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&quot. LL. and its invaluable ancient literature thoroughly investigated . the present day was a generation or so constantly-increasing want. and is a marvellous combination of Jt gives a. and incorporating the general results of the Census of 1881. Assyrian. &quot. pi-ice 2 is. its history.. or. forms a volume of more than 700 pages.S. Times. By the AND PRODUCTS. Second Edition. and Greek classics of. complete account of the Indian condensation and research. and a group of scholars speak of still more recondite Accadian and Hittite monu ments . Being a Eevised Edition. and forms the worthy outcome of seventeen years of labour with exceptional opportunities for rendering that labour fruitful. &quot. Director-General of Statistics to the Government of India. and religion as necessary to the general reader made within the present century in these branches of learning . C. with Map. the language and sacred books of the Zoroastrians have been laid bare Egyptian.C. of Oriental literature. have determined to supply the .D. philo sophy. peoples.. SIR W. at least. brought up to date. but the results of all the scholarship that has been devoted to these subjects have been almost inaccessible to the public because they were con tained for the most part in learned or expensive works. A knowledge of the is commonplace. HUNTER. The Times. all this mass of knowledge to the world.L. or more interesting than his scholarly history of the India of the past. W. 748.E.f/f TftiiBNER S ORIENTAL 8ERIE8.I.Ib literary . and other records of the remote past have been deciphered. xxxii. post 8vo. : cloth. pp. as an acquaintance with the Latin Immense strides have been ago.&quot. in a spirit of enterprise which does them infinite credit. at least. and products. HON. a compre hensive form. THE INDIAN EMPIRE ITS PEOPLE. HISTORY.S. Empire. Viceroy s K. TiiiJBNER & Co. and to give in a popular.. Nothing could be more lucid than Sir William Hunter s expositions of the economic and political condition of India at the present time. Messrs. or scattered through out the numbers of scientific periodicals. Member of the Legislative Council.I. Sanskrit has been brought within the range of accurate philology. C.

of the or Scripture III. with some incident in the history of canonical books. xvi. EDITED AND ENLARGED BY DR..&quot. Gottingen. Parsis. the Parsis. edited by Dr. the Chinese original would be un obtainable by them. Post 8vo. by Max Miiller s English. The Zend-Avesta. now worships that founder as principle that a religion for.A. Translated from the Chinese by S. forgotten whose founder denied a God. whilst the even if they understand Chinese.Mr Seal s rendering It contains authentic texts gathered from ancient critical study of the work.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. least adul&quot. the minds of millions of people. translations. E. of the Chinese translation is a most valuable aid to the &quot. will therefore Mr. University College. 176. needs want text or either of the above-named translations. AND RELIGION OF THE PARSIS. pp. as well as the strange Times. Languages of the Parsi Scriptures. on his return late Dr Martin Hang. into a comprehensive in work this contained materials the to from India.&quot. BEAL. or sections. or rather recension. as now translated by Mr. but the design was frustrated by his untimely of the researches a readable and a concise in history form. who possess Fausboll s of Pali students The sists of thirty-nine sections. 428. .&quot. B. Beal s English rendering of the Chinese version . of the &quot. by of religious history. with especial I. excellence the and the tales of the simplicity employed was principally parable.WEST. The method Ihe method of teaching adopted by the founder of the religion. of the Parsis. and hold which they have retained upon of the morals inculcated. and Professor of Sanskrit in the Poona College. The Zoroastriaii Religion. post 8vo. We have. make them a very remarkable study.&quot.. and a dissertation on the Zoroas Times. P. consists in the light which they throw upon Their interest. Academy. has added to the great ser English making Mr Beal. or the Scripture of the Parsis. To which is added a Biographical Memoir of the late Dr. expand account of the Zoroastrian religion.&quot. price 73. as to its Origin and Development. by the Essays on the Sacred Language. the thirteen aboveadditional sections not being accessible to them in any other form . The Dhammapada. perverted. and generally connected however. its teaching. EVANS. death into tlie sacred writings and religion of the Parsis from the earliest times down to a translation Parsi of the on the Scriptures. named u god himself. great Buddha and upon everyday life in. cloth. 6d.D. and its to reference development. viii. and which is now nominally of conduct which won its way over with innumerable professed by 145 millions. Writings. TEXTS FROM THE BUDDHIST CANON COMMONLY KNOWN AS &quot. ESSAYS ON THE SACRED LANGUAGE. as hitherto known by the Pali Text Edition. W. as edited and Albrecht Weber s German by Fausboll. consists only of twenty-six chapters con Chinese version. pp. origin triaii religion. BY MARTIN HAUG. vices he has already rendered to the comparative study doctrine of the Buddhists in its purest. and Bonn Superintendent of Sanskrit Studies. &quot. Late of the Universities of Tubingen. With Accompanying Narratives. PH. London. price i6s. HAUG by Prof. India at the remote period at which they were written. E. Scotsman. Beal. WRITINGS. cloth. Professor of Chinese. from the Earliest Times down II. however. IV. dissertation languages the present a of the Zend-Avesta. THE FOLLOWING WORKS HAVE ALREADY APPEARED: Third Edition. &quot. . West. in an accessible it dress. Researches into the Sacred Writings and Religion of the History to the Present. who have overlaid its austere simplicity its maxims. W.Valuable as exhibiting the face to face with that simple creed and rule terate d form it brings the modern reader the minds of myriads. DHAMMAPADA. and so inverted its leading ceremonies. and Religion The author intended. E.

BY KALIDASA. GRIFFITH.A. Much had been written about the languages of the East Indies. Post 8vo. felt. Inspector of Schools in India.Mr. &quot. learned and able treatment of their subject and with their recent additions they still maintain decidedly the same rank. Two Language A SKETCH OF THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF THE EAST BY ROBERT N. every case the sum and substance of the opinions and judgments of the best-informed writers.. Few translations deserve a second edition better.A. A very spirited rendering of the Kumdrasambhava. The Author has attempted to fill up a vacuum. U. It occurred to him that it might be of use to others to publish in an arranged form the notes which he had collected for his &quot. Professor WHITNEY. Hindu students are intensely interested in the history of Sanskrit literature. Athencnum.&quot. M.. Saturday Review. Second Corrected Edition.. pp. We are very glad to welcome a second edition of Professor Griffith s admirable translation. with the sanction of the Author.When I was Pro Dr.&quot. 6d. &quot. and at the time of their first publication were acknowledged to be by far the most learned and able treatment of the subject. Times. .TRUBNER S ORIENTAL Second Edition. M. pp.&quot. but the extent of our present knowledge had not even been brought to a focus. xii. in passes under review a vast number of languages. Supplies a deficiency which has long been The book before us is then a valuable contribution to philological science. writes was one of the class to whom the work was originally given in the form first appearance they were by far the most their At of academic lectures. 198. They have now been brought up to date by the addition of all the most important results of recent research.&quot. the inconvenience of which pressed itself on his notice. &quot. &quot. &quot.&quot. A Poem. Yale I . and it gives. own edification. BuHLER. &quot. Times. post 8vo. I frequently felt the want of such a work to which I could refer the students. SERIES. 360. 116. price IDS. and THEODOR ZACHARIAE. such a book when I was teaching in Calcutta.D.A. Ph. imagination of its author. cloth. which was first published twenty-six years ago. : College. and this volume will supply : them with &quot. of Cambridge. Times. writes: fessor of Oriental Languages in Elphinstone College.It will be Professor COWELL. H. pp.. cloth. Conn.S. . perhaps the most comprehensive and lucid survey of Sanskrit literature The essays contained in the volume were originally delivered as academic lectures. . CUST. INDIES. BY ALBRECHT WEBER. Newhaven. Griffith s very spirited rendering is well known to most who are at all interested in Indian literature. Translated from the Sanskrit into English Verse by RALPH T.&quot. &quot.&quot. price ys. or enjoy the tenderness of feeling and rich creative Indian Antiquary. cloth. It or professes to give. price 53. writes especially useful I used to long for to the students in our Indian colleges and universities. Is extant. &quot. 6d. THE BIRTH OF THE WAR-GOD. accompanied by Maps. Translated from the Second German Edition by JOHN MANN. xxiv. post 8vo. THE HISTORY OF INDIAN LITERATURE.&quot. and which we are glad to see made once more accessible. all they want on the subject. xii.

AND LITERATURE. the late Mr. price 93. their creeds. space . HISTORY. i6s.L.C. of the University INDIANS. GEOGRAPHY. BY &quot. cloth.A.D. price 143.. In this volume we have the thoughtful impressions of a thoughtful man on some An en of the most important questions connected with our Indian Empire. pp.. Member of the Bombay Asiatic Society. cloth. so far as it is possible for industry and criticism to ascertain them. price 143. pp. revised and augmented by considerable Additions.. NOTES. .. Post 8vo. of their manners.&quot. and Times.S. D. &quot. Professor form of before the in a more the manners has Monier Williams public pleasant brought and customs of the Queen s Indian subjects than we ever remember to have seen in any one work.C. the well-known translator of Arabian Nights. Has been loir. _^_ cxii. This not only forms an indispensable book of reference to students accessible circle of It is &quot. Poole is both a generous and a learned biographer. Times. MODERN INDIA AND THE Hon. Revised and Enlarged.. of every Indian. vi. An A volume which may be taken as a fair illustration alike of the religious and moral sentiments and of the legendary lore of the best Sanskrit writers. &quot. savants. agreeable introduction to Hindu poetrv. many Prose Versions. cloth. of Indian but is also of great general interest.. as it gives in a concise and easily form all that need be known about the personages of Hindu mythology whose names are so familiar.&quot. Saturday Review.. BY &quot. JBoderi Professor of Sanskrit in the University of Oxford.. &c. Staff College. Ph. Third Edition. .R. M. Times. . LL. He not only deserves the thanks of every Englishman for this able contribution to the study of Modern India a subject with which we should be &quot. Lane. Mr. Post 8vo. BEING A SERIES OF IMPRESSIONS. Edition. With an Introduction. xliv.&quot. 376. man. with Illustrations and a Map. A New the The Thousand and One Nights &c. 172. literature. The present editor has enhanced the value of his relative s work by divesting the text of a great deal of extraneous matter introduced by way of comment. no slight gain when such subjects are treated fairly and fully in a moderate and we need only add that the few wants which we may hope to see supplied in new editions detract but little from the general excellence of Mr.. Hon.. . of Calcutta.? esteemed in this country as the compilation of one of the greatest Arabic scholars of the time. .&quot. Poole tells us Mr. and Parallel Passages from Classical Authors. .. for his clear exposition their necessities.. with an Introduction by STANLEY LANE POOLE. .. 368. price A CLASSICAL DICTIONARY OF HINDU MYTHOLOGY AND RELIGION. pp. but of whom so little is known outside the limited Late Professor of Hindustani. D..I. with View of Mecca. and for literary skill to present them in a condensed and readable form.D.&quot. . .L. SELECTIONS FROM THE KORAN. JOHN&quot. and prefixing an introduction. Edinburgh Daily Review. &quot.E. AND ESSAYS. English &quot. BY MONIER WILLIAMS. Post 8vo. Parsee or Hindu. 432.. Times.D.&quot. MUIR. lightened observant man. LL. LANE. Post 8vo. Calcutta. J. cloth.. pp.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. DOWSON. travelling among an enlightened observant people. C.&quot. . Dowson s work. METRICAL TRANSLATIONS FROM SANSKRIT WRITERS. . BY Translator of EDWARD WILLIAM &quot. specially familiar but he deserves the thanks Buddhist and Moslem. &quot. . the facts ..

cloth. The Indo-Chinese Borderers.&quot.&quot. B6d6. Character. Comparative Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers SECTION III. The Bahing Gram IV. Nilgirian Vocabularies.. in SECTION XII. of the Tibetan. . and Condition. Brian Hodgson ous Essays will be found very valuabie both to the philologist and the ethnologist. Mr. BY &quot. 244. Route of Nepalese Mission to Pekin. SECTION XIV. The Gulistan is a typical Persian verse-book of the has long established itself in highest order. The Aborigines of Central India. . Academy. .S. Aborigines of Tribes in the Northern bircars. cloth. of the Legion of Honour CONTENTS Oh VOL. with Remarks on the WaterShed and Plateau of Tibet. &quot. The Native Method of making the Paper denominated Hindustan. viii.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL Second Edition.R. II. BY BRIAN HOUGHTON HODGSON. Tablet.A. post 8vo. V. . the Anglicists Answered. with a General Description of the Climate they dwell in. SECTION II. Part III. post 8vo. ROSE GARDEN OF SHEKH MUSHLIU D-DIN SADI OF SHIRAZ. Translated for the First Time into Prose and Verse. Times. It is both faithfully and gracefully executed. Customs. with Remarks India and Ceylon. lary of some of the Dialects of the Hill and Wandering Affinities. ESQ. I. with an Introductory Preface. The Mongolian Affinities of the Caucasians. 408 and viii. EAST WICK. Comparative Vocabulary Comparative Vocabulary of Indo-Chinese Borderers in Teua-sserim. SECTION XL Route from Kathmandu. Grammatical Analysis of the Vayu Language.B. or. THE G-ULISTAN. -Pre-eminence of the Vernaculars. and a Life of the Author. their on Supplement to tho Aborigines of the Nilgiris. MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS RELATING TO INDIAN SUBJECTS. Their Origin. In Two Volumes. SECTION I.&quot. VI. Physical Type of Tibetans. rendering of the original. and Garo Tongues. pp. 348. price los. Analysis of the Bahing Dialect of the Kiranti Language.. M.S. Grammar. Late of the Bengal Civil Service Corresponding Member of the Institute Chevalier lato British Minister at the Court of Nepal.S. Vocabulary. III. &c. On tue Kiranti Tribe of the Central Himalaya. pp.R. On the Kocch.A. 6d. SECTION V. Location. xxvi. layas and Tibetans. F. SECTION IX. . The new edition has long been desired. Part I. price 283. C. SECTION IV. SECTION VII. &quot. Nepalese. Vocabu Aboriginal Languages of Central India. The Vayu Grammar. SECTION XIII.. s Miscellane For the study of the less-known races of India Mr. Creed. CONTENTS OF VOL. M. . II. I. Bodo. F. Aborigines of the North-Eastern Frontier. &quot... to Darjceling in Sikim. from the Atish Kadah. Appendix. Comparative Vocabulary of the the Eastern Ghats. and Dhimal Tribes. SERIES.. SECTION VIII. Part II. The Aborigines of Southern SECTION X. &c. EDWARD very fair B. Numbers. OR. mar. On the Vayu or Hayu Tribe of the Central Himalaya.R. Comparative Vocabulary of the Lan guages of the Broken Tribes of Nepal. Comparison and Ana lysis of Caucasian and Mongolian Words. Memorandum relative to the Seven Cosis of Nepal. Aborigines of the Eastern Frontier. It is a . the Capital of Nepal. and their connection with the Hima SECTION VI in Arakan. Eastwick s rhymed translation a secure position as the best version of Sadi s finest work. and will be welcomed by all who take interest in Oriental any poetry. On Himalayan Ethnology. Being Letters on the Education of the People of India. Vocabulary of the Dialects of the Kiranti Language. Some Accounts of the Systems of Law and Police as recognised the State of Nepal. On the Aborigines of North-Eastern India.

6d. literature. .Religion &quot. BIGANDET. Indian Antiquary students o the Sl &quot. Edinburgh Daily Review. 420. With Annotations..D. ESSAYS. &c. terms f exa^-ated P.. 1 &quot. It is this &amp. as Exh t SUCl a thor( u & h acquaintance with the ? i M him i t \ to entitle to speak as one having authority.China s Place in &quot. The Modern Languages of the East the Hon.St. history and antiquities of India The author speaks with the authority of personal experience. Post 8vo. Atktnceum. price los. HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL. The result of thirty-five years 01 and that on subjects as ful1 of fascinat4 as &quot. EDKINS. cloth. and ritual is set forth. &quot. in China. know none who has described Indian especially much learning. &c.&quot. Two Vols. WRITTEN FROM THE YEAR 1846 TO 1878. D. with so &quot. n n 01 he country aud the poople wh ch gives such to m2i v 01 on? . LINGUISTIC AND ORIENTAL NEEDHAM CUST.&quot. Pe&amp. BY Author It J. &quot.lt.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL Third Edition.gt.ise ^towed upon Buddhism^ recent Philology.32 6.&quot. sympathy. cloth. The Ways to Neibban. It deserves most careful study learning. pp.Athenaium. viiL-268 and viii. &quot.-DuWin Review.-Academy ^ &quot. and literary life.. pp. post 8vo.Upon the whole. &quot.. 496. and Notice on the Phongyies or Burmese Monks. SERIES. religion. Edkins Christianity. s Indian Civil Service and Author of &quot. BY ROBERT Late Member of Her Majesty &quot. of &quot.m Bishop of Ramatha. CHINESE BUDDHISM.&quot. This work ^S^^SSSf^KSSfS^ is one of the greatest authorities upon Buddhism. Vicar-Apostolic of Ava and Bishop Bigandet s invaluable work. contains a vast deal of important information on the subject such as is only to be gamed by long-continued study on the apot. pp.. cloth THE LIFE OR LEGEND OF GAUDAMA. Secretary to Indies. THE BUDDHA OF THE BURMESE. price i8s. price 2is. &quot.We the Royal Asiatic Society.&quot. re0nedln ^ /otSn Post 8vo. A VOLUME OF SKETCHES. P. James s Gazette His book contains a vast amount of information. many tJie pages. ^ a . xxiv. &quot. from all interested in the history of the religions of the world and expressly of those prOp atio n Dr. we know of no work comparable to it for the extent of it research and the simplicity with which this original complicated systS^of phi osophy. talent life of the natives They seem to us to be full of suggestive and original remarks.&quot.-British Quarterly Review The whole volume is replete with . BY THE RIGHT REV.

closely related to ourselves.&quot. It is a capital specimen of Hebrew scholarship light-giving labour. With Notes and Copious &quot.&quot. cloth. scholar. &c. a monument of learned. : of Folk-lore Extauit BEING THE JATAKATTHAVANNANA. They are probably the nearest representatives of the original Aryan stories from which sprang the folk-lore of Europe as well as The introduction contains a most interesting disquisition on the migrations India. Post 8vo. . His well-established reputation as a Pali scholar is a sufficient guarantee for the fidelity of his version. . direct or refracted. Academy.&quot. No more competent expositor of Buddhism could be found than Mr. xxviii. . tracing their reappearance in the various groups of folk-lore legends. civ.&quot. Its peculiar and popular character will make it attractive to general readers. Rhys Davids. &quot.These Volume I.TRUB NEK S ORIENTAL SERIES.&quot. of these fables. Indexes. Jeicish Herald. are tales supposed to have been told by the Buddha of what he liad seen and heard in his previous births.. 362. Mr. W. a priceless record of the earliest imaginative literature of our race . . James s Gazette. and especially extracts that throw light upon the Scriptures. Edinburgh Daily Review. is a boon to Christians at least. Jataka Tales. just as they were passing through the first stages of &quot. British Quarterly Review. and . Hershon has which they can test for themselves. Post 8vo. Rhys Davids asserted his right to be heard on on Buddhism in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia of high &quot. RHYS DAVIDS. Dally News. Translation. them . &quot. A THOUSAND AND ONE EXTRACTS FROM THE TALMUD THE MIDRASHIM. It is now some &quot. of &quot. specimens This book is by far the best fitted in the present state of knowledge to enable the of the multifarious contents general reader to gain a fair and unbiassed conception of the wonderful miscellany which can only be truly understood so Jewish pride Inquirer.&quot.. . In the Jataka book we have. loving. FAUSBOLL And Translated by T. Genesis According to the Talmud. Author of &quot. pp. The value and importance of this volume consist in the fact that scarcely a single extract is given in its pages but throws some light. this subject by his able article Leeds Mercury. a fair set Mr. The Oldest Collection For the first or. we have no hesitation in saying that this surpasses all in interest. &quot. .&quot. 348. praise. &quot. pp. &quot. we meet with a version of the Judgment of Solomon. &quot. then. it presents to us a nearly complete picture of the social life and customs and popular beliefs of the common people ot Aryan tribes. BY V. time Edited in the original Pali. Among other old friends. asserts by the life-long devotion of scholars of the Chosen People. price i8s. bad. Talmud &quot. price 143. &quot. and the style of his translations is deserving &quot. The Record. years since Mr. Times. All who are interested in Buddhist literature ought to feel deeply indebted to Mr. BUDDHIST BIRTH STORIES. To obtain in so concise and handy a form as this volume a general idea of the Times. Britannlca. OR. we believe. . Rhys Davids. A TALMUDIC MISCELLANY. St. Contains samples of the good. Hershoii is a very competent and indifferent. AND THE KABBALAH. cloth. upon those alik Scriptures which are the common heritage of Jew and Christian &quot. Compiled and Translated by PAUL ISAAC HERSHON. . civilisation. of the Without overlooking in the slightest the several attractions of the previous volumes of the Oriental Series. Will convey to English readers a more complete and truthful notion Talmud than any other work that has yet appeared.&quot. thus given English readers what is.

of his Ancestors. JAMES W. pp. Translated. is much to attract the scholar in this volume.A. HALL CHAMBERLAIN. . The author has manifestly devoted much labour to the task.&quot. THE CLASSICAL POETRY OF THE JAPANESE. Chamberlain s volume is. &c. and rendering characteristic specimens into English verse. Saturday lievieic. S. Tablet.&quot. of studying the poetical literature of the Japanese. But the more thanks are due to him on that account for the way in which he has acquitted Himself in his laborious task. Its primary object is to translate. But he has evidently laboured con amore and las efforts are successful to a degree. A &quot.S. (Son of Sennacherib).&quot. Assyrian Exhibitioner. Mr. Celestial Empire. &quot. M. Christ There Post 8vo. M. 681-G68. OF or HoLY MESNEVl) MEVLANA (OUR LORD) JELALU D-DIN MUHAMMED Book the First. so far as we are aware.. &quot. ER-RUMI. as Collected by their Historian. REDHOUSE. A . &quot. xii.R. and it offers both to the professed and to the ordinary non-Assyriological Semitic scholar the means of Assyriplpgist controlling its results.1. of course. cloth. 6d. A. &c. and List of Eponyms. London and China Express. cloth. It does not pretend to popularise studies which are yet in their infancy. a very numerous class. Translated from the Cuneiform Inscriptions upon Cylinders and Tablets in the British Museum Collection together with a Grammatical Analysis of each Word. BY ERNEST &quot. BUDGE.R. who is desirous of obtaining an insight into a very important department of the literature extant in that language.It Post 8vo. MEVLANA SHEMSU. of Yeigo Henkaku Shiran. Explanations of the Ideographs by Extracts from the Bi-Lingual Syllabaries.C. pp. BY &quot. xii. &quot. Chamberlain set himself a difficult task when he undertook to reproduce Japanese poetry in an English form. and of his Descendants. &quot. cloth. &quot. Times. Academy.&quot.TRUSNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. Students of scriptural archeology will also appreciate the Historv of Esar&quot. &quot. Budge s book is.A. It is to the classical poetry of Old Japan that we must turn for indigenous Japanese thought and in the volume before us we have a selection from that poetry rendered into graceful English verse.. B. s B. BY BASIL Author &quot.&quot. price 2is. Illustrated by a Selection of Characteristic Anecdotes. THE MESNEVI (Usually known as THE MESNEVIYI SHERIF. but it does not assume to be more than tentative. 228.Daily News.This book will be a very valuable help to the reader ignorant of Persia. 164. pp. Tablet. College. EL AHIFI. very curious volume. Tabiet.&quot. it is to be feared. price IDS. mainly addressed to Assyrian scholars and They are not.A. Together with some Account of the Life and Acts of the Author. complete treasury of occult Oriental lore.. in English. Post 8vo.Mr. is undoubtedly one of the best translations of lyric literature which has appeared during the close of the last year. THE HISTORY OF ESARHADDON KING OF ASSYRIA. price ys. the first attempt which has been made to interpret the literature of the Japanese to the Western world.lt. Cambridge. hacldon.&quot.&quot.D-DIN AHMED.Mr. 6&amp. 448. and the Poetry Versified. EL EFLAKI.

Member &quot. A 2 &quot.S.G. Hitopadesa. valuable of the excellent series to which it belongs. Rhenish Mission Society. it of the Bengal Asiatic Society. it is reading. Arnold success bends his his preface tells us. Trubner s Oriental Series.M. By the REV.&quot. pp. C. medium of his musical English melodies. We regard the book as valuable.&quot. cloth.The Light of Asia. INDIAN POETRY. quite a feast of good things. the &quot. &quot.&quot. Altogether. Faber Nature. pp. pp. contained mighty of phrases language of Eastern luxuriousness and sensuousm ss. C. in whom the five senses are typified. of Songs. &quot. &quot. that being. producing nhlp fidelitv to the original text. Standard. . Antiquary.. SERIES. Church Mission. of Jayadeva Two Books from Proverbial Wisdom from the Shlokas of the India&quot. cloth. price 73. from the allurements &quot.S. By the REV. Nothing could be love of which Krishna is portrayed in the gradual process of being weaned by the Beautiful Radha.Indian Song The Iliad of of the &quot. -Daily lelegrapfi. viii. Arnold in these epics. u . Author of &quot.I. THE MIND OF MENCIUS OH. s Indian Allen efforts.&quot. It is full of interesting matter. Hong Kong. Mr.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL Post 8vo. . Faber is HUTCHINSON.*-** J^ s work is one of the mos For those who will give it careful study. &quot. good service by illustrating.. the goal towards which he classics. with Additional Notes.The poem abounds with imagery and the verse has a richness and air seems laden with the spicy odours of the tropics. Mr. 6d. 296. from the Sanscrit Containing a New Edition of the &quot. of Chinese studies by his digest of already well known in the field i work will perceived rhen it is the doctrines of Confucius. Arnold will have introduced it among popular is not unknown to scholars. Edwin Arnold does In this new volume of Messrs. and wish for Record. as Mail. F.&quot.Gita Govinda&quot. has adhered with tolerenjoyable while very The translator. &quot. and other Oriental Poems. LONG. &quot. price 6s.i betwee remembered that at no time since relations commenced said almost had West has the former been so powerful-we ffF&quot. B. a in his attempt to populanse Indian certainly wTsh Mr. 280. POLITICAL ECONOMY FOUNDED UPON MORAL PHILOSOPHY. with Translated from the Original Text and Classified. Post 8vo. BY EDWIN ARNOLD. (Mahabharata). dullest. a melody sufficient to captivate the senses of the a poem. xvi. through the The Indian Song of Songs the power of Indian poetry to stir European emotions. price IDS.- so thoroughly into No other English poet has ever thrown his genius and his art has done in his splendid para the work of translating Eastern ideas as Mr. ^We Post 8vo. A PHILOSOPHER SYSTEMATIC DIGEST OF THE DOCTRINES OP THE CHINESE MENCIUS. Mr. 6d. jasmine-bosomed Radha. ERNST FABER.K.S. The value of this fe nd the in. Comments and Explanations. a wide circulation and attentive Globe. EASTERN PROVERBS AND EMBLEMS ILLUSTRATING OLD TRUTHS. than the shades by delicate and more graceful English poems. 270. BY REV. Mr. of the forest nymphs. cloth.&quot. xvi. J. Overland Mail. Translated from the German.&quot. A.&quot.

M.A. Foreign Church Chronicle. Earth has drawn with a master-hand. Davies s book as a valuable addition to our philosophical &quot. the nature and relations of man and his future destiny. viii. Is not only a valuable manual of the religions of India. The present work shows not only great knowledge of the facts and power of clear exposition. But probably there are few Indianists (if we may use the word) who would not derive a good deal of information from it. The merit of the work has been emphatically recognised by the most authoritative Orientalists. i6s. M. This volume is a reproduction. for it is in reality only one. Translated from the French with the authority and assistance of the Author. is the only contribution of India to pure philosophy.&quot. THE HINDU PHILOSOPHY. 152. Post 8vo. BARTH. with an Appendix on the Nyaya and Vais eshika Systems. Modern Review. admitted to present the best summary extant of the vast subject with which it &quot. . and has added the literature of the subject to date .R. Kapila is the earliest attempt on record to give an answer. considerably enlarged the work for the translator. Dublin Review. &quot. . &quot. Davies a patient and learned guide who him into the intricacies of the philosophy of India.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. which we have in English. (Cantab. Critic (Neio York). which is here given in a trans lation from the Sankhya Karika. price THE RELIGIONS OF INDIA. &quot. and without Mr. pp.&quot. Davies s lucid interpretation it would be difiicult to appre ciate these points in any adequate manner.). An Exposition of the System of Kapila. and in his learned and able notes he exhibits the connection of the Sankhya system with the philo sophy of Spinoza. . of an article contributed by the learned author two years ago to the Encyclopedic des Sciences It attracted much notice when it first appeared. and especially from the extensive bibliography provided in the notes. . the translation may. We welcome Mr. but also great insight into the inner history and the deeper meaning of the great religion. The non-Orientalist finds in Mr. cloth. Post 8vo. apart from Buddhism. Tablet. cloth.&quot. Notes and Queries. &quot. BY A. &quot. to the mysterious questions which arise in every thoughtful mind about the origin of the world. but also a useful work of reference.S. which it proposes to describe. which marks a distinct step in the treatment of the subject. SANKHYA KARIKA OF IS WARA KRISHNA. and supplies him with a clue In the preface he states that the system of that he may not be lost in them. at the request of the publishers. Mr.A.&quot. with corrections and additions. Presents many points of deep interest to the student of comparative philo sophy. of Kapila contains nearly all that India has produced in the department of pure philosophy. BY The system JOHN DAVIES. pp. Academy. This is not only on the whole the best but the only manual of the religions of India. Davies s volume on Hindu Philosophy is an undoubted gain to all students of the development of thought.&quot. . both in this country and on the continent of Europe. deals. Saturday Review. The system of Kapila. leads &quot. and the connection of the system of Kapila with that of Schopen hauer and Vou Hartmann. . price 6s. library. Such a sketch M. The author has. therefore. . . be looked upon as an equivalent of a new and improved edition of the original. and is generally Religieuses.&quot. . . 336. from reason alone.

&c. xii.. Lodiana. Custodian of the Grey Collection. VEDANTASARA. His work . these have been carefully col lected by Dr. Vol. 6d. Vol. an accurate summary of the doctrines of the Vedanta. BY THEOPHILUS HAHN. A MANUAL OF HINDU PANTHEISM. 392. xii. 414. cloth. BY MAJOR G. TSUNI GOAM : THE SUPREME BEING OF THE KHOI-KHOI. A COMPREHENSIVE COMMENTARY TO THE QURAN. and for others who. price IDS. not at the Cape only. is one of the best of its kind that we have seen. cloth. I. it is no doubt \vell that they should be prepared to meet. pp. TO WHICH IS PREFIXED SALE S PRELIMINARY DISCOURSE. cloth.. Max Miiller in tlie Nineteenth Century. in fact. 408. 6d. 340. this for Saturday and purpose pretations. intended for missionaries in India. Corresponding Member of the Geegr. indeed. E. &quot. &quot. JACOB. Halm and printed in his second chapter. Corresponding Member of the Anthropological Society.. A. are these. Prof.. pp. Vol. So copious. Hahn s labours will be of interest. pp. The first instalment of Dr. but in every University of Europe. price 6s.A. with copious Annotations. In Four Volumes. of this little work is to provide for missionaries.&quot.. The modest title of Major Jacob s work conveys but an inadequate idea of the vast amount of research embodied in bis notes to the text of the Vedantasara.. Discourse.. a most valuable contribution to the comparative study of religion and mythology. the ordinary arguments and inter Jlr. x.&quot. It is. Preliminary By &quot. is WHERRY.&quot. Inspector of Army Schools. have little leisure for original research. Cape Town . IV. James s Gazette. Ph.. and Notes. Accounts of their religion and mythology were scattered about in various books . WITH ADDITIONAL NOTES AND EMENDATIONS. price 123.. Post 8vo. II. It is full of good things. Society. pp. 154. M.&quot. Post 8vo.. III. Kev. Vienna. 6d.. Translated. Vol.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. M. pp. like them. vi. and so much collateral matter do they bring to bear on the subject. price 123. pp. St. if they can. . price 123. . &c. 130. Wherry s book Review. Together with a Complete Index to the Text. enriched and improved by what he has been able to collect himself. Calcutta Review. viii.D. price 79. Dresden . I | cloth. cloth. As Mr. cloth. 6d. viii. Bombay The design Staff Corps . Post 8vo. that the diligent student will rise from their perusal with a fairly adequate view of Hindu philosophy generally. 6d. Wherry s additions will prove useful.

M. . Whinfield has executed a difficult task with considerable success and his version contains much that will be new to those who only know Mr. price 53. which is based on the best materials.. 6d. for the trustworthiness of which Dr. cloth. .M. price gs. Oxrbrd who may In practical purposes this is perhaps the most important of the works that have appeared in Triibner s Oriental Series. and the description of the successive religions under the Old Kingdom. with an English Verse Translation. H. EDWAKD GOUGH. pp. M.For As exhibited in a series of Articles contributed to the Calcutta Review. his translation of the Bhagavad Gita as we judfje the bet of quite Post 8vo. Tieles name is in itself a guarantee. E. . price xos.A. Bengal Civil Service. Translated. By DR. xxiv.Academy. 6d. Vol. vi. THE BHAGAVAD-GITA. pp. cloth. Scotsman. THE QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYYAM. By &quot. &quot. and the New Kingdom is given ii a manner whicli is scholarly and minute. 268. We cannot doubt that for all take it up the work must be one of profound interest. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE UPANISHADS AND ANCIENT INDIAN METAPHYSICS. with Introduction and Notes.) is.A.&quot. late WHINFIELD. post 8vo.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES.A. Mr. TIELE. Vol. P. &quot. as well as independent investigation. xxxii. &quot. cloth. HISTORY OF THE EGYPTIAN KELIGION. Post 8vo. Principal of the Calcutta Madrasa. Two Volumes. H.&quot. The Persian Text. pp. In this volume there is a great deal of information. 6d. pp. By ARCHIBALD thus far M. Post 8vo. I. 336.The most prominent features in the are their Quatrains profound combined with a fatalism based more on philosophic than religious agnosticism. &quot. Lincoln College. By JAMES BALLINGAL. Translated by E. (Cantab. THE QUATRAINS OF OMAR KHAYYAM. cloth. cloth. BY add that JOHN DAVIES.. pp. 230. Saturday Review. A COMPARATIVE HISTORY OF THE EGYPTIAN AND MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGIONS. 208. price 73. Translated from the Dutch with the Assistance of the Author. price 8s. the Middle Kingdom. WHINFIELD. C. late of the Bengal Civil Service. their Epicureanism and the spirit of universal tolerance and charity which animates them Calcutta Review. xxiv. Fitzgerald s delightful selection. H. grounds. &quot. Post 8vo. I. Barrister-at-Law.. It places in is which . 96. the hands of the English readers a history of Egyptian Religion very complete. and which has been illustrated by the latest results of research.

of .&quot. Ought folk-lore. Ralston. A. and A.A. to interest all who care for the East. 368. . SERIES. price IDS. to the Eastern folk-tales. and that which is read in all the independent native schools of India where Persian is taught. for Pall Mall Gazette. . has done further good work in this translation from the Persian. style of his author into our more prosaic. 302. &quot. 6d. culled from the Kahgyur. Ixv. price 143. S. Translated from the Tibetan of the KATI-GYUR. The author successively passes in review the sixteen philosophical systems current in the fourteenth century in the South of India and he gives what appears to him to be their most important tenets. language. xii. lias familiarised the translators wiih Indian Athenaeum. Standard. 6d. is a living tradition. pp.A. M. Mr. or for comparative . and he has evidently shown not a little skill in his rendering the quaint and very oriental The work.&quot. who . A protracted sojourn in India. less figurative. &quot. entirely novel mefhod of dealing with philosophical questions and impart a interest to the otherwise dry technicalities of the science. Post 8vo. pp. cloth.The where there thought. . The translation conld scarcely have fallen into better hands. LINGUISTIC ESSAYS. Post 8vo. . is of importance as being one of the most popular and famous poems of Persia.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL Post 8vo.. into English from the BY W. BY &quot. price 93.&quot. GRIFFITH. whose name is so familiar to all lovers of Russian folk-lore. 281. This work is an interesting specimen of Hindu critical ability. ANTON VON SCHIEFNER. Professor of Sanskrit iu the University Cambridge.Mr. . . M. . Translated from the Persian into English Verse. GOUGH.. RALSTON. RALPH T.&quot. pp. YUSUF AND ZULAIKHA. price 8s. REVIEW OF THE DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF HINDU PHILOSOPHY. - ix. E. Griffitli.&quot. Calcutta. and his mastery over the English language fits him to be a Athtntbum. BY CARL ABEL. 266. Abel is an opponent from whom it is pleasant to differ. for he writes with enthusiasm and temper. drawn. . pp. German.&quot. Translated by E. R. champion of unpopular doctrines. . for the most part. Post 8vo. A POEM BY JAMI. Review. TIBETAN TALES DERIVED FROM INDIAN SOURCES. Calcutta &quot. viii. COWELL.An human Dr. &quot.. Professor of Philosophy in die Presidency College. real &quot. has done already good service as translator into verse from the Sanskrit. BY Done F. cloth. &quot. cloth. amusing stories. translation is trustworthy throughout. An Introduc tion gives the leading facts in the lives of those scholars who have given their attention to gaining a knowledge of the Tibetan literature and language. one of the divisions of the Tibetan sacred books. cloth. Scotsman. has supplied some interesting Western analogies and parallels. from Slavonic sources. THE SARV A DARSANA SAMGRAHA OK. M. besides its intrinsic merits. BY MADHAVA ACHARYA. B. Academy. H. with an Introduction.

Scotsman. Natal Mercury.&quot. Nature. full of information.-25o. BY C. ESTLIN CARPENTER. and late of &quot. short and clear. pp. the Thibetan version was originally discovered by the late M.A. with Notes. . Mr. pp. price 73. ot Few books ?W . Professor of the History of Religions University of Leyden. price A SKETCH OF THE MODERN LANGUAGES OF AFRICA. UDANAVARGA. all one at Third Edition.&quot. an intention frustrated by his death. or enable the reader to gain a better bird s-eye view of the latest results investigations into The religious history of nations. TIELE. pp. As Professor Tiele modestly s llttle book are outlines l} pencil sketches. &quot. Post 8vo. interested in African languages cannot do better than get Mr. Post 8vo. as yet the only term of comparison available to us. i8s. xvi. P. By &quot. A COLLECTION OF YERSES FROM THE BUDDHIST CANON. these sentences. OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF RELIGION TO THE SPREAD OF THE UNIVERSAL RELIGIONS. but which has been carried out by Mr. I might say nothing more. AY. cut and perhaps also dry. and the reader gets a start clear away in any particular language. Oust s book. s Indian Civil Service. It is encyclopaedic in its scope. Cust has contrived to produce a work of value to linguistic students. price 93.Any NEEDHAM Her Majesty CUST. BY ROBERT Barrister-at-Law. it is. xxiv. u there are some men whose sketches from a thumb-nail are of far more worth than an enormous canvas covered with the crude painting of others. condense the fruits of long and thorough research. cloth. Mr. and is left free to add to the initial sum of knowledge theru collected. Rockhill maybe congratulated for .Mr. NORTHERN BUDDHIST VERSION OF DHAMMAFADA.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES. Rockh ill s present work is the first from which assistance will be gained for a more accurate understanding of the Pali text. Saturday Review In Two Volumes. post 8vo. accompanied by a Language Map. 6d. the Translated from the Dutch by J. BEING THE Compiled by DHARMATRATA. The Udanavarga. and it is easy to 2 that these pages. &quot. of its size contain the result of so much wide thinking. 566. having well accomplished a difficult task. Ilockhill. . xv. who published the Tibetan text and had intended adding a translation. able and labostudy. and Extracts from the Commentary of Pradjnavarman.&quot. Translated from the Tibetan of Bkah-hgyur. M. in Doctor of Theology. in fact. 224. . \YOODYILLE ROCKHILL. cloth. Schiefner. cloth.

of opinion. The volume is rich in ancient stories bearing upon world s renovation and the origin of castes. Post 8vo. religions an intimate knowledge of them as they at present exist. price 93. PHAYRE. and fulness with which the author &quot. Derived from Tibetan Works in the Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur. Third Edition. price 163.. . so as to give &quot. Edkins valuable work. PEKING. Scotsman. with Maps and Plan.The volume bears testimony to the diligence has consulted and tested the ancient documents bearing upon his remarkable subJe Will ^appreciated by those who devote themselves which have of late years taken in these Western regions so remarkable a develop ment Its matter possesses a special interest as being derived from ancient Tibetan works some portions of which. Tenasserim. ARTHUR P.. andC. By JOSEPH EDKINS. pp. Pegu. &quot.&quot. BALLANTYNE. 6d. Taungu.I. -GEN.S. pp. price 143. Including Burma Proper. Saturday Review. pp. W. R. Containing a Brief Account of the Three Religions of the Chinese. with Observations on the Prospects of Christian Conversion amongst that People.&quot. ROCKHILL. have not yet attracted the the attention of scholars. price 73. Followed by notices on the Early History of Tibet and Khoteu. viii. As a missionary. 312. Dr. . THE SANKHYA APHORISMS OF KAPILA.Sir Arthur Phayre s contribution to TrUbner s Oriental Series supplies a recog nised want. Nonconj or mist. cloth. cloth. From the Earliest Time to the End of the First War with British India.&quot. &quot..S. RELIGION IN CHINA.M.D.&quot. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA AND THE EARLY HISTORY OF HIS ORDER. cloth. Post 8vo. of which this is a second and revised edition. Edited by from the Commentaries. Dr. to those Buddhist studies rities. late Principal of the Benares College. and Arakan.TRUBNER S ORIENTAL SERIES.C.. Post 8vo. publishers. and its appearance has been looked forward to for many years General Pliayre deserves great credit for the patience and industry which has resulted in this History of Burma. from the time that it was published. With Illustrative Extracts Translated by J. Translated by W. Edkins duty to study the existing his in and long residence in the country has enabled him to acquire China. British Quarterly Review. has. . 276. pp. been the standard authority upon the subject of which it treats. &quot.-274.D. &quot. it has been part of Dr. as recorded in these venerable autho &quot.&quot.G. C. Dr. la Societe Academique Indo-Chinoise de France. Edkins has been most careful in noting the varied and often complex phases an account of considerable value of the subject. K. Third Edition. xii. Saturday Review.&quot. A HISTORY BY LIEUT. Daily News. Post 8vo. here analysed and translated. LL. D.-464. Edkins may now be fairly regarded as among the first authorities on Chinese religion and language. . Calcutta Review. Second Secretary U. Legation in China. SIB Mernbre Correspondant de OF BURMA. cloth.B. students of Hindoo philosophy have every reason to be grateful t( &quot.&quot. G. for which The work displays a vast expenditure of labour and scholarship. FITZEDWARD HALL.. X.

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Asiatic Kesearches. his Europe the vast Buddhist literature hardly more than an index of the it. not been investigated by scholars. when he wrote Buddhist in their infancy. each line averaging syllables. must have ANY one who been struck with the wonderful patience and perseverance of this extraordinary scholar. Some idea of the extent of his analysis of the the researches which are embodied in Dulva.&quot. if not had always acceptable. and their importance &quot. fully as we could have in to which may be found many important works which help elucidate the difficulties which so frequently beset the canonical works in the Bkah-hgyur. Csoma s premature death prevented him examining as desired the Tibetan Bstan-hgyur. which. may be had when it is known that it occupies more than 4000 leaves twenty-two did to of seven lines to the page. From what is has been said we may safely assert that it not impossible to extend the analysis of the Bkah-hgyur . about the tenth part of the whole Bkah-hgyur. But notwithstanding all that Csoma make known work to is of Tibet.INTRODUCTION. has glanced at the analysis of the Tibetan Bkah-hgyur by Alexander Csoma de Koros. and many important subjects on which the Bkah-hgyur furnishes answers. Tibetan Tripitaka. are still plausible and interesting.was as yet ignored. studies were Moreover. published in the 2Oth volume of the &quot.

sutras. to which no indices are attached. and frequently literal translations. but as the work from which he translated them was composed by a Tibetan lama of the seventeenth century. avadanas. which Burnouf tells us is the Pali work of this 1 presents the same peculiarity. because they appeared of sufficient interest to justify their presence in a 1 The third volume of the Dulva contains 13 jatakas. that it far beyond the power of any one scholar to examine them in their entirety. but it contains jatakas. it could hardly be considered as authoritative. as name. are the materials which are supplied us. Some of the passages of this volume have been analysed by Anton Schiefner in his Tibetische Libensbescriebung Qakyamuni (St. and he must necessarily confine himself is to one special subject or branch of research. and probably the oldest portion of the Bkah-hgyur. . and it has been thought advis able not to omit these documents in their original Tibetan form. some of which I have in the Pali jataka. of the greater part of the historical or legendary texts contained in the Tibetan pitaka. frequent reference to the pages of the original (the East India Office copy of the Bkah-hgyur). vyakaranas. and in that it resembles the Sanskrit Vinaya. A few of these texts have been introduced in this work. So numerous.vi INTRODUCTION. however. and udanas. The Tibetan Vinaya (Dulva) is not solely devoted to recording the rules and regulations of the Buddhist order. 1849). Petersburg. and the fourth volume not volume met with 39. we hope we By will have facilitated researches in the cumbrous Tibetan volumes. Dulva or Vinaya- which is unquestionably the most trustworthy. In the first part of this work we have endeavoured to give a substantial and connected analysis. beyond the limits reached by Csoma.

By comparing Buddha the from different sources. and that of the last year of his life. suggested the idea of taking the commencement of his reign (five or eight years before the Buddha s death) as a dividing-point in the Buddha s life. Thus the oft-recurring phrase that Adjatasatru was king of Magadha when such and such an event took place. the history of his in about the life Gautama are narrated down to his visit to Kapilavastu in the early part of his ministry. which is vii intended to give an idea of the Tibetan Vinaya the following notes on the life of the with other works on the same subject. all the texts which are The histories of the councils of Eajagriha and of Vaisali. and they differ in many respects from the versions of these events previously translated from Pali or Chinese.INTRODUCTION. and of putting in the same chapter prefaced with this remark. All the events which occurred between these two periods are with any particular year of his life. contained in the eleventh volume of the Dulva. than that however united they may have been. made shortly after his death. The authenticity of the council of Eajagriha has been doubted on insufficient grounds. life of will be seen that two periods of by all Buddhist authors same terms (probably because they all drew from the same source their information). but derived it literature. should . and we have been obliged to avail ourselves of any incidental remarks in the texts for arranging our narrative in even difficulty assigned to a semi-chronological order. and. without examining the merits of the case. are here translated for the first time. we cannot help thinking that it was much more rational that a compilation or collation of the utterances of the Master and of the rules of the order should have been his followers.

an Indian Buddhist His work is especially interesting. and do not mention any revision of the sacred works performed by this synod. of these works. and though Bhavya of terms often quote better Vasumitra. What little infor mation we possess of the early history of this secluded of translations country is scattered about in a number of works not always accessible. A few words volume are necessary to explain the presence in a from the Tibetan sacred writings of a chapter on the early history of Tibet. but who are unwilling to look it. which has been translated by Professor Wassilief. by Bhavya. over. the different documents which treat of We have endeavoured to supplement the researches of our predecessors in this field with what new facts we have been able to derive from a somewhat hurried examina- . In the sixth chapter will be found a literal translation of the greater part of a work on the Buddhist schools of the Hinayana renown. It was thought that an abstract of the greater and more reliable part of the and frequently unsatisfactory on ac works bearing on this question might prove acceptable to those knowledge on over all this who may desire to have some subject. have allowed a century to elapse before fixing in any More definite shape the sacred words and ordinances. both Pali of Vaisali and Tibetan works only credit the council with having settled some unimportant questions of discipline. unfortunately. are far Both satis from being appears to factory. as of great it differs materially from that of Vasumitra on the same subject. count of the defective transcription of Tibetan words.viii INTRODUCTION. he has not made use translation) (at least in the Tibetan which might enable us to understand the frequently enigmatical explanations of Yasumitra.

that it These extracts are interesting. tion of the Tibetan ix Bstan-hgyur and some other books which have come under our notice. which is always met with in in general. but gives about the same date for his reign as the Dipawansa and Mahawansa. The extracts it new. documents. Bunyiu Nanjio for the notes they have kindly furnished me. This last-named work seems to have been compiled from documents unknown to Northern Buddhist writers and from the particular form in which certain proper names have been transcribed (such as Ydgo in stead of Yd$as or Yasheska. with the exception of one. Ernst Leu- mann and Mr. the most important of the works on this subject which I have met with.or Prophecies. and is incorporated in chapter viii. Still it is strange. that they show with what care and precision the great Chinese traveller Hiuen Thsang recorded the traditions of the different countries he visited. belong to a class of Buddhist works called Vyakarana. in as they do. are quite believed that no scholar has heretofore called attention -to -them. moreover. In them the Buddha predicts to his disciples the events which will occur in days to come in such a country or to such an individual. Northern texts). The texts from which they have been taken. we think its author had access to some Southern documents on the early history of Buddhism. was inspired from these Pali does not give exactly the same dates if it My most sincere thanks are due to to Dr. This supposition is. and which are reproduced in the .INTRODUCTION. as do all Northern Buddhist ones. all In this case these Predictions are corroborated by the statements of the Li-yul-lo-rgyuspa or Annals of Li-yul. still more strengthened by the fact that this work does not confound the two Abekas.

we will feel fully compensated pains. It is hoped that the special index of Tibetan words with their Sanskrit equi valents at the end of this to those volume who may wish this to will prove of assistance Buddhism in the Tibetan study original works. Appendix. Leumann s translation from the Bhaga- vatl will prove of great assistance in elucidating the very obscure passage of the Samana-phala Sutra relative to Gosala s theories. Bunyiu Nanjio of the s parallel trans lations of two Chinese versions Samana-phala Sutra tend to prove the existence at an early date of several distinct versions of this very interesting sutra. June 6. . most embarrassing parts of reading Tibetan Buddhist works is the habit of those who did these works into Tibetan of translating all the proper names which One of the were susceptible of being translated.x INTRODUCTION. Throughout volume no attempt has been made . and our labours for all our facilitate this. and Mr. to criticise the texts which have been studied they are only intended as materials for those take to write a history of who hereafter may under the Buddha founded on the thfe comparative study of works extant in tries in different if coun which his doctrines flourished . LAUSANNE. 1884. Dr.

HISTORY OF THE WORLD FROM THE TIME OF ITS RENOVATION TO THE REIGN OF CUDDHODANA. PAGE INTRODUCTION V CHAPTER I. lSl HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM . AND TEN HISTORY OF THE CHURCH DURING THE HUNDRED YEARS WHICH FOLLOWED THE BUDDHA S DEATH . . FROM THE REIGN OF CUDDHODANA UNTIL THE COMMENCEMENT CHAPTER LIFE OF THE III. S FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF ADJATASATRU DEATH OF THE BUDDHA REIGN TO THE CHAPTER V. FATHER OF THE BUDDHA I CHAPTER OF THE BUDDHA S MINISTRY II. BUDDHA FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF HIS MINI STRY UNTIL THE REIGN OF ADJATASATRU CHAPTER IV.CONTENTS. 14$ CHAPTER VI.

EXTRACTS FROM BHAGAVATI XV.. (TIBET) 2 O&quot. . 26l . I. . BY DR. CHAPTER VIII. .xii CONTENTS. ACCORD ING TO TWO CHINESE VERSIONS OF THK SAMANA-PHALA SUTRA. . 270 . THE EARLY HISTORY OF LI-YUL (KHOTEN) . . . NIGANTHA NATAPDTTA) AND GOSALA MANKHALIPUTTA.230 APPENDIX. . THE DOCTRINES OF THE SIX HERETICAL TEACHERS. ON THE INTERCOURSE BETWEEN MAHAViRA (i. CHAPTER THE EARLY HISTORY OF BOD-YUL VII. WITH THEIR SANSKRIT EQUIVALENTS . . 249 II.e. ERNST LEUMANN . BY BUNYIU NANJIO. ESQ 2 GENERAL INDEX INDEX OF TIBETAN WORDS WHICH OCCUR IN THIS VOLUME.

b appearance in the world. HISTORY OF THE WORLD FROM THE TIME OF ITS RENOVA TION TO THE REIGN OF QUDDHODANA. and of the ancient peoples who inhabited it. The Buddha feared that if he himself told the story the tirthikas would accuse him of unduly extolling his own clan 42O ). v. tells to the Maudgalyayana who. In the fifth volume the story is told to the bhikshus by the Buddha. of goodly a pleasing colour. volume of the same work. although the rest of In the the text is exactly the same as that of vol. many of its inhabitants were born in the region of the A^bhasvara devas. FATHER OF THE BUDDHA. fol. their faculties fect in all their principal appearance and of were unimpaired.THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. they were per and secondary parts. CHAPTEE I. and there they had ethereal bodies. but several inte resting passages are there omitted. Light proceeded from A . at the Buddha s Qakyas the story of the world s re generation. iii. free from every its &quot. 421-430. fol. THE following history of the world s renovation and of the origin of castes is taken from the fifth volume of It also occurs in the third the Dulva. At the time when the world was destroyed. third volume it is request. 155-166. to teach them how sin first made (D. impurity .

there blew a wind. Hodgson. 194. and thus he a conceived a liking (f. of delightful (f. (lit. or fractions of seconds there were no months. its taste like that of uncooked honey. 3 [so Other beings saw this being tasting the rime 1 &quot. minutes. of delicious taste. i. solidify and coagulate This rime it. : . they Cf Gen. Essays. . night or day. no years neither were there males or females there were only animated beings. in colour like unto butter. so they departed that life and became men. of the water and of the ocean that were 1 mingled together. p. but with attributes similar to those they previously had.. In Scandinavian mythology the renovated human race is fed on dew. . the merit of their good works being exhausted. xxxiii. 156^ fragrance. the cream) as when the wind blowing over the surface of boiled milk which is cooling. solidifies and concentrates the cream. 43. 2 At that period there was neither sun nor moon in the world there were no stars in the world. I57 ) for it. Then it happened that a being of an inquisitive nature tasted the rime with the tip of his finger. some of the beings in the region of the Abhasvara devas had accom plished their allotted time. and p.2 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. prithivirasa) was of exquisite colour. essence of the earth. 3 . note 3. 6. in the Vedic sense of bright ones/ &quot. half months. Norse Mythol. See Anderson. 2 The first beings were devas. p. their persons they moved through space and fed on joy. the water and the ocean which were mixed together. In the meanwhile this great earth was mingled up with Then on the face the waters and with the mighty deep. H. seconds. no periods of time. which solidified and concentrated the rich surface (lit. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the water. At this period when the world was formed. neither was there . and he commenced eating . So likewise the cow Audhumbla lived on salt that came from the rime produced by the ice-cold streams. 55. of the great earth. did this wind blowing over the surface of the earth. so likewise . pieces of it as food. and Ps. See B.&quot. i. and they lived in this state to great ages for a long period. 2.

I ! . For these reasons the sun and moon were created b came into existence.] (f. a while. minutes. followed his example]. The complexion of those who ate but little of this food was clear. of delicious fragrance. a 159&quot. there appeared a fatty substance (prithMparvataJca) of of delicious fragrance. I57 ) day. a When the rime had vanished from these beings. have a fine complexion. months and half months. as did night and (f. 59 . stars also ing on this rime lived to great ages for a long space of time. The beings feed . whereas and thus were established distinctions. (f 1 5 8 . in flavour like this as their food. for the [This food also vanished after reasons as above. dark. Why. &quot. Then they took honey. and they lived to great . seconds. in exquisite colour and savour. uncooked and on it they lived to great ages for a long while. colour as a dongka flower. appeared a spontaneously growing rice. in flavour like uncooked honey and they took this as their food. and as food. and became sinful and iniquitous. 3 it commenced eating pieces of From these beings eating the rime as food their bodies became coarse and they lost their brilliancy and gross their goodly appearance.ORIGIN OF THE DIVISIONS OF TIME. there appeared bunches of reeds (vanalata) of exquisite colour and savour.) b . divisions of time and years. 1 same When the bunches of reeds had vanished from not there mankind. for the [This fatty substance vanished the disappearance of about had as same reason brought the rime. and darkness was upon the face of the earth. fractions of seconds. ages for a long while. after a while.) the others. and then the rime vanished. w hereas that of those who ate much of it was Then those whose complexion was clear said to r &quot.] When the fatty substance had vanished from mankind. you are dark They whose complexion was clear were proud of it. in colour like kadambuka flower (f.).

Now. each other. i6o b) on in former days has become praiseworthy now. without pellicule. it was grown ere evening . exclaimed. pebbles. stones. and. even unto seven days. threw at them stones and &quot. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. they thus insult us do you wrong. ! But those who had acted doest that which is wrong!&quot. . From eating this rice their different organs were de of veloped . these sinful beings were so possessed by !&quot. clean. and Good luck.&quot. houses. saying unto them. sister!&quot. the ways of wickedness that they commenced building &quot. so that it was not Then they took this as their food. ?&quot. There was never any lack of it for if it was cut down in the evening. i6o a ) saw what they were doing.Here. lust. &quot. so they threw at them earth. it was grown up again in the morning if it was cut down in the morning. who had &quot. . four fingers in length. what was cut down grew up missed. ? As nowadays when man &quot. they said. so those parched rice. and on it they lived to great ages for a long time. when they had done wrong one. earth. . two. was wrong. exclaimed. three. But doest wrongly thou doest that which is not right that which was had done who done had who wrong. burning with fornication. some had those of males and others those females. they sprinkle her over with dust. Then they saw each other. takes unto himself a wife. what was not tolerated in former times has become tolerated nowadays what was looked down (f. and Thou doest wrongly thou potsherds.4 coarse. perfumes. Why do you thus insult us a &quot. afresh. Why And thus it was that what was formerly considered unlawful has become lawful nowadays. seeing the sprinkled them with gravel. flowers. with cries of beings. &quot. gravel. and conceived love for they came to commit Other beings (f. &quot. crying after that.we may do what is not . which done that wrongly. pebbles ! wickedness of those other Beings. Thou and potsherds.

1 Now divisions this the first appearance s decision.&quot. &quot. from grah. to embrace. i6i ) assembled together in sorrow. &quot.&quot. &quot. the that This leads us to suppose word lchyim like a very large class 1 &quot.&quot. let us morning. of other words in Tibetan. but remained as it had been left.Look Come. in accordhyims-pa. last &quot. If these beings and he the lord wanted rice to eat in the evening or in the morning. all Here follows a recapitulation of the preceding history. allowed &quot.ORIGIN OF PROPERTY. derives the Sanskrit griha. ) .&quot. Come. capital! I will take . with faculties 2 Let us now draw lines of unimpaired.Tew not up again. Now another being answered Then he him. enough rice for two. to contain. 5 . Sirs. seven &quot.&quot.&quot. free from every impurity. Look after your go for at one time to last me taken own rice. they would go and get what was requisite but it happened that one being who was of an indolent for evening and disposition took at one time enough rice to said him. i6i ). And because these beings took to laying up provisions growing rice.&quot. other. Khyim is probably derived from to encircle. and he did accordingly. and this (division) is lawful or not lawful according to the king of the law. &c demarcation and establish boundaries between each one s of this spontaneously &quot. I will take enough for a fortnight. did he and seven days accordingly. Then it happened that some one said to this person. . and from is this expression originated the word house. morning and evening&quot. (f. ance with this supposition. b Then these beings (f. for a month.&quot. and said. rice. &quot. ethereal bodies. Good. it became coarse. formerly we had grief. &quot. three. and when it had been cut down it &quot. &quot. in the world of is by houses. days. &quot.Good. let us go for rice have taken enough at one time to I rice own after your &quot. I have enough a Then the other thought. was not used with this signification until after the introduction of Buddhism into 2 Tibet.. and lamentation. . three. capital rice ! thought the &quot. but he answered him. a husk enveloped the grain. . me two. &c. which house. &quot.

&quot. taken the rice of another without his consent. Why did you bring this man here to whom you had spoken about the rice ? In bringing him here into our midst you have done him a Then they a wrong. they said to him. Why do you take the rice of another without his consent. go. assemble together. and they shall recompense those of us who do what . the largest. him into their midst. happened that one person took another s rice without his consent. and he is the Now. I have been . When the other b persons saw this (f.&quot.Why have you his own. thought. So they drew lines of demarcation and set up This is is &quot. (they said). But he went a second and a third time. thus take the rice of another without his consent.Let happened. just us. treated in that I have been laid hold of by these per sons on account of some rice and brought into this assembly.&quot.&quot. and this (boundary) is right or not right according to the king s decision. as So they laid hold of him and though it was your own ? &quot. this person has been guilty of taking the rice of another without his consent. who are the finest-looking. property. and when other persons saw him. the strongest. and who had spoken about the rice.&quot. bounds thine first this is mine &quot. as though But he it was your own ? Go. as if it was his own. who had stolen said to them.6 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and do wrong no more. this the lord of the law. they said. (f. as if it was your own ? You must not do this again. Sirs. and let us make them lords over our fields. the handsomest. as though it was Then they said unto him. as if it was his own.&quot. has what of view in &quot. Then they said to those who had brought him thither. and do not so again&quot. i63 ) they said to him. Sirs. and took the rice of another without his consent. led &quot. &quot. &quot. and choose from out our midst those &quot. appearance in the world of a system of boundary lines. i64 ).&quot.badly &quot.Why do you After this it &quot. and they shall punish those of us who do what is punish able.

who were afflicted with diseases.ORIGIN OF THE KSHATRIYA CASTE. and the people gave to them with These learned men are willing hearts. and from the produce a portion. where they made huts with boughs man and leaves. &quot.&quot. &quot.&quot. they would go into the villages to gather food they alms. he was called King. And they did as they abl had said. will give thee a 164?) and of the fruits many he was called and as he was Mahasammata Honoured by many. the vedas.we will compose Then &quot.&quot. left their villages tions. to]. Each evening wanted food. we will compile the vedas. i65 ) find perfection in either meditation in and mantras compiling fect seclusion. righteous the law. went to a certain place. by morning and evening they come it into the village to beg alms.Here. : punishment.&quot. not having been happened that some persons able to find perfection in meditation and perfect seclusion.&quot. tras. . from them and fields the harm. Now some b others of their number not having been and per to (f.&quot. ulcerafor the wilds and misery. or Raja. fields. or . or in composing to their villages. and in the morning when they required would do likewise. and the produce of our fields portion of of us who we (f. we gather. i65 ) they dwelt therein. rest as above down liberations afflicted [the disease.&quot. &quot. with mankind to happiness the homages of &quot. pains. From his receiving &quot. they said. with boughs and leaves. them will we the fruits we gather give did as So they gathered together [and they had decided lord over their fields with upon]. he received lord over kept or of the Protector of Kshatriya and the name who brought one arid and man a as he was wise. left the wilds and went back . when they (f. for they thought. and huts themselves made they Some beings b . and they made him shalt punish those of us thou Henceforth these words shalt recompense those and thou who deserve &quot. is 7 of our fields and of praiseworthy. &quot. deserve recompense.

and gowns. i66 b ) brahman and vaisya families cut and beard. The brahmans . they were called readers or Pathaka.we &quot. There a fourth one created. but did read. derived from rje-ba.&quot. that of the Qramanas. In &quot. made &quot. Those who lived away from the forests and in villages were called Villagers. they arose in their presence and bowed reverentially to them. or &quot. &quot. different of things&quot. therefore called a Thus was also or Vaisyas. would do]. &quot. by this transgression stealing first showed itself in the world. &quot. Members of (f. vaisya vi is derived from (kinds Jaschke derive this word from rjewhereas it is evidently 60. and putting on saffron. i66 ) applying themselves to different handicrafts and occupations in their homes.&quot. and completely retired from the world (pravradjitd) and to them the kshatriya spoke with respect. in which there had been no trace of it until then. they said.lord. and they were kinds&quot.8 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Members of kshatriya families cut off their hair and beard. and putting on saffron-coloured left their homes for a homeless state.coloured gowns. away &quot.different of things (which they did sell). Those who lived detached minds. as if it had been his own.&quot. Then it was that when a person first took rice from another. and to them the completely off their hair kshatriyas spoke with respect they arose in their pre sence and bowed reverentially to them. 1 were created in the world these three castes.&quot. either food or drink/ had said they And so they gave alms [and did as they &quot. &quot. merchants. barter. and vaisyas [treated them with like respect].Here. they retired from the world. and from the fact that (some) were not given to contemplation. from villages were called Brahmans.). &quot. by 1 Rjeu-rigs. = vis.to . so-so.&quot. By this act. will distribute alms and do good works. Both Csoma and our text. Some beings (f. &quot. shall have who come and sit down at our board they may wish.&quot. [treated them with like respect]. they left their homes for a homeless state. The brahmans and vaisyas . All those all &quot.

King Mahasammata s son was Eokha (Od mdjcs). 9 which there was The history of the succeeding events is taken from the volume of the Dulva. for he dreaded the responsibility of a sovereign ruler. and he ruled over one this From one s right foot continent. fol. in Kamapala (? do. sin now exists in the world. born a son whose name was Mandhatar (Nga-las mi) (f.] b .a). Gautama. no trace third stealing. 43 5 a) the former was a virtuous man. From son whose a fleshy excrescence on his left foot was born a name was Karumant (Mdjes-ldari). continents. over two continents 43 i b ). in Takshagila. in of it in the first place. From his left shoulder was born a son whose name was Upakaru (Nye-mdjes-pa\ and he continents (f. These six kings are called the six incommensurT ables. b 43O ). whose de scendants ruled in Varanasi (f. . whose son was Utposhadha (Gso-sbyongFrom King Utposhadha s head was hphags) (f. . 420* et seq. w hose son was Varakalyana (Dge-mtclwg). 43 3 ) Mahesvarasena (Dbang-pTiyug tcJien-poi sde) of Varanasi had many descendants. whose son was Kalyana (Dge-l&amp. (F. who had two sons. 430*). they are not immediately connected with the useless to lose time with them. &c. 43 2 b ). [Then followed a long succession of kings.). but as it is Qakyas. though the elder. He ruled (f. in Hastipura. begged his father to allow him to become a recluse. . in Kanyakubdja. who reigned in Kuginagara and also in Potala (Gfru-hdjin) one of these was King Karnika (Itna-ba-chaii). tumour on King Mandhatar s right shoulder (?) was born a son whose name was Kara (Mdjes-pa\ and From a He ruled over the four great were his magical powers. whereas the latter was wicked.gt. ruled over three 431). was born a son whose name was Upakarumant (Nye-mdjes-ldan).SUCCESSORS OF MAHASAMMATA. for exceeding long were their lives. Having obtained the necessary consent. Gautama and Baradvadja (f.

