Implementing the ISO Reference Radiations at a Brazilian Calibration Laboratory

Annibal T. Baptista Neto, Carlos M. A. Soares, Teógenes A. da Silva Nuclear Technology Development Center, Radiation Dosimetry Service, Av. Presidente Antonio Carlos, 6627, Campus da UFMG , Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
Abstract. One important parameter related to the protection of people exposed to ionizing radiation is the accurate dose measurement. In order to guarantee metrological reliability, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) specifies x and gamma reference radiations for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy. In this work the implementation of the ISO reference radiations (wide and narrow spectrum series) in the Agfa-Seifert x-ray machine was evaluated. Quality control tests were performed and beam parameters like half-value layer, homogeneity coefficient, and inherent filtration were simulated. Results showed that the control tests complied with the standard requirements. It was conclude that the implemented x-ray beams could be considered similar to the ISO reference radiations and they may be used for the purpose of calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters used in radiation protection field.

KEYWORDS: reference radiation; x-ray calibration, ionizing radiation metrology

1. Introduction The exposure of workers and environment to radiation must be monitored in order to comply with regulatory requirements and to help the radiological protection of the people. Gamma and x-ray reference radiations for calibrating dosimeters and for determining their energy response as a function of photon energy were established by the International Organization for Standardization [1]. The x reference radiations are grouped in four series: the low air-kerma rates, the narrow spectrum, the wide spectrum and the high air-kerma rate series. Detailed information on the beam production and dosimetry are provided in the ISO standards [1,2]. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, has maintained a metrology laboratory to provide calibrations of dosemeters in gamma beams. After acquiring a 320 kV Agfa-Seifert x-ray machine, steps were done to offer calibration services of ionizing chambers and area radiation monitors as well as irradiation of personal dosemeters in x-ray ISO beams. 2. Methods and Results 2.1 X-ray equipment A Isovolt 320 HS Pantak Seifert x-ray machine that was installed at the CDTN Laboratory was used to have the reference radiations implemented. The characteristics of the x-ray machine are given in Tab. 1 [3]. The machine was covered with a 10 mm lead to shield scattered radiation; a 55 mm diameter hole in the exit of the x-ray allows collimating the beam. A shutter is positioned in the center of this hole; an opening and closure pneumatic command makes possible to control the time exposure without turning the machine off.

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cooper and tin absorbers with not less than 99. it was positioned after the first lead collimator and used to monitor the fluctuations in the radiation field. An unsealed cylindrical 6 cm3 Radcal Corporation model RC6 ionization chamber (Fig. A PTW-Freiburg ionization chamber model TN34014 with 155 mm useful diameter was connected to a Keithley electrometer model 6517A. absorbers were exactly positioned in the middle between the focal spot and the ionization chamber.00 mm Maximum tube voltage Maximum anode dissipation Tube current at maximum tube voltage Focal spot size Emergent beam angle Target material Inherent filtration Weight (tube only) 40º tungsten 7 mmBe 35 kg 2. 2) with small energy dependence was connected to a Keithley electrometer model 6517A for beam measurements. Aluminum. A conical lead collimator with 13 mm thickness and 36. Figure 1: Set-up for implementing the x-ray reference radiations. Large focal spot 320 kV 4200 W 13 mA 6.2 Irradiation geometry Geometry conditions and x-ray parameters were verified in order to establish the ISO narrow and wide spectrum reference radiations. The radiation field size was enough to cover uniformly the sensitive volume of the reference ionization chamber that was positioned 100 cm to the focal spot.5 mm entrance surface diameter and 42 mm exit surface diameter was placed after the xray tube.9% purity were used to reproduce the reference radiations and to measure the half-value layers (HVL).Table 1: Technical characteristics of the Agfa-Seifert x-ray machine.30 mm Small focal spot 320 kV 1680 W 5 mA 3. assure the stability of the system and make possible the measurements corrections. 2 . Figure 1 shows the positioning set-up that was used for implementing the x-ray qualities. Two additional plan collimators with 50 and 60 mm diameters were used to define the field size and to reduce the scattered radiation.

