The Slavonic-Latin Symbiosis in Dalmatia during the Middle Ages Author(s): Viktor Novak Source: The Slavonic
and East European Review, Vol. 32, No. 78 (Dec., 1953), pp. 1-28 Published by: the Modern Humanities Research Association and University College London, School of Slavonic and East European Studies Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4204507 . Accessed: 09/05/2013 14:55
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Slavonic-Latin in the VIKTOR Dalmatia Middle NOVAK
of the main part of this paper, it is understanding to historical out several features of the periods pre? necessary point of the Slavs to the Balkans. First of all we must ceding the coming bear in mind that during its history of two thousand years Dalmatia one and the same territory. has not always represented Its name is connected with that of the Delmates, an Illyrian tribe which peopled the greater part of the present Yugoslav areas long before the Adriatic saw the Greek colonists or the islands later Roman invaders of the all the Illyrian who gathered into one Roman Balkans, territory It was under Roman administrative rule that unit, called Illyricum. Dalmatia was most extensive. It embraced not only the islands and in Albania but also a deep belt from Quarnero to Durazzo of the present Yugoslav of Croatia, consisting provinces Bosnia and Hercegovina, Serbia and Macedonia. Western Dalmatia was least extensive under Byzantine rule. From the beginning of the to the middle of the nth the Byzantines a 9th century governed Dalmatia of only a few maritime which consisted towns together with the neighbouring islands. The frontiers of the present Dalmatia are different from those under Venetian and afterwards recognised quite under Austrian rule. the coastal hinterland the beginning From of the 4th century B.C., Greek merchant to as colonists at same time the expansion the towards began appear of Dionysius the Adriatic of Syracuse. the Greeks founded Although * A paper read before the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London, on 6 May 1952.
This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Thu, 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
the general of the Illyrians first magnificent from his conquest obtained and historian. contrary. architectural and artistic remains of the many towns which ological.
Empire the last Roman more
it until the victory too. After ceeding Goths came to power in Dalmatia
Romulus emperor. they (Stobre6. Ages is no that There doubt the Roman in Dalmatia culture was alphabet. economy Faros (the Old Town on Hvar). etc. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. The of the
Odoacer.2 colonies such Melaine and towns (today
THE with Vis). Byzantine was far away in the centre of the Balkans. Dalmatia pared German a special represents to others in the Roman who overthrew type of Roman at the to when com? province time of its fall. in disRavenna.106 on Thu. the times long before the invasion This. 9.C. to develop either rebuilt or continued the Romans after the Greeks. During the various changes which shook Byzantium Dalmatia in the 6th century. The the the in Romans. (Korcula).C. took Augustulus.. near Split). inexactly course.
fully four years in this only in 480. Korkira
Epidaurus Tragurion (Cavtat). is rather the names shown in Dalmatian and clearly by place-names preserved latinity.d. hellenising in subduing over the Balkans succeeded the their warlike expansion which lasted for two cen? but only after a long struggle Illyrians. up to the to mention that Gaius significance year a.10. (in 3 B.
romanisation of Illyrian From that time on a gradual Dalmatia It developed and was very soon reflected followed. From that Dalmatia's time on. quite favourably cultural and economic which lasted in a rather exuberant prosperity. Dalmata.) a valuable booty which he used to build the public library in Rome. again.107. fate was that of an outlying whose residence province ruled by the prefect of Illyricum. was subject to the imperial exarch in The Avars and the Slavs swept in from the north. turies and a half. It is not without Asinius Pollio. (Trogir). the oldest part of Salona. significant popes (whose in culture and science. that it also a product of the Illyrico-Roman and a inherited symbiosis from the of the deal civilisation old Dalmatian of inhabitants good of Dalmatia. conquer the removal of Odoacer the East
This content downloaded from 129. Among these is one of the four great teachers Dalmatia the Yugoslav St Jere. To this day the visitor can note the numerous archae? for centuries.
a highly developed and culture. Epetion into the hinterland at all in penetrating or in did not succeed maritime on districts. Diocletian gave Rome several famous emperors. governing fleet in the Bay of Salona obtained by Justinian's (538). suc? Dalmatia. in Ulpiana (today Lipljan) on Kosovo plain. whom Church. Hieronymus a transformed into Slav the Croatians during the Middle completely of the creator of the Glagolitic and made. for a long period. including his shows name and names Illyrian origin). from the middle of the 3rd century B.
Istorija Vizantije.10. ques? tions such as the part of the Slavs in the Avar invasions. Constantine called them 'Romanoi' in the 10th Porphyrogenitus and the Archdeacon Thomas of called them chronicler. SiSic. Enchiridion historiae fontium Croaticae. first of the Romans to inform us about these Slavs was Pope about the Slavs are not at Gregory the Great himself. conturbor quia per Histriae aditum iam ad Italiam intrare coeperunt. 1914. Ostrogorski. over the Slavs. In the end the crisis of the 6th and the beginning overcome after Emperor Heraclius's was happily victories over the shall Avars (628) and the Persians We also leave aside (638). It is certain that Dalmatia was heavily migration it these that was devastated that the and movements. . or Latins.3 And as the Pope Kalinik.4 And indeed. century Split. their gradual from their recent masters or allies. p. and the Serbo-Croatian into Dalmatia. Only such as Zadar and It is that after certain. . In 592 he congratulated the prefect of IllyriJovinus. 'Agrarian Conditions in the Byzantine Empire in the Zasopis.' Cf.107. Middle Ages. Ionian and Aegean Seas. Archbishop to such and exposed sufferings. Zagrabiae.1 Therefore we are above all interested between in the early relations the Slavs and the Romans. The as he informed troubled. . 1942. . F. Trogir. preserved. south?the historical We shall leave aside the important period of real crisis of the Byzantine which shook the very foundations Empire at the end of the 7th century. 172. quae vobis valde inminet. srednjem 4 'Et quidem de Sclavorum gente. His statements all flattering. devastating reconstructive by Heraclius's masterly porated plans as a construc? liberation tive element in the Empire. in the defeat of the Slavs in 599.2 Gregory also rejoiced in the news of the victories won by the exarch of Ravenna. too. of Italy from Istria. 1 See G. Sisic. to cross the frontiers already begun
because the Slavs had troubled.60 sq. Belgrade.I. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. from the barbarian cum. PP. et affligor vehementer et conturbor. p.I. 12-21. 1947.
This content downloaded from 129. obviously meaning by 'barbarians' the Slavs. Roman the aboriginal and Greek elements which at first weakened towards the (in the east) and later drove them further and further coasts of the Adriatic. 'Latini5 in the 13th. Roman the Croats and Serbs were incor? Dalmatia. Affligor in his quae iam in vobis patior. 167. pp. across the Danube organised. because of the Dalmatians the Salonitan who were Maximus?sad. infiltrated the country with new ethnical and gradually elements. Istoriski I. 2 F. Ljubljana. Gradivo za zgodovino veku.Belgrade. 173.106 on Thu. 3 'Quod mihi de Sclavis victorias nuntiasti magna me laetitia relevatum esse cognoscite v Slovencev . Kos. F. rejoiced The Pope was very sad and 600.' Cf. 194-223. Enchiridion.THE
and later in organised frontier bands. by damaged of its were towns a few were completely majority destroyed. Slovena na drustveni 'Uticaj preobrazaj Vizantije'. the ethnic frontier between the Slavs and the Romans. 1902. pp.' Cambridge Economic History. on having been able to recover Dalmatia not only the Avars but attacks. p. 1948. grieved to hear about their victories. he was in the next year.
grew they of Salona found shelter within the into large towns. who otherwise was not favour? writings of Thomas century a and was the Croatians towards inclined rugged representative ably of the old Latins. 1894. the principal It is not the former says that it was half the size of Constantinople. for instance. relationships and on urban families accept more and more Slav elements. the fall of Salona. The inhabitants and those of Epidaurus founded walls of the old palace of Diocletian. of Split started time on the people trade agreements and ultimately the Croatians. XXVI). Ed. and new Roman who lived settlements of Split. (Dubrovnik). placenames.106 on Thu. vol.