&quot. and was from that time known as Kanakavarna (? Gser-gyi-mdog).io THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and questioned him as to innocent. so that the rishi Gautama dried up and . While yet alive. and the heat of the rising sun caused them to open. Now dren must be Gautama 1 the rishi Kanakavarna perceived that these chil s. 437 ). 438 b) so the rishi caused a great rain to fall on Gautama. replied. then they took him outside the southern gate and impaled him (f. &quot. and there he dwelt. died. and Bar- happened once that a courtesan of Potala called Bhadra was killed by her crafty lover near the recluse s hut 1 a (f. If I am Gautama &quot. his guilt. The people of the town finding the murdered woman and the sword in the hermit s hut.). 436 ). and two drops of semen mingled with blood fell from him. thought him the mur He was marched derer. and from out them came two children. so he took them home with See Dulva. rishi Krichnavarna &quot. 437&quot. and he was condemned to death. f. the saw him. . into which the murderer threw his bloody sword. rishi he became the disciple of a called Krichnavarna (Mdog-nag). for his brother had no children (f. Gautama also told the rishi ! that he was greatly worried at the thought thaj the throne of Potala would become vacant. Gautama built a hut within the precincts of Potala. his master. through the city with a wreath of karapira (sic) flowers around his neck and dressed in rags. a advadja became king (f. iii. The heat of the sun went on increasing. King Karnika died. i ct seo^. Following his master s advice. and a mighty wind to arise which soothed his pains and revived his senses. After a little while these two drops became eggs. who went into a sugar-cane plantation near by. may you from black be come golden-coloured and straightway the rishi became golden-coloured. It After a while.

He died. One hundred of his de scendants reigned in Potala. Having been born as the and having been brought forth by its rays. p. p. p. him and provided sun arose. hawanso. 1 b four other sons. were. however. of Budh.&quot. on the representation of his wife s father. they built huts of leaves. Spence Hardy. and the younger became king under the name of Ikshvaku. Buddha. 439).ORIGIN OF THE IKSHVAKU FAMILY. xxxv. u. and Nupura (Rkang-gdub-chati). 11 for them. Cf. called Ivarakarna (Lag rna). Ikshvaku (Bu-ram shing-pa) (f. on condition that if his wife bore a son. and coming to the hermitage of the rishi Kapila. called Angirasas (Yan-lag skyes). the last af which was Iksh vaku Virudhaka (Hphags-sltycs-po) (f. The princes a great set out. When this last child had grown up. of the sun family or Suryavansa. Romantic Legend. he should be king. being the children They of Gautama. on the bank of the Bhagirathi (Skal-ldan shing rta). in the third place. they were &quot. and fed on the produce of their hunting 1 (f. Gautama.&quot. 443). p. Having been found in a sugar-cane plantation. the children and made the elder one king. He married. Bigandet. Tib. they were called called were. 20. Cf. and the ministers con sulted the rishi to know if Gautama had left children b He told them the strange story. King Virudhaka.. Man. accompanied by their sisters and They travelled toward the Hima laya mountains. 3d first edition. and as they were born from his loins. 439 ). shada and Visakha in Schiefner s 128. so also Beal. they &quot. After a while she had a son whose name was Rajya- 44 i ). where mention is made of a prince called RajyaSee also Tumour s Mabhinanda. the part of the story of Mahau- . without issue. &quot. 440). Tales. 133. a second time. many people. He had four sons. however. moreover. Ulkamukha (Skar-mdah gdong). Leg. was obliged to declare his youngest son his successor and to exile his nanda(?) (Rgyal-srid dgak) (f. Baradvadja died without issue. and they took (f. calls this prince Janta. &quot. of the Burmese p. Hastinajaka (Glany-po tche hdul).

reigned in Kapilavastu. His son was Vasishta (Gnas-hjog). Also Spence Hardy. fol. ! the daring young men!&quot. . Devadaho. &quot. vastu). and he marked it out with golden sand mixed with water. 55. Bigandet. 65. who had two sons. Birth Stories. and his youngest son succeeded him (f.12 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Ulkamukha became king of Potala but he also left no issue. 34. tcher rol-pa. also called Devadaha. they took as their wives who were not of the same mother as themselves. loc. 83. p. and Rhys Davids. and from this they &quot. cit. so . 2 This is the town known in the Southern tradition as Koli. father of Sup- But p. Buddhism. or Kapila- vastu. The rishi Kapila having given the soil they called the town &quot. King Virudhaka died. Beal. where the town is &quot. 2 &quot. p. 444b ). . 445) but dying without issue. 52.. and they built it according to his directions (f. When they had become very numerous. and his successors. Romantic Legend. Following the rishi s advice. Neither of these left children. although abridged. p. 1 The rishi showed them where to build a town. he speaks also of the town of Desomewhat diswaha near a lake tant from the city&quot. gives a different account. p. 13. he asked his courtiers what had become of them then The daring young men they told him their adventures. &quot. a deva pointed out another spot. The last of these was Dhanvadurga (? Gfdju-brtan). and he by Hastinajaka. calls it Rgya&quot. 444). rabuddha. 140. 12. . Devadarcita ? See Rhys Davids. became known as Qakyas (f. calls the town Kaulya. 23. and was succeeded by Karakarna. 292 b et scq.. and that she must be of their own clan (f. King Virudhaka thought one day of his comely sons.000 in number. (of KapilaSee also Bigandet s note. which they called shown by a deva or Devadaha. on which they built a town. 444 b ). cit. this sisters and in way they had many children. &quot.. where Devadaha occurs as the name of the Raja of Koli. p. he exclaimed. op. he p. and Foucaux. 1 All this legend of Ikshvaku Virudhaka s children is to be found also in Dulva xi. so JSTupura became king. &quot. Buddh. Kapila&quot. p.the soil of (vastii) of the place. They made a law in a general assembly of the clan that they should only marry one wife.

^ukla s son (or daughter) was Mallika (Phreng-la-chari). which would be Od(or Idan or Skar-rgyal in Tibetan. Amritachittra Amrita s) son was Tishya. cit. Quddhodana had two sons. Drona (Bre-lo-ma).SINHAHANU S DESCENDANTS. Rgya-tcher rol60). . 326.Zas-d&ar). the ayuchmat Djina (? Egyal) Quklodana had two sons.and gtsang). Beal.. Bhadra and the Qakyaraja (or Bhallika. The Blessed One s son was Eahula (Sgra-gchan zin) (^ 1 445 b ). Quddha and Amrita (Tsad-med ma).. the According to Spence Hardy. I think. (Gtsang-ma). Devadatta was son of Suprabuddha. names has occasioned the confusion. pa. p. and these names are most likely different ones for Nanda. Dhammapada. p. Drona s son was Sulabha (? Bzang-len}. Amritodana had two sons. p. p. Quklodana (. who is mentioned cording to Rhys Davids. 64. 3 Amrita s son was Kalyanavardana (? Dge-hplieT). p. vi. 2 Cf. 3 According to Beal. two by Maya (or Prajapati). for he is the only one by this name (at least among the Cakya in the princes). Manual. 44 5 ). according &quot. says that he was son of Dronodana. 52. Rupananda was the same as Sundarananda. Amritodana (Ts ad-med zas). Amrita loc. accit. 301. Bzang-ldan). his mother being a sister of to Fausboll.. The similarity of the two 52. Qukla (Dkar-mo). Mahanaman (Mmg-tchen) and the ayuchmat Aniruddha (Ma-hgags-pa). there were three sons of Cuddhodana. s loc. Dronodana (Bre-lo sas). Cuddha s son was Suprabuddha (or Suprabodha. loc. Dronodana had two sons. 137. the Blessed One &quot. He is also called Sundarananda texts. and the ayuchmat Nanda (Dgali-lo). the ayuchmat Ananda (Kun2 dgah-bo) and Devadatta (Lhas-sbyiri). He had also four daughters. B. Quddhodana (Zas(f. 313. Nanda and Rupananda and Siddhartha.Nanda fair&quot. translation. p. Buddhism. tit. p. Huen Thsang. Legs- par rab-sad). or (Mdjes dyaliSee Foucaux. Cuddhodana . 64. and Rhys Davids. p. 13 Sinhahanu (Seng-ge Jigram) and Sinhanada (Seng-gei sgra) a Sinhahanu had four sons. 1 &quot.

f. He told her he was not able to do so but he had her one made more beauti a ful still. for it had been pre dicted that she would bear a son with all the characteristics country of . The queen took such a fancy to the place.&quot. note. This latter married a woman by the name 1 and in her com of Lumbini. says that Suprabuddha s wife was rita. (Dulva iii. the fostermother of the Buddha. is Maya better known as Maha- Gautami. note.. 448 a ). He took Mahamaya. Buddh. Suprabuddha offered the hands of his daughters to Sirihahanu for his son Quddhodana (f. 2 Some time after a second daughter was born. See also Bigandet.) DURING King Sinhahanu s reign the Kapilavastu enjoyed peace and prosperity. After a while Lumbini brought forth a child of such extraordinary and supernatural beauty that they called her Maya. It is remarkable that our text does not mention Mahamaya s death order of female mendicants. and her sister Pradjapati. . p. p. that she begged the king to give it to her. and wherever she is mentioned. Suprabuddha. and Beal.. the mother of Nanda. 368. has p. 14 and 27. According to Bigandet. garden was so called after the name of the wife of the chief minister of 1 Am &quot. f. She name. cit. which belonged to a wealthy citizen.. 52. is called by this op. . loc. 447 ). as in Dulva x. and it was called Lumbini s grove (f. 2 cit. Rhys Davids. over which Suprabuddha was reigning. and she they called Maharnaya. p. after she had become a bhikshuni. and the head of the pradjapati seven days after the birth of Siddhartha. as did also the country of Devadaha. Dulva iii. and xi. the Lumbini 42. the Buddha s mother was called Maya. Romantic Legend. who was exceedingly fair of a beautiful in the habit was he grove near visiting pany the city. FKOM THE REIGN OF CUDDHODANA UNTIL THE COMMENCE MENT OF THE BUDDHA S MINISTRY.CHAPTEE II. 446 a . 13.

p. Sinhahanu requested that. they would allow his son to have two wives. and Quddhodana married Maya. and knowing that his time had come. 45 2 ). of the time. 4 of the decided that Mahamayti race. 144. does not agree with the Southern version ^as well See also Bigandet. The people allowed him this privilege. as our text. 5 was the right mother. The . Cf. If he son with the thirty-two signs of the great man. Manual. arhat. . recompense. 449 b ). on account of the ^akya law allowing a man only one wife. a perfectly enlightened While visiting the 1 Buddha. to refuse the elder sister. 45 .&quot. on this point and on the queen s dreams of The dream Lalita Vistara.MAHAMAYA S DREAMS. Spence Hardy. stays he shaves his hair and beard. Birth Stories. and the young to subdue them. if but monarch a universal become he will at home. of a chakravartin 15 monarch . (2) she moved in space above. After a while Sinhahanu died. p. forth a &quot. in the midnight watch he entered a her womb under the appearance of an elephant 1 (f. but she bore him no children (f. for the time being. and he knew Mahamaya his wife. p. he made the five pre of the proper family (in which 1 liminary examinations lseng-Jcyi-bu) to be born). 28. 63. Buddh. (3) she ascended a great rocky moun tain (4) a great multitude bowed down to her. 3 . but he was obliged. as a prince vanquished them. putting on an orangecoloured robe. 449 a). and the people begged the king to send his son Quddhodana The king consented. Lumbini garden (f. and Rhys Davids. 63. and Quddhodana reigned in his stead. 2 of the of the country. Now the future Buddha was in the Tushita heaven. (i) She saw a six- tusked white elephant enter her womb. At that time the hillmen of the Pandava tribe (Skya- were raiding the Qakya country (f. he will become a Tathagata. The soothsayers predicted that she would bring . leaves his home for a homeless state and renounces the world. and. woman and having Then the queen had four dreams. b ) the pains the queen has evidently occasioned the legend of the Bodhisattva s incarnation under the form of an elephant. p.

&quot. he went to receive the new-born child in his lap. To the north. &quot. p.. Dulva xi. had him at the same time. 229. on account of his adroitness in all arts. &quot.. steps in the direction and seven toward the west. In accordance with what happens at the birth of every Buddha. that he was called Vimbasara. 453). f. &quot. childbirth of came upon tree. however. p. Vist. and Rhys Davids. Huen Thsang. To the west. 2 Cf. which washed him. The Bodhisattva. Lalita Vistara. said. op p. It is also said See Dulva i. King Mahapadma had a son born to him. which dispersed ance the crowd (of her attendants). Looking to the east he nirvana. and then took seven steps in the direction of each of the cardinal points. 37 . I will cross the ocean of existence &quot. vii. Qatanika (Dmag-lrgya-la). f. B. her. bisara. &quot. at.&quot.&quot. 5. and she seized hold of a wide-spreading agoka all a violent rain to fall and a Then Qataketu (Indra) caused wind to blow. trans. l ! (f. Lai. In Kajagriha. Also Bio-aiidet.&quot. there fell on his head a stream of cold water and one of warm. Qrenika or Crenya. note 2 . 85 et seq. I will be the first of all creatures. where he takes seven of the east. ordered him back. and Dulva xi. 99- He received the surname of . &quot. Kaugambi. 458 ). 99 a. was called Bim. and at the spot where he had been born there appeared a spring in which his mother bathed. f. who. Assuming the appear of an old woman. and being also brilliant as the rising sun of the world. At the same time as the Buddha was born a son was born to Bing Aranemi Brahmadatta of Qravasti from the whole country being illuminated at the time of his birth b 2 he was called Prasenadjit (f. the p. 89.). being the son of (queen) Birnbi. p. 3 the expert. 3 The king 1 of a son born to Cf. 67 323 . p. and as the world was chap. vi. I will reach the highest To the south. This will be my last birth. sun appears. and Fah Hian (Beal s . because at his birth the world was lit up as when the disk (vimba) of the See Foucaux.1 6 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

158 ch. 156. Buddhist Birth Stories. so he received the second name and of The mighty one of the Qakyas or Qakyamuni .. It was Qakyas to make all new-born children bow Qakyavardana young child to the temple. chap. &quot. fol. ch.. Petersburg edition of the Bkahhgyur differs from that of Paris and London (India Office). v.. xviii. At Udjayani there was born a son to King Anantanemi (Mu-khyud mtlmli-yas). Kaludayi.THE PRINCE S NAMES. 173 . ix. 68 . &c. fol. so the child was called Sarvarthasiddha (All fulfilled. fol. 128. ch. when the king saw the yaksha bow at the child s feet he and the child was He is the god of gods exclaimed. 27. On the same day as that on which the future Buddha was born many blessings of different kinds were granted his father. xi. ch. tit. ch. 162 fol. Mdo xvii. ch. &quot. . fol. 165 x.. 93 et seq.. fol. Rhys Davids. 185. moreover. a 1 In the texts of the Bkah-hygur where his name occurs he is called See Udayana. viii. Lalita Vistara (Foucaux s trans. other explanation of the name. 339. ch. f. the Petersburg. in 4to. fol. fol. . On the way to the temple every one was struck with the infant s bold appearance. B . 46o a ). &quot. ch. 154. fol. for an- &quot. ch. 39 . &quot. xvi. xx. Now at that time there lived 46i ). See. Tchandaka. &quot. As St. 4 op. on the Sarvadhara (Kunfol.). p. . 99. 3 Cf. iv. xiii. 1 17 illuminated at his birth as with the sun. fol. ch. xix. ch. 96. 183. 46o b ). ch.. but the yaksha bowed down at his feet 3 (f. xiv.. down at the feet of a statue of the yaksha (Qdkya-hpJiel or spel) so the king took the . 1 therefore called Devatideva 4 (f. Cf. fol. 52. fol. Davids. fol. 106 . &quot. ch.. p. B. Buddhism. i. ch. 194-210. St. the following concordance may be of use to those who may desire to consult the origiIn the Paris nal of these legends. 118. fol. p. 1 14 . 137 . Huen Thsang. p.. 1875. 99 of Dulva iii. he was called Udayana. Schiefner s ch. vi. ch.. fol. vi. vii. p. he was called Pradyota (Rab-snang) 2 (f. ch. .. xii.. the horse Kanthaka. .. fol. Lalita Vistara. The instructive legends concerning him given in Dulva xi.&quot. fol. born Ya^odhara. 459 a ).. have been translated by Schiefner in his Mahakatyayana und Konig Tshanda-Pradjota. 321. f. and from the fact that the world was illuminated as if by a lamp at the time of his birth. that on the same day on which the Buddha was born were We also commences on ii. 139 151 .. ch. fol. and Beal. ch. f. and London edition. and Dulva xi.. xvii. Thams-clmd-grul-pa) the habit of the (f. &c. p. Raja of Vadsala. See Bigandet. viii. fol. 163 .. xv. 2 He was afterwards surnamed the cruel Tchanda. ch. 1 78 . 147 . xi. See also Dulva vi.. .. Rhys learn.

They say that Nalaka became a disciple of this. Schiefner. he was called or Mahakatyayana. 467 ). Rgya-tcher According to Spence rol-pa. 2 p. Peters. Birth Stories.&quot. p. given by a man. b . While the Bodhisattva was still in his nurse s arms. . unable to move it. vii. de St. the ministers. 44. Mem. Hardy. 1 Schiefner. loc. she wanted to give him a golden bowl in which was rice and meat. substantially the of our text. with the present ver- lightenment that sion Dulva xi. feeling his end approaching (f. See he then went back to the Himalayas. agrees with Spence Hardy in saying that Asita had been a samapatti of the He also calls the nephew king. the rishi is called The Naraka (p. and that then he would find the drink of the 1 hdsin) mountain a = Asita). Asita (or Rhys and Bigandet. Nay-po).1 8 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. where he entered into a company of five hundred mantra-studying brahmans and as he was of the family of Katya. datta. 39. Katyayana (f. loc. and then he died. p. p. Cf. Kaladevalo. 2 family. that he would be an ascetic for six years. p. Vistara. does not mention the name of the mountain . calls 42. also Dulva xi. With however. Nalada went to Varan asi. calls Nalaka. cit. Lalita Vistara. 71. Buddh. p.. cit. Manual. 149. the Buddha . No. f. Davids. Rhys Davids. I. calls the mountain Kish- kindha. p. p. 56.. as does Beal. 7. which agrees with the name given him in the Southern legend. and died after seven months.. 151).. do not agree. a mighty seer. been prophesied about him.. 103. him Nalaka. chap. cit. 467^. all the town s people but &quot. cit. He predicted that he would leave his home at twenty-nine. byiri). p. The Tibetan Mis-byin. shortly after his en- &quot. lii. 99. nor does In the Lalita Beal. xxii. Shortly after. Kaladewala counsellor of ( Asita) had been chief The nephew he King Sinhahanu. loc. rislii called Aklega (Kun-mongs-med and with him was Nalada (MisThese two came to see the child (f. Kala. he begged Nalada to enter the order of the young Cakya as soon as he should have found the truth. where we find another epitome of the Bud- dha s early same as that life.of the they were all . Narada or NaraFoucaux.&quot. Later on. She called the king. del Acad. p. and asked what had took and Asita 464 ).. cessation of death (amrita). 69. is in Sanskrit. reached arhatship. 71. b him in his arms. calls the nephew Narada. having been converted by the great member of Katya s the Buddha. p. he became known as . his nephew. Bigandet. but she was unable to move it from its place. Neither could five hundred elephants but the Bodhisattva took hold . loc. 99^ et scq.

and Sahadeva (Lhar-bchas) taught 6 b (f. him archery he was yet hardly grown up. The arrow of the Bodhisattva. threw it to one side . Lebens. so he Bodhisattva seeing it there. Tib. and on that spot the believing brahmans and householders built a stupa..manner in translating of a by . 4 9 ). it dug a great ditch the in falling. spring mans and householders When 1 this last 47 i ). hand After this the young Qakyas tried their skill at archery. (f. elephant ditch. and which became known as &quot. Sprin-lu worm. On account of As mighty as a thousand ele this exploit he was called &quot.THE PRINCE S EDUCATION. ^6cf)} mitra). The Bodhisattva through space with Did cast it as a stone far away. but the lying in the road. built a stupa. x. or Hastigarta&quot. So having covered it with jewels. &quot. 468). &c. filled with envy.&quot. for they had heard that he would be a chakravartin monarch. 19 bowl with one finger and pulled it out. took it by the tail. 470).&quot. but when they were near the town. phants (f. where the master is called Vi&amp. they led it to Kapilavastu. Lalita Vistara. 236. saw the carcass 470). b Cf. Together with five hundred Qakya children he went to be taught his letters by Kaucika (? Sprin-lu go-tcha Vic^vateach (f.lt. and it is rever it over seven fences and ditches. enced to the present day by the bhikshus. and threw fist (f.Devadatta mighty elephant. after having pierced all the far into the ground that it caused a targets. but he knew everything he could him how to manage Af ter that his uncle Sulabha taught elephants. and. his Nanda carried it seven paces. p. mitra. And here it is said killed the &quot. chap. go-tcha.jvaI have followed Schiefner. event happened. &quot. When Nanda coming that way. the Bodhisattva was (f. went so and there also the believing brah rush to forth. Devadatta noticed he killed it with a blow of his it. the Licchavis of Vaisali offered him an elephant of exceptional beauty.

Rhys Davids. tree called (Kalyanagarbha. says that Dandapani s daughter was Gopa Beal. riding their chariots. tara. and 60. (f. Dulva x. . Foucaux s trans. and when the Bodhisattva was twenty. xii. p. s he showed his dexterity with the bow it. re-entered the city. p. daughter b 2 of the Qakya Dandapani (Lag-na dbyug-chari) (f. to do it. 152. pani ject. as if he was a personage with whom the reader was well acquainted.000 women. 52. any undue importance to the chronological order in which the stories are given. 32. whereas the former was flooded. Dgebai which had grown exceedingly big.&quot. says*Dandadaughter was called Gotami See also his note on this sub(Gopa?)... Bigandet. Beal. Spence Hardy. not before. . b only mentions two wives of io5 the Bodhisattva. at least in the first part of &quot. loc.. loc. 52. cit. p. and conmaternal sequently Siddhartha s uncle. 3 thought he could induce the prince to come without asking him. cit. agrees with See Foucaux. p. Quddhodana decided that his son must marry had all the maidens of the clan assembled for choose. on the banks of the Eohita there were gardens 1 Spence Hardy. agrees with Rhys Davids. Suprabuddha asked Quddhodana to request his son (f. If twelve years hence seeing the Bodhisattva. he will become a universal &quot. p. 2 has Of. p. the soothsayers. where he makes Dandapani loc. first 155. it had been overthrown by the wind and had made a dam between Kapilavastu and Devadaha. same page. 3 Tchandaka is here introduced for the first time. Tibetan version of the Abhinishkramana Sutra. aunt of The Lalita Visthe Bodhisattva. it has ried that the prince was sixteen. 4/2 ). Rom. brother of Suprabuddha. Mrigadja. 140. All the people were unable to move the snying-po). but the father did not like to disturb him 473). as the Lalita Vistara. 47 i b ). Now. the prince s charioteer. says Ya9odhara was daughter of Suprabuddha and Amrita. monarch&quot. so that the latter place was deprived of water. Yacodhara. 96. tree. after his marriage. and he took . cit. On the day of the Buddha s birth there had appeared a &quot.20 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Tchandaka (Hdun-pa). p. makes The her daughter of Mahanaman. exclaimed. so he to him Ya^odhara (G-rags hdsin-ma). the Dulva. so essence of virtue &quot. fol. he does not give up the world. This and many more important omissions in the text seem to indicate that the present version is but a summary derived from older texts at present This obliges us not to attach lost.. Buddh. this work.. mar- when he was and that Leg. 80. seventeen/ for we are told that when the young Qakyas. undermined by the waters of the Eohita.. Manual. chap.

p. 208 .. Tales. op. 448. a viper ran out before the Bodhisattva. however. but Udayi (Htchar-ka) struck it down. 21 belonging to the young Qakyas. and. or and he was henceforth called l (f. and there Tchandaka went with the young nobles. Tib. who took it. became of the black. and dexterity on the part of Sid- 123. 4/4 ). cit. p.&quot. p. She is mentioned as being a Cakya in Dulva iv. He also says that cit. Yacodhara. saying that it had attempted to take its life. p. Udayi the black.DEVADATTA S FIRST QUARREL. this 1 Now According to Beal. a piece falling on either bank of the happened when the prince was in his b twenty-second year (f. The Qakya Kinkinisvara 2 (Dril-lu sgra) had a daughter called Gopa (Sa-litso-ma). 2 Udayi \vas son of of Mahanaman and brother loc. but from Takshasila. 52. f. and asking Tchandaka what was the matter. so he shot it. daughter was Gupta. fallen the tree. it up. knowing that the Bodhisattva was there. a messenger to claim the bird. None young Qakyas could any more than move but the Bodhisattva threw it into the air. 206 and Schmidt. bound up its wound. he learnt that the people were unable to move the tree. 238.. however. and Mrigadja. distinctly speaks of three different wives. It is also to be noticed that our text does not connect the different tests of skill his et seq.. et seq. dhartha with his marriage to Ya^odhara. so he at once offered to go and do it. Devadatta saw a goose flying overhead. and on was p. and it fell in the Bodhisattva s garden. Kaludayi 474). Gopa.. p. in it broke and two. Schiefner. having ex Devadatta sent tracted the arrow. I have not seen mentioned in the Dulva that Utpalavarna was wife of Siddhartha. and as the Bodhisattva was she saw him from riding home (from removing the tree T) Eohita. There was another bhikshuni of the same See name. 236 he tells us that Gopa another name for Yasodhara. before it had bitten him. The Dulva. See Bigandet. On a sudden the Bodhisattva heard shouts. While they were still in the gardens. but the Bodhisattva would not give it. belonged not to him who but to him who had saved And 474)- this was the first quarrel between these two (* As they were going to assist the people. Yagodhara. so that his skin &quot. not. Schiefner calls him Gantacabda. Dsany Ulun.

Deeply impressed. f. and again he turned back. The charioteer told him that he was one who has forsaken the who wandered here and his wants b (f. were fascinated with each other. 73). 78. Another time he came across a procession bearing along on a litter. virtuous* man. and he took Gopa and made her his son s wife. world.. 476). him to a 7 ). a righteous. so to divert him he sent 1 But there he to look at the ploughmen. iv. while out driving. and to this state all must come (f. p. prince turned back and went A short time after. the women accompanying It was a corpse. Rhys Davids. Northern works (Lalita Vistara. abode who had assumed the appearance of a shaved and shorn mendicant. hevelled hair and were crying piteously. with burning torches. 6 ). Beal. he met a drop with faculties sical man rlcib-po). 153. the gives repeaters as the version of of the Digha Nikaya. &quot. and received the same answer. and Tchandaka was (D.&quot. cit. 74). And yet on another occasion he met a deva of the pure (f. ch. 9 ). . bearing an alms-bowl and going from door to door. weak. the terrace of her house. . and he also noticing her. xi. p. also in the generality of p. Buddh. mentions an excursion of the Bodhisattva to his garden after having met the bhikshu. and 1 This Bigandet (p. Birth Stories. p. One day the prince told Tchandaka that he wanted to there he saw an old go drive in the park. something wrapped in it had dis many-coloured stuffs. Romantic Legend. stopped The people saw that they his chariot to look at her. Manual. 55). how all were subject to it (f. and while old age was and what charioteer the and explained man. the home. emaciated. there begging wherewith to satisfy So the Bodhisattva drove up to him and questioned him about himself. Then pensively he drove back to the palace. which in the Southern legend (Spence Hardy. however. village of the is evidently a reminiscence legend of the ploughing festival. occurred at a much earlier date. 1-2). his son of what appeared to guddhodana heard from a trouble so much his mind (f. (rial impaired told him what disease 477). loc. so they told the king. and our legend seems to agree with what Rhys Davids. a Tchandaka told him.22 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

and lo the shade had not moved from where . the ploughshare wound ing them. the story as told p.&quot. and the work-oxen pricked with iron goads. Ah she whose husband he shall be. belong ? he asked the labourers. him from her window. I i ).he took no further notice of her and to the same passed on. flies and insects biting them. but. their bodies dirty and running with sweat. girl s name is 31) where the She not given. . As he was going back to the city Mrigadja (Ri-dags of the Qakya Kalika (Dies-legs) saw slcyes). Then she sang .&quot. running at the mouth and nose. . 23 saw the labourers with hair erect. fall- thought young Siddhartha was after ing in love with her. and they Of. Then. are property. happy is his mother His father also. That woman has gone beyond sorrow ! ! &quot. no longer slaves He freed also the where ere you please and live in oxen and said to them. and a great grief a and there his father found him (f.Go from to-day eat the sweetest grass and drink the purest water.&quot. gave himself to earnest meditation and there his father found him. ! The Bodhisattva threw her a necklace Now the people saw pretty words. seeing a (f. According . happy is he. 1 to all pay her for her this. by Rhys Davids (Buddhism. you shall be no longer servants go of the four quarters visit you&quot. he sat down at its foot and a he was. burdened with a yoke which they had to drag great distances.MEETING WITH MRIGADJA. &quot. 1 &quot. Ah. uncovered hands and feet. &quot. . Q ). shady jambu-tree on one side. whom do you the king are s &quot. ! io ). &quot. covered with b gadflies and mosquitoes (sbrang-lu mtcliu rings) (f. the daughter filled his heart. Shortly after he went into the cemetery of Eajagriha and saw the dead and decaying bodies. panting with fast-beating hearts. From to-day you they answered. and may the breezes joy. with bleeding and suppurating wounds. hungry and thirsty. To His tender heart was touched with compassion. &quot. having sent her the ^necklace. their backs and rumps streaming with blood. &quot. We .

See Chini-tian. Ixxvii. told Quddhodana. and the women looked so like the dead in their sleep that filled with loathing (f. so the king watched six days. &quot. to. On the night of the seventh the Bodhisattva noticed all his sleeping harem.. 1 It is also worthy of notice that several Chinese works say that the Bodhisattva left his home when he was nineteen. amusing himself with song and dance. replied. Amritodana. Klaproth in Remusat p. And he was &quot. n a). kiuen ii. xxvi. 1 &c. wherever I go. that Ya^odhara It is evidently an omission. n The prediction of the soothsayers. and now it was that he knew Ya^odhara his wife (f. and from . and she awoke and told her lord of her dream. p.. and ever in . Bigandet rencontre (p. and Siu-hing-penki-king. for she is nowhere confounded with either Gopa or Mrig- ko-king. 14). Mrigadja thus became the Bodhisattva s wife seven days before he left his home (f. was King Quddhodana s ears so the same day as that on which the last events had taken place he had troops stationed outside the city and guards placed at the gates. where e er thou goest.So be b it.&quot. Cataketu (Indra) and the other gods. pp.24 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. there let me go And he. also Kwo-hu-hien-tsai-yin- is It is strange not mentioned. In the meanwhile the ^Bodhisattva . xix. 231 . seest thou not all Kau^ika. at the eastern one. so often repeated. vol. Mrigadja. cited by Beal. so he took Mrigadja and made her the Bodhisattva s wife. and xxi. . it was on the night of this same day that he left his home. thinking of going to where there was no sorrow (nirvdna). Sacred Books of the East. . he answered. &quot. &quot. On the same night Ya^odhara dreamt he was abandoning her. there mayest thou go also (f. knowing the Bodhisattva s inclinations.&quot. at the northern one. 13). 58) also with mentions his Keissa Gautami (= Mrigadja) after this occurrence. was in his palace in the midst of his harem. At the southern gate watched Dronodana at the western one. Quklodana.. vi.000 attendant women (f. I4 ). s Foe-kone-ki. b). So at that time the Bodhisattva s wives were Gopa. but he does not say that she became his wife. and 60. came and exhorted him to flee the world. my lord. &quot. Quddhodana in the centre of the city was Mahanaman with a detachment of troops. Oh. edited by adja. 28 et seq. there he patrolled the city (f 1 2 a ).. authority.

but though his cousin begged and cried aloud.&quot. on the 1st July). and together with Tchandaka. 84) his says that the Bodhisattva left home on the full .. temper. Rhys Davids p. Bigandet s version is an exact translation of the Pali (Nidanakatha). it Anauma. with On leaving the to cry. Before Tchandaka left him the prince took his sword and cut off his hair. the armed the city . 64) says that he journeyed a distance of thirty yojanas. 2o).FLIGHT FROM KAPILAVASTU. p. 87). 85) .. p. Qataketu. 3 According to Bigandet (p. and arrived on the banks of the river a Bodhisattva left him (also Rhys Davids. ! &quot. he was bringing to those who telling him of all the sorrow loved him. p. or Anama. he cried. The Bodhisattva patted the horse and quieted his fiery .e.. (loc. a 1 many other gods. has as it. the city. of the horrors of age and death i8 b ). the horse died on the spot where the Bigandet (loc. elephants that surround i6 b ). cit. yet he pursued his way and travelled that night twelve yojanas (f. he started out (f. quering time and death. (Jataketu promised him his help he went and aroused Tchandaka and told him to saddle his treasure-horse. &quot. and Qataketu took it and carried it off to the Trayastrimcat heaven. 25 men with horses and how can I depart ? (f. yet a fear possesses me and I must free myself from the fear of con I may not stay. though I love thee. though master to protect him against the wild beasts of the forest. Kanthaka (Snags-ldari). cit. On built that spot the faithful 1 brahmans and householders Rhys Davids (loc. when the moon was in the Uttarasalha mansion (i. Father. cit. i8 ). cit. so palace. &quot. op. 67). So the charioteer and the horse 3 turned back. 2 Then he stopped and told Tchandaka to return to the he had on his person city with the horse and the jewels attendant faithful the and begged to stay with his .moon day of Asalhi. as far as goes. which he threw into the air. Suddenly he came across Mahanaman patrolling (f. and reached Kapilavastu after seven days. &c. the devatas who inhabited it commenced a As he passed the that their tears fell like rain (f. &quot. The latter says that in that one night he passed through three kingdoms. eastern gate he perceived his sleeping father. I7 ). he made him go so that he might tell his family what had become of him..

be re Tis too near. 226. . I do not believe that the Bodhisattva s visit to Vai^ali. yojanas. by the Qakyas.&quot. 87. far &quot. They exchanged clothes. of thirty says that he spent seven days alone in a forest of mango trees. Vist. 3 of whom he inquired how &quot. he was from Kapilavastu. (f.He then started for the country of Radjagriha. &quot. &quot. the stupa of the taking of the hair and beard (Tchuda- pratigraha] (f. has not the words the country of the Malla princes. They all had worn in succession the same cotton garment. he came and stood where the Bodhisattva could reward. 23).lofty&quot. of Foucaux s trans. for a little farther on it says that Alara was at Vaigali. mentioned in the Lai.&quot. griha crafts (f. p.26 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. cit. but may not this be a translation of Anoma. p. the prince went to the hermitage of the the son of Brigu (f. 24 a ). took place at that time. but after he had been to Rajagriha . and she. . 65... 2 This legend is slightly different Rhys Davids. 2 attired. &c. committed it to the guard of a genii of a tree near by. built a stupa. chap. with arrows in his hand and wearing this garment. so after having crossed the 1 Lit. . and that by so doing she would reap a great On dying. and they gave it finally to an old woman. and the Pali text says he saw Alara after having been to Rajagriha. Kapilavastu I may be disturbed plied. cit. p. . p.. &quot. in op.high. in Bigandet. &quot. the old woman left it to her daughter with similar instructions. In former times a rich householder of Anupama (Dpe- 1 med) had ten sons. This place is called Anupyia.? river being given to a village on its bank.&quot. cotton garments of the prince. the name of the &quot. in the country belonging to the Malla princes.&quot. so he went and took the robe then assuming the appearance of an old de crepit hunter. and Qataketu carried off to the Trayastrimcat heaven the fine kacj. xvi. who all successively became Pratyeka Buddhas. loc.. feeling her end ap proaching. travelling on foot a distance &quot. 21). Davids.unparalleled.&quot.&quot. Now Qataketu knew all this. (as above). Twelve yojanas. and by Rhys . Ganges and go to EajaThe Bodhisattva was expert in all handi I will cross the of and occupations men. 65. On this spot the faithful brah- see him mans and householders Thus rishi. 3 Bigandet. with instructions to give it after their death to the son of Quddhodana-raja as soon as he should have become a Buddha. &quot. . 23 b ).

so he left and went 1 Or &quot. they cannot bring contentment. 1 and he went to visit him with his b suite (f. happy. in a rich . The king of Magadha. so he left them lived with the ascetics who dwelt &quot. of sorrow. and another person to see where he went. says that he met Alara immediately after his p. I care not for this world s treasures . near the Himalaya. the Bodhisattva answered. they are the root of fear. 24 b ). so that he &quot. 88. After this interview the Bodhisattva went to the Vul 2 ture s Peak (Gridrakuta parvata) near Eajagriha. . Tis hard to cross the swamps of human passions . so he sent some one to fill his bowl. Qrenika Bimbisara. and with this he could not agree. interview with Bimbisara. to Arata Kalama (Egyu-stsal shes-Jcyi-bu ring-du he taught that all depended on controlling the but hphur). 25 ). women.under the shadow of the Pandava rocks.When would (f. riches. the Qakyas they are called. not to indulge desires . and there. or even Mara. 27 Ganges lie made an alms-bowl of karavira (sic) leaves and went into Bajagriha. and offered him everything that makes life agreeable. and the Bodhisattva promised him that he seeking b am is that &quot. 26 ). and was struck with his noble bearing (f. caste. 26*).MEETING WITH BIMBISARA. and pleasures. treasure I wisdom which knoweth no shalt have reached thy thou superior&quot. (f. The free from sorrow. I seek to conquer.&quot. goal.&quot. of despair. to that it then teach me. and then he knew that they were not in the right way. Raja. 7. p. The king then learned that he was stopping on the Pandava (mountain). great ascetic or Mahac. noticed him from the terrace of his palace. there lives a tribe of Ishkvaku or Solar race. &quot. Kosala it is named.ramana learned from them that the object they had in view was to become Qakra or Brahma.&quot. and prosperous country. (f. is he who has cast them far away. all in his mortifications. ah! said the king. 25 ). unsurpassable wisdom. b senses (f. has it. 2 Bigandet. surpassing them became known as the But he finally 26 b ). as Rhys Davids. To this tribe I belong I am of kshatriya &quot.

Schiefner.. 33) so he went on fasting . 157. and took up his abode at the foot of a tree near the bank of the lovely JSTairanjana river. Beal s account. says that these five were sons of the Brahmans who had visited the Buddha shortly after his birth. p. and Bhadrika. The Lalita Vistara. was mortifying his body. This Mahanaman can neither be the Buddha s uncle (for he was killed by Virudinya. . and his body was emaciated. but this also could not he departed thence. to wait on him but the Bodhisattva would only retain five of them as his attendants. and Suprabuddha sent two hundred. A(jvadjit. p.28 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 1 88. With this our text does not agree. p. nor the minister of that name. . but he refused (f. 243. Ac. Their names are always given in the following order Kaunwhere. Kaundinya. Their names are The two last follow the prince after having heard him discuss with Rudraka. Lebens. Tibet. Now King Quddhodana had heard through his messen gers that his son was stopping with Eudraka Eamaputra. 35 )- From 1 the day on which his father heard that he. The gods offered to feed him miraculously and unknown to mankind. to him and went lliag spyod). The Maha- Vistara makes them out disciples of Rudraka Ramaputra. Two of them were of the maternal tribe. He . and of a blackish-red colour (f. Spence Hardy. and three of the paternal 1 (f. probably agrees with this latter version. he sent each day two hundred and given elseprobably came from Koli. near Eajagriha. 29**). says that Mahanama. p. cited by Burnouf. to the village of the school of Uruvilva Kacjapa. who taught is neither conscious ness or unconsciousness satisfy him. 304). who left their master to wansa. Vachpa. Lebens. to the southern side of Mount Gaya. and in their company he lived. and who had foretold his fxiture greatness. and first cousin of Cakya (the Buddha). and Mahanaman and Bhadrika disciples of Rudraka . was from Kapilavastu.vadjit. and Vachpa were disciples of Arada Kalapa (Kalama). until he reduced his food to a single pea (mdsha) a day. 152. and though the first part of the paragraph in his work is evidently taken from our text. and there he continued his mortifications. so 27 b ) . says that this Mahanaman was the elder son of Amritodana. p.p. and that he had no attendant to minister to his wants so he sent three hundred men. Tib. Intr. gradually went making them more and more severe. Eudraka Eamaputra (Rangs-byed-kyi-bu that there (f. for he dhaka). 235. Vachpa is better known as Dacabala Ka^yapa (Schiefner. the latter part agrees with the general outline of the Lalita s version.

thinking that he lacked the necessary perseverance to attain enlightenment. and they started out for Benares. forbade any one to speak to her about the Bodhisattva (f. Vist. 2 have the privilege of the house. of the Udanavarga. p. is evident from the following extract from Dulva xi. her flowers and jewels. 57. rent. p. and they reported everything the Bodhisattva was doing. has a diffeof this part of the legend. . b held explains what appeared strange to me in the eleventh paragraph of chap. but more extraordinary. he must stop at the door he gets among the ariyas.. says our text. so he decided to take some food. moreover. but of a very unpalatable kind.YA$ODHARA fifty S MORTIFICATIONS. 3/ b). 29 messengers (bdog-pa). he must not go to worship a chaitya . . beside a corpse. This low esti(sosdniko}. he went to him. and there they dwelt in the Mrigadava. as did also Suprabuddha. fearing for the child she bore.The bhikshu who wears 32 the clothing of a corpse from the cemetery must not enter a vihara (gtsug-lag] . Fausboll s Jataka. he must not go to bow to and circumambulate it. the Finally.. i. they are called Pancavaggiya- . mitory he shall not abide among he shall not teach the bhikshus . . Then Quddhodana. 2 After he had obtained and eaten the cemetery. 127. version The Lai. and the latter put away YaQodhara. if it ever even became a common one. or &quot. chap. It is &quot. Manual. places mate in which these sosanikos were &quot. the Panchavarga (Lnga-scle]? 1 Cf. and especially were greatly grieved. the Bodhisattva saw that all this severe asce- tism had not brought him nearer the truth . . prince s wives. and performed the same mortifica tions which her husband was practising l but Quddhodana. Spence Hardy. Pali. xxvii. where the frequenters of burialplaces are classed among those ascetics whose practices are not deemed 3 In justifiable.&quot. Vist. but that this practice did not long prevail. xviii. generally recommended in Buddhist writings to make the robes of a bhikshu of similar materials . five attendants that were with him saw they forsook him. says that he made himself a robe out of the shroud of a girl who had been recently buried. he : dharma to a number of brahmans and householders who have met together for that purpose he must not enter the houses of brahmans and householders if he goes if to one. when the all this. where they became known as the Five. nor shall he abide in the dorshall not He cow who had The just calved. 353.. Lai. and thought he was a and they Now. fiend (pisatcha) seeking human flesh to devour. and lying it. threw dirt and stones at him (f. he wandered into down The village girls saw sleep. takes the milk of a p. 38 a ). I am a frequenter of burial say. he must the .

. Buddh. Birth Stories. where two daughters of Sujata. calls the tree a kakubha (Pentaphcra ardjuna]. Vist. the honeyed soup. this man had two daughters. Dulva xi. Beal. cit. agrees with our text. 257. and only one daughter is mentioned. 260. p. him the brahop. &quot.. the text speaks of the p. p. dashed into the river. xviii. him a milk-soup same words jewels. 4O a ) (the story is told in about the as in chap.the village Senani. assuming the form of a garuda (Nam-mkali Iding). p. and when he had finished the devas bent down the branches of an arjuna tree. Nanda andBala (= Nandabala) also as Beal. of the Lalita Vistara). 194. 83. See. they sought by therd. 42 ). io6 a also speaks of Nanda and Nandabala. p. is is called called it Sujata. 1 Now. and and ate he sat down on the bank The it into the river. and his daughter . Beal. 2 which he seized to b help him out of the water (f. chap. Cf. and his daughters . Bigandet. 195. 3 Nagas took it... says that most and p. Nanda (Dgah-mo) and Nandabala (Dgah-stobs). and that Qakyas who lived on the bank it had been prophesied of him that he would become an universal monarch or a Buddha so they had prepared for . Beal. (f. 191. 91. of the village is called the place &quot. or the elders. however. calls In the Lai. but Qakra. p. him made their two sisters When the offering of food. the headman Vist.&quot. Nandika. and seizing the bowl. p. Carrying the food with him. and . which agrees with our text. the headman of which was Sena (Sde). calls the his was Indra who retook the vase from the Nagas. and the Bodhisattva took it in a crystal vase adorned with which two devas of the Akanishta region had brought him. 2 The Lalita Vistara. calls is it pinjuna. 77. villager Bigandet. 1 company of the five daughter Thoodzata (Sujata). the village lord which likely an incorrect transcription of arjuna. threw he having washed the bowl. Putting on his robes. carried it off to the Trayastrimcat heaven. 194. Rhys Davids.The this what he asked them gift. 3 The Lai. and there b the gods built the stupa of the bowl (f. When the Bodhisattva forces had been restored. where he Nandika. calls man does Senayana. he went to the village of Senani (Sde-chari). p.30 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. xviii. he went to the Nairanjana river and bathed. 4i ). 193. and they had heard about the Cakya prince of the Kapilavastu of the Bhagirathi. Sudjata by name. Thena (Sena). the Tibetan Abhinichkramana Sutra. p.

(f. Then Mara reasoned with him. Then the Bodhisattva waded across the river. Vist. where Mara brings the Bodhisattva a bundle of official notices. 1 Cakra took the shape of the grass merchant. p. After that he called his three daughters. Cf. saying that He was impossible for him to find enlightenment but no purpose 3 (f. 46) the Bodhisattva changed them into old hags. Devadatta has subdued Kapilavastu he has seized the palace. which is also the meaning of Svastika.&quot. Bigandet. went to him and said. and of Gopa. 95.&quot. and Delight. but in vain (f. 84. 1 Lotuses sprang up wherever he put down his foot. all to .have 31 soothsayers. Hardy. which would agree with our text sotthi Rati.for- (Santi?). p. and many &quot. &quot. tunate. names them Tanha. 4 and they tried all their allurements. prophesied that you would become a chakravartin monarch may this action. this seed of virtue. Why stay you here ? &quot. p. All the Evil one s devices were unable to affect the it .&quot.MARA S DEFEAT. lo6 a. 42**). 262.good luck&quot. . &quot. the Evil one. 44b ). &quot. Cf.. Beal. Pleasure. wondrous signs foretold that the hour of enlightenment was approaching. with the text Dulva xi. of Mrigadja. &quot.Romantic Legend. 4 The Lalita Vistara. p. p. p. time. p. and from him the Bodhisattva obtained a handful of grass. as if from all the akya princes. and Ranga also Bigandet. seeing this. make you become our husband at that He explained to them that this could never be. and of the Qakyas who had escaped to appear before him. Bodhisattva. speaks only of a young man returning with a grass load . Beal. . calls Mara s three daughters Rati (pleasure). Spence &quot. caused apparitions of Yagodhara. = svasti. then they said. &c. 183. out of which he made his seat at the foot of the Bodhi tree (f.&quot. . calls the grass-cutter Sotthiya. Arati (displeasure). but Rhys Davids. p. . the devas of the pure abode Cf. Svastika 2 (Bkra-sliis). on these signs the Lai. May you then quickly reach the highest wisdom and perfection&quot. 44 a). but the Bodhisattva remained un moved (f. Then Mara. and has crushed the Qakyas. the four great 3 oceans became lotus ponds. Desire. and. 196. of Devadatta. 353. calls this li man Kihor &quot. and Trichna (passion or desire). 45). they replied. 207. &quot. 103.

agrees tacitly with this one. the legend as told 30. the Bodhisattva saw the cause of existence. fled.e. and effects which bring about existence and its cessation the Nidanas) became known to him (f. that day. io6 a says that at and it is generally ad- that same time kins. 145 (trans.. 3 by Rhys Davids.. that when the Buddha first visited Kapilavastu after commencing his ministry. and also that Eahu had seized the moon (i. filled with dismay. p. and that &quot. Then reasoning within himself. and the way to free The concatenation of causes oneself of all this trouble. 88 of Beal s Roman. 211. 3 b so she took the child to a pond. Dulva xi. 51). 1 When all wisdom had been given him. and he (i. On the same day the wife of Amritodana brought forth a son. 1 8. From p. became enlightened. and great was the mother s distress on hearing his suspicions 1 . Buddhism. and his wives fell fainting but a little after came the news that he to the ground had attained enlightenment. and great was the rejoicing everywhere (f. Chinese King Pradyota be- came sovereign of Udjayani. tara. p. Just as the king was being told this news. however. and all his cohorts. 51). that there was an eclipse). that Yagodhara s child could not Quddhodana thought be Qakyamuni s.32 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.) . mitted that the Buddha visited his country twelve years after he had left it. Manual. and as the city was rejoicing greatly . 50).after this he lived forty-nine 2 years. Cf.. p. 2 So they called the child Eahula (seized by Eahu). a million and thirty-six thousand in number. 6r. for we are told by Spence Hardy. the con- queror (Djina).&quot. and sang songs of victory 47). of age. The rumour had reached Kapilavastu that the prince had died under the excess of his penances. years old . of death. they came and told him that Yagodhara had brought forth a son. all and ^ods showered the o down flowers on (f. f. EdBuddhism. or Eahulabhadra. and all the court was plunged in despair.e.. and Bigandet. p. a Buddha. p. Mara s bow and his standard fell from his grasp (f. Rahula was seven The Southern legend we may infer that the Chinese Abhinichkram. as does the Lalita VisLeg. 5i ). says that the prince became a Buddha at the age of thirty. they called him All-joy or Ananda (f. Sutra thinks that Ananda was about the same age as the Buddha.

76. Tib. 33 put it on a stone. in the legend Sutra. p. Foucaux p. He will seek to be burthened no more. All the pleasures of worldly joys. from fol. &c. Then no more will craving come back. maywith these words And lo if it is not. navarga.&quot. 2 So great was the joy he experienced in the newly dis covered freedom.OBTAINING ENLIGHTENMENT. 1 &quot. greatly. Rom. The second stanza occurs Uda- merly been the Bodhisattva This version is not as satisfactory as that There is hardly any of the Dulva. note. cotton.&quot. the Abhinichkram.34n. miracle remaining. may it sink it and the stone float the child floated on the stone as if it had been a ball of : &quot. and their voices recalled the Buddha from his abstraction. chap. and placed them together in the water If the child be the Bodhisattva s. All those which are known among gods. 53&quot. And the people saw this. 225. And liappy he who has cast it down When once he has cast off his burden. xxx. When all notions are at an end. this Udanavarga. p. The two same devas came and sang his praises. 157 . by of the pond (f. and he spoke these verses (f. text. 246. . ako Lebens. When all things are perfectly known. It is also remarkable that our text does not mention the famous udana. Compared with the joy of ending existence Are not Sorry as its sixteenth part.):&quot. . 52 ). that he passed seven whole days without partaking of food. 389. 1 M. and they rejoiced and went and took the young child out of the a Akanishta region who had he previously offered the Bodhisattva a bowl in which now Sena s him had eaten the food offered daughters.. is lie whose burden is heavy. p. See on &quot. agrees with our Beal. Leg. ! ! . have spoken on this was put 75. cf. pa. When all existences are put away. Through many different births. Schiefner. in Rgya-tcher roltranslating this 2 These are not the verses that the to Buddha is generally supposed occasion. says that the child on an ass which had fors.

55 b ).34 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Vist. Then they bowed down before him and went on their way rejoicing (f. as long as my come!&quot. Then and by 1 so long will I not pass away Qakra. it will be granted unto you. the offering was only made seven weeks after he had become Buddha. and the. agrees with the At p. he took the four bowls and trans formed them into one (f. to the truth and to the Whatever wish you church that will hereafter exist ! may have made when you made me this offering. 107. the Buddha was cured. When the seven days were passed l there came along two merchants. evidently alludes to this event. however. &quot. Then the Evil one. with five hundred waggons and following the advice of a deva. they came to the Buddha and offered him food sweetened with honey and many other sweets. After their departure the Buddha sat down on the bank of the Nairanjana and ate the food which the merchants had given him. offend Then the Buddha said to the merchants.. p. has it that where text the p. 236. as long as moral teaching has not been spread far and wide among gods my and men. go for a refuge to the Buddha. 107.. 55 b ). Bigandet. long &quot. fruit &quot. 2 There seems to be a trace of this more substantial food. Bigandet. where Papiyan (Mara) visits the Buddha four weeks after he had obtained See also Beal. &quot. p. Blessed One (Bhagavat). Lai. Each of the . Vist. p. came to him and said. any of them. 240. Beal. 352. cit. 356. he tells us that the two merchants were brothers. not become wise and of quick understand have disciples as as the bhikshus. disciples of either sex are not able to refute their adver saries according to the Dharma. legend in Lai. enlightenment. 108 version of the Lai. Merchants. agrees See. lay ing. the lord of the devas. p. but the honey gave him colic. Vist. with this. &quot. Trapusha (Ga-gori) and Bhallika (Bmng-po). p. the bhikshunis. Mara. seeing the pain he was enduring. brought an arura (myrobolan skyu-ru-ra) it from a tree in Jambudvipa. (f. speaking of the offering of fruit made by a to prepare his system to deva.&quot.&quot. loc. receive . 56 b ).. the time to die has 2 But he answered him. four great kings of the cardinal points brought him each a bowl in which to take the food and not wishing to .

. l king Mutchilinda (Btang-lzung) tect him from the sun and rain. Also Bigandet.MUTCHILINDA PROTECTS THE BUDDHA. for Then the Lord reflected who would be a proper person him to teach. and when that theory had become well fixed in his mind he spoke the udana which is recorded in the last verses of the Udanavarga. found out that he had been dead seven days Eudraka. and on the way he Jit met an adjivaka (Kun-tu 1 so nyer-hgro)? who questioned nyagrodha p. and he thought that he would not teach it. 354. 199. 2 This is the same episode as that alluded to by Beal. 238. 117 he says that Upaka went about inquirheretic 4 ing for his friend Dzina (Djina). son of Eama. but Brahma. p. the Bodhimanda as long as pleased him. . After having remained under the pleased him. p. had also died three days before (f. op. 106. the Blessed One went to the Bodhimanda (Byang-tckub-kyi-snying-pd) ^ and there he remained seven days seated on a grass mat studying the twelve branches of the theory of causes and effects (pratityasamudpada).&quot. and spread out his hood over his head. where the Buddha sat for seven days beneath a nyagrodha tree j and in Bigandet.. Having stayed at started for Benares. tit. wrapped his body seven times around the Blessed One. When to the ear 3 nest. for the advent of a Buddha is as uncommon as is a flower on a fig tree. Lai. 115. but lie . wishing to pro thought. p. he thought of Arata Kalama. so he decided upon seeking the Five who were at Benares in the Mrigadava of Eishivadana.&quot. p. p. The idea took possession of his mind that this doctrine of causes and effects was too deep for man s intellect. &quot. he town of Ka^i. meditative Brahmana. &c. 3 Cf. commencing with &quot. calls him the Rahan Upaka. After having remained with Mutchilinda as long as pleased him. P.&quot. 355. the 35 Bo tree as long as Buddha went to . Udanavarga. Vist. enlightened. the lord of the world. 6 b ). says that the Buddha went to Mutchilinda s five weeks after he had been The Lalita Vistara. &quot. as the of the goatherd. came and begged him to have mercy on the erring world. and there the Lord remained seven days in where lived the na/ra and he.

63*). him concerning himself and &quot. his master. Venerable Gautama. ! &quot. verily you are a conqueror (Djina) and then he went his way (f. . he exclaimed. and as to where he was going.36 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. When he heard his answers.

in the Nidanakatha. ii. Sacred Laws of the Aryas. here. a term which was very generally applied He time to 1 all ascetics. 5 Mdo. of the Lalita Vistara. but they could not resist the grandeur of his transformed ministered to his wants (f. 425-431. used in the Dharma^astra. 63). the Buddha the deer-park. 3 Mdo. The word sanyasin. xi. imparted his doctrine to two of the Five in the morning.( 37 ) CHAPTEK LIFE OF THE III. generally iii.&quot. conveys the same meaning. 2 Dulva. xxvi. xxvi. . 64-68 . . When the Five finally came to Benares. p. Dharmachakra pravartana Sutra 6 Mdo. JOURNEYING along from the Nairanjana river. xxvi. Gautama Dharma^astra. from different versions that it is useless to dwell on it &quot. 3 There are at least six versions Tibetan canon. . Rhys Davids. Dharmachakra Sutra. 88-92 (Abhi69-71 nichkramana Sutra) . of this sutra in the . to saw him. for the three others had gone to the city to beg. Biihler. chap. i Dulva. BUDDHA FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF HIS MINISTRY UNTIL THE REIGN OF ADJATASATRU. p. 113.bhikshus&quot. 427-431. and. they him as to his reason for giving up They questioned asceticism. person. nearly rudely. 2. According to Bigandet. at that cants. and he answered them in the words that have been preserved in the Dharma ckakrapravartana Stitra. 4 Mdo. or the sermon of the foundation of the kingdom of right 1 This work has been so frequently translated eousness. 3 Cf G. they wanted to receive him coldly. xxx. rising. 64). . Again he spoke to them about the four truths. he converted all five the same day not so. iv. and in or mendi addressing them he called them &quot. and in the evening he taught the latter while the other2 two went to collect alms (f. Birth Stories. 118. however.

of the four truths. I he answered am hurt. Qramana. Kaundinya. he feared that he had been drowned or murdered. who knows all. When it. 1 have followed Schiefner.Blessed One. and seeing the Blessed One Qramana. &quot. he went with them and stopped on the bank of the river of Benares. 120. 73). Feer. . It 2 1 He is called Ratha in Bigandet. of heaven (svarga).&quot. Tibet. v. Yagas slaves discovered. He does not mention the Lebens. of whom he inquired concerning The Buddha. translates it by Varana. he cried out crossed over to where was the Blessed One. Kaundinya. she of told his father. 21. 7i ). &quot. I suffer!&quot.&quot. man of Benares called Yagas 2 (G-rags-pa). him (f. He came to the river. &c. 71). p. fact that he crossed a river. After that he preached to them about the impermanency of all created things. (f. of virtue. who talked to him of charity. When he had thus converted the five. understood thoroughly On this account he was have thoroughly understood of the five. called &quot. 66 b ). on the farther shore. Come hither and thou shalt suffer no more. Then him. b One asked to become a lay follower (upasaka). 69 b ). &quot. nor be dis So he left his slippers on the river s bank and tressed. and Now at that time he converted the four other bhikshus. he had finished speaking. and Yagas perceived the truth. and the same sermon made Yagas an arhat. and (f. there was one perfectly enlightened disciple (or arhat). to him. There was a wealthy young the Nagi l (? Gnod-pa-clian). who came to the bank of the river by night. or Adjnata Kaun dinya (f. so fearing an accident. of the way to salvation. he turned to the oldest and said. before answering him. that her master had left his home. in translating this p. converted his son. and seeing his son s slippers. he believed. I the doctrine?&quot. He crossed the stream and met the Blessed One. 247. who started out to seek him. of content ment. Annales Musee Guimet. hast thou &quot. Kaundinya.&quot. and the other four Yet again he spoke became arhats (f. name. p. while it was yet night.\ 38 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Kaundinya. to them about the four truths.

op. a of the Mara took young brahman and came appearance he had found deliver that for him at and mocked saying was yet in Mara s grasp.. also Feer. which can . The Buddha him to recognised him. 67. Fifty young men 3 of the leading families of Benares. 39 He this occasion that the Blessed One spoke the verse. 75 ). Lteng-rgyas-kyi- Bigandet. yrony-khyer-sde-chan. and when they had heard that Yaqas a bhikshu. p. 74). Of. was on &quot. cit. When he had finished preach t Now At that time there ing to them they became arhats.THE FIRST DISCIPLES. Feer. entered the order (f.The village of (Sena). and they also became arhats shortly after.). chap.&quot. p. (f. Purna (Gang-po) Vimala (Dri-med). 132. Then Yaas and his father returned 2 Yaqas had four friends. &quot. so that there were sixty arhats in the world. 132) says. 31. Sacred xiii. Annales de Musde Guimet. &quot.&quot. v. 77&quot. whereas he 1 See TJdanavarga. walks in the way of truth. and they became lay followers (upasikas). xxxiii. were ten arhats in the world. note. p.&quot. Senani village at Uruvilva.&quot. Bigandet of (p. p. home. p. after having partaken of the food provided for him by the wife and mother of Yaqas. and he went towards the 4 Before he left. adds Bigandet 4 The text (p. he preached to them and converted b them. &quot. p. &C. While still at the deer-park of Bishivadana he sent b the sixty out two by two (f. Le Sutra de 1 Enfant. Gavampati (Ba-lang bdag). situated in the vicinity the solitude of Ooroowila (Uruvilva). 78-79). and formerly connected with Ratha by the ties of 3 &quot.&quot. and. 1 Books 5 of the East. and with a few words put 5 Senani the towards went One Blessed the Then nVht. is 129). they also came and asked the Blessed One to admit them into his order. Etudes Bouddhiques. 1 (f. 79 ) to spread the doctrine that would help all creation. only be translated by the Senani See Feer. however. 13. 185 . who. friendship. 24. families of Baranathu (Benares). 2 Bigandet (p. though dressed in gorgeous apparel. village of Uruvilva. and Subahu (Laghad become bzangs). exclusive of the Buddha (f. O ance. Who Also Rhys Davids. 126) says that they to the most illustrious belonged I. and when it was morning the Buddha went to his house. Thena of had been the companions Ratha (Ya?as) while in the world. on hearing of these conversions.

op.Better to look for oneself. His two brothers. then aged 120. &quot. 85). Rhys Davids &quot. who were in the happy band called the habit of coming each day near Uruvilva to amuse &quot. M.40 village. each with 250 1 disciples. away. after sending out his disciples. which he went to Uruvilva. 114.&quot. the jatila. accord- Feer s translation is from the 6th volume of the Dulva. Birth p. p. was then stopping on the bank of the Nairanjana (f. them. consequently our two translations complete each other and give an ensemble of all the Tibetan vinaya texts on the subject. and also Bigandet (p. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 134) say that. cit. you the truth. At that time there was a band of sixty young men who were or Bhadravarga. and while looking across the Blessed women ran young men came of the They asked him if he had seen such and such a looking woman. 114) speaks of thirty 42. Buddha converted a rich brahman of Kapilavastu called Deva. and entering a karvasika or cotton-tree forest 1 (Ras-lal-chan\ he sat down at the foot of a tree. and who.&quot. he spent his first lent (was) in the soli- ing to the system here adopted of counting the years from the season of was. . &quot. 82). young Baddha-vaggiyan 2 Comp.the (lo&. they or to look for oneself ? with then me a little and I will teach Abide replied. where this forest is placed half-way between He the Mrigadava and Uruvilva. &quot. p. so that their hearts So they sat down and he instructed them were opened they believed and be . who was looked upon as an arhat. come their to and also his wife. and a 2 they also became lay disciples (f.What think ye ? is it better to look for a woman &quot.&quot. with 500 disciples. Feer. nobles. Then the Blessed One went into the village of Uru vilva and taught the two girls Nanda and Nandabala. cit. were also Cf. came lay followers After this the (f. 82). Rhys Davids.. This would place the following events in the second year. a man greatly revered throughout the land. Now the Buddha thought that the most important con vert he could make in Magadha would be Uruvilva Kagyapa. Nidanakatha. themselves with women. They had the Senani village and there they had heard of countryman the Qakya prince (f. One day one for her the (f. Nadi and Gaya Kagyapa. 85 ). Stories. tude after of Migadawon (Mrigadava). &quot. Then he asked One 8i a ).

but at each Kacjapa would not recognise also am an &quot. tree-bark. 101). reported to him that there (f. 86).. by which he established the Aditta-pariyAya to them the sermon on burning. so they threw him follow would their he was master. for he was a fire-worshipper (f. Southern canon 1 b a . of down the stream. Gaya. . forth belched which snake terrible the about cautioned him it and put it Buddha the but conquered fire and smoke. staffs. and Feer. 102) and entered as long the Blessed One had stayed at Uruvilva to went converts as pleased him. and Birth Stories. p. his superiority. at the tchaitya of Gayac. a little lower down The Blessed One went to Uruvilva entered into conversation with him. in his alms-bowl b (f. Buddhism. as MahaQramana. iO3 i Of. and then Kacjapa bowls. Rhys Davids. 88-100). 114. and many more which the Buddha performed (f. S. worship of their brother floating or robbers. of the order of the . him and his disciples found and seek to went they him. they round into the river their skin couches. his pride was subdued. and they also were converted listening to the Blessed One. living on the 41 bank 101).&quot. ).CONVERSION OF THE KAQYAPAS. admission begged seeing all the implements two The younger Kacjapas.But I to said he himself. and sacrificial spoons (f. from that some misfortune coming from the king so they and their disciples fire or water. miracle new arhat. When He also preached their faith. king was a Buddha at of Magadha. They told him that. cit. p. 131. or tiutta of the iO4 ). op. he and the thousand b iO2 ). same river. At this time the emissaries of grenika Bimbisara. and stopped and there he showed them many marvellous transformations (f. 59. and finally asked his permission to pass the night in his Ka^yapa fire-house. had befallen him. Kagyapa s hermitage. p. ioo a ). of the the stream (f. and he in formed his disciples that he was going to adopt the rules Finally (f. feared the order.irsha (f. into the order for himself and followers. Notwithstanding this miracle.

tit.&quot. 196. griha. 1 kacyapa saw him under a tree. p. Fausboll s text. Etudes Bouddh. seq. agrees with this.&quot. Rom. in consequence of a prayer addressed to a nyagrodha tree. 1 16. 186 et le jardin (? de 1 est&quot.THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. in the Yashtivana. that from Venuvana the Blessed One betook himself at that time to Ba li and there Mahauputrachaity &quot. 332336) should have imagined another one in which the king. Rhys Davids. 74. 53. however. and there the king b sought him (f. ii. but it places Bimbisara s conversion at the Latthivana . and took up his abode with his thousand dis ciples in the grove of the consecrated (or the mighty) 1 tchaitya of the people of Magadha. on to the hearing the happy tidings. Buddha might appear in his him 3. as he had been obtained &quot. The text of Dulva ix. f. 84. Lebens. &quot. Now the king had reign. capital. 150. When the king and all the vast multitude which had come with him saw KaQyapa the elder with the Buddha.. or place of praise. a. Tales. by Eeer. but he hears a gatha and is converted. p. It is strange that notwithstanding this well . &quot.&quot. al. Schiefner. as &quot. jealous of the homage the people are bestow ing on him. Rajaoriha 107). According to another passage of the Dulva. ix. p. says. seems to allude to the place mentioned in our text.&quot.the forest of Yashti. where it speaks of the Vannabhu. 5. Cf. p. The text Yul Mayadha-pa-rnamskyim tckod-rtcn leys-par rab-ynas It is evi Itang (?) bral-Jcyi ts dently the same place referred to is. Spence Hardy. and my translation is subject to correction. io8 ). they knew not what to think. &quot. Birth Stories. or was the Buddha his ? This phrase is obscure. The Nidana-Katha. 2. 4. the conversion of Udayana.&quot. So.yapa was also called Nyagrodhaya. had arrived says that the Buddha as far as the bamboo grove. 254. and to offer to hirn and his disciples his royal hospitality at the (f. Tib. on hearing that the Buddha is coming. This Kac. ch. made Gayac. ix. makes a man throw a rock at the Buddha to kill him. 311. p.&quot. the Mdo (vol. xvi. 68.. p. Tib. and was resting for a time near a tower erected therein. p. That he might see the truth from him. . and was received into the order by him.&quot. twelve miles from RajaBeal. King Bimbisara was converted &quot.irsha with his disciples five wishes I. That he might follow his commandments (f. Feer. calls it &quot. abondamment plante 8 bar pai ts al gseb). which he says is the same as the Latti grove. See Schiefner. That he might understand it.. which would therefore be the same place as the grove of the tchaitya of our text. at the Tandivana. p. p.&quot.Was he the Buddha s disciple. 105). Rohrspeaks of this place as the hain des festen k aitya. That he might learn messenger Blessed One to salute him. Leg. and Bigandet.estab lished version of Bimbisara s con version. he sent a . 106). That a (f. The Blessed One accepted the invitation and went to Rajagriha. f. loc.

