ah dvaveovfievov. 2. (e^ eavrov just as § 26. as he cannot etcclude. among the irrational animals is one. air one which jtias irrj^iffi we breathe. iroarov hk ttj? {airo/iefiepiarai.io voepa '^v^r) fie/iepKrraL. (" [Either] All things spring from a single source possessed of mind. evl ^iotI op&fiev " The Soul distributed iva aepa avairviop. ix.io |i. another statement of alternatives. . K. Marcus fj clearly here sets forth his personal faith. ov<Tia<. (R. ^rot arKehaapixi Tpoirr] (x. — diroXafi^avova-y 0va-ei. to each. iiriau/i^aivei. 7).

" Now the rest of things though one in origin are avatadtfTa and avoiKeion' dXX. TO ofio^vXov TSiverai affvLtrraTai k. Mia "f^vj^ri Kav ^vaeai B. Soul " capax seterni " hut not therefore eternal . this very which can be ^lovov Kvpiax. soul. Kav StelpyrjraL toI'^ok opecnv aWoi? Mia oiiaia Koivif Kav BieipyT/Tai.»j\ois. IBiaiv 7repirYpaij)ai<. atufiaai fivpLoi<s. indiferent to § S. ov BieipyeTat TO KoivcavLKov irddot. in a better world. a distinct being. other men except a on his side and unre- (D) Immortality Analysis § 8. and that for the vovi. is itself if a God {Oeo<s). quited after all. but other passages display impartially the other and So it becomes difficult to see vov<!. . apart to each by Zeus. of Individ. fivpiaii k. and univers. which has tells him that he nothing in common with all sympathy and compassion. Kvpuo<} contradictory view. not Marcus' concrete experience.." But this is it clearly a Counsel of Perfection.: DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT intelligent principle . how 3) the third element ia man. 207 though it might be maintained that he meant the forfaer alone. whether souls survive or not. Ohte connexion with preceding problem moral duty. (xii. Mia voepa i^vj(ri Kcbv BtaKSKpladai BoKy. a-ov especially words at the close of the book § 30 "Ec 0ft)s fjXlov. iSius ttoiok fivploii. (instinct of association or comis munity cannot be held apart). Aidvoia Be k. he reverted to the old legend of a guardian angel. set <rov . extinction or transference ! .. world's to dissolve interest and rea/rrange . we find these . they are held together by the Central Principle {to voovv) and gravitation iirl (! by^— IBtcuv to iirl ravra ^pWov).

which as rational and self-determiuing can only find the end of its being in moral action. freedom. the stimulus a quite personal favour of a course of conduct of " for which the arguments are by no means conclusive. preferred to talk loftily Kant Duty " (whatever meaning he attached to the idea). /ii] Kal <ri elK^. § 12.^ So. 28 T6 Si "OXoc ehe Qios. and Theodicy). affects in no degree my principles (Soyfiara) of life's duties. itr/tei'lS^e Sn iv Towirtf xKiSuvi airbs ^«s iv is a-avrif riva vovv ^76/*oviK4i'. Every question is posited as an alternative whether the world is ruled by Providence. : el ^vp/ibs ivriyenovevTos.. "If the gods could hawe bestowed it. the practical problem was no problem to them. cannot possibly concern my nature.2o8 MARCUS AURELIUS would haive" § 10. Marcus. was no part of the later Stoical development. 14 (quoted in full elsewhere). Certainty. or whether there is a mere " Welter " (KVKecav). " God.—xii." — metaphysical points. eS «x« T'^"™ ("All's well with the world") rfre t6 cIkt. . except in the one fact of moral liberty. they {=a complete justification § 13. sceptical. but very illogical. It is interesting to notice that of these ultimate and immortality. the Stoic pronounced ex cathedrd upon the second alone. however Powers. with Hellenic sobriety and self-centred common 1 ix. Like Kant. (Texts illustrating his doubt of personal sv/rvwal. while the Eoman philosophers. Pessimistic scorn of Immortality. feels himself safe with the Higher § 8. Seneca Epictetus and Marcus seem to agree in subordinating speculative certainty .—^whioh may be a sublime defence. to this was probably the same in all 'or instinctive prejudice in And .) § 11. whether Souls survive or not. The same problems as to the relation of indi- vidual and universal Soul wait around the question of Immortality.

that the human Soul is dignified with the knowledge of everlasting truth but that this constitutes no argument for believing in the bestowal of an abiding Sometimes all consciousness on the spirit so honoured. . his testimony is more than impartial. remains independent. (" who then is that § 9. of is speaking. all conTinced that " Honesty schemes of Duty are So the cogency of the appeal. one of the very earliest passages on the we find its capacity for comprehending eternal things and the " beginning and the end " rk oJiv '^vj(r) evre)(yo'i k. rov al&vos KarcL wepioSov^ rerar/iieva^ olKovofiovpra to TIav. preferred to 209 speak of the pleasantness and the peace of this loyalty." of the is settlement of speculative questions. Constantly preinto (so-called) moral ideas. ? ") ^ elSvia ap^ifv Sia travro's k. irrespective systematizers the best policy. unconscious ambiguity. But the rejection of Eudsemonism and there is no doubt that. DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT sense.. as the debt of Nature." ancient Now and modern. and wise servant 6\7j<. the language of personal immortality is employed with . occupied 'with the thought of vanity of approaching death and human that life. Marcus is is continually reassuring himself there nothing terrible in dissolution. implies a fallacy . — almost but not quite negative. hna-TrjfjMiiv . roughly. for And that upon this weightiest poiat of human immortality. it is well. 32. in favour of conduct devoted to the common good. t^Xos Tov Sii' T»}s ova'iMi hirjKovTa Aof^ov (the Eeason that pervades all things) «. merely to convey the fact that and the Soul here has insight into abstract mathematical truth. in harmony with 14 . Marcus makes no definite pronouncement ^indeed. In Soul — V. it is the peculiar teaching of all " Averroists. faithful «.

Eirst let us note Marcus' consistent dualism . . toiovto<! Tt? aKopTTiafio'i {" dissolution of the atomic combinations and consequent scattering of the impassive — Here Marcus is a complete Lucretian vi. 24 (Alexander and his stable-boy on a par) ^Tot yap mutation "). -50. the world's interest as it freshens itself by altering and rearranging atoms. where Rendall's " searchings of anxiety .Kov<s Xoyov^' Stoic rj 8ie<TKe8(io-9K)croi' ofiolw^ et's . vi. After quoting of earth || with approval Euripides' returns to earth . and thus brings birth of new From this law creatures from the death of others. which altogether. to a casual reader. ei S' evaa-K. Death ends not merely sensation . and appetite. SiavoriTiKrji of thought suggests. 28. onrepfiaTi. — iX'fl^Qrivav el<} roix. vii. perhaps. avToi>^ tov Koa/iov . <7T0L')(el(ov SiaXu<rts tSiv ev Tats aTOfioi<i avTefiifKoKav. Growth Seeds that spring of heavenly birth toiJto To heavenly realms anon T&v aTradmv elements"). So vii. for the nonce. rjr oi irfiiais (lerdoTacris. rather the ceasing than the extinction of conscious thought I take to be Marcus' meaning. sensibles and sense are unreal and fallacious avro Se to yfrv^aptov avaOvfiiaaK ai}> Has he forgotten in this materialism the a"fiaTo<i. Ta<i is aro/iov^ : the and the Epicurean account it difficult to see wherein consists the superiority of first over second. — is : : high affinity claimed for spirit ? or this not to ? include the sublimer element set free by death The moral is irepifieveiv iXew tj^v eire a^iaiv eire \i. why should man alone claim exemption ? v.eTd<TTaaiv it ("serenely to await the end.2IO MARCUS AURELIUS . 10. 33 Tt oiv en TO evrav&a KaTe-)(pv . but is also dvuTravXa Bie^oSov. || " Chrysippus." revert k. 32 : Ilepl Oavarov fj rj a-K€Sa<T/M<s el arofiot. be extinction or trans- Death is the great leveller. — vii.

slightly more personal and hopeful meaning . and marvelling at the reluctance — command.hough.")' § 10. 25 ^Tot aKcSaorOTJKai rj to ervyKpifidrtov a-ov afiea^vai aWa'^pv KaTaTw^dfjvai. " every cause is quickly eassumed into iejjffet the Universal Keason. Facts a/nd Comments ' What becomes of consciousness when it ends ? We can only infer hat it is a specialized and individualized form of that Infinite and Sternal Energy which transcends both our knowledge and our imaginaion . . I We may note " that it is just possible to give here. eh rbv t&v "OXtov Aoyov we cannot doubt that : ^11%^ is included in acria. Combe set on duty in another sphere.") — fj viii. atTtwSes." paring life to a voyage. ^rot t} ivaiaOijauiv (po^eirai aiaOrjatv erepoiav. and that at death its elements lapse into the Infinite and Eternal Snergy whence they wctb derived." ." all Cf. I believe Dr. :/B6t" rt /Jbkv tuvtu . 3. —and (E. . " Either your mortal )rder. —To ev avaia-dtjaia iravarj dv^o/ievo^ § k. eirkevaa<i KaT'^diji' El Se irepov ovSev 6e&v Kivov ovSe . . Eendall's translation »ives the true sense transferred to another md )f iii. although he has reached his .: DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT )f 211 svistrateland cause (evvKov : . UTiov) Uav to evvXov iva^avi^eTai. compound must be dispersed nto its Atoms.K^tjBl. raj^tcTa irav atriov airoXa/jL^dveTai. . the teaching atadijo-iv it implies extinction of percipience. rd'^iara ry r&v k. or else the breath of life must be ixtinguished. e<|>' ivi^rj^ fiiov. passenger to disembark. . this possible interpretation : 58 lends 'AlOC eire some countenance iVKeri. OXo)v ovaia. or be transmuted and enter a new 'o TTvevfjuirvov fieTaa-rfjvai k. on the whole. iestination '. el \Mrpev<ov. or as here. 'or )f ^ 'O t6v ddvarov tfyo^ovfieva. etre dXKoioTepav Herbert Spencer in his latest work. the Dissolutionists) . ala-dijffij ovBe kukov tivo^ (" no pain in death.

. derived from food and respiration.") But though — ! — : — — : fiev crrepefiviov et? to yeaSei. so of vital force. 3) the most decided passage we have yet encountered. Perhaps without this material envelope and vital current its definiteness. wonder that. quickening pneumatic now another of these congeries. changed creature. receives weighty "Hroi yap crKESturfi&s confirmation from our next. x. whole series of passages merely implies the indestructibility. with his 'peculiar theories. he chooses the low word aiadr)(n<. as of matter. loses all and sinks back. to which it is strongly attached. ravTU suffer di/oXiii+Btjvai el<s TOV Tov oKov Aoyov (whether change). 7 aroi^eleav ef &v a-vveKpiOnjv (so viii.212 MARCUS AURELIUS etrrj KT^ay. (" If sensation changed in kind. aXKolov ^iSov k. This may mean mere transmigration of the vital energy into . tov ^rjv ov vavarj. other animals' bodies or it may imply is continuance of the consciousness. 36: ro superior to death irpevfMniKov (? with Casaubon irvev/xaTiov) dXKo rotovrop ex TOVTWV ek ravra fiera^dWov the vital or current flits from body to body. and will not cease to it is (with iii. a survival of somewe may certainly thing in another phase of existence. it Kagnarok " at stated intervals or renew its youth with perpetual He continues : significantly and in quite a modern spirit. mere logical abstract truth. into the . to express that in man which rises I will merely quote ix. E. " Do not regard the solid or the pneumatic elements as a natal part of being they are but accretions of yesterday or the day before. That the now one. 25) fj rpoirfi rod you will be a live. the Aaifjiwv (whether as identical or distinct)." Now clearly in such a passage he says nothing about the vows or . vov<. rov Se irvev/iarcKov (here Casaubon " is silent) ek to dep&Se^' &<TTe k.

reservoir of Universal Mind.







for the soul


when the war



comes {iav



<rffl^oTos), for extinction,

or dispersal,

or survival

(rjTOl, trfieadrivai,


(rKe8a<r6i)i'ai rj

xii. 1


" If, then,


that you near the end, leaving

all else alone,




you reverence only your Inner Self and if you will fear, not life sometime

coming to an end, but never beginning life at all in accord with Nature's Law," and («. /irj to KaiataQai vore TOV ^rjv <])o^rjdij<s, dWa to 76 fj/rjEerroTe ap^aadai KUTci (pvaiv ^rjv) a clear instance of the Kantian indifference of Moral Duty to speculative certitude,
but without the comfort of the postulates. "Why hanker for § 11. xii. 31. K.




(rt eTrtfi^ret?

to BiayLvecr6ai, ;)
or, again, for

Is it for sen-

sation, desire,



speech, utterance,




of these

seems worth the craving

(ri TovTtav irodov croi a^iov So/cet;)

each and

all of

these are of small regard {evKara^p6vr)Ta), address yourself

to the final quest, the following of reason





fid'xeTat to Tifiav

Tama, to

d')(0ea0ai el

Ti<! avT&v. To honour and to repine because death deprives us of them, is inconsistent with this true end of life.^ In conclusion, I come to two rather lengthier sections, in which the problem of souls is considered: iv. 21. He approaches a jather quaint and " Scholastic

Bid tov Te6vt}Kevai aTepriaeTai
these things of earth,



" If


survive death,







Siafievov(Tiv at

them from all eternity ^v^aX kt\.). " How," we reply,
to hold





hold the bodies of generation after generation

TaSra must refer to the list of human faculties and not to the and Qebs just before, even if the construction were grammatical.



committed to the grave ? Just as on earth, after a certain term of survival (tt/so? t^vtivu iiriSiafiov^v), change and dissolution of substance makes room for so, too, the other dead bodies (fiera^oXr) k. SioKvo-k) souls, transmuted into air after a period of survival, change by processes of diffusion and ignition, and are resumed into the seminal principle of the universe, and



way make room


others to take



habitation in

their stead "

{eh tov depa neOiardiievai,
fiera^aXXovfft, k, 'yeovTCU



eVt "TToaov



. .





"xatpav rat; irpoaavvoiKi^ofievaK



the natural answer, assuming the
ijrv^h,<s ^iafi,iveiv."

survival of Souls, e^' vwoOia-ei, tov t^?


and settles with a logical answer a purely logical conundrum but it may be noted that even in the more favourable " hypothesis," as he

strictly impartial here,




the souls of the righteous only last a short time,

and soon melt and dissolve into the Universal Eeason here at least Marcus is plainly " Averroistic." § 12. The final and by far the most important (and
disappointing) passage







that the




things well and lovingly, overelect in virtue

looked this one thing: that some








communion therewith by holy act and sacred ministries) should not, when once dead,
enjoyed intimate

renew their being, but be utterly extinguished
TOVTo fiovou Ttapelhov,




TTOTB irdvTa KaX&<i k. <f>iXavdpanrto<; StOTa^aj/re? ol 0eol

to evLov;





iravii yprjaToiiis

irXeia-ra 7rpo<} to deiov ma-jrep a-v/i^oXaia Oefiivovi k.


"TrXeiaTOV BC epytov ocritov k. iepovpyi&v a-vvrjOei^


6ei^ yevofjjivovi, iweiBhu aira^ dvoddvaai,

p,r}KiTt aidi<s





to iravTeXei

AiteaPriKivai, ;)

" If,



be sure, had

been better otherwise {erepmv

exeiv eBei), the gods
r'iffht, it

would have had it so. Were it would be likewise possible. Were it according to nature, nature would have brought it to pass " (el yap SiKaiof ^v, fjV av K. SuvaToc, k. el Karh ^vaiv, rjveyKev av avTO 17 «Pua-t9. 'Ek Se tov fir) ovt(o<s e^eip, eiTrep oux o5t(bs ^xEi), " From its not being so, if as a fact it is not so, be assured it ought not so to be (Tninova-da> " Do you not see that in hazardTO fit) Sefjaai ktX). ing such questions you arraign the justice of God (SiKaidXoyy) ? Nay, we could not thus reason with the gods but for their perfectness and justice " (ovk av 8'
ovTto BieT^^yofieda


el fir)




El he

tovto, ovk av Tt TrepieiSov dBiK&^
ev Ty SuzKoa-fiijaei

this it



And from

follows that they never

would have allowed any unjust

or unreasonable neglect of parts of the great order."



perhaps the most striking passage in the whole

now some consideration. must not press down Marcus to a dogmatic statement he is only concerned to vindicate the Divine goodness at all cost and under any condition or circum" Whatever my experience or discovery in Hfe stance.
book, and demands

1 3.



be, it shall not interfere

with this belief of mine,


be instinctive or a scholastic maxim, learnt

by heart

at the beginning of





irrational is this prejudice in favour of a School thesis

no foundation
I suppose,

for his belief except the formal

that we are indebted to them (1) for the faculty by which we can ungratefully impeach the Cosmic Process ; (2) for their patience and long-suffering, by which they listen without anger to our murmurs.


of criticizing reason,



syllogism of the Porch, by which you could prove any-

thing and be none the wiser

and (here


the really re-

conviction deeming feature) an unassailable issue of his gloomy which has come to him in spite of the


philosophic reflexion, that "
religious faith, very






vague and very


entangled in


whole mass


pantheistic " credenda," but sincere,

authentic, vital.

And, with the right

instinct of the

Christian, he will at once sacrifice God's almightiness to His goodness ; " perhaps the gods could not recall a

man from

the gates of death."



implicit in the

central part of the section.


J.- S.

Mill willingly

abandons the more or


meaningless dogma of infinite

power, because thereby he arouses the strongest emotion,
the most redoubtable propaganda in the world of men,

the spirit of chivalrous loyalty to a cause not yet won.
Or, again,

we may suppose

that the gods are but the

subordinate ministers and satellites of the Timcetis, and
that Nature

loving providence by a

stern fiat separating the possible from the impossible.

Whichever it may be, Marcus clearly feels himself " safe in the hands of the higher powers. His reasoning is absurd to the last degree not a single important word in the paragraph could retain its customary sense if he is allowed to argue in that stiff and formal manner every definition evaporates into thin air. But who are we, to
; ;

judge another man's

faith, or

penetrate into the sacred
Suffice it that

recesses of the inner temple

in this

Marcus was tested in the furnace of God's abandonment, and was not foimd wanting so imshaken was his belief, so triumphant his heart and

character over



the inadequacy,



philosophic creed.

" ;



(E) Belief in Immortality essential to the logical

not to the Pursuit, of Morality

§ 14.


a current beUef to-day, "immortality without Religion " ; incalculable effect of a scientific
preaches the very reverse of

proof of Thanatism.
§ 15.

To-day, for half the
based, not


race, there is

no God, but un-

questionable belief in survival

(on this morality can be

on a

ba/rren Theism). is

more interesting Marcus contemplates with calmness, " Ebligion without Immortality." Today there is some prospect of the exact reverse, " Immortality without Ebligion." ^ So completely
§ 14.

But there

another and


question that this section

has the standpoint changed
of the conscious spirit



belief in the survival

I believe, absolutely essential,

not to the practice, at least to the reasonable pursuit

of morality.

Morality in the main




depends very

ethical teacher feels

on ethical teaching indeed, the himself always stepping on the thin

ice of the sceptical inquiry, "

Why must

I do right


" or

the volcanic

iires of

passionate anarchy.


I readily

' Dr. Rendall has a very interesting sentence, ovii., on Marcus' Thanatism, though, as I have explained, I cannot recognise the parallel " Just as the devout Christian will in his self-communings face the cvii. moral corollaries consequent on a denial of the Resurrection or of a future life ; so, too, Marcus wUl entertain and test the consequences of It seems clear that in postulates to which he himself gires no assent." the second case (though not necessarily in the former) the word " moral It would either imply an would cease to bear its Kantian sense. arbitrary law of a tyrant who had called us from animalism to tease and or the convention of society, which tantalize us with illusions and pains might or might not remain binding in practice, though in theory it would be indefensible, in the complete absence of any standard which could measure human life and its hopes and self-devotion.
: ;



allow that morality

independent of



in a

personal Creator and Judge.
resists the solvent of atheism,''

Moral behaviour, which
could not possibly con-

completely independent the moral sanction is in Marcus' eye Ei /ih oSc i^ovKeiis seen in vi. 44 aavTo Tepl i/iov «. Tap i/Mol avu^Tjvai. 6it>eCKbvT(iiv (particular ProTidence) Ka\us i^ovKeiffavTo. It is not easy, even for a moment, to imagine a god to be 4|3ot/\os, and for what cause should they want to harm me ? But if their providence was not special, but general, all follows in the
of any theological presupposition,





unbending course of things, and
el 5'


must be content (do-Trdfeo-Sai k. m-ipyeir

But there



irepl /jiriB^vos

yet a third possibility, the Epicurean hypothesis, ^ov\ev6vTai. {irurreieiv ii,kv oix iaiov). K. "If,

indeed, they take no thought for anything at

—an impious creed,
any concern of


observances by which

us have done with sacrifice and prayer and oaths and all other we own the presence and the nearness of the gods "



avii^wvvrat Tois Beois, going in and out amongst



i^ after all,

they take no thought




man thrown back upon
i/iol d'

ifiol fiiv

Jfeori irepl iimvrov


lari tr/c^^is vepl tov avfiipipovTos (which, of course, is

the weal of smaller or greater commonwealth, promoted by social adivity and religious quietism). x. 6. Efre Sroiioi etre Hffis, vpwrov xelffdia in /lipos eifu roS "OXou iwi (jjiaeui StoiKoviiivov' (ireiTa Sn Ix" ^"^ olxelus irpAs t4 ofioryevi] /iipri. (E. ; " Be the word
interpreted in wider sense


atoms, or be


nature's growth, stand assured,


that I


a part of

the whole at nature's disposition

secondly, that


related to all


kindred parts.") Certainly ^itreas is odd; an alternative is propounded, and its solution pronounced immaterial, or at least subsequent and secondary to certain immovable axioms ; and yet, on closer survey, we find these reposing upon acceptance of one hypothesis (as in the Thecetetus, where the very word under discussion creeps stealthily
into its his





does the suggestion StoiKoi/nevos help us
recognise a sort of purpose or end in

much, though clearly a

man might


nature, while refusing to see in the world without anything but

the play of accidental and unconsoious forces. Marcus is not one of such dualists; in the reason mthin he sees irrefragable testimony to the ordering mind without, though he carefully fortifies himself against
the other contingency.

must depend

For ethics must be absolutely emancipated from solely on a man's consciousness, sense of

the fitting, artistic proportion (as in so much of Hellenic morality), exhaustion of all other remedies for the restlessness and pangs of life
[irejrelpaffat 7ro(r4 B-XoKijfleis /).

itself. . A tumult followed the elimination of eleven days what might we not expect to be the fate of the scientist who could disprove beyond a doubt the survival . always on the side of conservatism and approved friends. might rise in angry and indignant clamour against those shorteners of hfe as they dealt their hope a deathblow. creating own recompense. but that there is no power in the universe (beyond the unknown and unconscious ground) to which the name of God and the attributes A Society founded on of religious worship can apply. The civic code of respectable convention and reciprocity would struggle in vain against this conviction and fanaticism or super- — . that man was an animal who had gone astray from Eden. is The massive weight of cumulative democratic testimony heavy in the balance for nearly half the human race . of the Soul § 15. The signs of the times. in a word. but the soul is indestructible. the eager curiosity of society. the arguments of the wise. are all telling the other way.— DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT front the certainty of dissolution. passing verdict on shaping its unending destiny. . ? unlikely. the popular voice. — But here is the point of interest : this is quite regarding the matter in historic probability. rational that faculty in us which halves our pleasures and doubles our pains. It is quite conceivable that man's Soul may be immortal. cursed with the last terrible imprecation of a secret but malignant power. Nay. or mount guard over the security of the weak and the rights of private property. stition alone could reconstruct the shattered fabric of society. there its is no God. to life 219 The whole attitude would be so transformed that a new series of eudsemonistic maxims or suicidal appeals would arise to meet this moral certainty.