This content downloaded from 129. before. and town of Dalmatia. Roman 5 Thomas archidiaconus Spalatensis. F. Their civilisation by the of the Dalmatian Romans. Thomas and Archdeacon Constantine describe Porphyrogenitus in great detail.5 with gradual development intermarrying led to ethnic changes and social conditions in the such economic after the Roman haifa century which had been exclusively towns themselves. Slav neighbours. Racki (Monumenta pectantia historiam Slavorum Meridionalium. rescript Slavs was that Latins and the established. between for better relations to the necessities of life. original inhabitants Like Salona. the new family made the On the one hand. somewhat became Returning which to found new later able were settlements. hostile in detail the naturally to explain of the difficult feelings A fair number against the invaders of Dalmatia. tradition. Such intervention. of their other towns and settlements where they remained inhabitants fled to the neighbouring islands.10. were factors which paved the way and social elements Economic Thanks to the need of the neighbours. Slavs and the Latins. to the more settled. mainland. From the between peace a lively traffic with the Slavs. an imperial action of the inhabitants a to as both result was addressed of which Heraclius of sides. Ragusium of the Byzantine intervention more after the successful emperor between the Latins and their and settled relations developed peaceful until conditions under the walls of the old immediately on the Adriatic coast. 614. fall of Salona soon after the in take place. making especially the Doubtless of them. the descendants relations are reflected in the 13th almost friendly. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. It could not conditions. of traces of this remained in Roman many The majority were destroyed.4 which
and a half centuries was drawn thirteen ago. was to remain as is shown by the thousand-year-old Slavonic unchanged.107. All it seems that these things considered. was possible only under favourable however. towns a modus vivendi with regard finding culture in the and in material well-advanced developed spiritual was created both course of the Middle Ages. Historia Salonitana. These changed. p. 33. Zagrabiae. He tells us that descendants of the few surviving of Split themselves.
were in the minority the invaders and
much more numerous. entirely by then there existed no resistant force. neither a new language the Slavonic-Latin symbiosis. physical for instance. and and ences between the old inhabitants
the old inhabitants
This content downloaded from 129. Ibidem. Already migrations. had its effect on the process of of the former urban population. just as in the earlier Split Diocletian's Jupiter had had by the end of the 8th century to cede his temple to the Christian worship. In this way the Slavs from to all kinds of craftsmanship. of the inhabitants of and and for invaders Gaul. it was the of the settlement. had to withdraw before the might of Christ. in Illyricum. This
gradually changed Split and other places on these changes were hastened the coast. The was on the Perun. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 32. The natives had not the capacity.107. line Here different Whereas other of development in Western Europe in Illyricum and also in Dalmatia a quite in linguistic was followed symbiosis.6 As conditions became more settled. And when the refugees from Salona came back to the mainland and settled in of Diocletian's there were few of them. above Split.10. a Frankish-Roman action and Slavonic who of the Roman curia and of the Frankish ruler Charles began?that the Great. Spain assimilating creating new languages Slavonic either and new nations. Accord? way about from the very beginning nor a new nation could spring out of ingly. who included Dalmatia in his plans for expansion. Meanwhile. who considered the fall of Salona and its inhabitants as God's punishment for their heathen and immoral lives. These were in most cases realised. The change in the ethnic structure of the Slavs into the towns.
was to influence that character. or could stand up against the invaders. among by the Slavs who lived on the outskirts. During the nonia. historical which were known to Thomas of Split. Extant records. which moral. religious the Slavs vanished. supreme divinity worshipped top of Mosor hill.106 on Thu. very of Split confirms. in the regions between Dalmatian Croatia 9th century the greater part of the so-called of the Croatia of the Sava basin was dominated by the Franks. Very soon the slavicised hinterland.THE the other be satisfied numerous too were element result ethnic
the increasing economic demand for labour could not but the had to be supplied citizens. in Dalmatia as well as in a part of Pan? the rivers Sava and Drava. the biological and social towns with was the case And the Slavonic with the their process. as Thomas part palace. by another fact. with its great numbers and vitality. in which the original element penetration was growing scarce and disappearing as the Slavonic element was became still more intensive when differ? growing stronger.p. that the already diluted native organism was allow us to conclude of the time exhausted the Avar almost and Gothic.
only the smaller part.107.. Akademie 8 V. Najstariji dalmatinski rukopis. Classe. Prilog Vjesniku za . Christianity the majority from Latin missionaries at the end of of the inhabitants were far from having This Gospel was sung in Greek even in the church
the 8th century. this time in Split.10. 1923. 1923. are mentioned identical who is doubtless of In the Evangeliarium Spalatense there are also a number together. Split. i historiju za arheologiju dalmatinsku.arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku.Evangeliarium Spalatense. which thus became heir to in Dalmatia.
7 C. Die Romanen des Mittelalters.Denkschriften in den StadtenDalmatienswahrend der Wiss. prince atrium of the in Zagreb. besides ecclesiastical the old Salonitan organisation. especially had already made some progress in the organisa? those in Dalmatia. led by pupils of St Cyril and St Methodius. which was to come under Byzan? Greek influence in tine rule. clan-tribal system for a type of West European also played its part in all this. derK. especially symbiotic of Split as his Latin oaths of loyalty to the archbishop bishops?their of St shows most how weak The John strikingly Gospel suffragans. By the end of the 8th century then the Balkan Slavs. XLVIII. the in It stands today Yugoslav Academy is the wonderful semiuncial The other memorial MS. in Wien. The first Latin con? and extant archaeological with the action of Archbishop of the Slavs coincided John of in of restored the the name Rome old Salonitan who Ravenna. Split to write Latin After Greek characters. with John of Ravenna. Vjesnik 9 V. There were two streams of Christianity christianisation: the first. the towns and islands. belong one palaeographic and the other epigraphic. Jirecek. was in this town. Vienna. p.106 on Thu. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. documents version of the Latin-Slavonic character bear witness to the peculiar is an on the font of memorial The inscription epigraphic symbiosis. pp. Split. at of of the end the 8th century. vol. Viseslav Croatian the Nin.-hist. hierarchy To that time. in the 7th by abandoning tion of the regions they had invaded their state organisation.7 century by history very From that time there are both written clearer and more definite. Phil. The text is Greek.I. Both written memorials.9 at Christmas. Novak. later in the records certain of Croatian elements. Evangeliarium of them in Split. were under Byzantine rule. are poor in historical material and are centuries The two previous 8th But the end of the becomes obscure. 1901. came from Rome at the end of the 8th century. Titanje pripadnosti splitske nadbiskupije u vrijeme njezine organizacijV. remains. 32. but it is transcribed phonetically did not know for a Latin in 8th-century how Latin characters.8 of early Christian two remains numerous church-building. and probably via Ravenna Aquileia a hundred and the second was Slavonic and appeared years later. written in the first large scriptorium and the Latin presbyter Viseslav from Nin the Croatian Johannes. 89-127.
This content downloaded from 129. On the font Spalatense. the weaker and smaller. Novak.
Chrabr.107. the Slavs had used special signs of their own 'crte i reze' (similar to Ogam writing). the higher ranks tribal chiefs and grandees. But there were to express themselves attempt all the sounds which this language of them to represent not enough It is certain that a fair number of Croatian contained. public princes. mostly. but in inventing a new all in which Slavonic sounds could be written. Nin. than a century among the Croatians. *>. such as Klis. s. especially princes and to the Latin showed great devotion of indications benefactions Many
hand. where it had its ancient tradition. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. course. legal documents?exactly not only in Split. life of the towns but at the courts of the Croatian
This content downloaded from 129. of Ochrida the neighbourhood of Metho? (Ohrid) knew the followers an enthusiastic dius and was himself In his cglagoliast'. or to carry a knowledge out the duties of Benedictine of monks. Perhaps reading words in Latin letters. Trogir. Thomas by established the foundations Croatian by princes as early as the 9th is also number of Benedictine It shown the considerable by century.THE been
SYMBIOSIS the other other church
converted. Doubtless. in ecclesiastical and literature.for which there are no signs in particularly 10Thomas archidiaconus Spalatensis. Latin was used in the church. this first alphabet. the Croatian Knin. Bijaci and later princes. HistoriaSalonitana. We have two certain proofs that this was so. Sibenik. 35. Z. He mentions alphabet the sounds dz. and later in those of the kings (from 925) and they tell the church and the state us that very close relations existed between This is acknowledged of Split and shown by authorities.10 monasteries. to put their Slavonic they felt all from a lack of for the difficulties sounds unknown to resulting signs Greek and Latin. study 'On out that before they became Chrabr pointed Letters'. acquainted with the Greek and Latin alphabet. Ragusium but in the new seats of other towns. which involved it was and these educated men who tried writing.
in the charters of are preserved these princes.106 on Thu. in fact Slavonic of had not the character an which runes. and Zadar. religious The Latin language dominant not only in the became direction. pointed by Cyril and not in adopting the Greek letters. c. the monk Chrabr from the end of the same century.10. Methodius. One of the 10th century. the Croatians in their own language. priests learned Latin in order to be able to read the service and to preach. But. p. not founded in the towns but outside them. public and private This was the case and it already had a tradition of more in law and administration. in all rest as in the of Europe. There is no doubt that before learning to read and write Latin and had used Greek and Latin characters in an Greek. only of in a Cultural life displays a fine flowering. and its head in Dalmatia. on completely of converts. Slavonic out the difficulties met philologist. and the second from dates from the beginning In the first case.
pp. Valun church.I. Belgrade. 1381. Praha. elements from in Belgrade. which show the most various Indeed sound.107. pl. pp.