DONATION OF THE VELUVANA.
(f.

43

no). The Lord knew their thoughts, so he made Ka^yapa perform all kinds of miracles in their pre sence, and declare that the Buddha was his master
(f.

in).
After that the Blessed

One preached

to the

king and

the people on form and its transitory nature, on upadana, sandjna, sanskara, &c. (f. 112), on the nidanas (f. 113-114), &c., so that the king and a great multitude of brahmans

and householders were converted. The king then invited the Blessed One to the city, and when he came there, he and his disciples stopped in the The king came to see him, and after having Yashtivana.
heard the Buddha preach, he invited him to a feast on the I22 a ). When the feast was over, the king (f. poured water over the Blessed One s hands, and said, I give the Kalantakanivasa Bamboo grove to the Blessed

morrow

"

One to dispose of as may please him" (f. 122). The Buddha accepted it, and this was the first vihara or per manent residence that the Buddhist order possessed. The origin of the name of Kalantakanivasa Veluvana is
Before Bimbisara had ascended the throne, he took a great fancy to a park belonging to a householder of He asked the owner for it, but he would not Eajagriha.
this.

give

it

up, so the prince

made up

his

mind

that as soon as

it (f. 120). he should become king he would death a after owner became This he did, and the lawful to an occasion and venomous snake in his garden, sought

confiscate

bite the king. with his wives,

One day the king had gone
and had
beside him.

into the park

fallen asleep while only one of

The snake was crawling birds seized it and com Kalantaka near him, but some awoke and killed the woman the when menced crying,
the

women was

snake.

To show

place planted

his gratitude to the birds, the king had the with bamboo groves, of which these birds

were especially fond, so the park became known as the

44

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
grove, the place of the

Bamboo
In
first

Kalantaka birds

(f.

I2i b ). 1

this grove the Buddha passed the rainy season of the 2 year of his ministry, and there the sixty disciples

whom
as
f.

is

he had previously sent out to preach joined him, shown by the following episode taken from Dulva i.

13-50.

There lived at Nalanda, near Rajagriha, a brahman Mathara (Gnas-len-kyi bu), who had a son called Koshthila (Stogs-rings) (f. 1 3) and a daughter called Qari. Koshthila went to Southern India to study the Lokayata system, and he received the surname of the long-nailed,"
called
"

or Dirghanakha, because he had vowed not to cut his nails until he had learnt the 9astras. Qari married a brahman from Southern India called Tishya (Skar-rgyal).

She bore him a son

whom

3 they called Upatishya (Nyer-

rgydT) after his father, Cariputra or son of Qari, after his he mother, and as they belonged to the

was

also called Qaradvatiputra.

He

Qaradvati family, learnt all the sciences

of the
(f.2l).

brahmans, and excelled in them at an early age

In a village near by, Modgal, the wife of the purohita
of

King Kaundinya Potala bore a
"

son,

who was

called

he greatly resembled his lap-born," he received the name of mother, Modgalputra, or son of and from the to which he belonged he Modgal, family took the name of Maudgalyayana. He also became a master of all brahman lore at an early age. These two youths met at school, and became fast
Kolita, or
as
friends, so
1

the

and

when Maudgalyayana
p. 157,

decided upon renouncing

Bigandet,

speaks of this

place as the Wiloowon (Veluvana), but it is only in the Northern legends that I have seen the term Kalantakanivasa (or nipata) joined to it. See Huen Thsang, B. ix. p. 29. J See Schiefner, Tib. Lebens, p.
315.
3

Hardy, Manual, p. 200 ; Feer, op. Huen Thsang, p. 4 et seq. ix. p. 54, says that Cariputra was born at Kalapinaka, and (p. 51) that Maudgalyayana was born at Kulika. Fah Hian, p. in, says that Nalanda was Cariputra s birthcit.,

B.

place.
Cf.

Bigandet,

p.

158; Spence

CONVERSION OF CARIPUTRA.

45

the world, notwithstanding the opposition of his parents, his friend Qariputra resolved to follow him (f. 32).

Together they went to Eajagriha and became disciples
of Sanjaya

(Yang-dag rgyal-ba-chan), (f. 40). When their master died they each assumed the leadership of 250 Before disciples and took up their abode at Eajagriha.
1

dying,

Sanjaya had spoken to them of the young Qakya,

and had advised them to become his disciples (f. 41). One day Qariputra met Agvadjit while in Eajagriha
begging his food. Struck with his appearance, he ques tioned him concerning himself and master. and could Aqvadjit replied that he was but a neophyte,
not expound
"

all

the doctrine, but he repeated the verse,
2

Ye dharma

lictu prabhava"

&c.,

and

this

was enough

to

enable Qariputra to see the truth of the Buddha s doctrine. He inquired where the Buddha was, and learnt that he was at the Bamboo grove so he went to Maudgalyayana, and repeated to him the verse he had heard, and he also
;

with 250 of their dis perceived the truth; then together Buddha the to where went was, and entered the they
ciples order.

the

few days later Qariputra s uncle, Koshthila, came to words of the grove, and was converted by the Blessed One, which, at the same time, made Qariputra an

A

Bamboo
(f.

arhat

57).

are ^ariputra and Maudgalyayana
"

known
was

the former the model pair ; in Buddhist history as the latter in magical power. in wisdom, unsurpassable
"

It

was

at about this period of his ministry that the

Buddha converted the nephew of the old rishi Asita, or MahtikatyaNalada, who, under the name of Katyayana
a prominent role as a missionary. yana, played such
that Bigandet, p. 161, says Thindzi (Sanjaya) was not dead Buddhist when they entered the order, and that they each entered Thindzi, with 220 companions. enraged at being left alone, died, mouth, his from blood vomiting This Sanjaya must not be con1

founded with Sanjaya the son of Vairatti, one of the six heretical See p. 79. teachers. 2 There is a good commentary 011 this verse by Nagarjuna in the ;2d
_

vol. of
f.

the

Mdo

of the Bstan-hgyur,
title_is

244-245.

The

Dharma-

dhatugarbha vivarana.

46

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

His conversion is told as follows in Dulva xi. f. 1 18 et seq. While the Buddha was yet in the Tushita heaven lie had spoken these two enigmatical verses
:
"

To whom is lord and king (i.e., the senses), Under the rule of the passions, he is covered with dust
(raga);

Free from passion (mga), he is free from dust (raga) Who is it that thus speaks of passion here 1
Wickedness, by
it is

;

sorrow produced
;

;

Wisdom, by

By Do

joy brought forth being separated from the possession of what we learn here what is perfection and bliss ?
it is

"

l

Before the

Buddha s

birth no one

was even able

to read

these words, and after his birth they could be read, but not understood, as it required a Buddha to explain them.

There lived at that time a naga king called Suvarnaprabhasa (Gfser-od), who saw in the palace of the naga Vaiqravana (Rnam-tJios-kyi-lu} a copy of these verses; he re peated them to Elapatra (Elai-mdab), another naga who
lived at Takshac^la, and who was very desirous of seeing a Buddha. Suvarnaprabhasa advised him to go every where offering a laksha of gold to any one who could

Elapatra followed his explain these lines to him (f. 1 19). advice after having assumed the appearance of a young brahman. After a while he reached Benares, where was
Nalada,

who promised

that

he would bring him the

desired explanation within seven days. Having found out that there was a Buddha in the world, and that he

was stopping in the deer-park of Bishivadana, he went to He was as ravished with his appearance as would be a man who had been plunged in abstraction for twelve
him.

man to years, or as a childless a poor man who sees a treasure

whom
;

a son

is

born, or as

and as soon as the Bud dha had preached to him, his eyes were opened, and he saw the truth. So having gone and fulfilled his promise
1 These verses are very difficult Cf. Schiefner s transl. to translate. of them in his Mahakatyayana und

Kb nig Tshanda Pradyota, p.
also

ir.

See
p.

Beal,

Romantic

Legend,

277.

SUDATTA SEES THE BUDDHA.
to Elapatra,

47

he came back and became a disciple (f. 126), and henceforth, he was called Katyayana or Katyayana
(f.

the Great

128).

While stopping at the Qitavana of Kajagriha, 1 the Blessed One was invited to a feast by a householder of the city, at whose house was then stopping a rich merchant of

known on account of his Qravasti called Sudatta, better and as the incomparable almscharitableness generosity
"

giver,"

The night before the feast or Anathapindada. Sudatta heard the master of the house giving his orders and having inquired the reason of these preparations, he
;

heard of the Buddha and his disciples, and conceived great admiration for the Master. Early on the morrow he went
to Qitavana, and finding the Buddha walking in front of the house, he was led by him into his room, and there the Blessed One talked to him of charity, morality, &c., so

saw the truth, and became a lay follower. Then the Blessed One questioned him as to his name, his country, &c., and Sudatta besought him to come to Qravasti in Kosala, and assured him that he would provide him and his disciples with all which they might require. there any "Householder," the Buddha inquired,
that he
"is
"

vihara at Qravasti ? There is none, Blessed One." If there was such a place, householder, bhikshus could
"
"

go,
"

come, and stay there." Only come, Blessed One, and I will provide a vihara

also."

The Buddha promised him, and with that assurance
Sudatta departed. After a little while he came back and asked the Buddha
1 Taken from Dulva iv. f. 123-139. This episode is also in Dulva iii. f. 317-341. The Nidanakatha, Rhys Davids, op. cit., p. 130, places the donation of the Jetavana vihara after the journey to Kapilavastu, but the Tibetan texts do not agree with this, as it is said that he sent word

to his father to build the vihara of the Banyan grove on the plan of the Jetavana. Prof. Rhys Davids, loc. cit., translates Sitavana by "grove I cannot believe that this of Sita."

can be correct. Cf. B. vi. p. 296 et scq.

Huen

Thsang,

48
to send a

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
bhikshu with him who could superintend the
that he

building of the vihara.

well he

knew

The Buddha chose (Jariputra, for would also work at the conversion
ground
for

of the people of Qravasti. Sudatta sought to procure a suitable piece of

the vihara, and his choice Jeta 1 (Bgyal-byed), son of
;

upon King Prasenadjit.

fell

a park belonging to

He

asked

the prince for it he at first refused, but finally agreed to sell it if Sudatta covered all the ground with gold pieces To this the householder consented. When he (f. 129).

had nearly finished having the ground covered gold, Jeta thought that it would be good for him to offer some whose sake Sudatta was sacri thing to this Buddha for to let him retain that part him asked he so so much, ficing Sudatta let him not yet covered with gold. of the
have
park and on this ground the prince afterwards built a vestibule, which he gave to the order (f. 130).
it
;

with

The members of other orders (the tirthikas) in Rajagriha became jealous of the sudden popularity of the new order,
complained to the king. Qariputra offered to monstrate his greater worthiness by a trial of their relative contest he came oft magical powers (f. 131), out of which
so they

de

victorious
"

(f.

132).
eye,"

He

also converted the chief

of the

tirthikas,

Eed

or Eaktaksha (Mig-dmar), and many

of the spectators. Then the tirthikas sought to kill (Jariputra while the vihara was being built but they were unable to execute
;

their plan,
(f-

and were

finally converted,

and became arhats

135).

The vihara was
devas of
halls

on the plan of one sent by the the Tushita heaven, and contained sixty large
built
2
(f.

and sixty small ones

I36).
(early part of the fifth century A.D.)

1 Jeta was most likely the son of Varshika, a princess of kshatriya See Dulva x. f. 126 ; he is caste. there represented as a little older than Virudhaka, who succeeded

there

were

in it, perhaps families.

very few inhabitants about two hundred
,

Prasenadjit. Fah Hian, chap, xx., says that when he visited Cravasti

2 In Dulva xi. fol. 34b Anathapindada asks the Buddha how the vihara must be ornamented with

to justify a new translation of . is in the Sanyutta-nikaya. in the Buddha s the medicine-house.. in the vestibule you must have represented a great miracle. paintings (or bas-reliefs). 262. on the water- l The Southern version of this sermon. On the outside door you must have figured a yaksha holding a club in his hand . Dulva not enough. did not even lay b Then the Buddha preached claim to this title (f. Sanjaya son of Vairati. all that is dreadful in a cemetery. GandhaMti). the Tathagata tending the sick .. a skeleton. Anathapindada presented (f. Sudatta sent word to the Blessed his arrival at Qravasti he was received with great honours. our of the two donors. and on vana).. on the privy. the series of births (jatakas) . on the door of the storehouse. p. in the courtyard.. a yaksha with an iron hook in his hand . s. from that of it. name placed so ornamented with all Goc^ala. 138). f. or Kumara dristanta Sutra 1 (f. &c. house (well-house ?). the pleasure grove of Anathapindada (AnathapinGreat was Jeta s joy when he heard his daddramd). the five divisions (of beings) of the circle of transmigration . 49 was ready.DONATION OF JETAVANA. the Parivradjaka (Maskharin) was converted. and asked him how he could possibly pretend to be a Buddha when such old and respected sages as Purnafirst . a yaksha holding a wreath in his hand . as we have seen Bimbisara do in Then the Buddha. Intr. foul on sprites or the different hells ously . visited him. and a skull. I39 b). on the kitchen must be represented a yaksha holding food in his hand . see Burnouf. Pali Diet. translated differs (Mdo xxv. Ajita-Kec. he had the vestibule he had built kinds of precious substances (f. ii. The Buddha answers. in hon presenting the Bamboo grove. bhikshus and sthaviras arranging the dharma . Etudes Bouddh. the however. bones.house bsro Jchang). hall of perfumes. on the door of the lodging-house (?text effaced). . p. Dahara Sutta. King Prasenadjit of Kosala having heard that the Blessed One was at Kajagriha in the Jetavana..v. to him the sermon of the comparisons of young men. See Feer. on the door of the &quot. and Childers. to the sangha the park and the vihara by pouring water on the Buddha s hands. Hi ). called the place Jeta s park (Jetaall When One. rim-gro). by which the king Ka^yapa. and is very nearly identical with the Northern one.&quot. GandhaMti . special apartment (lit. 140-141).akambala. 63 The Tibetan version there et seq.nagas with vari- ornamented vases in their hands on the wash-house (or the steaming . such as were only shown to a king of kings After an entertainment. house of the attendants (or of honour. 458-460) slightly .

the Ramanujas. such as the Nimbarkas. 315. were only formulated strife among the brethren. which was afterwards called the Pratimokwhen Devadatta commenced sJia. &c. p. &c.5o THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. that they must own no property. Tib. as do at the present day many Hindu sects. our texts before years lead us to suppose that until after the conversion of Pra- sowing senadjit the mendicants of the order did not live together. The Dulva does not chronicle any important conversion between that of Prasenadjit. . that they must observe the ordinary rules of morality (the Qila precepts). 9. and that they must preach to all classes of people. Schiefner. In this vihara of Jetavana the Buddha passed the season of was of the third year of his ministry. for it was from that place vastu in the sixth year of his ministry. and that the only rules laid down for their guidance were that they were obliged to beg their food. fol. but he was certainly at Jetavana in the fifth that he went to Kapilayear. They may have adopted such rules as were in general usage at the time among ascetics. fol. same vol. and it was only then that the Buddha prescribed that the bhikshus should make their cloaks out of pieces of stuff dyed f. p. Chinese Buddh. b . are not told where he passed the summer of the We fourth year. for we are told that King Prasenadjit several times mistook doctors. although the Dulva informs us that the most important rules of the code. different colours H2 and sewn together (Dulva iii. At all events. 2 Thus in Dulva x. 32 . See for this date Edkins. some ten or twelve the Buddha s death. Lebens. and that of 1 the Qakyas of Kapilavastu in the sixth year. for Buddhist that mendicants on account of their similar costumes. 4 they were prohibited from drawing lines in white clay (on their persons). the bhikshus are prohibited from wearing the sacred cord (Ts angs pai Also. king of Kosala. the rule about shaving the head and Of course.. Part of the intervening time was most likely occupied in framing the regulations for the order of bhikshus.. in the skud) of the Dvijas. but it appears improbable that they had any 2 regulating their dress. 1 of b ).

Thus five months had elapsed since he left Benares. after which the instructed Buddha allowed him to him to stop at return to Kapilavastu but he the gate of the town. (them). Also Bigan- . went to Uruvila. The Nidanakatha. . Birth Stories. and that Jetavana was the model vihara (f. he went to Rajagriha with a retinue thousand mendicants. 3 Hardly had he arrived at Eajagriha but the Buddha converted him. king. even Udayi promised he entered the order in the meantime. 58. ! iv. 1 20. if 2 Finally he dispatched Kaludayi with a letter to the that he would come back. The Nidanakatha. dwell in a house in the town. Dulva cit.. and came back no more to the . found the drink of the cessation is quenching the f. 2 43. 120. built on the plan of the Jetavana vihara for his son 1 s reception of the (f. Of. king of the Qakyas of Kapilavastu. says that Kala Udayin was born on the same day as the future Buddha. shortly after his conversion. says that Udayin started for Kapilavastu on the full-moon day of March (Phaggunipunnamd). Rhys Davids. p. det. Eaja. beard was in force from the rule 51 was common first days of the order. The Master spent the first Lent after he had become Buddha at Isipatana and when it was over. 143). sent a mes sage to Quddhodana. 144&quot. 146). 93-102 . 169. op. loc. vi. says. thirst of mankind with of death (amrita). and there he dwelt two months. p. &quot.THE VIHARA OF THE BANYAN GROVE. and brothers. p. p.). for this to all ascetics of those times. but in a vihara. p. Then Quddhodana sent several messengers to his son at Eajagriha begging him to visit him at Kapilavastu but they all entered the order. Prasenadjit. Buddha. Buddh. 4 Kaludayi delivered the message as it had been given him (f. and Qariputra received him into the order (f. and overcame the three &quot. cit. 170. op. f.. not to . in which he told him. And month on the of full- Peer. and seven or eight days since the arrival of Udayin the elder See also Bigandet. p. or Nyagrodlidrama. moon day of a January The Nidanakatha. and he this nectar (D. 3 See also Feer. 4 &quot. and to inform the king that when he himself came he would not stop in the town. and King Quddhodana had the vihara of the Banyan grove. 1 I42). cit. and stayed there three months. Kejoice. for thy son has &quot. and had been his playfellow and companion. ascetics. the cold season was past. 145).

p. of Kapilavastu. op. least so it appears to Cf. See me. and first stopped on the banks of the Kohita near the city. (f. p. so that great was the astonishment of Quddhodana an d hi s people much to The king bowed at the Buddha s feet. Quddhodana was not among them. p. who had performed wondrous magical feats in his presence! One day a great number of gods came to the Banyan grove and built a marvellous hall. 3 These numbers appear Cakyas &quot. 126. Brahma. Bigandet.52 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.000 mendicants. but he had not been able to make any impression on his mind. Horn. and when the Lord had finished teaching the gods. I53). however. 2 After this first meeting the Buddha took up his abode in the Banyan grove. 155-156). does not agree with this version. speaks of all the 99. to the astonishment of his people but he recalled . 148). 351. Huen Thsang. surrounded by the four Lokapalitas. 318 et seq. vi. 2 The Nidanakatha. where he and his followers performed all kinds of magical transformations in the presence of the 1 king and the Qakyas who had come to meet them. converted his b &quot. 150-1 52).. says that the Buddha went to Kapilavastu attended by 20. fanciful.000 Qakyas (f. (f. him to the son. them how he had done so on former occasions when He conversed with his the Buddha was but an infant. Leg. he came and taught his father. B. p.000 in &quot. and that he took two months to travel the sixty leagues which separated it from Rajagriha. 4 The Nidanakatha. 122. 170. &c..&quot. Beal. although he had sent Maudgalyayana to him. the Buddha opposed those of his present one (f. When all was ready. 57. entered the paths 1 4 (f. p. and by his first predication he uncle Quklodana and 70. but I52 ). The Buddha was very anxious to convert his father. and Amritodana with 75.000 3 Cakyas. cit. I57). says the same thing. Peer. who believed and . all. but all this portion of his text is a at translation of the Nidanakatha. to which.000 (f. . At short intervals after this he converted Dronodana with 66. by Qakra. recalling splendours and joys (in verse) of his former life. the Buddha started for Kapilavastu with his disciples. in which the Blessed One took his and there his father saw seat and explained the truth him. p.

2 This is a reminiscence of the passage in the Southern version. but he told her that her Aniruddha was better entitled to such an honour and. appears proper offered the succession to the throne of Kapilavastu to Quklodana. refused for the same reason. and it is probable that to this decision. but to the preserve arrangement of the text. 1 so they chose as successor Qakyaraja Bhadrika (f. whereas 2 When his brother had learnt all kinds of field-work. according to our So. I58 ). See Spence Hardy. only took place later on. I58 a). not so show the curious altera some of these old legends have undergone during the which they were preserved orally. in which Mahanama describes to his brother the labour of the husband- man. to enter the order. Mahanaman favourite . .DONATION OF THE BANYAN GROVE. which they covered over (at the mouth ?) with sugar painted (or sealed) with after the 1 Cuddhodana could not have made this offer to his brothers until after the conversion of Nanda and Buddha had taken up his Rahula. hara only took place some time 235. Manual. the king s decree was proclaimed. which. but he refused (f. to find out who was the more worthy. They took an empty basket in which they put a vase. as to following anecdote. I reproduce the much tions for its historic value. Dronodana had two sons. it appears curious that the of the Nyagrodha vipresentation residence there. to which the Buddha was obliged to consent. 157). to the Cuddhodana s The following day Quddhodana gave an entertainment Buddha and his disciples. but never took any part in the sports and amusements of his age. Shortly after this the Qakyas made a proclamation must enter the by which one man out of every family Buddhist order (f. their mother wanted ages in . Aniruddha and Mahanaman the former was his mother s favourite. p. text. I59 a ). was due a great deal of the trouble he afterwards had with some of the Qakya bhikshus whose names are mentioned farther on. and presented the Banyan b grove to him by pouring water on his hands (f. having become a Buddhist (bhikshu ?) the king s other brothers . they made the following experiment. The two following episodes seem out Quddhodana it 53 of place here. likewise.

to say that this filled On the way to where Aniruddha was. &quot.&quot.&quot. There appears to have been many more of the five hundred . So he opened the me and the fragrance of the contents pervaded the whole park and filled him with wonder and gratefulness toward his mother. mother. she answered him. The mother told Aniruddha that he could enter the order. but it was too late. son ? And by this means did Yes. and 1 they gave to a servant-girl with orders that 60) any one asked what was in the vase. mother loves surely vase. five all. on hearing what had happened. Eaivata. 162). &quot. truly. for that would put an end to all his hopes of reigning. . Aniruddha sought his friend Qakyaraja Bhadrika (f. &quot. hundred in city that Bhadrika. to the great prejudice of the people.My . Bhadrika objected that if he did so the throne would belong to Devadatta (f. she cannot have sent this empty a dish called nothing. &quot. and he had to submit. His mother. were about to enter the order of the Blessed One. and other the vase Qakra kinds of food. it is dearly. 161).54 lac. and having embraced him. vegetables. in her basket. Aniruddha. and she explained to him what this term implied. if (f. Devadatta. and as soon as they had it they caused to be announced in the streets of the &quot. my greatly and said to Mahanaman. Aniruddha asked the girl what she had there was nothing. dish. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. they discover that Aniruddha was in truth entitled to the honour of entering the Buddhist order. Aniruddha then suggested that they should induce Devadatta to enter the order at the same time so they obtained his promise. &quot. so he sent her word begging that she would send him every day some of that nothing &quot. &quot. he told him of the king s proclamation and asked him to enter the order with him. wondered Seest thou that.Nothing. . to Devadatta was greatly worried at this he had hoped be able to perjure himself and escape becoming a bhikshu. with pease.

on hearing their heads any worldly love.NANDA who S CONVERSION. citadel brahman or kshatriya caste. so he went to where he was standing. mendicants. 128) says that Nanda was received into the order on the day of his marriage. Upali. . i65 ) If these noblemen have given up wealth. thought. the thoughts of his mind. 1 28) she Can the Buddhist first order have called 3 = Bhadra. Upali (f. to become they took to their jewels b them him &quot. it these baubles. was then that the Buddha When a spoke the famous gatha. and Dulva x. to convince him of the airworthiness of of the Quddhodana. xvi.good. 55 entered the order under compulsion. beautiful. young the pleasures of youth. His fondness for his wife was so great that he tried several times to get back to her. and have devoted myself to crossing the stream and to freeing myself of all my bonds. 1 Qariputra led &c. and who after wards aided Devadatta in bringing about a schism the best known were Kokalika. Nanda. plastered over with flesh and blood. Katamora. was also one of those who entered against his will. Udan- avarga. &quot. and the Buddha was obliged to take him to the Trayastrimcat heaven. sent the royal barber Upali (Nye-lar-lkhor) to shave and beards. 2 but to the Banyan grove and there was led by the Buddha made a bhikshu. Khandadvaja. 163).&quot. 22 . 4 I would have entered the order of the well-spoken dharrna. Now Qariputra knew that Upali would become famous as a bhikshu. wives. fol. what troubles you ? &quot. &quot. If I had not had an evil birth. the Buddha s half-brother. they would bring cannot then be seeming in me to care for me but grief. and treasures. 150. Sagaradatta. young Qakyas determi 3 nation. off all and ornaments and gave and then went to bathe. katisya. him to where the The Nidanakatha (p. says the Dulva x. Nanda. (f. and and then he told him said. place only open to men of the higher castes? Upali is the first bhikshu mentioned in the legends who did not belong to the been in the has been made of bones. When he had finished doing so. the third day after the Buddha had reached Kapilavastu. Kalyani &quot. and also to hell. was much 1 very in love with his wife Bhadra. (f. 246-247. It Janapada Kalyani. 4 (p.&quot. 2 In the Nidanakatha is See Dhatnmapada. 102). &c. where there are many more verses of an equally instructive character.&quot.

and this was the first time that Devadatta dis a obeyed the Blessed One s orders (f. 209). p. the Buddha not entered the order to cast off pride ? But he still &quot. an alms-bowl in his hand. birth.56 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Ya^odhara. to do him homage. thief. so she sought to win him back (f. present child came to where the Blessed One was. and he ate it after which he could not be prevented from following after the Now the Lord saw that he was in his last Buddha. said. there appeared hundred Buddhas. the Blessed One con sented to their admission into the order with misgivings. foiled in this attempt. and order. so they were obliged. 163). arrayed herself. Hast thou Son. &quot. and gave him the charm. &quot. although he was only six years old. that Upali wanted to the Blessed . in the country of the Malla princes. bhikshu. Whan the Bahula. however. bow down.000 women of the palace. &quot. so he told Cariputra to admit the child into the order (f. with the look of a bhikshu of eight years standing.&quot. O O for * he saw that some of them would soon become dissatis fied (f. p.6dhara saw him from the palace. f. and Dulva iv. and to bow down before him. One day while the Blessed One was out begging. 183) says that he in the village of Anupya. his the 37 See Schiefner. i67 ). (i. 2o8 a ). Yac. 2 It was on this occasion that the Buddha told the story of the clever 1 Bigandet was thief son. &quot. One When the young Qakyas arrived. and the 60. One 1 was. on being received into the order. Upali had been received while they were on their yet way. and lead a life of purity and forthwith Upali s hair fell off and he stood arrayed in bhikshu s apparel. who gave hundred pieces to a charmher a philter which would bring the Buddha back to her. and also Gopa. Devadatta. . Blessed told him enter the Come hither. The Buddha gave the food back to Bahula. would not consent to this. &quot. Mrigadja.&quot. but Bahula recognised his father 2 among them all. who was recognised by The Buddha had been . She gave five maker of Bajagriha. refused. Tibetan Tales. Ya^odhara gave this to him and told to it to his father. said to him. five . 209-214.

a boy of the same age as Bahula. under consideration leads us to suppose that he made several visits to Kapilavastu at short intervals. 215). the mother of Bahula. f. &quot. and Dulva iv. Mrigadja. and the 60. Amritodana had a son. Ananda in. Vaisali when the Buddha came to Kapilavastu. but continued to hope that she would be able to bring him back to her arms. Gopfi. 2 learn from a passage in We The passage the Vridji country.. for &quot. the Buddha when he came to the seen would be by they Blessed One performed all kinds of The to beg.000 other women entered the paths. so his He took him to father sought to prevent them meeting. and When the Buddha arose and went away. 216. down in a room which was Ananda. cit. p. however. became an arhati. Schiefner. op. On this occasion the Buddha on leaving Kapilavastu went into See told the Bishyasringa jataka. Ananda dana if he were converted (f. Soothsayers had predicted that he would become the personal attendant of the Buddha. side on one a he stood One then taking fan. The Blessed One perceived that it would be good for &quot. is the most modest of all my female disciples 22O a). he converted her. would not see the truth. 328% that the Buddha . palace miracles in their presence. Ananda followed His father after him. at Buddha s down the bowed this on Amritodana seeing he which of truth the words to listened spoke. and the Buddha said of her. death he will find the amrita. Dulva xi. and sat 233 ). year?). 214). blinded by her love for her lost husband.after my So he went to Amrito- b seeing this. and no one could keep him back. feet.ANAN DA FOLLOWS THE BUDDHA. Ananda by name. s house at Kapilavastu. but YacMh&ra. next to the one in Suddenly the to the Blessed and bowed came door opened. . in all their finery 57 and they placed themselves where (f. fanning him. Yagodhara.&quot. consented that 1 Ananda should enter the order. 219. f. and back 2 to Kapilavastu when the Blessed One went to Vaisali. and she also She entered the order (the following entered the paths. by which he filled them with awe and established them in the faith (f. 1 A little while later on. 253 . (f.

The story is told as follows in Dulva iii. Aniruddha. &c. and on the morrow he led him in great pomp to the Nyagrodha vihara. 367). saviour of men. While the Buddha was yet at Kapilavastu. naman was unable. jSTow Mahanaman s wife was young and beautiful. &quot. and was so delighted O with it that his wife was struck with his enthusiasm and asked him the reason. f. : 7 &quot. for Ananda was the same age as Rahula. f. 241.58 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and had made many converts (f. every episode relating to the female members of the order seems a copy of one concerning the bhikshus. she her husband replied his Say not all to extends creation. 51 and 232. Go. 1 the Qakya women attempted to gain admission into the order.&quot. iv. 366 b ). Mahais He the exclaimed. . She 1 A. In fact. he had also taught Cuddhodana three times. but he interested Mahaprajapati Gautami (Skye-dguhi-bdag tcJienmo). The Qakya Mahanaman had also heard the truth. That this is the version is commonly received ap- parent from Spence Hardy. See Fah Hian. (f. the Buddha s attendant 3 saw her. and is evidently much more recent than the former. told that p..&quot. seek him. much of the episode of Bhadrika. xxii. 334b ). when this event happened. He told her about the Buddha and his doctrine. . however.&quot. &quot. 2 This number makes the story It reminds us too look suspicious. in their undertaking. and she wore much jewellery on this occason. but not of women. where he was received into the brother hood by Dagabala Ka^yapa (f. Man. the king s wife. 3 The text says Ananda.D. to get King Quddhodana s go to the Banyan grove the (doubtless king suspected their purpose). and reproved her for wearing such gorgeous apparel. Mahanaman also persuaded five hundred 2 other Qakya women to go with them to the Banyan grove. and you mercy will hear the truth from his mouth&quot. but this can hardly be if we follow the indications of D. six years old. chap. &quot. As she was approaching the Bud dha with the other women. and she obtained to permission for the women the necessary authorisation (f. where we are Ananda was ordained in the twentieth year after the teacher of the three worlds became Buddha. and said that he was their saviour. 366*). E-aivata. so. 365-368 The Buddha had expounded the truth to the Qakyas three times. Already in the fifth century it was deserted and in ruins.

He. Lebens. the same age as the Buddha. 25 1 says that Ananda lived hundred and twenty when he died. 108. reborn as the Princess Katnavali (Mu-tig-chari). 59 a maid-servant who had accompanied gave her jewellery to desirous of hearing the dharma. we follow the him of the same legend which makes the Buddha. op. forty-hve nd woiUd make him for his own. Ananda was chosen as 42. cit. says that p. the five prohibitions. into accurate. a&amp. tween him and the light. 370). She wrote a letter to the of his life and his doctrines. for he was head of the church for Mahaka 9 yapa s forty years after death Schiefner. It happened that some merchants of (Jravasti (f. p. Klaproth. and by this means they traced the outlines of his person. 372 ). Above it which would make Ananda twenty at that time. which would allow five years for Kacyapa s patriarchate. . was preach. so distressed at being deprived of hearing the Buddha She was. and the holy eightfold way. the twelve written the three refuges. knowing that the princess could should told the merchants to speak his praise when they the decided he moreover sending and upon return thither. merchants carried vasti. he was a as If. that she died on the way to the city. and what nidanas. J Koue Ki p. the does as reproduce it here. 368 ) but the girl . be converted. came to pushed by and through them Princess Katnavali heard of the Buddha. ordination. for it does not take consideration the time during whici: ten Kacyapa was patriarch possibly or eleven years. however. and filled b them in with diffe Below the portrait he had rent coloured paints (f. a hundred and thirty yeais.gt. and the him i Blessed One (f. b for the amrita. Although the latter part daughter of the king some of this legend occurred years later. The Buddha told paint his portrait and to hold it up be a take to them piece of cotton stuff. asking who was then at rathe to it Buddha. on the other hand. of Ceylon. sixteen when he was the attendant of the Buddha.RATNAVALI. what was the truth (lugs dang mtliun) was not the truth. Jfid- kins. and he was eightypassed away when This cannot be considered as five. was chief of SOQ 9 gays that Ananda the doctrine for forty years. princess were unable to do so. Tib.. contrary winds. and who was very b told her to take her jewels home (f. f. and her. 37 ). the regulation age for See Dulva i. The artists who were called to his likeness. the island of Ceylon. PRINCESS OF CEYLON. it is as well to Dulva.

however. be pure. and live virtuously.. chaste. life. Gautami. Tib. and another at the time of his father s death in the sixth.&quot. Eatnavali gave them three dronas (bushels) of pearls (f. If women could have the &quot.. 327). the merchants started for their home again. and one for the When sangha. is of secondary importance. blessings. 326 b~338. second and yet a third time she renewed her request in &quot. Udanavarga. she left his presence. p. f. In our text these two journeys are confounded. but she only elicited the same answer. &quot. xi. so 2 bowing down. When the Blessed One had finished preaching to the five hundred Qakya women in the Banyan grove. Mahaprajapati Gautami said to the Buddha. p. they would enter the order and strive for perfection. were written the two verses. seek to attain perfection. &C. 164. 374 a ). and you will find a lasting reward. commence new He who leads a life of purity. A the same terms.. to a certain extent. four fruits of the gramana. With of the Dulva this legend the account given in the third volume of the first attempt of the women to Qakya found a female order of mendicants conies abruptly to an end. When as 1 the Blessed One had remained long as suited him. This. We must turn to the eleventh volume. if we mentioned in the Southern version of the first visit to Kapilavastu in the first year. Gram. one for the dharma. wear the &quot. to find the sequel. where part of this episode is translated. 375). . and to live in purity near the But he answered her. Arise. 1 &c. 2 It would be possible to make the Southern and Northern versions agree. as to the time of the Buddha s life when Gautami entered the order. f. pure white dress of lay-women. at Kapilavastu he took up his alms-bowl and take into consideration the facts See Csoma.&quot.&quot. I beseech the Blessed One to let women become Blessed One. 23. and The merchants explained to the princess that whosoever observed all the rules written on the piece of cloth on which was the Buddha s likeness had found amrita (f.60 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &quot. &c. and happiness (D. one for the Buddha. bhikshunis.

wearied. She told him. so will if be.&quot. ) this occasion is severely reproached by him. put on bhikshuni s clothing. thieves and robbers may break in and steal so will it be. and a Nakaikundjika (sic) (f. request to be admitted into the order. the ungrateful. so likewise there are five kinds of dangerous women the angry.&quot. she may : stand the nature of a bhikshuni . and followed after him and came to where he was. if a anda. the hating. xxi.. a bhikshuni being . Ananda. order. An if in a house there are many women and but few men. To thoroughly under rules. near bhikshus. stopped at place called ask not that women be admitted into the order. wayworn. field of sugar-cane is blighted (btsah-nad). Ananda. &quot. 2d. the rules of the order will not last long 33O a ). 1 6r went a to the Natika country in Vriji. a bhikshuni shall not pass the season of was in a place where there are no bhikshus 4th. &quot. ch. See also p. she and the five hundred Qakya women shaved their heads. . 2 &quot. &quot. ragged. and An anda went to where the Buddha was and renewed Gautami s request (f. and the venomous women. of it. order the enter ist. for if women enter the order the rules of the order will not last long. but she received the same answer as previously b So she went and sat down outside the entrance (f. the rules of the order will not long be safe. The Natika of our text must have been east of Kapilavastu. of the house and wept. enter the (f. whereas that of Fa Hian was less than a yojana to the west town angry.When the Buddha had finished preaching to her and her she renewed her companions. and there Ananda saw her and asked her what was the matter. if women worthless. the spiteful. the spiteful. 329 b ). if women enter the order. the ungrateful. a bhikshuni was . Ananda. and the venomous one . during 1 Fah Hian. Gautami accepts the eight following However. where Ananda s conduct on Elsewhere (Dulva x. I27 b There are five the Buddha says. and covered with dust. the hating. f. 2 Or yet again. twelve yojanas south-east of Cravasti. that they be ordained and become bhikshunis. 328 ).THE BUDDHA cloak and S FEAR OF WOMEN. 328 ). Ananda. it it is good for nothing. shall be taught every half-month 3d. replied the Buddha. 152. speaks of a called Na-pi-ka. kinds of dangerous serpents the . Gautami having heard this. Ananda.

in the Jetavana vihara 336). f.000 houses with silver towers. rise before him. f. where Jivaka cured an abscess on Ananda s head .nly in the first district. she and the other women were received into the order. or rather (f. 2 . 2 I have followed Schiefner s translation in W. the middle.62 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. From here the Blessed One went on to Vaisali. in the middle district were 14. Dulva iii. or do anything sinful. Their chief magistrate was called Nayaka (Sde-dpon) and he was elected by the people. for the people of the of the land of and abode (f.&quot. 80 In the first district were 7000 houses with golden towers. that no marriage was to be contracted outside Vaisali. though she has been ordained . it. (f. 1 I take the following description of this celebrated city from There were three districts in Vaisali.000 houses with copper towers in these lived the upper. the Buddha s wife. p. according to their positions. and bow down to Gautami accepted all these rules. that one born in the middle district could marry only in the first and second but that one born in the last district could marry in any one of the three. a bhikshuni. Dulva iv. an hundred years. o&quot. 82). a bhikshuni shall not be wrathful. 6th. even if he be recently ordained she shall honour him. and the lower classes. Lebens. a bhikshuni shall confess her sins to the bhikshus (?) every fortnight 8th. Tib. and from there he went to Qravasti 268. and so him&quot. 331). reverence him. or inhabitants See Schiefner. and in the last district were 21. Ralston s English ren- dering of 77. f. page . moreover. 334 b says that the Buddha on leaving Kapilavastu went to Rajagriha. &quot. The people of Vaisali (who were the rulers. Tibetan Tales. shall always speak kindly to a bhikshu. not in the second or third . 5th. 79) had made a law that a daughter born in the first district could marry since . and among them was Ya^odhara. abusive. a bhikshuni by words or by reviving recollections shall not damage the morals of a bhikshu . : . by the ruling clans country were called Vrijians. shall be sufficiently separated from the bhikshus so as not to see and hear them or fear the proximity. 1 of Licchavis. 7th.

on King Bimbisara married Vasavi. ! &quot. slighted at this. had been obliged to flee from his country on account of the jealousy of the other ministers of the king . so he went to Vaisali together with his two bore him. another daughter. (Dulva x. the people appointed Sinha. the singing-birds. even when he was among the Trayastrimcat devas nanda &quot. &quot. 82). . . set the diadem on his own Sinha s wife head. and Sinha had a daughter whom they called Vasavi it was foretold that she would bear a son who (Gos-chari) would take his father s life. The Blessed One went out from Vaisali to the sala forest of Gopala and Sinha&quot. its parks and gardens. so he ravaged the parks of the Licchavis. the popular assembly (Don-du tsogs) gave him and his brother a park and thus it is said by the sthaviras in the sutras. When son Sakala died. and Gopala. his . His two sons married at Vaisali. 1 - 63 Vaisali is invariably described in Vriji (Spong-lyed) the Dulva as a kind of earthly paradise. 2). Dulva v. To restrain him. . Gopala Sakala soon became a (Sa-sltyong) and Sinha (Seng-ge). Gopala was fierce and of great strength. where he became the first minister of Bimbisara Nayaka Vaisali and took (f. (f. 284-288. Nanda Upa- exclaimed the Chabbaggiya bhikshus when they the Blessed One never saw the like of visited Vaisali this. moreover. and seize the sovereignty for himself. whom they called Upavasavi (Nye-gos-cliaii). 8 3 ). . 82). prominent citizen in Vaisali. and continual festivities among the Licchavis. and as she was of a family from Videha. departed from up his residence at Rajagriha in Magadha. and the Licchavis who defend it. f. Sakala (Dum-lu\ a minister of King Virudhaka of Videha. f. Ajatasatru ravages the territory of Vriji. with its handsome buildings.HISTORY OF SAKALA. &quot. A 1 little later Gopala it is s niece. and after a while he was elected Nayaka (f. sons. &quot. and the seers declared that she would bear a son provided with excellent qualities.

The history of two other persons from Vaisali who role in this story is told as follows in an &quot. she became 85). who the wife of a merchant of Kajawomen. When Abhaya and Jivaka were grown up. so it for by Abhaya. 87-107 : named Mahanaman. The son whom she sent to his father. she became a courtesan. king of Magadha. on account of the prediction made to his mother. and he called her name Amrapali When she was grown up. he visited her at Vaisali. heard of her through he was at Gopala. 8). who. &quot. Lotus (p. but was reserved for the pleasures of the people (f. boy approached the king fearlessly and climbed up to his breast. or the enemy (Ma-skyes dgra) (f. received the name of Adjatasatru. though her seven with war with the Licchavis. of Adjatasatru s . and bore him a Amrapali became with child by him. From There lived at Vaisali a Licchavi a kadali tree in an amra grove in his park was born a girl. as styong-ma). This boy seems not to know fearless so he was called Abhaya or fear (f. bore a son. After a while she &quot. &quot. Jivaka Kumarabhanda (Hts o-lyed gdzon-nus-gsos). Q2 ). &quot. &quot. and remained (Amra days. and the b The king had the chest fore the palace gate (f. had a child by &quot. . says that the name mother was Crithadr&. who is one of the prominent personages in the history of the last years of the Buddha s life. 340 and 482). mother had the child left in a chest be griha. it was Jivaka and having been provided moreover called Kumarablianda or . l We played important Dulva iii. 88). which caused the king to remark. was called (jiva). Bimbisara. known as Vaidehi (f.&quot. was always longing after strange King Bimbisara. son his and asked Abhaya if the child was living opened. lovely to look upon.64 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. f. perfect in all parts of her body. they deemed r l Burnouf. 92). (while) not (yet) born will farther on have frequent occasion to speak of this prince. there was a law of Vaisali by which a perfect woman was not allowed to marry.

lie. it. so he took a lot of white pebbles. both hard and soft. &quot. so Abhaya learnt coachmaking and Jivaka studied medicine at Takchagila with Atraya (Egyun-shes-kyi-bu). is . that prediction is true and part is a &quot.&quot. Blessed One. &quot. and handed it back to him. went into the town to Wandering on through the town begging alms. The gramana Gautama has been prophesying something to them in this house.SUBHADRA AND THE NIRGRANTHA. casting .&quot. changed asked him. She will bring forth will he his family renowned . &quot.&quot. and Subhadra asked him. and. the only one where we can get I must go and see what he has told them. Sir. . enjoy the &quot. &quot. if this my wife be with child. what kind &quot. and soon became a master in the healing art. and asked them. replied. why clasp you your hands and change he replied. anything.&quot. Then he and his wife came to the Blessed One. and having that the made his reckoning. it 65 proper to learn some trade. become an arhat. A short time after this one of the Nirgranthas thought. Then he thought. What. . having put on his child. of offspring will she bring forth ? The Buddha he will make a male child. There then lived in Eaja griha a householder called Subhadra. so I will say a little good Qramana and a little Then he clasped his hands and evil of so that Subhadra the expression of his face. sir. part of your expression?&quot. mantle and taken his alms-bowl. The Blessed One was once stopping at Eajagriha in the Veluvana Kalantaka nivasa. &quot. he saw how exact was Buddha had said.If all I praise this this householder to go over to the cause I will prophecy Gautama s doctrine. Now this Nirgrantha was a went So he soothsayer . whose wife was with One day the Blessed Buddha. he will off my order. came to the house of Subhadra. will enter the priesthood of pleasure of gods and men he all the miseries of sin. he beg. .&quot. Then they filled the Blessed One s alms-bowl with the choicest food.Householder.&quot.

or who ever see That he will enter the priesthood of my the gods. how much less then can one of his or to be &quot. She will bring forth a male child/ that renowned in his family . &quot. (After this Subhadra tried to bring on an abortion. the lanes. &quot.enter only our order. for he renowned that prakasa is a man s name but it is this child s lot burnt up in his house a short time after his birth. for the Qramana Gautama himself has not cast off all the miseries of sin and be come an arhat. they carrying Qitavana Two young men. become an arhat is a lie. and streamers. s wife would Gautama that Subhadra prophesied Qramana and now she is a male &c. where she died. one a believing kshatriya. what a &quot. . for there are but few (i. true and will be &quot. told the news to his companion who did not think the words of the Blessed One could be .) The JSTirgranthas. forth child. (as above) bring are her to the and dead. disciples ? Subhadra was greatly distressed at this. on hearing all this. answered him in this verse : . but being unable to do so. and in the cross-roads of Rajagriha. and with that he departed. he took his wife into the woods. untrue. ! . and by learning our precepts you will find wisdom. order is true. were greatly de so they erected canopies. the Nirgrantha replied.&quot. for when he is without food or raiment he will certainly be a member of the Qramana Gautama s That he will cast off all the miseries of sin and order.66 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. lie ? Householder. is is when he true . the Listen.. true. &quot.e. the other an unbelieving brahman. and the brahman but the kshatriya youth. said. That he will enjoy the pleasures of gods and men is a lie. and asked what he must do.Householder.&quot. flags. &quot. sir. and his servants and friends came and put the corpse on a bier and carried it to the Qitavana cemetery. there are none) men who enjoy the pleasures of gods and men. lighted and went about saying to every one in the streets. were out walking.

thinking will burn. All the vast multitude saw this. take &quot. would and turned to the Nirgranthas. The moon with all the stars may fall to This earth. held out his hands and took it. but he looked at the Nirgranthas. . lie. take this &quot. The Blessed One said to Subhadra. your dwelling So he. &quot.BIRTH OF JYOTISHKA. . and lo in the centre of the lotus was a child. . . Then the Blessed One . said to Qrenika Bimbisara. putting his trust in false doctrines. beautiful and of pleasing appearance. the for with the deepest respect Buddha. filled take of Magadha. ! . But it. entered the fire without hesitation and took the child. .&quot. put his wife s remains on it and set fire to the pyre. !&quot. may reach the sky The waters of the mighty deep may all dry up. burnt to death . who said.&quot. . Householder. Then the Blessed One child. &quot. &quot. which burst open. who said. life. in their haughtiness. take the He.&quot. their might. in their pride. he. that his left own preservation was of paramount importance. and you will lose your . your child No one has ever entered a roaring fire without being so he would not take the child.Maharaja. and exceeding great was their astonishment but the Nirgranthas suffered in . At the Conqueror s bidding he entered the flames he took the child in the fire by the Conqueror s might the fire harmed him not The Buddha said to Subhadra. But by no chance can the mighty Bishi tell a . When all her body had been consumed there still remained as it were a ball of flesh. . and he. Householder. king the child. Then it went from mouth to mouth. Householder.&quot. &quot. it is undeniable that this thing will be burnt by fire if you take it to your house. &quot. its hills and forests.&quot.&quot. thinking the Blessed One would not bid one do what was impossible. the child.&quot. Doctor. a lotus appeared. . Subhadra having had firewood made ready. 67 earth . not take &quot. said to Jivaka. child.

cit. the Now dharma. born from out the or be called Jyotishka (Me slvyes) Born of the fire (jyotis). op. and that Jyotishka had become head of the house. believer i. but finally the father was persuaded by his brother-in-law to take his child. fire. side (dku mnyed-pai ts al). and gave alms to the clergy of the whole world. The Bless ed One was stopping at Eajagriha. they asked the householder what When he had explained it. answered the Buddha. tirtlrikas came along. where he had been (preserved from) the death that He fitted it up (awaited him at the hands of) Subhadra. which they decorated with jewels and sent it to Jyotishka. with everything of the most perfect description. asked the Buddha what name it ought to receive. let it &quot. in p. this by using a ladder. but after a while the householder Subhadra died. &quot. he sought his refuge in the dharma. they said.) lived the son According to universal custom. He had it put on the end of a long pole. the sangha.. vol.68 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. He &quot. and saw this. as this child has been Maharaja. with this notice appendent. No one may have &quot. and young Jyotishka became the head of the house. in the arama of the rubbed &quot.. and the sangha. steps. Bigandet. also that he was a firm believer in the Buddha. or a hook (to reach it). but whatever gramana or brahman a can get it by using only magical or superhuman means shall have whatever he 1 wishes. He had a vihara built on the spot and the Buddha. after washing on the river- bank. Some it &quot.&quot. On hearing this they took an alms-bowl of sandal-wood. so was there 1 for. as long as the father s name was not mentioned. Householder. (Bimbisara had the boy reared with every care.&quot. you are a Comp. &quot. Therefore is it said in the sutranta of the sthaviras. Filled with faith in the Buddha. the agents of Subhadra in foreign parts heard of his death. the Qakyaputra et seq. 212 .

when Jyotishka said. . commenced un are you doing his shoes. how comes it that you have never invited gods &quot. purpose had been explained to him.) One day King Bimbisara said to Jyo (f. They asked Jyotishka what it was so he explained it to them. and they also saw it. the . you who are enjoying the pleasures of and men. . alms-bowl. Go invite your majesty. S MECHANICAL .&quot. he thought. Buddha heard of what Ka^yapa had clone (When he forbade bhikshus showing magical feats. so he extended his hand as an -elephant would his trunk and took the patra and know which carried it off to the vihara. have put away all sin (Mega). . tishka. Jyotishka answered. to &quot. desiring to enter (the room). &quot. 69 and with that they they will get (the bowl) way. and he asked the householder the same question. it is not water. the Blessed One has said the they said.&quot.&quot. water.&quot. . and the householder would be very glad its &quot.JYOTISHKA cjamanas . &quot. on your majesty. jewelled ing through of water. a floor of jewels which looks like water. &quot. and men has many servants. Then Householder. When It is long since I to of the tirthikas or myself is the greater in adept magical performances.&quot. The king. FISH. your house ? I myself will wait then and get ready your servants. &quot. and pass So the king went to Jyotishka s house. why I must wade in the Because to bathe getting ready .) b 34 .&quot. this is applicable in the case of this and with that they departed.&quot. After a while the venerable Da^abala Kaxyapa came that way.&quot. Sire. ?&quot. . though he who knows the joys of gods me &quot.I &quot. it is &quot. public. like a lake him before he saw a door. &quot. he replied. in which fish were made to move by machinery. Young man. bhikshu s virtues must be concealed and his sins made went their .&quot. and have been made clean. After a while the bhikshus and sthaviras came into Eajagriha to beg. Sire. and moreover he prohibited them from having alms-bowls made of any other substance than iron or earthenware.

those fish which seem to move 1 about?&quot. the youngest of which was called Visakha (Sa-ga). Introd. we read of the du Buddh. p. where he had been exiled (f.Sire. Qampa. one is given p. k 1 Hist. passage of the Bodhimur seems to be a copy of our text. &quot. p. . &quot. 36. Why are the answered Jyotishka. ang Setsen. whose stories have been preserved to us in the third and fourth volumes of the Dulva. oreat was his amazement. after Adjatasutra had begun to reign. O Then he entered the room and sat down on a throne.70 &quot. had seven sons. the daughter of Balamitra (Stobs-kyi bshes-gnyen). Mem. Mrigadhara (Ei-dags hdziri). The Sanskrit text is in the Divya Avadana. 199. &quot. 17-38. the story of the elephant which a mechanic made for Bharata. dri dgah-las)? (lhai-na-lzah-la sJiing-gi dud-pai Here we will leave Jyotishka for the time being. at Lhasa. women crying ? Sire. in which was also a crystal The king was also deluded floor. an illegitimate son of King Aranemi Brahmadatta. In the Mongol history 7. and Schiefner. they are made to move by machinery. I26 a ). See Burnouf. they had tears in their eyes. The same story occurs in Rodger s Buddhaghosha s 1 Dulva Nepalese princess. . 2 Taken from the Jyotishka Acad. f. entitled Bodhimur (Schmidt.&quot. wife of the Tibetan king Srong-btsan-sgam-po. 115-124). in the xi. 342). Sande 1 Avadana. The whole Parables. when he first saw it. 1 08. p.&quot. The king could not believe it. they tis the smoke from the wood are not weeping (in grief) in the artificial sun which brings tears to their eyes&quot.But THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. which was so great that her There are several other stories Dulva about mechanical deSee also vices . and wisdom (f. p. who was living at Qampa. which was a part of the kingdom made and where the Buddha frequent excursions.. first minister of Prasenadjit of Kosala. f. No. 39. The of his history will find place in the latter part of our narrative. de St. When the w omen came and bowed down at his feet. r &quot. xxii.. minister of King Tchanda Pradyota. &quot. building a temple on Mount Potala. 1 66. end of Magadha. Petersb. She soon became celebrated for her intelligence. Dulva x. . cleverness. was the birthplace of the two following heroes. The king asked. whom he married to Visakha (Sa ga-ma). so he threw down a ring and when he heard the noise it made on striking the floor.

and while stupefied he had their I28 b ). Likewise. where she Visakha-matawi. so strong The Buddha consoled her by telling her of the evil deeds 1 which her sons had committed in a former existence. who all grew up to be sturdy. and on the seventh day thirty-two sons came forth. took came back. from Dulva following story is taken version Pali Cf the iv. At about the same time as the previous events were at Qampa a rich householder^ taking place. Visakha. A 1 See p. also 1 Schiefner. and so she is called in Buddhist legends Visakha. so he sought means to get the with purohita quarrel The hillmen had defeated the king s troops rid of them. At another time Visakha brought forth thirty-two eggs. 314-325- in is Mahavagga. Therefore it is said in the sutranta of the sthaviras. et seq. what had been a park (pdrvdrama). in the vihara of mother. on the Buddha s advice. 33.VISAKHA S SONS. _ i. 127*). but they defeated the hillmen. vihara near &quot. very strong. each in a separate box. b seven times (f. the mother of Mrigadhara. 2 The for gro-dzin = Crona.&quot. They once had a s son. I27 ). dangerous to his power. which she placed in cotton. Then the purohita hostages and tribute. overcomers of strength (f. Tibetan is take Tales. there lived also 2 named Potala (? Grur-Mzin) to whom a son was born person ran to the while he was on a trip to Eajagriha. So great was son. sect. for they were The king he there and drugged therefore invited them to a feast. 78. who (f. and Sutra m It is probable that this a mis- Forty-two Sections. was then entertaining the Buddha and his disciples. . f. and made it over to the clergy. 126). were they. which he sent in a basket to their mother.&quot. &quot. in The Blessed One was Mrigadhara s residing at Qravasti. and tried to make the king destroy them. heads cut off them. a had he that him told householder and . 10 Fah Hian called (Seal s). 71 father-in-law asked permission of the Buddha to call her his mother (f. in a King Prasenadjit was so faithfully nursed by her She built a severe illness that he called her his sister. p. in what had formerly been a park. Qravasti. Visakha s sons were sent against from them them. v.

The asked the if man had he ever seen the king having young Buddha. and talked to him Buddha. and this he carried back to the Buddha in the Kalantaka bamboo grove. and smelling the sweet odour. so they went together to . they prepared for him a boat in which he could journey to the a capital of Magadha (f. Moreover he sent word to his treasurer to distribute twenty kotis of gold to celebrate the event. . but the people of Qampa. On the soles of his feet were tufts of goldenvimpatikoti. or Qrona(Gro-dzin). and had dug a canal from there to the capital. .72 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. After that he retired to the Qitavana cemetery of Eajagriha. desiring Maudgalyayana to him. 3i5 b ). he asked from whence the food came. sent him word that the young man would come to Bajagriha. but it did not bring him the passionlessness he sought. Just then King Bimbisara came to visit the Buddha. The Buddha told him that it was from his own land of Qampa. was brought . by which means the boat . and related the young man s history. who of the appeared to him in the orb of the sun. 32 i ). child &quot. fearing that the king s visit would be dangerous for them. was con verted and became a bhikshu 323 a ). had been born under the constellation Qrona he was called Crona-twenty-kotis. but the man thought he was laughing at him. As he was not accustomed to walk. and would not speak. learnt that he had not. and that for every time he had told him he would fill his mouth once with gold. The householder told him that he was mistaken. to Bajagriha amid great rejoicing. the Bamboo grove. and there QronavimQatikoti (f. The king decided to go and see this wonder. The Buddha to convert sent him. his delight that he made the messenger repeat the news three times. The Buddha called him to him and asked why he had . and would have had him repeat it again. The king came down to the Ganges. . and gave himself up to the rudest penances. As the coloured hair four fingers long (f.&quot. Qronavimc^atikoti filled his bowl with food of extraordinary fragrance.

&quot. Then the ayuchmat Nanda. p. I. and the son of his aunt. Be moderate. Following this advice.&quot. One. the ayuchmat Cariputra. Angulimaliya Sutra. strings were excessively stretched. &quot. 73 at When you were been so severe in his penances. relates of the f. har &quot.&quot. rable sirs. and in a short time he became an arhat. Venerable &quot. ter of of the some of the principal disciples Buddha great many of &quot. Venerable One. and too much relaxation brings indolence. 337-339. nor too loose. the best thing conceivVeneable is a fine appearance. Then spoke the ayuchmat Nanda. and were talking about the best thing conceivable.THE BUDDHA VISITS KAU^AMBI. the cousin of the Blessed One. in like manner. true ? It was.&quot. the strings were neither too much stretched. pleasing. : A the bhikshus were gathered together. home did you know how to play on the lute ? &quot. this In a passage 66. But when the strings of the lute were too loose. See also Mdo xvi. and you will reach excellence. &quot.. pleasing. correct &quot. Venerable One. 243-260. f. Punyabala Avadana (Mdo xxx. &quot. was the sound of the lute agreeable. distraction. of the of introducing his doctrine history of the conversion of the king of that country told as follows in the sixteenth I volume 1 Mdo iii. monious. the ayuchmat Qronavim^atikoti. he gave himself up to no more 1 excesses. the ayuchmat Aniruddha. KauQambi. .When the &quot. skilfulness thing. Vene- rable sirs.&quot. pleasing. was the sound agreeable. was the sound of the lute agreeable. in the reproduce the intro- Huen Thsang. ? was not. harmonious. 33) occurs the following passage.&quot. came and sat down diligence is the best conceivable Venerable sirs. But the Buddha declared that moral merit was the best thing for man. which happily illustrates the charac- midst of the assembly. The venerable Cariputra said. too much application brings Qrona.&quot. quoth Cronavimcatikoti. Venerable sirs. and pious. correct &quot. I did. Venerable One. It &quot. is the best thing. story. unselfish. harmonious. of a truth wisdom is the best thing that man can conceive. said Aniruddha.When &quot. from Twas not very long after his departure Kapilavastu that the into Buddha thought The is f. &quot. ? It was not.

the king heard these words. seeing the Blessed One approaching. Let discernment (rnam-rtog) be your sword. this This is the substance of his serliteral translation. Desirous to possess world s good and not to see his race die out. Hereafter will experience the misery of hell. here gives up to strife and quarrels. of Vadsala (Kauwith his disciples together departed for the Vadsala country. meditation the bow you bend. Mallika s s son Virudhaka estate long be- from Dulva x. From malice Put then away malice and &quot. . &quot. . had reached man 121-134.Udayana. he exclaimed in anger. sion of when had perceiving that the time for the conver (Tchar-byed). king he. ductory passage of this story. that great and mighty foe. and with clasped hands he to sat down strife near the Buddha. arrived. had assembled his army with the intention of conquering the city of Kanakavati (Grser-chan). f. on conquering. and morality your fort virtue your army. 2 Mahanaman this 1 Qakya and he appointed a young brahman in grove. faith.When quarrelling. but egotism. king of Vadsala. and detachment the arrow. we the story. the steward of the his stead steward of the hill-people. he became submissive to the Blessed One. &quot. not a a fore the end of the Buddha s life. though I have found no mention of this event in the Vinaya The Blessed One was teaching his doctrine to the multitude in the city of : Yaranasi. at Kapila- vastu in the Banyan died. as will see. Let diligence be your spear. mon. I only give the general outlines of This must have been in the early part of his ministry. charity. when. As it flew through the air these words were heard ! : &quot. All such messengers of bad luck must be put to death and with that he took a sharp arrow and shot it at the Blessed One.74 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. He who is misery brought forth. l While the Blessed One was once stopping &quot. Udayana gambi ?). for. which is too long to be It is taken given here in extenso. and patience your armour. not human enemies. who preached him on giving up and quarrelling.&quot.

&quot.&quot. and it was her duty to cook the food and to gather flowers. His wife was old. May this make me some day to be no longer a slave or poor. however. him her food. came to Kapilavastu alone. After a while her father died. he had certainly collected the greater part of them. brahman married a woman who after a while bore him of the 75 same caste as his own. but she felt so poor that she held back. He. To this he con Tchandra. whom they named Tchandra (? Zla-la). &quot. and her pretty face gained the hearts of all the hill-people. and creditors. She grew up to be shrewd and well-bred. Mahanaman was so well pleased with the way in which she made the wreaths that he changed her name to Mallika (Phreng-cJian]. Mallika was greatly struck with his beautiful appearance. &quot.&quot. lord. the latter the is shrewd and good-looking. and girl. Then she &quot.THE STORY OF MALLIKA. One day Prasenadjit. I am very old.&quot. and she put her offering in it. go to the sented. held out his bowl. and wandering here and there. had he Sirs. and just then the Blessed One passed that way collecting alms. king of Kosala. he came to Mahana- .&quot. &quot. or the wreath Now it happened that one day Mallika had gone into the garden with her food. and the old woman said. and wished to give &quot. garden and gather the flowers while I cook the food. but he used it to procure remedies for his cough. and the hill-people went and told Mahanaman of his death. a daughter. so I pray thee let Tchandra help me. and he even made other loans besides. Lord. so that to-day the little he has left belongs to his But he had a house. a favourite among hill-people. &quot. carried away by his horse in the heat of the chase.&quot. he inquired. a son and daughter. He did not recover. My &quot. So Mahanaman took the daughter into his house. knowing her heart. my hands are unable to accomplish both my tasks. hesitating. wishing the while. said. collected the taxes and dues ? &quot.

a wave. she took cool water in a leaf cup and gave it to the king. but she opened not the gate.Bring me some water wash Maiden. These kings have many enemies. p. &quot.&quot. but scarcely had she touched his feet when he fell asleep. and the king awakening.&quot.Maiden. he admired still more her shrewdness and wisdom. &quot. so the king took her with him in great while after he said.&quot. &quot. it would be a slur on my master s reputation. . vi. and she willingly complied. When lie had drunk it he asked Mallika. &quot. B. Young girl. 2 Cf.&quot. &quot. are there three different pools in this garden that thou hast brought me three kinds of water ? Then she explained what she had done. Having found out who she was. Then she. &quot. &quot.&quot. Hardly had she done so when she heard cries of pen from a crowd of men who wanted to get in. took water which was neither too warm nor too cold. so I will close the gate. Maha naman consented. is man s &quot. Then mixing 1 the water thoroughly. But when Mallika went to salute her and took hold of her feet. 1 The nas. he went to Mahanaman. garden. asked what was the matter. and asked him for the girl to make her his wife. 317. Mallika thought.It whose garden the got off his is this ? s. If any one should harm him while thus asleep. He to horse and said. &quot. bring me water to my pushing away with her hand the surface water. &quot. Qakya Mahanaman feet. &quot. Again he said. Huen Thsang. lie said. rub his feet with a towel. and Prasenadjit After that he requested her to praised her shrewdness. My translation is conjectural. text is tchu rnam-par glongsI think that glongs may be derived from Hong.Maiden. When he heard why Mallika had closed the gate. &quot. A little my wash face.76 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 2 Now Prasenadjit s mother was displeased that her son had married a servant-girl of humble birth. and with that he washed his face. bring me some drinking water.&quot. &quot. state to Qravasti. There he saw Mallika. &quot.

77 When she awoke. ! &quot. note 4. After a while Mallika had a son. thinks that his name may possibly be Matraparadhaka. v. op. in Buddhist legends.Sirs. Varshika (Dbyar-tsul-ma\ cele brated for her beauty. AND AMBHARISHA. fell asleep. whose name was given of him by his grandmother.&quot. One day Virudhaka and Ambarisha while deer-hunting came to Kapilavastu and entered the Qakyas park. v. ! 1 Cf. on their armour put &quot. and Ambarisha as became a young brahman. the cause of earthquakes. Spence Hardy. saying. she thought. to say Bhu. p. by this name mentioned There are two other personages . Annales Musee Guimet. to say Om. &quot. or ful to his mother. and about atmospherical space. so they called his name Ambarisha (Ma-la gnod). events. such a touch is of noble birth. &quot. p. 3 M. Annales Musee Guimet. 3 5 &quot. Feer. Viru dhaka is in your park Then the Qakyas. See p. For another version of thete 326. the Veda He sacrificing Veda (Yajur). let us go and kill him and started.Harm Virudhaka was brought up as became the heir to a kingdom. Manual. and Mallika. Mallika that surely she was of noble birth. (Sama). She had said &quot.. renowned for her wonderful touch 1 (f. p. So they If that be the case. Tib. p. or the high-born. 2 At the same time the wife of the purohita of King Prasenadjit brought forth a son amidst great suffering. 227 and for the Southern version of Mai. see Edkins. p. Feer. 123. 293 2 ct seq. 69. exclaimed. 45. p. the hymns for taking care of the sacred things learnt about rishis of old. and a king of Videha. cit. about the firma ment. lika s story. Lebens. He learnt the theories and practices of the great brahmans.VI RU DHAKA she at once &quot. Dbyar-byed is the Varshakara minister of Adjatasatru who figures in the Parinirvana Sfttra. ! of Kosala had two wives. 127). 65. so she called the child Yirudhaka (Hpliags-skyes-pd). with a maiden Surely Kosala At that time the king of the of family worthy &quot. 131). who were not forbearing. Varshika was See probably Bimbisara s sister. one of the four great kings of space. I have followed Schiefner. also the six occupations of a brahman (f. The keepers went and told the Qakyas. the (AtTiarva). the truth-speaking Yeda (Rik).

we had found others said. Mm we . plaster it over and make it new. Clean up and wherever this the park. Young hasty . So they decided to have the park purified. off his feet. .&quot. And men. I am going to hide the troops) if the Qakyas ask you anything (with about me. . and disregarding the words of their elders. and also scented water strew about perfumes and flowers of the sweetest kind. the young Virudhaka. &quot. &quot. Whatever part of the walls he has (over his footprints).78 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Then the keeper of the park went and told the Qakyas.&quot. &quot. and not seeing Viru dhaka. If &quot. So the Qakyas came to the park. Then some of them cried. &quot. they asked the man. But he. men obeyed them. clean it and sprinkle fresh earth &quot. Take milk and water and sprinkle it about. The elders seeing them.&quot. &quot. &quot. the old Qakyas replied. Where is that son of a slave He has run away. Now Virudhaka s man. It is not right to let the park be spoiled by dirty elephants and horses. . Virudhaka has entered the park with all his troops. &quot. . and exclaimed. Virudhaka was Gentlemen. went after his troops .&quot. would have cut off his hands have cut &quot. tell them that I have gone away. others But since he has run away. when my greatly incensed. greatly exasperated.&quot. The Qakyas.&quot. they said to the workmen son of a slave has been. you are overresent not his wickedness and turn back. would have killed him. We would &quot. who had heard them. what can we do ? &quot. started out to kill Virudhaka. (who had accompanied him in the chase) and returning.Virudhaka is in our park. and we are going to kill &quot. &quot.&quot. went and told him what the Qakyas had said. who had heard all this.&quot. &quot. he introduced them into the park. had hold of. hearing that the Qakyas of Kapilavastu were coming to kill him. ! they cried. he answered them. ? &quot. him &quot. said to all one of his men. asked them where they were going. Sirs.