" and religion). ultimate problem. only a doglike fidelity to Duty (he wavers between physical fatalism rejoin the gods. a Society founded on the sense of the unreality of what we term Soul. the illusion of personality. entirely assent to Dr. "the soul released would A. The sometimes interminable series of " sen " or " sive " in Roman poets. C. it is is not only all inconceivable. doubt his ultimcete personal hope. seems to point to a wholesome suspension of judgment thus . unethical there is nothing in such tenets to counten- But ance rebellion or the overthrow of the moral law. by no means . To me he is which is the not the dogmatist in science or theology which his translator believes. contrary to the experience of : Marcus did not think so but he wrote to comfort himself. human his intellectual scepticism canno't overthrow. I fear.2 20 MARCUS AUREUUS we see in the Buddhistic the one hypothesis of community nihilistic or sympathy and compassion. he could not have expected that his arguments could appeal as rational or sober to any of his contemporaries. No No metaphysic. APPENDIX Analysis A. or to the average man. Kendall's interpretation of the Emperor's views on Immortality. without giving any view or opinion priority. No dejmite pronouncement or even unnvistahable tendency . B. His subjective resignation comes of strongest faith. the heaping-up of possible explanations of phenomena (such as the Nile's rising). I cannot. only concerned to show morals is indifferent to such speculations. which history.

nor dread of further conscious being. Koa-fios. 35. is always a dissolution of being. xii. as I have pointed out. and points it to show that it is on morals. an Eternity that contains neither hint nor hope 11. 12." cv. If so. " His attitude to Atomism or to the future state of the Soul is sound and coherent. Kendall believes that the belief in an Ordered Universe is absolute . conceivably imply a new sphere of activity. though Marcus often plays the a-^ea-Li indifferent in its effect with the opposite theory." cvi." I wiU also grant that (1) the Stoic system with its odd and disconnected individualism is strangely silent on this topic . ix." X. 21. or thought. the tr/Seo-is may equally (as the most emphatic declaration of Thanatism) re- present a possibility which he nevertheless regards with no favour . is 29. But I do not thiak a definite and dogmatic pronouncement can be elicited from a comparison of passages. wherever he has occasion to give clear and simple utterance to his own thoughts. will." cix.iTaaraa-ii. whicli recurs so often in these commentaries with etre pendant I quite agree that "death. and /leTao-Tao-is. impulse. is." cvii. like many mystics and most Asiatics. 221 and to find eiT€ a-^iarvs its counterpart in the ^roi arofioi ^ its /jLtrdaTaa-is. (2) that Marcus all his contempt of life and the exceeding and barren domain conferred on the Soul. For let us apply the same canon himself. " The denial viction Marcus nowhere seems to waver. of the hope of immortality is settled and complete. But my own view is that both these are same category. they are really alternatives in both . "is represented in many passages. a may quite new rearrange- ment. with the single reserve that "is always" read. indifferent to continued being. that brief span termiuates every of life with human activity and bounds our ii.DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT prevalent. a in the new part. that is the end of action. " His own I could never endorse statements so sweeping as " In his own conbelief is that death ends sensation. with futility : ' ' to the constant hypothesis of alternative kvkcwv rj Koa-fws as to ^ //.

dential care." — places him for the this ordinary man in a position utterly illogical. His scientific or dogmatic knowledge is always cast in this sceptical form. But he certainly will not dogmatize . which has spoilt his life. will say. gathering round his dying bed. away from his fellow-men. only a dog-like allegiance to this inward sense of duty. The " good soul " may very . " Now we have got rid at last of our pedagogue " He does their incredible his tjyutnokoyia is ! not see that 'his indifference to such questions (if it was not assumed). a principle 1 off The " final unswerving loyalty to triumph of the right. By all means. the existence even their provi. " in sure and certain hope. and Marcus had no trace of this." or any " far- Why divine event. But idealism (as emotion and a wager of hardihood or defiance) will do wonders in reinforcing the moral instinct (as the craving for martyrdom). is an ordered world. To use the word " conviction " in any context hut the moral sense." and self-devotion of a martyr to a cause. not scientific and objective. and a reassumption into that reservoir of Soul-life which we connect with the term " Averroism "). And those one day. for is misleading. say.222 oases." as — Tourguenieff so pathetically describes. meanness when analysed into their elements moral and reacts on self. the regeneration of mankind through Mhilism. if not of particular. of personal ruin here and extinction hereafter." are meaningless phrases to this apostle of I quite admit the instinctive courage the "Eternal Now. intellectual survey not the uses but the vanity of things . at least of general laws for a Soul. he has passed through and abandoned the phase of eager science he grasps in his (a belief . He has in effect no metaphysic . £. setting him on a peak of loneliness aloof from earthly pleasures and amiable illusions. his emphasis on the "good will alone being unreservedly good. MARCUS AURELIUS His whole concern is to show the independence and autonomy of the moral judgment. He quite sufficiently guards himself from any definite decision. his predilection of gods.

but to be patiently won through repeated pangs of rebirth. and predestined before the ages : to struggle is impious in the theologic. (oiSa/iov the invariable loophole of evasion. human race) look upon the tinction of consciousness as a final blessing. C. " in which other views are broached. because his against the doubts mind wants reinforcing and suspicion of the world and its goodness. the immovable conviction and insight of a loving and sympathetic nature. some others ex- continued work. too great to be hastily grasped." To my eyes this is precisely the significant feature of the book. there is no is cause at in the world for men to fight for everything all at once divine. " There remain passages. whatever meaning he attached to this real weapons." His few pebbles for slaying giant Despair. of individuals (see His profound belief in Divine interposition in the lives i. monotonous." which assuredly he seems sometimes not " to have proved. "help vouchsafed by dreams") is not only clearly stated in the commentaries. Christians to-day recognize the extreme hazard life. and which some have interpreted as a wavering back on hope." rest. come from no intellectual armoury.) all And .— DESTINY OF MAN'S SPIRIT likely vanish oTTouSij. 223 ij and be as if it never had been. I conceive that ultimately Marcus believed that the soul of the wise joined the gods. but is corroborated in all his correspondence with Fronto. On what could he found the to disperse into thin air. creeping in through the "joints of his Stoical harness. useless in the scientific sphere. 17." says Dr. once or twice. of defining a future some desire eternal cities. the Inner Self. to be "ruler over ten or to "sit on thrones judging the twelve (perhaps a majority of the tribes of Israel". his certainly expression. the God Within. but from the early training. inconsistent with his philosophic creed. . great in spite of his creed. He uses it sparingly here. the contest between this religious and this materialistic or fatalistic conception of the Universe. It is inconceivable that Marcus could have believed the Ruling Principle. Bendall.

let us at least not find fault with Marcns. has to-day can say more. He believed " the soul returned to God who gave it . and not one of us " " He whom the gods lent us.224 Buperiority of MARCUS AURELIUS man to the beast ? If this colourless absorption into Mind again seems but a poor travesty of an immortal hope." . ' rejoined the gods.

digmty and vanity of the world. ETERNAL AND DIVINE. is at heart a Gnostic. Hard to reconcile his" devotion to God. contemptible?). own nature we must now to examine with dispassionate detachment his views on the Universe and the Source We see that Marcus. AND TRANSIENT AND CONTEMPTIBLE (A) The Perpetual Flux and Monotony of the World-process Analysis § 1. The One Imperishable Nature. § 4. § 3. His manifold titles (does it betray vacillation from personal providence to scientific fatalism ?). (1 John 15 V. OiSa/iep Be art ex tov 6eov itrfiev . both transient and ever the same . Difficult as former is it is to sever the objective science of his of Marcus from the subjective survey (for the but the reflex of the latter). Texts on the fleeting yet moTWto'iums character of the Oosmic Process.CHAPTER V THE UNIVERSE. and his hate or scorn be of the universe which embodies Him (how can whole good when parts § 2. nevertheless attempt greater number of speculators in the second century. Monism from 19 : John k. . § 1. in common with the of Being. theoretical He is only saved by his otiose and the conclusion of St.

In what part of the world. knowledge —seems to lead surely to an unwarrantable deification of the whole . was rampant unrestrained. sojourner in a contemptible framework of corruption. It is hard to reconcile so with the Supreme Power. God reigns supreme in both departments. which. and his depreciation of human life and nature are distinctly Basilidian or Valentiman. and central authority or national cohesion unknown. by the very terms of his dislike of Matter hypothesis.226 KO(TiJLo<! MARCUS AURELIUS oXo'i iv Tftj TTovrjpw Keirai) and his reverence for the divine spark. the first philosopher who has thrown the black cloak of Monism over a militant and meaningless array of parThe Canonists of mediaeval times when egoism ticulars. Pope or Emperor and the grandeur of their attributes : — . elevate the pretensions of the universal sovereign of the Christian EepubUc. in what corner of Nature can He reside. As with man's soul. the praise of God with the scorn of the visible Universe which embodies Him. sum of despised particulars is Nothing becomes somehow more remarkable than the course of that School. where aU is Has he a foothold any more pitiable or disgusting ? Marcus' consecure in the realm of History or Time ? tempt of Time is perhaps even more striking than his and yet. alien fundamentally dualistic. and is so far from merely guiding or superintending a somewhat stubborn and indocile complex. beginning with rejection of the " Will-to-live. the illusion of " Sorites " in which at a certain point the Divine. varies in exact proportion to the inefficiency of their control of life A and pessimistic disillusion with each fragment its ideals. ambition. is subMarcus Aurelius is not stantially identical with it. love." culminates in the mystical resignation .

combination. yet the sexual instinct is the tyrant and torturer of the young. and is but the ceaseless arrangement. that the whole process leads to nothing. strange and fascinated disgust of the petty details of life. and rearrangement of an unchanging substrate. while the obvious folly of personal " lends to the sanction of utility and creed of acquiescence. at in Pietism. all pervading. deeply engrained rebellion interest the the heart . Not for that reason does he impugn the order of things. Marcus Aurelius. He enlarges impartially on sameness of the imperishable nature. volentem fata nolentem trahunt. original and With modern science he clearly recognizes that matter is indestructible. an utter inability to understand logic or follow an argument. Marcus is but a Tolstoi to of — To the enthroned. We have nothing but Heraclitus again with his doctrine of the flux of things and the Logos." . ascetic contempt of human love in all its forms. an intenser though still re' We may perhaps here note the extraordinary resemblance of Tolstoi . are there signs in exceptional natures of a final and reasoned rebellion against the Universal order § 2. tolerance evil. all forms of legitimate affection are irapli tpinv . whether atoms or some other primordial unit. Tolstoi a restatement of the inspired pessimist. Whether it be insistence on moral duty. alone the real only tinged with a deeper sadness. History and Nature. nor examine more closely into the redoubtable difficulty of defining " Nature.THE UNIVERSE of 227 the Von Hartmann. latter. He adopts with- out hesitation the axiom of the early lonians. like sympathetic is instinct the root of practical morality. after performing their duty in one body pass on to other posts. Now of Marcus is eloquent alike on the majesty of God and the triviality of the Creature." ciplined Eussia.! borderland of Ducunt Only in undisthe entranced East and the stirring West. in the double the transience and the domain Time and Space. and that ingredients.

dvdyKT}. TO yevv&v irdvTa irepveypv k. generally or with addition Koa-fiO'i. hands groping. ttoXi? ^to?. evpoiev). arvvvr)<n. k. Xoyo^ irriyrf. and k. arvyicXcoa-K iviirXoKr) t&v irpovoia SioiKov/ievcov. § 3.228 strained MARCUS AURELIUS sympathy with the human. oUeioTij^ a-v/jLfi'^pvcn'. 97 T&v QeSiv irpovoia. It is not ' Where we wonder vaguely how " goodness and justice " have crept in as qualifications or attributes of this reservoir of physical life Has he forgotten the wise antithesis of vi. Alria. X0705 cnrepfiariKo^ to (rvfifiefioipafievov iiriavvSeaii. eKTo<. to alTiS)Se<s. \6yo<. (expressing itself in avfiTTVoia. 0X09 or -1). to d/yaObv k. 6 yevv>]<Ta<s TroXt? k.<s. after a closer and personal relation with the source of all (el apa ye <^\a(^<Teiav avTov k. KoXov. cfvve')(ov k. rh oXa. deal. ^wfft? either absolutely or with kolvt). eh yeveaiv eTepcov aTroXafi^dvovaa ^va-tf. Sikuiov k.. t&v 6 oXcav or ToO oXov ^va-K. how irreconcilable its parts. fj -irdvTWV to. The vanity of things is the perpetual theme of Marcus but we shall attempt in the following co-ordination of his fragmentary and detached aphorisms to display how complex is his spite of the . avvSea-t<} tj TO iTvyKXadofievov. 17 SiaXvofieva k. It is to yewmv tj irdvTa ^mov. rj ra oXa rf BioiK&v. elfiapfievov. irepiofiolmvj'r) Xdfi^avov irdvTa hihovaa TjyefioviKov. to tov KOtTfiov tov oXov Bidvoia. dogmatism of the Schools. dav/iaaia. ^eos. oXr) oixria. KoaiM'i. oXa hioiKovaa ^vaK. — doctrine. given to this ultimate Being show how confused the Emperor becomes when asked to define he varies between the extreme limits of devotion to a personal God {Zev<s) and the most abstract scientific Impersonalism. titles The many . 17 tpopal twv ctoix^Iov and I : . to oXov. -jroXiTeia irpea^vrdrr). to TeXeiov ^&ov. lepci). Koafio^ (simply).

a Platonic recession of the Highest from a world which . THE UNIVERSE permissible to see gradations or stages of divinity . The sum of the world is unchanging. Thought and though one and integral as the Parmenidean !). and there are times. but This follows blindly an immutable Spinoza's sequence." . and that there is but a single cause. the firmament he recognizes within as the gift of He his sees visible gods in Zeus . sphere. like man's God with extension spirit in his body. and is always new and fresh because of the perpetual shifting of the parts. Indilittle particular are passing is soon and worth riKois " the reality underlying the ^070? a-irepfia- which requires consummate powers of analysis to be distinguished from the Platonic Idea. quently into popular language. in Transcendentalism. when to you it doth impart Authentic tidings of invisible things . is not now in direct relation to Him. and we need scarcely add that. and ever-during power And central peace. I doubt not. the higher principle tends to set itself in opposition to the lower.— . Of ebb and flow. subsisting at the heart Of endless agitation. and in the " last resort to claim complete freedom viduals in .^ 1 It is thus a single living being in which each 'Wordsworth's "Excursion " " The monitor express'd Mysterious union with its native sea. 229 for the whole hypothesis one. is that God and the world are time. Even such a shell the universe itself Is to the ear of faith . At the same Marcus (as in his psychology) is betrayed fre- individual Mentor and he sometimes appears to contemplate. tends in reflexion to divide into amwSe? and vkiKov. universe (like his two attributes. with the possibility of Atomism.

2 30 MARCUS AURELIUS part as leaf on tree depends upon the whole and takes meaning and its sustenance from this close conr To stand aloof and claim independent being is a gross sin. . ! . common to all minds and aU ages. Nothing is ever outside of Him . . Bart. . You see the reason we can choose between right and wrong. by L. . was it partly of God and partly of themselves ? He laughed again at the question. . . He saw that the whole of the Universe goes to develop character " (Marcus was not so anthropocentric !). is just because God's power of choice is in us and not in ' little ' ' : . what happens after we have done a thing is just what must happen . Toyner. In all. for the way things must happen is just God's character that never changes. The life that was in them all. so that we can never hope to escape the good and evil of what we have done . could turn away from good that God's power was only with him when he supposed himself to be obedient to Him "With the children and maidens there were pleasure and hope . with the older men and women there were effort and failure. " and the one chief heavenly food set within reach of the growing character for its nourishment is the opportunity to embrace malice with love. But it is needless and tedious to multiply these obvious corollaries from the Pantheistic hypothesis they are deduced by a sovereign logic. The life that was in all of them. . His father's cruelty. . Man. every impulse. . . the incapacity to recognize any form of life but his own. there is a significant family likeness quite free from any conscious imitation. not a high manifestation the bat is lower than the bird. . Dougall) seems to represent on Canadian soil the same peculiar features of American Transcendentalism " and Boman Stoicism. For example. Compare Bartholomew Toyner's new vision of the Divine Nature " He laughed within himself as he thought what a strange childish notion he had had that God was only a part of things . . convert its shame into glory by willing endurance. — : .. every act. though unhappily (and incomprehensibly) it is possible to man.. and yet it is of God. . when a tree can't or a beast. sin and despair. Emerson is a more genial Marcus Antoninus. and the consequences of each choice ordained. the irritable selflove.^ its nexion. it was of God. and a but interesting book (the Zeit Geist. . to gather it in the arms of patience. rising from the mere dominion of physical law (which works out its own obedience) into the Moral Region where a perpetual choice is ordained of God. alone of living creatures. . . . was all of God. that he. .

— ii. iravra i^ 8ia<f)epei. 36 OvBev ovtio ijjiXei rj t&v "OXwv Aval's «B? TO Tci ovTa fieTa^dWeiv k." When returning health forced him to descend from this lofty air came " the aoul-bewildering difficulty of believing that . ttw? EfiTcXrj rm Koafim avrh k. up. puirfi k. pcufta ^laioi' Aldiv. r) oftoeiSi) avaKvkXov/ieva. V. rocravTy puo-Ei T7j<. T ovauK} K. Tov '^ovoV K. but as the absolute Lord of the struggle . Something of the secret of all peace the Eternal Now remained with him as long as the weakness of the injury remained.<!. .<s iv rm direip(p 'XP°^V ^^ "^'"'^ ''''? oyJreTat. etc. 14 : Kav rpia-)(p<. : them. . iroieiv via ofMia." . .THE UNIVERSE It only 231 remains to give illustrations of these tenets in the Emperor's own language. .) famous (iv. iv. or told him of the subjective ideal which sweeps . k. 3) o K6a-/io<! aWotwo-t?" 6 ^io<s vir6\rr\^i<i. ti<s ix t&v yivofiivmv k. and to inquire if any system coherent and compatible with the postulate of responsible moral action can be therefrom derived. evKara^povrjTa is pvirapoL eix^Oapra k. . TTW? iravra raj^ews iva^avi^erai. (This indifference to progress is an infallible sign of Mysticism. as fleeting and yet monotonous. . . 1^0 one had told him about the Pantheism which obliterates moral distinctions. aside material delights.i. § 4. Tci <r<o/iara K. reKpct (this discovery the part of voeph Svvafj. . k. 10 'Ev TOLovT(p o?iv £<5+<!> k. ii. . ereaiv rj ovBev •JTorepov ev eKarov ev hiaKo<rioi. His mind was still animated with the conception of God as suffering in the human struggle. which somehow loses its tone of despondency in translation. and the consequent belief that nothing but obedience to the lower motive can be called evil. Tr)<s Kivr)aem<i k.ia ^maeaOai k. — . fieXXy^. — — — : the is God of physical law can also be the God of promise that He that within us and beneath us can also be above us with power to lift us . . which aiSiov it and cannot control). 12 : The world . 43 Tlorafioi. T&v Kivov/iev(ov (" I can imagine nothing that de- —The Time or — : : — — . thereby set in dualism over against a visible despises eri.