Chrabr In fact. Vajs. pp. 11 Rukovet 6-12. day Albania. 15 St Novakovic. of the National inscription Greek and Museum has which in three languages. One charac? succeeding teristic inscription is to be found on the fibula of Prince Peter of of the famous Prince Miroslav of the end of the Hum. of the letters in Ljubljana by Fran Ramovs and Milko Kos. hlaholskipaleogrqfie. text. western all Slavs who had a problem which was to puzzle indicated the Latin alphabet (e. Fucic. the oldest (late the so-called in Croatia. which has recently been discussed by Yugoslav slavists. the knj. to represent one Slavonic many other nonthe same Romance experience languages using the Latin alphabet of letters to combinations resort to and have to symbolise difficulty of the early Slavonic The authoritative edition one phoneme.11 its phonetic advantages Slavs had begun to use the Latin alphabet very early is proved by the well-known (Brizinski Spomeniki) of the end Freising Fragments combinations of 10th century. 12 F.12 Latin and Slavonic. They exist in all the of the Middle almost centuries Ages. of bilingualism.Belgrade. 1937. 9. Ljetopis 'Izvestaj putu po Jugoslavenske akademije. medjubalkanskim 1893. this bilingual dates from the early An inscription of the names the mentions ctitors almost identical which of the text.106 on Thu. Chrabr The fact that the over all other alphabets.10. 31-76 (with 14 Lj.15 It is an echo an area where the three streams of culture met as early as the of the nth century. Kovacevic. Zagreb. Brizinskispomeniki. is incised on a stone slab in Glagolitic letters and in Latin semiuncials. Ramovs-M. is that my opinion 11th-century) Glagolitic inscription edited 10th century. Kos. Starinar. 1884. the Czechs up to Hus at the begin? adopted Gaj in the up to Ljudevit ning of the 15th century and the Croatians of Glagolitic is at the first the same time and apologist 19th). Prvi osnovi slovenskeknjizevnosti Slovenima. 110-18. Whereas some of them think that it is only a little older than Baska Tablet (Bascanska ploca) from Krk. gives the earliest on the same page. inscription made). 54. pp. o otocima Cresu i Losinju'. Petra'.225-8. the brother is 12th century. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.14 been preserved
This content downloaded from 129. as early as the loth century. 'Zapon humskog kneza facsimile). St Vladimir and Kosara.13 These are not the irregular of Latin-Slavonic only examples graphic parallelism.8 either Greek
THE or Latin. refers to two personalities. in the history and legends well-known which constitute the oldest in the Slavonic literature of the Balkans. examples is an old inscription such bilingual document from Valun Another on the island of Cres. J.g. 1932. Ljubljana. 1949. and where they remained until the beginning this in was Streams 14th century (when. to the south of Lake Prespa in presentSlavonic. This bilingual in and Latin Cyrillic inscription on exceptionally characters finely engraved gold and it is one of the badly formed and treasures One Latin. 13B.
inscription It is a Roman-Cyrillic of the 14th century. ex? now by either foreign or Yugoslav to the Dalmatian zone and its immediate confined cultural clusively is Latin-Slavonic which is not to be found hinterland. First. by By the end of the 9th century the Slavs in Dalmatia used undoubtedly at first of the round type and afterwards the Glagolitic of a alphabet. 136. in Dal? unique pointed type. the same course as in Italy Ages. 45-50. p. in the Croatian marked district of Poljice particularly (south of But here we must of different say that so great a number Split).THE flowing from
directions are shown in a recently discovered opposite at Boka in a Orthodox small church of the end Kotorska. we may say that it followed All kinds of majuscules and cursives are represented in well The same process authenticated can also be traced in examples. appeared I Thus have to been able establish that the appearance of symbiosis. First came the Beneventana and which existed simultaneously for fully five the Caroline in Dalmatia centuries to the Gothic script. relating to the of the little church of St Basil (Vasilije) in Stoliv and is foundation and hagiographic made more interesting by the iconographic sym? biosis Eastern in fresco paintings displayed and Western churches. 66. inscription. 1953. of the cultural renaissance documents period at the end of the 8th Middle
used for writing in the and. Cf. which gradually developed After the Glagolitic the soon and alphabet. polygraphy. Croatian is connected with the Latin pointed Glagolitic as slavists have begun to admit.CHI. later. so that again a special type developed. Rukovithlaholske"paleografie. published in Spomenik Srpskeakademije 17 V. the pointed. and Latin symbiosis which of saints belonging to both the
in a striking way symbolise the Slavonic centuries. matia. to proving that even the shape of the Cyrillic letters in the 'Miroslav 16 It is to be nauka. during three successive point which has not been noticed to another peculiar phenomenon up to scholars. Latin minuscule the mediaeval hand.16 bilingual examples.10. as regards the development of anywhere from the Roman epoch to the end of the the Latin script in Dalmatia itself. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.106 on Thu. capitals and for the titles of works in various manuscripts. pp. on every kind of material century in to Middle addition the used for inscriptions Thus.17 and I am on the way Beneventana. of a calligraphic within a such because of the narrow space only character. Zagreb. See also the chapter 'Slavizmi u dalmatinskoj beneventani'. Novak. which in its giving place subsequently littera turn was superseded the humanistica in the 15th century. in the West of Europe. beneventana s osobitimobziromna tip dalmatinske Scriptura beneventane. the later Roman were used in Dalmatia cursive script and the semiuncial by the end and these were two sources of the development of of the 8th century. This phenomenon. Vajs. new and
This content downloaded from 129. 1920. and Slavonic and cursive types of Latin script. Cyrillic appeared was also used in Dalmatia.107. J. pp. 62. Ages.
'Sibenska molitva XIV vijeka pisana latinicom'.106 on Thu. 1934. 1889. a con? were used by large numbers Dalmatian Croats later adopted of educated number the culture been
in spite of all the above-mentioned Latin unavoidable alphabet. graphers scriptoria matia Numerous 18 I. the calligraphic and the cursive. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. One can see in them by Slavonic produced of all the artistic tendencies the powerful influence then dominant in Italy. that the Dalmatian the calli? of the best Italian and illuminators' studios. reflect the codices. 1911. which was forcing itself upon the opposing of the compromise and Latin exclusive and which were in elements. no doubt that this diversity of scripts was also the result of the creative genius of the Slavs. 1891 (with facsimiles). it is true that the earliest Slavonic texts religious in the Caroline ones preserved then began are only of the 14th century. Zagreb. Starine. Milcetic-J. pp. The difficulties. Missale glagoliticumHervoiae duds Spalatensis Vindobonae.18 humanistic. Vatikanski i Dubrovacki molitvenik psaltir.10. Fancev. conscious There is influences. the Beneventana script in Dalmatia. I. Starine. of which we shall speak more at the Artistic production and alternation of end of this paper. secular. manuscripts scribes and illuminators. The Church was one of the most influential factors. Slavonic illuminated
This content downloaded from 129. prove libraries.IO
in a scriptorium which was under the influence of Gospel' originated art Cassino of and the Monte illumination. Maretic. 19 T. Thalloczy F. Djela Jugoslavenske akademije. though essence national opposites. as to remain the most vital in modern The humanistic was script times as well. hrvatski XXXIII. Milosevic. 1911. be written in the Latin Gothic scripts and finally in the to
and the character. 20V. in the early Slavonic texts was in fact use of Latin characters religious of the Slavonic-Latin a but clear echo not only a reflection symbiosis. These artistic tendencies had their representatives in Dal? same close as well as in the rest of Europe. Milcetic. Yugoslav artist kept in step with his colleagues.XXXIII.107. 33-5. XXXI. Zagreb. pp. direct and indirect. Dalmatian which are to be found in ecclesiastical and and also abroad. Zagreb. a contribution which up to the present at all. IX. Although the Glagolitic admitted and Cyrillic of Serbs and Croats. Glagolitic mutually There are many examples of this. 572-92 (with two facsimiles). who knew how to take their share in the general It is at the same time characof writing. Wickhoff. process of the development Slavs to the development of the Southern of istic of the contribution European has hardly alphabets siderable in general. F. Zagreb. all of them of two types. Cyrillic it can But also be noticed in Latin symbiosis. Istorija slovima. With the Slavs it underwent various transformations and by resort to diacritic the former combination of signs replaced letters for one and the same spoken sound. 'Hrvatska glagolska bibliografija'.20 Latin codices. is also the fruit of the symbiosis and unconscious.Djela Jugoslavenske hrvatskoga pravopisa latinskijem akademije. Jagic L.19 and Glagolitic.
many Dalmatian the direct participation of Benedictines entertained Benedictines bronze brothers from Italy. Lowe.23 It should be mentioned great Abbot Desiderius that Kotor was here that in this respect it is of no small importance to the Archbishopric subordinate of Bar. Novak.
This content downloaded from 129. Julije adopt under the name of Giulio Clovio as an Italian artist. 2. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. at the foot of the picture. which had been on intimate terms with the Dalmatians since the earliest times. two transporters chief centre and mediators. pp.107. p.22 cultural Mutual the eastern and the western between exchanges were as lively as the exchange of material sides of the Adriatic goods. p. in? are the pride of many galleries and libraries some in cluding England. the all over the world. 4-13. Reproductions Sacra Pictoria. the Dalmatian the who worked Matthias for
monasteries. no. Oxford. 161. London. Scriptura Beneventana. garian of Klovic of art to whom were Italian historians Grizani. 1950. of their order. 1948. 1922. Jirecek.THE
When in the Cinquecento this art began to be superseded by printing names appeared and was on the verge of disappearing. 9th Italy transplanted the particularly Benedictines were such industrious 13th century The sea united them. two Slavonic as those of first-rate artists. O. being Monte connected with the very actively is no doubt that There Cassino. 258. pp. and whose works Dubrovnik. 35. no.10. example. 23 E. The pp. Die Romanen. Patrono suo. On often visited
On the their headquarters. The Beneventan Script. Fiskovic.106 on Thu.Series IV. J. writing. from IlluminatedManuscripts. 'Dubrovacki sitnoslikari'. 22British Museum. (Reprinted from Hrvatskokolo. 17-18. Prilozi povijestiumjetnosti u Dubrovniku. beginning 21C. IstorijaSrba.24 While we are dealing with written matter we should not neglect a considerable of documents the economic number which elucidate their hinter? relations between the and Dalmatian towns obtaining land. Julius Crovata pingebat'. I. not only to our symbiosis. V. with the oldest of which were founded from the other Monte hand often Cassino. I. Split. is inscribed: Marino Grimano cardinali et legato Perusino. Palaeographia Soanen Clovio MS. 24 C. also to the penetration of Slavdom into the Roman Dalmatian towns. 47. These are the illuminator of Felicijan of the Hun? humanistic library the even more famous and Corvinus. They point.Zagreb. A. 1928. 1843-5. 60-3. much more than it sides of the Adriatic the numerous ecclesiastical Middle During separated Ages in and civil personages from Dalmatia their knowledge acquired the the it to From to and their motherland. Belgrade. 1948.21 King. Westwood. 1914. certainly Cassino an inscription bears witness to such gates of Monte relations between and Monte Cassino in the time of the Dubrovnik in the 1 ith century. These also show to some at the same extent traces of the dual influence in but time. The transformation of the old Roman into the LatinRagusium Slavonic is a very and ultimately into the purely Slavonic Dubrovnik instructive And is it at the of Dubrovnik indeed.) Idem. London. JVasi primorski umjetnici odg do ig stoljeca. p.: 'On a small slab.