In all situations. the intersection of these lines was considered as the center of the radiation beam. The diameter of the field was estimated to be 100 mm for the used geometry.4 Radiation beam uniformity The uniformity is used for delimiting the beam area to be used for irradiation and calibration of dosemeters. perpendicular to the radiation beam. Figure 3 shows a Radcal ionization chamber RC6 in the centre of the radiation field.3 Radiation field size The radiation field size was visualized with an intensifying screen arranged behind the ionization chamber that was positioned at 1 m distance from the focal spot. respectively. 3 . The air kerma was verified at distances not larger than 5 mm along the horizontal and vertical lines. The beam uniformity was verified for all radiation qualities in terms of air kerma under the same geometry mentioned before. The Radcal ionization chamber RC6 was moved in the horizontal and vertical direction. Figure 3: Radiation field and the ionization chamber images in the intensifying screen 2.Figure 2: The Radcal Corporation model RC6 ionization chamber Center of Sensitive Volume Dimensions in milimeters Active Volume 2. results assured that 80 mm and 90 mm diameter radiation fields had uniformity inside ± 3% and ± 5%. Figures 4 to 9 show the beam uniformity of the N40 to N150 narrow reference radiations series.

4 .N150 100 80 80 Intensity (%) 60 Intensity (%) 60 40 40 20 20 Vertical Horizontal 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 Vertical Horizontal 0 20 40 60 80 Distance (mm) Distance (mm) The tube potential and the inherent filtration at 60 kV were previously measured [4].Figure 4: Beam uniformity of N40 beam quality Beam Uniformity .N80 100 Figure 7: Beam uniformity of N100 beam quality Beam Uniformity .N100 100 80 80 Intensity (%) 60 Intensity (%) 60 40 40 20 20 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 Vertical Horizontal 0 Vertical Horizontal 40 60 80 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 0 20 Distance (mm) Distance (mm) Figure 8: Beam uniformity of N120 beam quality Figure 9: Beam uniformity of N150 beam quality Beam Uniformity .N40 100 Figure 5: Beam uniformity of N60 beam quality Beam Uniformity .N120 100 Beam Uniformity . the scattered radiation conditions were verified to all reference radiations and they showed to comply with the ISO requirements.N60 100 80 80 Intensity (%) 60 Intensity (%) Vertical Horizontal 60 40 40 20 20 Vertical Horizontal 0 40 60 80 0 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Distance (mm) Distance (mm) Figure 6: Beam uniformity of N80 beam quality Beam Uniformity .

6 0.42568 1.07103 = 0.63423 0.50503 0.02 0.08148 91.26463 = 0.0939 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 0.04 0. For all others series the cooper was used to establish the atenuation curve.6 1.60078 0.10 0.99962 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 = 0.0 The verification of the x-ray spectra was made by experimental measurements of the 1st and 2nd HVLs in the atenuation curve in term of aluminum only for the 30 kV beam quality.00 -1.5 Implementation of the reference radiation Figure 10: Attenuation curve –N30 beam quality Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + y0 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 = 0.0 0.18668 = 0.89749 98.2 0.00 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.40 0.0 1.05 0.25 0.28453 = 0.10 0.20 0.2 2.2 1.4 0.4 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 0.0 2. Figures 10 to 18 show the atenuation cuve for all series.0 1.597 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 1.5 1.06 0.2 0.0 1.08 0.16 0.12 0.33031 = 0.97367 24.55 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 0.8 2.54982 0.4 1.18 0.0 0.152 2nd HVL = 1.62794 49.13783 77.0 2.2761 49.36619 0.8 1.5 2.177 mmAl 2nd HVL = 1.99992 8.46193 0.2 0. Thickness (mmAl) 1st HVL = 1.44769 1.99961 Intensity (%) Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.31319 94.57494 Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.14 0.35 0. the 1st and 2nd HVLs agreed within ± 5%.2707 Figure 13: Attenuation curve – N80 beam quality Figure 14: Attenuation curve –N100 beam quality Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 = 0.10348 Intensity (%) Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.42568 1.2289 2nd HVL = 0.45 0.0 0.6 -4.8 1.628 0.2.99976 5. It was posible to compare the beams implanted in CDTN and the reference beams specified by the ISO standard [1].4 0.5 3.9835 6.30 0.15 0.20 0. In all cases.99966 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 = 0.50 0.Table 2 presents the comparison of parameters of the reference radiations.576 2nd HVL = 0.0808 2nd HVL = 0.171 5 .292 mmAl Figure 11: Attenuation curve – N40 beam quality Figure 12: Attenuation curve – N60 beam quality Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + y0 Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 = 0.09556 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1.