Sanjaya son of Vairati. as will be seen in the next chapter (p. my act will be to put these Qakyas to death. you must certainly do as you have resolved.akambala. would establish their supernatural powers and their supe Prasenadjit. public they will . your support in this undertaking.) They were Purna-Kaxyapa. (and remember) the virtuous right. I will devote but a few lines to one of the most celebrated victories of the Buddha. Promise me that you will give me &quot.) Not wishing to reproduce in this narrative those legends which have already been translated from Tibetan into any European language. All those present promised. king of riority over the Qramana Gautama.ala. Kakuda-Katyayana. and Ambarisha said. 1 16 et seq. their of them was Buddha the that felt depriving they which a have to decided trial.&quot. most likely in the six Buddhist works mention six principal philosophical masters who were the chief opponents of the Buddha.&quot. first 79 dead and I am king. 241-249) that the tirthikas . Prince. part of the Buddha s public teenth year of his ministry. man is steadfast in what is And from that time he sought means to take possession of the throne of Kosala. one he gained over the six brahmanical teachers assembled This important event took place in the early life. the at Vaisali. and Nirgrantha son of Jnata. place Qravasti formed such wonderful feats (f. viz. 239) the Buddha per and between Jetavana. 141. Their names are frequently met with in Tibetan works (Dulva iv. in a Kosala.. had everything made ready (Dulva xi. et seq.THE VICTORY OF father is VAISALI. f. Ajita-Kec. We have occasion. f. in speaking of the conversion of King Adjatasatru. 409. (Maskari)-Goc. to mention their principal theories for the moment we will content ourselves with mention and as ing that they all claimed to be great magicians. Shortly before the Buddha s death Virudhaka ascended the throne and executed his plan against the Cakyas. popularity.

1 1 Cf. he threw himself into the water and was drowned. 215 et seq. see p. 69. xiii. There is and there life not. Bigandet.The is that this world is eternal. subsequent 230-252. &quot. seated on a slab of white stone in a beautiful grove ass. life there is a hereafter. departing this Vitality (srog) Vitality and the body are separate. p. As he went along he met Whence comest a ram with broken horns ? &quot. i. nor perishable. is that on departing this hereafter. 304. he went there. 3 After defeating the tirthikas the Buddha vanished from amidst his disciples and went to the Trayastrimcat heaven.. B. also Der Weise und der Thor.&quot. there is a hereafter and there are fools . 100. Ignorant who recognised him and said. &quot. dared not show their inferiority. &quot. &quot. is &quot.. the truth&quot. a 1 Hist. see Dulvaxi. &quot. infinite. (f.&quot. thou wanderest about without shame like an Then Purna-KaXyapa told him that he was seeking a lovely pool full of cool water. thus though thou art of the truth (taught by) the Qakya. he told some When of them. For a full account of the Budhis s dha miracles and the f. and fastening around his neck a jar full of sand. events. Intr. 250). To others. a thou. tell us what truth in the villages before his disciples asked him. It is neither eternal eternal and perishable. 252). To To others.&quot. a man who went naked (f. mind he eunuch. Huen Thsang. vol. so they The most prominent of Kagyapa. The other (teachers) is no and with (f. There is no and the body are one.&quot. The truth &quot. .It is not eternal.chap. 162 et seq. no &quot. p. places the contest of Buddha with the heretics immediately after He teaching of Kacyapa. The finite and the infinite &quot. these and similar reasons he upset their minds 2 He could no longer reason. p. (tattoo). For Purna-Kagyadoctrines. says that the Buddha converted the heretics.&quot. like crestfallen. had pointed it out to him. To others. I do not think that this is intended to illustrate the habitual defeat. &quot.8o THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. exist. and Burnouf. in which he wished to clean him When the eunuch self of the dirt and dust of the road. dismay these six was Purna- fled in 1 all the world&quot.&quot. but only what he said when his mind was troubled by pa s 3 the story of Dagabala Kagyapa and Jyotishka s jewelled bowl. There is is finite. where. see p. so with wandering also ran away. On not.&quot.. 251*). vi.It is others he said.Master.

DESCENT FROM HE A YEN.
and kobidaraka mother and a host of devas.
of parijataka
(sic) trees,

81

he instructed his

Varanasi

wonders

to leave the people should suppose that the great he had shown were intended as a means of
lest

He was prompted

1 acquiring gifts and honours.

were greatly worried at the Buddha s and disappearance, questioned Maudgalyayana, who told them where the Blessed One was. When three months had passed away the disciples sought Maudgalyayana again, and told him that they wanted to see the Buddha,
disciples

The

that they thirsted after him. Maudgalyayana, by the power went to the Trayastrimcat devas heaven, and told the Buddha how all the people of Jambudvipa longed
of samadhi,

The Blessed One bid him return and tell the he would return to them, udumbara tree of the Avadjaravana (sic) of the town of Samkac^ya in Jambudvipa. Then the Buddha visited many other abodes of the devas, teaching them all the truth after which he descended to
to see him.
disciples that after seven days and would be at the foot of the
;

the earth by a vaidurya (lapis lazuli) staircase, while

Brahma, bearing a jewelled yak
one on his right together with

tail,

descended a golden

all

the gods of the Kupa-

loka, and Qataketu (Indra), bearing a hundred-ribbed parasol over him, descended by a crystal staircase on his left accompanied by all the devas of the Kamaloka.

the bhikshuni Utpalavarna 2 saw the Blessed One descending to earth, so she took the appearance of an

Now

emperor (ChaJcravartin) and came to honour him. Udayin, also there, recognised her by the sweet odour that her body emitted but the Blessed One rebuked her, is not seeming in a bhikshuni to perform saying, magical feats in the presence of the Master." Then he
}

who was

;

"It

1

Conf. Bigandet,

i.

p.

224,

and

Spence Hardy, op. cit., p. 308. 2 See on Utpalavarna, Schiefner s Tib. Tales, p. 206 et seq.; and Hdjangs-blun (Der Weise und der Thor),

chap. xxv. According to Tibetan authorities (Schiefner, Tib. Lebens, p. 315), the Buddha passed the seven-

teenth summer of his ministry in the Tushita (here Trayastrimcat) heaven.

F

82

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
Buddha
told his disciples the story

sent her away, and the of Susroni. 1

brahman

There lived at about that time in Koc^ala a celebrated called Pushkarasarin (Padma snying-po, in Pali

Pokkharasddi),
(?

who had

a very learned disciple called

Hearing that the Blessed One was Appriya at Qravasti, he sent Appriya to him to see if the reports concerning the Buddha s learning were really true. So Appriya came and entered into conversation with the Buddha, who compared the different occupations of cjamanas and brahmanas with what their occupations ought to be (see Brahmajala Sutra), and asked him many of the questions contained in the sermon known in the
Ma-sdug).
Pali version as the Tevidja Sutra, or
of the
Vedas."
"

On

the

Knowledge
and
of all the

Appriya returned

to Pushkarasarin,

told

him

that the c^ramana

Gautama was worthy

praise bestowed on him, and he repeated the conversation he had had with him. So greatly was the master enraged with the way in which his messenger had behaved that he hit Appriya on the head with his shoe (f. 520), and then and there he decided to go see the Buddha himself. He drove to where the Buddha was, taking with him a supply of pure food, and he found him. attended by Ananda, who

was fanning him. The Buddha soon remarked how devoured he was by pride, for he wanted to fix the ceremonial that should be used when he and the Buddha met, so he sought to dispel it. He talked to him of charity, of morality, &c. When he saw that he had gladdened, incited, rejoiced him, that his mind was free from obstacles, intent, that it was pre
pared to receive the highest truths, then he explained the highest truths, namely, suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering, the path. Just as a clean cloth,
See for the descent from heaven, and for the xi. f. 308-315 story of Susroni (in Tib. Sko-shum1

Dulva

;

This translation of seq. is not, however, literal.

Schiefner s Conf. also

Fah-Hian,
B.
iv. p.

p.

62

;

and Hiuen Thsang,

pa), Dulva xi. f. 316-325 ; and Schiefner s Tibetan Tales, p. 227 et

237.

DEVADATTA
free

S

WICKEDNESS.

83

for dyeing, takes the colour in the dye, thus the brahman Pushkarasarin while sitting there discerned the four blessed truths of

from black spots and ready

when put

suffering, the cause of suffering, the cessation of suffering,

the path (f. 523 b ). Then the brahman Pushkarasarin seen the truth, having found the truth, having dis having cerned the truth, having fully mastered the truth, having

penetrated the whole depth of the truth, having crossed over beyond uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, de a pendent on the favour of no one else (f. 524 ), not having
it by another, having found the incontrovertible doctrines in the teaching of the Master, rose from his seat, and throwing his cloak over one shoulder, turned with

found

clasped hands to the Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One, "Lord, glorious, truly glorious! Lord, I take my

refuge in the Buddha, in the dharma I take my refuge in the fraternity of bhikshus may I be received among the
;
;

lay followers.

From

this

day

forth,

while

life lasts, I

take

my

l refuge and I put my trust (in them)." have seen (p. 54) that Devadatta and quite a ber of Qakyas had been made to enter the order

We

num
much

against their will when the Buddha visited Kapilavastu in the sixth year of his ministry. Devadatta was the
leader of this dissatisfied portion of the fraternity, and his name became in later times synonymous with everything that
is

read in Dulva
at Qravasti,

bad, the object of the hatred of all believers. iv. f. 453, that while the Blessed One

We
was

Devadatta started

for

Kapilavastu with the

He came wife. and took her hand, but she gave it such a squeeze that the blood spurted out, and then she threw him from the terrace where they were standing into the Bodhisattva s pleasure pond. The Qakyas heard the noise
intention of stealing Gopa, the

Buddha s

up

to her

1

This passage, which

is

continu-

ever

it

was

possible, so that the corn-

ally repeated in the Dulva, is reproduced to show how exactly the Tibetan text and the Pali agree. I have

parison might

be

made by

those

who cannot

avail themselves of the

original texts,

used Rhys Davids expressions wher-

84

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

of his falling. When they found out that Devadatta had penetrated into the inner apartments of the Bodhis1 attva, and had tried to seduce his wife, they wanted to put him to death but they remembered that the Buddha had once predicted that Devadatta would inevitably fall
;

into hell, so they let

him

go.

Another time, while the Blessed One was stopping at Eajagriha at the Kalantaka nivasa Bamboo grove, there was a dire famine, and it became difficult to get alms. So the bhikshus who had magical powers, and who knew the
to go there

country called Jambudvipa (or the island of Jarnbu), used and fill their alms-bowls with delicious jambu,

myrobolan, or vilva fruits, and bring them back and divide them with the other bhikshus. Others would go to Purvavideha, or to Aparagaudani, or to Uttarakuru, where they would fill their alms-bowls with the wild rice which grew there, and with this they lived, dividing what was
left

over with the fraternity of bhikshus or they would go to the four Lokapalitas heaven, to the Trayastrimcat devas heaven, and fill their alms-bowls with nectar
;

(amrita) or yet again they would go to distant countries where there was prosperity and plenty and fill their almsbowls with all kinds of savoury viands, with which they lived in plenty, dividing what was left over amoilg the
;

bhikshus.

Then Devadatta thought that it would be a great thing him to be able to do like these bhikshus with magical So he went to where the Blessed One was, powers. But the Buddha, and asked him to teach him magic.
for term Bodldsattva and in another (Dulva we will have occaiv. f. 454) which sion to relate farther on, seems to imply that the Buddha had not
1

The use

of the

vadatta

s

death,

which took place
(i.e.,

in this legend,

when Adjatasatru was king

reached enlightenment at the time when it took place, or, at all events, that his wives were not aware of it.
of f. 454, Yaodhara the heroine, and the story is said to have occurred shortly before De-

In the legend
is

during the last five years of the Buddha s life). On the other hand, we have learnt (p. 57) that Ya6dhara became a bhikshuni. It is impossible to make these different accounts agree, but the legend is interesting as illustrative of the Buddhist ideas of the characters of the Buddha s wives.

DEVADATTA
who
"

S

MAGICAL POWER.

85

well knew the evil intentions lurking in his mind, Gotama, devote yourself to virtue, and by answered, that means you will acquire magical and other powers. Gotama, devote yourself to acquiring spiritual insight and
superior knowledge, and other powers."

you

will acquire magical

and

So, seeing that the Buddha would not teach him magic, he went to Adjnata Kaundinya, Agvadjit, Bhadrika, &c., and asked them to teach him, but they knew the Blessed One s opinion, so they each one successively

answered him,
rupa,

"

Devadatta, learn to rightly understand

and you will acquire magical and other powers.

Devadatta, learn to rightly understand vedana, sandjna,
sanskara, vidjnana, and other powers."

you
to

will

acquire

magical and

Then Devadatta went
"

Da^abala Kaxyapa, saying to

himself, The sthavira Da^abala Kagyapa has no superior he is without guile, an honest man, the far or near
;

(bdag-gi phu-nu-borgan pa kun dgah-bo) he can teach me the way to acquire magical powers." Kagyapa taught him the way then Devadatta kept from sleeping during the night, and having reached the first stage of dhyana, he acquired the irrdhi of the way of So he became able, from being one, to mul the world. tiply himself; and, having multiplied himself, he could become one again. With the eye of wisdom he could make himself visible or invisible. He could go from one side of a wall or of a mountain to the other side without more trouble than if it had been air. He could do
;

master of

my

elder brother,

Ananda

;

any x what creatures on the earth or above it do, or what birds He could walk on water, without sinking, or fishes do. as if he were on dry land, or sit cross-legged in the air He could become smoke or fire, like a winged animal.
appearing like a great heap of fire. stream of water out of his body as
1

He
if

could bring a

he was a whale
ts ul.

The

text has byeu zul byed de, but I read bjeu

86

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

(niakara). Through the might of the great magical powers he had acquired he could give to himself the splendour of the sun and moon. Then he thought, If I could the

get

disciple, the mortals would follow his example without any difficulty." Then he thought of Prince Adjatasatru, who would be the ruler of the at his father s

in

greatest person

the

land of
of

Magadha

to

become

common

my

kingdom

death; so transforming himself into an elephant, he en tered the front door of Prince Adjatasatru s house and went out by the wicket, and having entered by the wicket, he came out by the front door. After that he transformed himself into a horse, into a bhikshu, and passed before him in the same manner, Prince Adjatasatru thinking the while, "Why, this is the venerable Devadatta Then he transformed himself into a golden necklace encircling the prince s neck, he fell into his bosom, entwined himself around his person, &c., and he knew that Adjatasatru thought, "Why, this is the venerable Devadatta Why, there is no greater teacher than the venerable (ayuchmat) Devadatta great are his magical powers So the prince believed in him and after that each morning he would go with five hundred chariots, and would and
"

!

;

!

"

;

!

;

givehim

his

hundred bowls full of different kinds of food, on which Devadatta and his five hundred adherents did
friends five
1

feast.

Devadatta became so infatuated with the gifts and honours which Adjatasatru was lavishing on him that he said to himself, "The Blessed One is getting old and
decrepit,

and

it

wearies

him

to exhort the bhikshus

and

congregation to me ? I will guide them, and in the meanwhile the Blessed One will be able to live in comfort, without any pre-occupation."

lay followers, both male and female. One turned over the direction of the

What

if

the Blessed

Hardly had he conceived
*

**

^ ^
this idea

but his magical

*

*

*

) mass sweat (rngul Jchrod-nas lyung). The cjamana Gautama makes use it. or if it was presumable from circumstances that it had been prepared See Dulva in. like (Jariputra or Maudgalyayana ? Devadatta was indignant with the Blessed One he was provoked and dissatisfied. . he went out of the presence of the Blessed One. p. f. &quot. because by his practice the skilful work of the weavers is destroyed. Thou fool thinkest thou that I will commit the care of the congregation to an eater of filth and spittle like thou (ro dang hdra-ba. 3 . when I do not intrust it to virtuous &quot. &quot.&quot. dt. Dulva v. 328) calls 2 him Kakudha.Let us abide our time. in his intention.Sirs. we salt will not use (3. mtchil-ma za-ba). henceforth we make (2. When the Blessed One heard him he replied... ! men &quot. but we will not use of because produced from a (4. The five rules which seem to have been the distinguishing features of his reformation are given as follows in Dulva iv. (5. 3 f.) use of them. 38. probably after the preceding events that Devadatta brought about the first schism in the Buddhist order of which we have any record. and Dulva 256-258. but it was not lawful to make use of it if prepared for the bhikshu.) The qramana : &quot.DEVADATTA S REFORMATION. But Maudgalyayana tirely. .) it. because by so doing one harms calves. The Buddha allowed the use of meat. f. it had evidently been Buddh.&quot.(i. although he knew a fact of the deva from the Brahmaloka 1 was informed by of the son had been Kaundinya). if one does. but The qramana Gautama makes use of meat . so he went and (who informed the Buddha just as Devadatta was corning to make him the above-mentioned proposition. p. 453 Devadatta to his hearers. lief. 87 powers commenced decreasing. 436-439. and with the words. iv. and finally left him en it not. living creatures of it is are killed. The cjamana Gautama wears gowns with cut fringes but we will wear gowns with long fringes. said Gautama will not makes use of curds and milk. so he shook his head three times. 1 Spence Hardy (op. because. On the third rule see Wassif.) The grawill live in we but mana Gautama lives in the wilds . if it had apparently been prepared for him. 2 It was . $6.

p. strong. villages. but the Buddha told him that he was too old and would require an attendant himself. he said. Hardy. heard. p. . refused. f. Ananda at &quot. therefore. and all the other great sthaviras asked for this place. When and the Buddha was about fifty to the bhikshus.J That he should never have to partake of the Blessed One s food. Manual. you must appoint a bhikshu who will attend to my wants. Kaundinya asked to become his attendant. but he told them that they were all too old. venerable Buddha choose me Qariputra. use his underclothes (smad gyogs).) That he might at any time see and revere the Blessed One. 3 Cf.&quot. am years old.Bhikshus. Manual. &quot. he went to a layman s house. 2 who remembered what they had 1 See also Udanavarga. I infirmities.&quot. 241. not as the Blessed One s attendant. where the third rule is still less intelligible. Agvadjit. Spence Hardy.THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 338. or his cloak (2. (3. whatever that &quot. but might be rendered because it is produced from the semen of Mahesvara. As it first &quot. so is it difficult to serve the Blessed to attend on him . 3 See Dulva 240-243. difficult matter to wait on a Buddha. for. revelling in the fight. Then Maudgalyayana bethought person and acceptable to the Lord so he took Qariputra with him and went and asked Ananda if he would accept this most honourable him that Ananda would be a fit . 204. and for the fray.&quot. it is a is diffi cult to approach a mighty sixty-year-old elephant of the with great curved tusks and deep-set chest. place. Subahu. See Spence iv. those who heard much. p. The Buddha agreed to these conditions. he said bent down with age my and worn out through giving counsel to followers.&quot. : Finally he consented.) That he should not have to accompany the Blessed One when . but on three conditions (i. because by his practice x men cannot perform 2 works of charity (dana)&quot. when he is ready Matanga (forest). and was the foremost among heard. and from that day on Ananda became his inseparable attendant. who understood what they means.

and while larity in Kajagriha the there he learnt of Adjatasatru refusing to send him gifts. and who Now there was a mangoclothed themselves with bark. but gave thieves. &quot. So it was deity &quot. tree near by. f. sought 1 Dulva iv. espied hermitage They wanted to get the fruit.&quot. all the fruit fall to the this) the deity let the robbers ate their fill and went away. in a hermitage surrounded &quot. (On hearing ground i( . so their chief said. 272-273. impelled by Devadatta father his take to King Bimbisara s ambition. 89 While Devadatta was enjoying his short-lived popu Buddha went to Gay a. bhikHe who was then the deity is now Adjatasatru. to the wicked-doer. it to the lawless Then the Blessed One added. story following ciples there lived in the desert wild. Then he told his dis reserving them all for Devadatta. The fruits of the tree are given. he told They asked him how it had come about. the fruit to the peaceful hermits. &quot.&quot. : and flower trees. the selfish deity who lived in the tree would not by every variety of fruit let them have any. Then he spoke 1 this verse To the peaceful and righteous-doing The tree s fruits are not given To the thief. What think ye.THE MANGO TREE AND THE ROBBERS. When the rishis came back. they asked (one of their number whom they had left behind) who had eaten the mangoes. It happened one day while the hermits were away five hundred looking for roots and fruit that a band of the and the robbers came to mango-tree. Let us cut down the tree with an axe and eat the fruit. &quot. and when on its fruit-laden branches the fruit was ripe and ready to eat and the hermits tried to take any. 1 own and also by his Adjatasatru. a number of rishis (hermits) who fed on roots or fallen fruits. and not would avaricious the that give them. and shus ! the robber chief is now Devadatta. . in days of yore the Bhikshus. .

by shooting an arrow at him. and filled her ankle rings with water by this means she kept the king alive. Then Yaidehi had her body anointed with a quantity of nutritious powders. . made him viceroy of Qampa. Adjutasatru heard of this through the jailers. . 1 s object become king. and he told the Bhikshus the story of the guilty dogs (D. in a place where Bimbisara could see him from his window. with the exception of his capital. Then the king . This device was also found out. Bimbisara com he at the same time but implored his son to give plied. the snake. brought him food in a bowl. so that they complained to the king. and the mouse 335-336). the only person admitted to see him. Exasperated at this. Adjatasatru had his father cast in prison. scarified. gave him the whole of Magadha. 333-335). The Blessed One then sent Maudgalyayana. Adjatasatru found this out. Eajagriha but . and had the window walled up and the soles of his father s feet up his . wicked associate Devadatta. and she was no longer allowed to visit the king.90 life THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and forbade the Queen doing so on pain of death. iv. relinquished also Kajagriha. who entered 1 All of these stories have been translated in Schiefner s Tibetan Tales. Bimbisara imagining that if his son s domains were vaster he would be less rapacious. he prevailed on the king to relinquish these also. and of the (f. but he failed in the When the Buddha heard of this he laid all the attempt. 332). of the grateful animals ichneumon. blame on Devadatta. only reserving his treasures but as Devadatta suggested to Adjatasatru that the real sovereign was the one who had the treasures. f. even this did not arrest his exactions. and there he and Devadatta gave themselves up to plundering was to the people. and the joy that this gave him kept him alive. Bimbisara having found out that Adjatasatru (f. Then the Blessed One walked on the Vulture s Peak. there to die of hunger but Queen Vaidehi.

deep sigh and passed away. cry. coronation that the Buddha died. which broke the sore and relieved him. but enumerated in the next events the accomplishment of all 2 recension The Southern says that it was eight chapter. and seeing what Adja tasatru was doing. and comforted the to life again king with the assurance that he would come in the region of the four great kings.if &quot. p.DEATH OF BIMBISARA. though still a very short period. filled with terror. which made Adjatasatru. It happened that at that time Udayibhadra. but when Bimbisara heard them. 1 Dulva iv.. 328 et seq. though his father took him in his arms and Then Adjatasatru put the finger in his mouth and sucked it. and he wished he cried. 429* (see p. so. son of had a gathering on his ringer. 60. she told him that his father had once done the same thing for him. years after Adjatasatru s This is a little better. 336-341. Just then Yaidehi came in. f. f. cit. 91 the prison through his magical power. 1 According to the Li-yul-gyi lo-rgyus pa. See Dipawansa.Ah!&quot. op. 2 Conf. iii. . Great was the king s dis tress at the way he had treated his father. he him kissed him. ! new torture thought that they were going to inflict some a heaved he on him. Spence Hardy. of Magadha five years before 233). any one I would alive could tell me that the old king was give A great crowd rushed to the prison him my kingdom with shouts of joy. &quot. that he were still living. Adjatasatru became king a very little time for the is this the Buddha s death. &quot.

residence. but went away. however. and Devadatta took up a Buddha s position so as to be able to do the deed himself if the others failed. and made him construct a catapult in front of the datta asked the king to assist He stationed 500 men to work it. climbed and from there he saw Buddha. and the yaksha . and descending a magical staircase which the Buddha had caused to appear.&quot. and he converted them. Devadatta thinking that the deed was done. Deva&quot. Devadatta managed. him in becoming Buddha. . in the abode of the yaksha Kumbhira. more were stationed so as to kill the Buddha in 250 case the machine missed him. and while the Buddha was on the Vulture s Peak near Kajagriha. ran away down the magic steps. to hurl a stone from the catapult at the Buddha.CHAPTER IV. FHOM THE COMMENCEMENT OF ADJATASATRIj DEATH OF THE BUDDHA. Devadatta had a skilled mechanic called from Southern India. For you owe your crown to me. they came and sat down at his feet. they saw that would kill the Buddha so they would not do so. s REIGN TO THE SHORTLY after Adjatasatru had become king of Magadha. and then the mechanic. the men seated at the feet of the a yaksha called Vadjrapani shattered it. to whom he had given as a reward a pearl neck lace worth a hundred thousand pieces (of gold). he said. Just as the men were about it to let off the catapult. and though to the top of the Vulture s Peak.

1 King Adjatasatru had a very ferocious elephant called Eatnapala Vasupala. and. which Deva Then the bell of warning was datta feigned to obtain. that the people had been obliged to request the king to have a bell rung to warn the people whenever he was about to (or be led happened one day that a rich invited the Buddha and his had Kajagriha house. Jivaka visited him three times. Blessed One. Devadatta hearing at his eat to come disciples of this. But the Blessed One had lost a great deal of blood. but when the elephant came rushing at the Buddha. Dulva iv. a very rare substance. let the hemorrhage stop &quot. and prescribed a kind of sandal-wood called Tsan-dan sa michog. to do so. if it be true that thou carriest alike in thy heart thy sons and thy and forthwith the enemies. 361. which was only procured with great difficulty. f. invited the Buddha ran to had man who the and rung. the hemorrhage could not be stopped. The Blessed One told him to fear nothing. life 93 it. to the palace terrace to see the on went Devadatta city. and ciples save Ananda. the Bamboo grove and begged him not to come into the town. Then Da^abala Kagyapa exclaimed. and though Jivaka made him drink the milk of a young woman. to the house where he was 1 going to eat. Nor-skyong). &quot. he started out for the together with five hundred disciples. his in trying to arrest foot a fragment struck the Buddha on the and made a dangerous wound. which wounded so many persons each time it was brought out. who had been abandoned by all his dis it with a few words. Buddha killed. he tamed out. went and told the elephant-tamer that he would give him a necklace worth a hundred thousand (pieces He consented of gold) if he would let out the elephant. ! blood stopped trickling forth. it Now citizen of the ferocious beast followed him submissively 349. but only with the king s consent.THE BUDDHA Kumbhira sacrificed S LIFE ENDANGERED. So that the elephant .

datta. 374-376. the Buddha changed the walls of the house into crystal. 1 who has killed his 2 Dulva Dulva iv. but when Adjatasatru. had killed his righteous father.. f. they confessed their sin. and to make them disobey the disciplinary rules which he had esta Qariputra and Maudgalyayana went to where Devadatta was teaching his five hundred followers. Conf. magical feats before them. Katamoraka- and Sagaradatta. and were re admitted into the order without a word of reproach. . the Blessed One only effects. 3 Spence Hardy. f. had started in pursuit. must be remembered that Bimbisara had brought up JyotishIt ka. the wealthy householder of Eajagriha.&quot. with Kokalika on his right side and Kandadvaja on his left. might continue to look at him. hoping to The misled bhikshus were presented to the Buddha. 396-399. which arrested Deva who. 3 let and I him. &quot. and they asked to be led back to the Blessed took them back. with Kokalika. so that finally their eyes were opened. but the king caused a wall to be put up between the elephant and the house. and caused a One. Devadatta sought by every means to make the bhikshus doubt the truth of the Buddha s word. and become king. and Maudgalyayana performed all kinds blished. when. and said are brothers. he Jyotishka. 70) Jyotishka.He perty. Devadatta.94 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. in peaceful enjoy left in We ment of all beguiled by placed the crown on his called pleasures. tisya.Householder. turn them back. Kandadvraja. cit. iv. op. ditch to appear across the road. human own to head. p. Qariputra exhorted the misguided bhikshus to return to the true doctrine. The perfect pair of &quot. 339. it died of grief and was reborn in the heaven of the four great 1 kings. you us divide our household pro &quot. Then Jyotishka thought. deprived of the sight of the Blessed One. repeating to them the theory of of causes and doctrine. &quot. 2 and vindicating the truth his the preceding chapter (p.

JYOTISHKA ENTERS THE ORDER. of it &quot. Then he said to his courtiers. Adjatasatru thought. and he into Adjatasatru s but all the splendour of the first be. and the paupers he made rich. 36-38. went on the terrace of his palace. kindred. missioned robbers and thieves to go and steal the jewels &quot. . the p. into the brightness of the full moon. to the forlorn. with the consent of his friends. The householder dreading lest the king should kill him. and sons. It cannot be placed earlier than the forty-first summer. or in his place seventy-fifth year. Then. Sire. They were discovered by the of the house. residence passed into Jyotishka s new one. &quot. Sirs. the king of Magadha. I am the culprit let them &quot. Jyotishka answered. so he gave his wealth to the needy. and you will take mine. 2 where he was passing the summer. and to the sick. surrounded by all his courtiers. said. f. to the poor. tis midsummer. I will try another. to deprive &quot. go. righteous father. our text. happened that the son of Vaidehi.&quot. in the mango Jivaka Kumarabhanda. So let it Then Adjatasatru moved into Jyotishka s house. knowing that it was the night of the full moon of the mid-summer month. made up his mind to enter the Buddhist order. on hearing that they had been caught. Adjatasatru. in women Jyotishka s house.&quot. he went to the Blessed One and became a bhikshu. 2 According to Tib. and Jyotishka learnt from them that they had been sent by the king. Schiefner.&quot. . but he will how do you want to divide ? &quot. sent a messenger to Jyotishka saying. neighbours. and he had to change with the king seven times. will perhaps kill me. me of my house. I will take your house. Lebens. .&quot. Since I cannot get Jyotishka s So he com jewels by this means.&quot. Adjatasatru. be foiled. 95 own He wants So he &quot. and made himself king. 315. 1 The grove Blessed One was of at Eajagriha. Then 1 See Dulva v. the Buddha passed thirty-sixth summer in this but this does not agree with . who has put the crown on his head.

can this be. moon has risen full as the sun. son of Gocjili. and and make merry. who is a teacher of many.Say you nothing. the master of Eajagriha. Sire. and that. would be revered by many. would be well. to the king of Magadha. glad. Now is passing the summer here at grove. Adjatasatru. be glad. the night of the full moon.let That. having all that heart can wish. make merry. 1 How p. who is &quot. There is Purna Kagyapa. and who Eajagriha in my mango well. all . He is exceedingly old.&quot. What can ? Then said one of the women of the palace to the son of Sire. Another women suggested decorating all around then your majesty Eajagriha. son Kegakambala.&quot. him. who were passing the of Vairatti. Ajita summer at Eajagriha. tis a truth the night of the full moon of the midsummer month. &c. Sanjayin. who had retinues. the discrepancies we meet with in these legends. (we) do for the &quot. 1 king s old ministers said. &quot. as Vaidehi. One of the &quot. who has a retinue. methinks. who has a retinue. who is a teacher of many.&quot. All that can be done is to try and arrange them so that the contradictions are not too evident. there is the Blessed One.96 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and Mrgrantha Djnatiputra. of the &quot. and he is passing the summer at Let your majesty go and pay his respects to Another old councillor made the same remark about the parivradjaka (Maskarin). Prince Udayibhadra suggested a campaign against some kingdom in commemoration of the day. revered by many. it is midsummer. Kakuda Katyayana. so the king said to him. methinks. for we have 80. who is honoured by many. let your majesty go and pay your respects to him. who were teachers of many (rest as above).&quot. who is honoured by many. Jivaka? Why do you remain silent?&quot. &c. Jivaka Kumarabhanda was present among the courtiers while this was going on. let then your majesty rejoice. be &quot.. other rejoice. five hundred. that Purna Ka?yapa drowned himself near Cravasti in the sixteenth year of the Buddha ministry ? It is useless to seek to explain seen.

Men of Vasistha s race. as thou dost command. terrified them. of Vriji forces of the people of the territory informed the Licchavis of as- Vaicali that Adjatasatru had sembled his army and was ravaging the territory of Vriji. f. Licchavis of Vai9ali heard this. Sire. he went forth from Kajagriha to visit the Blessed One. Sire. or some such contrivance. king of Magadha. they alms. and your elephant is ready. Go. their hearts were So having made up his mind to die. It Licchavis of Vai^ali . . the Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. These Licchavis of Vaicali are cruel and hard-hearted. and without one moment read. Then Magadha assembled his chaturanga army and commenced ravaging the The territory of Vriji (Spong-byed). king of . was not on friendly terms with the Yrijians so hardly had the king left Kajagriha but he was filled with 1 &quot. Kumarabhanda s v. elephant got ready. victorious. May not this Jivaka rejoiced.^ .&quot. greatly delighted. we happened that Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. conquered them. So he had the king s great &quot. went back to Kajagriha. the king of Magadha thought. and they When the called on them for help. and I will be brought to Tis better to die. taken by surprise.. great misery.&quot. so the king of hesitation they attacked King Adjatasatru. thinking. be it replied Jivaka. time has come. they will draw me out with a net or a noosed rope (? htchil-pas dbyung-pas). 1 Magadha.&quot. If I jump into the Ganges. panic-stricken. and then he went to the king of Magadha. 165. they met Maudgalyayana entering Vaicali to get So they asked him for. and driven to the shores of the Ganges. 284 et seq. go visit the Blessed One.&quot. So the king &quot. you will Then they were pleased. They entered Vaicali in great disorder. they re mained behind their walls. and said to him. and. they also got together their army and As they started out from Vaicali. who. &quot. p. the son of Vaidehi. Adjatasatru. was not on friendly terms with the In Dulva &quot.ADJATASATRU Then VISITS THE BUDDHA. argued. flowed toward the Blessed One. there is nothing that he does not know if they would be He answered them.&quot. was defeated. he rallied his army. and five hundred female ones on which rode five hundred women of the palace bear ing torches. Now at that time Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. went toward the Blessed One so he said to Jivaka Kumarabhanda. turned toward the Blessed One. mounted his great elephant. Jivaka. 97 the heart of the king of Magadha. preceded by the five hundred women with torches on female elephants. beat the Liechavis. conquer. were starting out. &quot. and I best will mount it and have got ready my elephant . See also Ananda s remark shortly before his death. and put them to flight. KingAdjatasatru having conquered them and subdued the territory of Vaicali. fear. and shutting the gates.

how can it be that thou dost not wish to me. and I hear not even the sound of a cough or a whisper &quot. which is the Blessed . or to those who are not my friends. the Blessed One likes a low voice. &quot.&quot. or deliver me over to the executioner. Vaidehiputra had come to the middle of the court. Ah kill Jivaka. Sire. &quot. a low voice. Then Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru said to Jivaka Kumarabhanda. my Sire. Sire. &quot. and having ridden as far as was and entered the vihara on foot. or to my enemies ? disturbed in Then he not want said to Jivaka to mind that he broke out in a profuse sweat. . for here is the Blessed One with such a great number of followers. to my And he was so sorely adversaries. he delights in as he extols a low voice. pushed on his elephant. So the king of Magadha.&quot. Jivaka. what is the number of the Blessed One s followers ? &quot. to ensnare me.98 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. ensnare me. me &quot. the Blessed One of the congregation of is he who is sitting in the midst bhikshus as in the middle of a calm and placid lake. [to do any of these things]. he alighted time the Blessed One was seated in the that at Now midst of his disciples as in the middle of a calm and placid lake so when the king of Magadha. to &quot. ! &quot. or to &quot. . over to the executioner. Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. Jivaka Kumarabhanda. or to my foes. One?&quot. he speaks in a low voice and Sire. or do you not wish to &quot. ensnare me. &quot. may he not wish to deceive me. Jivaka. &quot. Jivaka. or to deliver me ! over to the executioner. or deliver adversaries.&quot. do you kill me. my enemies ? I do not intend he answered. for there the light of the lamp in court yard (liklior-gyi Miyam-na)&quot. Kumarabhanda. right. he asked Adjatasatru. his disciples is speak softly.&quot. or &quot.There are twelve hundred and fifty bhikshus (with him). push on your tire elephant. deceive me. to kill want me. to deceive me.

If the Lord. and partakes is there any such visible of the pleasures of this world to virtue ? himself devotes reward for one who ever have propounded this question you Maharaja. rajaputras and bathers.ADJATASATRU VISITS THE BUDDHA. . p. servants (djam hiring bgyid-pa).&quot. bended knee. he sick does good. samanna-phala. I will ask him &quot. &quot. which has been translated by Burnouf. is happy. trainers. acquires he enjoys himself.. &quot. 113 et seq. mkhari). can wish for).e. Spence Hardy. will permit it. or. before to any c^ramana or 1 brahmana &quot. in Pali. One. tends the (gso-ba rnams gso-djing) all that he desirable of kinds the five things (i. chariot . like. went up to the Blessed One. 333 et seq. dancers grass gatherers. or trade these exercising his profession gives in charity. Any one of (mnyen-par byed-pa).&quot. Maharaja. 448 et seq. bowed down his head at the Blessed One s feet. and throwing his cloak over one shoulder. scribes. p. jesters (bro-gar len-pa).. have become the name of this sermon. Maharaja. would that Prince (Kumara) Udayibhadra had a spirit as controlled and dispassionate as are the minds of the bhikshus of the : order of the Blessed &quot. .Good. . swordsmen body horsemen. riders. good. great is the love thou hast shown him. king of Magadha. and sat down to one side.. barbers. many My sions. Loi. clt. such as wreath-makers. basket-makers (? smyug&quot. p. and with clasped hands he spoke to the Blessed One as follows My lord (btsun-pa. words. Bhante in Pali). &quot. and two ts ul. ? In Tibetan yang-dag-parmthongdge-sbyony-gi ts ul. - weavers elephant (gdan-pa - mkJiari). Be seated. a question.&quot. he touched the ground with his &quot. Then Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. (ral-grii thabs). Lotus See Grimblot. op.drivers. the Blessed One.&quot. Maharaja. dge-sbyong-gi lai The last de la Bonne by Gogerly. Sept Suttas Palis. archers (gdjui hdsin stangs-pa). - warlike and valorous. 99 Then Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. king of Magadha. ask whatever question you of trades and profes kinds are there lord. While thus seated he said to the Blessed One. Conf.

and The burnt remains are ashes. they will come to an end. and having no hereafter when once dead. who under stand this their present life. They who as opapatika birth 1 there here in this world have reached the truth. who have entered into the truth. The body of man is composed of the four great elements. so it was that Purna KfiQyapa. the fiery part to fire. Rewards My Lord. and the bones become the colour of wood-pigeons. foolish. decaying. Once. The air. My Lord. if a man had asked about mangoes and one had talked to him about bread-fruit (labuja. the watery come not part to water. have perfectly understood that this life and another life (lit. The Pali attributes these theories cmdo.chan brdzus Conf. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Offerings. lying Then did he talk of both the fool and the wise man being destroyed. so there are In this very life (to another existence). are not is . decay. I went to Purna I him and asked [the same question as above]. They do not know that there are other existences but this one. anything for their charity speak empty. the other world is not. &quot. This and mother . &quot. n atthi sdtta . Baja. corpse is at by men to the cemetery and burnt. neither is unrighteousness. Then he he here answered. They live a life of purity and do what ought to be done. my Lord. but in the text la-ku-tsai libras-lu). Kac. not.yapa. said. and exist sacrifices. and when he dies the earthy part of his body returns to earth. or if he had asked him about bread-fruit and he had talked to him about mangoes. I have. there is no such thing no birth. the Pali - te skye - la opapdtiM.ioo &quot. Father not. burnt-offerings righteousness is not. die. that their being born is at an end. and the airy part to The perceptive powers are scattered in space. for righteousness or for unrighteousness are world is not. and none who go forth again after death. words. Thus both the fool and the wise man who pretend that they will receive is carried an end. world) are severed (the one from the other). when I asked him con1 Sems . is my theory.

beings are There is no cause or pure without cause or reason. he replied. all creation are control subject to the exist they force. I thought twould not be seeming in &quot. no ability there There is no personal action. &quot. here is my theory. are without power.) Then he said. There is no power. 2 The Pali attributes these theories to Ptirna K^yapa. Maharaja. .&amp. SJcycs-bui rtsal dang pha-rol gnon pa medo. asked him [the same question]. Then I went to the son of Gogali (Maskarin). and so there no cause or reason for beings knowing and perceiving beings know and perceive with out cause or reason. will. So. my Lord. is there of another no There is no personal ability. ability no personal and impersonal ability of another. (f. 41 1. &c. This was what he said. There is no cause or reason for human defilement beings are defiled without cause or reason. here is my 2 theory. beings ignore and do not perceive without cause or reason. reason for beings ignoring or for their not perceiving. my Lord. There is no cause or reason for human purity . all living creatures. purisa-paralcJcame. . Qramana and brahmana re highly respected in land. Maharaja. . different kinds of pleasure &quot. . asked him [the same question]. Then. If a man had asked about mangoes. (f. beings. and I &quot. Then I went to Sanjayin. . 1 Skyes-bui rtsal medo. ences which are inherent to their natures and this is how creatures in the six forms of existence experience the . So I arose from my seat and went away. he answered. 412.MASKARIN GOfALPS THEORIES. . and I to openly deprecate such a person. talked to me about not being. and pain. the Pali purisa-Mre anon pa medo. no is no power and ability.) &quot. me such a learned and a such man. . . 101 cerning the visible reward of the Qramana.. my Lord. Bdag-gi rtsal medo gdzan-gyi rtsal medo. I arose from my seat and went away. .lt. the son of Yairatti. might. . without praising or my siding s Purna blaming Kagyapa words. &quot. pha rol Comp. 1 no external action there is personal and external action.. All sentient is .

lt. to strike. to rob in make ambuscades on the high road (? lam hgogcldng Mug-pa). fire. good conduct.. &c.102 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. to burn. So when I asked him about the reward of virtue. what is right. Then he said. In this world all sentient creatures arms. wind. tears to pieces. gives alms. &c. so from my seat and went to Ajita Kegakambala. 1 they do not conflict (gnod-par bya-la ma-yin-pa) \ihvj are eternal. to commit adultery. to plunder cities. to break into houses. him b &quot. [the same question]. The seven following kinds of corps are not made or caused to be made.) Maharaja/ he replied.. torments. so if one mutilates. I thought twould not be seeming. strikes. to inflict pain on living creatures. he talked to sibility (byed-pa me of irrespon nyid-ma min). to untie knots (? mdud pa hgrol-la). pain. (There is such a thing as) to do. or to cause to be struck.prul-pa sprul-pas ma byas-pa. These seven are earth. they stand like a pillar. in peeking . to drink intoxicating liquors. no sin will accrue from such deeds. to steal. . there is no sin in any of these If a man on actions. self-restraint. here is my theory/ Then he said. tears to pieces everything. to are whirled around on the circle of a wheel. my Lord. to cause mutilation. to plunder villages. to plunder the country. to an accumulation of flesh. and I asked (f. in liking what is right. &c. to cause to be done. he only does something to a little flesh. and 1 Ma f&amp. from these actions there is neither sin nor merit by so doing there will be no future punishment nor acquisition of merit/ Thus did he speak of the non-existence of merit in charity. to prevaricate. 4i3 . the south bank of the Ganges hurts everything. to mutilate. water. if a man had asked about mangoes. or to cause burning. they are not emanations or caused to emanate. I arose Then. pleasure. mutilates everything. or if a man on the north bank of the Ganges makes offerings. My Lord. to an accumulation of flesh . and having only done something to a little flesh.

000 principal kinds of births. rather obscure for the Tibetan translators that they substituted rtog-pa for bskal-pa. cause to think. &c. seven as pisatchas. uncertainty but this is not much more satisfacthan the sense I have adopted in . The same difficulty me. sattame instead of satta ste. or three (fold).000 nagas. of the double signi- late vikalpa. seven of unconscious exist ence.&quot. and tory See the Chinese version the text. where the exgreat remembrances also pression occurs. can only being more intelligible. &quot.000 of the nirgrantha species. It may be that rtog-pa is intended to trans &quot. there are five(fold) actions. - but this is sideration. of &quot. there are 62 paths. in either The man who bringing them about or arresting them. At all events. for word bskal-pa = kalpa tinual occurrence. nor for that of pleasure and pain. 49. or simple actions or half actions. to think or to is all. 700 kinds of Grog-gson-ba nyid ni Mun-pit. 130 organs (dbang-po). nor for the production of plea moved sure or pain. 120 hells (nay okas). to bring about death. without. seven (or) . translated by All this is very uncertain. 49. seven human there are seven (or) 700 lakes. to know or The foolish to cause to be known. however.KEQAKAMBALA vitality is the seventh. seven modes of conscious existence. 49. doubt. This resulted from reading in the original . this would be the Tibetan conis of it very uncommon. or caused to be made. seven (or) 700 dreams. 49.000 of the parivradjaka species. seven as asuras. The text is rtog-patchen-po. 258. which I have medium kalpas.000 of the garuda of the species. 60. for that of merit and demerit.age. or two(fold). seven senses (sandjna).000 (or) 600 great kalpas 2 . which admits fication cycle. 700 (kinds seven 1 of) writing (? (? libri-ba]. which can only mean literally great con&quot. to exhort or to cause to exhort. have been because this phrase r/as . 49.000 akelaka species.&quot. cuts off another man s head does nothing to a being moving sword in penetrating between the seven elements injures a living being. 1 . seven (or) (or) 700 proofs sad-pet). S THEORIES. . p. of the text. but the that To kill. seven as devas. where we find rtog-pa bar ma. 62 medium kalpas. alternative so very unsatisfactory that I venture to suggest that rtog-pa may here be used to translate the Sanskrit kalpa. recurs a little farther on. 103 These seven corps are not made they stand like a pillar.thought&quot. and the wise have 14. and &quot.&quot. none of these exist. &quot. the phrase &quot. 36 elements of dust. They are not for the production of merit or demerit.&quot. and or existing in the world.

My Lord. . &c. there will be no actions as there is no misery actions being ended. If any one asks me if there is another life. penance. &c. question]. 417. so I arose and went to &quot. Maharaja. wiped out/ talk senselessly. &quot. Whereas. &quot. &quot. and I asked him [the same question]. affliction will be at an end affliction being at an end. Pleasure and pain and there are no ascending or descending births. By morality. 2 (f. he replied. religious observances. as shown by their canon.) Maharaja.000 great kalpas before they reach the end of misery.. here is my theory/ All impressions experienced by beings are the result of a previously produced cause. I will mature this action and the action which has matured Therefore qramanas and brahmanas who &quot. saying that transmigration was given out equally to all. the end of affliction is reached/ 1 . Lord. so 1 arose from my seat and went to Mrgrantba. he talked to me about first causes. Thus did he speak. will be . here is my theory/ Then he said. a life of purity. it to its full length . . . son of Djnati. 1 Dr. Kakuda Katyayana. then I thought. &quot.104 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and all must inevitably go on transmigrating through 84. he replied. Thus did he speak. (f. Leumann informs me that these theories agree with Jain doctrines. My I . . and I asked him [the same exist. ten kinds of ranks. say. From the fact that former deeds are wiped out by penance. when My Lord.000 great kalpas ere they reach the end of misery. It is as if a ball of thread was dropped in space . itself &quot. &c. recent deeds cannot be arrested by any dam. so likewise both fools unwraps and sages must go on in the inevitable round for 84. if a man had asked about mangoes. 2 The Pali attributes these theories to Samjaya. eight kinds of mahapurushas &quot. if a man had asked about mangoes. precipices there are six social degrees. there being no future misery (asrava).) * Then he said. saying that by the extinction of asrava one reaches the end of affliction. so questioned Nirgrantha Djnatiputra concerning the reward of virtue. 416.

iii sure of his own. king of Magadha. an attendant. future life) is not another way. and. coveting. filled with faith. filled with faith. who knows no plea This man. Then. (or) it is not &quot. Maharaja. I will question you concerning this inquiry Answer me as you see fit. reviling. the world. I will give up a home life and retire from living in the midst of . This was a slave. so.KAKUDA KATYAYANA S THEORIES. I ask [the same question]. amuses and diverts himself. the stupidest. . put on an orange gown. possession of everything which can gratify the senses. let us suppose that you have a slave. from mocking. whom Maharaja. without extolling or yet blaming the words of Kakuda Katyayana. from joking (pra-ma). the most hypocritical. or it is not not or other world is so and so.e. Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru.. the existing. of yours. not another &quot.Then way. twould not be seeming in me. more than human bliss. because he has formerly accumulated good deeds. in the midst of more than human joys. or it is another way.&quot. thinking. or it is and is not. slandering. I answer his question &quot. of &quot. and I also may I will become like him if I perform meritorious acts. without a . world or is not.&quot. from stealing. and. and (now) I have come to the Blessed One. or the other life. cutting the rope (which holds him to the world). and. and from malice. from taking life. saying there There is another If they is no other life. I arose from my seat. &quot. Now if your emissaries should meet him. he shaves his head and beard. and I also am a man but Adjatasatru. now lives in a palace. thinks. or it is not (life) is not another way. is a man.&quot. 105 by inquire of me. an attendant. from fornication. I reply to their questions by The other world (i. is But still it occurred to me this Kakuda Katyayana. without a will of his own. I thought the greatest fool of all the men of re ligion in Kajagriha. He abstains gives up a home and retires from the world. or it is not another way. seeing you in your palace. amusing and diverting yourself. &c. or it is not thus. shave my head and beard.

a relative of the Blessed One. go and tell the king. Does your majesty know that his slave. is Blessed a life of One has shown virtue. ? is In such a case as this have a visible reward for a life of virtue &quot.io6 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. . One day Devadatta came to the palace and was refused admission. &c. &c. But he struck meekly said.&quot.. &c. 461-482. 1 See Dulva iv. king of Magadha. bow before him. &quot. for such bald-pates as this that they have quarrelled with me. food. Then he said to Utpalavarna. will of his own. &quot.&quot. ? Of a truth you have. and medicines. own &quot. What I not think you. and show him every possible kind of respect and as long as he led such a life I would provide him with clothes. she &quot. my Lord but in whatever place I met him I would speak respectfully to him. but had them all turned away. man here . If then coming to where you are. lodgings. his attendant. &quot. ? Not so. my Lord. and for the end of the sutra. 405 et seq. they should say. Lotus. join my hands to him (make an anjali).&quot. treat so badly one who is a Qakya who has renounced the world ? Be not so harsh with me. p. rise in his presence. . Bur- nouf. fol. &quot.What have I done thee that thou hast deprived me of alms ? and with that he struck her. that there In such a case the a visible reward for 1 The Buddha continued to converse with him until the king was finally gained over to the Buddhist creed. &quot. &quot. .. ? is living abstaining from slandering and would your majesty on hearing this say. from malice Bring the &quot. &c.. . he shall again be my slave. of Vaidehiputra. he abstains from slandering and from malice let us . How can you. my attendant. Just then he espied the bhikshuni Utpalavarna entering the palace for alms.&quot. and he It is thought. he would no longer admit Devadatta s followers into the palace. without a will of his . After Adjatasatru s conversion by means of the Qramana-phala Sutra. Maharaja demonstrated that there &quot. Persecute not the righteous.

though he was then suffering for for having having tried to divide the brotherhood and killed Utpalavarna. Huen Thsang. however. her with his fist 107 of on the head. retained some hope of being able to become of king Qakyas. underneath his nails with a deadly When he he tried but the Blessed One s legs had become of 2 adamantine hardness.&quot. for he sent Qariputra and Maudgalyayana to visit him in hell. Devadatta. he would at once fall into &quot. 3 1 2 See Dulva Conf.Thou shameless to the ground.6dhara was. The Hdzangs-blun gives another version of Devadatta s death. If. intending to scratch the drew nigh the Buddha and cast himself at his feet to scratch him. husband touch. but on condition that his faith in the Buddha. on hearing of this new insult Buddha. must be one who will become an universal monarch or a &quot. exclaimed. told him to go and beg the pardon. f. vi. he would on the expiration of a kalpa become a pratyeka buddha. of Devadatta to the Blessed One s make him their The Qakyas. 3 See Dulva iv. and Fa-Hian. f. bear cannot I she cried. who was my very marrow of my Hardly had he uttered the words but he in great pain. The Buddha granted him forgiveness. that they would reign over Kapilavastu. putting Ya^odhara Kapilavastu and ascended the terrace of the palace where still of the Yac. poison. he should he professed do so with a hell. 302. so that Devadatta s nails broke off. 455-457. But even there the Buddha s mercy followed him.&quot. hearing such a proposition she sprang up from her &quot. lie in his heart. He took her hand and besought her to become On seat his wife. and that if he granted it they would king. p. 448-449.DEVADATTA GOES TO HELL. though suffering great pain. filled Devadatta Buddha s feet. . iv. and to tell him that. Devadatta having failed to reach eminence as a religious teacher. 80. To the bones I seek refuge in the Buddha. and threw him My bodhisattva. fell into hell. She reached the abode the bhikshunis. Now the Qakyas had thought to so went the Devadatta on throne. B. p. and shortly 1 after she died. thy fool.&quot.

Bhikshus. to The bhikshus came to the Buddha and said. &quot. . and mounting the same machine. but on no other. village a master-mechanic (Jiklirul-hWwr-gyi slob-dpori) married a woman of the same caste as his own. Twenty-one days after had a naming-feast. master-mechanic said. my go (with you) myself and get her. Lord. Then (the master-mechanic) took the s machine and said to the youth mother. to manage this machine. Since that is the case.loS THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &quot. see what grief Devadatta has come because he hearkened One. in times gone by there lived in a mountain . tenderly nurtured. I will &quot. &quot. his birth they &quot. Bhikshus.&quot. who who after a while gave birth to a son. Listen how the same thing happened to him in days of yore. so do not him have said. they went to (the young man s) own home. If you can get here on suchand-such a day. the child grew apace. and. and (the lad) went to another mountain village where lived another mastermechanic. lad. holder whose daughter father.&quot. and with him he commenced learning his trade. in such a village there lives a householder whose daughter s hand I have asked of her father. They took the girl. s hand (the young man) asked of her father replied. &quot. not to the words of the Blessed The Blessed One answered them.After a while his father died.After a while (the young man) Mother. to the great astonishment of all the people. and the same day they reached the mountain village. I will give her to you. He told me that if I could get there on such-and-such a day he would give her to &quot.Your son does not let know how it.The me. tis not only now that grief has come to him because he hearkened not to my words. So on the appointed day they mounted together a wooden peacock. &quot. Then (the young man) said to his master. but on no other The day. Master. In yet another mountain village there lived a house &quot. please . . &quot.

she let him have it. . what think ye? master-mechanic and Devadatta the apprentice. &quot. be amis- synonymous with gtsug-pliud ras- . but I have not met elsewhere with the former expression. flew a deluge of rain to fall on the ocean. text reads dbyug thogs spyi phud-chan. so seeing how much he longed for it. take. which I have taken as The This. At that time I was the &quot. are not heeded When one stops not and remembers nought.&quot. came to trouble). backward the master only refused it through jealousy. No longer able to manage &quot. let 109 me have the machine. and in Eajagriha that they had seen their doctrines the of that he had admitted to them the falsity 1 2 See Dulva iv. it will bring I will not let you have it. she answered.Bhikshus. hearkening not to my words. may gchig. people (skye-loi My son. Mother/ he said. He is carried off by the wooden bird. cautious instructions. You do not understand it. f. Go away. he has gone to suffer the torments of 1 hell. he was wrecked (lit. so that I ts may astonish the dbang-du Igyio). this again ! But he went on farther until he flying about farther and Then the deity caused the to ocean. I can make it go forward and ogs &quot. &quot. after their visit Qariputra and Maudgalyayana shortly 2 to Devadatta in hell had told the Culekasataka tirthikas in master hell. and through his ignorance he got into trouble. it. &quot. however. so likewise now. A deity then spoke this verse * When One s one s words of loving-kindness. At that time he would not listen to my words of caution. and the parts (sly orkha-rnams) (of the machine) were soaked. your master said that you did not know how to manage it.Women s hearts are tender. 462-464.THE FLYING MACHINE. and that I must not let you have it. the master-mechanic saw (him delight of the people . to the great . but and do not try on) the machine and cried out. trouble on you. Then he got on the machine and started off.

He told him that such was his destiny on account of had in a bygone deeds (he former existence treated his father and mother in like manner). had not been able to escape. and at the Buds death 1 8. By this may also be understood that first from the founding of the order gandet. who was at Nalanda. and died at the same time as his friend. child. for Maud galyayana s condition was hopeless. cit. op. &c. and would have killed him then and there if Qariputra had not come to his rescue. 130. he had taught. . ii.000 died. vol. places Cariputra s death in the forty-fifth or last year of the Buddha s ministry. ^ariputra. and nothing less than a miracle could cure him. cloak to the Veluvana vihara. He asked his carried him off in Maudgalyayana why he. 1 The news of this attempted assassination spread like wild fire. See p. 349. and that at Maudgalyayana s dha death 70. Bigandet.000 passed away. Bi- when Qariputra died 80. He recounts it after the Blessed One s illness at Beluva.the town with the wooden paling&quot. Conf. and Spence Hardy. arid 1 77. The king had the heretics seized. and died on the afternoon of that same day. ii.000 bhikshus ha d died. 652. 2 cit. whom they met in Eajagriha a little later. His disciples were so enraged at this that they resolved to avenge themselves on the calumniators. They pounded him like sugar cane and beat him through the whole town. p. he went to &quot. but after having shown himself in Eajagriha.000 ordinary bhikshus also died at this time. p. 25. They at first tried to quarrel with ^ariputra. 9. Manual. His version of this event is much fuller than that of our text. They were greatly worried at this. Adjatasatru sent all his physicians to Maud galyayana.. op. was taken ill the same day. and a great crowd with King Adjatasatru came to the vihara. but he passed on so they attacked Maudgalyayana.i io THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.000 bhikshus died . until the time of Cariputra s death 80. mised. (? Grongkliyer shing-thags-chari). and having changed him into a little . who promised that in seven days he would be in Eajagriha begging his food and he did as he had pro . 2 Dulva xi. This they told to the wounded man. we are told that p. f.. who was such a great magician. and told them that if he was not cured within seven days they would all be degraded (? dbang-thang Icliad).

the elders. when Anathapindada heard that Qariputra was dead. per fumes. = We Mahaprajapati Gotami. and honoured them in the presence of his friends and relatives with lamps. and his cloak to the Blessed One at Kajagriha. Then Anathapindada inquired of the &quot. Ana thapindada carried the remains to his house. and her hair had not become white. in consideration of their long-standing friendship. Prajapati Gotami was aged 120 at the time of her death. dachins. four. 53-68 for We will the preceding episode. in and it size. f. Anathapindada asked permission of the to found a feast which should be celebrated at The Buddha a certain time at the tchaitya of Qariputra. King Prasenadjit and queen Mallika. See Dul va x. Visakha Mrigadhara s mother. Now. incense. and it must have roofs three. for an arhat there shall be four festoons (Idyugs). there shall be no rain -court (tchar-khab) . (byi-bor this that the tchaitya of was similar to that made Qariputra for a Buddha. his alms-bowl. two. for an anagamin two . while he was at the banyan grove of Kapilavastu. the rishi Datta. 317 et . for a sakridagamin three . also Spence Hardy. King Prasenadjit proclaimed gave 1 The Buddha For a pratyeka text adds. and there must be one. be plain see &quot. for a crotapanna one . flowers. See Dulva xi. in When Qariputra s disciples had finished cremating his body. byi-dor ?). and sweet-scented oils (byug-pa-rnams) and all the people of Kosala. It cairn or tchaitya ought to be built. put them in a high place. thirteen bal to protect it against the rain (tchar-kliab-dag Idjag-par-lyao). The Blessed One after their arrival left Kajagriha and went to Qravasti and stopped at Jetavana. he went and asked permission of the Buddha to build a cairn (tchaitya) over his ashes. and had his consent. . gradually decreasing Buddha how the must have four must contain a vase. but she from had retained her youthful appear ance. They are said to have died shortly before the Buddha. as to ordinary people. the royal family and Varshika. Manual. and many other believers came and honoured them. f. and of the other Cakya women who had founded with her the female order of mendicants. 180-185. and that his ashes were in the hands of Ananda. they carried his ashes (ring-ford). seq. storeys. 1 Buddha Moreover. wreaths. not insist on the death of p. The Buddha having given his consent. their tchaityas must &quot.HONOURS SHOWN fARIPUTRA S REMAINS.

ii2 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. If there be no river in the neighbourhood. with the exception of Dirghacharayana 1 (Spyod-pai-lu ring-pd). so as to avenge himself on the Qakyas of Kapilavastu. . I have. lying on the left side. and heirapparent. it may be thrown into a river. have seen in the preceding chapter (p. 65. they may come freely. but in case wood as well note here that We may cannot be found.&quot. on a bed of grass. and in a little while you will ascend the Virudhaka throne. for there is no other heir but you. and trying to gain over to his interests all the five hundred councillors of Prasenadjit. A Previously to being interred the body cairn or tchaitya (mtchod-rteri) must be raised over the remains.&quot. son of King Prasenadjit of Kosala. He then commenced conspiring against his father. all merchants who may come thither with goods will have to pay no duties or tolls or ferry fees . so that he might the sooner reign. Conf. with sound of all bell. Peer. p. met. Peer s remark. persuaded the king is old. the chief minister.&quot. His body must be burnt. &quot. was very desirous of becoming king. translated in Tibe1 son of the walker. Annales Musee GuiHe there translated v.Dirgha. the head to the north. &quot. from to desist a him such he said. and the time of the feast of the tchaitya of the venerable Qariputra. Dirghachariya. must be washed. Since then he has written to me that in the Avadana-Cataka he is called Uirgha Carayana. We for. and he proposed assassinating his The minister father. crime. and have adopted this restitution of the name instead of Schiefner s tan Rgyu-bai-bu riny-po. this name Dirgha. therefore. while Dirghacharayana was at Virudhaka s dwelling on business. son of Cari. ye people of Qravasti. Dulva xi. f. I have no doubt that in our text Spyod-pai-bu is intended as a translation of Carayana. Then it must be covered with green grass and leaves. 53 gives the following directions for disposing of the corpse of a bhikshu. &quot. 79) that Yirudhaka. On a certain occasion. the prince spoke to him about his desire to avenge himself on the Qakyas as soon as he became king.&quot. who was devoted to his lord. and they all promised him their support. it must be interred in a shady spot. availed myself of M. &quot. ! Give ye foreigners At ear.

and the bhikshus outside were walking &quot. Sugata. heard that the Blessed One was in a Qakya town called It is about asked the king. and having knocked he went in. he drove and made Virudhaka king. his parasol. Drive me. shunning sin and the company of man. the king alighted The from his chariot and went to the arama on foot. his crown. the Blessed One opened the door and has The given me the king Dirghacharayana thought.&quot. having bowed down at the feet Blessed then and mouth and his face said. When about with their cloaks off. yana. go and Blessed One will have knock gently on the it opened. of the Bud Prasenadjit. door. wiped One. dha. If you want any the day in the house with big doors. &quot. thing. On the road he saw a hermit living in soli started out. gently. Blessed One was passing the day inside of the dwelling with closed doors. &quot. his jewelled yak-tail. then. and the king bethought him that that was the way in which the Blessed One lived so turning round to the minister. . Now the Blessed One was stopping in a little town of the Qakyas called Metsurudi. it it H . his richly embroidered shoes. &quot. has been a long time since I have seen you. I &quot.&quot. for it had been some time since he had been to pay him his respects. and the So the king handed over to Dirghacharayana the five insignia of royalty which he wore. &quot. answered Dirghachara &quot. I will accomplish the prince s off secret intention to Qravasti So mounting the chariot. but bound the minister over to secrecy as to what had just passed between them. his sword. he asked him if he knew where the Blessed One then was. Dirghacharayana told him that he had tude. five insignia of royalty. when one day Prasenadjit having got on his chariot with Dirghacharayana driving.DIRGHACHARAYANA S TREASON. The king went up to them He is passing and asked where was the Blessed One.&quot. to the village of Metsurudi.&quot. Is it far off? Metsurudi. Maharaja. &quot. has been a long time since I have seen you. three yojanas from where we are. they had come to Metsurudi. 113 gave in to his reasons.

Dirghacharayana are of your majesty s family went away. act I have seen their selfand speaking accordingly. old. and so is the Blessed One One is aged and de Blessed the and fourscore years old. the king replied. and the do you believe in me ? &quot. and ing in your doctrine. I have yet other reasons for believ Venerable One. why ing sufficiency and their intolerance for all other opinions. he exclaimed. and (nearly) and the of you are the I am the anointed king country. so excessively humble towards the Tathagata ? Venerable One. So.&quot. But. When the king heard from the bhikshus that Dirghacharayana had abandoned him. How came After a while he met Mallika and Varshika. we who &quot. is Well spoken your order. of Metsurudi. &quot. so &quot. Maharaja. . &quot. the Perfectly Enlightened doctrine. the Blessed One also is of Kosala. they started out on foot was at the village When to find him. it is because I believe that the Blessed Then the Buddha &quot. &quot. he continued 1 his road on foot. foot ? Sire. Venerable One. . the Tathagata. is in the throne. excellent your disciples &quot. heard of meeting his wives that he for Dirghacharayana s treason . him that tha king from and learning Dirghacharayana. said. on here you has put Virudhaka on the throne. Maharaja. going in the direction of Kajagriha. king of the exalted Dharma. tis thy son who Mallika.&quot. One One.&quot.Venerable One.&quot.&quot.&quot. i I think this must be a mistake for it was only after Qravasti.ii4 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. with sorrow and tears Mallika went away as she had been told. caste. possession of go and enjoy his sovereignty with him. I am of kshatriya I am aged and decrepit. I have seen those Qramanas. why are you so very humble. &quot. then he turned his steps toward Rjagriha. fourscore years crepit. &quot. they answered. I and Varshika will go to Eajagriha. those learned brahmans. filled with pride in their learning. the king came out they had finished conversing. I am of Kosala. Venerable One. Varshika and Mallika (his wives) had seen of the house. &quot. the Arhat. &quot.