SXKa ix t^? ovaiwi avTwv iroirjaet. k. . {eitrep rjv&Tai 17 ovaia) rj (TKehaa- drjaerau pathy).6afio<s (like a thrifty housewife who has no further stock — ti (fnXrepov olxeioTepov . etc. 1 : OXms avvrjOi] ava> K. — v. m? del ra avrd opafieva irpoaKoprj Trjv 6ehv k. . how vi. — 15 (in no case any abiding connexion or sym: Ta fiev ctrevhei. . Tivo<. 46 mairep irpoataiv r& dfitfuOeaTpm and : such like places. vii. (Is it not as foolish as setting one's love on some sparrow that ? in an instant is it out of sight ") — past and vi. . rov yivofievov Se rt AitiaPt]' puaeis dvaveovai tov Koa-fiov hiriveK&<s.v' makes the spectacle pall ") tovto k.ETaPa\ET ^ T^ o\a hioiKovaa ^vai<. Mexpt — ' . vii. xdra tA outA dAiyoxpovia. a-vve'^ecn. . — long?"). irdvra Trai/To? : k. iyKaraj^covvvTai )ji6TaPo\rjs rm al&vi. yiveaOai Tcb he a-irevSet yeyovivai (impatient to come to the birth. (almost a prayer. mairep rov aireipov al&va 17 tov ')(povov a^idXemroi. «. y]T0t dvaQvfiuidria-erai. iva del veapbi y 6 K. H 7roTa/io<. . vTre^aycoyfji} r&v ovrmv k. a-y(iSov ovSev k. and the absolute indifference and contempt. 25: iravff oa o/sa? oaov ovTTca p. to 6/ioecBe<s voiei (monotony of tedious repetition ciKov tov in: " irda'x^et. fieTafioXai^ — customary moral of vi. : karw.. raTav aoi (as occurs to you) to. : p-vrifir) Tdyf^iara 18 rt yap hvvaTai rj Vpaplf ttj yeveaOai T&v oKmv ^vaei. yivofievcov re yap ovaia otov (" sweep past and disappear iv SirjveKei piJirci . 23: ")• . 59 £09 rap^ews Alatv Trdvra KoXvyp^ei. <f)op^ viof d\Xoia)(r€i<s del irapi'xeTat. TToWa/cts evOvfiov to t^xos ' irapatjiopa^ k. "0 Lord. as others too rjZri have done) K. oJiv : ^lov t&v avTwv. . — 10 — Se . iv Stj tovtui iroTdfim ri av Tt? rovriov flits T&v irapaOeovToav " eKTip/ricreiev .232 serves MARCUS AURELIUS high prizing of intent Tfjif pursuit"). 4 ndvra ra vwoKeifieva rd^x^KfTa /lera^aXei. im irdvTa yap dvat Kdrco tA aura k. ovSev Kaivov.

.dppous 17 t&v oXtov atTta' irdvTa ^epei. . 19 UdvTa ai/Tov av ev BirjveKei dWotdiaei. . 49 'OfioeiSij yap ^co/ja vXt} . . 28 TaurA Ta TOV Koafiov iyKVKXia avm Acaro) 6^ al&vo<. irdvTa ev (i£ToPo\ij' fi^TapdyXnv . yap (" eiriKVfiaTco(Tei. Ta<. and he who ponders them The Universal will feel contempt for all things mortal. &Se ovTa eKei past. ei<s 6. . future will be exactly like the compare Leopardi's dialogue about the "New «.)^at/7ei 97 t&v oXcov E.) vii. to tcJxos jravTOi dvriTov KaTat^povrjo-et. icaTa Tt (fiOopa K. on k. tovtcov . to evhov (Sia^Beipeadai el<i k. OTt iraXiv K. " corruption " has no meaning in relation to the Cosmos. k. al&va. (Strictly this is untrue. aXKa . Te^vy Ty — : irdvT(o<i 6<TTai (namely. a')(p'qaTov elvai hoKovv) etc iavTrjv [fieTopiiWei. . 35 — . 'H t&v oXo)!/ ^vcn<. . 50 t&v oKmv ^v<7i<s e^co ovBev e^ei 17 : aWa kaxnrjv TO davfjMffTop trav rfj^ reyyi)'. Almanac ") — : : ^eTandivai. .) ix. ix. iroiel. to.o<} Be o\os. 29 XEifi. : ^uai^ Kaff ^v irdvTa Kdk&<i ylveTui le. Cause is like a winter torrent it sweeps all before it. — k. irepiopiaaaa yrjpda-Keiv ie. ouj^ olov re eK^ijvai tov pv6(wv t&v vvv yivofieumv (whence it is the same to chronicle for forty Tl yap wXeov oy^ei viii. The billows of change and variation roll apace. turns and adapts the old material). e^ alwvo<i ofuciSus . tovto epyov e')(et. viii. . evdvfiovfj. k. THE UNIVERSE to 233 Similarly. draw upon. a'ipeiv evBev TpoTral K. fkerafioKel' el<s eh wiretpov fieTa^aXel' •jrdXtv ixeiva K. and as examplar to Sage of self-sufficingness.<i t&v fiBTa^oX&v dWomcrea)'." (jieTa^oXrl) Tovtw Be .evo<i tk k. irdvTa axwriQr).) ix. : — — : 2 8 (iter) avTf) : "Rhri Travras v/**? V Ka/eecva 'VV icaXihfref eireiTa k. . 6 or ten thousand years). — K.. dveipov. 6 K6a/j. eKei (pepeiv. ovv (Here Nature personified as conscious artist. whose sum remains always the same. veapii K. dpxarai IBui. .

— series of in which Ionia anticipated modern science not solely in evolution UtS? et? aWrjXa irdvTa but in astronomy. . xii. ^vvex&'i k. t&v oXtov dKfuuo<s ." "infinite. : 6 crvyKTraf oaaKi<. 27 TOiavra oiroia vvv yiveTai Soul. (though to p.ETapoXai ov). the hour for death fiETa^aXX^i'Toii'. AiravTa yap iret^VKev.) — is : way to encourage x. Nature strikes ^v r&v fiepwv Ko(7fio<. . Trpocrej^e . av i^ap9y<. TavTa to . . ovSe irepiTTOTepov elSov oi irpo TeacrapaKOVTOVTrji. 11 — : (jiETa^dWEi •jroiTjTiKov . ' vvv ^Xiirec. 1. ov aX\' et? TO pvv firj ff — ovk ei<. k. efiirepi\afi^dvei (" encompasses of the and comprehends the oycUc regeneration verse ") 01 fieff . ").. In an eloquent passage on the powers of the Rational k. OfioeiSe^ {" our fathers had no thing — xii. nravTci p.) ^x. (He betrays an unhellenic passion for "everlasting. 23. . . irepivoel Bewpel oti ov8ev vednepov oyfrovTUi rjfiSiv' '^fia<. ovSe tovtodv t&v vvv k.r) as he warns us. . . xi. yeyovoTa Ta eaoixeva empaKe KUTa to fuller vision. eirivoelv mrco^ — iravra xi. k. Buifiivei. . ^e. t^delpecrdai ha : erepa ec^efjjs ylvrjTai. . "En Se irepiep^erai tov oKov Kocrfiov k.234 iylveTo. . . ttjv nrepiohiKrjv tSsv oKav k. — 24 feap^s del K. Uni- K. to irepl avTov Kevov TroXiyyei'eo-iai' to ay^rjfia avTov .Ta^£tCKew Tpeirea-Oai K. dXKa TpoTTOv Tiva K. ojxoEiSes 6y}rei. irdvTa to. Bir}veKS<. 34 ." —and from system the permanence of Aristotle's limited reverts to globular the perpetual corruptible universes scattered in infinite. irpoaOev eyivero. nor will our children behold any new Mer' oi iroXv ovBeU ovhafiov ecrrj 21 : ovSe TOVTCcv Tt a l3lovvToiv. MARCUS AURELIUS ets aveipov roiavff irepa effrai. fieydko^potTVVTji} (but we may be allowed ! to wonder why dust contemplation of the ignoble destiny of should elevate the mind side of " Caesar's This dwelling on the sordid not the Materialism Spiritualism.

Everywhere traces of conflict between scientific and religious interpretation. (Upon these conceptions.i\v to tov Koa/jLov 'Hye/ioviKov else you must deny reason to the sovereign ends which guide the impulse of the World-Soul. THE UNIVERSE TO i\iyoxp6nov. As to the question of " Creation in Time. Kendall's translation but it puts a dilemma : — ." and the cessation of a Providential government. Universe stationary in its its total. . — 26 : (^EireKdOov) irdv to yivofievop bvTffls ael iyiveTo k. to Kvpmrara i. k. flickering and kaleido- parts. The central idea is - easy to understand rejuvenescence scopic in through never ceasing change .) (£) Creation and Providence. Intelligible ? —how fae special Analysis § 5. Nvv Se fjToi irav to yivofievov kut iiraKO\ov6r)aiv jiveTai ("all that now happens follows in the train of consequence " = fatally). § 5. purely we must feel surprise when an is idea of purpose." vii. or love superinduced. Problem : interest is all predestined. physical as they are. 75: 'H tov oKov ^v<7K etrl ttjv Koafiotroitav &pfii. there are two interesting passages. § 6. i(f> a iroietrai iBiav 6pfi. to which prove how much inclined Marcus was cast his hypothesis into the form of a "Sceptical alternative. justice. 235 rov on. Such is Dr. inclines to belief in Providential govern- ment.r)arc (the " once upon a time " of fairy stories once " the impulse of Nature" advanced nimbly to the task of worldbuilding). lyevijereTai vvv iravTathe Xov yiverai.. or is there and intervention ? (will not room for God's comrmt himself). but leames morals unaffected by these questions. . 57 akoyta-Ta k.

In the latter passage he goes so far as to say. 44. Can we allow a " knowledge of particulars " to God . . towards which Providence still makes an exceptional and peculiar movement of interest and concern. a brilliant and plausible emendation for the text tI iv rivi. X. casualty is Divine (as according to Christian teaching). imparts long it gave the impulse once of with all its entail of consequence " (reading KarevTeivei. circumstance. to. oh Kar etraKoKovOrjffiv k. resignation is the fitting attitude of the Sage. anrohe^ov Be ro eKeivrjii op/j/rjTov. \oiira kut iiraKoXovdrja-iv. the restriction of vi. He not eternally engrossed either in Himself or in contemplation of the Type ? Here. In the former.g. which is quite in Marcus' manner. . 31). a-T^pyeiv 6<j)eiX<o. 'H " uTra^ &pfj/r)ae. each trivial event. Marcus tries to exempt from the operation of this rigid and indefeasible sequence certain important events in the world-order.236 MARCUS AURELIUS me in this difficult instead of the sceptical alternative which seems to lurking passage. if I may extrude the (to me) incomprehensible word . Now the distinction in both these obscure and perhaps corrupt sections is between a special and a fatal or universal Providence. Marcus is concerned to show in either event. and Coraes' koX tI evTeivrj. accept the impulse all. and it is worth while to compare the sense "Htoi i<l> eicaiTTov opfio tj tov oKov : Aidvoia oirep el i. it seems to me. Is ravra av/i^aivovra . ? e. Either impulse or else — the in World-Mind which imparts each individual it case. 28 gives much the same language. i<f> eKaairov.. he puts the hypothesis of Divine interest (or power) to the : greater laws to the larger issues of life iSiai* El Be fiij i^ovXevcravTO Kar Trai/reBS irepi ifiov irepi ye tmv Kotv&v e^ovXevo'avTO. Now ix.

1. iiria-7i<." The conflict in his mind between the religious and the ToiovToav scientific explanation of reference to Providence. Bvvdfiei^ yovifioiii k. § 6. dipopdraa-a.). . the World-Soul makes a special and impulsive onslaught. settlement " " requiring no particular exercise of reason. restricted 237 of we to see detailed vigilance Providence (as is " great heroes and great haps " . change. — the world appears in every ii. of realisation.— THE UNIVERSE aXo7«7Ta.." as r} KoivT) ^vai<.i\aev iirl rijpSe Providence ") TTjv SiaKoa-iMrjaiv ("which gave the original and first : momentum ^ovaa to the cosmic ordering of things"). TO e^s Tot<. and Fate towards these." etc. avWa- Tiva<i Xojov. not predetermined by course and unravelled string of destiny. still leaving scope for or could we read aKoyicrrasi. (Could aXoyia-ra mean " as yet not predestined. rj. (Impiety not to regard pleasure and pain She treats them " indifferently. iTriyi. &pii.6voi<s opfiy nvi apj(ala rfj^ Ilpovoia^ (" that they befaU indifferently all whose existence is consequent upon the original impulse of Ka6' rjv airo Tiva dp^fj<. ?) In special any case I am clear there is a distinct antithesis between the more religious and the purely scientific conception of the world-order. 3 : Td t&v Oewv Mpoi'oias .) rb a-vfi^aiveiv iwiari^ to. rwv iaofiivmv k. and phenomenal succession. does by which I mean. in Lucan. and that whatever private opinion Marcus may hold. viroaTdaewv re /lera^oXtov SiaSoy(S)V ("by selecting (?) certain germs of future existences and assigning to them productive capacities E. paucis vivit genus " and Caesar's who think the gods care for calls These he ra Kvpicorara of . ix. " Humanum tannt to the mutineers their petty lives).vo/j. k. yivofievoa k. he is not going to commit himself either here or elsewhere.

tS oXtp KoiTfiq) (TVfi^epov oi> "From the providence (the personal and religious view) side with it is necessity and Universe" (the scientific and impersonal). — . K. in a celebrated vindication of Death. only flows all. to Bte^evyp. (" In the SioiKov/iSvtov.^ — iv. held in leash. K. ovk elalv ^ijv rj ov fieXei awTots Kevcp Tmv dvOpwTeioav. av irepi^aXoiev)' ei fiev deal elaiv ovBev Beivov (kukm rydp ae ovk ei Be rjToi. . Trpoa-ecrTi -Se Kaiov." ov/c the sense admirably.238 fieffrd. ir) aTo/ioi 7ro\t9. k. and side of by advantage the ." and "whether the Wise Man should take office. twv 3 : dvOpcoireicov. ort o (" Eeeall mind the or alternative.") proofs that the world as were a We see here clearly to which side he religious leaning. MARCUS AURELIUS Td t^? TV'^t)<s iTriwKoKfjg r&v is is riporoio ovk avev ^wjrem? ^ avyKXmaecoi. 'Avavecoad/ievoi.evov ^ toi ripdraia K. " of which you are a part. ii." Here there both views are stated in a parallel is a compromise they are neither reconciled nor allowed to quarrel. or the web and woof identity. n' /jloi is iv Kocrfiip 6emv rj ripoKoias Kevm 'AXKa koX eialv.) of the dispositions of Providence. though which gives avev does not imply to ^Avayfiepo<} ei. 11. in Quintilian's age were the unending discussion " whether the world was ruled by Providence. gods' work there providence everywhere. Uavra eKeWev TO pel. is —and it is — wardvei either a foreseeing all the abounding city. to the politicoscientific." ' We may remember how closely united for : two themes — singular instance of the reciprocal influence of metaphysical theory and conduct. conception as opposed to the — vi. This the strongest passage in the book about the gods and their part in ef oacov to dTreZev)(d7) human Koafio^ affairs. Providence blind atoms. For the action of chance the course of Nature. /liXei avTol<.

e/i {" Why El crave to linger on ?) .ivo% is Coraes' also extremely probable. think — — . or you the order subsisting within yourself is compatible with disorder in the All ? and that. 1 we have a parallel to the Horatian method.ire<j)vpiJ. K. ri Koi <f)vpij. from subjective to objective regularity and In xii. o Tt ^fet yap eir av Troim (" Do what 8e I will. he almost comforts himself with the thought of atomism as a consolation for leaving the world (ii. hopeful passage "Htoi Koa/ioi} SiarertvyfMevoi:. The world is either a welter of alternate combination and dispersion. aKeSaafio^' (" r) 6va}<Ti<} k. (" huiKeicpip^viov k. " or a unity of order and Providence. Ta^K k. will overtake k. " permitte divis to /MeWov iiriTpey^'i t0 cetera " nporoio. rj KVKemv evaradoo — : <TV/j.m iiridvfiiS e'lKaito (TvyKpifutTi k. avTejiifKoKr] k.. Again. HavTi UKOafiia ravTa ovrw irdvTwv <TVfnradS)v. are Here Marcus almost unaffected sympathetically. I stand steadfast. when all things. ." cf. in such a random medley and confusion 6 cKESacr^o. Koafioi v(j)laTaa6ai hvvarai. then. me"). ddrepd Oappm tw AtoiKovvri ("I reverence. 11): "Htoi KVKeatv ripifoia. 27 we have a similar but more poses all"). I find heart in the power that disIn iv.") El fiev oZv ra trpoTepa. too. for the "textns reoeptus" not oi ii/i]v dXXd Kdir/ios be a simpler correction ? . 14 is a useful passage: "Htoi avwyK-q ^xii. ^ I is absurd accept Eendall's excellent suggestion. dispersion ffE/So) K.") answerably argues from the reason within to the reason without. . K.} ^AWd fir)v Koafioi}' rj iv aoi fiev Tt? . however distributed and diffused. iv Se t«3 K. engaged in the contemplation of death. . Empedocles' famous dictum. a world-order welter of confusion. ia-ri. T010VT& ivSiarpi^eiv . but would avii. SiaKe^vfiivav Either an ordered universe or else a Assuredly.iTe(f)op7]ijLevo<. THE UNIVERSE 239 10.

{" You cannot quarrel with chance . But there is no attempt to accommodate these and in the end views with scientific experience Marcus leaves us in a dualism which is (as we have often noted) creditable to his candour and his common Finally. of make yourself worthy religious the Divine is conception Here agaia the uppermost. and for the single aid. Tt dvTiTeivei. his real end and aim. a^iov aavrov Troirjaov (" if a m tov 6eiov ^07)6eia<i Providence waiting to be merciful.) . efficacy of prayer and propitiation are brought within range of philosophic thought.. occasion in the whole of the volume. he proves (xii.240 eifiapfiivi) <fivpfi6^ k. . and an inviolable order. whatever be the ultimate explanation of the Universe iirl T&v e^coOev avfi^aivovrmv. on ^toi Kar iiri'TV)(iav. or a merciful Prorandom and ungoverned medley." etc. 24) acquiescence right. t] ^iKaioTriTot dirpo<TTdTrjTO<. or a first. speculative philosophy subserves his practice. rj ripdroia iKdcrifWi. The governand so beneath our notice and concern or Divine. and therefore above our understanding and beyond our criticism. you cannot arraign Providence.). T) Kara ripiSi'oiai'. MARCUS AURELIUS dirapd^aTO<.<. rd^K. (" Either fixed necessity vidence." world is ment of the either accidental.") If the . El Se riporoia. . ovre 8e ttj e'irirv')(la fiep/tneov ovre ry nporaia iyKXrjriov. iiriBe'Xpfiev'^ ro iKd<TK€a6ai. stace his whole sense. if not to his logic.

with its wiU and personality and its material environment in perpetual flux. This human life ovi of place in the "vain show ' of the world. God (within etc. human life must seem strangely out of place. Instead of appearing as to our modem Gnostics an "oasis" in the cruel iixed centre of wilderness of the actual. (Texts dust. relation to Space as to Time. snapping puppies. passing moment (all that is ours) irmgnificamt. quM/rrelsome children. if trouble about duty or world-order or without) ? man a bubble. It is clear that in such a world of successive and unceasing change. § 2. of persistence only through variation. human society is precisely that of things is sphere in i6 which the Unreason at the root . § 3. of the vcmity of life's —smoke.CHAPTEK VI THE ALLEGED CONCILIATION OF THE TWO NATURES (A) Vanity and Insignificance of Human Life in THE Measureless Gulf of Time Analysis § 1. to moral endeamour. not resignation. § 4. Man contemptible why in. deliberate quenching of Will-to-live. bursting bubbles.) no support pv/rsuits. husk. scornful language for bod/y and life . § 1. § 5. Dwells on intrinsic baseness of life. Corollary of such preaching. leaves.

For Marcus and his fellows. § 2. To us it seems a truism that from the Secularist reality of . {fiia dfKJioTipcov — oSo?. (jieKiTij Oavdrov). resignation. The two sides of his philosophy are here in clearest contrast ^ Koivr) and e/t^ ^wo-ts with their .242 MARCUS AURELIUS . the other. 3). he discovers here nothing but arguments for Quietism and the extinction of motive and desire. personal philosophy of Marcus is a study of death most justly impeached. the doors of which are for ever shut. to actimty in the smaller and with no commonwealth and in although he protests in one place man's duty the ireLa-ei). V. And this on examination is nothing else but a scientific conviction of the world's vanity and un- phenomena as they play in idle illusion above an inscrutable ground. elsewhere he places as 6<Ti.6rri<i above and canonizes the first virtue theology. not merely our survey of his cosmology his of . lies energy rather than in receptivity (evepyeia than and in another that 7] of the two natures BiKaioa-vvij. Man is born but to die he wins self-consciousness only to discover its torture the The whole use of will only to feel its negative value. of the value moral and social endeavour. though one be wise and anobher foolish. incompatible impulse. mystic or negative. and trying to borrow from such coneideration disgust for the whole weary business. . as we saw. I have reserved this as an episode in to Hve. because. a deliberate quenching of the will by appealing to a religious sense (iiriTpeireiv rfj JJpovoia). but by dwelling with remorseless analysis on the sordid details of life. are like children sporting on the steps or ia the open vestibule of a temple. while a study of own nature convinced him. " the path a is one and the same. though fitfully object. The one calls us to passive clear .

language base enough. but it iirl tS>v koto t^v avvovHav. TV'^7]. romance and passion. he reduces everything to its "beggarly elements. fierd nvos <riracr/ju>0 /iv^aplov Ixxpiffis. elireiv yjrvx>j<i. THE TWO NATURES or Christian view alike it is 243 needful to dwell on the value and significance of life even in the humblest surroundings. pofi^o^' axptTOP. 13. rd K.[a . oardpia k. a flux . anvSpd' r) f) he cikov tov rj avyapiai'. death. . or rather minor chord. . peova-a' a-a>fjMro<. soul. evhifirro^' 17 Se ^v^rj. ov€tpo9 rj rv(po^' he ^io<s. 2 marvellous complex. He is the avowed enemy to the spiritualizing of the emotions . at appraise. aapKimv Karatppovrjaov. a><! ijSr) airodvrjo-Kmv TOiv ii. aTiyfii]' rj Se ovcria. fiev awpjaTOi. perhaps not unnatural to some fastidious This is certainly logical minds who in this matter can never overcome an initial astonishment at the odd yoke-fellows." He dwelling with especial and deliberate disgust upon stifle the contemptible origin of man. Very : XvOpo's K. iroXefio^ XtjOv]. iravra. Aurelius believes that a moral attitude cannot be attained until baseness or turpitude. ." its naked truth. Love. . — "As with near presence of this refuse of blood and bones. dim In the material frame. despise poor flesh this ii. eirihrj/iM' he va-Tepo(f}r)/j. angel and animal .— . iroTa/iO'i' he S' hva-TeK/jLapTOV he ^rifir).. ("In man's sense is time is but a moment being. 57 web and tissue of nerves and veins and arteries. ill an eddy of breath brief. are certain of its essential like Lucretius. fame. which is to predominate. a " Eealist. ^vveXovn rd he k. icpoicvcfiavTO'} bk vevpav (fjXe^iSiv aprrjpiSiv irXey/jLariov. 6 t^? ^evov life." 17: Tov avOpairivov ^Lov 6 jMev '^povo'i.^ and seeking to the softer emotions and to tear violently asunder the physical from the sentimental side in that odd and ever Por the body he has no early he strikes the note. ' vi. corruptible destiny. hard to define . we is. ivreplov iraparpi^n is as certainly not wise K. . he atcrdrja-K.