as an harmonious rician town. of archives of documents preserved has truly said. the government of Dubrovnik not only received Serbian writs but gave its answers in Serbian. fn. which.e. 3. 9. by the foreign the need for using the Slavonic and script was language Republic. So the symbiosis is most becoming gradually in the very offices in which Serb and Latin worked together evident the Serbs soon came to know Latin for the Republic. BogiSic . I.
SLAVONIC best illustrates
REVIEW the Slavonic-Latin symbiosis but the pat? outside the
which republic the immediate and linked in a strong and vital relationship in their distant regions of the hinterland. character of a legal and diplomatic written at first entirely documents of the contracting in Latin. clearly phenomena. At the beginning of the 13th cen? tury. Resetar thinks that by the end of the 12th century there was need of a Slavonic chancellery. p. but with as the town itself. 1937.10. 1. then notaries in the service of the introduced Italian. turn. more and more urgent. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. only in 25 For literature on the State Archives and Office in Dubrovnik. 328. be and cultural gained from the rich store may importance political in the famous of Dubrovnik. of economic. Izvorii istoriografija. M.
This content downloaded from 129. at any rate since 1238. quod debeant civitatisRagusii registrari in uno quaterno. Cancellarius linguae slavae was and exclusively and characters. activities of the chan? so extensive became that an independent Serbian to attend to all necessary business in Serbian legal in the Cyrillic alphabet. 1935. p. Jirecek. that they are as old which the slavist Milan Resetar. Monumenta historico-juridica Slavorum Meridionalium. slav of Hum. Undoubtedly then The many-sided as well as their own language. 52. cap tum fuit et firmatum quod omnes litterae sclavicae mittendae a communi Ragusii. considerable territories possessed
not only with the Dalmatian the hinterland coast to which its considerable fleet of the whole Mediterranean. the Bosnian ban Kulin Tsar (1189) and the Serbian same discloses the but of course Dusan. legal. 1904. Archivfurslavische Philologie. p.106 on Thu. Glas Srpske akademije nauka. Liberstatutorum compositusanno 1272. p.C.107. 351. quae videbuntur domino Rectori et parvo consilio registrandae. the Government.12 the 15th century. Belgrade. fn. . (Cf. CXXI. 49.XXVI.XVI. Dubrovnik Thus Dub? towards commercially connected
not only the town Dubrovnik. . gravi? and politically. Zagrabiae. naroda veku. Mediterranean
was the intermediary Dubrovnik between the and Bosnian states throughout the and the Serbian is This wider shown numerous Middle symbiosis clearly by Ages.' Cf. 1894. Studijeo srpskojdiplomatici. language in Serbian. u srednjem Posebna izdanja Srpske akademije Istorijasrpskog nauka. V.25 A mere glance at of development going the written contracts between Dubrovnik aspect of the commercial his brother Prince Miroand Serbian rulers such as Stevan Nemanja. merchant sidelights Many ships had access. see St Stanojevid. in the Republican Chan? at first dominated. i.) By the end of January 1364 the Consilium Minus. at last entirely Although of Dubrovnik mediaeval Latin cellery
cellery gradually office was formed
a reality of the 14th century which had its roots in previous phases a back full three centuries. then in Latin with the signatures parties in the Serbian and in the two languages. concluded as follows: '. more tated rovnik
THE which whole. 17. 169.
All this created a per? hostile the sup? which. 1929 (with fac? similes T. atmosphere especially through of Venice. in. even among homogeneous Split and Trogir.10. however.107. and Through not infrequently of conflict into the Slavonic-Latin And by symbiosis. attempts the Croats also defended the Dalmatian towns. Srpska Kraljevska akademija. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. who services. there were conflicts and hostilities. represented part of the population In the towns which Venice succeeded in annexing for a certain time.THE territories
such Slavonic-Latin was possible and symbiosis necessities made it indispensable. 1926. 6. Venetian in Adriatic the and threatened navigation commercial not only in the Adriatic but in the ascendancy The great rival of Venice was Dubrovnik. Very often the Slavs either damaged or destroyed Venetian fleets. The clergy. Stojanovic. Zbornik za istoriju i knjizevnost srpskog naroda. and even the during victories were won with heavy losses. a party of her own. Belgrade. this symbiosis in idyllic peace and harmony. Staresrpske poveljei pisma. who had defended their
most vigorously ever since the 9th century. who used the Glagolitic and advocated the use of the Slavonic in the language at war with the Latins. the more
ticularly alphabet religious 26 Lj. and political relations became more and more strained. was extended to the Slavonic-Latin symbiosis. Odabrani spomenici srpskogprava od XII do kraja XV veka. There were conflicts in which where vital as that between towns in Dalmatia. her officials. invasions relations which ever since the 9th century had aspired to by Venice. because antagonisms they involved interests active through the centuries. so as to have a base against the Croatians. The periodical of the Dalmatian towns had their repercussions on their with the Croats of the interior. in which they had a considerable from early times. who Dalmatia. Solovjev. and even permanent and of varying duration. In defending resisting themselves.I-III). A. her military in Dalmatia Venice left deeply rooted campaigns which could not be erased even by time. it may seem to some that after the when Latins and Slavs settled down to peaceful 7th or 8th century. periodical point of fact. which are described detail by Thomas in considerable of More serious conflicts arose particularly Split in the 13th century. p. V. the periods towns were the victims of bi which Dalmatian during invasion conquer hindered Venetian Levant.
This content downloaded from 129. which partly through or less autonomous Dalmatian communities was always both the urban towards and the rural Slavs. I.106 on Thu. more than one doge lost his Venetian manently porters Social these campaigns in Dalmatia. were almost constantly life she created.26 In view of what has been said. knjiga XIX. Belgrade. positions courageously all Venetian at conquest. I odeljenje. continued In relations. inimically disposed her supporters Venice introduced elements of discord. par? in the religious sphere.
tion of Venice. Thomas Spalatensis in his Historia Salonitana (p. . 84: 'Li rois de Ungrie si nos tost Jadres en Esclavonie. The Pope deed to Pope Innocent them 'because he knew very well that it was did not excommunicate to serve God not possible which turn of Dubrovnik.
27 de Constantinople. but without the invaders hoping a Christian en of barbarous destruction Esclavonie'. Skok in Geoffrey de Villehardouin. on Venice before yielding of Palestine. Whenever republican the towns would throw off the
permitted. in this by They were supported in Rome. Zadar resisted the domina? in all possible ways to overcome Venice attempted it. relinquished claim on Dalmatia to Venice during the struggle against King Sigis? From that time on Venice other towns mund. The people of Zadar part of its inhabitants cross and set it up on the town walls. considers this act as God's punishment. Such vicissitudes hated Venetian again. possible. against glagolism romanisation. More than any other Dalmatian town. while retaining favourable circumstance without remained the army'. It was a would spare them. and parts of Dalmatian there territory that time took care to as far she as the natural stay. Zagreb.27 Presently it was the under Venetian rule from 1205 order. During process by which the chief Ever since the Slavonic. yoke. Villehardouin. town?'Jadres of one of the participants in this as it was called in the chronicle marshal Geoffroi de and who the chronicler Crusade. on the other side of the Latins as representing of the Croats defence was the strongest hand. gradually acquired and ruled until her fall in 1797.10. La conquete Tri starofrancuske hronikea ?adru u godini 1202.107. The Crusaders soon justified their shameful described faithfully II and went on to seize Byzantium. who were in a great majority in the neighbouring Bosnia and had begun to influence the patricians of Zadar.106 on Thu. because the people of Zadar had given shelter to the Bogumils.14 considered the
their aspirations heretical. who clearly says that Zadar is Slavonic.qui est unes des plus forz citez del munde. authorities There could be no compromise highest the Latin and the Glagolitic and this age-old between con? parties. out their ancient brought avail. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. p. to the Hungarian-Croatian his was a pretender throne. From 1115 to 1202 the people of Zadar fought eleven battles against These were Crusaders to her mercenaries. See the edition of P. 1951. there had been in the coastal 12th towns century although were the becoming increasingly Latin-Roman element it was favoured by the
minority. flict often made Slavonic-Latin with? very goes conflict Venice was on the out saying that in this religious-national the pure Italian idea. 83). . Neapolitan up King Ladislav.