So she went and told the king. and wandering about. When King came Adjatasatru and all the people reached the park. which they entered. every one The must accompany the king with him. and found Prasenadjit lying dead in the road. &quot. well pleased with Prasenadjit s confidence in him. sirs this king has a mighty host. a man had been great concourse of people. is in his park. ! with his handmaid. a handful of turnips. and he has &quot. but could not find Prasen The king sent messengers all about. King Prasen adjit became irritated and sick to a turnip-field near the park. 115 The king and Varshika set out for Kajagriha after a while they reached it. and learnt from the gardener that had taken a handful of turnips and gone toward the pond. so he went and the gardener gave him and he ate them. and. This made him very thirsty. . The messenger went that way. so he went to a pool of water and quenched his thirst. She is here called Dbyar-tyed.&quot.&quot. suffocated by the dust caused by the wheels of (passing) vehicles. king of Kosala. they searched everywhere. and he had announced to the people that whereas Prasenadjit the king of Kosala was in the park.Sire. So he went and told Adjatasatru. jatasatru that Prasenadjit. What. seized with cramp in the stomach. 1 On seeing the disfigured corpse. he fell in the road and died. who cried out in anger. king. . ! quietly come here without any of you knowing it Then Varshika 1 said.DEATH OF PRASENADJIT. flags and banners to receive After waiting a long time for Adjatasatru. instead of Dbyar-ts ul-ma. from inanition. ordered everything to be made ready to show him respect. Then the king said to Varshika. they came to one of King Adjatasatru s parks. and he has come here alone &quot. and he came there followed by a to the turnip-field there. one of whom adjit. tops and all (la- pug-gi-rdog-ma dang lo-ma-dag zos-pa dang). Go and tell King Ad&quot. where is his army? His son has usurped his throne. Suddenly his hands stiffened.

p. Now it occurred to the Buddha that if the Cakyas of Kapilavastu knew the truth. so forthwith he turned back and returned to Qravasti. The Blessed One is filled with compassion for his kinsfolk. so that I marks went to. he said. vi. and it is You very unfortunate that he has died in my realm. 288. Darauf konimt ein Sohn a &quot. 1 46. &quot.) Ambharisha persuaded the king to march again against the Qakyas. adds here. they would not be subject to So rebirth in case they were destroyed by Virudhaka. and many entered the order. so that great numbers were converted. Prasenadjit was a sovereign king. and the king got ready able to surprise them.&quot. p. and pitched his camp near the city. and coming The Qakyas to Kapila. and. went out from (Jravasti on the road to Kapilavastu and sat down under an old sliakotaka tree on which . 3 AgStagatru s See Dulva x. he started up and went to the Qakya country. Then Virudhaka thought. 305. Sirs. marched 1 to Kapila. Huen Thsang. The Buddha told him to render to the deceased monarch whatever honours he was able this Adjatasatru accordingly did. of respect. I will go may show him the highest and consult the Blessed One.ii6 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. must show him every honour in accompanying his remains to the cemetery . So Virudhaka reassembled his troops. Cf.&quot.Maharaja. . I have found no mention of this in the Dulva. the Blessed One replied. &quot. mit seinen Truppenzu Hiilfe und schliesst die Stadt ein. &quot. f. 133-143. Ambharisha. and asked him why he had chosen this tree which afforded him no shade. hearing that he had come to their country. (F. 2 . Hardly had Virudhaka become king of and 1 Kosala but his minister. B. reminded him the Qakyas. 3 Schiefner. he entered the Banyan grove. was no bark a crooked. who of his oath to destroy his army hoping to be knew Virudhaka s intentions. Tib. So they carried the corpse to the cemetery while the king to the Blessed One.&quot. flocked to see him. The Buddha.&quot.&quot. and there he passed the day. and he taught them the four truths. leafless tree that could offer no Virudhaka found shade. &quot. my relatives and kindred make it shady. Lebens. him there.

117 Mahamaudgalyayana having heard of Yirudhaka s in tended attack. that the Qakyas must bear the consequences of their former deeds. Huen v. cit. and shot arrows into the ear ornaments (rna-ryyan-la mdah . went and asked the Blessed One to allow him to carry the whole of Virudhaka s army to another part of the world. no Qakya. hphel-par byecT). them with fresh courage. &quot. says that there were four working in the fields. the Huen Thsang. 72.&quot. and the fourth king of Qambi. he would be no kinsman of theirs. but the Blessed One re plied that nothing would avail .We . who men vol. overthrew a great number of persons.SHAMPAKA THE AKYA. does not translate the Tibetan text as I have done. Those among them who had been converted by the Blessed One. sallied forth and repulsed him. 318. Filled with rage on hearing of Virudhaka s attack.. or to perform some other magical feat which would save the Qakyas . they have not killed any one among remained (encamped around the city). Feer. Muse&quot. anything that has life no. and who refrained from killing anything. says that one of these men became king of Udyana. carried cudgels and goads they cut the bow-strings and the strappings. The Qakyas are Buddhists (lit. If any one did so. &quot. After repelling Virudhaka s army. the Qakyas re-entered the city. however. he said. The Qakyas issued a proclamation prohibiting any one from attacking Virudhaka or his army. B. There hap pened to be a Qakya called Shampaka who was off work 1 ing for himself on the hills. and remained watching on their walls. he sallied forth towards Virud haka 1 s army. M. sounding their trumpets the while. shut their gates.&quot. not kill . . vi. they got to gether their army. p. us. the second king of Bamyan. p. As soon as the Qakyas of Kapila heard that Virudhaka had come with all his troops to destroy them. righteous) they would &quot. Annales loc. Cf. not even a black beetle. and who had not heard the of the proclamation Qakyas. the third king of Himatala. So they See.e Thsang. Ambharisha rallied the troops of Kosala and inspired run no danger. Guimet.

Sirs. gives a description of Udyana. 131 et seq. B. Meanwhile Virudhaka said to Ambharisha. and bearing them with them. f. and taught the people not to kill the deer (f. saying. it is prescribed that a bhikshu shall circumambulate the chortens (cairns) which contain hair and nail-parings of the Tathagata. was called King Shampaka. 2 kingdom p. One of them (the Shampaka of our text) founded the seq. Huen Thsang. yet I have no hatred against of Dulva x. converted stupa. watered by the river Swat. gives the history of four Cakyas who were obliged to leave their country for having fought with Virudhaka. what is to be done ? The minister suggested that they should try to foment dissensions among the inhabitants. moreover. and a tooth..nS THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. nail-parings. ! When Shampaka would not let tried to enter Kapilavastu. Before leaving the country he went to the Blessed One. a country of Northern India. Udyana. 149). Are these your greatly discouraged. See also same vol. there will not be left a soul living among us &quot. a name which forcibly reminds us of the hero of our story. and besought him to give him some memorial of his person The Buddha gave him by magic some of his (f. greater part of whom he killed outright. iii. region south-east of Kachmere which was called Tchampaka. said to Ambharisha. So the king &quot. &quot. and it was called Shampaka s He married a woman who was a pagan. he was obliged to go away with his attendants. 150). .. righteous people who will not kill even a beetle? If they all kill as many of us as this one man. 1 some hair. he set out for the country of Yaku. although I have no fondness 1 for you. Huen Thsang. 169^. for he had violated their law. a tribuThere is also a tary of the Kabul. 198. &quot. f. and He built a stupa for the Blessed One. relics of the He. her to Buddhism. et 141 p. &quot. and that by that means the city would soon fall into their hands.. the people him. and though he pleaded that he had had no knowledge of it. 2 Sham paka was made king of the country by acclamation. Now that the Qakyas have closed their gates and remain cringing behind their walls bewailing. organised means for protecting the forests. It is on the northwestern frontier of Lahul. Virudhaka. and established a regular government. sent a messenger to the Qakyas.

Let us all assemble and deliberate whether we shall open the gates. we will find out the opinion of the majority. and drowned. and they all voted in the same way. What do you ask &quot. some said. you came here on a promise make me a promise. &quot. 119 It is all over so open your gates quickly. ! &quot. and advocated opening the gates. branches of which fell into the water they got entwined in Mahanaman s hair-knot. and filled with anguish for his people. others advised not various opinions. and he &quot.MAHANAMAN S DEATH. Sire. So they sent Virudhaka word that he could enter the city. &quot. When they had assembled. . Then Mara. you and your family may leave the place. ! &quot.&quot. Open them As there are . The king told him to do as he wished . Hardly were they in but the king cried out. the pool. thought that it was a good occasion to revenge himself on Gautama s kinsmen for his former defeats of the by the Buddha. Spare the people. so grant him his request. doing so. and he made his entry with all his army.&quot.&quot. ran to Virudhaka. Mahanaman hearing the noise. but &quot. &quot. &quot. &quot. Sire. he went down into the water of a On the edge of the pool there grew a sala tree.&quot.&quot. so that he was pulled under . &quot.&quot. . he took the form (rgan-po) of the Qakyas.&quot. and said. Maha was a friend of your father s. said. So they set about voting on the subject. Then naman the king s courtiers said to him. this is a compatriot (yul-mes) of yours. Then you. Some &quot. I will shut up the And Qakyas mouths I will exterminate the Qakyas with that he commenced having the Qakyas slaughtered with wild vociferations (ku-cho tchen-po hdon-to ?). ! &quot.&quot. filled with anguish for his people. said Mahanaman. . Sire. &quot. king I will not spare your people. headman . the Evil one. the Qakyas said. I beseech you &quot. replied the king. escape as sinking. may let as many of my people while I can remain in the water without &quot. ? &quot. so.

Prepare me a seat.&quot. he became enraged. the Qakyas. and as there still remained a little life in them. went out of one t villages. but they overcame the elephants and kept off their tusks so he had them thrown into a pit and covered over with iron plates.&quot. &quot. so his courtiers poured on the road one hun dred thousand jars of red lac.Now I may promise. Virudhaka sent a man to the Blessed One with instruc what he might say (about the massacre). When they told this to the king. Some of them went to Bal-po (Nepal). the greater part believers. &quot. said the king.&quot. and Virudhaka s courtiers called his attention to this. whom he thought. &quot. . Virudhaka depart. and said to his I will not leave it until courtiers. Seeing this. some to the Eajayul-hkhor) and to different gate and came in by another. This possibly be an abbreviation for rdo-rje phag-moi gnas. Moreover. and tions to listen to 1 may In Tibetan. they cried out when they saw him. the king to have dhaka tried to . and a like number of maidens. some to different towns and (griha?) country (rgyal-poi castles (pho-lrang de dang de Some of dag-tu) (f. &quot.000 Qakyas. He had carried off to the called the &quot. the blood of the slain runs down this road in streams.&quot. the Parivradjaka tirfhikas 1 but Ambharisha advised them also put to death.&quot. In the meanwhile some of the Qakyas of Kapilavastu got out of the city without any of their goods. they found him dead. 151). see if that countryman of mine has sunk So they yet. But the blood that flowed from the men and women he had killed was not in sufficient quantity (to make a stream). and to come and repeat it to him. for I have fulfilled my massacred in this way 77.Place arama of the of Sow. and hastened away. went. Then Viru have the young men trampled to death by elephants. the place of Vadjraiarahi. and looking. &quot. and Go.120 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. thinking of their property. The Buddha went to where the young Qakyas had been cast in a pit covered over with iron plates. he took five hun dred youths. phag-moi gnas.

Have him sent to where the So Jeta was put to death.If enemies. and.&quot. had their dong-gi rjing). ! &quot.J ETA S DEATH. so that they died in the faith and were reborn in the region of the four great kings (f. Virudhaka tried to put the five hundred Qakya maidens in his harem. who are your enemies ? Sire. but they mocked at him and would not go. In the meanwhile Virudhaka returned to Qravasti. and there they cut off their hands and feet. he ordered them to him to him. young are poisonous so cut off their and then let them go back to their people. &quot. replied Jeta.&quot. ! reborn in the Trayastrimcat heaven. &quot. Then he was angered and exclaimed. answered he the Qakyas are your answered. &quot. &quot. &quot. who &quot. 307. and he also was are &quot. Jeta. Then they took the five hundred Qakya maidens to the bank of a patali (dmar-bu-chan) pond. their sufferings. and was amusing himself there when Viru When his dhaka noticed him and asked who it was. vi. 121 shortly after they died and were reborn in the TrayThen the Buddha sat down to one astrimcat heaven. Then Qakyas are your friends ? the king said. &quot. p. of and told the bhikshus that in seven days the house Kosala would be destroyed. I come from putting to death my enemies. 87. p. 1 See Fah-Hian. B. he unfolded to them the law. . still their . &quot. hell (Avitchi).The Qakyas. When the vipers &quot. wounds dressed. It happened that Prince Jeta had gone on to the terrace of his palace. &quot. From thence they came back to visit the Blessed One at Jetavana during the night. while they felt some relief from are killed. him that it was Jeta. &quot. When he had come he said. and be born in the bottomless side. that Virudhaka and Ambarisha would be burnt up. remained here amusing yourself the prince.&quot. hands and feet. and you have courtiers told call &quot. for which reason the pond became known as the pool of the severed hand (lag-pai 1 The Blessed One came to them.&quot. 159). and Huen Thsang. and there they obtained the reward of grotapanna.

Annales du and Huen Thsang. 308. and there to pass the seven days. Lebens. v. and the sun s rays falling on a burning-glass which was on a cushion. he advised him to have a kiosque The built in the water.&quot. f. which until then had been overcast. cleared up. but when the king and Ambharisha tried to do likewise. i. 2 vi. and the Pali version agree. or as Pro Ehys Davids has happily translated it &quot. life has been considered as perhaps the oldest one extant in the Pali canon. also Feer. p.122 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.The Book of the Great Decease. set fire to the cushion. but as this sutra is confessedly very important. Tib. 76 . p. See Oldenberg vol. and to the with retired kiosque king followed his advice. s Vinaya Pita- Schiefner. 133. in which are related the events which took place during the last year of the Buddha s This work that is to say. vol. In the following pages will be found an abstract of the When Vimdhaka s fessor Tibetan version of the Mahaparinirvana Sutra. and from that the flames spread to the whole house. his seventy-ninth year. I have thought it advisable to give an tive has this Wherever the text of analysis of the Tibetan version. 1 they went down into the bottomless hell. as they were pre paring to return to Qravasti. The women ran away and made their escape. Ambharisha comforted him with the assurance that Gautama had only said this because the king had killed so many of his people. . for example. and with loud cries the said. they found the doors shut. 26. kam. 307- Guimet. Moreover. 2 There appears to me no reason to believe that this narra been handed down with any more or any less care than the history of the first years of the Buddha s ministry. 161 . 65.. On the seventh day. p. I have used Professor Ehys 1 See Dulva of x. all his harem. B. p. the sky. for parts Muse&quot. and the women were array ing themselves in all their jewels. Buddha had messenger came and told him what he was filled with trouble. and as having been composed before the time of the -first synod held after the Buddha s death.e it. 287-289 .

p. king of Magadha. free from trouble Lord.&quot. . Sacred Books of the East. ] xi. numerous though they be. nirvana of the Buddha. p. The Blessed Buddha was stopping at Eajagriha on the s Peak mountain. also Bigandet. said. and went out of Eajagriha to see the Blessed One and to offer him his respects. of the 123 Davids translation.. p.&quot. kara. f. cit. king Vaidehiputra. and Spence Hardy. Because. happy. Then the great noble of Magadha.. b b two volumes. at ease. perfectly enlightened ones never say anything which does not come true. p. op.). 2 See Buddh.. I will crush them. (2. . king of Magadha. in Myang-Mas There exist several other works in the Bkah-hgyur on the 535 -652 . Now at that time Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. (3d edit. . as if he was going to carry the globular anointing vase (for a coro nation). was not on friendly Vulture so he said to his courtiers. I will conquer these Vrijians. the &quot. . Varsha tathagatas. [as above].. He went to where was the Blessed One. I will put them to rout for their turbulence rich. if he is suffering or not. So he mounted a pure white chariot with command. if he is comfortable &quot. then tell him. in vigorous health. So Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru said to the brahman Varshakara (Dbyar-byed). viii. and of the Vrijians are the Magadha. go to where is the Blessed One bow down on my behalf at his feet. Varsha kara. (bskyod). arhats. 355 et seq. They are (i. terms with the Vrijians . having hearkened to the words of Vaidehiputra Sire. riding as far as was practicable. happy. 2y a. 1-95. entitled Mahd parinirvdna 231-234. one of the great nobles (sna2 tchen-po la-gtoys Mahdmatra) of Magadha. &c. not on friendly terms. f. Conf. the brahman Var shakara. &quot. f. Adjatasatru 536*) (f. My text is from Dulva xi.&quot. mighty.) In Mdo. so that the similarity two texts may at once be detected. 1-136. cit. op. vol. be it as you Adjatasatru. title and the section or Nirvana. 1-231. vol. Trigl. and (the king has said to his courtiers). splendid horses.VARSHAKARA 1 VISITS THE BUDDHA.) Do. ii. a golden seat (khang). prosperous. Blessed One says when he and bring me word what the hears this. and ask him for me if he is free from illness. same called sutra . .

and tchaitya there I taught the Vrijians the seven conditions of wel fare and as long as they continue to keep these seven . Gautama. harmony. Etseb-pa 1 was once staying near the Varshakara. Well. at that time the venerable Ananda was standing behind the Blessed One holding a fan. whether and undertakings are carried out in plans the Vrijians do not edict any Whether harmony ? (2. his words. While thus seated. so long will the Vrijians prosperity increase and not diminish. to this ? replied). What does the Blessed &quot. Now &quot. so long as they keep present to their minds these seven conditions. The Pali version calls the place the (p. he said].) Whether harmony. It is most likely a misprint. Varshakara. 537 ). about in the same terms as above are) the Vrijians the Vrijians sit in (i. so long will the Vrijians prosperity increase and not diminish. Varshakara.124 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 537*).Lord. (The six other conditions of welfare which he inquires &quot. Sarandada cetiya . they were once disunited.&quot.) or abrogate anything desirable. I beg Gautama to repeat to me what he then said. then alighting and climbing the Vulture s Peak on foot b When he approached the Blessed One. the great noble of Magadha. 3). with which he was fanning him. rules of welfare. Ananda. I do not know the particulars of these summarily mentioned facts. they (f. [delivered the king s message. and when he had finished. but I am unable to correct it. then he sat down to one side. thing not desirable. of the Vriji country (f. &quot. 536 ). exchanged different greetings and congratulations.&quot. Have you heard. &quot. I have heard [that they do] (f.&quot. so that I may be able to appreciate &quot. so long as the Vrijians [do this]. the brahman &quot.Varshakara Gautama say (the Buddha I &quot. whether they follow the institutions made by the Vririse in 1 This word does not appear to be Tibetan. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda. whether the Vrijians assemble frequently and from afar? b &quot.

receive robes. and necessary 538 ). medicine &quot. in what as they direct? (5. are revered. ? Varshakara.&quot. jians ? 125 Whether. are protected by their maidens Vrijian women. and whether those who are are made happy (f. venerated. king of how much Magadha. respected by the Vrijians.) ever part of the territory of Vriji they be. words and act venerated. revered.&quot. mothers. well went away. respected whether they hearken to Whether the tchaityas. Vrijian (3. . Varshakara you know what is best for you. long will their prosperity increase a 54 o ). not travelling are invited. way in which I have trans- . husbands. so I must depart.) Whether among receive the strong protection and support (dran-la nyeand whether arhats who are lar-gnas) that is due them. fathers-in-law. (f. if the Vrijians have any one part (of conditions of welfare). Gautama. and whether they have not done away with the time-established honours the Vrijians arhats due them? (6.Gautama. and latter part of this phrase is I feel some uncertainty as to the lated it.) fathers. take other men s they do not by promises or stealth them not do wives whether they away as of little put of flowers wreath a throw away value. Go. 538**. . so seven these them before keep and not decline&quot. 1 The obscure.) (F.THE SEVEN CONDITIONS OF WELFARE. mothers-in-law. among the Yrijians. pleased with the words of the Blessed One. by their relatives and kinsfolk. I more so if they are possessed of them all have much to do. ! &quot. bedding. whether parents are honoured by the Vrijians. so long conditions of welfare. these &quot. the brahman Varshakara. So the great noble of Magadha. as they might x ? in abductions murdered are whether Vrijians (4 ) Whether the elders of the Yrijians. would not be able to subdue them . the upper classes and . brothers. Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. their . &quot. travelling (through their country) b the alms. so long as the Vrijians shall continue to as the Vrijians keep these seven rules of welfare.

chan-gyi-grong) and . and he went. I must refer those question interests to the text. he went back to the Blessed One. and then he said to them.) a whom the 545 vata) the (F. went to him. and having assembled in the So be it service hall all the bhikshus then stopping on the Vul b ture s Peak (f. &quot. from not having perceived them. Patalitchaitya.&quot. portion of the narrative. &quot.) From the Vulture s Peak (Gridhrakuta parBuddha went toward Pataligama (Dmar.bu- stopped at Ambalatthika (Od-mai the king s house. .&quot. the When Ananda had hearkened to the words of the Blessed One. 54O ). as it is frewritten. p. f. and cause all the bhikshus who assemble &quot. Bstan-hgyur. have dbyug-pa-chan). (Then follows b b different series of conditions of welfare. been wandering about regeneration. (f. . Sacred Books of the East. .126 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &quot.&quot. all the bhikshus stopping on the Vulture s Peak are assembled in the service hall may the Blessed One do as he deems proper. Lord. 90.&quot. he stood to one side. in &quot. I will explain to you . he replied. Go. and stopped near the tchaitya of Pataligama. s Peak to in &quot.&quot. Mdo. 1 and the people having heard of the Buddha s arrival. &quot. and having bowed down reverentially at his feet. both you and I. 249 . xix. 94. except that of the 5th and 7th condition in the but as we only have to do with the historical first series . he plained the four truths to his disciples said. Then the Blessed One went to the service hall and took his seat in the midst of the congregation of bhikshus. 54O -544 ) The text does not materially differ from that of the Pali . Ananda. for a long time in the orb of From thence he went to Pataligama. Beal. version. seven consecutive conditions of welfare listen well and be attentive and I will explain them. and while thus standing he said to the Blessed One. and there he ex For.Bhikshus. and he told them 1 quently Or. Shortly after his departure the Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda. are stopping on the Vulture service hall.

also alludes to two persons.. heard who was it is Lord. xix. whatever spot is haunted by powerful fairies. the brahman (f. they influence the minds of powerful men to build there. among famous places. 1 8 (Rhys Davids. Pali version. 546) and of the fivefold gain of the well-doer 547). which only mentions Tchardbyings or Varshakara. At that time the great noble of Magadha. et seq. 9O ). therefore Pataligama of powerful men to build here. the Blessed One &quot. cit. p. Whatever spot is haunted by fairies of medium or inferior power. Varshakara. 250. saw with his divine sight. (Beal.Ananda. among famous marts and mercantile em1 See Rhys Davids. he sat down in the midst of his disciples. tan version of the Buddhacharita b (f.). was having built the fortress of Pataligama for the purpose of subduing the Vrijians. Ananda. (f. the many powerful fairies . the great noble of just so. the brahman 2 Varshakara. . have you &quot. 16. 2 The The Chinese Buddhacharita Sacred Books of the East. however. Ananda. while I was passing the day (near this place). I saw with my divine sight. men to build there. this place haunted by powerful fairies. which surpassed that of men. Ananda. who haunted the whole place. and at that time in the village of the Patali there were many power ful devas (Ilia). who were haunting all the ground of and when he had seen them he bore it Patali(gama) in mind. While thus seated. minds the influence will they medium or inferior is of Ananda. p.&quot. and. building the fortress of Pataligama ? the great noble of Magadha. ! 549 a ) is build Ananda. &quot. vol. p. the Tibenames. while passing the day at his abode. they influence the minds of of powerful fairies]. [a quantity Ananda. is as wise as if he had Magadha. Sinldha and Varshakara. said to the venerable Ananda. entering into his house. speaks of two personages. op. who to subdue the Vrijians ing the fortress of Pataligama. of the fivefold loss 127 of the evil-doer l (f. Now the Blessed One. although it does not give their Not so. just so the brahman Varshakara.). among the abodes of high-class people. held council with the Trayastrimcat devas.THE FUTURE OF PATALIPUTRA. cit. &quot. op. which surpasses that of men.

One left the village by the western gate then turning northward. When the meal was over. water. it is 2 Pa-ta-li-yi-grong. enables one to see what will be his future. p. Bhikshus. Usually Patiliputra is rendered In in Tibetan by Skya-nar-gyi-bu. Gotama s Gate and Gotama s Ferry (f. 552 b ). her coming. 9O ) bdjugs-so. &c.. 549 ) will menace it fire. Santushti (Nye-mdjes-pa). Cf. Yagodatta (Grags-lyin).lt. After this the Blessed One went to Vaisali and stopped of Truth 4 (dharma). ) (f. b the Tibetan Buddhacharita 1 3 The text has Kunjilcai gnas-na (f. 553 a). p. a 552 . as had Now also the lay followers Nikata (Nye-ba).&quot. The Buddha seeing &quot. 55i b ). meditation.D ). Rhys Davids.128 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. See Rhys Davids. Bhadra (Bzang-pa). 26-27. . op. 23. he said. and in the gunjaka 3 (or brick hall) of Nadika (f. and wisdom. Subhadra bzang-pci). attended by b (f. that this is 4 There can be no doubt an error for Gunjaka. they went and asked the Blessed One what had become of them (f. 553 -554 ). cautioned the bhikshus. he invited him with his disciples to a meal on the morrow a (f. 549 ). he went to the Blessed One. she went to see him. w hich T at Amrapali s grove the of waiting. 55&amp. Yac^as . he explained to them the Mirror (Grags-pa). and which would help them when he would b be no more (f. he passed the Ganges at a ferry (or ford). On leaving this place he went to Nadika (Grong-kliyer sgra-chari). Katissabha (Kat-ii(Shin-tit. When Varshakara heard that the Blessed One was at Pataligama. (Grong-kliyer and stopped in a c^ingapa 2 grove north of the village. and having ex b changed compliments and greetings with him (f. and internal dissensions. 554 ). cit. where he taught the brethren the meaning of morality.) After this the Buddha went to Kotigama spyil-po-clian). grong-khyer poriums (zong-lgram sar). lchyu-mtchog\ Tushti (Mdjes-pa). a great Buddha s number 555 ). When Amrapali heard of arrival. Pataliputra (Dmar-lu-chan-gyi b 1 Three perils will be the greatest. and these were called (F. After having a b told them (f.women. and when the bhikshus found this out. the Blessed .&quot. resided the lay disciple Karkata (sic) had died.

When he had finished speaking. around Dispelling the darkness in those him !&quot.&quot. may I give vent (to my feel the Blessed One had authorised him. and then he incited.) See Rhys Davids. &quot. Seeing them coming. 557 b ). after which she invited him and the bhikshus to take their meal with her on the morrow The Blessed One accepted the invitation by re (f. and the beauty of their apparel instructed. . 28. ! the sweet scent of the open Karnika (donJca). z courtesan. . the Blessed One instructed. Now flashes 1 his illumined eye. silent. and gladdened her by his words. she bowed down at his feet.A . sitting down to one side. Davids. 1 (f.K A PI LA THE BRAHMAN. And great the wealth owned by the lord of Magadha But in that country the living Buddha Obtains admiration great as Himavat. &C. As As See the Teacher like the radiant sun. Blessed One. The Licchavis of Vaisali also heard of the arrival of the Blessed One. (F. you who have not been in the parks of the Trayastrimcat &quot. ? And when : &quot. Tathagata. I . where admonitions do not seem to allude to the coming of the famous his Our text does not mention their meeting with Amrapali. a lovely full-blown lotus. &quot. a brahman youth called Kapila (Ser-skya) rose up (f. 557*).Bhikshus. .558 b . Like the sun shining brightly in the sky Wisdom is the Tathagata s might See how as a beacon in the night . him. When and thought had come near to Amrapalt wise. The Licchavis saluted the Blessed One. p. p. and. and gladdened them by his words. or give any See Rhys hint that it knows of it. aroused. 31. their riches. may I venture &quot. so they mounted their chariots and went to see him 2 (f. 558*) and said. these are like unto them for the glory of their appearance. and Amrapali departed. the Buddha called the bhikshus attention to them: &quot. 129 Amrapali ful. devas. is coming 556). ! Be mindful. maining . ings) he spoke these verses room of jewels the king of Anga keeps.

a the morrow. so the Blessed and dwell in the Vriji coun try round about Vaisali during the rainy season. having accepted that each one of the courtesan s invitation . five and the Buddha. and it would not be right for me to pass away while the I will by a congregation of bhikshus is thus scattered. strenuous effort dispel the pain. 56i ). wher He decided to ever they had friends and acquaintances. rainy upon the Blessed One. The Licchavis were so much pleased with his verses them gave him the cloak he was wearing. departed. and the Licchavis asked him to eat with them on the morrow. Now at that time there raged a famine. and stayed 560). pass the rainy the season a dire illness fell While spending there. The sharp pains of a dire illness have come upon me even One told them &quot. op. On in a Qin^apa grove to the north of the village (f.1 30 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Blessed One instructed. p. and it was a difficult matter for all the bhikshus to find food to go . 562**). but he refused. 33. she sat down on a low stool and listened to the Buddha s dis course on liberality and its merits. and gladdened the Again them by his words. cit. after eating at Amrapali s (f. unto death. 559- Kapila took his leave. . for which see Rhys Davids. acceded he had received to his request. 56i ). Then having taught him concerning the wonders which attend Buddhas in this world (f. a season with Ananda at Beluva (f. then the Licchavis having saluted him. 1 On leaving Vaisali the Buddha went to Beluva (Od-ma b chan-gyi-grong] in the Vriji country (f. so that I may retain a hold on this body until it has accomplished its task.. I will keep this body until all my projects have been 1 The gift of text does not mention the her residence to the order. but the congregation of bhikshus is scattered. to accept the five brahman youth Kapila begged hundred cloaks which to please him. After their departure the the Blessed One . 562 ). incited. Then the Blessed One thought. and sharp pains came upon him even unto death.

I am not (one of those) teachers b 2 unwilling to lend his books (f. mkhyud . . but I have no Mts an . throat). he went to the Tsapala (i. no other refuge. the Tathagata has reached fourscore years . that the Tathagata withholds what he does not deem suit able for certain persons. p. it is. 563*). My body was as stiff as if I had taken poison. be made out of 2 it. Ananda. Ananda. only lives holding the two parts together (with difficulty).ANANDA l S GRIEF. 36. body bent down and so the Tathagata. I have translated mts an-ma ( lakshana) by &quot. and 1 The text here is difficult . and there they abode in the mansion built on the edge of monkey pond. closed slob-dpon-gyi dpe the Pali dkariya. let the truth be your island. Just as an old cart is only kept in order by binding (tight) together the two portions of years. There is no other island.&quot. Ananda. 565 b). for I thought the Blessed One would not pass away before he had made a final exhortation to the congregation of bhikshus. very happily translates by &quot.&quot. which fist of Rhys Davids. . Think not. The Buddha reproached him for thinking that he had withheld any part of his doctrine. his it. lie overcame the pains and kept his hold on life (f. Therefore sorrow not. 131 accomplislied. your refuge. Moreover. Ananda came . Then the Blessed One went with Ananda the to Vaisali. how ever brief it might be&quot. So b ). Ananda.the a teacher who keeps some things back. his body has become bent down and decrepit. and when he had finished his meal and washed his bowl. In the morning (after his arrival) he went into Yaisali accompanied by Ananda to collect alms.ma thams . let the truth be . mutthi. Kapala) tchaitya (f..&quot. .e.project. . having reached fourscore decrepit. because I did not see that any other sense could In Tibetan conf. and he lives holding the two parts together (with difficulty). (f. &quot. neither give yourself up to grief. was yet a hope in my heart (lit.chad yid mdzad-pas - la mi authority for so doing. 563 ). the cardinal points (pliyogs) became confused I forgot the lessons I had heard there to &quot. sems-kyi ting-nge-hdzin mts an-ma med-pa sJcus mngon sumdu mdzad-pa bsgrubs-nas djugs-te. 562 him (when he was convalescent) and gave vent to the sorrow he had felt.&quot.

67 et seq. Hasthigama Itar-gyi-grong). p. and then the Buddha told him that it was the last time he would ever see Yaisali. Shur-pai-grong (?). 578 ). for he and as was about away in a grove of sala trees (f. and he explained the reason to his disciples. IX. (the tchaitya of) the seven amra trees (Sattambaka). he told him to call the brethren together at the Kapala tchaitya. Rhys Davids. 44. p. 670). and gives text they are to be found. for which see Rhys Davids. the Bahuputra (Bu-mang- twin sala po) (tchaitya). (f. 573 a 577 but it is much more developed than the Pali version. (? Sa-pai-grong ) (f. Then the Blessed One journeying in the Yriji coun try passed through different villages called Amr agama to pass b (Amrai-grong).&quot. Ananda asked him why he did so. (f. See In the Tibetan more rules. spot is Yaisali. Brtson-pa-gtong (?). Rhys Davids. villages of the Yrijians and attributing earthquakes to three natural causes. 60-6 1) (f. &c. the Mallas (makuta bandhana tchaitya. And while he was there the earth trembled. and he came to Bhoga-nagara (Long-spyod-grong). and many other spots in &c. . he turned his whole body to the right as would an elephant (Bal-glang) and looked at (the city). Then he said to a tree to pass the day.1 32 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &c. p. the -three great R. Our text says that it was here that he spoke of 1 the village Proceeding The af. and there he exhorted them to practise the four earnest medi (see tations. the of the crested and the tchaitya trees. down near &quot. On leaving this place the Blessed One went to b 2 of the earth&quot. a how Ananda. After having conversed with Ananda. (Ejo (rje?) grong). the Kapala tchaitya. Bhanda^ gama (Bal-glang Mallas. 1 &quot. and there he stopped in a Qmc^apa grove to the north of the village b 5/2 ). the fourfold great struggle against sin. many 2 It may be that Sa-pai is an error for Pa-vai. text does not exactly agree with the Pali version. Jambugama (Hdzam-bui-grong). &quot. Then the Buddha went to Kusinagara a (? Kus-tii-grong) he and Ananda were passing through 57i ). the banyan tree of Gautama. the delightful Yriji country. references. 40-48). (see Jambudvipa. sat Ananda. 5/i ). chad-pan htching- pai mtcJwd-rten). p. Yaisali.&quot.. as the letters which .

omits . had prepared for the Blessed One a quantity of delicious food. Kunda. a worker in metals.&quot. both hard and soft. 579 a ). after which he said to Ananda. and journeying in the Mallas country (Malya in the text). On f. p. b among those assembled to listen to the Blessed One. When the Buddha had finished eating. my (Ibyig-chari). and the Blessed One assented by renicaining silent. and the people of the place having heard that he was there. 58i b hear that to go to Kusinara he passed through Pava.KUNDA. So passing through Pava (Sdig-pa-chaii) the Blessed One entered the wilder ness on the other side of the Hiranyavati river (Tchu-bo Ananda. 5/9 ). Fold . &quot. the cause of Buddha s death. (Grong-khyer rtsa-chari). &quot. THE WORKER IN METALS. 71. to the Pali elsewhere rendered in Tibetan iSdig-pa-chan. &quot. 19 of the Pali version. he spoke some verses to Kunda (f. and he sat there until all the people had left then he arose and invited the Buddha and his disciples to eat with him on the morrow. (f. which was the home of Kunda version). Now at that time there was a man called Kunda (sic). is (ace. he came to the village of the earth. 133 then from Bhoga-nagara. and though both the Buddha and Kunda saw him do so. compose these two words are very much alike. I would like to rest. and then he said to Ananda. 580*). and the brethren he treated to delicious food. Our text 1 8. See Rhys Davids. back (nga rgyab] pains me. and stopped in the Jaluka mahavana (Dza-lukai tsal-mang-pa) (f. and when the Buddha came on the morrow. Before the night was over. they said nothing. Then Kunda went and had another iron bowl filled with other delicious kinds of food and presented it to the Buddha. 58o b a 58 i ). came to him and he taught them.Let us go to Kusinara&quot. and he waited on them himself l (f. the Jaluka mahavana was probably on the we farther side of Pava (Sa-pai-yrong). J It is curious that the text contains no mention of the pork which is said to have caused the inflammation. but Pava. he filled an iron bowl with food which had been expressly prepared for the Buddha and placed it before him with his own hands but a wicked bhikshu took the bowl and the food which had been offered to the Blessed One and hid it in his bosom. the worker in metals.

but up to this day are to be seen several marks ii. 585*) then having listened to .&quot. (f. he saluted him and went his way. a man called Pushkasa (G-yung-pa). that . calls vol. and he piece of chintz the colour offered it to the Buddha (f. The Pali version does not mention the name of the sion. his feet together. erect. indicating the ancient bed of that . the Blessed One said to Now Ananda. and sitting down patiently. It of the little Gundak. but five hundred waggons had just crossed it and had stirred it the up Ananda filled the bowl and brought it back to was water the Blessed One. My Lord. of burnished gold. Then the Buddha having told him what had happened to him while in a room at Atuma 2 583-584). &quot. 153. p. Bigandet. Ananda for reproached on this occa- See p.). his body will once more be yang gdab-par Igyio). See also his note. during a violent storm and Pushkasa told one of his attendants to bring him a of burnished gold. Now at that time one of the great nobles of the Mallas. 2 39. the river in which the Buddha bathed the Kukuttha. Kagyapa his conduct an arm &quot. and added. and having respectfully The Buddha asked saluted him. Take the chintz the colour stream. converted him. wash muddy. p. I beg you to only A water.i 34 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. his teaching. drew and side right 1 he asked Ananda to go to the Kakustana river (sic) and fill his bowl with water to drink (f. tit. this with your feet and to rinse your mouth if the and little way hence is the Hiranyavati river. Then he laid down on his in four the Tathagata s robe. 76 et seq. Blessed One only drinks whole&quot. and he said that Arata Kalama was his master. was travelling on this road. 40. and seeing the Buddha in all his splendour seated at the foot of a tree. So the Blessed One only washed his feet and rinsed his mouth. op. calls it the Kakanda. of its waters. having done which.&quot. 582&quot. as soon as Pushkasa had left. he approached him. river. 1 &quot. however. 582**). He told him. on the Hiranyavati. is at present dried up. See Rhys Davids. Ananda went with the bowl to the river. his legs crossed and his body (sJm-la he was soon lost in meditation (f. 356. him what teacher he followed. p.. he sat down to one side. p. Spence Hardy.

Then they departed. for in the middle watch of this night I will Ananda did as he was bidden. 2 1 See Rhys Davids. with his head to the north. he was weary and would fain rest a while so he laid down and went to sleep (f 587 b ). &c.THE TWIN SAL A TREE GROVE.. he dried himself and sat down. 586). &c. but never before has the Blessed One s body been &quot. journeying to Kusinara through the wilderness between the Hiranyavati river and that a s . 135 it. Then he told Ananda that Kunda. must not feel remorse because he died after eating a meal at his house (f. Lord. and when the Buddha put on the brilliant. to the . ii. 46. the worker in metals. 588-589*) and then they resumed their journey to Kusinara.&quot. Thence they went to the Hiranyavati river. cut off the fringes and give it to me. Ananda stood by his side holding on to his couch. and stopped in the twin sala tree grove. 81. drew his feet together. Then the Buddha told What may him of the be the reason of 1 &quot. the Blessed One put aside all his garments but one. 587*). vol. I have been in attendance on the Blessed One twenty years and more. p. Buddha town. (f. Ananda said. 2 Now. and Soon the the tears flowed from his eyes as he thought. 590). the Vinaya. for I will wear Then Ananda did as he had been told. and when they had come to the bank of the river. When he awakened he exhorted Ananda to steadfastness and the bhikshus to walk in the way of the truth. knowing that his time had come.&quot. it ? two occasions on which body becomes resplendent (f. See on the position of this grove. &quot. . the Blessed One laid down on his right side. &quot. Bigandet. to the thought of nirvana (f. . and the Matrika. he told Ananda to place the Tathagata s couch (khri tchos) between the twin sala trees. p. and going down into the river he bathed then crossing the stream. thought of light (snang). robe. and gave up his mind to thoughtfulness. for Again he asked Ananda to arrange him a couch. lo so brilliant that ! his body became exceedingly bright as at present. and to follow the Sutranta. and utterly pass away.

the venerable in front of the Blessed One. p. 59i ~592 ). See Rhys Davids. Bigandet. 608-609). Then Ananda said. which accounted for what he had said to him (f. Lord. and the Bhikshu. this semblance of a town &quot. 95-99. Pali Digha Nikaya. (f. See. p. and others Varanasi. this sandhole (dgon-dung). stand not in front of me. so he asked the bhikshus who pressed around him to call Ananda. Eajagriha. . &quot. however.I 36 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and then he explained to the brethren that as there were four wonderful qualities in a king of kings. Blessed will utterly pass .&quot. . Ananda. Vaisali. ii. Then the Blessed One told the former history of Upa 3 vana.&quot. away . I have attended on the Blessed One twenty years and more. Upavana (Dpe-chan) was standing Buddha told him. are there said. and he said to him. p. thou hast ever been attentive to the Tathagata by acts of love. says that it was the Bhikshuni Utpalavarna who was standing in front of the Buddha. the Blessed &quot. which had become Kusinara 2 (f. &quot. cf. 106. 49. p. p. 3 Cf. this suburb. The Tibetan version does not men2 1 tion the facts related in 10-15. op. Rhys Davids. soon the Sugata will utterly pass away the eye of the world will soon pass and he went out and wept. . 590-591*). why then has the Blessed One seen fit to reject these and to decide to die in this poor village. See Rhys Davids. this straggling village (mkhar-ngan). Qampa.. a b 1 so likewise there were four in Ananda (f. Now &quot. besides .. and then he narrated the history of King Mahasudar^ana (Legs-mthong tchen-po) and of his glorious capital Kusavati.. Saketa. cit. what has been said. When One had finished speaking. One . The Buddha noticed his absence. 237-289.&quot. Lord.. 87 et seq. but I have never heretofore heard him speak harshly to the venerable Up&vana. ? The Buddha rebuked him for thus speaking of Kusinara. kind and good &quot. vol. This agrees very exactly with the Mahasudassana Sutta . 592-607). away. Ananda the six great cities of Qravasti.

take no trouble about that &quot. incense and sweet powders. they honour. After this incident Ananda asked the Blessed One they must honour him after his death. 101). and celebrate a feast in his honour. and it is covered with a double cover of iron then a funeral pile . Vasishtas (Gnas-hjug-dag). flags Tathagata &quot. Ananda/ he replied. Lord. Then there occurs in the text (f. After it is put in an iron case filled with oil. will attend How who &quot. 0. Ananda. called Abhinanda (? RaJb-dyali). your master will finally pass away at midnight to-day. 611-612). built (the remains) out with milk. &quot. and with balda is . Lord. of all kinds of odoriferous woods are burnt and the fire is and streamers. treat them as those of a king of kings&quot. s remains. and revere him. &quot. then. the body of a king of kings is wrapped in and when it has thus been wrapped it is covered with five hundred layers (? zung] of cotton. 6u ). garlands. must the brahmans are believers honour the Blessed (f.HONOURS DUE THE BUDDHA S REMAINS. after &quot. Rhys p. which Ananda presented all the Mallas to the Buddha in the first watch of the night (f. the brahmans and householders who are believers to that.Ananda. must they treat the chins. Then they put his bones in a and in the cross-roads put golden casket. The Mallas came to him. and householders One s remains &quot. ? asked Ananda 6io b ). Ananda. praise. and he instructed them. they build a tchaitya over his remains. . bands that of cotton. they must (Chakravartiri).&quot. &quot. Go. perfumes. 137 how . how do they treat the remains of a king of kings ? &quot. with the sounds of music. and he invited them to visit him (see a Davids. leaving every particle of the skandas behind. Ananda. So likewise. venerate. . 613-616) what appears to be an interpolation it is the history of the conversion of the king of the Gandharvas. and tell the Mallas of Kusinara. &quot. (f.

prudent. the leader of Rhys Davids. Subhadra. . THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Subhadra. B. so I will pass away before him. decrepit. third. a doctrine and discipline in which is the holy eightfold way.&quot. that p. So he went to the Blessed One and said. lived at Kusinara a parivradin (Ral-lzancj] old. permission (f. second. him con having been introduced to his presence. &quot. ii. by which five hundred Mallas who were standing by were converted. high Cf. p. revered.&quot. son of G6c.&quot. he utterly passed away. JSTow the bhikshus were astonished that he should have obtained such a great privilege. 618-619). he asked of Purna KaQyapa. b after so i 62 him performing ). Bigandet. 6l et seq. p. third. or fourth degree.ali. granted divers wonders. Hiuen Thsang. seen had many things during the parivradjaka Subhadra believe in his autho him to had led which Buddha s life about to pass away was he that heard he rity. And Subhadra became yet another among the arhats. young authors I have been able to consult See also disagree with our text. &c. and honoured by The the people of Kusinara.&quot. (f. second. &c. he is a man of true saintliness of the first. one hundred . a herd of a thousand deer. who went and told the king. vol. so they questioned the Blessed One. 127 note. well stricken He was a man greatly respected. deer. Would lhat I and the Buddha might pass away before the Blessed One. 6i9 ). he was and of quick perception. It &quot. . and as soon as he had attained arhatship he thought.138 (F. 6i6 b . in days gone by there lived in a valley a : &quot.) Now there then 1 jaka called Subhadra and twenty years of age. b would not be right in me to witness the utter passing away of the Blessed One. . . character. he who professes &quot. and then he told them this birth-story Bhikshus. So a hunter espied him. the holy eightfold way is no true Qramana of the first. years. 337. (see f. know not does who he answered Buddha him. so when and him visit to decided he he so near where was. None of the . doctrines the of truth the cerning The Maskharin. One day wide-awake. says man of a Subhadra was 1 &quot. vi. who deemed him an arhat. and fourth degree.

standing in the middle of the stream. 62 9 b -6 3 o a ).THE DEVOTED DEER. he cried. When he had Then the Buddha hereafter said to the bhikshus (f. Then he told another story about Subhadra. and the fawn is Subhadra. ! . the Qakyas. with every joint racked with pain. Come. obtain unsurpassable and perfect enlightenment may I become a Buddha. When leader looked back and and put still it on the bank. . and from there to the other bank it is the only means of saving your lives if . finished telling it he spoke to his disciples about keeping virtuous friends (kalyanamitra sevana). he took the fawn on his back. Knowing that all the deer had crossed and that death was approaching. in which he had also played a part. 625-629). bearing the insignia of the heretics. all the deer and their leader. but the cur rent was so swift that the deer feared that them away. but I am forced to omit it as it ! &quot. bhikshus I am he who was then the leader of the herd the deer are now the five hundred Mallas. . shall come &quot. so looking about the place in which they were penned. he espied a torrent flowing through the valley. he endured the deer had thus crossed the stream. is too long (f. If I do not protect these deer they will all be destroyed . the saw a fawn who could not get over. and desire to enter If 630^). life to May what I have done to preserve the pleasures of these deer and this fawn make me cast off sin.&quot. jump from the bank on to my back. and although their hoofs striking his back cut the skin and tore the flesh off to the bone. 139 the king assembled all his army and came and surrounded Then the leader thought. The leader at once jumped it would carry into the water. and. and thus he saved them to enjoy the pleasures of life. crossed the stream it all. . any of my kinsmen. (f. Then. he cried. cross over the ocean of regeneration to perfection and salvation. and pass beyond all sorrow What think ye. with body torn. The deer did as you do not do so you will surely die! he told them.

(f. which they months when they can be ordained. howtan text is very obscure. who must be treated like the Qakyas) shall come wishing to be received into &quot. (f. Sutra Jataka. if. Revue ever. p. my translation of it in de 1 Hist. the bhikshus shall give them must wear for four probationers robes.) Upade^a. &quot. II.) Adbhutadand he exhorted the bhikshus to 63 i ) Moreover he (f. Dulva xi.) Itivritaka.) Nidana. des Religions/ 1884. the bhikshus are satisfied with them&quot. 2 b make (jdzi) said.) Gatha. the order and be ordained.Let the assembled congregation a selection of the minutiae of the precepts (bslab-pai and of the minor matters (phran-ts egs).) harma. Usun-pa). nets (dm-ba). be able to dwell in harmony&quot.) Gey a.) Vaipulya. to hold half-monthly study them. xxxviii. 190.) Avadana. I. and this because I have made this concession in favour of my kinsmen the Cakyas. The novices must not hereafter call the elders by their names. and recommended them recite the Pratimoksha should in which they meetings. (Bhadanta.) Sutranta.140 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. ogs-nas skab dbye-djing In bde-ba-la rig-par gnas-par-byao.6 3 i). Mahavagga. 2 Davids. (11. so that they 3 may &quot. Unfortunately the TibeSee. or Ayuchmat (Tse-dang-ldanThe elder bhikshus must provide the novices with recit- alms-bowls. &quot. they must incite them to steadfastness. 1 Cf. and be ordained (at once). they shall receive the requisites of bhikshus. (7. cups. (10. (8. (5. (2. explains to his disciples how they must understand the rules he had laid down. while Rhys East. (4. Dge-hdun lying between the twin sala trees. and to reading. . by their patronymic names (rus-nas bod-par-mi use no other expression than Vener lya). If any other heretical parivradjakas (with the excep tion of the fire-worshipping Jatilas. (12. 73 a .) Yyakarana. f. and girdles. robes. (6. 63 i b ). at the expiration 1 of that time. but they must * able pa). Sacred Books of the xiii.) Udana. a The text ts is difficult it reads. All this passage is evidently an . the order and ordained. Then the Buddha enumerated the different parts of the sacred writings (i. (9. interpolation. the Buddha. (3.

rising out of which he passed into the (ts or-ba) have ceased. &c. for These places are Where the Buddha was I. born 2. or concerning misery. But they were truth there Of a exclaimed. inquire freely and I will explain it.. ing. thunderbolts did fall. See Rhys Davids. you concerning &quot. Where he became Buddha . 2 Then the Blessed One uncovering his body. &quot. and the gods in the sky did shriek with (or like) sound of drum (f.34 . 652 are told that 18. 141 and they must exhort them to delight in yoga&quot. . 1 The text goes on to 14. 4. 63 3 b ). xi. 1 See Rhys Davids. tell The venerthe venerable Aniruddha. 3 ! As soon as the Blessed One expired the mighty earth was shaken. p. and he saw that the Blessed One had utterly passed away. b See the Pali version. After having spoken to his disciples of the four places which believing men will visit and where they will build 1 Brethren. . we While we had our master before us make him explain/ Let bhikshu ask bhikshu and friend friend. he first preached . fol. or the order. no bhikshu in this assembly who has any silent. and then question me and did not venture to I will give you an is explanation&quot.&quot. never forget it &quot. &quot. 6. &c. . or concern ing the way. 3 p. so that you may not think. We . Bhikshus. .DEATH OF THE BUDDHA. 63 5 a).Has the Blessed One utterly passed away ? Nay. the Blessed One has entered into that state in which sensations (hdu-shes) b p. &c. or the doctrine. Where of the East. 634a). hard to find a Tathagata. Sacred Books second. and these decay is inherent to all component things were the last words of the Tathagata (f. if there be any doubt among stupas. Brethren. he said. . said to the bhikshus. how and ideas f. look at the Tathagata s body. Samyaksambuddha as to see a flower on a fig tree. Davids.the Blessed One entered into the first stage of deep meditation. look well at the Tathagata s body for it is as &quot. the Buddha. . 90.&quot. so that Ananda doubt or misgiving. &quot. (devotion).000 bhikshus died at the same time as the Buddha. &quot. (f. . Brethren. its arresting. which see Rhys Ananda asked &quot. Arhat. At that time the venerable Mahakagyapa was stopping in the Kalantakanivasa Bamboo grove at Bajagriha and when the earth quaked he sought what might be the reason. able Where he died. 115. . 3. its origin.

coming mined the mother s womb as an elephant (2. Mallas of and say to the Kusinara. When the king shall come to the gate of the park. into the park and have made exa representations (ri-mo) (i. commencing with the first. Varshakara. you must ask him if he would not like to see it and when he shall come to the pictures. . such died. pieces of gogirsha sandal -wood. . &quot.&quot. sent Ananda to the Mallas of Kusinara (f. Then he thought.&quot. Go quickly.) acquiring and unsurpassable enlightenment at the foot of the perfect to enter his . and he will recover. 639 ). the town of Kusinara. 1 5). who has suddenly heard that the Blessed One has If it. he will fall to the ground*. and Varshakara did as he had told him. . and Adjatasatru s life was saved.) of the Blessed One having &quot. &quot. infinite faith. On the morrow after the Buddha s death. After giving these instructions. of the danger to Adjatasatru of suddenly hearing of this event. (6. I must devise some So he told the brahman means of informing him of Varshakara. 1 to-day at midnight the Master left s behind transla Hdod-pa-na spyod-pai-lha. and having three times ex 1 pounded the truth to the six Kamavatcharas devas. and one with pieces of gogirsha sandal-wood. five subjects while living as a bodhisttava in the Tushita heaven (see p. Vasishtas. Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. . the great noble of Magadha. 37. p. you will explain them to him. Bo tree.142 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and so successively in the seven (f. When he shall have heard that the Blessed One is dead. he said. and he added. you must put him into another. &quot. places. Ananda. in (represent him) in his last wrappings (gzims-mal-du). See Lalita Vistara (Foucaux tion). Mahakagyapa started for Kusinara. and when the butter shall have melted. Then get ready seven tubs full of fresh butter. he would die of a hemorrhage. 637*) after which you must put him into the tub with the .&quot. then you must put him into one of the tubs of fresh butter. Aniruddha a Go.) having converted different persons in of a many and having reached the end buddha s career. .

Moreover. vol. from Kusinara to the Hiranyavati river. Asiat. and we did not show him proper honours and attention. and musical in struments within twelve yojanas. 640). Mallas and their sons should carry the told the Mallas. xx. vol. ii. (f. Then the Mallas asked that seven days be allowed them to get everything . and utterly passed away within our district. they were unable to do so and Aniruddha told Ananda that the will of the gods was that the bier. Ananda went and did as he was bid (f.BURNING THE BODY. we will go to the Makuta bandhana tchaitya of the Mallas. Vasishtas. and Foucaux. it omits seveimportant facts. 642). 643). . p. 309-317. which we will traverse and leave by the eastern gate then after our the Buddha s remains b (f. they will carry his body to the western gate of the city. p. is called Matulabandana.&quot.. having crossed the Hiranyavati. In Bigandet. 143 every particle of the skandhas. Rgya-tcher-rol-pa. ral 2 sage. When they came there. But when the Mallas women . having prepared a golden bier. So Ananda and carried it of Now 1 at that moment there fell in the town Kusinara Csoma s translation of this pasii. and explained to the Mallas that the Buddha s remains must be treated as those of a king of kings. passages. tried to move the body. On the seventh day. so that hereafter you may not have to reproach yourselves. . and there we will burn the body&quot. do whatever you see fit. 641). Res.Our Master left behind every particle of the skandhas.. p. 8 1. and has utterly passed away . they went out of the town to the twin sala tree grove to hon 64 i ). and got together all the perfumes. &quot. the principal Mallas of Kusinara said. it is incorrect in several places. garlands. and they lifted up the bier to the Makuta bandhana tchaitya (f. . saying &quot. notably in this and parallel 417 et seq. ready for the funeral (f. let the Mallas women and maidens make a canopy of their garments over the Blessed One then when we have hon oured his remains with perfumes and garlands. from the twin sala grove to the crested 2 tchaitya of the Mallas (Makuta bandhana tchaitya).

2 bhikshu s name as Balanda. op. and Aniruddha told Ananda that he it was because Mahakagyapa had not arrived. this may not now we may do what we want to do and not do &quot.. 3 This passage is incorrectly translated by Csoma (at least in Foucaux s translation of it. p. p. 644*. who.&quot. medicines. divine flowers. picked up a quantity of these to hundred disciples. p. who was going to the Pava country on business. be done . 83. through greatest among he had a store of robes. gives the the man who was carrying the flowers was a heretic Rahan. wreaths.. then Mallas (f. such a quantity of mandarava flowers (Erythrinafulgens). This may be done. was going MahaMcjapa. they perfumes 3 and fallowed his feet at down bowed then him meet they . vol. 127. Rhys Davids. 1 Bigandet. alms. Four Lectures. and that he it was who rejoiced at the Buddha s death. and other necessaries (yo-lyad) so he changed the garments which enshrouded the Blessed One for others from his . 2 When the Mallas tried to light the funeral pile. But Kacjapa re buked him and spoke to his followers of the impermanency of all created things. Cf. At that time Adjnata there were in the world four great sthaviras Kaundinya. and Mahakaqyapa and his them knowledge and virtue. cit. says that Beal. what we do not want to do (f. ii. and from him he heard that the Buddha had been dead seven days.. bedding. He uncovered the body and worshipped it. p. off. There was an ajivaka * (Jits othat they were knee-deep. &quot. when he heard of the ciples Buddha s death. Tchunandana (Skul-byed tchen-po). and spoke the words of our text. the only one I have at my disposal). la-chari). 68. after him to the place where the Blessed One s body was. they were unable to do so.Why should we thus lament ? for now the old mendicants (rgan-dzugs) : are freed from being told. Dagabala as Mahakacjapa was the Kacjapa. repeated this to the from afar the When people saw Mahakacjapa coming out to went and and took &c. 645).I 44 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. . with five and this man Kusinara. Among Kacjapa s dis there was an old man. called Thoubat (Subhadra). and was passing through the Pava country when he met this man. . spoke these unseemly words &quot. 422.

also heard of this event.* the brahman of ?). the Blessed One had expired in the town of Kusinara. I45 6 45 b ). &c^ they took it to KusinM. and revere. The Blessed One has lived and has been hon oured in our country for a long time.&quot.&quot. &quot.DIVISION OF THE REMAINS. king of Magadha. and that his relics had received the relic-honours so they assembled their . the Etogs-pa gyo-ba (the Bulis the kshatriya Krodtya of Eoruka (SgraKoliyas of Eamagrama ?). store. and (where) we will institute &quot. the burst forth from the pile and consumed the bodv the body had been consumed. to the centre of the When fire the town the Mallas of Pava heard that. heard what The same daha. which we will hon &a. of Deva&amp. and putting the remains (sku-gdung) in a golden vase. Vaidehiputra Adjatasatru. and having honoured it with perfumes and the sound of music.gt. Then. Now where were the Mallas of Kusinara to whom they said. seven days previously. se^. and as he died while near our and this. it is well but if you will not give it. sirs. the kshatriya gakyas of Kapilavastu. (the Mallas of Kusinara loved by city. troops and marched we will erect a tchaitya of his relics. when the Mallas of Kusin^ra heard . All ye Mallas of Kusinara assembled^ hearken. but while stoppino. If you give us a portion. K . a great periodical feast.lt. DaviJ 88-89. they consented. as the Qakyas p. The kshatriya Buluka of Allakappa sgrogs. the Mallas put out with milk.the Blessed One was honoured us. of Vethadvipa (Khydb-hjug gling-na gnas). where they again paid it honours. Rh See Fah-Hian. fire (f.&quot. where to &amp.* 2 Cf&amp. and they also went to Kusinara with their troops and made the same request. worship. 647). give us a portion of his relics ($ariras). Vasishtas &quot.lt. we will carry it off by force. our. which we will carry to Pava. and having replaced the cover of the coffin.i n your country he has expired (f.&quot. we will not relinquish a portion of his relics. replied). the kshatriyas Licchavis of 8 Vaisali. they placed it on a golden bier.

and ordered him to assemble his troops.&quot. &quot. so he told it to the brahman Varsha kara.. 649). long. 3 The text has Ere. Gautama. ) . with their wives and young men.the town of Ere-bo dang mnyan-pa. but the recollection of the virtues of the Blessed One made him faint. fight. &c. he put on his skin robe (gyang-gdzi). so that he fell to the ground. had happened. b the brahman calls his (Fol. .146 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and sallied forth to of resist them Now (f. they assembled all their forces. difficult to see At all events.&quot. and when he perceived that there was going to be blood shed.lt.bo dang mnyampa. Adjamounted his elephant. . and you have divided them. native place &quot. and greatly why praised patience other over his remains ? then would you slaughter each I will divide his relics into eight will give me the vase wherewith I shall parts. The Blessed Gautama was .D divide the relics.suffering. &quot. so that he also might go there and get a portion of the relics of the Blessed tasatru One (f.&quot. The latter portion of this ex- and to follow the Southern version. Varshakara. carry relics who had come to adds. and the Mallas gave him the same answer as they had given to the Mallas of Pava but when they saw the great multi fainted. &quot. and going to the Mallas of Kusinara he said. by force the Blessed One s but I have not found this pression Sanskrit is generally rendered in in my text. I cannot go take you the army and salute the Mallas of Kusinara in my name. and I will build in the town of Drona- sama 1 (?) a tchaitya of the relics of the Blessed &quot. The brahman s name would thus be Dronasama (?) but I have thought . &quot.&quot. so likewise when he tried to mount his horse he he then said. 648). tude of the king s men. there was a brahman called Drona 2 who had come with the troops.&quot. Varshakara did as he had been told. and ask them for a portion of the Buddha s relics.even.&quot. When the troops were ready. 1 they taught their wives and children how to use bows. and when the united forces the Buluka. for they had consented to to it advisable to drop the second part 65&amp. advanced toward the town to fight. level. Csoma off . of the Mallas of Pava. it why they prepare is by sama. and also that the above-mentioned tribes had gone to Kusinara.

147 c. p. &quot. ii. seven remained the object of honours in Jambu the other measure of the relics of the Greatest of honoured in the city of Eoruka (?) 2 by a king of Of the four eye-teeth of the Greatest of nagas. . men. tchaityas ten. and his note on same page. and that of the embers Of the eight measures of relics of the Seer (SpyanIdan). men is . Then a young brahman who had troops said to the Mallas of Kusinara. is in the town of Anumana ). 651). 135. 3 Ramagama of the Pali . also Bigandet. that he has expired in your town. Rhys Davids. chap. 1 translation of text.&quot. and he took as his share the vase which the Mallas of Kusinara had given him to make the division with (f. At that time there existed in . 65 2 b (? . The Mallas accepted his proposal then (as above). . . and having also obtained their consent. vol. p. he divided the relics among them.one is honoured in the heaven of the the second Thirty-three dvipa . which may be a Of. 652). p. come with the Hearken to me. . I beg you to give me the embers of the cremation fire. and now also &quot. and the fourth eyetooth of the Greatest of men is honoured by a nao~a kinoin the city of Eoruka 3 (f. all ye assembled Mallas of Kusinara. &c.THE BRAHMAN NYAGRODHA. .&quot. Rhys Davids. Of. he went successively to each of the other parties. the brahman Nyagrodha the embers (f. of the body relics of the Blessed Jambudvipa eight One. 95. so that I may build in * the Nyagrodhika country (= a tchaitya Pipphalivana) of the relics of the Blessed So the Mallas gave One. Also Fah-Hian. 134: And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the news . the third is Yid-ong-ldaii) in the country of the king of Kalinga. For a long time I have honoured and loved the Blessed Gautama. 2 Sgra-sgrogs. the tchaitya of the vase made nine. xxiv.

144) acknowledged as the head of the order on account of his wisdom and virtues. See Udanavarga. the Sutranta. near Tachilunpo. p. and all this is a source of much incertitude. is not felicitous . the Vinaya.000 more when the Buddha had died. 2 f.CHAPTEE Y. I must call attention to the difficulties Before giving an analysis of these pas which the text presents. after the death of the mark Buddha. whom we have seen (p.000 bhikshus had died at the same time as Qariputra. has said of this volume that this translation &quot.000 on Maudgalyayana s death. it is full of obsolete expressions. following account of the councils of Eajagriha and and of the spread of Buddhism in Kachmere. the words of the Blessed One had vanished like smoke and that as all the . .&quot. and 18. HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH DURING THE HUNDRED AND TEN YEARS WHICH FOLLOWED THE BUDDHA S DEATH. is taken from the eleventh volume of the Dulva. 706. people re that whereas 80. and is the only canonical version of these events to be met with in Tibetan works. and in the latter part of the volume the correc tors minds appear tired and their other faculties worn out . Mahakagyapa. These difficulties are so real that a learned Tibetan lama from the monastery of Snar-Thang. THE Vaisali. 70. 1 See Dulva xi. xi. heard. is badly written. sages. longer taught. 1 The trans lators of this volume were the well-known Indian pundits 2 Vidyakaraprabha and Dharmagriprabha. mighty bhikshus had utterly passed away. and the Matrika of the Blessed One were no When he heard people thus censuring.

chap. 182. p. sanghikanikaya. &quot.. and slandering (f. assembled the congregation of bhikshus 2 (among whom commenced were) five hundred arhats. 652). KaXyapa and members of the sangha greet you. he delivered Kaxyapa s message. xxx. 149 blaming. (f. Julien s trans. held a separate synod. 654). and when he discovered that &quot.Go. and request that you will come to them in all haste for business of the The venerable Purna consented so he left Kusinara order. and having bowed down at Gavampati s feet. 655). the Sthavira school. at Kusinara). B. &quot. Purna consented . Purna&quot. ix. that the Blessed One had passed away (f. . he told what he had heard to the bhikshus. &quot.Beal. what member and they of the congregation of bhikshus has not come ? &quot.&quot. Then Gavampati considered within himself what could be the matter.&quot. Then Kac^yapa said to Purna. iii. Venerable sirs. from which originated Bhavya. and &quot. According to Hiuen Thsang. . in which they formed another collection of the canonical works and founded the school of the or the Mahaassembly&quot. p. Dipawanso. the other &quot. 36. &quot.. B. Four Lectures.great 69 2 et seq. Let it be the venerable Purna. Then the the clergy ? venerable Mahaka^yapa said to the venerable Purna.e. 33(St.CONVOCATION OF THE SANGHA. and having acquired the sight knowledge. Purna. and concluded by saying that they The must assemble in that place l (i. chap. p. death. &quot. all who of Rajagriha. When these were assembled Mahakaxyapa said to them. strike the ganta and assemble the bhikshus. and transported himself to the hermitage of the ^iriqaka tree.&quot. Fah-Hian. discovered that the venerable Gavampati was not there.. those of the congregation did not take part in the council ix. is. ).the lamp of wisdom had been blown out by the wind of impermanency. in his Kayabhetrovibhanga. says that the Mahasanghika school only commenced 1 60 years after the Buddha s See p. chap. iv. . he told Purna that he could 1 The other accounts of the first synod are Mahawanso. HiuenThsang. Who shall convoke bhikshus assented to his proposition. all to where Gavampati and tell him. &quot. &quot. Now at that time Gavampati was in the hermitage of the 9iriaka tree (sliing shi-ri-sha-kai gdzal-med kliangstong). and after having entered into the state of abstraction of the fourth dhyana of of perfect freedom. he arose and Then from all parts striking the ganta.