and not a professed . k. 50 iSXeve yap oiriaw to a\avk<i Tov al&vo<i." Leopardi who is talking. will the agitations that beset you).\.aTi irepie'xp- /leKei. to irpoam oKKo aireipov (so iv. comprehending all eternity and imagining the swiftness of change in each particular. trpoaeo — 32 : irovTov fiepo<! TOV aireipov a\avous al&vo^ iv. 32. — eXaercrov ^ijaeTai. Shortness of al&vo^." this razor-edge on which we stand with the two gulfs of past and future yawning on either side. (Eendall's translation of 32 in full will give the English reader the best idea of Marcus' ing : mean- " You can in so get rid (of doing. imtcl life. aireipov. 3 — : coupled with to raj^o? t^? irdvTwv €^' eKUTepa aireipov al&vo<!.) Axoi'es — ix. insists that the present moment alone !). oiS' oriovv ainw 1 : fiovov aKapialov (" the ^y eKaaTo<i to irapov tovto to passing minute. things of the soul sojourning" [? Surely it is " Non tali and sincere vindicator of the ways of God ? " Length of time is auxilio non defensoribus istis equally an illusion from many passages in which he — . fieXKovTO^ dxafcs m iravTa iva(pavL^€Tai. 7. airofiefiepiaTac eKoffTtp. (The present is like a narrow isthmus washed by the two immeasurable oceans of that which has been and has yet to be. ! things of the body are but a stream that flows.) iv. How xii.244 MARCUS AURELIUS a dream and vapour) life. a warfare and a in an alien land]. the inevitable Cyrenaic ^ iir corollary I 7 irorepov iirl irXeov Sidarrjfia y(^povov /ievf) rfj '^Jrvyn Tm (ra)/j.) — XjjBt}^ is : to x'ios tov v.av 6fwico<. and indeed live at large. k. is ours (without single iii. short a span to is life! tt/v Tr)v Se to Trpo t^? yeveaew. 23 to airetpov tov Te TTapm^'qKOTO^ k. by embracing the whole universe in your view. "and afterfame. oblivion. tov oiriaio k. — w? k.X&ve. BiaXvaiv 6. seeing how brief is the .

life. its — . (" Look ! ! at all human : things. Contemnit domicilii prions down : . 24 : 'Oiroiov aoi iJMlveTai rb \oiear6ai. Bath-Simile. . All the things jiiapa K. . your habitation but a tiny nook thereon. dvep'^ofiai. . un- fathomable before § 3. arirffiTj k. . to us a wearisome commonplace. with its infinite hereafter. but to the average citizen. fleeting and how sorry : but yesterday a mucus-clot. . . rotten.— THE TWO NATURES passage from birth to dissolution. with the ' religion and ^fj. that fall laugh and anon ^ crying"^). e')(6e<i /lev fiv^dpiov avpiov Se xdpixos rj ri^pa. behold how . est istud in quo navigatis. contemptible regard to Space . — — a paradox and a wanton iu. Kevd k. eireX^* : K. 47. 3 : oXri re yap yrj . angustias. Quid illis et nobis interest exigni mensura corpuscuU? Ihmctiim." in relation to his greatest is is Man. to-morrow. List of So Seneca (Nai. 10 : /iiKpov to t^? 7^? yuKiSioi' fj 6vov is iv. Qucest. content State. . TavTT]^ iroarov yui'iSioi' 7] KaroUtjaK avrr) ("The whole earth but a point. V. . . . ryekSivTa ficant. The Soul amid the stars looks " Hoc est iUud jnmctum quod inter tot gentes ferro et in mirth igne dividitur ? Eormicarum iste discursus est.") iv. insignito snapping puppies or quarrelsome children. fjTOi ovofia ovBe ovofia. regna disponitis. — fj ") 33 ' Oaov ovheirto . . ). 29 KdiTTOs K. . — vi. . i." where Scipio blunts the keen edge of earthly ambition by showing the pettiness of its domain. 48 KariSelv ael ravOpmiTiva w? i<f)ijp. prsef. no but less so in empire is a tiny speck in a corner of earth to the boundless void ? ^ and what earth With this idea we are familiar from " Scipio's dream. death. eiT Kkalovra (" empty. 245 with Time.epa k. birth. dust or ashes — K. <nr(58os fj <r«eXeTos k. the tradition of his sacrilege. aairpA KvviSia SiaBa/cvofieva evdii? iraiSia ^likovetKa." * He might perhaps have spared ns the superfluous nastiness of the viii. l\aiov Idpus . we most value in k. bellatis.

to the goal of its being. —to the sober advice of vii. in the moment of his greatest suspense and anxiety. Asia and Europe. peace. a "law to itself" . — the Spirit's choice. 12 : dp9is a Sevrepbs irXoffs. — vii." where Dr. 9 is and we : must remember. e<jiTifiipov T&v avOptuTTCOv SwTjs (" made man's : fateful fleeting life their jest"). ovt^s t^? eiriKripov x^*"'^'"''"' k. (Tvvea-Twar) K. We are here not far from getting annoyed It is his whole and separate man from the rest of things. and has nothing to do with mere elemental change. he is with Marcus' persistent inconsistency. tA Ofioia Se em. ardr/mv tov Koa-fiov Athos (he is thinking of Xerxes' achievement as a type of imperial sovereignty at its climax) ^uXdpioi' TOV Koa-fiov. off purpose to mark suddenly classed with not even animals. calm. 5 'Opdir oiv etvai xfi^ o*X' ip9oii/j. but with the mechanical inanimate and and automatic. Eendall euphemizes the hard bitter sarcasm of the original'. all sea. ^iiros Hdtap 'yXotwSes. too. — who have 36.246 heroes MARCUS AURELIUS who are now all dust . hard to be compassed and understood. how the proud self-possession of too sincere to be iii. . "this lump of clay hung round me ti Be a/yadov Ty viii. indeed. § 4. wild beasts Biaaird ^vpdfiaTo<s rci TOVTOv ("material — : no\t. gives place to the modesty of vii. social work. 7: M^J alffxiyov poTiBoifievos. his virtue "proceeds by its own mysteriouspath. that Marcus here as elsewhere — For example. 4] icaKov SiaKvOeLay . irav We prefer his aiKxalveiv /f^Se airavSav of v. 20 which cries out for food").^\uyi. yunai tov Koa-fiov." vi. — is due wAvra (nKxat-J^Td* yn-i. consistent.kK6hpi.a tov irepi-Tedpa/ifievov integument of flesh.evov. Yet thus severed in life from the innocent and unreflecting pleasure of animals. roiovrov ttcLp fiipos tov ^iov . 68 : Sage. That the corollary of this is resignation. k. iiroKci/ievov. to the complete spontaneity of fj dpBoifievos. Xv'xyov. 17. and unruffled though ft.

the gladness of fighting and defiance would set him in deadly conflict against a it power which. He on his part has no wish to depreciate or criticize the satisfaction of the Mystic. peculiarity of the Emperor To a more sanguine and fiery nature. the maxim can be taken up This pure subjectivity can a far more serious realm. . duty. for nothing between two personalities. a bubble on the ocean of time. Paul is speaking about into the unessential. xiv. though is ultimately certain to triumph. illusion or an imaginary world of pure hallucination relative. merely irritates a good-natured adversary. THE TWO NATURES to a it is 247 mere temperamental certainly not logic. by means follow his bent. and not do violence to his inner But the of ascetic has nothing to say logically against the voluptuary right and to prate about reason. " If such a Deity bade " .— . . a standard and wrong. ." —always . he will not even call his inner joys. 5 "E/tao-To? iv rat iScw voi TrKrjpo^opeio'da). and although St. making " for the greatest happiness of the greatest number. by any yet discovered can effectively bridge the gulf standard. and no one has the right to say him " nay. who is ready to leave you with a "higher criterion." Rom. pure joy so far as me go to to hell I would gladly go fitting and on the same If let deep sense of the rests the strange religious Atheism is (or rather ir-religion) of Lucretius. he fleeting. all man him self. sympathy with the world-soul." if you would only grant him a similar freedom of choice and inclination. only be corrected by the social edict which. uncanonized knows that everything is that. where reasonable divergence and toler- ance can be permitted. A man can make of the world what he likes. hell. possible to thwart.

or stage-farce. 24 : IlatSiuv opyal irair/via. like Anaxagoras' disappointing maxim. . sign of essential solidarity. lies useless in the background. . whether avowed or not. § 5. In a somewhat . irpuKrea can be reached. 29: w? suteX^ Se Kol ra iroKi/riKa TavTa k. man is instinctively illogically) on to. and not too much to say that his theology provides no argument whatever for the endeavour to right. avBpaymal fiv^&v fuard. XuBpoi' iv dvXAxfp. human the " character and aspirations.248 MARCUS AURELIUS the aim. But in Marcus' system. intranslatable last. the universal moral moral that a general agreement Kol instinct. and poor breath carrying a corpse is not phantom land more palpable and solid?"). on iravTa ra . . cLKapialov) is the truest rule. viewed as the " Deity Within. 17 : Tov oKov Koi aio)vo<s k. For. "AU comes to stench and refuse at k. aires in statecraft ! Drivellers everyone ! ") — . k. But I am travelling somewhat beyond my immediate task. viewed as Fate or the Absolute. ix. (]>iKoa6Aa)^ irpaKTiKh. and Marcus himself might gently remind me that engrossment in the present duty {ro irdpov . rpuirdrou irepiorpoitn^. — takes the average of that. rpdo-os irav tovto k. God has no concern with such a distinction. irvevfiaria ccKpous ^aa-Ta^ovra (" children's squabbles. — ^viii. in sooth." — indeed. (" All individual things are but a grain of millet the KEyxpoif'^S' . he ends. ix." it is the divine voice withia condones or enjoins the ex- tremest vagaries of subjective impulse. are these pygmies of politics. even apart from religious fir] sanction. 37. these sage doctrin- — . x. ra? oierai. w? ^^ irpof ^(povov. rfj<} oXijs oiiaia^ avvev&^ ^vrcufia' Kara /lepoii tos fiev ttoos ovaiav.hard-hearted passage on mourners. . and decides (though on whole. ("How cheap.

All . .• • • Kaxbr k. . eira ave/io^ KaTafie^XrjKev eveid' vKt] o' iXiyoxpoi'ioi' Koivov iratriv. shell . Even the genial Plotinus. and impurities"). t& @em. vi. . xii. n. (" fleshly xii. but do not 7. x^*"'*'" ^^^/iepa. k. KaiTvb% k. to befoul and destroy themselves {/iii y&p ftx roKfi^irai iKeiva old ianv eis ^ip^opov aiapAnav beguile ifi^rjvai. . and this repetition of is a fashion of most second century writers . v\iKa dyyeia KpedBia k. ret ^avToXov TO vepnre'TrXaa-p. — K. THE TWO NATURES turn of a screw. — 38 erepa.iva. 34. . 249 TO fjojSkv. Tyrius. to.") K. 32. tA irepiiKeifieva husks eKeiva ." ^) ^xi. 11 : X. — : — crapxiBtov . This contemptuous. . is dvffxpvrriv toOto irepi/SXij^a. material tnroSos fivffoi 27: 11 ov vvv iravra rj ovSe fivdo^. . the will) with the mere containiug shell. of world-soul has been allotted to ' iv ttoo-t^ Se ^uKapico t^? oKtii 7^? insulting diminutives. diajipioi> reixtov SeiT/iUTriplov. . To : MnjSeTroTe avfiirepi- opydvta Tavra ("Never confound it (the true power. Mmead. whose entire aim is antiDualistic. 31 : it into supposing they are original . that introduced ascetic anchoritism and a Manichsean contempt for the body. . but the fatigued classical spirit. the fair objects of sense arouse the waking soul. KaOcipfiara . <|>\oict k.. It was certainly not the Christian Church. 1 and 2. . i. ftviravai eaura /c. is led away by this fundamental tenet of the new Platonism (a spirit by no means confined to the School of that name). 2 Mifivtjo-o eVt Ta Kara fiipoi Tpej(6iv k.. t^ Staipeaei avrwv el<s KaTa(|>p6n)<ni> levai. dipai'iffat)^ . of substance. and the various appended organs. . for they are but counterfeits "never would those blessed ideals venture to defile themselves by embarking in this miry clay of bodily vesture. How tiny a portion of eternity. Tpixi-"". ^uWdpia). . xiii. Maximus . semi-gnostical language.ir\ri<TTOv voaepbv Spififui. . cf. 31 — : El Se exaara evKara^povr)ra irpoa-iOi TO eireadai Tm Aoyai you ! k. K. atiTrkiievov k. Various uncomplimentary names for the body to irepiTedpa/ifiivov aot irepiKeifievov ayyei&Sev. paxla iffSev^ k. Ta dvBpmriva are Kairros men are leaves ((pvX\a ndvTa yap ravra " eapof iTnylfyverai &py — — x. — iirl reXevracov. . . where the body .

firjSh/ e<^' e/37ret?. his style others?. the SUKKENDEE OF InTELLECTUALISM Analysis §6. . by willing and therefore really indluded in it. I would suggest that by this word he conveys a domain proper and subordinate to the exercise of the Inner Self. irav. released from any willing or striving. and not to be distinguished as having an essential value in itself. it seems too sweeping even for Marcus the pessimist. is smoke and dust of the dead. All else. sum of the next section. For to emphasize the mere inner tranquillity. /leyh ^vrd^ov (contrast — The oa-ov evBi'^erai adavarl^eiv). Kairfis. his " open mind " on all ultimate problems." ^) {B) The Uses and Methods of Philosophy. Be Xoiira rj nrpoaipera it e. is surely too Buddhistic for Marcus ? But I only suggest. and unction all his own . rj dirpoaipera. ev yap tovt^) to Um whole book may be found in the eavrw '^rjrat to 'HyefioviKov to. formal iv/rnt his doctrvnes. Settled early in life his hooks . with your in your it. few {paradoxic) dogmata. One or two points : science or obstruct the eternal order ? because it is clear that people not born to patience and devoutness. Abandons speculative philosoph/y {not tending to edification) aims at mere practical goodness amd piety . is ("How goes Inner Self? that control or out of everything. § 7. in whose breast rages the sacred fire of discontent. kind of remain (1) what is the method of philosophy which has taught Marcus this theory of the world and man's place in it ? (2) whether it is possible to stand out in self-will and § 6.2 so MARCUS AURELIUS irdvTa ravra Aristotle's ivBv/jiovfievoii. will be glad ' I am not quite comfortable about dismissing irpoalpera into this contemptible category . viKpa k.

duties and the common welfare. even be painful. . says. too. had its especial which he was aware. and of in the end a failure. our help and our sympathy." The very weakness righteousness " is the power that makes : " for the best enlisting sergeant " Moriathe clear mur pro peculiar rege nostro Maria Theresa. fit in to a system. so frequently summoned and paraded. after deciding on the supreme merits of Stoic Monism. the tyrant But if he demands sovereign of a world so worthless. of is not " infinite. if it individuality. the whole horizon is changed meaning of everyday life becomes clearer little things the dull . What self-devotion there was in this sacrifice of inclination He may have borrowed his technical phrases from others. if not his boats. of . waits for.! THE TWO NATURES to 251 hear what measure of completeness. It is going off to fight for Odin " and meaningless omnipotence which rouses us to challenge. at least his books. that early in student. So. the BoyfMTa irpo^eipa. " I who. and to spend over the refined subtleties of Hellenic systems a life which was owed to public His temper. after settling upon a few maxims on which to guide his life. he abandoned further search. of the " indwelling Deity " from Epictetus. when he hears the ? Eagnarok. and burnt. his charity and forbearance from the abundant practical examples essentially speculative dangers. which. his doctrine of seH-sufficingness from Seneca. distiuctness. quenched his curiosity. to read and sceptic. Who am is the character in one of Stevenson's apologues. sublime. and will not the force our loyalty. one can attain. even to despise. Now he was much inclined to become a and meditate much over bygone authors." But first to it is method life of Marcus' inquiry.

forgetfulness of "The about fount of the good within will ever give pure water.^ the but in the very Cephalus " of the drama." "The bright flame assimilates all to itself." is thy forgetfulness of all . lo it is already out of who . if you stand blaspheming it and casting in not to send forth clear water. . dear city of Ceorops life . "The finest kind "In this flux of as if not to become like. from Antoninus. in his own unfettered activity.TOvpyla). 30 : Tldrra." "(Things cannot influence our judgments." "Our human states are houses in the supreme commonwealth. yes . he is . not of the same creed. completed your public \ei." " Do even the smallest thing. too. antinomies of his system. the bluntness and vagaries of in his childhood." "The good man is high priest and minister of the gods. " On the same tree. own " Near at hand all for thee.252 MARCUS AURELIUS man " from his mother. in his the wise. "A poet of old said. the richness of his concrete illustration and metaphor. for a if you dig ! it. mindful of the close connexion of things human and Divine. is 'AvTuvtrov ^ Some of his more memorable sayings live each day. to mount the glittering ramparts of the " City of Truth by another's helping hand ? passivity . if ! "Come " Even Death lest the leaving life so life " (cf." mud. is a passing swallow caught his fancy and." " How easy man to be divine. were to be your last." be the one right action in " Nothing in life became him as well as the leaving it "). . ceases perchance I forget myself. if lame. and yet be recognized by none "A mind free from every passion is an Acropolis." singles out another for his love.^ ' Besides the long section in Book I. ! sight." "Why be ashamed. old — his unpractised style. the fervour of his intense sincerity." " The lover of glory places his good in another's action the voluptuary.." "A fountain. as if it : "Do each act. near. see vi. and shall I not say." quickly. and only burns "the brighter so should a wise man take life's pains." . beloved city of God is " ! " Full already service " (reKela ii the story of your of retaliation things.

He needs continually to remind himself that he has not time. softened the asperities. if he challenge comparison with the great minds of pure thought. is but a tumbled heap of bricks in disorder. set free now from "physiology. perhaps not capacity (as he modestly avers). in life your three-fifths : ! is the entire plot. the distinction. and with no clue to their combination. whether in battle or senate-house. . In spite of his constant repetitions.^ public service called him and from this. . for becoming a " dialectic " or a " physician " that others. we can easily conceive. THE TWO NATURES 253 the quickness of his eye for realistic detail. He might.. and and an indescribable unction." stands in such marked contrast to the pessimism of the Emperor. alone with the Alone. may despise and laugh at his pretensions . 3 : TTJs iworxfiip^ifeiiK TTJi els tovto ri ir/plSiov iavrov. the style." ' iv. have hewn out a more enduring temple of truth. crabbed definitions and phrases of Stoic pedantry '' . he foreshadows Plotinus whose genial mysticism. . he never flinched. Yet he abandoned in a certain atmosphere. he always compels attention by the dignity. and reconciled the inconsistencies of his creed which as it lies before us in detached aphorisms. But from the sohtary meditation. the delights of speculative philosophy with a sigh. in spite of the patent fallacy in that philosophic scheme which he fondly supposed was the foundation of his ethical practice. earnest directness of his his He commands and uses as servant the . Complaint of an actor cut short in his part " But I have not yet spoken my full allotted part " Never mind ." in which lay his deepest joy. we must lament in the interests both of literature and philosophy that he could not enjoy a more ample leisure (eipv^wpia).