This content downloaded from 129. it. only to be subdued to when the who are recorded 1409. speaking about the occupation of Zadar. It relations difficult.' These are the words of the Doge Enrico Dandolo. to 1358. to their fourth invasion Zadar fell way via Venice these Crusaders and the Venetian between a victim to the bargain and was destroyed and plundered and a large Doge Enrico Dandolo their was put to the sword.
Zagreb. 28 C. pp. M. was authorities. which. IV. Dolazak Slovenana Mediteran. Smiciklas. . 1950. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. became 'paccati Slavonic women were the first blood began to dilute Latin blood. of centuries. Among these names we find F. 1944.
whereas in private life bilingual of communication. jezika na natpisimarimskeprovincije Split. appears in these Dal? new phenomenon. but the glory of the war belonged 'The Vendetta'. power. and later in the course the Venetian first in the family bilingualism. associated with it. The dialect remained.28 of exploitation. these facts. Racki. Radonic.e. Zagreb. part in bringing up the children playing would teach them her language and had borne her Latin husband. aggression. Razprave. to bring their language The the dominant she mother. rooted in the towns that even the rude hand of Venice so deeply herself with the had to content could not uproot it. CremoSnik.in which names of scholars of Dalmatian origin are mentioned. Novak. P. control of the sea. Pojave vulgarno-latinskoga Dalmacije. 30 M.106 on Thu. ProUostDalmacije. matian and Latin towns.I-II. Dinic and A. I. Venice's and commercial maintained political of Split says in his manuscript Or. T.107. could not be isolated culture. onomastike'.e. So very early a imbue them with the sentiments unknown to Italian towns. J. especially with political arguments. Ljubljana. Slavenstvo Toponomasticka ispitivanja. when the neighbouring for the Latins et familiares'. Skok has dealt with this problem studies and has medium arrived at conclusions which that scholarship. Vienna. town it is possible For almost every Dalmatian from its background. 1915. Italian prove though of the fascist period. 1906. After Jirecek the subject of many scientific and M. 1934. Das Dalmatische. i. One has only to open certain digests of materials published by the Yugoslav Academy of Science in Zagreb and the Serbian Academy in Belgrade and turn over the pages of the Indicesnominum personarum. primorski 29 G. a Slavonic-Latin afterwards. Skok.I?II. 1928. Bartoli. Bartoli.10. G. The Latin who protected themselves As a reward Venice forced urban and Italy on Dalmatia from Ottoman a cruel system
as we have said. Zagreb. a picture into essentially of Slavonic to reconstruct penetration based on personal and family towns simply from evidence Roman in the 7th cen? names. as the old writer Mijo Koludrovic to the Venetians. in the whole town. i. in and vulgarisation Dalmatia and its gradual disappearance have been works. Mayer. J. the official however. Slavonic of Split. Gelcic. Fiskovic. 'O simbiozi i nestanku starih Romana u Dalmaciji i na Primorju u svijetlu i romanstvo na Jadranskim otocima. according tury or later. 244. speech The Latin language was becoming more and more common. 175-80. has opposed them 30 It is at rate for the any very significant
This content downloaded from 129. in numerous P.THE Venetian
Slavdom So it was too late to do anything. . and customs into the Latin home. NaH umjetnici.29 As soon as this penetration began. to get a fair picture of the ethnic structure of those towns. whether to Thomas Slavs. were won by the of the wars with Turkey) the wars (he was thinking Dalmatians. At last Venice Dalmatian of raw materials but not most general only exploitation in the Venetian and military of man-power galleys. p.
As the from the
towns were written of the Dalmatian legal documents that in the later cen? some have tried to conclude in Latin. mostly life there was pervaded turies. II (De moribus Dalmatarumrecentioribus). politiae at laudabiliumconsuetudinum inclytaecivitatis Ragusii (Ed.. from Pula to Zadar. and as regards of Slavonic the penetration Lucius of Dalmatian legal terminology. 190 sq. their pet-names took from the hand. councils decisions The de Diversis. where the Glagolitic alphabet was used. V. pp. It is difficult for to realise not familiar with this is one who that.l6 linguistic Romans and
THE transformation suffixes. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Venetia. He gives several characteristic examples from the statutes of Dubrovnik and Zadar in Memorieistoriche di Tragurioora dettodi Trail.106 on Thu. The
REVIEW towns other that the Dalmatian
in the Dalmatian their onomastic on the
system. names and gave them their own forms. from the 13th onwards. c. 1674.
31 P. Tadic and I. p. spoken by a man who was doubtless a different authorities The Venetian old Romans. problem 'Dominicus'. by the Italian in Dubrovnik. by Johannes the historian of the 17th century. legal documents were written in Slavonic. as we may see from a document dated 26 October 1325: 'Caveconus Preco Communis Traguriensis fcanivit et publicavit sub Logia Communis in lingua Latina et Slava in omnibus prout in ipsa commissione plenius continentur'. Zadar and that formation. of Latin as the was vulgarised accurately language. for example. of Latin in the Dalmatian towns appearance In some places the language earlier. epidemics could of the towns. Of course. 32 Ph. 1666. p. municipal their were obliged as early as the 13th century to announce into in both Slavonic Latin and Slavonic. p. VI. 124. What is more. Johannes Lucius (Ivan Lucie). 203). Lucius was the first to point out Slavonicisms in Latin legal terminology. and disappeared that Latin in others it lasted till very late. Slavs. 70). (Ibid. 192. humanist and director of the municipal school Philippus elements Trogir. by Roman some of the But these same show and documents legal speech spirit. and but for fresh blood ginal population it would have completely died out. InTrogir all public decisions of the Council had to be announced to the people in both Latin (not Italian) and Croatian. de Diversis de Quartegianis lived in Dubrovnik from 1434-40 and wrote Situs aedificiorum. quite imposed the ori? as the plague weakened Such mediaeval language. Amstelodami.10. so Romans their Christian their Roman that we can hardly recognise origin. in others later. Slavonic hinterland. statuti e quante sorti di lingue fossero in uso in Dalmatia'. Skok.32 transformation of these towns did not proceed at the and the Slavs were not always accepted gladly. Dolazak Slovenana Mediteran. remarked. in the northern Adriatic zone. was among the first towns to show the trans? very early and from the lowest to the highest
same rate everywhere For example. A new edition is being prepared for the publications of the Historical Institute of the Serbian Academy under the editorship of J. 1882. in the chapter headed 'Delle leggi. De regnoDalmatiae et Croatiaelibri sex.
This content downloaded from 129.107. Brunelli. 1. Bozic. Zara.31 The dis? 'Dinko' came from the Latin the Croatian not was simultaneous. It has been established took from the Slavs their still be heard on the island of Krk at the end of the 19th cen? of the the last descendant tury. quite peculiarities in the case of the Latin used in Dubrovnik. p.
Vitaca. 22.35 and other workers and farmers. In order to protect herself as much as possible from the dissatisfied and be undertaken 33 F. Documenta. that Doge Dandolo it was in Slavonia And Thomas of Split.37 the Venetians more than anybody However. .10. pp. and was Dobro. Pope Alexander's in Acta Alexandri of the Pope's four biographer. p. speaking that he was welcomed days' sojourn there. Bosone Breakspear. sacrum. the already mentioned proofs of a completely historians entertain doubts about such told the Crusaders. Of course. 344-9There were constant resonantibus in eorum Sclavica
This content downloaded from 129. before the invasion of Zadar.THE social strata. help of the Crusaders. versial altissime And yet Italian lingua'.107.. 17. 37 V. Andreas and it was the same with other municipal Desinja. although from their own countryman Romualdo di Guarna.Illyricum Storiadella citta di Zara-> dai tempi sino . And when Venice.I. by Slavs in Zadar. ProUostDalmacije. Thus. dignitaries. and protected the Latin. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. al MCCCCIX. Racki. which means the Slavs. Brunelli. of craftsmen seldom appear in the and when all are Slavonic. says that all the nobles of Zadar received Bosnian heretics. p. and the subjugation of Zadar had to uprisings. that in the 12th century Alexander when III. population the Venetian called to Venetians settle in the houses of government the people who had fled. was welcomed questions.
Documents show that in 918 the first-known prior had a daughter Dobrusa with a typical Slavonic (Dobrosia) name. pontificis. 35 G. Documenta. says by its citizens in the of St Stosija cathedral 'immensis laudibus et canticis (Anastasia). she had a lot of trouble ahead. both of them confidants of Pope Alexander III himself. when in 1243 Venice finally subdued Zadar and the numerous fled from the town.34 his brother In the nth the century priors of Zadar were again persons with obviously Slavonic such as Grubisa.36 it comes testimony. the intruders were fiercely attacked the old owners of the houses by which they had occupied. Venetiis. give Slavonic Zadar.III. .106 on Thu. 197. p. over and over again. of Archbishop and ultimately from the second chronicle of Cardinal Salerno. Racki. also a ('en Esclavonie'). Farlati. they do. names.Venezia. 1765. Thus. 178. piii remoti a. (1177) Pope travelling to meet Frederic via Zadar to Venice Barbarossa over some contro? Drago. Venice could not solve this problem by force and at last she had to allow the emigrants to return home. Moreover. themselves. the names of the lower classes of citizens. they they were in the majority is indicated in a contemporary which relates account. which is again a Slavonic name.33 At the end of the ioth century non-Christian (986) the tribune of the town was Crneka. but they had a difficult life among the people who remained in Zadar. p. Novak. with the took Zadar. else. 36 D. That documents. Some of them tried to do so. 34 F.
requesting know the and who would who were not Italian bishops appoint of of the people of Dalmatia. I. 222.107. pp. p.' Lj. Strohal.10. Zagreb. Novak. monachi.