Then Puma. having honoured his remains. is to . for bowl and his three robes. by . This venerable Ananda. he would be admitted. that if Kacjapa said in Ananda s favour. venerable having repeated the question. Kac. One of their number proposed to go to the Bodhi tree (and there hold the synod). where the five hundred bhikshus and Kacjapa were. and then Kajagriha. to the sangha end was nigh so lie gave him his almsand told him to present them of his magical powers. The It is approved. remain silent. and that they must consequently The bhikshus consented.I go. and to whom he spoke several of his sirs. otherwise he would have to be excluded. if you are sent to will Then Kacjapa the assembly get water for Hear me. The bhikshus having shown their willingness. Now hear me. &quot. all to would not be admitted into the synod. &quot. 656). who has been in close attendance on the Blessed One. if they were be appointed to supply willing that he (Ananda) should the sangha with water when they required it. asked if Ananda. ment of the venerable appears proper. Now I ask you if you approve If it Ananda. liis not go. was consumed and passed into the state of parinirvana (f.yapa asked Ananda. returned to the twin sala tree grove. . however. the personal attendant of the Blessed One. the an made exception tl}ey other bhikshus who had had something to do witji the Blessed One would be angered. where the Blessed One had acquired omniscience. ?&quot.Venerable Ananda. Kac^yapa told the bhikshus that he thought it would be advisable to assemble in Magadha. he would provide the sangha with o-o the necessaries. and presenting them with the bowl and robes.&quot. be appointed to bring water to the as of the appoint sembly. he told them what had occurred. he means then. &quot.150 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. sutras. but Kacjapa said that as Adjatasatru was a very firm believer. and to whom several of the sutras had been addressed. who had been the Master s attendant. and he consulted the bhikshus as to the proper spot to choose. said.

(with Ananda) arrived. who stayed near his person. must If the sangha approves (these supply it with water. let arrangements). is appointed wateralong to Eaja- provider of the assembly (dge-hdun)&quot. and Hiuen Thsang. p. therefore the venerable Ananda &quot. . p. 1 I take which Rgan-rims. B. the recol Buddha made him fall senseless to the When Kagyapa had told him of the (f. king of Magadha. See Ma- desire. 117. ix. hawanso. the attendant of the Blessed One. Our text is wrong. and the Abhidharma. this place suited them. Then Kagyapa said to Ananda. having been appointed to the office of supplying it with water. 151 venerable Ananda. 2 Or the Pippala cave.&quot. and he had the city decorated as if for a feast. has for these reasons been appointed to supply the sangha with water. anger. saw him. Go griha with the congregation of bhikshus by the way which suits you best I am going directly there (through So Kagyapa went to Kajagriha. 22. mal-stan). first lection of the Adjatasatru. they asked reside (and hold the council). silent. the Yinaya. he gave orders to supply them with everything which they might require. and when the . throughout these pages to be the same as gnas-brtan or sthavira. p. and to whom the Blessed One spoke several of his sermons. The assembly is all remain silent. 12. If the sangha requires water. or attachment. but the Nya2 grodha cave was sufficiently secluded if it had bedding So when the king heard that in it (or seats.MEETING IN THE NYAGRODHA CAVE. Neither the 659). See FahHian. As soon as the bhikshus had assembled. he had it provided with beds (f. could where they Kagyapa the elders When l Kalantaka-nivasa bamboo grove nor the Vulture s Peak could answer their purpose. the venerable Ananda. ignorance. air). intention of the five hundred bhikshus well versed in ground the Sutranta. Kagyapa re of the quested Aniruddha to examine if any one out five hundred was still subject to passions. 658). for the Sattapani cave by the side of the Webhara mountain was the place where the synod was held.

then. 66 i b how ). &quot. neither have I done aught un seemly or detrimental to the congregation. comes it that when the Blessed One said that women . for I was then possessed by the Evil one.&quot. &quot. 663).&quot. &quot. &quot. &quot. &quot. if twas no wonder. Sacred Books of the East. See the Book of the Great De- cease. nor against good behaviour. xi. replied. 1 2 See p. of. I only asked that women who were (my) relatives and friends might enter the dured. might be allowed to enter it ? &quot.&quot. 6 1. . the doctrine.Moreover. their Aniruddha discovered that there was only one out of number in this case. I did so. 40. because at the time there was no friendly bhikshu anywhere about (f. 66 1).&quot.When the Buddha (shortly before explained to thee how it was possible for a [&quot.&quot. Ananda. sin.&quot. &quot. vol.Kagyapa.&quot. and order.152 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. buddha to prolong at his will his life. Kagyapa. replied Ananda. day on the golden-coloured raiment of the Blessed One. Kagyapa ! Ananda. said Ananda I have neither sinned against morality. &quot. that Mahaprajapati Gautami had en was she who had nursed the Blessed Twas Then Kagyapa his death) surely no wonder. . thou didst ask that they &quot. p.Bear with me a while. no subject of shame said. nor is there aught to be ashamed I did not do so. and that it was Ananda so Kagyapa excluded him from the assembly (f. why didst thou not ask him to deign to remain in the world during the rest of the present age for the weal of mankind ? &quot. what wonder then that thou didst not commit any of the sins thou hast mentioned but if thou sayest that thou hast done no wrong to the congregation (f. 48. Be forbearing . 2 &quot. Ananda &quot.I 1 thought of all how it One when his mother died. replied &quot. thou wast the Blessed One s close attendant. &quot. &quot. thou didst commit another rejoined for thou didst rest thy feet for a whole Kagyapa. to admit were as dangerous as snakes. and that it would be wrong them into the order. Bear with me. venerable Kagyapa.

that. nor was hundred waggons had just crossed the Kakusthana river. having ordained that at the half-monthly recitations of the Pratimoksha Sutra. the ninety pachittiya. the four pratidesaniya. the two aniyata. Again. and the thirty nirsaggiya pachittiya. the thirteen sanghadisesa. &quot. the thirteen sanghadisesa. But others say that all which is not in the four 664).) Ka^yapa. the thirteen sanghadisesa. why didst thou not ask the Blessed One what was to be understood by the terms ts egs) minor moral precepts and minutiae ? 1 sequence of thy negligence). the Blessed One was nigh unto death between the twin sala trees. with the exception of the four parajika. the ninety pachittiya. the thirteen sanghadisesa. I have nought it to reproach myself therein . all are minor moral precepts and minutiae.&quot. the bhikshusangha might stop the recitation or go on with it. for the devas would have filled it? surprising. 1 to This omission of Ananda s seems have been one of the chief causes put forward for the convocation of the first council. the thirty nirsaggiya pachittiya. parajika. the two aniyata. and he did ask thee for some clear water. 153 There for when is yet another sin which thou hast committed. ? &quot. and the ninety pachittiya. the thirty nir saggiya pachittiya. the thirty nirsaggiya pachittiya. and had made it muddy. the two aniyata. (how came it that thou didst not get it for him &quot. Others again say that all which is not in the four parajika. Others say that.INDEFINITENESS OF THE PRATIMOKSHA. for five when the Blessed One. are minor moral precepts and minutise.But why didst thou not hold up thy bowl towards More heaven. I say that Now all (as a is con not which in the four parajika. when the portion appertaining to the minor moral pre cepts (ts ul-khrims phra mo) and the minutiae (phranover. the two aniyata. others say with the exception of the four parajika. and the four pratidesaniya are minor moral precepts and minutise (f. and all the many sekhiya dharmas are minor moral precepts and minutiae. &quot. . was reached.

twas no wonder to me. which was then sullied replied by their &quot. &quot. and the two aniyata. privy parts ? Venerable &quot. alive. 665). See Beal. in not now they allow themselves questioning the Blessed &quot. many longing to become like him. &quot. has vanished like smoke . the Blessed One spoke these words. if they but saw the privy parts of the Blessed One.154 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. while the Qramana Gautama was yet but see fit. &quot. Now if a tirthika should discover that some bhikshus adhere to the four parajika.gshegs-pai 2 This alludes to the woman who. thou didst wrong. I was overcome with grief (at the prospect) of losing the Tathagata. nor source of shame being naturally sensual. for if the at tendant of the Tathagata had (borne in mind) that all created things are of their nature impermanent. that if they then but saw the Blessed One. mta an dang bral-bar ma gyur-tam. One for the sake of future generations. would they not cease being so ? (f. his disciples strictly kept his ordinances. and do not they They do what they do not want to do. none may enter here who have F. &quot. worshipping the body of the Buddha hdoms-kyi .&quot. all the indulgences they what do want to do. ba-sbubsu nub-pa bstan-pa. KaQyapa. The doctrine of the Qramana Gautama (he would say). of 1 men and women &quot. Moreover. of &quot.&quot.&quot. &quot. all are minor moral precepts and minutiae.Ananda. sba. . why didst thou show low habits the Tathagata s hidden replied Ananda. let her tears fall on his feet.&quot. mo. Ananda. K^yapa. golden body of the Blessed 2 thou didst show to corrupt women the One. after his death.&quot. Four Lectures. 75. tears.Moreover. he would Ananda When not have to felt sorrow. p.&quot.thou under the not put rule of passions 1 . &quot. 664b Khyim-pai Tiklwr dang bud-med spyod pa pan-pa-rnams-la de-bdzin.&quot. them would conceive a art still said . I thought. for I thought that women.There again thou wert in the wrong. Therefore. replied. while others keep to the thirteen sanghadisesa. the thirteen sanghadisesa.

Ananda. . Then Aniruddha said to Ananda. In the after having washed his feet outside the vihar. Ananda thought of his Master who was dead. op. and de become an arhat. transport thyself into dhyana. Great was Ananda s grief.. thou shalt magnify the law of virtue.e.&quot.&quot. . he entered it and laid himself down on his right side. so he Gautama. shu Mahakagyapa (as to the head of the order). p.ANAND A BECOMES AN ARHAT. thou shalt not bring it low. he went and seated himself putra. Ananda. and just as he 1 Cf. Beal. and on nirvana . Thou must turn (gtod) to the bhiktressed nor afflicted. . to the fourfold assembly while Ananda diligently applied himself by But when Vrijiputra looked. . Go. neither be dis &quot. 155 away all passions so depart thence thou canst not be among pure-speaking men.&quot. stroy every particle of the passions. thoroughly freed his mind of them. his eyes filled for the city of Vriji (sic and he was sorrowful but he departed Yaisali ?). cit.&quot. and he expounded the law with tears. but only then. thou mayest enter the synod. &quot. Fix thy mind And .sorrow not. day was waning then on the five obscurations mind his fixed and a tree) (near first watch of the night he had in the and (i. 666 ). (to cast off means of the mental abstraction of samadhi. he had said. he found to &quot. and then. middle watch. When Ananda heard the advice of the venerable Vriji .. sin). all sin).&quot. &quot. out that went Ananda was not yet him and said freed from all passions. attendant at that time was the venerable Vrijiputra (or an 1 ayuchmat of Vrijian descent). ere long thou shalt find the abode of peace. Be Weep not. be thou not heedless Keep near a tree in the dark. . Ananda patient and do as he shall tell thee. 71. but he called to mind what the Blessed One had said to him shortly before his death. and arranged himself b Now Ananda s as was the rule during summer (f.

he went to Rajagriha and entered the Nyagrodha (Sattapani) cave. which can hardly admit of any other translation than the one I have given. because there are no gathas of the sutras. No fur- see to what part It may is made of this forenoon occupation of the council. his mind became detached and freed from all asravas (f.in the forenoon of sutra with gathas it will be spoken. and he therefore sat down in the preside lion s seat (presidential chair or pulpit). ! was putting one foot on the other. but I do not fers. They consented by remaining silent (f. Sirs.&quot. and not able to understand the Sutranta. or the Abhidharma would be collated first. lus nyam tclmng-las}. Perhaps this refers to the composition of the uddnas. Ananda. 667). and then the five hundred arhats spread their cloaks over the pulpit. As he was putting his head on his pillow. of memory. &quot. lo he acquired the notion of the visible. and the Abhidharma will be taken into consideration (discussed or Then the bhik recited). which was probably to collect short verses of the sacred discourses which would enlighten the bhikshus who might be unable to learn long passages of the sacred works. ther mention . therefore in the forenoon the gathas of the sutras will be recited. 1 and in the afternoon the Sutranta. Then Ananda in the enjoyment of bliss and peace was free.&quot. 668 b). shus asked Kagyapa which of the Sutranta.156 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. after having circumambulated the pulpit. whereas hereafter bhikshus may be oblivious and ignorant (or weak. &quot. Kagyapa the Vinaya. five hundred arhats requested Mahakagyapa to over the assembly. where Kagyapa and the five hundred arhats were compiling (or about to compile) the dharma. said to the bhikshus. and the Abhidharma. the Vinaya. Then he asked the Then the assembly if they would allow Ananda to commence with the compilation of the Sutranta of the Tathagata. the Vinaya. bowed down to the elders and sat 1 Snga-droi dus-su mdoi ts igsubckad-pas brjod-par byao. and having become an arhat. and Kagyapa decided that the Sutranta should first receive their atten tion. of the canon it rebe rendered literally. of self-consciousness (shes-bdzin-dang-ldan pai hdu-shes). keep ing it to his right side. This is a remarkable phrase.

&quot. . down &quot. &quot. Mahakacjapa. that which he spoke in the abode of the gods. he had finished. &quot. there is the sutranta spoken by the Blessed One in the abode of the nagas. When that precious jewel of a sutra was spoken.. explain the chief dogmas ? Ayuchmat. It dried my blood and the ocean of my tears.ANANDA RECITES THE SUTRANTA. (f. .. stood the whole of the Sutranta as spoken by the Blessed One. . When . 669). and having conquered (the of the world the desiring good Evil one). or Dh- arma cliakrapravartana Stitra (f. . &c. (which (gsungs) Then Kaqyapa said to &quot. I and Sopoo devas acquired the clear eye of truth. ground.. 67 i b ) . 1 When Ananda had finished fivebhikshus&quot. I heard this ! Ananda and of all those present as they thought of their dead Lord. Then Ka^yapa asked Ananda which was the second It was also spoken at Benares for the sake of the sutra. chronologically). and became free from sin (dri-ma). &quot. Where did the Master. and again he fell senseless to the and when Ananda had finished re1 See p. Ananda recited in a loud voice of the and with clasped hands the sermon (sutranta) Establishment of the Kingdom of Bighteousness. I will explain (recite) each one of them as they took place as I heard and understood them. recite then he the sutranta Then. havinoO collected himself.&quot. and that which he spoke to (before) me. &c. I left behind the mountain of bones it closed the door of perdition. 37.e. and companions. (I see) that and he fell there is nothing which is not transitory Great also was the agitation of senseless to the ground.Venerable sermon it was spoken for my benefit. (f. 157 Then he thought. If I have under in the pulpit. . said that it reciting the second sutra. Adjnata Kaundinya said to Mahakacjapa. and opened (for me) the door of heaven and of freedom. Now that I hear that sermon of long ago. Ananda. (i. spoke). 671). and that even he had not escaped the universal law of decay. Adjnata Kaundinya his four converted had had made an arhat of him. &c.

&quot. is your exposition (lung) at an end ? and with that he Venerable Kacyapa. This. a wise one conversant with the origin of the rules and and j certain bhikshus were appointed custodians of one section and others of another. explanations by the cjavakas. &quot. . to the five faculties. and he mentioned in which villages. towns.rightly spoken them he collected in the well-named sutras. the dharma. to real change.branches of the way. Kacjapa and the assembly is is citing each sutra. to the bases of supernatural power (irrdhipada). but this is not explicitly said. it . we will &quot.&quot. &quot. at that time there was the venerable Upali. and kingdoms they had been uttered and when it was a sutra concerning a skandha. &quot. 674) formed those which were of one.&quot. as the verb to does not once occur. 1 This passage would lead us to suppose that the canon was written down at this council.) When Venerable Ananda. he put in a compilation relating to the skandhas when it related to an ayatana. Venerable sirs. Then Ka^yapa said. the vinaya (rule) the sutranta which the &quot. countries. he collected in the &quot. The probable explanation is that &quot. was a long sutra he placed it in the Dirghagama. All sutras which had been rightly spoken he collected in the Those which had gathas with sutras. and ten words (f. he compiled it with the six ayatAll that had been explained by the cjavakas he anas. 674.&quot. Kacyapa asked him. hbri-ba.158 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. this In this way Ananda recited all cried aloud. All the explanations (bshad) of the Buddha he gathered together in the explanations of the Buddha. then. to the branches of the bodhi. the branches of the way. 1 he had finished. All which related compiled in the &quot. . (F. ! Blessed One had spoken. to acquiring memory. the whole of the Sutranta of the Blessed One has been compiled. &quot.&quot. &quot. abstraction. . and that they only taught the section which they had been appointed to learn by heart.&quot.&quot. two medium the feottaragama. The length sutras he placed in the Majjimagama. now Now pass to the Vinaya. write. When it &quot. that is all descended from the pulpit.&quot. &quot.

he replied. these the sanghadisesa. This is the way season). these are the parajika. 1 These are the habits. &c. Ka^yapa asked him to narrate where and for what reason the first ordinance had been laid down by the Blessed One. . bhikshus.it &quot. . (f. is to enter seclusion (for the was lesser moral Pratimoksha Sutra..It When Upali had was on account of the five Upali replied.. Kalandaka called Sudatta (Bzang-sbyin}&quot. &c. this is the way to be ordained (to receive the to ask. . . gata s vinaya ? &quot.. . these the two aniyata. &c. the four pratidesaniya. such others may not enter it. This is the way to confess (one s sins) (gsosbyong). Kagyapa then asked him where and the second ordinance had been made. Venerable Upali. Having entered the order.UPA LI RECITES THE VINAYA. 76. the ninety pacittiya dharma. however. &c. the seven adhikarana samatha dharma. &quot. p. on account of the man from . These (things) are to be put away. this is the law this is the is the teaching of the Master &quot. upasampada ordination). these to be conceded. cit. This is the way Such and and the (proper) act to perform. Upali replied and he ordained that (bhikshus) should wear circular . &quot. . and in this way he narrated each of the ordinances laid down by the Buddha. gical Cf.I taken his place in the pulpit. It what reason was at Benares. Beal. 675). The third rule was promulgated sanghati (tchos-gos). and the 499 arhats listened atten This tively and as he finished with each rule they said. &quot. these the op. rule. 6/4b). . will you repeat every particle of the Tathawill. it was on account of the five bhikshus. Vinaya section. the many sekhiya dharma. so Kagyapa ascended the pulpit and pro posed to the assembly that Upali should compile the When the assembly had consented. Kaqryapa said to Upali. was &quot. at Benares. 159 their history .. in the village of Kalandaka.&quot.&quot. if you (recite the vinaya).. the thirty nirsaggiya pacittiya. and he ordained that cloaks (sJiam-thabs) should be circular (zlum-por) l (f. said to have recited the rules as they are arranged in the where Upali The chronolomethod appears more rational. .&quot. . for &quot. such persons may enter the order. &quot.

nirvana). . So he mounted the pulpit and said to the bhikspoken. in what does the Matrika consist ? &quot. the four kinds of analytical know ledge. See the Qrainana phala Sutra. lucid the distinguishing points of that which ought to be known. the very void of very void (stong-pa-nyid stong-pa-nyid\ the uncharacteristic of the uncharacteristic (mtsan-ma-mcdpa nyid mts an-pa-med-pa). text (f. the samadhi by means of mixing the emancipation of per (? lidres-pa bsgo-nas-pai Isam-gtan). and vinaya. I myself will expound the Matrika to pre serve the sense of the Sutranta and 2 Vinaya as it was &quot. and put together all the dharma. the AWiidharma. dha as a separate part of the canon. Thus comprises (explanations of) the four smritthe four right renunciations. Sept Suttas Palis. why.e.not say that Kacyapa delivered these Beal s version of the origin metaphysical doctrines of the Budbyao. although it says that it was mentary on those subjects laid down . says. the correct way to compile . Ananda who 3 recited it. Then This the index hdi). slies-rdb . the seven branches of bodhi. of These are the different headings sections of the vinaya in the Tibetan translation. or metaphysics). It must be noticed that the text does mala bday-kho-nas bshad-par. of the Abhidharma Pitaka.&quot.The Matrika (they replied) is that which makes perfectly &quot. it the holy eightfold way. for the sake of those who delight in the essence of the doctrine (lit. . yupasthana. For the sake of those (phra-mo ni way &quot. 2 The This phrase is obscure. the five forces.160 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. . subjective knowledge. . 79.&quot. zab-moi dc don-la mos-par-gyur-pa. Venerable shus.. the abode of peace (i. perfec tion.Tcyi dus-na mi-rnams phung-po yang-dag-par bsdus-pa dang btays pa ste. Grimblot. rnams-la. fect understanding. 5 the root of the - Ma-ongs-paidzen-pa yige tsam-gyis rjesu Jibrang-la. Tchos - kyi rnam .. substantially agrees with our text. 1 Mahakacjapa thought. to worship (mos-pa). says the text. the four irrdhipada. sirs. words or fundamental dogmas dharma. men will who will hereafter wish for wisdom and who will follow whatever letters there be.e. op. They are only considered as a cornp.grangs . in the preceding sections of sUtra p.&quot.&quot. 4 Or tchos-kyi ts ig-gdzi. ) 676 a &quot. the profound sig nification). supernatural sight. the four words of the dharma (tchos-kyi tsig-ldzi}* absence of kle^a. This the prescriptions gdzi}. the four fruits (rewards) of the virtuous man (cja3 mana). 1 105. the knowledge of what is desirable..5 this is in what consists the Matrika (i. the five faculties. cit.

tell and said to the doorkeeper. . &quot. confide the doctrine to (f.&quot. be patriarch). Ka^yapa insisted that he should go and tell him but the porter replied. and thou shalt him&quot. from the fact that he will be covered with a linen garment. his time had away. who. and the asuras will diminish . answered the porter. will be called Qanavasika (Sha-nai gos-chari). and would like to see him. . (if I awaken him).&quot. so he went to Ananda and said to him. then the yakshas above the earth cried out.yapa then climbed the Ka^yapa southern peak of Kukutupada (Iho-phyogs-kyi-ri ~bya-gag~ L &quot. Eeturning from a seavoyage. 161 When Ka^yapa had &quot.KAQYAPA S DEATH. four great chaityas and the eight chaityas of the relics. gate.Ananda. he will entertain the Buddhist sangha for five years. 147). council was over. (after which) he will enter the order. put to Tell him. Moreover. Vanishing from the summit of Sumeru (where is the Trayastrimcats abode). where was another tooth of the Buddha (see p. and also to the Trayastrimcat devas heaven. when I shall have passed away.&quot. there shall be born in Rajagriha a son of a merchant.e. Venerable sir. One committed to my care the keeping of the doctrine. Now. he came to Eajagriha. and decided to He went tell King Adjatasatru that he was about to die. that has passed away. after which he went to the realm of the nagas and revered the eye- Then Mahaka^yapa went and worshipped the tooth of the Buddha. he would have me &quot. Go and King Adjatasatru that KaXyapa is standing at his The king is asleep. Bravo the venerable Mahakaqyapa and the ! five hundred other arhats have compiled the Three Bas ! kets (Tripitaka) of the Tathagata.&quot. when he awakens. . come the Blessed doctrine (i.. Ka^yapa thought that as he had done all that was necessary for the preser When the work of the vation of the doctrine to future generations. &quot. to the king s palace. 678). the king is violent. and passed away. death. then. the devas will swell in number. Kac.&quot. finished compiling the metaphysical parts of the doctrine. thou shalt take care of the to pass &quot. .

64. and now could not see Mahakaqyapa after his nirvana him that he should see (f. Of. One say 1 (f. is Mahamaudgalyayana and Mahaadded Ananda. and he honoured it. and having saluted Ananda. 68 1). who was standing in the door of the gandhakuta. 682). also says. also is dead. and entered parinirvana (f. rkang) mountain. he said to him. At the expiration of that time he went to the Bamboo grove. When Canavasika heard this he fell senseless to the ground.now that thou hast finished laying up goods for the disciples of the Blessed One. 682).&quot. that it was twenty years after the Buddha s nirvana t hat Ka^yapa died. and having arranged a grass mat in the centre of the three peaks. for he remembered whatever he heard Ananda it. the sthavira promised him. 7. The text does not tell us that Ananda fulfilled his promise. he asked where was the sthavira Qariputra?^ &quot. and having recovered his He senses. &quot. op. the king had a chaitya built on the spot where Kacjapa had passed away. Hiuen Thsang. and so ka^yapa. He jatasatru was able to look at the of body Ka^yapa. He ascended the Kukutupada mountain in company with Ananda (f. vasika. My son. ix. Buddha ? My Blessed One has passed is the &quot. B. but we know from other sources that Ad- The text here is so corrupt that impossible to follow it closely. Adjatasatru was greatly distressed on hearing of KaQyapa s death. 6.the sthavira replied. Where &quot.&quot. .. 3 and had stored away his wealth in his treasury. and acquired the triple knowledge.1 62 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.&quot. replied Qanain a little while he and was he ordained.&quot. lay up stores of the Dharma and enter the order of the Blessed &quot. 1 he went through the marvellous manifestations customary on such occasions. I have only reproduced the outlines it is 3 of it. See also Edkins. 2 Moreover. &quot. 2 cit. he entertained the congregation for five years. &quot. 680). the away. over which the mountain had closed. and learnt (by heart) the Tripitaka. When Canavasika had happily returned from sea.So be s doctrine.&quot. p. He was revived with water. and having told him that he had not been able to see the Buddha after his death. son. p.

tis fruitless To understand what is erroneous is as smoke. and his memory is impaired. (you are) again wrong. thoughts. teaching to both classes of men That here on earth exists permanency. Having wrongly understood the They go like cattle in a swamp. Like the appearance of the footprint of a bird Is the virtue of the life of each separate one. &quot. but he say &quot. . he has become broken down by old age. This man s (lus-clian-de) memory Then bad.&quot. went and repeated these words. intentional to set forth failing Or is this s Ananda The two words are graphically alike. memory ? . correct understanding is to have intelligence with(out) fruit. and the bhikshu Sthavira Ananda. Gang-na lo-brgya htso-ba des-par tchu-la bya fear bdzin. &quot. Sutranta. and of To be deprived.&quot.Ananda has grown old. is &quot. hbras-bu bio Idam yin. &quot. To hear. 2 Here again the text appears inthe last two lines are thoscorrect pa yang-dag nyid-shes-pa. the sthavira replied. Their minds have no knowledge of their own death When one understands not what he has heard. 163 fol at the : Bamboo grove a bhikshu spoke the lowing gatha In whom life is of (but) an hundred years.Go and say. instead of bya kar. he does not remember well. 1 I did not say that the Blessed One did not say This. When Ananda In whom life is of an hundred years. he went to where these (sic) and bhikshus were said.&quot. the Blessed One did did not say that. &quot. There is therefore birth and decay . does not make the fourth line very clear. It is as the footprint of a bird on water . My son. My son. tchu-la bya kar mthong-ba Itar. his mind is impaired His master told him. .ANANDA One day &quot. however. bral-ba . Idagnyid gchig-pui htso-ba dge. This verse is extremely obscure. &quot. through old age. I propose reading in the second and third lines bya rlcang. When they are nigh unto dissolution. It reads. By The unbeliever will have angry The believer perverted ideas. S OLD AGE. 2 (that bhikshu) said to his master. ni. on water l heard this.

to Qanavasika. Vrijians being on bad terms with each other The text appears incorrect here. Mahakac. passed away. and the young men and I do not agree . Moreover. whose names will be Nata and Phata (Vic). Then he thought. Then the venerable Ananda said. He perfume-seller called Gupta (Sbas-pd) whose name will be Upagupta (Nyer-sbas-pa). where I am. he will have an The legend of Upagupta 47th chapter of the Hdsangblun (Der Weise und der Thor) says that he was a native of Benares. for all . 3 That is to say.If that. 683 ). or perhaps here again Ananda had forgotten said. here (in the 1 Bamboo grove). and was converted by Yasheska or Gautama. the two sons of a merchant of that country. and when I shall have passed away Then he thought. the doctrine to it So he said the Blessed One. buddha. will build a vihara at Kimurundha 2 (sic\ and will become the patrons of the vihara this has been foretold by the . having become a buddha without the characteristic . The bhikshu repeated the words b &quot. of the text. having confided &quot. to should speak to the which Ananda replied (f. &c. . it would to not come is he has he not my duty to go to where I . Blessed One.&quot. occasion bhikshu (your master). p. . 3 signs. the The negation appears out of place. 2 the thirty-two signs of the great man. . Taranatha. I stand alone I One will still be followed for The men of the old times have ere now passed away. of the enlightened mind. If I should die &quot. have passed away. associates and friends have long since departed. 685 b ).1 64 1 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and when I shall have passed away thou shalt protect it.&quot.yapa. or the eighty peculiarities which characterised the Buddha what he had previously 1 1 Conf. King Adjatasatru and the (f. but will not have Ya9as. &quot.. .&quot.&quot. The time for my pass ing away has come. Qariputra. Mahamaudgalyayana.My son.&quot. He will enter the order one hundred years after the nirvana of the Blessed One and. . my . the doctrine of the Blessed a thousand years. am like an outcast. he will accomplish all the acts of a &quot. He confided to me. in the city of Mathura (Echom-brlag). of a has also predicted that after the buildthere will be a son in^ of the vihara of Rimuruncla (sic) ^ . and now I intrust it to thee. It is a quarrel. of his master. .

of the intellect enables him gone towards fourfold (F.&quot. the Liccliavis will certainly be dis 1 if I cast it in the Vriji country. magadftai (jrong-du and grony-khyer The text I don t un(?) byed dag-tu. the Liccliavis of Vaisali got together their army. ! The men reflected. and when. of a buddha is open . the ruler of skaso is obscure . The wide eye the feet of the sthavira Ananda and said. &quot. they would not I will pass away relinquish (a portion to Adjatasatru).&quot. army and set out for the bank 686. Then King Adjatasatru bowed his head at the Ganges. . &quot. derstand this last expression at all.&quot. the vener able Ananda entered a boat and went to the middle of &quot. the mighty lord has guarded the treasure of the Dhanna. revived his senses. the lamp of mankind. he asked. we go to thee for Ua-lur) a refuge if (of a truth) thou hast reached peace. Vaisali said the same in the But Ananda If I cast my body Magadha tressed 3 . &quot. it reads. Hear ing this.gt. &quot. Where &quot.&quot. The ven Ananda. Maharaja. he fell by water. of &quot. &quot. thou who hast been a lamp to three and who hast reached peace. in the middle of the Ganges river. country. he whose to arrest existence (in himself).LAST MOMENTS OF AN AND A. So he went there. and when they reached the banks of the Ganges. 165 of If I Vaisali would not get a portion of (my) should pass away in Vaisali. Vaisali. and then he heard from the porter that the sthavira Ananda was about to pass away. Now King Adjatasatru saw in a dream the staff of the standard that was borne above him broken. like a hundred-leaved flower Qidab- ma l&amp. has the venerable Ananda passed away ? he replied the venerable Qanavasika. for our sakes cast down thy body here from the water where thou hast gone thing. this mighty one. and he was frightened and awoke. Liccliavis relics. is about to attain perfect peace (to die). who had been who created to follow after the Blessed One. has So Adjatasatru assembled his Vaisali.rgya-pa existences . he had regained senseless to the ground.) The devas told the men of Ganges. the lover of all humanity. having dispelled the shades of erable Then sorrow.

&quot. See p. The sthavira Ananda created dry land in the middle of the river. and and obtained the reward of arhatthe order in the middle of the ship. I will give half to the body sovereign and half to the people this (ts ogs). right speech. &quot. &quot.&quot. The sthavira replied. Our text says that all the five hundred were called Madhyanika. and_Taranatha. One the name of right by Probably right acts. of relics) will receive proper &quot. ..1 66 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. river Ganges and in the middle of the day. 7. Magadha of my will be displeased. 687). both parts and lasting honours. to some they became known as Madhyantika (Tchu-dbus).e. 2 p. they obtained the 1 explained the three acts. said. Madhyanika (Nyi-mai-gung) (f.The Blessed . Therefore.&quot.&quot. my As Ananda was dying the earth shook in six ways. 138. to enter nirvana before him . so that we may not see him die. to allow us to enter nirvana before him. 9. p. I beg thee to receive us into the order of the well-spoken law. Just then a rishi who had a retinue of five hundred followers came to the sthavira Ananda by magical means and with clasped hands said. he admitted into the order the rishi and his five hundred followers and having conferred on them . and that we be ordained and receive the requisites of bhikshus. and by means both of them (i.Come hither with your disciples. the last of his con 2 now we beg the master verts. to others as they cast As they had entered &quot.&quot. The Blessed One allowed Subhadra. agrees with this. off all klega He ordination. One confided the doctrine to Mahakagyapa and died the sthavira Maha- kagyapa intrusted it to me (and said :) When I shall have The Blessed passed away. Then they bowed their heads at Ananda s feet and said. One has said of Kachmere. Then Ananda the desired of upasampada reward anagamin. The country of Kachmere is 1 the best place for dhyana that can be wished for. Madhyantika or &quot. See Feer. and having made it inaccessible. I intrust this doctrine to you. thoughts. Introduction du Bouddhisme dans le Kachmir. and hardly had he conceived the wish but the five hun dred disciples were there.

&quot. 238. Pataliputra. Master. for either Ananda else s life must have been much other legends say. p. or longer than all Madhyantika only carried out Ananda s command some seventy years after his master s would allow sufficient time for QAnavasika s patriarchate. Master..&quot. death. hundred years after the death of the Blessed 1 167 Buddha went on Madhyantika. country. introduce the doctrine will accordingly. See Taranatha s remark. come here. would introduce the doctrine. and having shown different miracles. cit. Half of his body was taken by the men So it of Vaisali and the other half by King Acljatasatru. After that the Licchavis had a chaitya built in Vaisali Likewise and placed (the half of the body therein). half was given to the sovereign.&quot. steam) and entered parinirvana. built a chaitya in the city of it). 10. op. act my son. Hearing these words spoken on the banks of the river by the two men. tears of love cried. where he is called the naga-king Hu-lor. p. &quot.&quot. was &quot.e.DEATH OF ANAND A. gave his blessing.&quot. &quot. he became like water thrown on fire (i. said By Who A A half the mighty one diamond of wisdom. having &quot.) Then the venerable Ananda commenced A Magadha man with showing all kinds of miracles. placed (the other half in Madhyantika thought.&quot. b 687 . I So the accomplish the purpose of the teacher. having conquered the malicious naga Hulunta 2 in Kachmere. had subdued the mountain of his own body. come here. (there). (Madhyantika the rishi) replied. A Vrijian with (F. King Adjatasatru. the sagacious gave to a nation.I One (the to say) there will be a bhikshu called he will introduce the teaching into this Therefore. (for) the Blessed One has predicted that there would be a bhikshu called Madhyantika who. 2 Conf.&quot. he Then Ananda wisely divided in two his worn-out body. venerable Madhyantika went to the Kachmere country will 1 This is extraordinary. tears of love cried.. This . My master ordered me to in troduce the doctrine into Kachmere.

As one sees those summits of a glacier remain unchanged though by the rays of the sun. This Kachmere country. I So he composed his mind in deep meditation. &amp. ulvas. beautiful flowers. 2 The Blessed One has predicted/ the sthavira rejoined. if &quot. 2 The sthavira was probably seated on a stone when he made this request. This passage has embarrassed who reads the text rtsegde chig rdo-rtse. Feer. 1 M. stream of thunderbolts. ! posure of the profound meditation of mercy. but he remained deep in perfect composure of the profound meditation of mercy .lt. sat and down cross-legged. they panted violently. The nagas were troubled. but the sthavira made them reach the ground as arrows. nor did the weapons or poison harm it so the nagas were astonished. better to read rtse-gcliig rdo-rje. so the drenching rain fell as a shower of various flowers. my . &quot. to the nagas replied.&quot. they said. quer the nagas will be able to subdue them. lit. ! &quot. that this place would be mine.1 68 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Give me this place/ &quot. &c. I can but trouble them. a continuous stream and axes but as they all fell on the sthavira . what would you ? The sthavira said. the fire (of the thunderbolts) did not burn his body. they tried to injure the sthavira. &quot. and having caused rain to fall in torrents. Venerable one. of Then he thought. l in a rain of blue lotus flowers.&quot. good place being &quot. of hem of thunderbolts of swords and of great arrows. kumudas. so these nagas were not able to move even the the Then these nagas rained down his garment. axes. padmas. &quot. &quot.a There is no doubt about rdo-rje in The word copy of the text. A stone is not much of an offering &quot. and the Kachmere country trembled in six ways. and white The nagas commenced to throw at him a string lilies.&quot. rise ffckig occurs farther on in connection with swords. for a henceforth it is mine. those summits of mountains on which all is harmless.&quot. meditation. &quot.une quantitd I think it pointes de rochers. and the rain of arrows fallin^ O from the sky has become garlands of flowers As he (Madhyantika) was in the state of perfect com struck &quot. Then the nagas went nigh unto the sthavira and spake him. . saying. To con Kachmere.

&quot. towns. and also by the remarks of Hiuen Thsang. &quot. 168-169. thousand &quot. &quot. 2 Bdag-gis is used as well for the singular as the plural throughout the Bkah-hgyur. So he said. &quot. 169 &quot. 1 The nagas asked him. 689 ). so ? He did. Slhavira. &quot. answered the sthavira.&quot.be covered. Sthavira.INTRODUCTION OF SAFFRON INTO KACHMERE. the lower ends of the nine valleys. Five hundred arhats. &quot. when One.&quot. how many followers have you ? The sthavira thought. Pull up saffron ! (f. . they asked. Non-pa in the text means to cover sas non-pa.&quot. B. . &quot. and provinces. said the nagas. &quot. &quot. &quot.&quot. and to this the nagas gave When the sthavira had made by himself villages. Notwith when there are standing. with earth lung-pa dgni-mdo. said. &quot. the nagas said &quot. Venerable the nagas replied. 1 by the Action skyil-mo-yrung-gis. p. So be it. and of &quot. &quot. said. there must be people who give I must intro so on what who they) receive. how much (land) shall be offered (to you) ? As much as I cover &quot. &quot. b How long will the having subdued them. duce householders (here) their consent. &quot. .&quot.&quot. (live persons &quot.&quot. nonof being seated cross-legged . &quot. iii. . and (down to) the lower ends of the nine valleys (all the land) was covered by (him) sitting cross-legged.&quot. how can we develop our Then the sthavira took the people with prosperity?&quot. then we will take back the Madhyantika said to the nagas of Kachmere. So be it.A doctrine of the Blessed One endure ? I think that my translation is justified by the text. &quot.&quot. &quot. 2 wanting. pa. Mount Gandhamadana were Then the nagas the sthavira but angered. How many bhikshus shall I get I will have the five hundred arhats (who were together ? converted with me). &quot. to cover .&quot. Sthavira. but if a single arhat out of the number is Kachmere country. &quot. him to the Gandhamadana (sbos-kyis ngad-ldan) mountain &quot. &quot. seated cross-legged. Did the Blessed One say &quot. but they said to him. Then the sthavira sat down 689 a ). The nagas &quot. &quot. he settled large numbers of people (in them). cross-legged (f.

&quot. p. lightning (from out his body). defend the doctrine and devote all your energy to telling Then the vene every one. and the venerable Dhitika having accomplished the re quirements of the doctrine. Conf. My son. He (Qanavasika) said to the venerable Venerable Upagupta. ritable rable Qanavasika having gladdened the hearts of the cha and virtuous. The sthavira Upagupta (taught) the venerable Dhitika.&quot. answered the sthavira. and other kinds of wood. . Thus spoke the Blessed One. 9-10 (1213 of the trans. The Upagupta. having intrusted the keeping of the doctrine The vene to the venerable Mahakac. Then they made him this as the teaching of the Blessed One promise. so long from here). 690 b ). he spread it and abroad. rain. and passed away. After that his body had been burnt with the best of sandal-wood. and in this order the mighty ones (lit. the venerable Qanavasika received into the order Upagupta. may Glang-po. by whom the doctrine was greatly spread. the elephants 2 ) passed away 1 (f. passed away.wood. rable Mahakagyapa intrusted it to (my) master (my) master (intrusted it) to me. 1 So when the sthavira had planted the saf fron in Kachmere. such as producing sparks. you must &quot. Blessed One.) * imelephant. having gladdened the hearts of the charitable and virtuous. aloe.1 7o THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. (taught) the venerable Kala (Nag-po\ and he the venerable Sudargana (Legs-mthong). he blessed it (and it prospered). he passed away as water when thrown on fire. now when I also shall have entered nirvana. fire. Taranatha. &quot. . utterly passed away into the middle where there is no particle of corporality. will we allow you (to take saffron plants endures. and having shown different miracles. doctrine of the Blessed Now the venerable &quot. be attentive. ply here that these first patriarchs were the mightiest of their order.yapa. years. and were not succeeded by as great ones. it was placed in a chaitya which was built (for that purpose). As long 5 When the sthavira Madhyantika had introduced the One into Kachmere. having performed different miracles. &quot.

teaching that what was unlawful was lawful. the bhikshus of Vaisali sirs. the difficulties bearing on unimportant details. and the bhikshus of . the bhikshus of Vaisali held as lawful the practice of keeping salt as long as one lived. and. &c. not agree- The text is. first dox. is ing. Venerable and indulging in enjoyment in the enjoy yourselves congregation of bhikshus. they made enjoyment lawful and those who did not agree were heterodox . These ten the were bhikshus of Vaisali practices practised as lawful the exclamation alala. (those who) did not agree were heterodox (those who were) assembled (elsewhere than at . My mthun-pas = mi-rnamsmthun-pas. &c. &quot. which recurs maivy times in the same words. very doubtful. which was not in the sutras. &c. Moreover. or have it dug. those who were assembled (elsewhere than at Vaisali) were hetero dox those who did agree were orthodox. which was not the Master s teaching. however. nor to be found in the Vinaya.THE TEN INDULGENCES. (said). 1 This phrase. nor to be found in the Vinaya. which were not com which transgressed the Dharma : prised in the Sutranta. if he added to . . This was the third proposition. is exceed- its usual acceptation of &quot. mi I mthun-pas tchos-Tcyi Las byed-de. From f.&quot. Blessed tions 171 One hundred and ten years after the death of the Buddha the sun of the Conqueror was obscured. which the bhikshus of carried into practice. Moreover. clear. hthun pas tchos-ma yin-pa dang. Vaisali taught that these evil things were right.a. . mlhun -pas translation. as I have remarked. 690 to the end of the volume is extremely obscure. and the bhikshus of Vaisali imagined ten false proposi which transgressed the law and the rules.&quot. propose considering the second miingly difficult. Vaisali) were heterodox . however. which were not of the Master s teaching. The general sense is.nd the first mi-mthun-pas as taken in severely criticised by the Tibetan lama. 1 This was the which transgressed the Dharma. those who did agree were ortho proposition which transgressed the doctrine. Mi tchos-ma yin-pa dang. This was the second proposition. . the bhikshus of Vaisali held as lawful that (a bhikshu) might dig the earth with his own hand. Vaisali Moreover.

was the (F.to use a new mat (gding-pa) without patching it around the 2 This was the edge (the width of) a Sugata span. the bhikshus of Vaisali held it lawful . Taranatha. Moreover. the bhikshus of Vasali held it lawful to suck fermented drinks as would a leech (srin-lu lad-pa IdzinThis du\ though one was made ill by drinking (thus).&quot. note 3. instead of this expression. 1884. &c. Revue de 1 Hist.). a . the 1 lanes. See also the TibetanPratimoksha Sutra. &c. 692 it deemed . p.Ji-sridhtsoibar-dn brlabs-pai ts wa dus su dang Ikan-chig bsres-nas Icun-tu spyod-ching tswa rung-bai Conf. Then on it (the bowl). &quot. moreover remarks that Sugata means the Master. to make it redolent with sweet burnt incense and adorn it with different kinds of sweet-smelling flowers. pkor-bu. was the seventh proposition. drinking-cup. . x. . &c.. des Religions. Moreover. tion. . with two fingers. &c. . then meeting and eating. &c. going a yojana or a half yojana This (away from their viharas). the bhikshus of Vaisali having lawful to take food. the cross- lyin-gyis rung-bo. where the Vinaya-vibhanga says that a bhikshu who hides an- other s alms-bowl. the bhikshus of Vaisali held it lawful to take a round alms-bowl and to besmear it with perfumes. Moreover. 41 (trans. &c. &c. that was not left-over food. the Buddha allows salt to be kept in certain cases. Thete\iis. This was the eighth proposition. they put a mat on a gram ana s head and and he went through the highroads. hard or soft. In Dulva. time some consecrated 1 (Ids supply) at the right salt. fifth proposition.&quot.. . . reads. ninth proposition.) Moreover. &c. &c. or his salt-horn (tswa khug) . pacittiya 67. &c.1 72 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. did practise as lawful This was the sixth proposi eating with two fingers. It must be kept in a box with a cover. the bhikshus of Vaisali practised as being lawful during journeys. dzes byed pa-ste. the text of the Pratimoksha. the bhikshus of Vaisali held it lawful to eat between times a mixture of half-milk and half-curds. ^ &quot. This was the fourth proposition. Moreover. however. &c. 2 In the Bhikshuni Vinaya-vibhanga it is said that a Sugata span It is equal to a cubit and a half. 290. Moreover.

he said to him. &quot. with a retinue of five hundred. gold. to preserve the doctrine. he who makes many offerings here. (to Yac. which they made use of. saying. this that time high priest of the world. versed in the six branches of doctrinal knowledge and powerful in his calling.Truly dam gdzan yang ther is. and other treasures. &quot. it the text reads. will receive a great reward it will profit him much. Obscure : it is Pachina Sarvakama was a and that he was at tchu-bur sore has Mi gchig-pu yod. and had already attained a standing of 1 20 years since the ordination of appeared alone. and especially Rhys Davids. what does that mean. 83 . in the town of Qonaka (Nor-chan) there lived an arhat called Yac. &quot. not to say alala?&quot. he went to where the venerable Sarvakama was. 1 2 (Tliams-cliad Mod-pa) known as an arhat contemplator of the eight perfect freedoms (mam-par thar-pa Irgyad lived in Ananda s time. 693).. In the Mahawanso.e. it will avail him much. And 1 The list of the ten indulgences varies greatly . Venerable sir. all ye people . that the sthaviras of the community were at liberty to bhikshus of that place) were fixing use of the property. 694).Is this canker unique or he saw that the relaxation of the rules was increasing by following the ten unlawful customs (dngos). dividing) their The censor (dge-skos) having declared treasures (f. ye this alms-bowl is a most people and ye strangers excellent one he who gives here.Hear VINAYA.Venerable sir. . &C. and this was holding it lawful to have gold and the tenth proposition.&quot. are there others ? 3 &quot. Beal. bsgom-pa dzas-lya-la). p.e. . said that priest. see Mahawanso. Is it lawful or &quot. Buddhism. the brahman. I c . 15. p. Then he explained what will you take of the goods ? tenth the the whole thing (i. Now there was at Vaisali a sthavira called Sarvakama . asked (Yacas).as (Grags-pa\ also an arhat contemplator of the eight perfect freedoms. town s . indulgence ?) &quot. who live in Vaisali. The same work. Therefore. thus (the bhikshus of Vaisali) silver .YAAS UPHOLDS THE roads. and he. 3 p. 216. p. calls Yaso. (f. And in this way they got riches. p.&quot. . son of Kakandako. yet ano- . who gives very much. &quot. and having bowed down at his feet. 173 me.. Four Lectures. 2 Upasampada. wandering about came to Vaisali when (the (i.as) . Nges byuny-bar zadlit. 18-19. make &quot. and the sthavira thought. who had Moreover.

s Then. proposition which disregards the Sutranta. which is not in the sutras. plained what lawful. this question. &c. Then (Yac^as) sthavira. when was it declared in It was the town of Qampa. in consequence of the acts of the six. &quot. . &quot. &quot. this pronounced a dukkata offence. &quot. 1 See 73d pacittiya of the Bhikshu Pratimoksha. what does that mean. . &quot. sthavira. 56th of the Bhikshuni Prat._ If they practise it will bhikshus of Vaisali teach as lawful when you remain quiet ? &quot.&quot.Venerable sir.. (Sarvakama) if . Venerable sir.&quot. Sthavira. Venerable sir. Sthavira. said. Sthavira.. Is it lawful to use (kept) salt ? &quot. he replied. was the If is second proposition which disregards the Sutranta.174 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. meant. this is the proposition. &c. of an act &quot. &quot.&quot. I will ask you then &quot. which transgresses the Dharma.Sthavira.&quot. &. Sthavira committed They this the is first (said Yaqas). &quot. it is not lawful. and Sthavira.&quot. Then (Yaqas) &quot. which does not appear in the Vinaya. third &quot. I will ask &quot. it is 1 strength (to dig the earth not lawful. be lawful to use one Venerable sir. they practise it will you remain quiet remained without ever saying a word. which the Is it lawful to say alala in the &quot. . it . ? Then Yagas explained it same terms used above.&quot. of Qariputra. and it was pronounced a pacittiya. the Vinaya. &quot. amuse oneself ? Yac^as having ex &quot. said. (Sarvakama) remained without ever saying a word. On account of what ? On account of acts of the six bhikshus. . What kind of a transgression was it ? a dukkata offence.&quot. (unlawful)?&quot. &quot. amuse oneself? * Is it lawful to it you if it be lawful to Venerable sir.&quot. .&quot. it is unlawful. this is the fourth proposition. &c. and was pronounced a pacittiya. &quot. &c. &quot.Then. it is not It was declared unlawful in the town of Qampa it in consequence of acts of the six bhikshus.&quot. &quot. It was declared unlaw it ful at Qravasti. it is not It was declared unlawful at Eajagriha on account lawful. which is not the Master s teaching. and Sarvakama answered. I will ask you )?&quot. ?&quot.

Venerable sir. this is the tenth proposition which disregards 1 See 37th-39th pacittiyas of the Bhikshus. Sihavira. .. . then I will ask you this question.&quot.. number &c. and Sthavira. it is not lawful. . Sthavira. of the (Pratirnoksha) Sutra. the sixth proposition. of is &c. &c.&quot. It was declared unlaw of ful at Qravasti &quot. Is the mat practice lawful?&quot. Sthavira. .. then I will ask you this question.&quot. 25th-27th of the Bhik- shuni Pratimoksha. the Dirghagama.. &quot. Ekottaragama. an act of a number of bhikshus..&quot. Is it compa with (the rules) of journeying (to go a league or a half Venerable sir. &c. It was declared unlawful at Rajagriha on account of what Devadatta had done. I will ask you then this question. . ..SARVAKAMA S OPINION. this &quot. . Is the 1 practising (of drinking) a mixture (of milk and curds) lawful?&quot. clared unlawful at Qravasti on account of an act of a of bhikshus. bhikshus had done. it is not lawful. &quot. &c.. &c. Legs-ongs\ Sthavira. Vinaya. the the .&quot. &c. it is not lawful.&quot. &quot. It is a nissaggiya pacittiya according to the .&quot. &c. and it was pronounced a pacittiya.&quot. and it was pronounced a pacittiya. b using two fingers lawful ?&quot. Kathina section &quot. league and then eat) ? tible &quot. it was pronounced the &c. &quot.. It was de &quot. .. it is not lawful. Venerable sir. Venerable sir. &quot. &c. . Is the &quot. &quot. the Majjimagama. it is not law It was declared unlawful at Qravasti on account of ful. practice &quot.. I will ask you then this question. &quot. . Sthavira. . then I will ask you this question. Sthavira. Is it law ful to get sick (from sucking wine) ? Venerable sir. It was declared unlawful at Qravasti (/ on account of an act of the ayuchmat Suratha and it was ptonounced a pacittiya. Is gold and silver practice lawful?&quot. on account of what a great number it was pronounced a pacittiya. Sthavira.&quot.. . it is not lawful. this is the fifth proposition. Venerable sir. &c.( 6^6 ). &quot. and a pacittiya. &quot. then I will ask you this question. &c. 175 Sthavira.

&c. &c. to whom he (F. have adopted the last form. but I see no other way of Des song-la phyogs translating it. the Vinaya. &quot. also explained the ten indulgences. Dharma...&quot. From him also he received the same answers to his questions. an arhat like the two preceding ones. and he also agreed to be his adherent. ts ol-chig dang. &c. \ .* Then he went to Mahismati (Ma-he-ldari) . . The high priest Revato.) After that he went to Qrughna^where lived the venerable Adjita (Ma-pliam-pa). Then Yac. sir. . Then Yac^as went to Pataliputra (Dmar-lulived the venerable Kuyyasobhito (Zla-sgrur) 2 where chari). After that Ya^as went to the city of Samkacya. . ngas tchos bdzin-du phyogs byao. at that time there lived in the city of venerable sthavira called Salha (G-yo-ldan). . Revato. He was an arhat contemplator of the eight perfect freedoms. (F. Tarzla-sgur. 19.) . questioned the thero Sabbakami in due order on the ten . which is also followed by Schiefner. This name is variously written I or zla-sgrur. having the same questions and received the same answers). They repaired to the Valukarama vihara. zla-rgur. loc. wanso.cit. 290. Sutranta. where lived . these six theros were the disciples of the thero Ananda. and remained in it. a situation so secluded (that not even the note of a bird was heard). the venerable Sambhuta (Yang-dag skyes) to 1 . &c. 700. son of Kakandako. one by one. the chief of the interrogating party. The word qrughna anatha. where lived the venerable sthavira Vasabhagami (Nor-chari). Sabbakami. which If is not the Master &quot. and Sambuto. Vasabhagamiko and Sumano. Kujjasobhito.&quot. these two theros were the disciples of the thero Anurad ho. quiet ? you choose to go I will be your adherent in following the teaching. &c.as went to the venerable down at his feet (he asked him bowed and Salha.176 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. who Now Qonaka a had lived with Ananda. is also transcribed by srug-na or sugna. 1 Then he composed his mind in the dhyana of perfect perfection. says. a native of Slina. the &quot. p. TheMaha&quot.. and free from the strife of men. 700. after that Sahadsha (? Lhan-chig skyes) t where lived the venerable This oft-recurring phrase is obscure. p. s they practise it will you remain Venerable wherever replied Sarvakama. Yaso indulgences. &c. Salho. See Schiefner. and also a contem porary of Ananda s.

and whose harsh words were well meant. what is not becoming in gramanas. indulgences in the to 177 whom he also explained the ten same terms used in conversing with Sarvakama. but under his harsh words (slogs-pa).) pondering over it ? Say what must be done. Venerable sirs. (F. they asked. 702. M . what is not You have lawful.. the bhikshus of Vaisali went to where the bhikshus of Yagas company were and asked them where was their master. &quot.&quot. Eevata (Nam-gru).e. Then (the bhikshus of Vaisali) commenced The venerable Yagas has gone to one another. Let us do what (Yagas) has done. about schisms remained silent what are you then doing but bringing They were terrified on hearing this. Venerable sirs. &quot. last a formerly heard that the doctrine of the Blessed One will thousand years. on account of the schism in the order. so it is that commandments create a disregard any To help to main cancer (which will go on spreading).THE VAISALI BHIKSHUS ADMONISHED. &quot. because we seek different interpretations (rnam-pa) for the of the departed Master commandments Then one of their number (i. &quot. in the Then (Yagas &quot. When Eevata heard of all his journeying. Sirs. 1 said to them. oppose us but they replied. Why did he want partisans?&quot. he told Yagas to take some rest. whose mind was straight.&quot.&quot. but you will be the cause that in days to come the doctrine will be obscure those . you are doing what is not done (by all the rest of the order). what have we done to cause a schism order?&quot. with words of useful abuse. 1 The text ispkan-pai Wang &quot. of the ?&quot. and then they learnt that he had gone to seek partisans. who tain the doctrine. if we have caused a schism in the order. This is not right why ?&quot. He has gone to get partisans let why remain &quot. talking to get partisans . While these things were taking place. &quot. of Yagas disciples ?). ts ig-yis. them. Then one of their number said to another. disciples) told . after which he would accompany him as his partisan. .

uphold . course being approved. girdles. His prosperity will decrease like the waning moon. He who swiftly does what is useful has not forsaken wisdom. and all will be arranged (? phyir gang rigs par lyao)&quot. &quot. &quot. Who follows not the right way of doing. He who has not put away the right way of doing wise. This who Let us get all are in the neighbourhood together (by &quot. to some mantles.&quot. robes. &quot. (we) must do tisans &quot. The not very clear.My be will here. nets. in a trap.. virtuous friends. go we will be thought badly of. When &quot. to some water-strainers. who will us also seek partisans &quot. Another flee.&quot. op. who postpones (a thing to be done) instantly. a fool he. we must said. to some alms-bowls. 90. shortly they When his disciples had told him of the right claimed by the Vaisali bhikshus to interpret diversely the com mandments. Cut off by associating with obscure and unworthy friends. &quot. Then Yagas 1 sat down in the hall (likhor-kyi Tibetan text is is khamsu) . sons. us. and his disciples asked him. Sirs. 1 Yagas had little by little got together his par he came back to Vaisali. they decided to act accordingly . Beal. and my translation open to correction. cit. (the bhikshus) giving them) alms-bowls. he replied. As the partisans for relaxing the rules will rapidly increase. as it were.&quot. to some sweat-cloths.&quot. . he said. everything for the true doctrine * . we they are going to fight us are. for the gatha says He who instantly does a thing to be postponed.Master. we may go ? wherever we can Where Another said. and in this way they got them all together and remained in their midst. His prosperity will go on increasing like the waxing moon. so they gave to some (bhikshus) robes. where the goods are given to Kevata. to some nether garments. to some cushions. Conf. drinking-cups. have you found your partisans?&quot.178 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. We must sue for pardon.&quot. p. Another said. trouble is his share . happines will be his. Not cut off by associating with worthy. and that they were using terms not formerly spoken by (the Buddha).

the venerable Yac. Just then Kuyyasobhito came out of his meditation. he bowed to those who were well stricken in years. If I &quot. Then he vanished from Pataliputra. verses After having told those within who he was in several he was admitted and took his seat. after which they said.&quot. De-dag-gis mingnas phyung-ste brjod-na ni. I will not call them by name. all contemporaries of Ananda. and having saluted by raising his hands to his forehead those be much &quot. he stood before the door of the hall and asked admission. mi dbyung-bar . &quot. 703-704). and a deva came and asked him. they had examined and condemned the ten indulgences.) is obscure. &quot. which is the most embarrassing. 705. that which is unlawful lawful. Venerable Kuyyasobhito. So wrangling). hkhrugpa tchen-por hgyur-bas. &quot. 179 having composed his mind in the fourth dhyana of perfec tion. and coming to Vaisali. fusion should salute each one by name it would cause great con if I should call them (? lit. and having assem(F. they beat the gantha. he took his seat. And this formula they repeated after each indulgence had been condemned. we condemn them!&quot. and they gave the same answers we have seen given above. thou who art the first master (Icliyod clang mklian-po gchig- why stand you there thinking pa). byao. for it was closed. ma-la bdag1 When This passage first par 2 yis ming-nas . arhats had assembled. 1 verging on old age.as thought.&quot. he beat the gantha and assembled 700 arhats less one.PROCEEDINGS OF THE COUNCIL. Thou art the one master (missing to complete the 700). by name there would &quot. . . These bhikshus of Vaisali who proclaim &quot. brjod- Which may also be. Then the venerable Yagas informed them of the ten indulgences in the same terms which he had previously used in speaking to Sarvakama and the other arhats. Now at that time the vene rable Kuyyasobhito was deep in the samadhi of arresting When all the (ligog). The part of it.&quot. and who act accordingly. is. and he did not hear the gantha. and having discerned the proper course (to follow). (f. where the 699 arhats are assembled to maintain the doctrine. who were ? Go quickly to Vaisali.

Yagas informed them of b the proceedings and decision of the council (f. be seen. . history of these 1 See Beal. in settling the whole canon nor does the Chinese version of the council of Yaisali * mention anything beyond the condemnation of It will. Four Lectures. 7O5 ). ones as regards the Southern with the do not disagree events. that the Northern authors ring to Bhavya s work (p. and I have not been able to find in any canonical text any mention of the subsequent work which the Mahawanso says the council performed . bled The text of the Yinayaksudraka ends abruptly here. by refer the ten indulgences. 83 et seq. 187). p.i So all THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. the bhikslius at Yaisali. however.

2 we are told that the seventeen schisms arose in the second century after the death of the Buddha. Sde-ba tka-dad-par byed-pa dang rnam-par bshad-pa. . Gdzung tha-dad-pa rim-par glag-pai hkhor-io-las sdepa tha-dad-pa bstan-pa bsdus-pa. &quot. has been translated by Professor Wassilief in his I have endeavoured in the following O to condense the information contained in the work pages work on Bhuddism. attempted greater part of Bhavya s remarks.&quot. of 1 Bhavya. which is a compilation of that of Vasumitra. one of which. THE QOth volume of the sutra of the Bstan-hgyur contains three works on the schismatic schools of Bhuddism. 163-172). 20-21. p. Compilation teaching the differ&quot. in that of Vinitadeva. by Vasumitra (f. 2 and in a curious little work called the Bhikshu varshagrapritsJia (f. the SamavadJioparacha chaJcra. the Kayabhetro vibhanga (f. 284-296). I hope that I have been able to elucidate a few of the latter s observations which in I think are rather obscure in Professor Wassilief s trans lation. how to give a satisfactory translation of them. that it is a very difficult if not an impossible task I have. Mahawanso. I have deemed it prudent to retain the translation the greater part of the technical Sanskrit 1 In Tibetan. ences of the schools from the Sama- vadhoparacha chakra (by VasumitWith the present account conf. or The thorough explanation of the differences of the schools. and by means of Vinitadeva s work. 157-163). the author of which is unknown.CHAPTEE VI. The theories of the different schools are unfortunately given by both Vasumitra and Bhavya in about the same words. HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS OF BUDDHISM. the Samayctbhedo parachanachakra. where ra). In Tibetan.&quot. and so con cisely. to translate the ever.

Buddha. when King DharmaQoka (Me-tog-gis rgyasschism in the a arose there great pa. The first twelve pages only of Bhavya s work are and translated. (11) the Saddharmavarshaka (or properly mottariya. The Annals known to. (3) Hetuvidya. men : . to our knowledge of the doctrines of these add nothing : schools Adoration to the triratna How came about the eighteen schools and their peculiar This is the way in which they are all said to features ? one highest Lord.e. not tioned by Northern writers. Of these. terms in their original form.e.. where Khoten appear. the Ekavyavaharika. the Pradshnaptivadina. however. from (the teaching of) the proceed ! One hundred and away of the Blessed x sixty years after the utter passing (i. 233. the Mahasanghika and Kalasoka) was reigning in Kusumapura the Sthavira. of some controverted questions. . or.which and by others is also called by some persons Avantaka. The Sthavira school gradually divided into ten fractions also called the (i) the Sthavira proper. the Tchaityika. for by translating them mis takes might be made which would entirely alter the sense of the original. (2) the Sarvastivadina . Haimavata . ally the LokottaraVadina. to have derived some of their statements from Southern Buddhist works not we find the correct date for s Agoka of the Great reign. Sammatiya. (9) the Mahic. at all events. which is also taka (or Muruntaka) (5) .asaka (10) Suvartaka. (8) the . the Mahasanghika school gradu the Mahasan into divided eight fractions (to wit). i. the Purvagaila.. for the last five present but little interest. the Bahucjutiya. however. whereas the Sanskrit term will enable the reader to reconstrue more easily what may have been the original text. (7) the Bhadrayaniya. See. the DharmagupKurukullaka.1 82 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Pataliputra). ghika school. 1 The two Agokas are generally confounded in Northern Buddhist works. and the Avara^aila. p. (4) the Vaibadyavadina Muduncalled by some persons the Vatsiputriya (6) the Dhar- the . account on congregation andit divided into two schools.

. 295. called also by some the Samkrantivadina. which some persons call the Kacjapiya These Uttariya. are for this reason called Disciples of the dispute on one subject. and by supposing that the Vaibadyavadina of our list is the same as the Shannagarika of Vasumitra.&quot. has as follows There are four schools (sde. (5) Lokottavavadina (the original school makes up the six). (4) Aryasthavira. (2) Three divisions proceed are (i) the Aryasarvastivadina. in the Mahavyutpatti is substantithat of the Bhikshu ally the same as from the Sthaviras Varshagrapritcha. that the Tathagata was not subject to worldly laws. are called. called Bahugrutiya. Abhayagiriya. (3) Mahaviharavasina. as his text The list of schools given prescribes. Who has passed Those who were taught by the master Bahucjutiya are Those who contend that misery (dukha) all is mixed with compound Those who 1 things are called Pradshnaptivddina. 207. It appears difficult to reduce Bhavya s list to ten sects. (2) Guptaka. The Mahawanso tells us that the Abhayagiri schism occurred in the 453d year after the Buddha s death. Mula(3) the Dharmaguptaka. from the Mahasanghika school (i) (2)! (i) Jetavaniya. dina (JBtags-par-smra). the two The Shikshu varlihagralists &quot. Those who say that the blessed Buddhas have passed beyond all worlds (i.158.e. (5) Vatsi- putriya. (3) Aryasammatiya. or Lokottaravadina. (2) Mahisasaka (the text has by mistake Sa-srung). There are eighteen divisions. the Mahasanghika.&quot. f. &quot. (4) Six divisions come sarvastivadina. . live on the Tchaitya mountain are called the Tchaityika. : (4) Pradshnaptivabadyavadina. sangiti. (2) Avara^aila. 183 (12) the shaka). learn that the Sarvastivadina was the same as the Hetuvidya or Muwe With this exception. The Mahasanghika received this name on account it of the great number of its followers. of these four come from the Aryasarvastivadina (i) the Ka$yapiya. existences). p.. 1 are the eighteen schools. (3) laka. the intellect (thugs-gis instead of thugs-gi).NAMES OF THE SCHOOLS. (3) Vai- . which duntaka. nikaya]. By referring to Vasumitra. or Eka vyavalmra. Purva9aila. which made a great are assembly or thoroughly Mahd Some persons contending wisdom (skad that all the doctrines understood by an unique and immediate chig gchig-dang-ldan-pai-shes-rdb\ for all doctrines of the blessed Buddhas are comprehended by &quot.agree. Five divisions come from the Sammatlyas (i) TamraKurukul^atiya. (4) Bahugrutiya. pritsha. See Tumour. beyond all worlds.

are for this reason called Vdtsiputriya* Those who were taught by the master Dharmottara are the Dharmottariya. say that. Listes divers desNoms des dix-huit Eeoles schismatiques . 1 The text wind. Those who say that all exists. The disciples of Bhadrayana are the Bhadrayaniya. Julien.&quot. teaching of man s birth. i64b) they live on Mount Himavata. for that reason ft called live on Mount Muruntaka are Muruntaka. being born of her. &quot. have a cause (hetii). 353 and 356. Conf.1 84 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. 2 Correctly we should have &quot. woman kind being the dwelling-place (vdsa) of the family. They who say that things which have been. as rgyu and are rlung graphically similar. No. (such as) those deeds of which the con sequences have occurred. and the present. says. They who not the rlung smra-bai.They who speak of divisions. They are also called Haimavatas because (f. and that some do not exist. They whose teacher was Sammata are the Sammatiya. Journal Asiatique. They who They who will be. which and those which &quot. the future. Those who teach that the sthaviras belong to the body of the elect (ariyas) are called Sthavira. all exists. man.&quot. 1 a of or cause/ speak Hetuvidya. They who congregated in the city of Avanta were con sequently called the AvantaJca. actions of &quot. series. are. or Vaibddya- making vddina. Stan. the past. (such as) past which the result has not matured.&quot. .They who say that Those who say that some things exist. pp.VHsapwe know that this was but utriyas j speak of name of the sect. or Sarvdstivddina. They who. and the things of the future . they are called in con sequence. &quot. This is of course a mistake. is a son of the dwelling-place or vdsaputra. 5th xiv. are called. live Those who on the Purva mountain (gaila) and on the Avara mountain are respectively called PArvafa&a and Avarapaila. are called in consequence. categories (or divisions).