" avToi.254 MARCUS AURELIUS if. the sovereign good. top evepyeTiKov avSpa 16: "No more mere be. philosophy vi. friend such to as Philosophy good. sincere. viii. the deity within inviolate and free from scathe. but that they cannot do this in abandoning all claim to wisdom. TpeTTTiKci Xoydpia Sta\e7e(r^at. pregnant ready for any emergency. 7 : fJ/r] eKTpairrjvai et? l^ffKov irepl ao<J)ioTiK6i' ij TO avyypd(pei. ^v k. «t\. He : thanks the gods 07r«as from pedantry et? eireOvixiiaa /f?^' o/iro- (^iXoao^Lai. ii. aeavrm ethical hrjko<i a purely sense." unaffected. justice. (" What one thing. iroirjo-ai. what the Good Man 17. would have = as a " Simple. or fancy portraitures of the sage or the phil- anthropist. ifitreffelv Twa o'o<|>i<rTV . Tovro S' iv tw tt]peiv rbv evhov Aaifiova ! — avv^pvTTov. 29 KaX alSrjiJiov TO <j>i\oa-o(j}ia^ epyov. —Such : 'AirKovv e<ni practical wisdom and guidance will to serenity. in the sense of Epictetus.oao^ia.") 30 : ^Ar^mviaai. 3: ttjv Be t&v 7. and one alone. — talk of i. da-KrjTiicov X. duty. ii. then can direct our goings ? which is to keep . should for saving Be him fir) it!"). fiovov ^i\o(7o<j>ia. 17: Tl oSv to irapairifi^lrai Svvdfievov . he strives to be simply good.v T&v r) demprjfjLaTav irpotSi* (cf. held He learnt from Eusticus to "renounce sophistic ambitions and essays on philosophy. and in 1 : TroWot? t dXXoi<s yeyova^ iroppm ix." p/qhe — i. <\>ikoa-o^ia<i. Struggle you. God-fearing. rj (pavTaaioirX'^KTca^ iiriheLicvva-Oai. iva TOtouro? " <rv/ifieiv7]^ olov TjOeKriae <f>iK. grave. in strenuous K. discourses provocative to virtue. to ae remain above. 2: "/4<^es ra ^l^Xia. affectionate. with meaning. § His use of philosophy is of fii^uov Siyjrav plyfrov a pure moral science. be embodied in short gnomic maxims. —So —So considerate.

eSo^e XrjTTTa iravrdiraaiv . 5. . that. "Ea-rco." v.") (" ApifivTTjTa crov ovk e'^ova-i davfidirat. know world- order before ascertaining own duty. of intellectual assent " infallible . ktK. dinf)\mcros eaeadai Bia tovto anToyv^i. 67 : KaX on. man i. — of scientific in the interests of the one thing of of value. (ftuo-iK^s of wit. Nay. aKaTaXrjTrra f) BvcrKardfierair- . ? (ra . TWTos" TTov yap b dfieTaTrTcoTo^ of So much for his logic. iirl tov<s <rvyypaff)eii TJ rj 255 avaXveiv too. depends realising on no special curious lore. and every act for where is the . modest. . chief rule . — to v. I did not into the hands of any sophist.ev . mare . but For this on the accept these few truisms which all practises. or sit poring over essays or syllogisms. . p. trvXhxr/Krfioii^ (" irepl TO. to " become free. nrpar/funa iv rotavr^ TTciaa .sceptical rejection formal study. of dogmatic certitude." SiuXektik^s vii. " You have no special keenness aXX' erepa TroWa e'0' &v ovk Similarly.) 6.. distinguish material and cause . semi. K. . iyKaXv'yJret elvat. or become engrossed in scientific speculation.THE TWO NATURES KaOiaat. still insists "scientific" knowledge § 9. men and no one (G) "Scientific Study as a Meditation on Death" on Analysis § 8. social. to the Stoics themselves such attainment seems is precarious fallible . moral or uprightness. Karar/ive<7dai. k. . all certitude unattainable. in spite of fall my ardour for philosophy. Though in One effect this piety demolishes reason. and resigned. Thanks. and defimition of each thing. 1 : Things are so wrapped in veils that is gifted philosophers not a few.j^et5 elirelv pJr) ov yap Tri^vKa. . ri/ierepa avyKarddeaK . /jtereoopoXoyiKo.

detect their proportion discover the links which and co-ordination. et? k. " Redemption through Science. ovo/iaTa eKeLvtav ef &v avveKpiOri a avakvOrjaerai. to. MARCUS AURELIUS Unwersal Decay. to mark its specific attributes and those of the component elements into which it can be analysed. core of things. 11:" Always (ro define and outdel line carefully the object of perception so as to realize naked i. science leads to indifference omd reconciles to Death. Just as the Platonic dialectician mounts from particular to universal. somehow bind them into a harmonious whole. and returns " from the mount of God " with fresh faculties and clearer eyes armed with the tables of the Law. . scientific knowledge a comfort {even to Epicurus agamst pmn) by showing neces- swry place of euerything in the whole. Shortness of life alleviated by its tested emptiness. its — its definition." Throughout the whole." (oXov St' own totality oXav SiypTj/ievoais ^Xeireiv k. the swpreme lesson. pierce to the with this pietistic demolition of reason. to discriminate its by aid of its surroundings. substance tov opov ij irepuypatfirjv iroieiaBai oTToiov viroiri'inovTO'i ^avraarov &aT avrb KUT ovaiav yvfivov). § 8. as we should call it.256 § 10. He is clearly of opinion that without such rational or intellectual vision no man can see things in their naked truth (or unreality). Let him ^iii. to X^imv ovo/ia avrov k. § 11. side by side he insists on the need of particular and scientific knowledge. so Marcus beheves that the prudent man refers each special instance to its general law. But at the same time the Stoic spirit in him gave not up tamely its favourite dogma. and with striking frequency in the later books. and regards every sensible or material circumstance in the light of speak for himself.

vXikov. . to be described . k.) '"Nothing so emancipates mind as the power of systematically and truthfully in such a and looking into them which each belongs (? world-order). the special use which it subserves. rt . avveaTtjKa. oiroL^ rivi rw Koa/ip. avTo piev to ovai. to oet ovrat eh aira testing everything that affects. wo\i. 13.." " — : By distinguishing between matter and applies k. oiroiav Tiva TOVT^ )(peiav Trape^ofievov.?. . ("How can the truth be searched out in this case of ? " namely. way as to infer the kind of order to opav wcrre avvetri^aXKeiv. iv. one must ask oneself. V.&Se<s xikiKov . its relation and value to the universe. in particular. very roughly. tI Be to alTi&Be^ rt Be iroiel iv K6erp<p iroaov (j)\oi&v Be T&v ^povov v^ia-TUTai OedaaaOai to. avTOv <yvp. This process is. Siaipeaii 'eh to vXiKov K. aKrjdi]ia eKaarov t&v t^ ^itp inroiriiTTovTcov hvvaaOai.") 17 . 21: TOVTov ^ 'uTTopia T^9 aKi]dela<i ." OiiSev yap ovtco fieya\o<j)poa'vvr}<! ttoii^tiKov 17 ws TO eXey^eiv 6S£ k.g. He this canon to his own nature e^ alnaSov^ that . ("Strip off the husks and look at the underlying causes. happens.vcL K. — vXikov vii. ' tt/jos toi" avOpwrrov. —So Ta<s Tm 8 : xii. the odd problem how there !) is room in the air for all the Spirits of the dead cause. 29 to : and to Tvwpiaov to AieXe k. everything (rvfi^aivov. dvaipophi T&v nrpd^eav. to man as a citizen of that supreme world-city.Ti)v § 9. THE TWO NATURES \eyeiv Trap' 257 the iavra. eU TO aiTimSei}. look at the tendencies of actions. uItuoBti. — This the kind of question : Tovro. as the distinction of cause and material Ti<! 67rt e. 11 Kaff avTO rrj IBia aaraaKevri . viii. fiepicrov is inroKeifievop et? to amwSes k. ti e. rlva fiev e^et d^iav a)s irpof TO OXov Tiva Be ms bvTa TToXews t^? avwrari. and. .

" IBla Karaa-Kevr]. it tov vXikov cause and its quality. He and uses this canon to reprove his own of applause from those about him ignorant of their destiny. embodiment and survey from the material delimit then the full . in a word. inquiry into composition and parts by by no means a detailed scientific and impartial induction. . etri irdaTfi. SiaXeKTiKeiieadat. A i. — ^vo-t? viii. the prescribed teleology actual <f)v. the tests of objective character. a combination of : the two " 5 2 (a passage already quoted) He who knows not 'the world-order. (et olov re) <fMv- TaaLa<s <|>uo-io\oYeii' "jradoKoyeiv : Eendall very suggestively effect. " where To every impression apply. oiiSe Trpos 6 rt avro<} iri^VKev desire eliroi. •jradaiXoyeiv would imply or the (for experience of ideal such a creature thing is and abstract). the more abstract definition or ideal contained in the term first." The passage is not easy (pvatoXoyeiv (a word of significant frequency in later books) clearly conveys " peculiar and special nature or equipment.. knows not his own place therein.258 MARCUS AURELIUS 13: — if viii. 25 : "I6i ein rijv TroioTTjra Alnov deavaf ena Tov v(\>i<TTaadai avTO trepiypay^at k. And he who knows not for what end he exists. tov '^povov irepiopmov. possible. knows not himself nor the world. place — ix.7]veK&<! k. K." 'O Be ev ri TovTwv airoKiTToov. oaov irXeio'TOV " Get to the ire^vm tovto to tSt'ois iroiov. of subjective and of logical relation. ascending from such experience or inward sensations and emotions to action of the rest of circumstances upon . but rather a deductive pronounce- ment on of its place in the world. airo isolate it. the particular concrete it and its change under such influence SiaXeKTmeveadai the broadest term for reflecting survey. viewed in the light .

arvfifieraXa/jL- j3dvovaa tS>v ev (rapKiSi<p toiovtwv TO iSiov dyadov Trjpovaa). ignorant " — " and not join the babel of the silly and (/*'?Se tw IBuoTrj k. He quotes with approval Epicurus. To tSt'm? ." and seeks the thought to every school common ground " to of all earnest . irotov exactly corresponds with our " individuality " questionable and puzzling gift in a pantheistic system. As to him death is the all constant else his soHtary parsenetic. Marcus always theme of things in the light of a personal relation to himself. 9. that the supreme lesson of universal decay — may be derived. in ing. more particularly. " fas est et ab hoste doceri. winnowing and discerning faculty " with simplicity. drapaKTei tolerant Like Seneca. (rh irporjyovfieva <f>va-idX(yy&v SiereXovv). can i. and reflecting (Trda-Tj^ aipecrewi koivov) common is it be loyal to philosophy under whatsoever circum- stances. . and reaching in man a point most ^ix. 21 eKcrTpeyfrov Oeaaai otov yr)pda-av Be otov yiverai. — resolute contempt of suffer- about with When I was sick I did not converse my bodily ailments. subsist. and fixing the utmost limits for its persistence. principles of Natural Philosophy" " and." viii. so in he aims at reducing a thing to its constituent elements.) § 10. nor discuss such matters my visitors but continued to dwell ijpon the 41 : " . the individuality : in k. how dis- the understanding. of while flesh. d<|>uaio\6YC[) avfi^Xvapeip). he is of the foe. He unites this "scientific knowledge" or X. Full of the practical tendency of objective sees study. participating in such turbances the its yet remains in unperturbed (fi possession of proper good" Aidvoia.THE TWO NATURES span for 259 question which (Of. Kivrjcremv. difficult of his^ solution.

TO a-'xrifia aiiTov. and life." own Even the scientific astronomy of the Rational which Seneca expatiates with such luxuriance.a<j)op'^aei Be Sirjprj/Meve)^ k. that poor comfort which its consoles the brevity of life — by dwelling on empti- xi. X. re K.evov iri(j)VKev iv fiera^oKy . ttotc Tt a'efivoTrjTO's . . iitivoeiv avrb its ^Sij Bidkvo/j. k. cKpaipelaOai. comprises a study of ingredients . belongs. and who can either give it or take it avTo BiBovai re standing — away. and which can say to whom it of right its composition.26o dignity : MARCUS AURELIUS IIoTe ykp k. Kar K. . of fated dis- not only for the Sage's is — material object Philosophy xi. which apprehends each thing's true beiug. i. ep^et k. rrjv k. et? ttjv atreipiav rov almvof eKreiverac. of each thing ness. ovaLav. (fiij ?) 6XcKa<s ihv eKuarov avrwv ("by contemplating . its term of existence. 18: EU eKaa-Tov rmv viroKeifievcav k. (itself but the included) the caducity. is but a means to view the monotony and sameness of the universe. k. 16 : Indifference. but for each a " Meditation on Death.. 1. troTe Se kicdaTOV yvtopKreca^. iirl iroaov ire^vKev Tiai ex rivwv a-ir/KeTi. . .ve<i Kpirat Svvarat {nrdpxeiv. not the splendid preroga- tive of the Soul who out of this mortal abyss can rise fragility. : thus to be attained Oetopfj 'ABi. 57 own solution KaOoTi eKoxTTov ma-irep "). .. : TrepioBiKrjv iraXvy^eveaLav ranv oXtov Oecopel the moral being. on : K. (" Svvavrai That true underk. durjaKeiv (" by appointed mode of death This " physiology. ev t& Koa-fiip.") § 11. the true philosophic aim. whether in parts or process "En Be •irepiep')(erai rov o\ov Kocr/iov k. i^i- ardvTa. Tiva X'^pav v(j>i<rTaa-6ai. aw\oT?jTO? t^s £<f>' airokavaet'." then. its position in the world. t6 irepl avTov Kevbv Soul. to stellar spheres.

of what composed. which could not save him from an indecorous fate Coraes here conjectured the negative 0K1. and 5. ovBev KUKov veiaerai. and in this law of nature suffer no hurt. into what it is changing. Thus. V—xi." But the word occurs in a good sense just below xi. to appropriate to himself the general lesson. or a bondage such is life and each day wiU help to efface the sacred principles which you divest of philosophic regard or allegiance " (ri lepi. unweaving. 3 : wepl rijs toO Ktjffjuou iKirvpibtreus TotraOra (|>vo'ioXoYi]cras) . and analysis into elements. the texture of daylight in ' the gloom of an ascetic wisdom. The study of things tends to show that they must soon perish and die. ell Xvai'i. " Consider from whence each thing has come. : (iii. 18 (9) of pointing out to someone in error a general law and I feel sure Kendall is right in a verdict of exile . like Penelope. showing the constituents. irapairinireii).^ We .o\oyrfrm. both would make good sense might be used of vague superficial dismissal of a thing under its class without due disregard to its "differentia.(j)\iai.. what it will be like when changed. in a sense. iKeiva Gataker dSyfmra oTmrh oi (fiv<rio\oYir)Tii)S 0oi'Tdfij k. and learn patience and lowliness. and also as a whole " k. and that no harm can come to it.KWS . philosophy per- forms by anticipation the work of death. 24. 6t? 261 its elements. reads i. The Teubner text. x." xii. (j3) in a doubtful passage.<Ti<i K. Of three " dogmas " to be always held material it is — ready to hand. to the close inspection of iraBoKoyla. 9 : "A fight. the second diro cnrepiiaTo<} fiixpi' is to see ottoIov eKaa-rov "• '^vx<>>c^'i^^ ^''"o 17 i^wj^coffetB? fjtixpi' ToO ola rfjv yjrvxvv airoSovvai k. The supposed " scientific " interest is thus strictly ancillary to the moral and personal end. ! — . a scramble.: THE TWO NATURES everything in K. ^ Before dismissing this section I may remark on the three remaining (a) Clearly scornfully of the supposed esoteric knowuses of (pva-ioXoyeiv ledge of Heraclitus. olov earat fiera^aKov k. which is the same thing. for oXiKus corresponds exactly with ^vjioXoyla. a stupor. 7) i^ o'Cwv av^Kpi. And so for man : his duty. 1 7 at<s TTodev e\i^Xvdev eKaarov ex nvmv eKaarov inroKeifiivoov Ti fieTU^aXKei k.

i. 17. (B) On Eebellion and Apostasis feom the WoeldOEDER How FAE POSSIBLE ? AlfALYiSIS § 12. the particular knowledge of details gives place in the end to a mere consideration of the " inbreathing and Brahm. call up before your minds in array and then dismiss. properly so called. 8. Bia rov to aicovm KaTO. the selfdeemed accurate student of things. (There is a temptation (which I shall resist) of (v. ii. I feel certain it is used here like ^oi/Tilf^ in a depreciatory sense. (" What soul is trained and wise ? That only which knows the beginning and the end.) IlapoTr^/nretK is a puzzle . reading something like "puffed up with mere words" itself 23 : /lupis 6 iv rairois ^vtrii/ievos). it is used. cannot flourish in a mind preoccupied with its own outbreathing of sorrowful personality. and centring its thought on the duty (and the uselessness) of moral endeavour. i 0uffioXo75)T6s. k.e. of the supreme guidance and "escort" of true wisdom. which a scribe. Hcts man only just so m/uch freedom as 1 to understand his slavery Rebellion is possible. " carelessly bow out. with his own definition «"ex''°s o\. must be in ironical apposition.") Here. top Bi TravTos Tr)<i ovala'i Si'^KOvra rov Ao'^ov. Iirion^fudi' ." . k." i. without practising. viii. and the Eeason diffused through all being. 17 32 : tis oiv <frvxv eiSuia apj^rjv K. of absolute " disregard " .ri<s (already quoted above). reKoi.262 MARCUS AURELIUS conclude this may K. increas- ingly familiar with <l>vaio\oyla. which through all eternity administers the universe in periodic cycles. section v. "TrepioBov^ T€Taryfieva<s oiKovofiovvra ndv. may have altered. as must always be the case in pantheistic systems. but only hurts the rebel. 57." the illusion of all several existences. and the mystic sense of union with the alpha and omega of life. " which you. of the " transmission " of light. Science.

{Texts 263 from whole on theme. unless religious faith an insurmountable Dualism of subject come to reinforce the duty. as the foundation the painful consciousness that it possesses just so its • spontaneity " as to understand slavery ? ^ — much x. the truly moral one who takes joy in doing right. by showing the happiness. "pa/rt or member or Umb severed ceases to be ". Is man. doomed with all else to death. . of obedience. resignation. Having now seen the universal law of decay. unlike lopped brcmch. t4 iveaSai rif ttjs IliXews : IIoXiTcfas TTJs trpetr^vT&TTji "Kbyif k. 5 : was fore-prepared for you from all time the woof of causation was from all eternity weaving the realization of your being and that which befalls . with a sentimental pietism.THE TWO NATURES i 13. able in any degree to vindicate his freedom in self-will ? Is he a mere machine with § 12." "O ri 6^ al&vo<i TTpoKareaKevd^eTO' koX av aoi a-vfi^alvy tovto aoi rj hrLifKoicr] r&v alriav ef aiSlov k.0aaiv. Whatever should befall it. nevertheless. we come now to a seemingly different subject. and perpetual theme of philosophy. " There but one force in «. yet. 16 : tAos Si XoyiKwv fciuv. or Clearly all : making a virtue. Indwidual he is aloofness and ward of sympathy can do ha/rm. § 15.) § 14. rrjv aweKKtode arv/j. Appeal based on special affinity and Thought for its kindred and courvterpa/rt . Beff/itf and object. one. of necessity. if you like. closely connected. ti]v re arjv viroaraffiv roinov sole practical No wonder Quietism follows as the maxim of prudence obedience to fixed : law. being aware that to Marcus " Science " meant a prejudiced and inaccurate meditation on constant elemental change. rebellion of particulars must be ? fictitious is " for who hath resisted His will ' ii. repentcmt sepa/ratist com rev/mte (but never the same). tinctured.

. 16 eousness. expatriated from the Commonwealth of Reason a blind man with cataract of the mental eye " (^wya? 6 ^evymv rov Nature (diriaToiris T^s ^vaeaxi)." : : y^v^^. 29 who does not recognize what is in the world is a stranger to the universe.? mi. perhaps over anxious. to show that it can only harm the rebel himself. . "If he iv. TVipXo'i o Kara/ivcov '• . " Man's soul does violence to itself first and foremost when it makes itself so far as it can a kind of tumour and excrescence 'T^pi^ei eavrriv f] rov a. to whom even sin and Satan are contributory and essential. as it were. .. whatever to name and character. ovra rk yivo/ieva). on the universe" (ii. fiepo<i). perform a useful function.vr}<! (f)vaea)<. Xoyov) . none the less is he who does not recognise what is passing there " (feVo? Koa-fiov TO.264 MARCUS AURELIUS its the world.. fiaXiara Koa-fiov (ocrov fiev 6<^' orav dirrfo-Trifia «. and cannot hinder God's work. t& voepw Sfi/iari) an excrescence who. olov " <^u|j.a row avrm) of yevTjTai). TToXiTiKov \oyov. . whether it be mere physical impulse. KOi. p^wptftoi' ('Airrfcmifia Koafiov 6 d(f)ia-- eavrbv tov Tfj<. . or (in some way unintelligible th& ordinary man) moral and " making for rightTo oppose this were madness if it were not frankly impossible." a social outcast who dissevers his indiAddual soul from the one common Xiffia TToXetBS sotil of reasoning things " ('Airdo-- fiiat ov(Tt}'i). Yet Marcus is constantly urging us not to attempt it he is very anxious. tent with his surroundings " rdfievo'i k. 14: 'Evwireo-ri. each has a contributory function to the service of the . — : . —Yet rr)v ISlav "^v^rjv tS>v these railers XoytK&v airoavi^cav. . is Any chafing against against the order things a rebellion For man is a mere part (iv. " He is an exile. excretes and separates himself from the order of nature by discon. .

vvv he aeavrov aireKo^ai). •jreipco/j. " SioKoire'm iraKiv avvekdelv). '' iv&a-ai aeavTov. avvepyol t5)v iv r& 6 dm^aii'Eii' "AWo^ k. tovto aWco fjLepei ovSevl 0eo<! iirirpe'^e. iv' ainm eVoMjo-e). : . . then to rejoin once more and coalesce and resume his contributory place" (k. or decapitated head lying severed from the body to which it belonged ? (diroKeKOfifUn)!' airorerfnjfievqv). diroppoy^iTi vaKiv TeTifjiTjKe from the whole (aWa Tov avOpcoTTOV KoX iiraveKdelv k. k. that it is in your power no other part of the whole doth to re-enter the unity God privilege. here is this beautiful provision. . 34 hand or foot. .. Km yap fault. avfi^vvat k. Such does a man make himself (so far as he can) when he refuses to accept what befalls. . sundered. Heraclitus sleepers to be epyaral yivofievtov. to ('/4\\' 5Se KOfjAJrbv eKeivo on e^eari aoi irdKiv reunite and isolates himself. Trjv tov fiepovs Ta^iv airoXa- . when he pursues self-seeking OeKwv to <rv/i^aivov k. or iiif action " (o .THE TWO NATURES whole . But consider the goodness of God with which He " has honoured man ! He has put it in his power never to be sundered at aKetfrai all rr)v ^^^prjffTor'qTa ^ yap "va rrjv apyrjv [xrj " And if diroppaYii airo TOv oXov. Se Kar aXKo avvepyel' eK rov TOtovTOV tries irepi- ovacai Se K. " You are cast out from the unity of Nature of which you are an organic part you dismember your own self " ('Ait^^piij(ai nrov iroTe cmo rij? Kara (f>v<7iv ei/taceeos" " But e7re<^i/K6t? yap fiepo<.ei> none are superfluous. when once severed and dismembered. Airoaxijuv kavTov). . 265 believed Koa-/j. . y^ytpia^ivri K.evo'i Tci yivo/ieva. di'aipcii' 6 /lefiipofievo^. " Have you ever seen a dismembered § 13. . e')(pr)^ev ("who finds and undo what is done 6 Kotr/ioi and who to resist even of such the world has need"). viii.

whatever previous life and habits may : have been. or stones. at point is Marcus clearer than on the absolute freedom of any given moment. XoyiK&v ^mwv iv ' TToXiTetai. kul fiaXXov. . ix. Teivofievov evpia-KSTO (" on this higher plane of itself. t&v k. Dougall). earth to earth. 11. Even Bartholomew Toyner could picturesque) : scarcely express himself phatically on this inalienable prerogative (though he may more embe more " I tell you it's a love that's awfal to think of. oIkoi ovKXoyoi -jroXi/ioi^ a-vvdrJKai k. trtreuhei. or sticks"). avyxeiadai The higher the nature. ris 6 KoiMtav ^/cjSoXeic xii. etc. toctovtcj) rai irpbi crvyKipvaaOat " olKeiw k. nay i. the (So. k. 32 and 33. and that no one could love " {The Zeit Geist. .ca<. so " {oa-qs lyap TO. t(s 6 KoAioiv StopBwiriu. — . 10 . koI rolvvv rrai* to KOivr)^ voepa<i (nrevSei rj (jjva-eco'} fiiroy^ov irpo^ to avyyeve^ 6fioi. olov epmre^' yjrvy^ai yap ijSr) Tjaav evTavda k. 47 . iii. A long and interesting section in which he complains that rational beings alone can interrupt this natural law of sympathy and association between the cognate parts of kindred whole "Oaa koivov rtvos : — fieriyfei. . but man oiSeU 6 KuiKiuv." but the prime mover is not God. tpiXia k. whatever the : seeming tyranny of circumstance it is "instantaneous conversion. oyeKai k. 'Eirl k.. everything that participates in common mind-nature feels the like impulse towards kind. x. KpeiTTOv irapd ra aXKxi. by L. .. fire to fire. being a mutual attraction asserts in which is not present Se plants (!).vo)(aL " Among rational On no choice. vov iSia oiSeli B.. too. the readier the impulse to combination and fusion with its counterpart "). ii. to avvdr/wyov iv t^ KpeiTTOVt eirteroi/ioTepov. . oiifieis 6 tovto (ed^taeiv) KoAvffai Svvdfievos. oidcls yitp 6 &vayKd<ri>)v Trapa^Tjvaif V. In viii. Ev6ii<s yoiiv eVi /j-ev t&v oKoymv evpiOij (TfirjVT) K. until through the ages of Hell they get sick of it. . 9. . tt/oo? to 6fioyeve<. rather than make them into machines that would just go when they're wound up.266 MARCUS AURELIUS ^eiv)} ix. that will go on giving men strength_to do wrong.Woi etwBev 12. 8 and 25. . viii. a. more K. . 9 . ifiwoSll^eii'. 41. t4 tou .