This content downloaded from 129. the the Venetian there was also a clause prohibiting government. Pravnapovijestdalmatinskih gradova. 81-7 (for Split). though some of them is are dressed in the Italian way'. For only a small number language and they are mostly merchants or noblemen.39 and the Croatian could not knowing testimony G. Croats know Italian. C. 197. 42 'Non negamus quidem linguae Venetae usum esse aliquem apud Illyricos vel mercatores propter commercia vel nobiles propter elegantiam. the slavicisation was com? to show that the transformation checked. I. Ljubic. cit. pp. who had a small library of ecclesiastical and secular literature consisting of books in litteraLatina and in litteraSclava. linguae Venetae ne apicem quidem norunt. government Zadar all the common but in his beloved spoke 'la lingua people nobles in contemporary of foreigners and later registers who without Thus he says of Split: 'All the customs in Split are Slavonic.42 an appeal It is difficult to determine the order in which the ethnic trans-
38 ?. names the centuries. of Zadar and other towns could not be actions. 107. Povijesthrvatskeknjizevnosti pre1945. 208. iuventus. and what is more some of them dress in the Italian way.41 A still more eloquent document him to sent to the Pope from Dalmatia in 1604. 157-8. can be seen from the heritage left in 1389 by the merchant Damjan. and 'but the common nuns. pp. is so sweet and gentle that it is the first and their mother tongue is the all the Dalmatian dialects as the language of Tuscany among It is all fine flower of Italian true that the speak speech.106 on Thu. pp. B. 1913. 1893. Strohal. pp. See also G. For similar onomastic material on other parts of Dalmatia. but their patronymics end in -ic. Archiv fur slavischePhilologie. 1868. u historijii umjetnosti. schiava'.40 The Venetian understand in 1553 when he had to inform his disagreeably surprised certainly in not and Dubrovnik that Sibenik only Split. Giustiniani was the citizens (1482). to the Slavs from the surround? people of Zadar from giving lodgings in spite of who were not citizens. the young people. Zagreb. 67-79. 132. The cultural level of the average citizen. but the women speak only their mother tongue. Dalmacijakroz vjekove Split. op. cit. Listine. 87-97 (for Dubrovnik). See the enormous number of such names in various documents preserved in the State Archives of Zadar and published by I.l8
in Zadar. verum plebs. 205.I. M. There is evidence in and of commoners and the viz. the merchant class for example. 21. Slavs and to strengthen her own countrymen rebellious of Zadar were not to marry Venice issued orders that the people of the Croatian girls.38 Meanwhile. ing countryside. 2. do narodnog 125.. Jirecek. 70. Trogir. 177. see Strohal. 262. Listineo odnosajih i Mletackerepublike. 'Item unus liber Alexandri parvus in littera Sclava. 250.VIII. XXV. pp.I. nobiles feminae. noblewomen people. 1934. people too. except in special cases and with the permission In this agreement between the people of Zadar and Doge himself. 41 ?.' Cf. p. Kombol. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 97-103 (for the islands). 215. 40 I. Italian. Karaman. Zagreb. Ljubic. op. Monumenta izmedju JuznogaSlavenstva historiam Slavorum Meridionalium. fn. spectantia 39 Not only are their Christian names Slavonic. virgines sacrae. p. poroda. pp. 'Eine slavische Alexandergeschichte in Zara 1389'. 14th 13th plete these of citizens. monks cannot utter one word of Italian'. p. ProUostDalmacije.
pp.45 Slavonic and The second half of the 15th and the first half of the 16th century results of an enthusiastic humanism in the already show considerable Slavonic field of literature. 127. p. 1913. cit. of Croatian of and a contemporary Dore Drzic had if stimulated
it happened much and Split. which was among the first in Dalmatia to give a warm welcome to the humanistic literature the famous were muses. secretary on his way to Turkey on a diplomatic mission in Dubrovnik through all the in Dubrovnik Slavonic and their said that women spoke 1553. p. op. op. op. probably
took place. Trogir in had certainly and later Dubrovnik.. and more completely earlier in
Marulic of Split Andrija (1450-1524). whose very personality most the harmonious form of the represents of the Latin and Croatian elements. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. shoes). Strohal.46 laid. 176. 44 I. they had language up King if to them and the shelter. which is more markedly than Latin. Povijest hrvatskeknjizevnosti. Strohal. le Benedetto with podvezace (stockings garters?'con podvesaze'). Sisko Mencetic. where he won belonged his laurels. Kombol. Crijevic.. p.THE formation it seems
of the Dalmatian that
on Rab too. M. they betrayed promising spare given a Thomas witness of this from of We learn contemporary king. proving spirit was predominant.106 on Thu. Trogir When the Tatars middle of the been slavicised the 13th century. husbands Italian. In and Split. had quite changed of Dalmatia. op. appears He his in or had made name Rome as a and Crijevic. and now as poeta laureatus he celebrated his native town.10. on Krk and the other Zadar. 63-74.
poets of Dubrovnik. ethnic schiavona'). 140. the people of Dubrovnik which were of purely Slavonic national origin.43 Dubrovnik its the Tatar invasion to please the King Desiring by the 14th century. cit. on Hvar.. 45 I.44 valjenica kosulja to the Venetian Ramberti Senate. zupa ('giupa'). was Marko Cubranovic. op. One of the brilliant the connection Latin and Slavonic between figures who represented humanism of Dubrovnik was Aelius Cerva-Cervinus Lampridius name Croatian whose in documents as (1463-1520). All things considered.Zagreb. Such were garments. somewhat islands. by in the the citizens the sent emissaries town calling upon they besieged Bela to whom to deliver Slavonic III. Marulic humanistic symbiosis 43 Thomas archidiaconus. Vodnik. to new efforts by Italian humanism.107. in Zadar and other places. physiognomy sent him (1383) some of their of France. Split.. literature Dubrovnik that the Slavonic begins to appear. cit. 73. when passing (1503-47). opanci (plaited ('baretta sa osvama (shirt with embroidered and bands?'oscve'). Certain writers of the old Slavonic-Latin the living representatives sym? biosis and they wrote in both Latin and Slavonic. poet were still to the Academy of Pomponius Laetus. 46 B.
This content downloaded from 129. The At the same time the foundations father of this literature. cit.
the Venice and Italy up to this very day. 1951.. were the arguments of Carolingian and Habsburg of feudalism. 48 M. 75-87.10. German. dominated to them. Portuguese his contemporaries wide interest was aroused by Marulic's among works. These of course completely even the slightest of deny participation the Slavs in the building of this branchof in mediaeval culture this up painting. although classical and had translated the of Slavonic chronicle languages into so that the outside world learn Latin. wonders bitterly 'what could we possibly in our own defence before a Western say which from denies us the beginning? The very fact that we Europe in these regions and that we did not disappear. These Vatican.47 of culture and provided a
This period also gave the most remarkable manifestation of artistic in Dalmatia. painting sculpture old and deep roots.107. German and Austro-Hungarian as well as of bourgeois imperialism. Zagreb. Hungarian 47 B. knowledge Yugoslav been from somewhat in his essay on the art of Zadar: past.20
and ethical works was known all over the world by his philosophical in Latin.
This content downloaded from 129. torians of art who have dedicated their knowledge and research to the study of Dalmatian mediaeval and art. 5. Krleza. pp.'48 We neither intend to develop Italian. or of such Dalmatians as did not feel themselves to be Slavs. contemporary Yugoslav has an who excellent of the cultural scholar. Certainly. zone of the Mediterranean. This shows what a and French. is one of the appeared on the civilisation proofs of our guilt. and Nazi fascism. cit. i srebro ?lato ?adra. having developed both independently and in con? nection with Roman influence on the frontiers of the Roman world. op. because Roman eastern Adriatic coast became which meant for Rome that Slavonic. With reason Miroslav good the most impressive writer and Krleza. cit. it was destroyed. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. p..106 on Thu. Pope Dukljanin might about the past of the Southern this period Slavs. Byzantium. came from the Italian side of the Adriatic. op. But Marulic was also the first poet in Split who wrote in he was enthusiastic about humanism and the Croatian. These have been the arguments of the Lateran. sculpture Besides these historians there are others whose work is their and anti-Slavonic attitude by political prejudice. all had and Architecture. Kombol. everything that has According the earliest Middle the end to of the preserved Ages 15th is in fact the result of the ideas and efforts either of men who century. It is difficult even for an expert to struggle the mass of through inconsistencies and hesitations of certain foreign his? contradictions. Vodnik. architecture. We are guilty. M. pp. which went through numerous editions and were translated into Italian. something in Dalmatia of early humanism of the gave the clearest indication the Slavonic-Latin sound creation in the field symbiosis basis for vernacular literature. 99-113.
speak that Western scholarship has lately been liminarily mass of material which and certainly the tremendous by surprised of the mediaeval arts of the was to be seen at the great exhibition in Paris in the Palais de Chaillot two Yugoslav people. could be offered them by Rome or Constantinople. all these elements and to cultured separately. on the con? as of Lombard whereas. 1927). The hypo? thesis enunciated in this work was preceded the author's lectures. together Alpine-Gothic component.10. from the to the 12th Serbo-Macedonian. from the beginning Juraj
us observe pre? almost bewildered
from the the Dalmatian in the 15th century. Quite of the Croats to Christianity he the whether the Croats. by the new church.106 on Thu. he was of an for was doubtless Vienna. (b) century from the church of St Donat in Zadar.