68. from the proper the great mass of human ties of the word earth.PECULIARITIES OF THE SCHOOLS.&quot. they whose master was Uttara are the Uttariya. or SamJcrantivadina. are believers in the non-existence of the and say that all things are without soul (andtmavddinas). in which case Conf. atman. . are the MaMQasafai. They who declaring in their teaching. skye-boi ts ogs tchen-po-la yang srid-pai mi hbyung-bar rjesu ston-par byed-pa-ni. &c. p. life) (individuality) passes into another are called. believe in (the existence of) the pudgala. Sarvastivadina.&quot. 44.. it would agree with Bhavya.&quot. the Vatsiputriya. probably means &quot. They say that the pudgala that discerned have senses when the six of skandhas to another. In like manner. The difficulty rests on the first words. (i.&quot. for a poste Mahi^asaka. They who say that the pudgala from this world of (f. mang-ston-pao. five (in 2 all). No. that all &quot. atman. They who have caused the rain of the law of laudable ideas to fall are called &quot. 1 The text &quot. without are (dharma) All the other (sects). who speak Of these passing. Those who teach much (?). &quot. They &quot. or Suvarshaka. They say that those who teach of self are in con and that all things formity of views with the tirthikas. p. Julien. is difficult. 69. 352. 1 or &quot. and the Sthavira. this teaching of the earth &quot. and Kacjapiya. They who live 185 on the Kurukula mountain are for that reason (called) Kurukula(ka). (The school of) the good rain. Mahasanghika and seven others. Sa sui (?) skad-kyi dbyings-las rjcsu ston-du bsyyur-te. They whose master (founder) was Dharmagupta are the Dharmaguptaka. and I do not feel sure of school which derives its teaching from a companson with the earth. 355. 165*).&quot. beings will have no other existence. for a priori reasons. having is overcome &quot. They whose master was Kacjapa are the Ka$yapiya.e. it. No. Dharmottariya. perfectly differences of the eighteen schools.the Stan. the riori reasons.. &quot. one is (passes) from (one set) 3 These are the from freed transmigration. or generally translated sa-ston-pa the school of the that pudgala atman ? 3 are not told whether We we are . MaMpasaka Are we to understand by this a-ston-gyi-sde.

1

86

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

Other people say that it is not so. They say that there were three original divisions (lit. root-divisions, rtsa-lai
Vaibadyavadina.
of the Sthavira

dbye-la), to wit, the Sthavira, the Mahasanghika, and the Moreover, there are two (sub)divisions

the Sarvastivadina and the Vatsiputriya.

Again, the Sarvastivadina are divided into two the Sar vastivadina (or Mula Sarvastivadina ?) and the Sautrantika. There are four (sub) divisions of the Vatsiputriya
the Sammatiya, the Dharmottariya, the Bhadrayaniya, and the Shannagarika. In this way are the Sthavira divided
into six schools.

Moreover, the Mahasanghika school has eight divisions the Mahasanghika, the Pur(according to their theory)
vagaila, the Avara^aila, the

Eajagiriya, the Hairnavata, the Tchaityika, the Samkrantivadina, 1 and the Gokulika. This is the way in which they divide the Mahasanghika.
say) comprise four divi the Mahlgasaka, the Ka^yapiya, the Dharmagupb taka, and the Tamra^atiya (f. i65 ). This is the way in which they give the eighteen divi
sions sions of the schools of the Ariyas. Again, others say that 137 years after the death of

The Vaibadyavadina (they

the Blessed One,

in the city of Pataliputra all the different Ariyas. kagyapa, a man who had attained to unassailable
sure,

King Nanda and Mahapadma convened Mahatchen-po),

and the venerable Mahaloma (spu

compo Maha-

tyaga (gtang-la tchen-po), Uttara (Ma-ma*), &c., arhats, with correct analytical knowledge, there assembled to bring

round the wicked
to understand

to agree

with the good. 2
"king,"

by

this that this

know-

is

in the singular,

whereas

ledge itself is nirvana, or whether it only shows the way to liberation. 1 The text has bden drug-pa =

we might expect the plural, although Nanda and Mahapadma reigning together might be spoken of in the See Wassilief, Taranatha, singular. p. 291, where he gives this passage from the work of Tshantsha Khutuktu. This relates to the events which followed the second council, that of Vasaila, which we have seen (p. 171) the Vinaya places no years after the Buddha s death.

but it is unShattasatyika (?), doubtedly a mistake for don-grubpa or Samkrantiv^dina. The two Tibetan expressions may easily be

mistaken in writing. 2 This passage, which appears to me very important, is not without
difficulties.

The

word

rgyal-po,

COUNCIL OF PATALIPUTRA.
Having

187

settled the habits (? tcha-lijad) of the bhikshus ex ten the indulgences? see p. 171), and having (i.e., hibited different miracles, there occurred, on account of
five propositions, a great

schism in the congregation (san-

gha).

The Sthaviras

called

Mga,

Sthiramati (Yid Irtan-

advocated the pa), and Bahugrutiya

five propositions and that said (the doctrines con taught accordingly. to another (or advice to another, gdzananswer cerning)

They

la

doubt lan-gdab), ignorance (mi shes-pa),

(lit.

double-

mindedness, yid gnyis-pa), complete demonstration (yongsu Mags-pa), restoration of self (Idag-mjid gso-lar lyed-pa), were the way, and that they were taught (lit. the doctrine
of)

Then they (the congregation) became divided into two schools, the Sthaviraand the Mahasanghika, of the congrega and for years after the division
1 by the Buddha.

sixty-three tion they obstinately quarrelled (hkhrug long-gio gnas-so). One hundred and two years later, the Sthavira and the the doctrine (bstan-pa yangVatsiputriya rightly collected had rightly collected it, After they dag-par ladus-so). there arose two divisions of the Mahasanghika, the

The Ekavyaharika con Ekavyaharika and the Gokulika. sidered as fundamental doctrines that the blessed Buddhas
66 a) having passed beyond the world, the Tathagata is not laws that the dharmachakras of all the subject to worldly 2 that the words of all the Tathiido not agree
(f.
;

Tathagatas
1
"It

;

op. tit., i75 , says, asserted that a little more the death of the after than a century Blessed Buddha, after the setting of the radiant sun, in the city of Patathe reign of King liputra, during Acoka the one ruler of the (whole) land (of India), occurred the schism
is

Vasumitra,

a

of the

Mahasanghika. It took place on account of the conception and promulgation of five propositions: influence by another (gdzan-gyis
nye-bar
bsgrub-pa), ignorance (mi shes-pa\ doubt (tom-nyi), investigation of another (gdzan-gyi rnam-par of the spyod-px), the production way (by) words (lam sgra (yis) hbya in pa).^ Vinitadeva, op. cit., f. I 7 3
,
"

even ledge (rang rig ma yin-no) ; to arhats are doubt and ignorance som(dgra-bchom-pa-rnams-la yang the exnyi dang mi-shcs-pa yod-de) ; are useful planations of another (acquiring) the fruit (hbras-bu-la to gdzan-gyi brda-sprad dgos-so) ; speak of misery, to explain misery the way (to another), will produce

m

(sdug-lsngal smos-sking, sdug bsngai ts ig-tv, brjod-pas lam slcye-bar hgyurConf. also Taranatha, p. 41, ro)."
line 20.
2
is,

So I understand the text which
hkhor-lo
rjesu

De-ldzin-gsliegs-patkams-chad-^

has,

There

is

no intuitive know-

bskor-ba^ of all the gsungs-pa ni mi hjug-go;\it of the law has wheel the Tathagatas, been spoken in agreement (it) does

tchoi-kyi

1

88

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

gatas are revered in their spirit (snying-po-la). (They say) that all the Tathagatas here (in this world) are without

longing for rupa; that the bodhisattva does not pass through the successive stages of embryonic development
[lit.

does not receive the condition of kalala (nur-nur),

arbuda (mer-mer), peclii (nar-nar), and gana (gor-gor)}, (but that), after having entered his mother s side as an elephant, he appears (i.e., is born) (by) his own (will ?). (They say) that a bodhisattva has no kamasandfna (Mod-pai hdu shes) he is born at his will among inferior
;

for

the

salvation

of

mankind

(lit.

to

beings bring people to

maturity). (They say) that with one wisdom (djana, that the ye shes) the four truths are perfectly understood six vidjnanas are subject to passions (hdod-tchags-dangfree from passions. bchas) and (According to their theories) the eye sees forms ; arhats acquire the doc
;

trine

by

others
1

:

and, moreover, there

is

a

way

to

cast

off ignorance, uncertainty;

misery

(exist).

complete demonstration, and There are words (spoken while) in a
;

state of perfect abstraction there is (such a thing as) to cast off impurity ; he who has perfectly acquired right restraint has cast off all yoga (attachment).

have not the right view

(of

mind

(sems) being of its said that anuqayas (bag-la nyal, thoughts) participate of
exist.
p.

Tathagatas the rest of) humanity. The nature radiant, it must not be

not
"

Wassilief,

however (Bud-

235, note 6), translates it, The predication of the Tathagata does not enter (mi hjug-go] into the wheel of the doctrine." The text of the Tibetan translation of Bhavya must be incorrect, for both Vasu-

dhisme,

b Vinitadeva (f. (f. I58 ) and agree in saying just the oppoThe first says, All the words site. of the Tathagata turn with the wheel of the law" (i.e., are true); the latter, The turning the wheel of the law is of the word" (tchos-kyi hkhor-lo

words spoken by the Buddha ; but the phrase is curiously constructed, and, to me, ungrammatical. By changing the order of the words in Bhavya it would be easy to arrive at the same sense as that of the other texts, but the negation would
have to be suppressed. J The text is, Dgra-lchom-parnams kyang gdzan-dag-gis bstan-pa sgrub-par-byed-do. Mi-shcs-pa dang yid gnyis dang yonsu brtags-pa dang sdug-bsngal spong-pai lam yang yoddo. Vasumitra, op. cit., f. I59 a re,

mitra
i;2
b
)

"

"

which I suppose means that the wheel of the
bsTcor-ba ni ts ig-gi yin-no)
is
;

law

in

agreement

is

part of the

same theories, but his words are very obscure. See Wassilief, Buddh., p. 228.
fers to the

THEORIES OF THE BAHUfRUTIYA.
the

189

mind or that they do not participate of it. Anugayas are one, the completely spread out (kun-nas ldang-ba, i.e., the mind) is another. The past and the future do not
exist (in the present). The grotapatti (f 1 66 ) can acquire dhyana, These are the fundamental doctrines of the Eka.

b

vyaharika.

(As

to)

the (sub) divisions of the Gokulika, the Bahu-

hold grutiya and the Pradjnaptivadina, the Bahugrutiya as fundamental doctrines that there is no mode of life
leading to real salvation (niryanika) that the truth of and suffering, subjective truth (?kun rdsol-kyi Men-pa),
;

the venerable truth (aryasatya, JipJiags-pai bden) (consti To perceive the suffering of the sanstute) the truth.
to enter perfect purity. the misery of suffering and the
is

kara

There

is

no (way) to see

misery

of change.

The

sangha has passed beyond the world

to worldly laws or conditions). There is a rightly preached trine by others.

not subject Arhats acquire the doc
is (i.e.,

way

(yang-

yang yod-do). There is a right into perfect composure (samdpatti). Of this descrip entry fundamental doctrines of the Bahucjutiya. the tion are The Pradjnaptivadina say that suffering is no skandha
dag-par
"bsgrags-pai-lam
;

;

that there are no perfect ayatanas that (all) sanskaras are bound together; that suffering is absolute (paramdrtha,

what proceeds from sdug-lsngal-ni don-dam-por-ro) that no untimely death is there that the not mind is the way Jitchi-la ni medo) that there is no human
; ; ; ;

(dus-ma yin-par that all suffering agency (skyes-lu-lyed-pa yang med-do) comes from karma (deeds). Of this description are the fundamental doctrines of the Pradjnaptivadina. The Sthavira Tchaityika are yet another division of the
Gokulika. A parivradjaka by the name of Mahadeva, who had entered the (Buddhist) order, lived on a mountain

with a tchaitya. He rejected the fundamental laws of the was called Mahasanghika, and established a school which from the derived sects six the are and these Tchaityika
;

Mahasanghika.

190

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

There are two divisions of the Sthavira, the Old Sthavira a (sngar-gyi gnas-lrtaii) (f. i6; ) and the Haimavata. The fundamental doctrines of the Old Sthavira are as follows Arhats are not perfected by the teaching of
:

another, so likewise the remainder of the five propositions are denied ; the pudgala exists there is an
;

intermediary

arhatship is parinirvana (dgra-ltchom-pa yongsu mya-ngan-las-Jidas-pa ni yod-do) the past and the future exist (in the present) there is a sense (? donartha) of nirvana. These are the
;
;

state (between

two successive existences)

;

fundamental doctrines of the (Old) Sthaviras. The fundamental doctrines of the Haimavata are that a bodhisattva is not an ordinary mortal; that even a tirthika has the five abhidjnanas; that the pudgala is separate from
the skandhas, because in the (state of) nirvana in which the skandhas are arrested the pudgala exists. Words
enter into samapatti
suffering mental doctrines of
is

removed by the marga.

words are spoken in that state) These are the funda the Haimavata.
(i.e.,

;

Moreover, the first Sthavira (dang -poi gnas - Man) divided into two sects, the Sarvastivadina and the Vatsiputriya.

The fundamental doctrines of the Sarvastivadina are all comprised in two (propositions ?). The compound and the
elementary exist. What is the consequence of this (theory) ? That there is no pudgala therefore if this body without atman comes into existence, there being no agent (byed-pa med-chiny), no right-doer, one consequently drops into the
;

This is the way they speak. These fundamental doctrines of the Sarvastivadina. Their fundamental doctrines are all comprised in ndmaare

stream of existence. 1
the

1 This passage on the theories of the Sarvastivadina is difficult: Hdusbyas dang hdus-ma byas-so. De skad smras-pas-chir hgyur. Gang-zag ni

la.

Vasumitra

med ekes bya-ba ste, ji slcad-du bdagmed-pa-yilus hdi hbyung-na, byed-pa eking, rigs-pa-po-yang med, jiItar hkhor-bai tcku-kluny hjug-hgyurmcd

not contrary to what f. 160. See also Vinitadeva, f. 173^, who has that they believed it very meritorious to
It
is

tells us,

honour tchaityas ; that they distinguished three kinds of elementary,
&c., &c.

THEORIES OF THE MAHIQASAKA.

191

rupa. The past and the future exist (at the present time) the grotapatti is not subject to degeneracy. There are three b characteristics (f. i67 ) of compound things. The four
;

holy truths are gradually understood.
desired,

The

and the uncharacteristic lead

to the

With fifteen (state, skyon-med-pa-la). attained the fruit of grotapanna. 1 The grotapatti finds Even the arhat has an imperfect existence. 2 dhyana.
Ordinary mortals can cast off raga or evil-mindedness. tirthika has the five abhidjanas. There are means for even a deva to lead a virtuous life (braJimdchariya). All the sutras have a straight (drang-po, richu) sense. He who has entered the unblemished (truth), has (passed) There is a right view of the beyond the kamadhatu.

ununblemished seconds one has
void, the

Even a

kamaloka
loka
?).

(i.e.,

All the

inherent to persons inhabiting the kamafive vidjnanas are not under the rule of

the passions, (but) they are not also free from passions. These are the fundamental doctrines of the Sarvastivadina.

There

is,

moreover, a sect (bye-lrag) of the Sarvastivadina

which is the Vaibadhyavadina. The divisions of the Vaibadhyavadina are the Mahigasaka, the Dharmaguptaka, the Tamragatiya, and the
Kagyapiya. The fundamental doctrines of the Mahigasaka are The past and the future do not exist present compound things
: ;

To distinguish misery is to see into the parts of exist. the four truths. Anugayas are one and the evident cause
(mngon du rgyu = sems
?) is

another

(i.e.,

they must be dis

There is no intermediary existence (between tinguished). two successive regenerations) there is (such a thing as) a
;

life of
1

virtue (brahmdchariya) in the abode of devas; 3 even
2

tells

Wassilief, op. cit., p. 248, note 3, us that there are sixteen periods

The

text

has

dgra-bcJiom-pa

or

moments through which one must
,

yang nyam pa sring-ngo. I read the last words nyams-pa srid-do.
,
,

pass before he becomes an ariya. Conf. Vasumitra, f. 1 6o b "Having entered the unblemished reality, the

mind

s

in fifteen
panna."

development (sems bskyed-pa] (moments) is called 9rota-

3 Vasumitra, op. cit. f. i62 b says the contrary, and Vinitadeva, f. 17 3 b, also. Vasumitra, loc. cit., also says that they deny an intermediary existence, but Vinitadeva does not agree with him,

Karma is as is the mind. f. 4 But Vasumitra. loc.yung-l)a rtag-tu ni bag-la-nyal-ba yinno). if I understand rightly the text (sems ji-ltar-ba deliar las-yin-gyi-lus dang ngag-gi las mnyam-pa &quot. condition not subject to degeneracy. says.&quot. cit. theories) All are their those of the Mahasanghika. The pudgala pervades quires dyana.gt.192 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. perfect freedom) of the (or a) Buddha and of the Qravakas is one.&quot. says the contrary.the body of an arhat the like rest is adds that without (of asrava. but Vinitadeva agrees with our text. the sanskara do not (however) exist permanently. &quot. i62 says. &quot. These are the fundamental doctrines of the Mahi^asaka. equal to the head and all the rest of the body. nor which manifestations. all the individual. 2 1 faculty with freedom of action. yod-do). but none from (those made to) the sangha. (Any) present event is always an anuc^aya (da-ltar l&amp.&quot.the text is. Gang-zag ni mgo is la- sangha. The emancipation (lit. there is no reward for honouring a tchaitya. in the The &quot. wickedness. The fundamental doctrines of the Dharmaguptaka are as follows The Buddha is not comprised in the sapgha. b Vasumitra. There is (such a thing as) a life of virtue (bralimdcliariya) in the abode of the devas. There is no liberty of body or speech 3 there is no . loc. 3 That is to say. &quot. There are worldly laws (hjigThese are the fundamental rten-pai-tchos-ni yod-do). anything participates in the least of the conditions of birth.. f. 1 All the five vidjnanas are (subject to) the passions and without passion (rdga). 5 Vinitadeva agrees with In the following clause . the words in brackets are supplied from Vasumitra s work . doctrines of the Dharmaguptaka. 4 There is a great reward from (offerings made to) the : Buddha. 5 Vasumitra. dang mnyam-pa yin-no. sogs-pa lus lit. To distinguish compound things is to enter the un blemished (truth). the mind is the only .The pud(mgo gala is even with the head pudgala our text. Vasumitra. There is no such thing as to Neither the mind nor its perceive (mtJiong) the pudgala. an arhat accumulates merit. is through an extension of the sanskara.. i63 a The Buddha is represented . 2 the cjotapatti ac cast off passions and Ordinary beings (can) The Buddha is comprised in the sangha. our text is evidently imperfect. ni med-do). If birth another. passes from this life into All compound things are momentary. cit.

and subjection as also the law of coining to pass (i.To one who cast off (sin) is imperfect knowledge&quot. are that to another. All is the Sarvastivadina. to me that Bhavya in phrase shows us that spangs-pa Vasumitra ought to be translated by &quot.What (f. 162. and Vinitadeva does not mention the doctrines of this school. not. . p. &quot.. the pratityasamuda person who has cast off (all sin ?) is pada) exist. pass from this the pudgala transmigrates. To All the other assertions (hdod) of perfect knowledge. There is a skandha which has inborn sin The rtsa-bai Itung-la dang-bclias-pai-plmng-po (? pudgala is not to be considered subjectively These are the impermanent.&quot. attached to the five skandhas. i68 ). 163 -) has. &quot. Spangs-pa yoncjm dies-pa yod-do. it. at. the Kacjapiya are (like) those of the Dharmaguptaka. mitra 2 Vasumitra. 257. off. ma spangs-pa yongsu spang dzes-pa med do.DOCTRINES OF THE VATSIPUTRIYA. but this cannot be correct. as Wassilief is cast &quot.&quot. a sect of the Sarvastivadina (f. the five skandhas pass (hpho.e. fundamental doctrines of the Samkranti (school). 2 not been discovered. the fundamental doctrines of the Samkb whose rantivadina. The fundamental theory of the Tamragaitya is that there is 1 no pudgala.. are solidary (? ni Uags-so). These are the fundamental doctrines of the seven divisions of (don-dam-par). the exception of the there is nothing which I73 b ) has. Eequital. op. life (into another).He who has cast off (sin).To one who has spangs-pa is . passes from this Vinitadeva says about the same thing. 3 Conf what Vasumitra says f. chief doctrines are (due to) the master Uttara. samkrdnti) from this life There is no arresting the skandhas when the way has yod-do). Yowjsu . Furthermore. 163*. Vasu- is nothing perfectly wise there which has not been cast off which confirms our translation of Bhavya. s moreover. op. says the contrary. The fundamental doctrines follows : 193 of the K^yapiya are as to the laws of requital. It appears. . (spangs-la yonc/su ma shcs-pa yod-do). There are compound things (sanskdra) which are mo1 The text says. The fundamental doctrines of the Vatsiputriya are The possession of what one was attached to and upadana : nye-lar Uangs-pa nye-lar-len pa dang-ldanThere are no properties (? dharma) which pa 3 When one has been life into another. cit.. &quot.With has (f. Vinitadeva shes-la-ma- pudgala. mcdo.

The latter classes it with the 3 this doctrine. and 2 Bhavya gives this as the theory of another class of historians. of the agent. The passage is certainly obscure. Guptaka. they believe in and objective existence. . of belief of the Sammatiya shall be . 169*. others that it is a division of the Sammatiya. what Vasumitra (f. or that it is in the 1 They do not say that nirvana is disruption (of them). of the thing which shall decay (as well as of) decay. Neither Vasumitra nor Vinitadeva mention 1 much This clause is I offer my translation as tentative. future what is. One must not say that the pudgala is either an upadanaskandha. Some say that the Shannagarika school is a division of the Mahagiriya . Vatsiputriya schools. of what shall be arrested (the belief in the existence of) birth and death (as well) as of the thing which shall die.) The fundamental doctrines of the Dharmotin the arresting of birth tariya is In birth is ignorance : . They do not say that nirvana is in the unification of all conditions. thus making four divisions of the Vatsi putriya school. The fundamental doctrines in) things). 3 There obscure . it runs. mentary. Mya-nyan-las-hdas-pa ni tchos thamschad dang ychig-pa-nyid-du dam thadad-pa-nyid-du mi brjod-do.. and subjective In other words. of what shall go (as well as) in going. the Dharmottariya and the Bhadrayaniya. Kaurukullaka. (F.e. that there are none without raga. is the arresting of ignorance. These are the fundamental doctrines of the Vatsiputriya. (They say that) the five vidjnanas are not subject to passions . There are yet two divisions of the Vatsiputriya. 74 ) say school. 162) arid b Vinitadeva 1 of this (f. The eighteen ( divisions (rnam-pa) came into existence certain is gradually through following (the theories of) doctors who are the originators of them. Conf. The Bhadrayaniya are like unto them. real existence (yod-pa nyid\ or that it is not real exist ence.194 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. are : (The the existence of what (i. and also (some) which are not momentary. or that it is not. of what must be perceived (as well as) in perception (vidjnana)? There are two kinds of Mahagiriya (ri-tchen-po). the Mahagiriya and the Sammatiya.

THEORY OF PRIMARY SUBSTANCE.
more
to be said

195
is

about another separation.

Here

how

(arose) the diversity of doctrines and the four divisions of the Sarvastivadina, which was caused by the diversity (of opinions) on substance (bhava, dngos-po), characteris
tics

(lakshana, mtsan-mjid),

condition (gnas-skdbs), and

change (gdzan gdzan-du hgyur-la-nyid). Concerning primary substance arid its change, the Bhadanta Dharmatrata said that, according to circumstances (tchos-rnams) and time, there is (no) changing of sub stance and no transmutation into another substance If a gold vase has been destroyed and (after (bhava). made into something else, made into another wards) it will not however be another substance (rdsas). shape,
Likewise milk, if it become curds, though it has acquired a different taste, property (nus-pa), another shape (smin1 In like manner, if pa), (yet) it is the same substance.
past conditions (dharma) exist in the present, (they retain) the substance (dngos-po) of the past. There is no destruc
tible
said, if the present (condition) the present substance (dngos-po) is not of a destructible nature (i.e., it will be the same in

matter therefore, he
;

exists in the future

the future).
of) the change of characteristics is (the He said that all Bhadanta Ghoshaka. work) of time cannot but have in influence under the things the future and in the present the characteristics which they had in the past. The future and the future charac teristics of a thing cannot but be the past and present For example, if men loved one woman, they are ones.

(The theory
of

the

the rest (of womankind). 2 (The theory of) the change of condition is (the work), He said that things under of the Bhadanta Vasumitra.

not without affection for

all

the influence of time which are said to change do not
1
"

The te\tiskha-doy
not the
colour."

ni

ma yin-pa,

&c.,
2

but on the circumstances and

it is

which I sup-

time.

pose must imply that the new qualities acquired by milk in becoming curds do not depend on the colour,

Dpcr-na skyes-bu-dag lud-med
rnams-la tchags-pa-dang-bral-ba

gchig-la tchags-pdr-gyur-pa-na, Ihag-

ma
ni

ma

yin-no.

196
alter

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
their

For example, in a one of one single vegetable life, in a series of an speaks hundred it is an hundred lives, in a thousand it is a thousand existences. That is what he said. 1
condition (gnas-skabs).

(The
another

theory
(i.e.,

of) passing from one (condition) into of change) is (the work) of the Bhadanta

Buddhadeva. He said that when one looks at the remote (sngori) and the proximate (phyi-md) in the work of time on things, one says that they (have passed) from one For example, one speaks of a (condition) into another.

woman

as

"

ma
So

"

(or
it

mother)

;

she

is

also called

"

bu-mo,"

that these (four) men (or girl). say that all and things exist, they are Sarvastivadinas. Likewise some (teachers) said that there are seven
is

pratitya

mity
(zas),

(?

cause (hetu), thought (dlambana), proxi de-ma-thag-pa), the atman (bdag-po), karma, food
(rkyeri),

four

Some said that there being dependency (rteri). of mental ways perception, truth was various (bden-

pa

Others say that as there are eight (kinds) of religious knowledge (tchos-shes-pa) and knowledge derived
so-soo).

from experience (lit. example, rjesu shes-pa), there is no analytical knowledge. Here we will leave Bhavya, for the remaining pages of
.
.

.

his treatise only recapitulate the opinions of the Sarvastivadina school, and we know enough of these from Vasu-

Although it is not within the scope of this examine in detail the doctrines of the Mahay na schools of Buddhism which superseded those of which Bhavya and Vasumitra speak, and which were called by their opponents Hinayana schools, yet I cannot refrain from giving the following extract from a very interesting
mitra.

work

to

a"

Vaipulya sutra called Angulinialiya sutra (Bkah-hgyur, Mdo xvi., f. 208 et seq.) (f. 273 a) "All sentient
:

beings

exist in the essence (garbha) of the Tathagata

"

;

this is

the teaching of the
1

Mahay

a"

na,

whereas the Qravakayana

Sngon-lugcTiig-lu bgrangs-pai-ts e ni gchig ches brjod-par-gyur-pa-la, grangs brgyar gtogs-pai-ts e ni brgya

paits e- ni hdrao.

dzes-lya, grangs stong-du Igrangstong dzes-bya-ba dang

DOCTRINES OF THE MAHAYANA.
(i.e.,

197

the Hinayana) says,
"

"

All sentient beings exist by

eating

(zas-la gnas-so).

originate in the Qravakain the not are Mahay ana (doctrine). Ndmarupa yana; they the freedom (moksha) are as follows and nothing more
:

The words ndma and rupa

Qravakas and the Pratyikabuddhas is only a name (ndma), so they do not understand either form or space. The freedom of the blessed Buddhas is something else
of the

than a myrobolan in the palm of the hand. The three vedand originate in the Qravakayana; they These three notions (vedand): are not in the Mahayana.

have been so fortunate as to have heard that the Tathagata will never cease from being the most exalted, that is, a vedand. To have been so fortunate as to have heard that To have the blessed law will vanish, that is a vedand. been so fortunate as to have heard that the sangha will These are the three vedand of disappear, that is a vedand.
to

the Mahayana. The four holy truths are chief dogmas (grags-pai-ts ig) in the Qravakayana but a similar collection is not in the
;

Mahayana.
truth in

The Tathagata is but the Mahayana
; ;

eternal; that
suffering
is

is

a great

not a truth.

that is a great truth The Tathagata is everlasting in the Mahayana, (but) the origin (of suffering) is not a truth. The Tathagata is the most exalted of ever
lasting (things) ; that is a great truth in the Mahayana, The (but) the cessation (of suffering) is not a truth.

Tathagata is passionless (dzi-bao) that is a great truth in the Mahayana, (but) the way (to arrest suffering) is not These are the four holy truths in the Mahayana. a truth. The action of suffering is not a truth, for if the action was a truth, it would be true for the four of
;

suffering

(classes) of suffering (beings) ; would apply to those of the

l

then the four holy truths worlds of brutes, pretas,

asuras,
1

and

of

Yama.
text, Sduff-

So I understand the

bsngal-gyi-bya-ba

bdcn-du

lays-na,

sdug-bsngal-ma bdzi bden-par kyyurte, &c.

198

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.
five

The

organs

Qravakayana, but
the five organs

are a chief dogma in the not so in the Mahayana. (Here) of sense are To see the Tathagata as
it is
:
"

of

sense

eternally visible (gsal bar) in all one s meditation, this is the (organ of the) eye. the Tathagata is Having heard
eternal,"

always to meditate this

way

is

the (organ of the)

to reflect that the Tathagata exhales the fragrance of eternity is the (organ of the) nose. Always to reflect that the essence of the Tathagata is in nirvana
ear.

Always

l (the freedom from sorrow) is the (organ) of the tongue. Always to reflect when one has heard and felt that the

of the Tathagata is the most exalted body, the body. The six senses (dyatana) are a chief dogma in the Qravakayana, but there is no such series of six senses in the

dharmakdya
that
is

Mahayana. (With it) what is called the six ayatana are To reflect, as a means for arriving at perfection, that the Tathagata must be considered (seen) as eternally visible, that is the ayatslna of the eye. To reflect, as a means for
is

:

the Tathagata arriving at perfection, that one has heard To reflect, as eternal," that is the ayatana of the ear. a means for arriving at perfection, that one has heard the
"

essence (garlJia) of the Tathagata is the odour of eternity (or is an eternal fragrance), that is the ayatana of the nose. To reflect, as a means for arriving at perfection, that the

essence of the Tathagata is the doctrine (bstan-pa), is the ayatana of the tongue. To reflect, as a means for arriving at perfection, that one has heard and felt that the dharmakaya of the Tathagata is the most exalted mind of that

body (sJcu dei No-dam-pa), that is the ayatana of the body. To perfectly believe with unwavering heart in the mani
fest doctrine of the Tathagata, that is the

ayatana of the
of truth), is

door of entering (i.e., this sense of the the ayatana of the mind (manas).

way

The seven branches
1

of the

Bodhi

is

a chief

dogma

in

De-ldzin-gshegs-pai

mya-ngas-nas

(

= mya-nyan-las

snyinc/-pai

nets

ma-ts ang-ba-med-par syan-pa de

hdas)

ni Icheo.

DOCTRINES OF THE MAHAYANA.

199

Even in the Mahayana those seven the Qravakayana. (branches) are difficult terms to find, like the blooming Those seven branches flower of the fig-tree (udumbara).
of the Bodhi, the seven full-blown flowers, are the eternity
of the Tathagata.

The holy

eightfold

kayana. This than right views, &c.

another holy eightfold way Furthermore, the teaching that the Tathagata is the chief eternity (rtag-pai mtchog) is an holy To have heard and fully appreciated the eightfold way. of the Tathagata is to have found the right way greatness to pass beyond sorrow (nirvana). (To know that) the

way is a Mahayana has

chief

dogma

in the Qrava-

Tathagata
ing, is to

s eternity,

everlastingness,

is

the highest bless

Enlightenment (bodhi) is bliss ni sangs-rgyas-te). The Dharmakaya is the Tatha (shis-pa The essence of the Tathagata is without old age (i.e., gata.
These are what one must know as the decay). the way. The nine branches of the of branches eight This siUra nikaya are a chief dogma in the Qravakayana.

become

cool. 1

knows no

Mahayana

says that there is but one mode of conveyance a The ten forces in all penetrating (f. 27 5 ) wisdom. (yana) of the Tathagata are a chief dogma in the Qravakayana

;

in this
gata,
is

Mahayana

there are not ten forces of the Tatha

but an unlimited force. Whereas the Blessed Buddha incomprehensible and cannot enter the mind, therefore

his

might

is infinite.

The Blessed Buddha taught

infinite

Idemparables (in the) sutra nikaya (mdo-sde mthah-yas-pa 2 TathaThe This is the only way. po-ngad-tu ston-pao).
1

De-bdzin-gshegs-pai-rtag-pa ther-

tras

zug gyung-drung-gi mtchog bsil-bargyur-pa. Which might perhaps be renThe Blessed Buddha exdered, pounded in parables the infinite of the sUtra nikaya." Made manifest by parables the doctrine of the infinite as it was contained in the sutras in obscure terms. However, it may simply imply that the Mahayana taught that the doctrines in the su"

cally, a

were to be understood allegoritheory which we know ^to have been held by some of the earlier See Vasumitra s Samaschools.
yabedhoparachanachakra, f. i6i (The Sarvastivadina school teaches that) there are doctrines which have not been taught in the precepts (lung"

a.

du mi

ston-pai tchos-rnams yod-do.) Conf. however, Wassilief s translation of this phrase. Buddh., p. 249, where I cannot follow him.

200

THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.

the one gata is the only vehicle (yana), the one refuge, one truth to follow after, the one realm (khams), the being, the one colour (? kha-dog) therefore there is but one yana,
;

the others are but
I

expedients."

examine more in detail the characteris tics of the Mahayana doctrine, which gave a new impetus to Buddhism, and perhaps made it acceptable to races which would have refused it in its primitive purity but enough has been said to show how pervaded its teachings were with mysticism and ideas antagonistic to Gautama s

would

like to

;

I will only give a short text concerning a very interesting feature of the Mahayana theory, namely, that of the three bodies or JcayatrAya, in which we find an

teaching.

important link in the chain of doctrinal evolution, which Buddhas or divine finally led to the theory of the Adi Buddhas. the that of and to essence," Dhyani
"

"

Once
s

I

while the Blessed

heard the following discourse (said Ananda), One was stopping at Eajagriha, on the

Vulture

Peak, together with an innumerable number of

bodhisattvas, devas, and nagas

who were doing him homage.

Then from out

company, the Bodhisattva Ksliitigarbha (Sai-snying-po), who was (also) there, arose % from Has his seat and spoke as follows to the Blessed One The Blessed One said, Kshitithe Blessed One a body ?
this
:

garbha, the Blessed One, the Tathagata, has three bodies the body of the law (Dharmakdya), the body of perfect
:

enjoyment (Samlhdgakdya), the apparitional body (Nirmanakdya). Noble sir (Kulaputra), of the three bodies of the Tathagata, the Dharmakaya is a perfectly pure nature (svabhdva), the Sambhogakaya is a perfectly pure samadhi a perfectly pure life is the JSTirmariakaya of all Buddhas. Noble sir, the Dharmakaya of the Tathagata 1 like space is the prerogative of being without svabhdva
;
;

the

Sambhogakaya
"

is

the prerogative of being visible like
space,

1 I think that svabhdva is here used to express absence of all characteristics." In Angulimaliya Sutra, The Blessed Buddha is like f. 250,
"

and space

teristics."

1881, p.

is without characDr. Edkins, J. R. A. S., 63, renders the expression
"

Dharmakaya by

doctrinal

self."

done -Sansk. Noble sir.) defines this body the body gifted with the faculty &c. seat of the passions. is the prerogative of permeating all things as does a rain. See Buddh. incalculable amount of Sugata.&quot. One it is it is The Blessed One Noble merit. f. The Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha said to the Blessed One.THE BUDDHA a cloud . the science like a mirror (adar^adjndnd). 1 The Chinese Buddhist San thsang fa su (B. is the Nirmanakaya. I. is the Dharmakaya . Trig. ! &quot. here used for dyathe science of the achievement of what must be 2 Sgo Inga &quot. &quot. the Dharmakaya is the nature in herent to all buddhas the Sambhogakaya is the samadhi inherent to all buddhas the Nirmanakaya is the object Noble sir. stood this exposition of the truth from the Blessed One has acquired an inexpressible. &quot. S THREE BODIES. Rungdzi appears to be used here for &quot. have heard the blessed truth from the Blessed exceeding good . Kun-gdzi gnas-su dag-pa. Icun. . Diet.the See Jaschke. ary. 201 the Nirmanakaya being the object of all Buddhas. said to the Make visible these definitions of the true bodies of the Blessed One. 3 the Bodhidictionf. can form themselves and appear in all places to explain the law. the . 9. . .&quot.. 2 the science of the achievement of to the Blessed what must be done. . Then the Blessed One : : Bodhi Noble sir. dhas having a divine power which transescapes the human mind. When the Blessed One had thus spoken. s. The budof transforming itself. c. Stan. is the Sambhogakaya . viii..&quot. 13. he who has under said. Julien. Nirmanakaya is discernible in the air of different pious men. purity in the abode of the percep tions of the five doors. the three bodies of the sattva Kshitigarbha Tathagata will be discerned thus the Dharmakaya is dis cernible in the whole air of the Tathagata the Sambho gakaya is discernible in the whole air of a bodhisattva . 3 Then the Bodhisattva Kshitigarbha said &quot.v. Kranti/dnuchdhanadjndna. purity in the abode of the of all buddhas. the science of thoroughly analysing. exceeding good sir. purity in the abode of the sinful mind is the science of equality (samatadjndna) purity in the per ceptions of the mind. I . &quot. 1 soul.the is tana. senses. One.

p. 81. Buddh. 63 . - See Bkah-hgyur.. the three parts or composition. the omnipresent). R. J. and lauded greatly what the Blessed One had l said.202 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Mem. bas. Beal.e. sattva Kshitigarbha. exclusively devoted to the It is for this practice of religion. and yet not different without . Wassilief. if the persons are one substance. (i. said Cakya. yakshas. See also J. The three are the as one .&quot. But it may be persons are spoken of as Tathagata. 127. Dharmakaya. . f. how is it that this one substance is differently manifested? In reply we say there is no real difference these manifestations are . 200) the preceding interpretation of Dharmakaya is unknown. 124. the devas.Now these three Qakyamuni. .. When regarded as one. S. sur les Contrees Occidentales. Mdo xxii. 3 who has for body the law. &quot. If we refer to the work of the Chinese Buddhist Jin Ch an. mountains and woods where live gods 124. not one. Julien.In each of the pores of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara rise Conf. &quot. 240. Stan. A. Sambhogakaya is called Eajana the infinitely pure or glorious). a THist. Edkins. p. only different views of the same unchanging 1 substance. we find that Dharmakaya has become Vairojana (i. Tathagatas are all in same cluded in one substantial essence. p. and sages. 2 Beal. Catena. p.. 1881.e.&quot. gandharand men were delighted. and ISTirmanakaya is &quot.&quot. asked. p. p. i. In the Karandavyuha (Burnouf. Intr. nagas.. Catena. that he is called reason.. 373.

descent claims first Tibetan monarch and the life converts the of early king of Kogala. or per Chinese influence. and Cakya the mountaineer. Si-yu-ki (Juhen). into that country. which Another consideration. i. are proud to claim descent And of himself.akya the great (the Buddha). P- IO &c 7&amp. families if not to the Buddha his friends and from the Virgin the east. gakya the Licchavi. in the reign of Kaltheir national history. the first of belonged to the family Many other Qakya the Licchavi. so likewise the Mary or from the wise from Prasenadjit. p. these legends seem to be a rather clumsy adaptation of the Chinese ones relative to their are recorded in the Bamboo books. first Bod-yul can only be said the introduction of Buddhism. THE EARLY HISTORY OF BOD-YUL (TIBET). worthy of remark that as legendary. p. they commenced writing the and that was to make genealogy of their monarchs ascend. exercised great influ ence with Tibetan historians when. whose most celebrated repreLntatives were C. THE early history to commence with haps rather of all the events chronicled as appears highly probable that anterior to that epoch must be considered in great part It is. 2 1. Gnya Tibetan po. 179.gt. in his history of Khri bstan king. one 1 Gautama. at least to one of as we have in Europe men What i information is derivable from early Chinese Sanang Setsen. says that the Cakya race (to which the Buddha belonged) was divided into three parts. See HuenThsang. and it of Tibet or sovereigns. - . &quot. the Eastern Mongols. however. and Buddhist sovereigns of India elsewhere claimed the same descent. moreover. Buddha long friend of the who protectors. pa-chan.CHAPTER VII.

six children. . who inhabit Yunan. were a monkey-king who had been sent to the parents snowy king dom by They had Avalokitesvara and a rakshasi or female demon. 6). &quot. They had eaten all the fruit in the forest. such as Sse-ma-tsien. 384 and . after a few years. and as soon as they were weaned them into a forest of fruit trees and aban doned them. p. oxen. and were con sidered by the Chinese as an assemblage of ferocious tribes still oath&quot. The monkey-king had recourse to his patron the father took 1 les Abel Remusat. as all these tribes belonged to the same may prove interesting to note what few particulars I have been able to collect from the works at The Chinese name for the early Tibetans is &quot. to their chiefs. p. K iang (^) my disposal. or from the later compila tion of Ma-twan-lin relative to the Tibetans. barbarians. dogs. they came clamouring piteously around him. may not he applicable to those tribes which founded the kingdom of Tibet. it Nevertheless. When. Each year they took a little who were called Than -phu (Btsan-po. and so. They were divided into small clans. They had no written characters. which were continually at war with one another.&quot.&quot. J.). Recherches sur Langues Tartares. 1 In short. &quot. S. and asses. and monkeys. &quot. authors. and sacri ficed men. and even to the present day a large part of the Tibetan nation are pastors. for the early Chinese were only acquainted with the eastern and north-eastern Tibetan tribes which have always been wilder than those situated farther west. New Series. he came back. he found to his great surprise that their number had increased to five hundred. pressed by hunger. (Sse-ma-tsien. when they sacrificed sheep.204 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. the early Tibetans may unquestionably be compared with that of the Lo-lo tribes of our days. p. stock. but made use of notched pieces of wood and of knotted cordelets. R. Kh. and who are most likely of the same stock as their eastern first The Tibetans pretend that their neighbours. 123. horses. 440 et scq. A. Every three years they took the great oath. or shepherds. xii. Bushell.. the degree of civilisation of noble &quot.

lasciviousness. ness. their and eloquence. 212. Tylor. Kreitner. From this side they get greediness. and abstemiousness more love for good works.) . charitableness. they get sensuality. Mongols. ancestors. but since they are responsible for this description of themselves. results which followed their eating of this grain the monkeys tails and the hair on their bodies grew shorter and shorter until they finally disappeared. The monkeys commenced to speak they were men. and their their love for trade. gentle speech. epistle to and Khri srang . p. cit. . they get gentleness. Im fernen Osten. 2 Schmidt. Forschungen im Gebiete der alteren Religionen der Volker Mittel-Asiens. when provoked.. Primitive Gust. their the rakshasi. . J. and Tibetans different from that of (Bstan-hygur. trickiness. so that the famished apes filled themselves. See 1 We also Markham s f. 2d edit. 214. and as soon as they noticed this change in their nature they clothed them . See also Hue s Souvenirs de Voyage. the people of Tibet show As From their father. Mdo xciv. op. a consequence of the first parents of the Tibetans being a monkey and a rakshasi. 834. 341 Buddaguhya Ide btsan. Schmidt. stubbornness. p. considerateness. as the Bon or known is Tibet of The early religion J. 376-378 387 our text. we can accept it as pro differ much from bably correct. and a great quantity which was left over sprung up and sup Wonderful were the plied stores for their future wants. and mischievousness. s Tibet. peculiarities of both their their the holy monkey. p. 1 selves with leaves. E.CHARACTER OF THE TIBETANS.. . B. Sumeru and cast down a great quantity of the five kinds of grain. cannot consider this picture of the character of the Tibetans as nattering. p. and in reality it does not from them of heard have what we European travellers. gives a Tibetan legend concerning the origin of Chinese. their him their from over. they derive From their mother. Culture. p. and. enviousness. . . 205 Avalokitesvara he cried to him for help from the top of the Potala mountain. and the god declared that he would So he went to Mount be the guardian of his race. 2 violence and cruelty. and their deceitfulpiety.

&quot. is still Gyung-drung-gi-lon? and tins creed followed by part of the Tibetans and the barbarous tribes of the Hima Mr. and hang wear they See Schiefner. Bon-pa of China. gyung-drung&quot. 80. 2 1 Ueber das Bon-po Peters. de 1 Acad. Description de Tibet. I. &quot. der Bon-po 399. Ueber Secte in Tibet. it almost entirely consists in exorcising evil spirits. R..&quot. The only work of the Bon-pa which has been made acces sible to Western scholars is a sutra translated by A. Sutra in 42 Sections. which in Tibetan is called &quot. 148. 166-170 et seq. or holy white naga hundred Mem. 396On the See also his notice Tribes of Northern Tibet.&quot. religion. p.. p.206 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. thousand. in the Himalayas even the Bon-pa priests them 2 The selves can tell nothing of the origin of their belief. A. evil.. one of the names of the Svastikas or worshippers of the mystic cross swasti.. &quot. . de St. &quot. p. note. Brian Hodgson connects it with the primitive layas. 6. 4 See also E. They fear the devil and devilish impre therefore to get away from their evil influences on their persons amulets as talismans. 97. No. and it is remark drawn so largely from have two able that these religions Buddhist ideas that they have nearly identified themselves with it.The See on the influence of Buddhism on Taoism. p. 3 Intr. Yule s Marco Polo. The religion of the Lo-los is sorcery . he adds. &quot. as giving us very correct ideas before it came in contact with I fancy that the following description of the religious ideas of the Lo-los of Sse-tchuen will give us some idea of what was the early Tibetan national &quot. Dr. xxviii.&quot. 287) from Punya.The Essays.&quot. p. S. the sole authors of cations . vol. but. xvii. but Buddhist influence it is so manifest in it that it impossible to consider of what this religion was O Buddhism. which are. word Bon-pa is unquestionably derived (as General Cun ningham was first to point out. they say. p. Klaproth. i. is &quot. The Bon-pa religion has repeatedly been said 4 to be the same as that of the Tao-sse. The Tibetan title of this work Gtsang-ma klu hbum dkar-po. in his J. Sutra. Turanian superstitions and the doctrines of Qaivism. &c. Schlaginweit. Ledge s Lectures on the Religions of China. Schiefner is 3 .

b freedom by walking in the I have obtained &quot. &quot. all Any one who masters them possesses has faith this doctrine is knowledge. on the walls animals. He taught the four truths of Gshen-rabs. misery. of &quot. of charity. &quot. leave behind tion (the five Buddhist paramitas). and me and wisdom. It may possibly be that On his head is the mitra jewel. in all the 142 gyung-drung (cf. one will and lust of of the subjection to trans and medita the torrent misery migration. this &quot. the nine Bodhyanga).&quot. and learn to the foundation of all knowledge. ditation. iron hook of mercy.THE BON-PA DOCTRINES. a 1873. p. or Gshen-rabs mi-bo. &c. and in his left the mudra of equality. and root foundation are the rules of deliverance which . from sions .&quot. the five perfec of perfect charity. steadfastness. has something people out of the ocean hooked to do with the swastika cross. ). &quot. as a bodhisattva.&quot. morality. For him who Shun evil. &quot. &quot.&quot. iron hook of mercy. In his right hand he holds the like the rays of the sun. and by walking in the way of the five perfections. 99.If any one St. patience. means. l 207 of their houses branches of trees or skulls of From the work translated by M.whose compassion shines forth glorious Mahapurusha. The nine branches of the prayer. with which Gshen-rabs fishes of transmigration. Schiefner we learn that the founder of the Bon-pa religion was Gshen-rabs.&quot. Annexe letter of it is 1 See Vivien de M. for humanity. steadfastness. and for that purpose he took the form of the holy white naga Hundred-thousand. of desire. patience. Crabouiller to the Mis- Geographique. charity. He tions charity. The five exoteric perfections virtue. 28 &quot. 9 ). he says (f.&quot. which is also a In former times. b know this excellent law (f.&quot. called also excellent Mahapurusha.Form is the cause of transmigration. perfect way took upon himself the task ten regions of teaching the holy law to all humanity in the of the thousand millions of continents. morality. cross. lives in the perfection of charity. Martin.

and the kingdom was in happiness. happiness if if he enters the perfection of charity. which became He as the U-bu bla-sgang or Ombo-blang-gang. on the red mountain (DmarPotala). 2 The Yar-lung river empties into the Yarn Tsang-po a little east of Dhainda. patience. If tion of morality. Yar-lung country (i. from a partiality to old legends. 332-834). . The five principal sages glorified (the king) in records in He organised an army gold and turquoises (E. op.&quot. the town of Bathang. 214. it is happiness if he remains steadfastly in the perfection of happiness If any one is in possession of this it is happiness. op. of the Yang-tse-kyang. Bon. first entered the Sarat Chandra Das. 1 &c. This can hardly be made to agree with the statement that Srong btsan-sgam-po moved his Lhasa.&quot. This last remark seems to confirm what p..that he erected the great palace of Yambu Lagari. king of Tibet was Chiya-Jchri Usan-po (in Mon golian Seger Sandalitu). 23). according to tradition. country. it is he abides in the perfection of charity. Kb nige von Tibet. r. Bhotan. south of Lhasa).&quot. capital to &quot. it is the any wisdom of Bon. and takes its rise in the Dalatang Tchukhang glaciers.e. po-ri Sanang Setsen p. cit. 508. . to protect his person. peans. to quell troubles in the country. ravaging 2 the Sanpu valley. charity. says Jaschke. . in Western China. coming from India. passim.&quot. coming from the north. The first means Southern and Central Tibet. the first king of Tibet. a large tributary Diet. a son of King Prasenadjit of He was elected by the twelve chiefs of the Kosala. p. Schlaginweit. 1 According to making use of a Sanang Setsen (p. ruled according to law. cit. who hoped by this put an end to the internecine wars which were He took up his residence in the the country. says &quot. east of &quot. on the site of which Lhasa was built in later days. See Schiefner. &quot. Nevertheless Tibetan historians. So it is in like manner with the perfec possession of this idea.208 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. . the Chinese say about the Tibetans species of quippus. Its course has been explored by EuroYar-lung. p. tribes of to and known built a castle at Phyi-dbang-stag-stse. s... If any one is in of Bon the heaven is it idea. and to keep off foreign enemies. it is the gyung-drung (svasti) of in one is possession of this idea. Though it is true that he says my great-grandfather Totori snyan-shal resided in Lhasa.. describe it as flowing near the mountain of Yarlhasambepo. (Bon-nyid). which is a snowy mountain tween Lhasa and the frontier of 325. near which.

and it is probable Books. who was born about 347 A. who are known as the &quot. but the GrulmtJiah sel-Jeyi me-long (Sarat Chandra Das. counts four 6. as well as that it appears probable that they resulted from agriculture. This king and his six successors are known as the When they died their corpses &quot.D. iron. Tib. But as Tibetan history only kings between him and Srong-btsan xxiii. A. resemble the Chinese &quot. i. vears after 1 See &quot.. (Csoma) and 348 (Sanang Setsen). Gnya khri-btsan-po. says sgam-po commenced in the early part of the &quot. to off carried were some analogy between these &quot. S.C.&quot. and ploughs were introduced can imagine into the country (Schlaginweit. from this in what a savage state the Tibetans must have lived prior to this reign. 213) says that he was born in the year 416 B. The fourth king among the six terrestrial Legs was in whose Spu-de gung-rgyal.seven celestial Kliri! I think that we may find heaven.twelve celestial rulers and the of the celestial sovereigns&quot. pt. The next sovereign in succession was Tho-tlw-ri longUsan. This would place his birth towards This Thothori is probably the . this 209 king ascended the throne 313 B. 835).C. this early date for puts Thothori s birth five hundred Thothori s birth seems untenable.. bk.The Rgyal-rabs gsal-bai me-long seventh century.&quot. vol.. The eight kings who successively ruled after the six the eight terrestrial Lde&quot. 194. Shu-King. with preceding ones are called the nine human sovereigns of the third which &quot. copper. intercourse with the Chinese. v. Annals of the Bamboo the middle of the third century A. or &quot.&quot. Gram. which certainly Csoma.D. p. eleven terrestrial 1 sovereigns. and from the nature of these of others appertaining to discoveries.six terrestrial Legs&quot. first made. J. of the San Jiwang Chinese. We compare august line of the Chinese. who was born between 252 A.&quot. p.the tiger-haired king. p. B. 2 During this king s reign Bud dhism first made its appearance in Tibet. His third successor was Lha-tho-tho-ri snyen-lshal. just as the next series of six Tibetan kings. p. 1. were wells and charcoal reign and silver ore were smelted.D.FIRST SOVEREIGNS OF TIBET. s 2 reign. 3 of Legge s edition.

This is one of the reasons which has led me to suggest that Bud dhism first came to Tibet from Nepal. our chief authorities. but it is very difficult with the materials at our disposal to fix any date in Tibetan chronology. Lhathothori lived a hundred . Csoma. dying consequently in 467 A.. cit. and.set to be easily dispelled. he six essential syllables made Tibet. r A and twenty 1 years.210 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. as if it were a fetish. had all kinds of honours and offerings made to the precious casket. imbued w ith national superstition too deep . While he was at Ombu in his eightieth year (427 A. who ascended of Lhathothori was Gnam-ri srong the throne in the latter part of the than the one I have adopted. which does not appear to have been especially venerated in China or in India. most likely conversion proved unsuccessful. do not agree on any one date. Fanni. op. as we shall have occasion to relate farther on. he sent for religious works to Nepal. and an object of great veneration in their country. (Sanang Setsen). Another one is that when King Srong-btsan sgam-po wanted to propagate this religion in Tibet. 439. says that he died 371 A.. his envoy translate this sutra before returning to of few years after the apparition in Tibet of these objects Buddhist worship. op.and Sarat Chandra Das. This prince ascended the throne at the age of twenty in 367 A. p. See Bushell. an almsbowl (patra). and Sarat Chandra Das. we have Csoma. that the (Sanang Setsen). cit. op. The fourth successor btsan. in 561 A. 217. cit. five strangers came to the king and explained their use and power but this first attempt at The king. a golden It is re and a clay image of the chintamani. 397). who departed from the country. This last date is 1 perhaps nearer the truth Sanang Setsen.).D.. According . but did not embrace the religious ideas of the strangers. 182.D.D.. was one of the favourite books of the Nepalese. first missionaries in Tibet came from Nepal. son of Thufa Liluku of the Southern Liang dynasty (A. tchaitya markable that the Karandavyuha sutra.D. there fell from heaven into his palace a casket which contained a copy of the Za-ma-thog bkodpai mdo (Karandavyulia sutra).D. the (Om mani padme hum). p. p.D.

The great salt-mine north of Lhasa. and in the third year of his reign (616 A.) he sent Thoumi Sambhota. eighty-one years elapsed of Thothori and the commencement of the reign of Gnam-ri. 1 history as Ki-tsung- lun-tsan.D.KING SRONG-BTSAN-SGAM-PO. after having had to overcome great culties to the diffi on their road. I have sen. p. as he was called prior to the commencement of his Khri-ldan reign. op.D. D. Sanang Setp. . so that his rule extended over the whole of Tibet. son of Toumi Anu_. tribes between Tibet and were also subdued. 1 Csoma. p. or. 183. 548. called the &quot. This puts the beginning of the latter s reign at A. to be a transcription of his name prior to his accession. says 617 A. followed the indications furnished the which Tkang chu by places Srong-btsan s first mission to China in 634. Thoumi Sambhota between the death Setsen. however.). 217). prince is known in Chinese which appears 6OO. Some of the p. 2 See Bodhimur in Sanang Set- sen. who. to the east to China. was dis covered in his reign (Chandra Das. and the as their sovereign. to the north as far as states recognised neighbouring him and Khoten. and so returned without having accomplished his design. To the south the frontiers were and for several centuries the sovereigns of Tibet carried on a desultory warfare with the moun taineers who lived on the southern borders. 327. cit.great northern salt or Byang-gi tsioa tchen(mine&quot. 29. which during his reign became subject to China. reached India. Srong-btsan ascended the throne of Tibet in his thirteenth year. which still supplies the greater part of Tibet. srong-ltsan. did not relinquish his purpose. first 2 n his reign the Tibetans got their medicine and mathematics (arithmetic) knowledge from China.D. This who was born about A. His Nepal son was the famous Srong-ltsan-sgam-po. sixth century. During of po. Bodhimur (Sanang 322). He dis patched a mission composed of seven nobles to India for that purpose but they were unable to find a route. One of less well defined. says that he was born 627 A. 2 The Srong-btsan to . king. p. together with sixteen com panions.. s first preoccupations appears to have been form an alphabet for the Tibetan language.D.

Schlaginweit. 49. Vyakaranamula tringadndma (f. of at least two copies of it in Europe. and Q ha? and with these he formed the Tibetan capital alphabet.212 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. exist in the Indian language. a modiThis of the character a. p. Schlaginweit. and is credited Buddhist works. says 4 For an analysis of that it was in Southern India. 1 4 47. Moreover. where he learnt the Indian l brahman called Li-lyin and the pundit He also made himself acquainted with the Sirihaglwslia. the Sgrai Istan-lchos sumAnu(i-l&amp. the French Institute. op. viz. corruption of Lipikara. He took then in use in Kachmere. hundred thousand precious commandments. or The . 3 See Jaschke. two grammatical works attributed to Thoumi or Sambhota. says that the two teachers came to Tibet. this work. db t sa. one in St. 84 ct seq. this work Buddhism in I have not been able to examine although Petersburg. He also carried back works. fi cation sixth character denotes the pure see E. to Southern India. a scribe. The Bodhimur. the Avalokitesvara sutra. and the Lung-du ston-pa stags-kyi hjug-pa. or Ka-plireng dbu-chan. the other in the library of we know . cxxiii. may &quot. See E.. cit. p. The same work. the last one being.u ?) chu-pa.. called Sku-gzugs-kyi- mts an-nyid.e. verses and stories but the chief work to which his name has remained attached is the Mani bkhah-hbum. and in vol. twenty-four did not which sounds for ones new six invented and tions.. son of Anu).gt. Tibetan Dics. before returning to Tibet he translated the a Karandavyuha sutra. 38-40). cit. Thibet. there is a work 3 In the Bstan-hygur. in King Srong-btsan sgam-po soon became proficient Several translated with having writing. j dza went characters from a : } Q zlia. &quot. cit.. be a r. in 27-38). 327. and a Tibet to number of other works. See Bodhimur. large collection of religious Mdo. 3 za..&quot. vol. by Aneibu (i. Sanskrit. cxxiv. ^ tsa.&quot. characters nagari altera with these of only slight characters. p. p. 2 They were made by differentiation of other Tibetan characters. op. 58 of the Catalogue of Tibetan works. 328. a glorifica I tion of Avalokitesvara and a history of his own life. tionary. (ngo). note 4. among others the Karandavyuha sutra. probably. and with having composed instructions on horse-raising. p. This name op. vowel. or Vyakarana lingdvatara (f. No.

1 him in marriage a princess of refused. op. It speaks 1 See Bushell. although distorted. She is known in and is said to have . vol. See also Sarat Chandra Das. The Tibetan op. who in 634 sent a return mission and requested that the emperor would give his family. or generally Kong-clio or princess (i. In his twenty-second year the king married a ISTepalese work is princess. and the ruler of the Hur (Uigurs). as it has been in the Bodhimur to us preserved (p 338) and the Mani bkah-hbum p. more in Tibetan history as Za-kong. . &quot. Kung-chu. of three pretenders to the princess s hand. and was written by order of the Dalai lamas to maintain their authority.D. brought to Tibet refer to the many Buddhist images but. greatly p.. and read of the innumerable raids which Srong-btsan made against China and the other neighbouring states. Gram. the second emperor dynasty of China. with his war desiring doubtlessly to be on amicable terms like neighbour. The emperor having Srong-btsan into Sse-tchuen. her influence was unquestionably have the word very great in helping to spread it and we in the com that for it of the Tibetan historian Buston the were mencement the Chinese Tcechana guides of the .. account. if we Thang chu.e.CHINESE BUDDHISTS IN TIBET. however.Tib. sent a friendly mission to Srong-btsan. Although Tibetan works are unanimous in affirming that Buddhism was established in the country before the advent of Wen-ch eng.. is substantially the same as the Chinese. of the imperial house.. (Csoma. 196). Srong-btsan request In 641 Thai-tsung granted and gave him in marriage the who is known princess Wen-ctieng. at. Tibetan history as the white Tara.. 443.&quot. the prince of the Stag-gzig (Persians). cit. have. a daughter of King Devala. Thai-tsung. p. 1. 22O. and were allies of s the Chinese. &quot. got together a great army and advanced which subduing all the tribes which opposed him.). who ascended of the great Thang the throne in 626 A. &quot. we may doubt whether he found much time to give to the study of Buddhism or to aid in spreading it within his domains. been informed this 213 by Professor Wassilieff that undoubtedly modern. the king of Magadha. &quot.

p. Conf. also Wei thang thu chi (Klaproth s trans. also a sketch of it on p. and Ha-chang (or Hwachang) MaMdeva from China.214 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. cit. and gradually copied Chinese civilisa tion. p. p. He. 255 . it was after Srong-btsan s marriage with the Chinese princess that he built a walled city and erected inside its walls a palace for her residence . 1 Tibetans in translated If these Chinese missionaries many Buddhist works into Tibetan. and Qrivadjra. 2 The Rgyal-rabs (E. and that it was only in the eighth and ninth centuries that it became popular in that country and I am inclined to think that this is the correct view . and the lotsavas Thou-mi. 256. the patron saint of Tibet. 9). of his Souvenirs de Voyage about the habit of Tibetan women of Lhasa in the of painting their faces black. 2 On the other hand. their faces red. In 1640 the mountain became known as the Potala.&quot. sent the children of his chiefs and rich 1 to request admittance into the national schools Buddhism. of Avalokitesvara. Lung-tsan (Srong-btsan) ordered his people to put a stop to the practice. Tabuta and 3 celebrated place. p. 445. Nepal. According to the Thang chu. Schlagin. perhaps argue that but few works were translated by Chinese because Buddhism was in their time in its in fancy in Tibet. Buddhism. Cilamanju from Ganuta from Kachmere. they must have been eliminated when the Indian pundits revised the translations in the ninth century.. 49) says that the principal Buddhist teachers who came to Tibet in this reign were Kumara from India. moreover. we may succeeding centuries. of the question. Bushell. 5 Thang chu in Bushell. 3 the Tibetans of his same as that chronicled by removing his capital to Lhasa and 4 As the building the palace on Mount Dmar-po-ri.. and it was no longer He also discarded his felt and skins. p. put on done.). from the name 4 2d vol. 5 and brocade silk. for there remain very few works in the Bkah-hgyur or Bstan-hgyur which are translations by Chinese Buddhists nearly all are the work of well-known Indian pundits of the ninth and .(see p. princess (Wen-ch eng) disliked their custom of painting which event I take to be the &quot. and a favourite residence See Wassilieff. 27. Dharmagosha. op. what Hue says . of the town at the mouth of the Indus where the Qakyas first resided 320. p.. 445 . op. see Markham s Tibet. cit. For a description of this men weit s edit.

148. loc. cit. 66). p. liars aiid perjurers had their torn out. The beginning of the first cycle sixty years among the Tibetans A. so the king married four other women. and invited learned scholars from China compose his official reports to the emperor. Bodhimur. to 215 be taught the to classics. bore him a son. op. It is also used to designate the p. cit. He died in his eighteenth year. of is Manyak of Hodgson (Essays. one of whom. he introduced into Tibet from China silk worms and mulberry-trees (Bodhimur. The authors of quarrels were whipped. See Schlaginweit. op. a Minak is generally supposed to have designated the Tangutans or the tribes of the Koko-nor basin. Tibetan historians add that the Chinese princess introduced nasThat milk was ch ang or whisky. and asked the emperor for persons knowing how to make wine. for paper and ink . 1 SeeWeithang thu chi.COMMERCE AND LAWS. who succeeded his grandfather in 650. and extended his rule over half of Jambudvipa. the Minak (Tanguts). to keep under the arrogance of the mighty. Tib. with the Hor (the Hui-Jio of the Chinese?). p. ii. called Khri cham.&quot... 49. 446. Furthermore. Nepal (Bal-po). and to protect the oppressed. op. and that the art of weaving was introduced. for the first time made into butter and cheese. whom he called Gung-ri gung-Usan. 1 Srong-btsan sgam-po established commercial relations 2 with the Chinese. It first was in the reign of Srong-btsan sgam-po that Tibet became known among the Chinese as Thu-fan introp. with Hindustan.. Conf. p. and Guge (the modern Mngari Korsum). the murderer was put to death. reign (649-684). the thief was made to restore eight times the value of the stolen property. cit. cit. Gram. According to Bushell. . Bushell. belonging to one of the Mon tribes which lived among the mountains between Tibet and India. leaving a son called Hangsrong mang-ltsan. op. p.D. p. who extend south of Ta-chien-lu at the present day. clay into pottery. A high tribunal was established to see that all laws were respected. 3 tongues O The Nepalese and Chinese princesses had no children. all of which were sent water-mills. silkworms were duced into Tibet during Kao-tsung s cit. 341). him with the calendar... 329. 1026. 441. 3 See Csoma. the adulterer was mutilated and exiled.