Pie on it that your mind-element alone should disobey and fiipo^ direiOe'i elvai desert the post assigned " (ov Beivov ovv p. in spite of distance." Outw? ^ iwl TO KpeiTTov iiravd^aaiii avp/irddeiav Kal iv SteaTwaiv epryda-aa-Oai BvvaTai. irepiKaraXafi^dvovTai' evpoi <j}vai<i Oaavov av ye&Siv p/r)8ivo<i ryecaBovi irpoira'TrTOfievov ijTrep avOpasirov dvdpayirov direo-\UTfl. . keep their place (weidop. None but things possessed . 20. See what of we come to then.6vov to voepov aov a.. to avppovv &Se fiopov ov /SXeVeTat).. 267 homes and communities. and in wars. All other elements in obedience know how to . . " Yes.eva rfj twv oXeov 'Siarafet owTft)? dpa Koi ra aroi'^eia v-rraKoiei." EttI Be T&v en. there among the Stars. mind ignore the mutual impulse of attraction here only does the natural gravitation disappear" {fiova rd voepa vvv iinXeXTjaTai t^9 Trpo? aWrjXa (tttouS^s k. An almost similar reproof of the exceptional the intellectual nature obstinacy and frowardness of — xi. . sooner will you find some particle of earth de- tached from other earth. iirea-Tr] o'ia e-rfi rmv aa-Tpav.THE TWO NATURES beings there are societies and friendship.ivOv). as among distant bodies. arjfirjvi]) — "persistently retain their appointed place. " So that ascent in the scale of being induces sympathetic action. until the signal for dissolution sounds their release. . . . koI SiearTiKormv rpoirov Tiva evmai<. men are caught and overtaken nature prevails.KpeiTTovatv. man " yap (pevyovrei. dyavaKTelv Ty eavTov X^Pf)- . Watch and you will avwevaew<. " In the still higher orders of being. even exists unity of a kind. rots oKoi<i fii'^pil av SKeldev TrdXiv to evhoaifiov t^s hiaXv<Tea)<. § 14. but k. than (watTOt ri man rts isolated from Kparel rt. compacts and armistices. even in the act of evasion. see . . . .

like some separatist." insists more frequently upon the suicidal folly of such action. anger. So ix. social or natural. avTTj eivai). nothing but what it is in accordance with nature. fabric. it is rather. 23 : "You are part of a social whole. vexation. fear are simply a rebellion against nature " (ovSev aXKo e. d<j)i<jTa|x^i'ou t^? tpva-ews:). can suffer hurt from such secession. an act of doing what he can to " It is break away from civic accord " (o-Ta<7u48r|s e. The . Here we note the convincing appeal is to co-operate in a system which imperilled or impaired by individual aloofness. but simply and solely upon a sense of Christian duty or a vaguer sense of compassion.268 " MARCUS AURELIUS is Yet no violence laid its upon of it. sum (voXniKov a-vaT>]/iaTo<i Any action of yours that does not tend directly or remotely to this social end dislocates life and infringes its unity " (fii) e^Q '''V^ ava<^opkv etre Trpotre'xooi! eiTe TroppmOev K. mairep iv Si^/i(j) TO Ka& avTov fiipo<i Si'io-Tdjxei'os airo rijs TOiavTri<i a-vfi(j)mviag). as of the Roman commonalty far to the Aventine but Marcus. and the superb indifference of the cosmic process to the rebellion of a part (Hke some aggrandised Chinese Empire !). was. Siounra Tov ^iov ovK ia eva sedition. We are well aware to-day how feeble is the appeal to the reason compared with the rousing of the sympathetic emotion. true to his harms the perpetrator alone. " we are wrong in not using our efforts to raise . Social interest belief that " evil depends not on fear of a revolution nor on dread of ignorance. eirl ro KoivmviKov reXo?. For motions injustice. a factor necessary to complete the a-v/iirXrjpwTiKO^). " It is oppose the march of democracy " to-day. Thirty years ago the generally accepted idle to maxim . yet breaks away impatiently. and. intemperance. i.

expresses Marcus' criticism . was powerless to interrupt or baulk " the piirposes of providence. KXdSov he alv aWo? airoKOTTTeb' a.THE TWO NATURES our brother to a better (Ixxxiv. —He on k. TJj? Koivmviav diroirevTeoKe (" a branch its neighbour branch is inevitably lopped from the main trunk So. tov oKov 7r6\iTev/jLaT0<s afia re- follows this mark on the wrong sinner's will : gracious gift of by a similar God which allows this to be repaired and annulled in a moment at the ITK^v sKelvo ye SSpov tov avaTTjaafiivov xal e^eerTt yap irdXiv rjfiiv crvfi(j)vvai waXiv tov oKov avfiTrXrjptoTiKoii " But thanks be to Zeus who knits the yivea-dai.) it life. excellently as of " disaffection " always. bond of fellowship it is in our power to coalesce once more and recomplete the whole. too." Yet Marcus adds " It becomes more and here a significant epilogue more difficult for the morose and sullen separatist to Tr)v KOLVtoviav Ai6<!. a man isolated from one of his fellow-beings is severed from the lopped from also ! general fellowship ")." 269 Eendall. and in opposing it does but become fuel to the flame. not how little. T& irpocre'^ei ." But the moral appeal depends on showing man how much. influence he exerts for right or wrong. : attach himself again to the parent stem. act of malice prepense. Ovtw Br/ koI avBpmwo'! evos avOptoirov Airoo-j(ia8€is oK7]<. tov oXou <J}utov : d'n'OKCK(S(f>dai. fiiarjcra'S k.a rpa(|>£is. Another picturesque passage (xi. ." Here alone. Be avTO<! eavTOV tov irKvjviov x'^pit. feeding and strengthening what it essays to cheek and counteract. The only fiev difference is that in man's case his is the voluntary wrong and hurt. diroo-- a^voei diroTeT(iit|K£i' eavTov. 8) recalls the Pauline allegory of the wild olive-tree kKoZov diroKOircls ' oil «\aSos rov irpoa-expv'! Svvarai firj k.

has not yet attained the true inward satisfactionrof brotherly love " . path of its appreciation " We are one body. the more organic connexion. .. The other constituents of the various substance. our pre- ITXeovaKii accumulated past habit. by a quotation fellowship of the. .. nor mutual relationship {avaiaBrjTa . k. SiaLpeaiv. tw fieTO.. (/te/sos) and he who limb uses of himself the term part instead of (/A^Xo?). 30. Te aTr)cra<.. and has shared the continuous of the tree. " wholes " \ots). .') 0\a><. but the stages on the This series . ivaairoKaTdcTrarov to dTroxupoGi' iroiel. to and combines with it. ttjv toimvtijv fiepToi yevofievov to Karh hvaevmrov k. ov SieipyeTai to kolvoovlkov xii.<i iyieevTpia-OevTi. avvicTTaTai' k. (" Yet constant repetition ou^ o/ioio^ of the for severance the ap^rji.") § 15. counterpart of community 6fi6<j)v\ov eirl to — k. we time we did not know Marcus' easy shifting of emphasis and turn of metaphor) to find.. that only the rational nature has true inward communion. may fittingly be closed 13) which shows not only the rational natures. (light. and the instinct declines disunion " (^idvoia Se iStws Teuverai irdOoi). denied to the world of inani- mate objects. soul) " possess neither sense k. av6i. dvoiKeioaTa its d\X^- But thought tends . Tr)v is makes reunion apd restoration ' difficult separatist. 6 kTmSo^ o air avfiSXadTroKoir}|i' <TVfnrvov<i <rv/i/jieivai. (vii. off is not the same as one that has been lopped and reingrafted. (" The Branch which part of life the original growth. After his eulogy of the ordered submission and loyalty of the elements in the are startled (or might be if by this above passages.270 MARCUS AURELIUS of perhaps. does our author seem aware of the limits to human freedom disposition of choice in our constitution.

' ") home if you constantly repeat to member of the sum of reasoning I am a MEPO^ part for heart. in self are inextricably jAeKt) which duty to others and interwoven.? (" If ovirco 'Eav 8e airb xapSia^ (fnXei'i for melos Tovi dvOpcoTTovi. " How it can he set himself against it ? "). (" This thought will strike more yourself. tovtov ej^ej Xoyixh tt/jo? fMiav riva eariv iv rivm/jbevoK ra Tov \oyov iv SieaT&at ra avvepylav Karea-Kevaa-fieva. is (R : " As in physical organisms the unity made up for of separate limbs. perhaps of any ancient philosopher.THE TWO NATURES he obeys 271 Law to as Law. but has no conception of the harmony pleasure of the gospel. and will not count the cost. not yet a this passage here not of gradually realizing good deed to only because this sense of yourself. who is truly blest. MaXXov XoytKwv Be aoi tovtov Xerfri<s vorja-t. so-called. Otov tov amfiaTO<s. so is among reasoning things the reason constituted rj distributed of among individuals. .^ irpoaireaeiTai ehv Trpoi elfu aeavTov 7roX\a«t9 oti MEAOS tov ex Tmv ' <TV(TTi^/jLaTo^. in doing kindnesses .") elvai aeavTov Xeyj. things. the common root of altruism and egoism.") it add shows man's power We community (a necessary corollary to our present study. pleasure in his benevolence that he cannot do otherwise. unity co - operation. you substitute meros — member — you do not yet love men from your Owrco ere KaTa\7]KTiKcS'i eii^palvei to evepyeTeiv eTi w? Trpeirov avTo ylriXov Trotets" owttm cb? travTov ev iroiwp. (" You have yet no certitude of joy they are still bare duty. but also because points out in a profounder spirit than any other phrase or sentence of Marcus. is not he but who takes so who does much right from a sense of duty. The perfect man.

Imperial age are so well known few phases of Greek or Roman thought and religion are more familiar. of ethics. marke the end of moral confidence and moral effort . That complex of curious belief. . . anachronism. coherence. or of pure of Eome. alleged affinity between mam a/nd the world has disappeared {BendalVs excellent appreciation) . Plotinus has far more logic. defiance. philosophy. Aurelius attracts us by his earnest inconsistency.GENERAL CONCLUSION Genekal Summary Pv/rpose . certain questions raised by the doctrine Stoic school. society and the universe run on distinct lines. Stoicism {as a creed) to revive . discovery. finds either . and scientific dogmatism called the Stoic School lends itself for at first sight its excellently to eloquent summaries outlines seem remarkably clear and well defined. conviction. to disclose Iv/rking cmtinomies in any monistic hypothesis Aurelius substitutes religion for science . impossible uncongenial Submissiveness an entire and Pietism to modern thought . and experience of the A may FKBSH volume on the philosophy of Marcus Aurelius Few characters in the "well seem superfluous. personality. doctrines coherent and symmetrical. but in every section the undying conflict of the two is brought to light. odd presumption. — note of Western thought. its Every history. nothing more out of date than a divinimng of the Actual.

and almost impossible for one fascinated by its style and rhythm to become independent enough to forget it. 18 . spirit Eendall has best appropriated and reproduced the But a sense of this has led me to adopt the somewhat cumbrous method of verbal quotation. EendaU's recent volume has appeared not merely by far the finest version of the original in EngKsh. and expresses his thoughts in disconnected aphorisms. Yet it is pecuUarly suitable in the case of an author who. never develops his argument in a long series. — is lost. and there This is can be no question that Dr. It supersede it. — the lesson of the repetition of certain is the atmosphere evaporates. which may deter an impatient reader.GENERAL CONCLUSION easy one. and accuracy of detail. or original enough to book. With his kind permission I have made use of this translation to explain the excerpts through the would be presumptuous and impertinent to attempt to improve it. though he writes with preconceived notions and prejudices. however beautiful. secret 273 the task of appreciative and sympathetic treatment an It is difficult not to admire. In Dr. not able main thesis. all illustrative of an immovIt is the purpose of the volume. never advances to a climax. but an introductory essay on the tenets of the Porch full of power. so much to seize these salient axioms and obvious and the temper of the original. delicacy of expression. and Marcus' memoirs will never be without interested readers. and one aston- ished to find how different is the impression of twenty consecutive lines of the Emperor's actual words and the same amount in his English translators. What in the is true of all translations is Marcus Aurelius. unavoidable. imperceptibly the emespecially true case of a version of phasis words. grasp.

avowedly un" seekers after is and unbiassed . names of deities disguised as physical forces. Stoics clung with devotion to a theoretical doctrine which in practice they svirrendered. but of all earnest minds in any age. impartial. fascinated into unwarrantable teleology.-^or." organs of " impersonal reason " while no fact clearer than the intense preoccupation of reflecting minds with their own salvation and peace. to disclose the inner conflict rivals — between those two ultimate and irreconcilable Science and Faith. whole question of science and faith centres round . had been in a deductively scientific. than the subjectivity which was then prevalent. but . as to show the lurking antinomies. and the ambitious Egoism which emerged from the The Western nominal subordination of part to whole. like all Greeks. Stoicism. The early School. Eeligious faith came to the rescue of the unhappy personality which jective demanded a guarantee and correspondence in the obworld to the moral endeavour which is the standing puzzle not only once upon a time in bygone The antiquity. Meantime introspection and self-analysis became the fashion and men really desired to attain.274 MARCUS AURELIUS syllogisms which are taken for granted in every criticism of the Emperor's faith or character. not truth. with which men could no longer come into close personal relation. way lazily an and say. while accentuating the agonies of and acute self-consciousness the Spirit. truth. . the question of a personal or vmpersonal hypothesis of the Universe. anxieties which lay beneath this stern postulate of Monism. let us selfish. maintained It retained the the latter with the strongest resolution. doubts. In Eome the latter side increased in prominence with the decay of civic sanction. objective.

symmetrical if depressparticular. In the apparent harmony of his system. for example. in " the slender practical sphere which. With everis increasing emphasis the religious aspect of the world substituted for the interpretatioti of - a personal for an impersonal the facts of life. in combines sincerest belief in the gods with theoretic acceptance of a crude materialism. The might have been foreseen. and guidance like. Stoicism for the practical duties of social and imperial life if . impossible to say whether his Pantheism denies the external world is highly ideahst and subjective . or in virtue of his fatal place in the inextricable his dim. Dualism. and system. faint power to protest (standing out- side not. there is a perpetual conflict It is." was almost daily dwindling. is more coherence. but as a critic. The transition to is the purer and more genial mysticism of Plotinus : easy save that in this later system there and assured symmetry. The Emperor. as a new cause. and physical. hurried on by the rush which he avoid). God was series. Stoicism is the refuge of a sensitive life and discouraged nature. and we. indeed. of elements which cannot be reconciled.GENERAL CONCLUSION a 275 way of life. and the final Source of takes the features of a personal deity in the unsatisfied craving for sympathy. may blame the " dogmata " of the School he seems to us to be too ready to acquiesce. or whether he deifies or whether man's affinity to objective . scientific. ing. result Balzac's Peau de chagrin. . may estimate but cannot The utter illogicality of moral effort in such a world has in the foregoing pages been exposed in perhaps Marcus had many teachers besides wearisome iteration. too patient of evil and tolerant of faults which it perhaps was in his power to correct.

" religious feeling it extinguishes and the higher emotions. and in There is not the any true sense unapproachable. with an almost While it haunts natural vindictive hatred of its parts. or a dutiful acceptance (outside the study) of the Eoman " Olympus. — who is either in any case. postulates. science and meaningless religion. It is useless to repeat with tedious repetition the apparent commonplace (in truth. it positive yet prejudiced in favour of to moral of behaviour) would belief be in impossible revive with teleology is cogency : (1) the beneficent bad It obscures the impassive survey of natural phenomena with the phantoms of superstition. Nothing conditions are absolutely reversed. slightest doubt that Epictetus and Marcus did ahke. find supreme satisfaction and that for their practical life an intellectual Pantheism (God as Thought). which for a modern mind (nurtured on science. a paradox) that this peculiar attitude is a permanent posture of the inquiring Soul. almost dieappears in the warmer light smi." provided . the is worship of law (as Epicurus acutely reminds) never Hkely to take the place of It reposed on two astounding a personal relation. and poetic attempt is at self-deception . by this violent clashing of anomalies. unconscious. (2) duty of submission. ligion of Stoicism is The more improbable. Pantheism inquiry with antiquated religious " taboo. and combines a misplaced and unreasoning reverence for the total of things. . or is likely to reappear to-day as the final creed of Scientific Monism. misty. Nature. sleeping or drunken. The so-called rea vague. luminary of the two worlds of intelligence and of nature.276 MARCUS AURELIUS of Plato's inherent in the Porch. or conjures up a semblance of love for a supposed god.

Above all. No lower substitute will satisfy. theory cannot long be divorced from practice. is in spite of its pretension to pure science. as true " obeying to overcome and to employ. encourageBut the inconsistencies are too patent and. — — . this ideal in the meshes of the visible. by was the Divine will. save in rare and unhappily dowered individuals. it will not engross itself in sentimental devotion to mere blind force. or evaporate it in the fog of the " absolute. Neither do if we study Nature in order to obey her.' or in the flattering visions of Platonism. To entangle." Nothing is further^from our designs than any premature deification. To-day we approach the study of an objective world from all religious presupposition. in . and found reinforcement in the^ sobriety of the Christian Church. again. The notion of God all religion ^is an asylum against the injustice or inequalities of the natural order. the end. present at every turn in Stoicism. we have abandoned the precarious assumption of teleology." is an insult to human discernment. Nature. and in some sense antithetic to. free The deiis ex machind. The modern spirit is that of St. in a lethargic way. as followers of it Bacon. The submissive yet defiant Stoic temper is one which. Christopher and if it be conscious that in the moral realm of effort there is a power distinct from. but. and even. 277 ment. rightly discarded. .GENERAL CONCLUSION consolation. The moral instinct of man repudiated an alliance with the Porch. imperilled as the it is by Indian asceticism and absorption. can never recur in Europe so long as we can preserve an acute sense of personal value and freedom. and insidious advance of listless or scholarly indifference.

1861) the two treatises of Ibn Eoschd. 167 sq. Averroes and Averroism. prayers. and foremost. of death. Philosophy the most elevated aim of human nature but few can attain it. (2nd edit. more academic and symmetrical. For their happiness. All positive tenets of religion (angels. and. . who inspires the people with doubts on religion. . . . because they unsettle the simple. and justly liable to the penalties prescribed. less bold in the " wager of faith. prophets. The yilest action in the sight of God is to tax with error and vain presumption him who adores Him by the best of all religions. and displays the contradictions lurking in the Prophets. Philosophical disputes are rightly prohibited. by the character and the We been love him because of the transparent anomalies of his beliefs. is far more the he owes comparatively little to the and it is certain he will rather use. is On the Bcmnony ." . transform. a soul " naturally p. It is affection rather than admiration which self-revelation of is evoked Marcus. : "The special religion of philosophy is to study that which is for the most sublime worship one can render to God is the knowledge of His works which leads us to know Himself in aU His reality. Man. . a Eoman emperor. as and of the Universe lie on Huxley saw. beliefs in He must not despise the simple which he was reared . merits the sentence . Philosophy. .278 The ways MARCUS AURELIUS of the Social order different planes." he could not have exacted a homage First ' so unwavering from all subsequent times. and investigate it for his own purpose and interest than profess readiness to accept all that betides as God's child of the former second . of Religion with On the Demonstration ofEeligious Dogmas. Vide Eenan. which the philosopher alone follows without ulterior inducement. The wise man does not permit himselfa word against the Established Religion and the Epicurean. seeking at a blow to destroy religion and virtue. it sufiSoes to understand what they can understand.^ Had he less sincere. but interpret them in the best sense. his unsuccessful attempts to co-ordinate two entirely opposed theories of the Universe. will. He is a heretic. sacrifice) are mere expedients to excite to Virtue.