Professor Among leading foreign authorities. (d) as well as the Taken or venian. The Dalmatian section gave an answer to many obscure and inaccurate of earlier historians. into full bloom in Dalmatia at a time when the Lom? existed. to this traditional and courageous theory widespread enough oppose in his work 'On the Development of Old Croatian Art. exception.
in apologies or polemics and to certain attention drawing let
Nevertheless.THE these content which
21 shall facts
nor to indulge thoughts with ourselves merely will for themselves. And this characteristic on all ornamentation of interlaced so rich and varied. and thoughtful he favoured the idea of the speculations of the Slavonic in the work of building element self-development started the Slavs would Of course. apply the and experience in building as pagans knowledge they had acquired In his witty limited to what
This content downloaded from 129. i. whose logical and excellent drew a picture as vivid as real sequence reproductions life in situ. Quattrocento.107. origin. it came bards no longer historians has been represented by objects in Dalmatia. sculpture. fall of of until the anti-Roman of the the movement Bogumils period the Slo? Bosnia and its subjugation the Turks and by (1463). kinds many of ecclesiastical foreign trary. Jozef Strzygowski. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. spoke most impressively
learned observers of an extraordinary historical wealth.e. organised It of four cultural-historical consisted sections: (a) the years ago. build? of pre-Roman Speaking of churches in Croatia at the the building described ing. Supplement to the Discovery of North European Art' (Zagreb. the Adriatic (Old Croatian). to the master-sculptor of the nth century. by in London delivered the title 'Early under Northern-European Church Art and Wood Architecture'. hypotheses First of all there is the much neglected old Croatian ornamental art as seen on numberless extant stone tablets from the 8th to the end of the 11 th century from all parts of Dalmatia. (c) the Bosnian. Strzygowski time of the conversion and later. like correctly began by putting question all the Southern were conversion to Slavs on their Christianity.
That is why Strzygowski with not being able to free this problem have studied or Lom? idea of Roman. Investigators Strzygowski. form and at first in a simple interlaced the favourite ornament. indeed. ticularly that on penetrating into we may draw the conclusion Accordingly. any more than other countries new architectural did in accepting ideas from abroad. of the Cathedral of St magnificent perhaps. brought used to build was by the Slavs from their original brvnare (log cabins). anticipation. from the preconceived Byzantine a peculiar have also overlooked These investigators bard influence. without doubt. The similarities in double and triple interlacement. That and which of archaeological material is at hand
This content downloaded from 129. the Slavs brought and nowhere It is therefore else that we here in Dalmatia heritage. This is. represents for later sketches foundations. in the hinterland. with them their old artistic the Dalmatian towns. first find cupolas and stone vaultings based on the walls in quatrefoil and hexafoil forms. with the exception. but they never lost their independence.22
them with carved geometrical their wooden temples and decorating nor anthropomorphic at first. earlier than elsewhere to according of the vault developed. zoomorphic figures in Dalmatia to stonework with This technique was applied details. amount This to support thesis. And here too. In and obtaining gth-century any case the Slavs of that period did not escape the influence of the ancient in the towns than which was more apparent and suggestive heritage.107. subsequently finds are Dalmatian and Lombard in style between archaeological which both common the the result of their common source.10. them from with and Lombards Croats brought to stone and of wood-carving their well-known transferred technique of each a new technique of stone-carving so created independently all is quite right when he reproaches other. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. symbiosis especially in the later centuries. masterly which were to be planned and carried out on a monumental scale evidence not financial conditions require much more favourable in 8thDalmatia. Romanesque came the rule in the West. Strzygowski's towns and in the in the coastal only miniature The so-called architecture. In the architectural of the field the development would than those Slavonic-Latin also had its positive consequences. long before the appearance and it was only very much later that it be? architecture. symbiosis building those who themselves which foundations. region but in the hinterland. where they habitat.106 on Thu. a Slavonic cultural find a not inconsiderable can. neither with. heritage Both the North. There is no doubt that the Slavs profited by certain artistic and cultural achievements on the western Adriatic coast. Donat at Zadar. so-called par?
their heathen temples. cultural area in which the Slavonic-Latin feature of the Dalmatian roofs on square with vaulted This is the existed.
Academy. in the course of the 12th and 13th centuries?in changed pletely One which would have checked this process by spite of the Serenissima its commercial and even feudal elements bureaucratic. and still more the layman. confirms Slavs development. supported by new the by no means negligible in this sphere of artistic pro? of Slavonic
was large and varied in the building of churches. And in the Quattrocento Dalmatia was to pro? duce painters who could rival the best masters in the West. portals the and from the be? Romanesque style. carved artistically and sculptured and brilliant before the advent of the cloisters. buildings were a purely Italian creation. passing through has had the impression that the Romanesque Dalmatia. all the artistic developments It is a fact which should not be for? the culture of a people. pp.106 on Thu.49 about gotten when speaking Thus. cit. Many an inscription on some magnificent or noble building which boastfully extols the supposed merits of certain coat-of-arms. partici? of the numerous belfries which adorn pated in the building splendid the Dalmatian coast. in great part. Institute tell each of the Serbian work of a a native Monteof the of them
or its hinterland from Hercegovina 49 Cv. op.
This content downloaded from 129. the Dalmatian artist kept abreast of of the West of Europe. Our know? enriched by Professor Jorjo Tadio's ledge of these will be substantially work on the artistic school of Dubrovnik from the 13th to the 16th century. and not only of those who lived in the towns.10. Fiskovic. is today refuted by persons in the building the historical fact that the building was made possible by the finan? cial contributions of the Slavonic the farmer. sources.. His contribution mediaeval culture. introducing into the towns?one has only to recall these facts to realise what a the Dalmatian Slavs made to the development of great contribution number of documents have ever-increasing discovered in the dust of archives. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Then.107. recently They tell us very that all the buildings we admire today were.THE
is why many a specialist. commonalty?the been fisherman and the craftsman. has only to examine a little closer and with knowledge the when the Slavonic was almost transformation its reaching period the when ethnical structure the towns had of been com? conclusion. documentary amply of the Dalmatian contribution duction. but of those living outside as well. during Romanesque period to the full of the Gothic he ginning flowering style. An participation however. also. hundred which and About is sponsored by the Historical twelve hundred documents fifty different Yugoslav artists. quite harmoniously. vividly erected from the material contributions of the Slavs themselves. 244-5. of a palace or a church. without noticing that the Romanesque forms in their contained in themselves Modern the essence research.
454. give the impression a skilfully transported miniature from the codex which inspired the master in his modelling. precious T. art. Oxford. There were artists. Karaman and Cv. And at that time there were very few works of this sort even on the other side of the Adriatic. 52 T. a museum in itself.10. Portal katedrale I950-
This content downloaded from 129. he in the Romanesque worked Although as was realised by Lj. 'Ivan Budislavic'. The door of the cathedral was carved in wood by the Croatian master Buvina in 1214.50 Buvina had an entire school. Jackson. so roused the enthusiasm
G. He was one of the exponents of the same tradition doubtless as that displayed ornamental fine in stone the interlacements work. Umjetnicki razred 3). 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Zagreb.. Already masterly proof of this was Budislavich incisor 'magister Johannes given in Trogirby intagliator. the portal of the full who of of the cathedral. pp. Fiskovic. p. however. Even in the by Buvina was not free from their influence. II. 108. the sculptor Radovan won fame as 'the best of all in this art'. cit. akad. Schneider. which is a great work of art. Karaman. 53 Lj. seen at close quarters.53 Buvina and Radovan. 262. Such was Simon of Dubrovnik. that marvellous work which artistic detail.106 on Thu. in 1240. the general need of buildings. op. All this will prove once more the theory of Slavonic creative power on the one hand and. 1942.52 is no critic There be so unjust as to deny the value and the beauty of the kind of work done by the Croat Radovan. would two excellent connoisseurs of Radovan's Fiskovic. Zagreb. he was fully himself. well-known architect of art.24
negrin coast. Radovan's carvings reflect the abundant joy of life which he knew so well in his native country. et habitator Tragurii'. 51A. 1938. 1887. some of them anonymous. znanosti i umjetnosti Karaman.G. which had a both on his contemporaries and on later genera? great influence tions. in Split. Hrvatskaenciklopedija. neighbouring is also shown the numerous seats later wooden of by extremely in the 15th century centuries.Jackson. 105-6. pp.51 There in Trogir. which is so in all the Dalmatian towns. as the inscription on his work reads. and the in various traces of its work survive articles of church furniture.* Dalmatia. their interlaced of border. the Quarnero sq.107. This of art was as kind much cultivated. Such a number of illustrated completely artists shows the cultural in such a small country level of certainly its inhabitants. for the artistic adornment public and private. andIstria. he because 13th century for his twenty-eight used them as the framework and These panels. who went even to Italy to show who their worth and was responsible their skill. in the finely carved seats for ecclesiastics in Split and in the especially monasteries. Radovana u Trogiru(RadJug. Zagreb. Portal majstora u Trogiru. are not alone in this century. style. Cv. for the beautiful of Barportal of the cathedral
50 Lj. on the other.
Srpskiknjizevni glasnik. srednjeg Zica 56 M. gifted boys employed mention da of the Dalmatian carvers. pp. court-yards for merchants and prosperous which are today to be seen in citizens. force They the more capable and more appear as independent town walls and towers. of foreign and others. the picturesque streets of many Dalmatian towns.Belgrade. BoSkovic. wells. pp. Bonino only Nicolo Martini Pietro of Onofrio of Nicolo Milano. And Dalmatia Giovanni Corbo of Venice. Vasic. artistartisan and ance. in no way inferior to the most beautiful in art which The Slavonic-Latin symbiosis gave such fruitful was supplemented artists. granaries. 54 Gj. Juraj the Dalmatian a high degree of artistic achievement as an architect Zadar.56 Franciscan quadrangle of its time in Italy. by foreign in the Dalmatian towns. i Lazarica. would gifted would be sorted out artists of greater or less import?