for determining their response as a function of photon energy.22 4.58 0.0 0.31748 48.24 0.40 W250 4.45554 4.23 0.24735 3.45554 4.77 1.99996 Intensity (%) Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5.084 0.7019 4.60 N100 1.58276 44.13 3.58 0.15 1.04619 = 0.26 4.80 N150 2.02913 = 0.5 1.15881 47.9999 Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.5 2.094 N60 0.0 Intensity (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3.Figure 15: Attenuation curve–N120 beam quality Figure 16: Attenuation curve– N150 beam quality Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 Experimental Exponential 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF = 0.258 2nd HVL = 4.24735 3.0 1. they certify their applicability for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters.0930 3.36 2.71 1.62 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 1.31 3.5 3.57 W200 3.18863 R^2 = 0.99971 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 -5.43 2.08 3.11 1.762 2nd HVL = 1.07759 = 0.568 Figure 17:Attenuation curve–W200 beam quality Figure 18: Attenuation curve–W250 beam quality Experimental Exponential 100 90 80 70 100 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 = 0.26 0.0 3.36861 6.801 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 2.18 1. Conclusion The results confirmed the similarity between the radiation beam qualities implanted in CDTN and the specified by ISO 4037-1 standard.17 1. except for N30 in mmAl 3.56 (a) values in mmCu.555 Table 2: Parameters comparison of the reference radiations implemented in CDTN and established by ISO Reference Radiation 2nd HVL (a) 1st HVL (a) ISO 4037-1 CDTN ISO 4037-1 CDTN N30 1.17 N120 1.98855 1.99994 y = A1*exp(-x/t1) + A2*exp(-x/t2) + y0 Experimental Exponential 90 80 70 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 2.15 1.86088 60.081 0.27 N80 0.30 1.15881 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 3.091 0.31748 2. for carrying out 6 .399 Thickness (mmCu) 1st HVL = 4.125 2nd HVL = 3.47 2.23025 47.90544 45.60897 48.91417 51.87458 90 80 70 Chi^2/DoF R^2 y0 A1 t1 A2 t2 = 0.430 2nd HVL = 2.96567 Chi^2/DoF R^2 = 0.40 4.29 N40 0.76 1.

[4] OLIVEIRA. X and gamma reference radiations for calibrating and determining their response as a function of photon energy. Safety Standards. ET AL. International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for Safety of Radiation Sources. IAEA. Analysis of characteristic parameters of diagnostic x-ray beams for calibrating dosemeters [in Portuguese] Master Science degree dissertation. [3] AGFA NDTPANTAK SEIFERT GMBH & CO. REFERENCES [1] INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION (ISO). medical. (2003).. (2008). ISO 4037/Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production methods. C. KG. Vienna (1996). PAULO M. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG). ISO. Arensburg. Geneva (1996). Belo Horizonte. Operating Instructions Isovolt 160/225/320/450 HS. Safety Series 115. 7 . [2] NTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA). environmental or any other radiation protection purposes.performance tests of instruments used in dosimetry for industrial.

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