" Belief in Cosmos. embedded in the Stoic creed." Eeturn to Nature. valid. He is the last interpreter of this peculiar phase of thought. . partly philosopher. was found to involve fundamental differentiation of reasoning man from the unreason of to animalism. is an intellectual. but because they demanded (and obtained ?)'a closer correspondence in the life of God to the aspiration and the hopes of the finite creature. . is there much I should like to notice with ! special attention. not in Chaos.: : GENERAL CONCLUSION Christian. . imperious. criteria of individual direct. a Stoic that profoundest idealism." he viction. a moral necessity. is. and how firmly " far remote was it from any moral scheme. admirable is this passage xxvi. the " main dogmas of the Cynic School. the auto- cracy and indivisibiUty of virtue. . In xxxviii. xl. : " The Cynics and was the well gave unconditional authority to the experience and will. Not that men had become tired of the moral effort (for we cannot if we would rid ourselves of it). motive and existence justification. ." Again. and some is. and the moral in- dependence of the individual. Life in agreement with Nature their summary xlvi. Eendall. out of which reason can itself only argue on pain of self-confusion . " . mere positive by conamalgam of science. or rather excuse. and still How more. without it. : of and was a formula calculated at once to attract and to mislead disciples. In the close and sympathetic survey of Dr." are clearly defined The identification of virtue with knowledge. for continued in- fails. These were aim. 279 partly by accident. so far from implying reversion and the reduction of man's needs to the level of the beasts. . popular belief." Yet we may add how vague and complete was the supposed Cosmic order of the Stoics.

its theoretical arsenal amid the disappointing turmoil of the Diadochi and issuing. Stoicism only threw out halfformed suggestions.28o MARCUS AURELIUS the brute or the inertia of matter. and never issued forth in free and this respect the School of a cosmopolitan spirit (in the : — . '' . as we shall see. which were to be realized in the schools of Plato and the Church for. of moral aim and realized perience." with its twois Christianity and Eoman fold current of "justice to the weaker and the slave. too. namely." It might possibly be fair to add that in was but a single manifestation double sense). eager enterprise into the larger or the lesser wealth. the true follower of the Porch never surmounted this barrier of isolation. ex- which conducts to the baffling problems of Determinism and Free-Will. of man and material embodiment. prevailed after the conquests of Alexander half-unconsciously. common- How : excellently he expresses the line of thought which conducted to this lonely watch-tower (vepuoirij) " Thus the idea of personality xlviii. Perhaps. elements of Stoicism which have proved most permanent and universal. of an Ugo distinct from physical organism and environment eventually dawns upon Greek thought and unexpectedly — ! — reveals a deeper duaHsm new to philosophy — that his antithesis. which preparing." There is nothing here which contradicts or denies the tendencies of the . alike Imperialism. to place man on a unique spiritual plane." and the personal rights of man in the great body of Law. of spirit and flesh. and eventually to summon him i^from individual isolation to conscious brotherhood with These are the kind and harmony of will with God. of the ultimate unity of the individual will and conscience.

" ficial influence on the special realm of man's nature. " The monistic core is in constant danger of falling The unity of apart. no relation to matter. It is for this reason that I so often assert that Stoicism can never return as a phase .: GENERAL CONCLUSION Platonic 281 is School. 1900). or less infinite. intrinsic unlikeness. Again. and needs ingenious buttressing. holds to his unique and moral importance and." unconvincing and incoherent character of Stoic the dogma. ("Kingdom of Matter." where. for the contrast there more apparent than and the co-ordination of spirit and matter School is to of triumphantly achieved in the new while beneath the nominal Alexandria. and exercises no rafluence on it unless it be of the most hazardous and But none the less real. unlike him. in a word. Review. man Contemp. wish to see the significant and essential contrast of modern thought. history has proved whether the arbitrary resemblance of natural and mental law. "Which is the most benethis world. "We have learnt at last that the moral world is a world wherein man is alone a world contained in ourselves is . Ix. pessimism is . and Zeno ventured to assume that power single to be identical with that which declares itself as conHere. . Oct. the attribution of moral aim to the worldprocess the oscillation between a purely physical and If we a rarefied moral (or intellectual ?) Pantheism. only explicable expression of a the world was as the power. or an emphasis on their that bears . we may look at Maeterlinck's essay of monism the Porch. real. is exceptional kind. does so because he profoundly convinced there is no correspondence. be — the tone of alienation and normal and indispensable. therefore. like the Stoic. is the cause of sciousness in man.

The empirical the influence of Socrates and his dialectic. which precedes moral theory. the final argument was the personal character puzzling sense of an integral solidarity which yet could not be realized. and is indethought it of affinity pendent of the it . anti-moral which condemns to mere idle trifling diatribes of Thrasymachus and his ! modern imitators Ixi. Eendall expresses the cogency of the moral fact. theoretical pessimism. depends entirely upon an alleged sense between man and the world. and declared all nature one." Whether striking definition of the ' the Stoics cordially agreed in this somnambulistic hypothesis of creation. whether the world-spirit first attains consciousness in human intelligence. a deification of the concrete which is wholly inconsistent with experience and discovery. the curious fact that the for morality to the of Epicurus. informed and controlled by one all-pervasive energy which 'knew itself in the consciousness of man the microcosm. more or less consciously. coherent. — Stoics these points in Stoic expressed. not in a mere parity of individual impulse." base.282 of MARCUS AURELIUS . This lay in a common source of energy. has of been all much disputed . with which. Stoicism has most afiinity. from the thoughts of all reflecting men. but the survival of morality itself confirmed the existence of a basis. at once individual and universal. The world. No better summary than the following could be found of the ethical result . and which is probably expelled. How well Dr. : " The old sanction of civic obhgation had withered in 'practice and been expunged in theory. Ixii. rational. a complete and living whole. more " lucidly dogma cannot be Nor could we find more "main synthesis" than this. it clearly forms an essential part of modern Schools.

" convincing is this summary of Stoic interpretation of the Averts in a " larger concep- coloured and permeated with Eastern Monotheism. which is then in its abstraction conceived of rather . This is the secret of that 'accent of futility' which marks the thoughts even of a writer so keenly alive to altruistic and social obligation as Marcus Aurelius. " The independence of the Will as a true first principle or ap-xfi is incompatible with its identification with the World. Not only is man part of the universal predestination.) phenomena to the action of mind. in ascribing (The School. Determinism.' GENERAL CONCLUSION. : Soul. how true and tion. harmony is excluded. attached a moral instead of a merely mechanical interpretation an attempt to to each motion of the Universe : combine the immanent and implicit (which tends to be purely physical) with the transcendent and Aristotelian. Ixxiv. on which to attempt to improve would be an impertinence Ixxxii. and free-will." Again. " dental Unitarianism of the Jews. the Stoic type habitually ' or drill itself or decline into the moral apathy which results from restricting virtue to the sphere of intellectual and unimpassioned self-regard. the saving thought of self-determination towards some transcendent. wavering between naive Phenician worship and the moral and transcenIxiv." Here is a final passage on the Stoic claim to spiritual autonomy. therefore of the natural process. : 283 " By suppression of desires the moral ideal self- could easily be reduced to that hard and narrow consistency towards which leans . . . yet unapprehended. the highest consciousness of man repreof the sents the most complete and perfect embodiment World-Spirit. but the limits of that predestination are known and absolute. If .

" author himself. underneath a rigid dogmatism. " The stalwart braggadocio ." Diogenes. the Cynics voices of tradition fell rapidly into the quagmires of ascetic bravado.'' With only two points in this admirable appreciation do I find myself somewhat diffidently in disagreement. . devout resignation of Marcus." : Ixxxiv. . . I cannot read Diogenes Laertius' account of the Stoics without finding early traces. acceptant optimism of Epictetus hard defiance of Cato . : " Towards the all his strict attitude nonchalance." But I cannot help tracing the very obvious impotence and unhappiness of the Stoic effort and outlook to a real though unavowed sense of this contrast. of " Thought than Moral Will. Deaf the and culture. — : that nature in to ask man is identical with the nature of the it is Universe at large. Abundant testimony is provided ' . at least they would not depend on initial ambiguity of term. and on that assumption ingless ' mean- whether Cleanthes meant to prescribe accordance with his own individual nature. of . . is . They are a De ImitatioTie. happiest terms in describing philosophic idiosyncrasy of xlii. . of mediaeval " how deftly and for our and how truly two analogies — and modem date are interwoven in civ. xlv. of a profound conviction of detachment or superiority. such as might have been penned amid the isolation of Khartoum. " It was a cardinal assumption of Stoicism. Diogenes .' or accordHe would have repudiated ance with nature at large. and to flaunt the superiority of wiU to outer circumstance. charter : his to self- sufficiency " of Cynics generally. determined to isolate the individual from the society. xlix.2 84 as MARCUS AURELIUS Dr.' the distinction and whatever ethical implication might result. Kendall uses the externals.

enjoys a wider currency and Ixvii. the foregoing pages. but the Stoic attempt. into involves not only a historic survey over classic and mediaeval times. exercises a more invigorative appeal in the field of natural religion than any other extra-Christian interpretation of the Universe. of conscious unity with the Divine. the individual. he derived no encouragement from the oft-repeated assurances of sympathy with Universal order. : by no means anticipating of right a certain answer (1) whether there are any sufficient arguments that the Stoic School had any serious effect or became . In the moral realm at least. to the To confess this antithesis be to abandon the whole monistic scheme of things bi^t end the Stoic philosophy hovered disconsolately between a sense that he. alike in the poetic and scientific imagination. I heartily echo his eulogy of the Stoic in: No system of material monism will permanently satisfy man's intellectual constitution. not merely held for centuries a more active and commanding sway over the minds and hearts of men than the metaphysics of Plato and Aristotle.GENERAL CONCLUSION in perhaps the largest series of citations from 285 Marcus in would . was the All. Nor can fluence. and on its own lines exhaustive. and a candid acknowledgment of the insurmountable difference of the Christian faith to any proposed philosophic substitute. noble. and found philosophic reconstruction in Spinoza but at this day. but a deep insight modern sympathy and tendencies. . far-reaching. I will content myself here merely with inquiring. . and a conviction that he was nothing but himself. " . not merely interwove itself with Christian discipline and doctrine. ." This is too large and important a topic to be treated it exhaustively here.

one and final interpretation. a guide of earnest endeavour. with which ? the strictly incompatible (5) whether. . Rome ? and formal. one of sense of many manifestations of the human brotherhood and (3) whether in the Divine parentage the attempts to appearing everywhere with the downfall of national or civic all reinforce moral effort. from an alliance with popular superstitions. is not responsible ahke for the is tendencies of the post. —whether barriers ? this School not rather a very subordinate episode. the special tenets of the School were not by far the most illogical and unsatisfactory ? (4) whether Epictetus and Marcus did not derive all their moral vigour or contented submission from a religious instinct and piety.classical and Christian develop- ment. or explain the world's unity and sympathy. human arfd Divine. to the Eastern mind. and a Church which encouraged the humblest to believe their efforts in daily life were acceptableland approved before a loving Father's eyes ? (6) whether the two interpretations of the world are not fundamentally and diametrically opposed as Renan reminds us in a passage before referred to ? (7) whether the language used of modern Pantheism is suitable only to the epoch anterior to the acceptance of Evolution. empty. . such as frequently strikes one in Clement of Alexandria. were translated into activity in (2) whether the extreme familiarity of the hypothesis. there could be anything in common between a system in effect denying personality. Porch-materiahsm was except in mere technical phraseology. and is unintelligible to the scientific explorer of a realm in which he can discern no conscious aim ? (8) if you will. the readiness of all pantheistic men at certain epochs to accept this.286 MARCUS AURELIUS its doctrines. before eristic.

et vicinam sortita . . A good instance of "Multa . confusing veneration and science. 31) on cognata Numini summo. in spite of his interest in pure science. comets: ..vides totum. and a mystical and inward Pantheism. obscura aunt oculos nostros et implant et efingiunt sive illis tanta subtilitas est quantam consequi acies humana non possit sive in sanctiore secessu majestas tanta delUuit. GENERAL CONCLUSION 287 whether we have not at last got rid of the cloudy temper of mind which. " Eerum Natura Sacra sua non simul tradit. et se) regit tiec regnum suum (id est. . Qa. meteorology. .^ worship and knowledge. to a more moral and humanitarian conception of Godhead. seismology. " To which Kaut. the one inevitable result of the profound opposition of the "Two Natures. was not wholly a . ! . with all his cold sobriety. quod. Initiatos nos credimus in vestibulo ejus hseremus " In his famous definition of God." — which permeates and confuses the whole Stoic development. vii. . surreptitiously introduces a moral purpose into the workings of mechanical law an . it may this suffice Such questions cannot be finally now that I have raised them ' tentatively. like Marcus Aureliua. ulU aditii/m dot nisi animo " : he is clearly wavering between the objective and physical. quod non vides totum. emotional thrill into the cold analysis of the laboratory. we see how keenly he feels the antithesis bow. he is advancing. potentiam. a vague mysticism into the survey of the starry heavens^ or the expanse of ocean ? answered here . may be seen in Seneca (Nat. stranger.

218. . 283 . eKTOs). Was it but the rest not in that they did not wish to 1 I think. the right use of impressions. they would have placed these. had they been able. (to. too. under our control but this was altogether For my part. but placed this within my power. . and gave it to me as He possessed it Himself. .APPENDIX TEANSLATION OF PASSAGES CITED FEOM EPICTETUS CHAPTER TEE I NEW GYNISM B. The Gift of Free Will (5) "As then was chiefest fitting. the gods only placed in our of all power the our power and sovereign (KpdncrTov . Kvpievov). how was it possible in these respects not to be thwarted and hindered by things without ? P. unthwarted. worthy fraternal. incapable of constraint or hindrance. For. Nor indeed did He wish to. {oiiK £<^' fi/juv). being on earth and bound to such a body and such partners as we see. From this substance (oicria) of the reverent trust- who can eject us? Not Zeus Himself. beyond their power.

But body of clay. ill-starred and corpse-like. that free ? Therefore He all ordered beneath the course of the that belongs to me.all matters of free-choice.o)v TTEpioSo)) my . .. been given to thee ? Be bestowed on thee. world (oA. APPENDIX 289 (310) that in which alone one can feel of good courage. control alone my free-choice. (13) If any can fully enter into this article of of and realise it as it deserves. and He has my hands'.. satisfied that (396) But I know whom be resigned . How all slavery. the children of God. I cannot tell of certain state Will (65) (TTOta irpoaipccris). what in man is good you ought else. . to God (awia-TTja-ev) me to whom I must please. can you ? Zeus my father has set me free from Think you He designed to let His own son go forth into servitude? You may be Sovereign of this dead faith body mine. . some turn aside to this lower kinship. will you not be lifted up with pride? Since these two things in our birth are strangely mingled and compounded together. giving me rules for its employment. . how could He make estate. you recognise that you are child of Zeus. your free will. my children. and has set under my full well . the unthwarted. that we are all in pre-eminent degree He is father of gods and men. of influence persuade Has this great . and but a few to that otherj divine and blessed. the trustworthy. but a (dyaOov. and (pride) But if 19 . not (32) If you ask me rayaOov). take it and use it at your will. uncontrolled. of which no man can roh you that is. reason and judgement with the gods. men what power alone is (361) This Zeus Himself could not do are in truth good and evil things.. body in common with the beasts. my all home and its garnishing. (330) self-determined? placed in What has God given has What this me to He left be really my to Himself? own. to He has commended my own charge. my wife. to persuade thyself. unhindered.

but of all ever as if is he left bereaved and unceasingly is the heavenly Father guardian and protector. . whether living or dying. offspring of God Himself (Ordmance) It is to earth you gaze.«xP' Xoyov) "Who believed that all his God was his Father. and so called Him. After (j«. (338) " If you seized hold of something belonging to him. to His ministers. if . careless of and well administers the whole world. Well he knew that no man of parents. because these alone can draw nigh to God as companion in familiar converse. .iva). Will you not recollect what you are and whom you rule? Kinsmen and brothers by nature's law. for serenity (eiSai/toveiv . . alone He uses as patterns and models to the unlearned. to prove that He is. to these miserable ordinances of dead men . eTnireTrXeyfji. (reach) but a own fault for man meet with God has created . . knit to Him by reason {crvv- avao-rpo^^S . His witnesses? Whom. you not bear with your fellow-man. all remember it is men for happiness. who has Zeus for his father. to this pit of Tophet (fiapaOpov). not yearning over them them orphans. but in chief measure to the reasonable XoyiKo). and is not human affairs . who like a son comes from the same bearing seeds and divine birth as yourself? (avwSei' KarajSoX^s). but to the laws of God. and that to the good man. he would readily renounce it rather than follow on its account. evcTTaOelv). (33) (seeds) to all things conceived and brought to birth earth.290 MARCUS AURELIUS upon the {to. ill-fortune. that we have God as our master and father and guardian ? " How can one put up with such vexations 1" (49) will Slave. But shall not this assurance lift us out of our griefs and fears. not a thought (289) Not mourning. indeed. and performed tasks looking up his to Him. (311) Shall God be to thus indifferent to His handiwork. there can befall nothing evil.

the gods and his true country. .). . "We you are alone". and whence it has come to you. . the guardian angel of every man. is inside with and your guardian angel there too. and do not know it " when He Himself is present within. aTrotrirdo'/j/iTa. aTrapakoyuTTov).€vai. But you are in special sense. ovcrai k. even to die untimely. T(3 0eu are avTOV fwpia and God feels with their every movement and impulse.rjTOV K. to be in peril. (122) Have I not my seer within (/iavris). to sail. as kindred and familiar to Himself . by the side of each of us has He set an overseer (eirirpoTros). next of that which nor as portions of the gods. . too. k. first of the City of gods and men. In yourself there is a particle of Him. (117) (your own life) But if you deem yourself a part of some great Whole. . are so bound up and closely attached to as being parts and fragments of Him {ivSeSeiJi. who has told me the substance (ouo-ta) of good and ill ? (Thought) " What then ? are not these. for the sake of this it behoves now to be sick. . God (51) Souls. and this a sentinel. Why then are you indignant 1 For what is man? A component part of a (dyava/cTew). . then. and be brought to uttermost want. never would he have deserted whom these. wretched man. a. that cannot be turned from his duty (Sainova trwa^eis — — . the works of Gods ? " Assuredly. you are not alone. State. (373) Give to that which rules within you its due even for Consider what it is you have in this power a brief space. (^ye/ioviKoi/). ever wakeful.APPENDIX (fatherland) 291 He knew well whence he has it and from and on what conditions. but not in paramount degree (irpoj^you/iera). you are a fragment of the divine {aTroa-Traa-fia). surveying all you do and listening. But his real ancestors.Koif). and set him on watch. (52) (within) remember never but God is to say. you carry Him about with you. You know not that you nurture and train God. etc.

and the substance of it has been fashioned is one . that you may become an Olympian victor . (131) You are a Citizen of the world and a part lead. and this comes not to pass without sweat. shall he be ready it pain and show indignation (prison) not in hatred far be from that . did he perform his tasks with ungrudging cheerfulness is ? all and when our sage to cry out in tested by Zeus Himself. (74) It is circumstance that shows what men are made of. too. the lord will turn and behold and will drag him apart Thus. and cut him of the world he does. as some stem master in wrestling. but those who What if promise then must a citizen make? detached (aTroXxirov). to take thought for nothing. God is trying and proving his mettle? When Hercules was exercised by Eurystheus. setting to each severally his appointed duties. (272) Is he not fully persuaded that. from the ordination of the and the whole has to be considered before its part. good citizens to the law of their State. not one of those who serve. has set you to fight with a stout and vigorous rival (is dAciTrTTjs). and one must in his season give place to another. there one who is master of the house. When in the future some special crisis befall. for what . too. ? .292 is MARCUS AURELIUS which is nearest to the other. it happens in this greater City is for here. of it . if (steward) but him acting with haughty arrogance. whatever of these he suffers. and there is need of a certain revolution in things. and the city before the citizen. as he were (knowing that) this is allotted World (SiaTofccos). . a tiny copy of the World- Commonwealth. remember that God. To have no petty interest for himself alone. which (288) This World is a single State. off. (381) " has set his own will and judgment subordinate to him who guides and as disposes the Whole (6 Sioikuv ra "0\a).

and toiled and was tried as in a wrestling school ruler and governor of all land and sea. If I am posted in such an honourable ministry. too..UT(o). (290) What good man and true is ever unhappy? In the governance of this world must be evil indeed if Zeus takes not care of His own Citizens. been careless of those (fashion) "I have not. That Thou hast begotten me. . .. strict . and this task he performed.. to resign all earthly things to Heaven's will (irapaSowat tu Aai/iovtij) or to Fortune. but them in the arena and using them as a witness and martyr to the rest of mankind. . . ?) I have always ordered my impulse conformably to Does He. (312) He desires me not to lead a life of idle luxury. . . I give Thee thanks for Thy gifts. alone. exercising . will me to have fever? I too am willing . . that willingly I may obey Him. (345) I ^^^ *^^ friend of God.. (confused) There is but one path to smoothness of life's current . naked and faith. . but oneself to live in unceasing is only —the unfettered Will which ^™ ^^^^ attachment to one thing alone our own (rw lSi<o T<3 d/C<l)A. . I wish to die .. nor did He grant this to Hercules His own Son but he was . or even murmured or repined.. they may be blessed.. It suffices me to have (this God. shall not my whole life be loyally devoted to God ? (oXos rera/^iat). . to think nothing one's own. put under command. Lord. that like Him. and without envy leave as their Stewards those whom Zeus has appointed ( = the undeserving rich and powerful).. APPENDIX for 293 master hates the noblest of his vassals ? Nor in indifference not the smallest trifle escapes His watchful care. opportunities I had from Thee to recognise Thy government I have not disgraced Thee of the world and to follow it. a steadfast standing-aloof from all that will cannot control. to suffer agony on the rack. cleanser of lawless injustice ..

I yearn. to be. expect 1 and ungenerous (dKoii/uFor what would you that a man should hold aloof from self and from his becomes no longer selfish . which happens. then. and Zeus Himself. own advantage ? {am-ovry is . unless brought forward and applied to the general weal. Him I ' CHAPTER II (65) (subject) This is not selfish . for his own sake he does everything (yiyove yap ovto>9 . rh irdcO' auTou IfEKa Troteiv). to study in patience. this is but to give (17) (go . and is Thou gavest them to me. . is nought but this . Such. and cries of alas and ' woe is me " (control .294 thus far used MARCUS AURELIUS Thy benefits. I will. God of Rain or For this aim guides the But whenever He desires Harvest and Father of gods and men. How. titles will see He cannot attain such functions or such unless He be useful for the common interest. this is the very law of the Creature's being . to life for all OlK€l<<)<ns). Sun you in heaven. for the sake of ! ' ! oneself trouble without cause. He made the nature of reasonable beings that they cannot obtain any of their own good things. be friends with self? (^ trpo^ awa home) " and not disregard things there for that which he has wandered far afield. . . all for self somewhat be So to do vt}Tov . drag upon yourself things for which you are not accountable ? (dvuireiJ^vvos) . avToiJ Icefca). All were Thine. For I At His feet do I lay myself. then. . His servant and minister.) Why. tov iStois <rvixfj)€povTOi). and laments. . with desire. then. . there but one and the same beginning and rule of creatures. to remove from his life griefs." What life nobler than this? What end more blessed (370) I always will that rather will to deem God's be preferred to mine.