art. Vido of Kotor and the built from 1327 to 1335 by the architect and Nikola. jewellers. in the first place by results.Belgrade. and balconies and they would build houses colonnades. 65 M. hinterland were started the Dalmatian especially by the Turkish in and the more were the workshops invasions. of King Stevan is the foundation Uros III. there are several wonderful
This content downloaded from 129. 1938. by the West and Slavonic-Latin and thesis of Roman East. of it.5-7. 'Simeon Dubrovcanin'. Let us indeed for their work. i skulptura u Dalmaciji od pocetkaIX dopocetkaXV veka.54 This
SYMBIOSIS exhibited itself
IN DALMATIA in the Serbian
interior. of this auxiliary Out of the numerous members artisans. Byzantine. moreover. Milan. they would carve architectonic details and sculptured ornaments.106 on Thu. Vasic. such as the monastic examples of the Serbian rulers. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.Studijeiz srpske umetnosti veka.55 To the Dobroslav with his brothers master Gjorgje where same who was the genius of Miha of Bar (Antivari). reached and sculptor on the more important in Sibenik working buildings His works show a skilful artist (the cathedral). pp. But the stream artists did not Fiorentino and the Slavonic lessen the activity of the local artists from Dalmatia in the as shown is above-mentioned hinterland. churches. We find a Italians who found employment went of them in the 14th and 15th centuries. da Siena. considerable number They all over Europe as far as Russia to earn their living and stayed the cultural and material conditions only at such places as afforded did not lack these. 144-8. In the 15th century Georgius from Dalmata. portals. 244-9. Arhitektura 1922. 1928. period belongs from the coast who built the glorious the Montenegrin obviously This harmonious is cloister in Dubrovnik.THE leta. and Decani symbiosis. convincingly pub? The waves of Slavonic newcomers from lication of Professor Tadic. Naples. painters and other stone-cutters. Split and Dubrovnik. arsenals. of Studenica churches offers a syn? Stevan founded Studenica. town would take part in building belfries and palaces. foundations and Decani. Nemanja (1183).10.107. halls.
in his the the 15th century given by contemporaries from Bar in Monte? hailing in Bologna seems as if it had national Montenegrin songs of mourning teacher. were
This content downloaded from 129. in Dubrovnik. who any more than the Italians worked outside them Italians. His influence may and Petar Brcic of Sibenik. has accounted Italy did theirs. on the other hand. painter and the latter an architect. But foreigners. 58 See fn. including of the crew.e. who became for Pope Paul III. 70. Split. displaying gran Schiavon' an allegorical in which Medulic was given ship of Venetian painters. Dobricevic. There there was Giovanni Giovanni da Trait. The drawings and designs for the princely have palace in Urbino notes written in the Glagolitic Yet they have also been alphabet. also Slavonic artists of considerable in Italy.58 All these artists working outside Dalmatia are doubtless another artistic tradition cultivated in Dalmatia. been by the inspired
(narikace).106 on Thu. Then is an idea that he was Michelangelo's over Christ' et barbarus and
Schiavone. who was none other than Andrija Medulic of Sibenik. AndrijaMedulicnazvanSchiavone. Ugrinovic. Bozidarovic. where they were regularly artists who flourished numbered Italian artists as schiavoni or dalmate. i. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. though they are less well-known greatly appreciated abroad.57 Another was the celebrated Giulio self.26 in the Gothic Pribislavic
REVIEW be seen in his followers.10. Schiavone. 22. Ivan
style. by Italian Dalmaticus. But foreign scholarship Such was Nicolo called Dalmata and delPArca. Francesco and Luciano de Aurana are cenotaph Franjo and Lucijan Vranjanin (died 1482). 1934. quel in his work La carta del navegar pittoresco. of Trogir famous in Italy because of his (died 1509).107. only members Clovio art of whose illumination won him fame as (died 1578). which proof of the age-old enabled her sons to produce works of value and significance extend67A. for they among never hid or denied their origin. appropriated Georgius or Scholaris is none other than Juraj CulinoSquarcioni discipulus vic of Skradin adorn many galleries. and many others were Milovic Hamzic. art. Uvodic. whom the historian and painter Marco Boschini called 'terribile Andrea. (died 1505). the former a well-known who worked in Italy and France. One importance of these was Andreas Andrea Meldolla detto Schiavone. of fantasticus sobriquets His 'Lamentation negro. Ivan Duknovic Dalmata. an artist for whose work many European feudal com? potentates He was a Croat?Klovic?from the Grizani coast in Vinopeted. the helm of the ship of which Titian was the captain. whose pictures the National In the Cinquecento there including Gallery in London. Sclavonus.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the works of Ognjanovic. dol. know more about the Dalmatian in Italy. while other famous masters were below Medulic Tintoretto him? and. p.
p.'60 And Venice followed this advice norant. Blood with our supper. znanostii umjetnosti.e. was constantly And in armis silent musae. as well as the forces which fostered talents that were to wake again in the 19th century. then. i.' Cv. which had no genetic relation with quite unfriendly the Dalmatian as in the early and later Middle towns. because their contemporaries and considered them called them these artistic the stood out from among Slavs. because geniuses common run of their times by their Slavonic creative style. Krleza says their narrow local sphere. B wrote as possible. Ages. she had enough of her own. ing far beyond Rome and Naples and Bologna. 59 M. vecera. What is more. that from Dalmatia government the Venetian in the first
This content downloaded from 129. quite rightly that Avignon would be without numerous and sculptural masterpieces buildings but for the Slavs. 259.' Cf. All the food we eat Is soaked in blood. 1948. 60 'Se vole te i Dalma ti fedeli. manifested Unfortunately Dalmatia the in art and and during Quattrocento Cinquecento did not continue Historical and was almost extinguished. Therefore. to his It is no wonder. Fiskovic. I. 'Kratki pregled pucke nastave u Dalmaciji kroz minulih pet decenija'. When we wash our faces.THE
M.'61 But in spite of the unceasing and obstinate struggle with the now Latin element. protected. Belgrade. 1 March 1902. which was largely like the rest of Europe. you you ig? keep without education. 61 'Blood with our dinner. Sicily. Venice needed only soldiers and sailors. in order to have this reservoir of fighting men always full. Dalmatia. Narodnilist. who had made her undisturbed cultural development possible. Nasi primorski umjetnici. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Dizdar. the antemurale civilisationis euroher superiority over the Dal? peanae.10. 78. it was necessary to maintain it with as little Paolo education Sarpi half of the 18th century giving this cynical and inhuman advice: 'If want the Dalmatians to must them be faithful. As for writers and artists. p. with simultaneously the Italian Risorgimento which was to unite and save Italy. Venice. literature. zalogaje.107. Krleza. together at war with the Turks.'59
the great creative so clearly in ardour.106 on Thu. teneteli ignoranti. sciousness was preserved. explain enough. conditions this well with Venice. time on was entirely the result of efforts made by the Dalmatians A national themselves. GalerijaJugoslavenske akademije 'Jugoslavia'. 'Our artists were not Slavs only in origin or but because as Slavs they signed their names in Glagolitic characters. but which was represented the Slavonic con? by Venetian despotism. Thus all that was done in the domain of culture from that closely. by the Bal? kan antemurale Christianitatis. Our hands are covered with blood. rukam umivamo. the break in cultural creation poet explained those centuries of war 'S krvi when he lamented: during painful a s krvi Svak krvave zvace Krvavim se rucak. Zadar. ungratefully emphasised matian for this was the name she gave to the Slavs 'barbarians'.
106 on Thu. were
line of a great reproachful Ivan Mazuranic?'While
This content downloaded from 129. I. 9 May 2013 14:55:16 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. in the culture of human? its own a efforts ditions. Ma?urani6. SmrtSmail-ageCengiji6a. they called you you period.28 The
REVIEW poet of the Renaissance
dying.62 62 I.107. who are those a all serious to barbarians'?is unjust in their warning the difficult con? a under most to nation studies historical which. has won by place ity. 1846. ed.10.