. . startled and shivering at this. (335) T^i® i* ^^ rosA that leads to freedom. hanging on another. to do all as he wishes. dare to God and say " Use me. to be able from the soul's depths to say " Lead me. (seek) For what is it man seeks 1 To be in steadfast calm. Fate. this the one riddance of serfdom. diradEiav). for what Thou wilt : look up to in the time to come. having my ease and happiness hanging balanced on other men's letters {^fyrrmeyijv . . trembling at every report. all (contempt) Sit there. how fair is Athens " But to (353) Leave all this.fj)epov). Whitlier Zeus. still. that nothing can take place against our will. to feel that your life and its issues lies in no other man's control. . (this) that he must so fit and conform his desire agreeably to things that happen." (miserable). unhappy. Froln this will arise the great boon. is (306) For the contest set before us or wrestling not for some boxing match . we shall never be aimless. My will is in unison with Thee . not to be controlled or thwarted. Lord. giving up pupil ? all other guides. . grieving. and thou. but live our span out without grief or fear or tumult. . fairer is blessed be ! to be at rest. luckless. never distressed. and another when you desire it not to come to pass ? Surely this is the strongest proof of unrest and wretchedness. for I am Thine. to be without the disease of passion. to be happy. (161) Why are you miserable ? Why does one thing happen against your will. my portioned lot shall call. but for very happiness and blessedthat every ness itself. . become your " Ah. . then.APPENDIX (71) For 29 s my nature is to tend to my own good (Tre^uxa irpos TO i/jibv (TVfi. own master and (362) Will you not. (158) As set free from slavery's yoke.

but must be wholly given up to the ministry which God has far they . bearing Help them thus. that while you are wallowing in a slough of harass and perplexity about things of little worth. .296 MARCUS AURELIUS (368) What hinders to live lightly and with slackened rein. I am indeed luckless. all. and comes not to pass . we want to live and do good to mankind. I have been sent as God's herald . . " If thou desirest anything good. it (Says) I will something. men's ills. drinking. hope of succour {ea-wOev (91) This law has God enacted. and all is set right (SimpOtiyrai). dTTMActa k. (266) EecoUect I have a mission . ivrjvCwi . "What sort of good? what are you about? for have you finished doing good to yourself ? But you want to exhort and advise them ? have you succeeded with yourself? show them in your own case what sort of character the study of true wisdom makes. to show men how have wandered astray. to cleanse all other . nor even Theseus to rid Attica (245) like cleanse thine At once with breathless impatience own things. and the wished-for result is yours . awaiting with easy cheerfulness all that can hefall a man 1 (kov'^ius . to mankind). what foes. (383) You must toill it. and don't talk nonsense (^Xvapeti/). and do not bespatter (Kareiepav (pkeyfia). . 7rpao)s). yielding modestly to patiently with all. and seek the substance of these two where it cannot be found. them with thy rheum . ficn^Oeia). . (273) The Cynic must not be distracted by divers interests. . For toithin is all peril of loss. get it from thyself. . about things good and bad. . . (found) For in good sooth the Cynic is a pioneer (who comes to tell men what things are friends. . (Help them by sUent sages . (Says) I free am Be not unaware. ! example) eating. I alone have won my discharge from all such tumult. from the realm of passion and turmoil men. (158) Thou art not Hercules. . and says.

yet not as truly his own (dAA' <Ls aloof. which longer keep up the appearance of he transgress he can no the good man and true and • he preserve. once I too was like them ! but now no thanks be to God (354) • • • (provocation) for with exceeding steadfastness is he remembered that no man Xorpiov fjyipAiviKov KvpitveL) . do these help mankind more than the missionaries who oversee all men according to their power. is (361) That alone {(ravTov ireicrat). but I turn back even if to my own . able to pass easily about tied hard 297 among men. not i8to)TiKots and fast to duties of Ma own. as detached and isolated and having neither wife nor children nor fatherland. take Socrates and see him with wife and children.yij.€vov trxiaecriv) . friends — — dXkoTpia).— APPENDIX entrusted to him. (inquires) " How then shall he (so far as he may) preserve of and continue the commonwealth merciful to your folly ! mankind 1 " Heaven be Do those who bring into the world two or three brats with ugly noses to take their place. by whom he might be bent and distracted from his single purpose. self (lir* efiauTOf imarpi^) to see : if I too err like longer. to convince thyself (preaching) And that you may not think that I draw a picture of a pattern Cynic. if not caught in the or oiS' net of relation (irpocrS^Sefievov Ko6^Koi)0"tv ili. While they preserve his for their part go to things belonging their character. how they are stirred. how they . he shall spoil his character of God's pioneer and herald and ambassador. granted thee. or and kindred.-iren\(. master of another's soul (d\is he then careful not to will except that which is really his (to tSiov). what they do. (347) Now from henceforth I note carefully what men say. . them . on their own way and do the he none the less may own nature. and this not from spiteful motive nor to have material for blame or ridicule .

the functions and the ends cannot be the same attain the {usv yap al Karaa-Kevai Sta<^opoi rovTinv koL Ta epya k. For those creatures whose constitutions are diverse. And and attentive following and living agreeably TrapaKo\ov6ritTiv k. Nature (KariX-i^iev im Oetapiav k. and for what purpose.^^ k. what. . who arrange it. they who use without reflection the impress of sense . while it we follow cautiously behind wherefore for them suf&ces to eat and the other details (of spontaneous life). some some few there are who come in the assemblage.). (world) Some as brute beasts think of nought but (ambition) few there are spirit (ot iravriyvpitpvTei) Oedixoves) nature is what this world He and what His manner of governing who come a fairing in the true men fond of the spectacles {<\>i\ois ? who guides its courses ? of what ? and what . some to sell . some to buy.298 bespend their neglect?" (animals) MARCUS AURELIUS lives. and not be a silent witness. Take care then lest ye die without having obtained a glimpse of these marvels. of these. but we cannot be content with this. (satisfaction) but rather begin where they leave this is contemplation to off. but we shall never end for which we were created. (operations) spectator {Oeariiv). (148) (spectators) Such then are human afiairs as in great concourse. toi TeAi. . and who their they are food. Most men. too. but also to extol and declare - His might (e^yijTijv). of Himself merely to But man God brought into the world as and of His works. and stop only at the highest point where Nature has ceased in our case. contrary to their duty. (tvix^wvov Bic^ay<ayy]V ry $vo-£t). for the sake of the sight offered it them how takes place and wherefore. Kara(TKivrj). unless we act in set and orderly fashion and agreeably and suitably to the nature and constitution of each {aKokovOwi rjj ckciotou iI)!.

TTpos tC epyov . ! common . needful for soldiers . . father. ovTK K. what it III is it? an ugly mask to frighten chilround and see what it really is . but whence you came. birth. but all things are fulfilled (as Thales said) " of gods and daemons. . how to ." fool. .). . now or some time later on. Come to the (ets hence (death place ^(A. that the world's great period . their leisure is in this alone ahsorhed. reverence is but folly. to things friendly and kiudred tu K. . CHAPTER (104) Death. ttSs SioikSv . may be consummated some to be (TrepioSos avvi^ai) now. only your poor corpse (me 1) clay to earth again. turn ! indignant if it be to-day ? .! . see. Why be dren . son but empty. closely survey the fair and for their pains they are derided and inquire and then quietly depart by the rabble.a ?) Whither 1 not to aught that is terrible. others to wait for spent and done (^vutr/tei/wv). you he cannot slay. APPENDIX 299 kind of creatures we are who have issued from Him. TLVti (fpyov) . . (Tvyyevfj). it cannot bite This poor body must be severed from the little breath. and to what purpose framed (ttoios ns k. of is There no Hell nor Acheron nor Cocytus nor Pyriphlegethon. for it has need of and others already (179) What then ? does this teaching not please you ? See now. (comical) But when God bestows not on you the barest life. as it was before. (us As much of fire as was in you will depart to join the central flame. as His offering. how righteousness is nothing. ?). For the rest. whether we have some attachment and kindred relationship with Him or none at all 1 (imrXoKriv o-xeo-ii'). meaningless names. as a general He sounds the recall to His He sets the door open and says to you. etc.

came into being not at a moment when you desired. but into that which not yet to vvv firj " shall Yes (ouk e<rei). Tts oiKOfOfiia Death. then shall ye go. " now is it the due season for me : to restore the material to the constituents again it. of nothing to me . there too holy dreams and auguiies and sweet converse with the heavenly ones. intense than will not say (etg — any of that which is ov). such is every circumstance from God's universe the universal order to the things consumed and destroyed in it. . let us sometime at least be set clear of these manacles that weigh us down. but when the world wanted I then cease to be " asks the anxious inquirer. (ouK dTTciXua aWii. a change a shifting these. For all such is but passing of things that were into .300 MARCUS AURELIUS is (266) This poor body of mine are nothing to me. too. you. not. (34) ^6 ^^^ ill some sense kindred of the gods above. its parts Death ? let it come when it will. . 1 there moon and stars . either whole or of a limb. StotKiyo-is) . for ! . It signifies the death of the ears of corn. . Set us free to return thither again . so closely are they attached (a<^ES XvO^vai ttotc tSv Sea-fiZv tovtwv). . For you. . and from thence have we come here. (301) As is winter to fig. other forms of things to be not death at all. TETay/xa/i. on the that it will all go ! ! God in patient expectancy When He gives the word of command and releases you from this service. Exile 1 and who can banish me from Wheresoever I go there will His sun shine. say what (Domitian) Put on no tragic airs about a matter so simple is really the case. Men wait indestructibility of matter. not of the world. but a settled and orderly management aa of thrifty house-steward. who provided is What is there terrible in that ? 1 what part of the world going to perish flecting " (so Epictetus is consoled in death by re- and the thought on just as well without him). but in your place will arise something of which God's order has need. from what now ? is to is —I — more i<.

which our will controls not. lot. For the grandeur of Reason is not measured by breadth or height. (47) (leg) Will you not cheerfully resign it again to Him who gave it ? Will you be sullen and indifferent to the orders of Zeus. by prudence 1 (end) Where then is great good or great evil for man to be found! Just in his special and distinguishing quality (on-pv 17 Siaijjopd). nothing concerns us at all. who of (285) For the lecture-room of a sage is the consulting-room a physician. but do you see for yourselves what you would ! Know (tjXIkov fiipoi el . present time bear with your But for the dwelling in this spot to which He has assigned you. . (89) In See if it what then lies the distinctive endowment of man be not in this power of following attentively what he does. by the generous instinct. but by firm convictions {\6yov fiiyiOoi Soy/tacrtv). is a bitter selfconsciousness of frailty and helplessness about things most needful. and to learn falsely that of things without. by reverence. virtue and evil. which He with the Fates present and weaving your line fore- of life into the universal texture. (18) If. by sureness. by trustiness. solemnly notified and ordained! whole you not yet how tiny a fraction of the wpos ra 'OAo). for in reason are you no whit inferior or less noble than the gods themselves.! APPENDIX return again to as a sentinel 301 Him ! (AireXeijaecrGe Trpos avrov). it was my lot to be deceived. plenty and scarcity. and all such like pairs of opposite {ivavnoTTjTa^) to ensure the tuneful harmony of the Whole. — prefer. then. you should not leave the presence with . I would leave rather this deceit. (46) He ordained summer and winter. (134) The beginning of the study of Wisdom with those approach their mistress as they ought. from which I should live with calm and even flow of life and turmoil . But this (he adds or corrects) only on the side of body. .

not having wherewithal to sustain life. and sail from east to west. to be able to be content with oneself alone {avrbv eaurw dpKETc). to live in converse with oneself . as it would appear. and suffers miseries worse than death itself he has fallen into the trap. to all I speak on equal terms. because there are no more no great robber-bands or pirates to infest the in any season travel on his way unharmed. I go wheresoever my fancy leads.v). and at rest him of his rule communes with his soul in solitary and peace with himself. I care for nobody." he says. . but a man may : T^s Trporipas )(akeiru>Tipa. and forthwith. sea. " If I be enfranchised. a fresh slavery far more grievous than the earlier (e/AircTTTojicev eh Sov\uav iroXv wars or battles. I come back at will. " at once there shall be a great calm. but with painful feelings (-^(rOivrai trai/Tas)." (Russia) Then he has been set free. and is in deep thoughts fitting his nature. and bethinks and governance what sort it is. (251) For ye see that our emperor gives us. he seeks one whom he may flatter and fawn upon. just as Zeus is majesty. d\yij- (loneliness) and Athfene ! Ah wretched that I am Hera have I no son or kinsman have I any longer ! ! ! lost (elvai) None the less is it right to make preparation beforehand against this peril. peace lasting and secure. Printed by Morrisoh & Gibb Limited.302 MARCUS AURELIUS . (319) One who is a slave straightway prays to heaven that he may be released a freeman. pleasurable. Edinlmrgh . i .

By * a. ' By . THREE SHILLINGS each. book should be. is to feel lifted into a higher plane of thought and feeling. writings. Spectator. It CRANMER AND THE ENGLISH REFORMATION. In neat Crown 8yo Yolames.A. WESLEY AND METHODISM.. . but obviously Intended for the use of boys and girls engaged in " getting up their period "—and to find oneself in the hands of the earnest and accomplished author of this notable monograph. A well-studied account of the system of belief and practice which grew up ai'ound The work reckons up not only Wesley's contribution the figure of John Wesley. which should be read with sympathy and profit by every one interested in its subject.. to clerical aflfairs. the author's style . .D. and the narrative being ftesh. related to the time and its strange new forces and problems. 'An excellent Series of Biographical Studies. ' . LUTHER AND THE GERMAN REFORMATION. The book deserves praise for the knowledge it shows of Wesley's character and thoughtful and which is interesting. and vigorous. If any one thinks this praise too high.A. Athenceum. The story of Luther's life is told simply and well. It ia a thoughtful and valuable monograph. and it is. . .'—J!«cor(J. M.'— I^ieraiwre. The whole is a model of what such a to be dull or jejime we cannot understand.— — .. like ourselves. J. .. LINDSAY. tiiey will be surprised. — M.'— could hardly find a better work than this.' ' —Athenaeum. above all.'— Cctmfiridsre Review. are flooding the market under an ingenious variety of captivating titles. By Principal T. promises to be a distinct success. well arranged. . ' The matter is is admirably told. F. The volumes before us are the most satisfactory boohs of the sort we have ever read. clear." . Especially is there room for so able and judicious a work as this. . we advise them to read it just To turn from the reading of the ordinary manuals which now— disguised . M.' Scotsma/n.A. * If we praised this book as highly as we thought. ' M. 8NELL. and also for its style. INNES. D. D. How the author has managed to put so much in so short a space and yet never . EDITED BY OLIPHANT 8MEAT0N. In every way an admirable work. We aduise our readers to keep a watch on this most able series. * . We think that students of the life of Luther .' Methodist Times. we should be deemed " high-falutin. but his influence in the social life of his own and later times. THE WORLD'S EPOCH = MAKERS.

A scholarly and trustworthy sketch of the rise and progress of the Spanish and Italian Orders. ' .' iTidian Review.'— CAWrfian World. in which the story of his life is told with great freshness and vigour. ' Critical Review. G. ANSELM AND By Rev. * An admirable sketch quite worthy of companionship with the best Volumes in this series of " The World's Epoch-Makers.D.The WorlcPs Epoch-Makers. .. M'Hardy is fair. SAVONAROLA. Mr. D.. F. D. *A clear and plain account of the great Italian Eeformer. Probably many will share our first impression that another life of William Herschel was scarcely needed .D. Franciscans and Dominicans. and also an even more striking accoimt of their degradation. This book is one of an excellent series of biographical studies. judicial. His book is a solid performance. showing much indust^ and scholarship. WELCH. M. JOHN HERKLESS. written in a spirit of discriminating appreciation. ' Of distinct value and of flrst-rate interest. . Herkless gives a vivid picture of the progress of the two Orders. There is not another book in our tongue that so admirably deals with a great man who left a deep mark both in the thought and policy of his time..' OxforA Beview. and yet considerate his pages reveal the student. drift." It is learned. .'— . WILLIAM HERSCHEL AND HIS WORK.' Methodist Times. All students of astronomy must feel an abiding interest in his career and most of them will find mucb fresh information respecting it in the work before us. and this is surely the highest praise we can give it. and his presentation of Buddha and his message of peace. and final meaning of this heroic yet visionary life are given. A. but any such impression is likely to be removed by a perusal of the work before us.* Dr.'— 5aint Andrew.R. FRANCIS AND DOMINIC By Professor * AND THE MENDICANT ORDERS.'—Booftmaw. B.D. Nothing remains but to praise this ftiU and accurate account of his life and work.'—Sword and Trowel.. We have no work in the country which supplies what this volume gives in full. . and deserves hearty welcome. This volume is a worthy companion to Principal Lindsay's on "Luther " . Dr.' Athenoeam. In this excellent work the substance.A. BUDDHA AND BUDDHISM.E. By ' ' ARTHUR LILLIE. HIS WORK.S. . . and universal benevolence is both discriminating and sympathetic. . . and gives a vivid picture of the great statesman-divine. . sympathetic. By Rev. By * JAMES SIME. . . . fair. C.. . and he directs the reader to sources which wiU enable every one to &ame a verdict on the sentence.*—Sword and Trowel. . charity. We recommend its purchase and study to all who would learn the history of early religion in England. . M'HARDY. Lillie has succeeded in clearly and lucidly mapping out the main broad facts of this fascinating religion.

. By Prof. By Prof. Lancashire Independent College.D...D.'—^Iierdeen Joiimal. M. FAIRWEATHER. W. D. The treatment is singularly complete. very interesting and scholarly monograph.' Wespmrnster Beview.A. PASCAL AND THE PORT ROYALISTS. By Prof. and.. Frof. Ritchie offers an admirable epitome of the phases of Plato's doctrine aa it gradually developed . LL.'—ioredon Quarterly Bevievi. ' D. man and an the best book we know for anyone who wishes to study a great historic controversy.D.A. clear in its arrangement. 20 . 'This is D. interest to A book of fascinating many who would never dream selves mathematicians. DE lacy JOHNSTONE.' Chiardian.—— — The World's Epoch-Makers. D.*— 5atnC And^tw. confident narrative reveals the man who knows. M. LL. and the relation of Plato to his contemporaries is set forth very persuasively. RITCHIE. Their history is delightfally set forth in Mt.' Pilot. masterly historical analysis.. M. By Rev. CLARK. * Gives in a moderate compass a thoroughly good popular account of Muhammad's career and influence. Toronto. PLATO..D.' Guardian. HIS POWER. discriminating judgment.'— Bxvository Times. . LL. Smeaton's charming pages.A. . EUCLID: By ' His Life and System. which give evidence of wide and careful reading. which R.D. By ' OLIPHANT SMEATON. MACKINTOSH. Of real value. * Every page of his brilliant.. G. while written by a sympathetic hand. W.D. 'As an introduction to Hegel. . of calling them- THOMAS SMITH. and one cannot rise tiom a perusal of this short volume without being conscious of mental stimulus and enrichment. 'A THE MEDICI AND THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. M. MUHAMMAD AND By p. gives an Impression of perfect fairness of mind and trained historical sense. Manchester. no more trustworthy guide can be desired than that is here presented. and sympathetic handling.A. It is lucid In style. ORIQEN AND GREEK PATRISTIC THEOLOGY. HEGEL AND HEGELIANISM.

The following Volumes have also been arranged for Augustine and Latin Patristic Lessing and the New HumaniBm.. W.D. .D. B.The World's Epoch-Makers. — Schleiepmacher and the Rejuvenescence of Theology. J. W. succinct statement. its wealth of Prof. ROUSSEAU AND NATURALISM LIFE AND THOUGHT. give it a great educative value. Davidson. Glasgow. D. .. educational. Orr's volume will in all probability prove a student's book quotation. . New College. Latta. Theology. Oxford. D. As a sliort study of the philosophies of Descartes and Spinoza the book is The author brings out clearly thefimdamental conceptions of each. W. Vice-Principal of Brasenose College. By Rev. By Principal IVERACH. AND THE NEW PHILOSOPHY. WYCLIFFE AND THE LOLLARDS. And By C. SOCRATES. Ph. DESCARTES.D. D. Maktin. J. Edinburgh. H. M. M. CARRIGK.Doc. its clear. . By Prof.. Published Price. By Professor B. and he expounds his chief doctrines political. P. By Professor K.Sc. J. 'A marvel of condensation. his Influence on Religious Life C. excellent. By Professor R.D. Aberdeen. and of brilliant criticism. By Rev. Wknlbt. BU8SELL. D. Ph. His book is well proportioned. ' D..A. T. Glasgow. ORR.. his Philosophical Revolution.A. THREE SHILLINGS per Volume. By Rev.'— Hudson has skilfully — Jbancheker GuardiiX/n. The Two Bacons and ExperiScotns Erigena and his Epoch. M. M. clear. and religious with admirable clearness and conciseness. SPINOZA. B.So. . Ph.' Dundee Advertiser. done the difficult work of writing a short account ef Rousseau. 'Prof. M. By Prof. University of Michigan. COTTPEK. M. Altogether it is an admirable piece of work. University "of Aberdeen.. Wabfibld. By Rev.. mental Science.A.D. D. Kant and Edinburgh. MARCUS AURELIUS AND THE LATER STOICS BY F. Princeton.' Aberdeen Journal. IN HUDSON. Litt..D. He does full justice to the literary power of his subject.D. its masterly criticism. of clear statement. SAROLEA.. D. FORBES. A.D.D.A..A.. CARDINAL NEWMAN and Thought.. By Professor A. DAVID HUME And his Influence on Philosophy and Theology. J. and eminently readable.

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