5 and Lutungtsan.. without intending to con vey the least insinuation that they are subject to Lhassa.&quot. Petersb. on being asked from what coun try he has come. however. Klaproth. capable Thub-phod. As a general rule. &quot. and in one work I have found it called &quot. Sanang Setsen. black-heads. A native employs the expression ) Peu Lombo ( Tibet country to designate en bloc all the Tibetan-speaking nationalities. as it ought to be read in this case.The country of the red-faced or. The Mongolian Tubed reproduces the . From Ten Peu meaning 3 from High or source of our Tibet. note. &quot. pretend that Tubet or Tibet is a word unknown among the people of that country.&quot. in his interesting Travels and Researches in the &quot. 332.&quot.. Asiat. 222) surname (tribal made that in this reign the Chinese attacked the Tibetans See Bush ell. Tibetische Studien in Mel. that a translation.&quot. S. 242. I. See A. i.. was The Tibetan history called Grub-mthah regent. Tibetan pronunciation very closely. cit. Interior of China. will often reply. 1 to which appears be the transcription of two Tibetan words. (p. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Schiefner. called Mkhar or Gar by the Tibetans. or.. It must not be forgotten that the Li-yul lo-rgyus-pa is 3 an expression very common in the Chinese King.&quot. or the country of Bod. p. Mr. R. Perhaps Teu Peu is the . 1 2 . as he is called in the Thang chu.) says (p. and that it is of Turkish origin. by the Chinese. 338. pt. name) was Chtishih. whose &quot. epistle to Khri-srong. however. E... 220. p. Colborne Baber. being very young at the time of his accession. &quot. both of which mean has been softened into lod? and the final d dropped in the pronunciation. 4 See p.&quot.216 ) or. p. the prime minister of his grandfather. the last able. 98). i. de St. sel-kyi me-long (Sarat Chandra Das trans. says: &quot. 5 See Sarat Chandra Das. Upper Tibet. Tibet is called Bod-yul. Gdong-dmar-gyi- yul* Mang-srong mang-btsan. Supplementary Papers. vol. . TJm-po.A Tibetan arriving in Ta-chien-lu from Lhassa. G. cit. Ki-li pa-pu. op. op. J. and several other Orientalists after him. calls nag yongs-Jcyi Buddhaghuya in his him MgoLord of all the rje. men&quot. 435.

to the far-off Kra-krag (tribes) of the Hor 2 in the north. The Thang chu does not allude to these events. op. p. p. of died at the in early age twenty-seven 679. this reign is described as follows in Tibetan histories &quot. 217 they were at first repulsed. cit. makes out Mang-srong to be the son of Srong-btsan. nor does the Bod1 Tribes of Northern Tibet. and was succeeded in 705 by his son Khri-lde gtsug bstan mes Ag-ts oms.. Lo-bo tchum-rings (probably in Nepal). where they are denominated Kao-tse by the Chinese. or Northern Tibet. 446) does not agree. Sbal-ti (Balti). called in the Thang chu Kilisotsan. concluded a treaty with the Chinese.. which the Thang chu uses for these tribes. minor. She was the daughter of Shuli.TIBET IN THE SEVENTH CENTURY A. prince of Yung. Schmidt. called Dgung-srong lulam (or 1 Jidu] rja. himur. p. . says that the Horpa occupy the western half of the region lying beyond the &quot. M.D. with his father whom their and grandfather had waged war during married the adopted daughter of the reigns. the plains of Nang god (or kod. which west. and bore the title of Princess of Chin- whole He This same work. says that it meant the Mongols. in his &quot. In the time of this river (Yang tze) king (all the country) from the Eoyal in the east. and king was succeeded by his son. (first) brought The king was killed on an expedition against Nepal. who was a syllables of his Tibetan name. was under the rule of was to Tibet name gives a quite correct pronunciation of the four first The king. which says that this king was the uncle of Srongbtsan but on p. but with this the Thang chu (Bushell. part of Balti]. 343 it calls him his . to Shing kham in Bal-po (Nepal) in the south.&quot. Emperor Tchang tsong. and we may doubt their This veracity or suspect them of being interpolated. 347. and Dgliurs (as would seem) The word Hor by themselves. 221. known in the Thang chu : The extent of the kingdom of Tibet in as Kinushilung.&quot.&quot. Nyenchhen-thangla range of mountains. and between it and the /uran leun or Kuenlin chain. Tibet. op. and also a deal of Little grandson. on the contrary. or Du-srong mang-po. Bukharia and of Songaria. but finally took Lhasa and burnt the palace on the Dmar-po hill. may be derived from the Chinese Hui-lw. and the lowlands of Shi-dkar (?) in the During this reign tea from China. Brian Essay on the Hodgson. 2 This word is said by Csoma to be used to designate the Turks. cit.

223.. is in the Bstan-hgyur. This monarch contributed very materially to propagating and encouraging Buddhism. which they subsequently 4 language. He built several monasteries. chan. 28 Bodhimur. vol. Beal s translation of it in of the East. 348. we See Bushell. ch eng. 3 Some volumes of the reproduced in their the Tibetan historian Mahayana own is sutras. A . the same original.. occasion to compare the greater part of the Tibetan trans lation of this work with Mr. 221. 3 Tibetan history.the princess. The translations of these works which are at present in the Bkah-hgyur are of a having been made during the reign of Eal-paemissaries whom he had sent to India to invite to Tibet two Indian pundits. Buddhaguhya and Buddhac. .&quot. she is generally called in Tibe tan works &quot. Rgyud et seq. I have consequently See Bkah-hgyur. 710). Books I have had Sacred version. &c. letter of Buddhaguhya addressed to Ag-ts oms son. and may help to throw some light on the somewhat obscure question of the discrepancies which we find in different translations of a Buddhist text. Beal s and was astonished to find that even in the case of this work. vol. If. f. the two translations could not have been 1 made from op. See p. which are perfectly unacceptable. or Kong-clio (A. p. cit. This statement of very interesting. 456. The Suvarna prabhasa sutra and the Karma gataka were translated into Tibetan. gives p. p. such as the Buddhacharita of. but. like her predecessor.D.Khri-srong. Wei thang-thu-chi. of the Mr. the wife of Srong-btsan. which is not a canonical one. with a view of introducing monachism into Tibet. op. p. as no 2 body would come forward to take the vows of monkhood. for example. This last work the events of very well with those related in the Chinese works. 2 Sarat Chandra Das..&quot. p. xxviii. xii. anti. xciv.218 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. With this exception. and invited a number of monks from Khoten. adopted those supplied by the Chinese annals. the events told by the Mongol and the Tibetan historians agree Sarat Chandra Das. then. but failed. the text of the first work having been obtained from China.Ac^vaghosha. cit. 223. op. 1 or Chin-ctieng kung-chu.. dates for all cit. 208 4 and Mdo xxvii. of which the Chinese version has been made accessible through &quot. committed to memory while in India five later date. xix.

Yogatchariyas most likely that he departed ! In the Chinese annals (Bushell. and other works concerning religious ceremonies (magic ?). but the teachings of this doctor met with so much opposition from the Chinese from Tibet.KING KHRI-SRONG LDE BTSAN. 475- The Bstan-hgyur contains many works by this Atcharya. lations. Vddangdyavritti pakshitdrthd. Ag-ts oms had also translated from Chinese several works on medicine.. He a follower of the most tolerant creed in the world 3 called from India Qantarakshita. among others a commentary on the Satyadvayavibkanga of Djnanagarbha commentaries on the Madhyamika. or wandered about to die in ditches. before for a long period they the how understand can we early texts have become so cases in and some distorted. &c. find that Tibetan translations 219 were made. 439) we find a king between called Sohsilungliehtsan Khi-li-so-tsan (Ag-ts om) and Khili-tsan (Khri-srong). Tibetan rule extended over the greater part of Sse-tchuen and Yun-nan. called Khri-srong Ide Istan. and daily encroached on the &quot. 1 disturbed condition of the Chinese empire during the first years of Su-tsong s reign. the capital of China. cit. and their troops in 763 took Ch angan. whereas all Tibetan histories are unanimous in affirming that Khri-srong was son of the Chinese Princess Chin-ch eng. . lost. eft. This sovereign is especially celebrated for the aid and to favour protection he afforded Buddhist missionaries. theories. astrology. op. and several tens of chou were borders. leaving the throne to his son by Chin- ch eng. p.and succeeded his father on the throne. p. not from written had been preserved orally which ones from but originals. He died in 755. whom he did not even hesitate to persecute the followers a strange measure for of the national religion of Bon-po. op. as he is known in He availed himself of the Chinese annals. in the Tibetan trans changed. were taken down in writing. . 1 2 3 See Bushell. after the lapse of some years.&quot. Ki-li-tsan. and the citizens were either carried off and massacred. or.. till. all the country to the west of Feng-hsiang and to the north of Pin-chu belonged to the 2 Fan barbarians.

356-357. after Sambhava s death. He at first met with a great deal of opposition from the Chinese Hwa-sliang or Ho-sliang? the most influential of which was called Mahayana or Mahadeva. Ananda. Padma Sam- bhava are called Urgyen-pa. But by far the most popular teacher in Tibet during this reign. xxxiii. but his treatise on the Dharani doctrine is still extant. and near the See man from Udyana or Urgyen. p. Samye) monastery at Lhasa.. 2 famous Dgah-ldan monastery. It corresponds to the Sanskrit Upadhyaya or Master. op. works into Tibetan. also came to Tibet. where he taught the theo ries of the ten virtues. 1 30.220 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. He also largely contributed to the in crease of Buddhist works by the translations he made. 4 For all the particulars see the Bodhimur. cit. was Kamalagila. p. be confounded with the person. p. 73. an abbreviation for disciples of the Markham s Tibet. however. They are chiefly found in the present day in those parts of Tibet which border on Nepal and India.&quot. page 143. advised the but king to invite Padma Sambhava of Udyana. and are two treatises by a Djaya Ananda.) Kamalagila de feated him in a grand controversy held in the king s and from that time the Madhyamika doctrines Besides translating a great were generally followed. and that it contains a large Buddhist library.. perhaps the same as the Hwa-shang zab-mo. which is supposed to be a copy of the Nalanda 2 I have not met with any works monastery in Magadha. Wei thang thu chi. He were of . In the Bstan-hgyar his name is in the sutra section of that work there of frequent occurrence. 1874. 3 See in it Buddhism in Tibet. a Buddhist of Kachmere. famous Anandacji. Chinese Buddh. It is south-east of Lhasa. A See Edkins. cxx. the author of two works in the Bstan-hgyur (Mdo. 1 4 The followers of &quot. the eighteen dhatus. p..&quot. who belonged to the Madhyamika school of Buddhism. he wrote a large many Buddhist presence. &quot. who may possibly have been the same He must not. of his in the Tibetan Tripitaka. xxx. The pundit Nain Sing resided this monastery when at Lhasa in Chinese expression for Buddhist monk. 1 This celebrated teacher superintended the building of the famous Hsam-yas (pr. The word was transferred from the language of Khoten to Chinese. See E. and of the twelve iiidanas. Schlaginweit. who came to Tibet in the ninth cen tury. says that the images in pure gold.

yi rgyal mts after saluting the king.Epistle of the Master Buddha- ghuya to the king of Tibet. 171). 356. to his It is unfortunately not possible nobles. 387-391. Khri srong Ide btsan. us in the sutra section of the Bstan-hgyur. xciv. he gave his two &quot. . He tells epistle not to have done so. p. messengers this epistle. Dharma. but appears from his lotsavas or interpreters. f.&quot. wrinkled the king that my body wishbut and I have no strength . with only such material differences as a colder climate and national peculiarities required. . and others. . 1 2 Bodhimur. in which he described the duties of a king. increase the little religion that was in thy realm. and bring in its midst the This suffices to show us that in life-giving waters. Ye-shes sde. subjects and Buddhaghuya. and open the window which would let in the thou didst intrust much wealth to get the light on the darkness . vol.&quot. of his nobles. These are well-known names of but they are more especially connected with following reigns. of Bod. and of the priesthood. I to give a translation of this interesting work here. will only quote a few lines at the commencement of it. the middle of the eighth century Tibet was hardly recog nised as a Buddhist country. ing to serve him. and entitled &quot. to whom of gold and silver. That Buddhism had not flourished in Tibet prior to this reign is made quite evident by a document preserved to .BUDDHAGHUYA number hgyur. of treatises S EPISTLE. an. Bxiddhaghuya had been requested by the king to come to Tibet. 221 which are still extant in the BstanIn the sutra section alone of that collection I have found seventeen works written by him. Klu- Armandju. 5 &quot. : Thou didst dispatch to India Yairotchana. says 2 &quot. 1 Unfortunately I have not been able to find any notice on the habits of the Buddhist order in Tibet prior to this reorganisation. Ska-ba-dpal brtsegs. It was also during this monarch s reign that the Bud dhist clergy was regularly reorganised it received a firm constitution and was divided into classes. Taranatha says that he was a contemporary of King Qrimant Dharmapala of India (p. but it appears probable that they were much the same as in India.

I remark. the scope of this work to give even a the principal works which were made known in Tibet at this time. erroneously calls this sovereign the Egyal-rabs. We know. But Tetsung only became emperor of China in 799. of the first things One their Tibetan aides or lotsavas appear to which the Indian pundits and have done was to determine the Tibetan equivalents of the innumerable Sanskrit words which have a special sense in Buddhist works. Tib. It is impossible to make the statements of the Thang chu agree with the suecession of kings as given by Tibetan bles.rag-du edition with the 1 stogs-byed tcken-po. 183. at least there exists great confusion in the names. Besides the numerous canonical works list of which are mentioned in the index of the Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur as having been translated in the latter part of this sovereign s reign or in that of his successors. p. we must mention two due to King Khri srong Ide btsan him self.&quot. and which have been preserved to us in the Mdo sec One in the I2th and I3th vols. entitled &quot. p. 1 and Inga-pa. Fifteen chapters of perfectly measured ts ad-ma len bchowas succeeded by commandments. or Blmli yang-dag-pai Khri srong died in 786. en passant. who is known in Chinese as Tsu-chih-hien. how son of the pre left Tibet. the other in vol. 127.. that all Te-tsung and Khri-srong.222 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.gt. was poisoned by mother after a reign of a year and nine months. as he is also called. and was succeeded by his brother Mu-khri btsan-po. moreover. of the Mdo It is quite beyond section of the Bstan-hgyur. It. 1 24. the larger one known as the Mahdvyutpatti or $grabyc-l&amp. and to this we owe two excellent Sanskrit-Tibetan dictionaries. who had See Csoma s Chronological TaGram. thus in . his son Mu-Jcri Usan-po (or Muni Itsan-po). the Wei-thang thu-chi. ceding one. however. his This young prince. Chinese works do not agree about events in Tibetan history . of great promise. is a commentary on a work by Danshtasena. 24th vol. calls them the uncle and the nephew. or Sad-nalegs. Schlaginweit s ever. we hear of a treaty concluded between and Mongolian writers. tion of the Bstan-hgyur. 1 He induced Kamala^ila. that Khri-srong s uncle was the Emperor Tchong tsong (684-716). and an abridged same title both of these works are in the .

was born between 846 and 864. 1 See Bushell. As. second son of Mu-khri btsan-po. attach no importance to dates.&quot. until this date. Ac cording to Tibetan historians. Cf. do. A. so would the two kingdoms &quot. Thang chu says that he only reigned for six years. they do 7Q8-8O4. cit. commencement of the reign of Eal-pa-chan or Khri-ral. Buddhagoshya of 3 s epistle with the list which shows that the reigns of the two sovereigns who succeeded Khri-srong was short is 2 Another fact translators in Schlaginweit s Rgyal-rabs. But even supposing that he reigned still we would be unable to make the Chinese chronology agree with the Tibetan. 1 not mention any sovereign between the time of Mu-khri s death and the commencement of the reign of Eal-pa chan (Kolikotsu) in Si 6.KING RAL-PA-CHAN. cit. op.. Notwithstanding these discre we prefer. his son and successor. therefore. Tor more particulars concerning this treaty see Bushell. to return 223 and reside permanently in that country. the dates reasons for furnished us by the Chinese. 3 in friendship. for the latter say that Bal-pa-chan. 2 few years after the commencement of his reign he A concluded peace with China. the reign. the names of lotsavas given in See Bodhimur. he had a long and prosperous On the other hand. who. p. He had many Buddhist works translated. and rubbings of the inscription in the same work.. op. and at Gungu Meru the Chinese and Tibetan monarchs had a temple erected. also Schlaginweit. viz. as the date of the accept. for we have no and a great many for or Mongols. the Chinese Kolikotsu. 361. in which was placed a great stone slab upon which the sun and moon were represented. op. pancies. it appears improbable that the Chinese chronicles can be perfectly correct. 521.. Moreover. . p. and died at a good old age.. that the lotsavas who figure in Khrisrong s reign are known to have assisted pundits who only came to Tibet in Ral-pa-chan s reign. cit. p. however. p. provisionally 816 doubting their accuracy in general. and devoted much time to forming good interpreters for that purpose. and where it was written that whereas the sun and moon moved in the heavens He &c. Tibetans the those by given suspecting We as is well known.. op. he commenced his reign at a very early age.D. 439. as we have said before. 58. Cf. cit.

remarked. was sick and unable to attend to business. op. the Bkah-hgyur and Bstan-hgyur) and the works on know 4 And the work of these ledge. Tchos2 1 chief ministers. two least half of the &quot. safely assert that at as we know them. is 1 Thang chu The two in Bushell. Schlaginweit. Ac.vaghosha. the Tibetan interpreters Dpal brtsegs. kyi rgyal-mts an. &c. of Aryadeva. Pradjnavarman. &c. cit. 2 on the Saddharmapundarika. attributes the profound peace which the land enjoyed during this reign He called from India to the sovereign s love of religion. The two collections may mean Among other works translate at this time into Tibetan I note in the sutra of the Bstan-hgyur a tika. &c. .. 4 first were disciples of Sthiramati. the Buddhist pundits Djinamitra. and the government was in the hands of the tell The Chinese Tibetan history. they Pradjnaparamita in 100. the Abhidharma. who.. &c. Surendrabodhi. the canonical works which they translated. Danaassisted by gila. they made known to the Tibetans the works of Vasubandhu.e.. They thoroughly revised the two collections of precepts (i. such as the 3 Moreover.. Tchandrakirti. for we may collections. nearly all the translations which are in the Tripitaka date from this reign. and doubt in place of the older lessly substituted their own work have I as ones . us that the Btsan-po. for.. Ye-shes-sde. made translations the all corrected previously. was the first Tibetan sovereign who appears to have paid any attention to the annals of his country. cit. p.000 verses.&quot. the Vinaya and Sutra . masters has never been superseded by the succeeding &quot. however. and he adopted Chinese weights and measures. 69.&quot. atha.. added an immense number of works Besides to the Tibetan collection of Buddhist literature. 320. by Prithivibandhu from Ceylon (Singayling}. he had all the events of his reign recorded according to the Chinese system of chronology. generations of doctors. also numerous commentaries on the sacred works. and rearranged them. during his reign of about thirty years. Taran- See E. 3 See Wassilieff. p.224 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. the works on knowledge. op. p 522. Mgarjuna. Qrilendrabodhi.

&quot. Kal-pa chan was so strict in enforcing the clerical laws that he stirred up a revolt. He established in monasteries three orders of auditors. A. It appears probable that he was aided by Buddhist priests is from some Northern Buddhist country. J See Bushell. and Sanang Setsen. 1 that he enforced although we read in the Sel-kyi me-long the canonical regulations of India for the discipline and &quot. as he is called by the Chinese. p. The same work. Glang dharma or Tamo. the clergy. cit. and practice. 353. guidance of the clergy. 183. 49. Bodhimur. This gives a good idea of the accuracy of Tibetan and spoil 2 Histoire de la Dynastie Tang. 2 and classes of elocu s and exegesis. 902. 358.D.e. the labour of their hands.BUDDHIST COLLEGES. and was mostly subjects added by Atisha and his disciples in the eleventh century but I do not believe that any of the older canonical works (i. terior to this reign.. 899 for Dharma s accession. 49. says that Ral-pa chan killed the Emperor Tchaotchong of the Thang. meditation. the king having no children. p. . cit. Concernant les Chinois. p. cit. p.. which was encouraged under hand by his brother Glang dar-ma. became a famous teacher. p. . 439 and Csoma. of the Bkah-hgyur) are due to any translators pos . assassinated at the age of forty-eight (in 838). op. Tib. who succeeded him on the throne. Mongolian records. 522. . tion of religion Thinking that the propaga depended much upon the predominance of . xvi. p.astras his younger brother was ther.. said to have done much toward Eal-pa chan giving the priesthood a regular organisation and hierarchy. p. op. gives A. Tchao-tchong P . and wrote several c. op. Mem. perhaps Khoten.. Gram.D. was assassinated in 904.. To each monk he assigned a small revenue. SeeGaubil s 228. entered the priesthood. Eal-pa chan elder bro Gtsang-ma. 225 The mass of works on tantrik not was known in their days. is represented in the Thang chu as 1 Sarat Chandra Das. Glang dar-ma orDkarma clbyig-dur btsan-po. controversy. tion. and took much from China. who was heir to the The king was throne. by two men who 3 strangled him. derived from five tenants. he organised many classes of the priesthood.

D. in whose reign eight copies of the sacred works were restored to the monasteries of Upper Mngari. Sanang Setsen does not agree. after a by a Buddhist priest called Dpal-gyi who may have had a hand in his murder. with Glang Dharma the glory of Tibet as a nation vanished. Kiuen.. p. Some even had to learn the 3 4 trade. p. for it would be difficult to believe that he extirpated Buddhism from Central Tibet in a year. to Csoma. &quot. cit.226 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. He appears to &quot. p. 60. for he tells us that this prince reigned fifty-three years without the Law (P.&quot. 5 The same work adds op. Sanang Setsen. about 842. and. p. 522. few years Glang Dharma was murdered. devoted to besides. loc. 49. cit. 2 rabs says that in this reign priests were made to use meat and intoxicating drinks. He was succeeded by his son Od-srung. 900. See Schlaginweit. Wen hien tungkhao. 50- succeeded by his son Lde dpal liklwr Usan. Nevertheless. Cf. Whoever did not give up the women. Some left of themselves. the chap. says that he reigned twenty-three years. 2 3 1 He was See Bushell. and with bow and arrows follow the the chase. With this. a lover of field-sports. tyrannical. of this work on the early history of Khoten.. 5 Ma twan lin. reign. 4 Ace. he died in A. Tang chu (Bushell. for the Rgyal-rabs says that as soon as he became king he consulted with Qrivadjra on the best means of re-establishing Buddhism. l have persecuted Buddhism so effectually The Egyalthat all the lamas had to flee from Tibet. and many persons were intent on re-establishing the supremacy of Buddhism. p. but those who remained had to take the drum and hounds butcher s in horn. which answers the requirements. a man fond of wine.&quot. and Reinusur les Langues sat. however. cruel. 439) . i. The places Tartares. 335. and we learn from Ma-twan-lin that in the year 928 no one could be found at the court of China who could read a letter written in Tibetan which had been brought there by four priests. rdo-rje or Qrivadjra. Recherches his death at and was killed in 925. p. 386. p. of Lha-lung. Konige von Tibet. and ungracious. way of living of the priesthood was banished. 243.

MILARASPA AND HIS WORKS.Autobio Lord of the Eeverend The Milaraspa. the other graphy &quot. of which I possess a copy clue to the kindness of Mr. the peculiarities of style of the originals. and in 1042 the famous Atisha. or Tchos-hlyung rin-tchen. the Dharma.&quot. clearly shown by examining works translated into Tibetan . his or rather by missionary. pundits translated literally.D. We Hundred Thousand Songs of the Venerable Milaraspa. This last work. and translated many others. relating principally to tantrik theories and practices. also came number of works which may there.&quot. He wrote a great be found in the Bstan-hgyur. its phraseology. Wherry of Ludiana is written in a language which century. help to show that the works was an artificial one. was continued by Marpa and his disciple Milarcispci. 1013 the Indian pundit Dharmapdla came to Tibet with several of his disciples. His principal disciple was the Tibetan Bu-ston. whose missionary labours appear from his works to have been confined to those parts of Tibet which border on Nepal. as far as pos This is sible. and differences in offers many difficulties for one accustomed to the classical language of the translators of the ninth we cannot help thinking that such radical works which were composed at the most at an interval of three hundred years from each other. and to the north of the Mon or hill tribes on the southern know of two works by this slope of the Himalayas. who is known in Tibet as Jovo rje or Jo-vo rtishe. and observed. disciples. and formed tribes of a hundred or a thousand families. that in the 227 commencement of the tenth century the Tibetan nation was disunited. so-called classical language of Tibetan which differed in its vocabu lary. whose The Jewel of the Manifestation of historical work called &quot. In A. and its grammatical structure from The Buddhist the spoken language of the same period. is one of the The good work principal authorities in Tibetan history.&quot. a native of Bengal. one an &quot.

2 is able to recite or to chant passages of great 1 length. . Mel.&quot. The word Djriunyyi may possibly be for Ryyus-yi dpc.228 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. but I must call attention to the literature of this country. &c. I refer itself. Asiat. logic. Colborne Baber says. couched in an elevated and special style. s we know of traslations of Kali- dasa Meghaduta. 88.. It is not my intention to follow the history of call its Buddhism in Tibet later than what we may . besides. or .. of Tales. cit. . l Mr. de St. however.We know that besides the Gesser Khan the Tibetans have other poems. &quot. exist. by referring to the peculiar genius of each of these languages. and have even translations of the Eamayana and of Galien. however. but too long to be reproduced here. is and as the Djriung-yi.Book -E. that in the 1st vol. We may add habharata. &quot.&quot. which are contained translated from Sanskrit. my readers to the work the whole passage is highly interesting. and were (nit i). or at least every native of sesses Kham.&quot. . &c. who pos any education. Colborne Baber. Without men tioning the numerous works on grammar. that they possess dramatical works.. The there are collections of fairy tales and fables. Professor Wassilief says. sion). . Savants have allowed us to suppose that the Tibetans possess no literature but their Buddhist &quot. the Qatagatha of Vararutchi. every Tibetan. and from the The same language of Khoten or China on the other. and. and polity in the Bstan-hgyur. work known only one of three parts of a very extensive Story Book/ They have never published it. which ended with Eal-pa chan Augustine era. which is not so thoroughly Buddhistic as has been generally supposed. ii. entirely which is easily explained. op. Petersb. the Aryakosha of Eavigupta. different an stock phrases are rendered in way. A number of written poems. classics. from Indian dialects on the one* hand. . is styled Djiung ling (Moso Divi above mentioned epic . p. of the Bstod-ts ogs of the Bstanhgyur is a translation of the Ma574. and even the manuscript of the But three divisions cannot be obtained in a united form.

445 of St. a Description of the of Tibet. is a MS. Asiat.&quot.228 of the 415.A contains a number works on geography.TIBETAN LITERATURE. World. library of the University .Wonderful Story.. &c. 25. Geography 1 i. Academy of of Tibetan Science of Petersburg sucli 1 &quot. b No. geography of . . Petersb. de St. as the &quot. n.. &c. The library of the 229 St. Petersburg Tibet. See Mel.&quot.

2i a .. Li in Tibetan means See Capt. or that region surrounded by the Kuen-lun. and the Thien-chan mountains. Yakula of the . 327. P. 290 Schiefner says that it in his eightieth yfar.&quot. p. &quot. River of Golden Sands. it is (as Abel Eemusat has pointed out) a corrupt form of the Sanskrit Kusthana.&quot. Ilichi.CHAPTER VIII. 223) says. S. Li-thang. . takes it to Buddhist works Wassilieff (Buddh. p.&quot. &quot. diversely identified be a part of the Schiefner (Tibcountry Lebens Qakyam. The following pages Li-yul will superabundantly demonstrate.&quot. 2d ed. in Eastern Tibet. i.&quot. and particu larly Khoten. p. that the Buddha 1 was line 3 Koniye von Tibet. the name of the first sovereign of Li. called in Tibetan works Li-yul has been Orientalists. but more especially Khoten. of a district &quot. shortly before his death. name &quot.. and 4 of the text. 1 and Taranatha. Li-yul is identified with Nepal by the translators of Kaligyur. p. s I think. vol. and that by Turkestan. Schlaginweit Plain of Li. f.&quot. A. went 2 to Li-yul. lation than Li. or bell-metal. Khoten. As to Khoten. the Tung-lin. Gill. Sarat Chandra Das (J. that WassiliefT opinion is correct. 850. in The only passage Tibet is Tibetan s writers of which places Li-yul south in E. 78) thinks that it was the Na-kie of Fah-Hien. &quot. p. 2 . 74) says that it was the Buddhist countries north of Tibet. THE country &quot. Cf. by Mongols Csoma &quot. &quot. p.. I have been able to ascertain that the ancient name of Nepal was Li-yul. of Li-yul admits of no other trans 3 which one might be in country of clined to compare with the modern Chinese name for we must understand Eastern The Tibetan name &quot. THE EAKLY HISTORY OF LI-YUL (KHOTEN).. B. 206. and which was after&quot.

412-420. Fah-Hien and Huen Thsang. 336-354. who visited Khoten in the fifth and seventh centuries respectively. Gogringa Vya karana (Ei-glang-ru luna-bstan) Bkah-hgyur.. fol. classing them by their respective value: ist. 426-444. fol. translators. 231 wards applied to the country.SOURCES OF KHOTEN HISTORY. The same may be said of several passages translated by Abel Eemusat in his Histoire de la Ville de Kliotan. 278 he says that there were a . which work has enabled me to complete to a certain extent the Tibetan texts at my disposal. The titles of these works are as follows. 4th. it is quite impossible to decide this ques tion. have given us a glowing account of the power and splendour of Bud dhism in that country at the time of their visits. 94 (u\ fol. into Tibetan from the language of Li-yul. The same remark holds good for the Chinese Yu-thien. 1 and the legends preserved to us by Huen Thsang are substantially the same as some of those which are contained in the Tibetan works which I have consulted for this notice. do. therefore. To translate these works literally would have proved very unsatisfactory. The Prediction (vyakarana) of Li-yul (Li-yul 420-425 3d. vol. 2d. The Annals of Li- yul (Li-yul-gyi Lo-rgyus-pa) Bstan-hgyur. Hoei-li s 288) one might think that the time of Huen Thsang Khoten was a hundred convents in Khoten. are derived from four Tibetan works which are probably translations from works written The following notes but as they in the language of Khoten or Djagatai Turki are not followed by any colophon (with the exception of the fourth and least important one) giving the names of the . . This last work. 2 Taranatha (p. vassal of the Kao-tchang (Uigurs). deemed it Life of From a passage Huen Thsamj at s visit of (p. fol. 62) speaks of Sanghavardhana as living in Li-yul at the time when the Mletscha doctrine (Islamism) first made its appearance in India (p. 1 I have... and would have given but an imperfect idea of their general value. &c. The Prediction of the Arhat Sanghavardhana (Dgra-bclwm-pa Dge-hdun-hphelgyi lung-bstan-pa)? do. 30. was translated lung-lstan-pa). P. vol. 63). we are told.

this country of Bhot was an expanse of water. &c.. vol. like Tibet and a great many other Buddhist coun tries. dry country they Nagas 2 When Qakyamuni was in the world he Li-yul into a lake. 21. which was then a lake. 77-210. D. Then the from were and a converted vexed. ii.&quot. Tibet. (?). at least a sou Buddhist monarchs of India. best to give their contents in chronological order. 1 of one of the illustrious In the present case we dom of Khoten was are told that the founder of the king a son of King Dharmagoka. but they were badly treated by the people of the country. also the with this tradition that of Chinese about the Yok-chui (Kingmill. three times. of Li-yul. Li-yul. pierced) with the butt end of his staff. which circled around the lake. the history of xiv. and Vaigravana (did likewise) with the end of his pike (mduny). vol. Huen Thsang. Then these rays of light united into one.&quot. In the days of the Buddha Kagyapa. p. 2 Sanang Cf. Cf. p. N. 179. R. if not a descendant of the Qakyas. going to the right. and then disappeared in the water. so they departed.S. for Warren Hastings (Markham &quot. p. and from out these rays there came 363 water-lilies.232 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &. r 1 i. Setsen. /. Cf. visited Li-yul in company with a great number of his dis Buddha Qakyamuni enveloped the whole Then the ciples. its on adopting Buddhism.. p. p. the conversion of Kachmere and also what the Teshu-lania says in the history of Bod-yul he prepared the divine Kilsi. which occurs throughout these predictions or revelations (vyakaranas).When s p. A. 8 1 note). with rays of light. vol. and to use the past tense instead of the future. After this the Blessed One remained for seven days for the w eal of mankind in the and to Vaigravana. &quot. and to consider the first king of the country. s History of Nepal. Li-yul was fre quented by some liishis. in the centre of each one of which was a lamp. 94 . 341). saw fit to recast nearly all national traditions. Saki Sinha went to Wright et scq. About one hundred years after this divine personage left his kingdom the water ran out through Bengal and the land was left dry. After that the Blessed One said to the Arya Cariputra Cut open this lake which is as black as the Samangasarana Parvata Then the Arya Cari putra made an opening for the lake (lit. Sl-yu-H. Cf.

f. digy. Our text. where we I am mountain Gogringa. The Dipaicansa. Ananda asked the Blessed One about what had just occurred. reigned thirtytwo years five years after his accession to the throne 3 the Buddha passed away.&quot. See Go^rin.) Two hundred and the Buddha thirty-four years after the death of there was a king of India called Dharma first place. that he reigned thirty-seven years. T. omitted the explanation of this prosixt^-three lilies says that the Buddha died in the eighth year of his reign. met with &c. p. and after death it will be my a land called Li-yul.oka s becoming king at 203 A. Dharmagoka was king fifty-four 4 years. See also Schiefner s Tib. for some unaccountable reason. 22 and 122. f. H. which have an abstract of our text. vy. modern corruption of Kusthana. p. This is the only passage I have ever in Northern Buddhist works which speaks of Dharmagoka as living later than a hundred years after the Buddha. mentions (loc..) the Buddha s prediction. The Gogringa mountain was south-west of the capital. on become a righteous man through the Arya. in the but had put to death many beings. Two hundred and eighteen years 20 2 li musat(op. p. Then the Buddha &quot. The mountain is there called Gocringa. within the space which the light encircled three times there will be built a great city with five towers rgyur. 3 See also Mahawanso. 2 (Lo- 426. 1 Huen Thsang (xii. where there is now a little tchaitya. 290. Maliawanso. cit. p. says. the lake will hereafter dry up. 43). 340. the Arhat Yaco (Yagas) he had confessed his sins who had later . seven years. vi. p. &quot. has Khar-lnya-ldan.B.) King Adjatasatru having become king. Piyadarsana was anointed It moreover says (v. In days to come. after the Parinibbana of the Sambuddha. i. 4 Perhaps this date alludes to the year in which Kusthana was born. IIdzanc]S-blun. Ju- lien) calls this Goircha must be considered throughout our texts as synonymous with Gogringa. . after which he reigned twenty.&quot. Lebens.KING DHARMAOKA.. (?) (called) U-then. who. 233 temple to the left-hand side of the great figure on the Gogircha mountain. 110) king. goka. it places the date of Dharmac. It adds that the three hundred and represented the number of Buddhist vihdras which would be built in this county.. 10. 229. If so. (Do. From the fact that Cariputra has pierced the lake with the butt-end of his staff and Vaigravana with the end of his pike. 1 While there. p. replied. The text which I have supposed = MkharU-then is probably a liKja-ldan. 174. Recit. Prom Adjatasatru to Dharmagoka there were ten generations (of kings). 429 b . inclined to think that Cf. f.

234 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. He will give him a son of King A9oka of Jambudvipa. b lake had dried up. . and perceiving waif Kusthana was a promising person. that the carried little ruler of Egya brought him up. each one of which will go and seek a new Having heard of the country. l called Kusthana. He had 999 sons. great At that time a of many men will come here from becom- Rgya-gar (India) desirous ing his subjects . 1 him The Vaigravana looked about.. 428 b . to sin and had vowed f. One hundred will nirvana there years after my be a king of (China) called Tcha-yang. to Vaicravana that he might have one more to complete the thousand. When he shall have grown up. For this reason he was breast of the earth. but cue day Egya. apprehending that if the child were not abandoned the king would have him put to death. dethrone him.. no more. The soothsayers being 428 . In the Gocrin. he will implore of Vai9ravana another son to go settle in such a blessed land. the great minister Hjang-cho. greatness. for which Kgya to this country (Li-yul). and the found many Chinese and Indian villages and towns. lit/en Thsang. he will leave China with a great host. they will be divided by a stream (?). while quarrelling with the children of (the king of) Egya. and others. but Li-yul was uninhabited. others. for whom a breast will have come out of the earth.. declared that the child bore many marks of and that he would be king during his father s Then the king. who have a thousand sons. He will &quot. and had prayed a great Bodhisattva. or Kusthana. vy. fearing that this child would lifetime. thirtieth year of Dharmagoka s reign (f.) Now Egya (China).) In the b summoned. At that time the (Do. (F. But when the child had been abandoned. and the country will take its name of Kus- come will thana from him. . His version of reason he will be called Suckled from the earth (Sa-las nu-ma nu).. Buddha s prediction about Li-yul and the Gocringa mountain in the west. and the great minister of China. did as he had ordered. and will establish himself here.&quot. read. we scq. 429 ) his queen-consort brought forth a son. 224 et the story is easily made to agree with that of the text by suppressing the part which Kusthana s arrival in precedes China. f. so that he did not die. he off and made him the son of the ruler of Cf. xii. p. gave orders that he should be abandoned and the mother. and there will King Kusthana become king over many families of men.&quot. Hjang-cho. there arose a breast on the earth from which he derived sustenance. 340. or at that time there lived a ruler of &quot. will .

and with the Chinese. occurrence in these pression. . Thou art to go seek his native land. Jilrangs- Yacas is also the name of the also tcku. particularly as it occurs in connection with streams which must have been distant from each other.crystal rally I am inclined to think it is a literal translation of a local term for river. Mantchu name of Khoten. and were uninhabited of tract land. &quot. and thus he came into the country below . and sought a home to the west and to the east. of speaks of this same river It is as being 20 li from the cit}\ called Chu-tchi . not to him. so he got together a host of 10. &quot. 173). Buddhist who presided over the found under the form of slid This river may be the one synod of Vaisali (see p. but it means stream. (p. and though To-la to road. The Tibetan word U-then corresponds very closely with p.. they said to Kusthana. 25 tt The personage of our text can seq. 239) when he says. A$oka was also converted by a person of this name (see Taranatha.&quot. wanted a kingdom for himself. . 2 happened that two traders from among the followers of Kusthana ran away from Me-skar in their there was no slippers (ba-lu nany langs-ims).&quot. p. llu-tan. xii. and is ghd-tchab.) hardly be the same as the latter. is thy native land be not thus distressed. thought pleased. the minister of Raja Dharma^oka from India.&quot. the son of the ruler of Egya. Khoten-darya. goodly 1 name of Ba-beu Then these men. 30) he gives its name as Chu-pa. this country received the seeing a pai-sa (or) Hlru-so-lo-nya.About 100 li south-east of the capital there was a mighty river which ran to the This is apparently the north-west.as). and having statement was borne out by the annals of Bgya. Yaca l (Yac. yet he hearkened Kusthana. Abel Kemusat (op. times. frequent Liteworks. alluded to by Huen Thsang (B. and while thus employed he came to Me-skar of Though he told him this many Li-yul. had so extended his family influence (?) that his relatives became obnoxious to the king so he left the country with 7000 men. . Ho-thian. they came (To-lar Iros-pa-las). and with them went to seek a home in the west. Now the river of U-then.. 235 &quot.000 men. reign of Kgya. and from the had walked fact that they (hlrangs) with slippers (la-leu) it Now on.KUSTHANA DISCOVERS KHOTEN. 21) the viz. is p. this son my ascertained from He was distressed other men that this &quot. cit. he asked the king to allow him The king answered.Thou art not the son of the sove at that. 2 This exU-then gyi shel-tchab.&quot.

1 (clerical) language are very similar to those of 429*!) resemble those of India their form The has been slightly modified. .&quot. sacred India. let us here unite and establish ourselves in this district of U-then. Cf. a mixture of the two). and thou shalt be king and I minister. xii. is neither Indian nor The letters resemble 2 The habits of the people closely those of India (Rfjya]. two (? shel-tchu dbus) they settled. and the first was made king (rgycd-bu] and the second Then the Chinese (Rgya) followers of Prince Kusthana were established on the lower side of the U-then river. home for Prince Kusthana. . THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and so they commenced to quarrel but Vaiqravana and Qrimahadevi having appeared to them. and from that day forth they honoured Vaiqravana and Qrimahadevi as followers . Huen Thsang. The religion and the are very similar to those of China. saying. spoken language differs from that of . and in the upper part of Mdo me-skau and Skam-shed. . (lit. I am of unable to give the modern names - any of these places. which is called Hang-gu-jo. The Indian followers of the minister Yac^as were established on the upper bank of the river (shel-tchu 1 Between the gong-ma).. the chief guardians of the realm.236 &quot.e. After that they built a fortress. 224.The their writing other kingdoms. Then Kusthana came with all his and met Yac^as in the country south (of the U-then river). Thou being of royal family and I a noble of ministerial family). skar. sent a message to Kusthana in Me&quot. Li being a country half Chinese and half Indian.&quot. which was south of where they were. the dialect of the people (hphral-skad) Chinese (i. This will do for a After that they visited the encampment of the minister Ya^as. &quot.&quot. (Do. So Kusthana and the minister Yaqas were reconciled. f.. . characters of p. the Indians and Chinese minister. Yac^as having learned who was their chief. they built on that very spot a temple to each one of these gods. and below Kgya and Kong-dzeng. The prince and the minister could not agree where to locate their home. and their hosts were divided. indiscriminately.

So he asked the Arya how he could procure them. the rest of b form. in the country of Tsar-ma. Vairotchana told the king to sound the ganta and to invite the Aryas but he replied. lie came and dwelt in the Tsu-la grove. 233-234). pp. 1 f. the Arya Vairotchana. evidently the same as the Tsar-ma of the text. 428 ) 234 years after the death of the Buddha &quot.o. Mahinda introduced Bud- dhism into Ceylon 236 years after the nirvana of the Buddha. son of Yeula. came from Kachmere. name of Vairotchana. ascended the throne.) Kusthana was twelve years old when he gave up the princely estate of the ruler of Rgya and started out to seek his native land. and in the fifth year of his This reign the Dharma was first introduced into Li-yul. After this the Dharma appeared. The modern language was intro who had assumed human duced by the Aryas (Buddhist missionaries). (Do. and taught the ignorant cattleherders in the Li language. 7).gt.&quot. (Lo-rgyus.) One hundred and sixty-five years.. . Counting exactly from the nirvana of the Buddha to the first king of Li-yul. As some 237 to the early popular dialect of Li. z &quot. (L&amp.. p.INTRODUCTION OF BUDDHISM IN KHOTEN. There he became the spiritual guide of the of Li-yul. 227) says that this vihara was about 10 li south He adds that V&iof the capital. king was an incarnation of Maitreya and ManjuQri. p. 4 2 9 . 430 a . 1 According to the Dipa^vansa (xv. &c. f. Abel Remusat (op. inhabitants 43O a . Huen Thsang (xii. and he was told to build a tchaitya. 20. after the establish ment of the kingdom of Li-yul. Hav ing assumed the form of a Bhikshu. Vijayasambhava. it was taught to cattle-herders of the Tsar-ma country by the Bodhi- sattva ManjuQii. 2 but he greatly longed for some relics of the body of the Tathagata. AVhen the vihara was finished. cit. 234 years had elapsed when Li-yul was founded. He was aged nineteen when he founded (the kingdom) of Li-yul.. lived Dharmacoka. f.) Then King Vijayasambhava built the great vihara of Tsar-ma. (p. The statement of our text does not agree b with what is said (f. 29) speaks of the Thsaii-ma or Tsan-ma temple. and invented (bslals) the char acters of Li. rotchana . and the and from this place it spread over the country.

This (Do. and the king sounded it without ceasing for seven days.e. but after that (i. Princess Pu-nye-shar. &quot. is in the Gandhakuta. Then he (f. See p. It came through the air. p. 43 2 . learned that the vihtira Buddha had foretold that at that spot a would be built. and is at present at T sar-ma. Hgen-to-shan vihara. After that (i. tchaitya halo.238 &quot. and is surrounded by a During the seven following reigns no more viharas were built.) more viharas were built. who married the daughter (G-ogircha) the Oxhead Mountain 2 of the ruler of Itgya (China). 238) gives another version of this story. 687^) we hear of this naga as Hulunta. his eighth successor) was King Vijayavirya. Later on this king built on the the Ho-urn-stir O &quot.. and ! after having taught like the Tathagata sixty great cjavakas at Tsar-ma. f. THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. cit. he 1 In Dul-va (xi.. 53) substantially reproduces it. Huen Thsang (xii. 43 i b ). but the ministers (of China) ing led the king to believe that these worms would be come venomous snakes which would ravage the land. p. ordered him to direct the building of vihara. 2 of the Sanskrit This seems to be a corrupt form Gosircha or Go9ringa. and having made him his spiritual adviser. his third suc cessor) reigned King Vijayajaya.. f. he gave King Vijayasambhava a ganta. Then the king called to his pre sence the Buddhist Buddhadhuta. who was subdued by Madhyantika.. De 3 siring to introduce silkworms into Li-yul. f. .) After that Vairotchana invited the Naga l king Hu-lor to bring from Kashmere a tchaitya which contained corporal relics of the seven Tathagatas. a 43 i . Remusat (op.e. i\Iay I never sound the ganta unless the Tathagata comes here and gives me a ganta Immediately Vairotchana assumed the appearance of the Tathagata.. she commenced hav raising some at Ma-dza. 167. an incarnation of the Bodhisattva Maitreya One day while looking out of Srog-mkhar he a light brilliant as gold and silver at the spot perceived where now stands the Hgum-stir tchaitya. a During the two following reigns no (Do. but gives the Chinese princess s name as Lou3 tche.

and to atone for his wickedness in having destroyed the greater part of the silkworms. 239 gave orders to have the snake-raising house (sbrul gso-bai khar) burnt down.. cit. and that it was Julien called Lu-che-seng-kia-lan. took the name of Dharmananda.satin. 433 b . 237) says that this vihara was 5 or 60 li south of the capital.) Eight viharas were occupied in Skam- shid by sanghas of the Mahasanghika school. or.&quot. is fur (?). 1 possibly have some connection with is unable to explain this term. she 1 (had it made up and) put on silk and men-dri (garments). 44i O in a His successor was Vijayadharma s son.&quot. a kind of as we have it. che. (F. 43 5 . This king had as his wife a princess from Itgya called Sho-rgya. He was who succeeded by his younger brother. Buddhist order. The queen. he introduced into the country the doctrines of the Mahasanghika school. f.) This king had three sons. to the king. p. Vijayasirnha. 2 Jaschke says that men-hri. Hdon-hdros. it means the saiighdrdma of Lu&quot.) He built the Sang-tir vihara. 2 (Lo-rgyur. f.. managed to save some and reared them secretly. and was the spiritual adviser of the king. The eldest entered the Then she showed them to India. When Dharmananda returned to Li-yul.. terin for Assam (Anthera Perhaps it may be a local silk of by referring to what Remusat says. called from India the venerable Mantasidhi (sic) to build a vihara for him. men-dri. (Do. whose reign the king of Ga-hjag waged war against Huen Thsang (op. the tchaitya and a the great vihara of Ma-dza). I am inclined to think from the passage of the text that it may &quot. a (Do.&quot. but the munga Assama). and explained the whole thing to him. 433 .SILKWORMS BROUGHT TO KHOTEN. f. . and went The second son became king under the name of Vijayadharma. however. and he greatly regretted what he had He called from India the Bhikshu Sanghagosha done. When after a time she had (thus) procured Ke-tcher silk and raw silk (srin-bal). he built the Po-ta-rya and Ma-dza tchaityas and a great vihfira (or. and made him his spiritual adviser (Ralyanamitra]. He introduced into Li-yul the doctrine of the Sarvastivadina school of the Hinayana. &quot.

in Shu-lik. 529. foreign invaders overran and ruled the land. .. side) of the r b f. p.. As to the king of this 3 These appear to be neighbouring countries to Li-yul. vernor general of Pohuan was styled Anhsi Tuhufu. R. /. N. 1 a who helped to spread Buddhism (F. and he ruled over Khoten (Yu-tien). His rule extended over Yarkand and Kokan. Kanika. 436 . Shu-lik.) population decreased. 63) says that Shulik was this side (east) of Tukhara. and no longer gave alms to the Bhikshus. Each succeeding year was kinds of all by worse than the previous one. the princess A-lyo-hjah. (Do. 2 the king of Gu-zan. most An-se likely to the west of it. and greatly After this. (Do. A-no-shos of Drug-gu vexed the people. who had to work in the fields and gardens. b his life adopted Buddhism. 75. I name. &c..) This king married a daughter of the king of Ga-hjag.) 3 Li-yul. he obtained a great quantity of qariras. An-se. xii. 437 . f. tively called the Bushell. These four (Su-le). and no new viharas w ere built. to reign A. lower The Hgen-to-shan (Goqircha).) In the time of the fourteenth sovereign. together with the king of nation of ManjiNjri.S.. and to save Li-yul. (F. 1 Taranatha (p. the king of Li-yul was an unbeliever who persecuted the clergy. who commenced Gu-zan.4i3 b . led his city of army into and having overthrown the So-kid. and burnt down the greater part of the viharas on the south side (lit.D. He was defeated by Vijayasimha.. were consequently visited calamities. and the people lost their faith in the Triratna. Fifteen hundred years after the death of the Blessed Qakyamuni. India. military governments were collecfour chen. which he had built. and Siri-yeh. wars and diseases raged.) Vijayasimha was succeeded by Vijayakirti. - am unable to identify He was probably some kingdom was petty monarch whose near that of Khoten. Kashgar.. vy.. Vijayakirti. A. 443 . which he placed in the vihara of Phro-nyo. (Sangh. an incar This king. May not this word have some connection with the Su-le (Kashgar) of the Chinese? 2 Perhaps this is King Kanishka. vol.240 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. &c. may possibly be the same as the The Chinese goChinese An-hsi.. brought an army into Li-yul. See S. 436&quot.

From they took the road vihara. vy. session of those abodes of Unbelieving ministers in Li-yul violently took pos the Bhikshus which former believing Then the Bhikshus monarchs had erected. 42O says that vanished from Li-yul the after prediction . who was a believer. the Mgas which spring gold-dust. where the in (shel-tchu) habitants supplied them with food. three the Having crossed the river s they came to the highlands. (Sang..EXODUS OF THE BHIKSHUS. they found in the ruins of an old tchaitya 2 a great golden vase full of pearls. king of Li-yul. and as it is said that the Bhikshus arrived in Bodin the reign of the seventh sue- The Li-yul. Unseasonable frosts. and mice devastated their fields. as we find it elsewhere. They exchanged its for their wants during sufficed which for contents grain. and Qrimahadevi transformed theminfer that this persecution of Buddhism in Li-yul occurred in the latter A.) steps They resolved yul (Tibet). While them a golden vase full of the order to there. assembled in the Ts ar-ma vihara. 2 Sang. in which the Dharma had first been preached in this country. vy. 241 untimely winds and rains befell them. birds. Vaigravana 1 the Ka-sar vihara. and after confession. f. they there decided to leave the country. 422% says that the king of the wind. where they spent seven days. When vas was over.. vy. they de the vicinity of the Yereached and having parted. on the evening of the fifteenth day of the last spring 1 month. winter months.the yul cessor of Srong-btsan-sgam-po.D.) After leaving them behind. b Li-yul... At the Stong-nya to Me-skar. So they got together during the season of vas provisions for their journey and means of transport (khur-khaZ). b to turn their toward Bodf. the 120 Dharma f. &quot. we Q .. b part of the ninth century had been made by Sanghavardana. and enter tained disclosed to them during seven days. 415. f. for enabled procure food the months.&quot. says that he lived in the time of Vigayakirti. the lowlanders (yul-mi smedpa-rnams) invited them to the Chang vihara. river of U-then (Khoten). shes-ri vihara. &c. threw down the cairn and disclosed its contents to them. (Do. 42o . f. years vy. 3 Or. insects. 4i4 . for they had heard that the Triratna was honoured in that land.

What Sarat Chandra Das says.D. 1. cit. but coming to a cross-road. Srong-btsanfull title of sgam-po cho. He them for four or five days. vy. king of Yung. Sarat Chandra Das (J. for Kal-pa-chan.D. vy. man and woman of that country. (Sang. p 28) that Khi-li-son-tsan (Khrisays srong-lde-btsan) married the daughter of Li-jung.. A.. Glang-dharma.royal princess. 1 . it would take them to where men lived. I find it nowhere mentioned that he married a Chinese princess. The Wei-thang- under his successor. f.) At that time reigned in Bod-yul the seventh successor of the king in whose reign Buddhism had been intro duced into the country. selves into a and enter tained the clergy for a fortnight and when they departed. 229) says that he ascended the throne between 908 and 914 A. about Glang-dharma reviling the first (Klaproth s trans. The word Tcong-cho is only a Chinese title thu-chi for &quot. f. vy. When 1 well with our text. as was also the king of Tibet. f. 41 5 2 This passage cannot be easily explained. The Khri-srong s wife was Kin-tching Kung-chu. p. She was a fervent believer (in Buddhism). whose short reign began A. s wife is also called Kong- Chinese princess agrees very . Although it appears from Tibetan history that Ral-pa-chan introduced many Chinese customs into Tibet.) to the king of Bod-yul that a great crowd of Bhikshus from Li-yul had arrived there. f. and (this Kong-cho by name. Qrimahadevi gave them a bag (phur-rung) full of gold nigh to the country of the (Gdong-dmar-gyi-yul Tibet). 42 i b . until in the red-faced ished. (Li-yul. vy. S. 422*. (Li-yul. men s they reached Ts al-byi. 899.. they got into a lateral valley and lost Then Vaigravana assumed the appearance of their way. vy. vol. country (Tibet). f.) Little by little they drew men thinking that led a loaded white yak and the Bhikshus followed after it.) the queen heard of the presence of the Bhikshus of Li-yul at Ts al-byi. Egya (China). b says the Sangh. the Bhikshus from Bod took place . is always represented as a ferThe expulsion of vent Buddhist. 2 This king had taken as his wife a daughter of the sovereign of princess). 4i6 . and they asked what was to a be done. had come to the red-faced men s country (Tibet) with six hundred attendants. B.. who is evidently the monarch alluded to. red-faced pieces. and then he van The inhabitants sent word (Li-yul. 422**. she requested the king to allow her Of the steppe (librog-mi-pho)...242 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.&quot... loc.

clothing. the Then all Bru-dza or Bru-sha is the name a country west of Tibet. of Par-mkhanpa and of Shu-lik were also greatly afflicted so they set built for . and it being then a time of war and trouble. 423*. a sore (Jibrum) on the breast of the queen. kind of Dzang-U^n&quot. When they had all come to 1 Bru-sha. &c. E.. borderJaschke. p.. and she. Now the Bhikshus of An-tse. Kalon). king consented. v. out for the Bru-sha country. This epidemic of smallpox (hbrum nad) . I think corresponds with the modern Ekah-blon (pr. 243 to get together riding-beasts (bdzori). 417*. great Bod-yul were angered and said to the king. &c. Before all these vagabonds came here our country was happy and prosperous. it of 55 .EXPULSION OF THE BHIKSHUS FROM TIBET. who were persecuted by unbelievers. s. Li-yul. vy. 2 carried off the minister (Dzang-Uan-po ) of Bod. f. (Sang. Konige von Tibet. his son. of Gus-tik. s. they heard of the viharas which were being built in Bod-yul. and there also repaired the Ka-tche (Kachmere). the capital of which was Puruchapura. and when the Bhikshus arrived he had them seven viharas. the modern Peshawar. for the The congregation. and that the king was a Bodhisattva who honoured the Triratna and made much of the images Bhikshus of Tokara and of so they started out for Bod rejoic (ri-mo tcher-byed-pa) there for three years in peace and ing. 3 Gandhara. and to invite them (to their capital). so has the Dzang-blon-po. Then the Dzarig-blon of multitude a and people. seems to be a title given to a minister (or Jaschke. and they all lived . but now every kind of misfortune has come upon us. &quot. country. At the expiration of this time there appeared plenty.&quot. besought the king to allow her to confer on the Triratna all her property and to this the king consented. ing on Persia. . Let these Bhikshus be turned out of the his son. Kong-cho has died. 2 &quot. feel ing that she was dying. f.. of So the king gave orders that not a single Bhikshu should remain in Bod-yul. T.. vy. 1 magistrate).) 3 the Bhikshus started out for Mahagandhara in the west. Schlaginweit.

to a great lake. veno mous serpents. But Elapatra. the and had the one Naga king died. replied the Naga fifteen days. way of life. xi. so that down Ganges there was an end of following the Dharma. of subsistence. Then he took the shape of an enormous serpent.&quot. gave way to grief. every 1 The Naga had apparently changed old.. When his residence since days of the Buddha was living episode of the conversion of Katyayana. so that it made a great wound. Then the troops of Bod-yul hurried in pursuit of the Then the Naga king took the shape of an old man and Elapatra (E-la-hdab) went to the Bhikshus and asked them where they were Bhikshus. from which flowed matter and blood. The fugitive Bhikshus passed the lake on this bridge. infested with wild beasts. but the skin on the back of the Naga king was torn off by the hoofs of the cattle and the men s feet. he resided at Takchasila. 118 etseq. and brigands. kneeling down before them. for the sangha I will sacrifice my life. &quot. and you . Duiva. said. Then the Bhikshus. l who came going.&quot. of India also started for Bhikshuu to the Gandhara. passed over. lost in an unbelieving land all means and we are now on our they replied. with the fore part of his body encircling the top of a mountain in Bod. See the . all that they had among them. and made a bridge wide enough for five waggons to pass abreast. 46. for they thought that their last hour was nigh. &quot. where we hope to find the necessaries Elapatra asked them what provisions they had. Weep &quot. We have &quot. king. visions requires forty-five days. and any of the men or When beasts who fell into (this wound) died from it. they told him that they had provisions for From here to Gandhara. both male and female. and when they had accurately counted &quot.244 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA.&quot. the intervening days pro country is very elevated. must go around fifteen this lake ? how can you manage with Moreover. I will bridge this lake over with my body. not.&quot.&quot. f. to Gandhara. and with his tail wrapped around the top of a mountain in Gandhara. thickly wooded. and p.

vy. a mistake for &quot. put the king to death. vy. one a believer. 4i8 b . corrupt. third year the believing king of the country died. In days to come. im Siiclen Jan-u-na erscheiis &quot. he Dann werden drei bose says.irn &c. Konige im S. taken from the second Chinese version of Agoka s life. f. ki-rgyal-pos May not Stag-gzig be the same as the Heiyi or ? Tashih. will then obtain the reward of Arhatship. extinct and the in Gand- I think that &quot. vy.. Dharma was hara.&quot. (Sang. 424a says. vy. does not mention this episode. Po-lo. 3 These three kings 1 The Li-yul. f..THE BHIKSHUS IN GANDHARA.) Now when the Bhikshus reached the land of Gand In the hara. three. may prove nen. vy. Then a thousand Qramaneras attacked the unbelieving king and his army. this believing prince.. Schi Kiue. 307. . intelligible to 3 The b . That of make nothing the Li-yul. and they brave. Arabs Chinese Abassides of the .) At the end of this time.) 2 At this time there lived three powerful monarchs. text of the so 4i8 obscure. 424 only mentions two kings. I reproduce it: Srig ni la-sogs-pa rgyal-po ni stag-gzig-gis dzig-gis rgyal-po byed-par-hygur... and his kingdom was divided between his two sons. waged war against each bold. f. vy. they stayed there two years (in peace). S&quot. Wassilieff in Taranatha. defeated him. 4i8 a . 4i8 b. the nobles and people of Gandhara took up arms. it. p. &quot. byed par hgyur-te. Drug-gu(?) rus ma-tsogs-du-mai rgyal-po ni Gdzan drug-gus byed-par hgyur. (Sang. im W. As the passage of the Sang. Elapatra having finished his series of births. and one of the Bhikshus was made king.&quot. mang-po dzig-gis rgyal-po ni bod (?) &quot. his remains stayed there like unto a mountain. f. that I can is Sang. and he ruled for two years. f. Speaking of these three kings.&quot.im W. (Do. one in the west (the king of the Stag-gzig Persians). prince was murdered by the thousand Qramaneras.&quot. the other a follower of the Tirthikas.black-robed &quot. 2 The Li-yul. but in the next line it alludes to some of my readers. gives an account of this persecution. and gave the throne to the 1 After a reign of five months. and killed all the Bhikshus living in Gandhara. one in the north (and one in the south ?).. 245 lake drying up. resolute other. vy.All the Bhikshus fled. and those who fled to Mid-India (Madhyadega) alone were saved. f. and possibly out of a . the Buddha Maitreya will come that way with his 500 disciples.

and daily confess Then the king invited aU the his sins before them. and they had a brave and valorous army of 300. and laid were men waste the country. and having confessed his sins. What can the Pratimoksha do &quot. and after having fought them for three months. allies. the Bhikshus assembled together for confession. 1 Wassilieff. he put of blood. f. as if (Sang.) Durdarga.. Bhikshu Qirgaka. wishing to atone for all his sins. at the time of whose birth there had fallen a rain and on whose breast was marked two hands red smeared with blood. cit. arose and cried with a lion s voice. gada). ISTow at that time there reigned over Kaugambi a king called Durdarga(/. invited from Pataliputra a Bhikshu called Qirgaka. Durdarga went towards them with his army. &quot.by &quot.000 says Li-yul vy. 1 a man learned in the Tripitaka. gathered On together in Kaugambi to the number of 200. . 4i9 . says. vy. into Kaugambi). And when the king of Stag-gzig (Persia) and the others turned their forces against him. Bhikshus throughout India. a the Bhikshu told him that as a penance he must enter tain all the Bhikshus of Jambudvipa.) with which they conquered every country (of India ?) with the exception of Mid-India. the night of the fifteenth day of the month. he calls I-kia-tu (? AnHe does not give the name of the disciple of Sudhara.000. (mi sna dang rna-ba bchad-pafor you ? What is Then an Arhat called Surata la me-long-gi chi-dzig a). as the Li-yul.000 (200. This king had 500 ministers and an army of 200. They put to death many people. (khyed-rnams-la so-sor thar pas clii dzig by a). vy.Zfe0c?dkaJi). and they. rejoicing. calls the BhikshuTripitaka-Bahugrutiya. the disciple of Bahugrutiya.000 men. the good of a looking-glass for a man whose nose and ears are cut off?&quot. them to rout. loc. Then these three kings took council and led their armies to Madhyadega (Mid-India) (or.246 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. and they called upon the Bhikshu Qirgaka to repeat the Pratimoksha Sutra. But he answered them. the Arhat Sudhara..

count of the extinction of in dhism . and his eyes were obscured with tears. Cf.. p. but principally the cle Buddha.. seeing his master killed. . All the Bhikshus became enraged. they killed each other. and with it killed the Bhikshu Qirc^aka. and dividing into two camps. they passed And 420*. took a stick. Khoten. Arhat Sugata ments of the Sugata. (255 of the trans. and killed the Arhat. both hands.&quot. Taranatlia. p. and fled. Chen-ming 1 This extinction of Buddhism in India occurred in the latter part of the ninth century (according to our text). corpses didst possess the treasure of the Dharma of the ! ! thou didst know the command Alas. inflamed with anger. 462. calling the names of the Arhat. myos-pd).MASSACRE OF THE BHIKSHUS. said to the Arhat. also Manju193. but Agnavi. 247 why speak you thus ? I am whole as the Sugata or dained (that a Bhikshu must be). Khian-te (A. were closing around the blessed law. the king saw all the Bhikshus Then lying dead. and here you lie dead!&quot.D. Tripitaka breast. he seized a door-bar with as my master ? &quot. he rushed to the vihara. Then the Bhikshu Qirc^aka was filled with shame &quot. vy.) the people worshipped the spirits. 420*0 We must not infer from the preceding narrative that Buddhism became extinct in Li-yul at the time of this de la Ville persecution. the disciple of Qirgaka. f. and their of the Bhikshu Tripitaka to his (Qirc^aka). 967). f.D. and transmigrating.). He pressed ! thou Alas. crying. with the above ac- BudMagadha. And when it was dawn. the Arhat s disciple. Karata. (Sang. (Do. In the fifth year. 1 the Trayastrimcat Devas were defeated by the Asuras.) as the shades of night among the Asandjasattva Devas (Rtag-tu f. &quot. 80) that in the tenth century (940 A. frimulatantra. for we learn from Eemusat (Hist. How dare you speak thus to such an exalted personage and enraged.

vol . ?) (YaQas came to court (p. of the and Chen-fa (Saddharma ?). G. S. priests of Yu-thien These were evidently Buddhist Bhikshus. however. 1-47. pp. of the country Buddhism 1 by Islamism. J R - B ate P Khoten J w*w TT VV. 85).. In the time Yuen had been stamped out nt S f dynasty.248 THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA. Johnson report of a * s journey to Ilichi xxxvii. H.

the oldest pupil of Mahanamed vira. I. Ernst Leumann.) Life. Aggivesayana. Ant.) Pleasure . NlGANTHA NATAPUTTA) AND GOSALA MANKHALIPUTTA. he lived in the pottery bazar of the potter s wife Halahala in Savatthi. Attheda. according the an- Rice (Ind. Sana. He himself took from the (above) eightfold Mahanimitta ment Jina. from l contained in the Puvas. Gosala. (6. believed himself to be a When this became known. although no trace of them can be found in the present 2 Since these eight maha-nimittas are mentioned in the Bhadrabahu inscription published one.249 APPENDIX. and from the two 2 Margas. EXTRACTS FROM BHAGAVAT! XV. They had made extracts according to their own the eight parts ideas from the ten (canonical) books. Kalanda. Kaniyara...) Non-obtain.) Death. namely. viz. came and asked his teacher about life the origin and 1 of Gosala. finished his AT the time when Gosala Mankhaliputta had twenty-fourth year of ascetism. (5. ON THE INTERCOURSE BETWEEN MAHiVlRA (i. Indabhuti. By Dr. GUamdrga. Ajjana Gomayuputta. also iii. and taught the Once the six Disacaras came to hinij ajiviya doctrines.) Pain . in teaching this doctrine. they probably commentary Abhayadeva.nrttamdrga-lakshaComment. to These are.e. ). doctrine six principles: (i. formed part of the original Jaina canon. Divyam autpdtam dntariksham bhaumam gam svaram lakshanam also vyanjanarji. (2. by Mr. Lewis nan. (4. and they confided themselves to Gosala s guidance. (3. .) Obtainment.

pleasure and honour and dishonour.e. and not reserved for only religious mendicants. we went together from the town Siddha-thaggama to the town fcimmagama. . and was consequently called said. he flourishing condition. obtained great happi ness. and having heard that I was there. and threw away. it happened that the citizen Vijaya. we are led to suppose that the Tantavaya hall If we life. and soon after I departed for Kollaga. Gosala accidentally came also to that village. Satta tilapuppha-jhu. 11 He himself became a beggar like his father. and where would the seven living beings of the flower 3 reappear after it had vanished. I granted it. experiencing obtainment and non-obtainment. On our way we came across a large sesam shrub. and that the seven living beings would all But reappear in the same pericarp of the same sesam shrub. tore it out of the ground. at the beginning of a rather dry autumn. &quot. but I declined. the seven senses. &quot. Gosala reverently approached me with the desire to become my disciple . after having passed thirty years in my home up begin a religious mendicant s life. I happened to come to Bajagriha in the second year. an error on the part of Gosala if lie he is the son of a beggar (mankha) named Mankhali and of his wife Bhadda . &quot. where I took my alms at the door of the Brah man Bahula. ii. saying that I must be wrong. Once. When. At that time 2 Gosala came also to the same place as a simple beggar. be alms at his door. he would not believe it.&quot.). 15.a 3 accept Mahavira s statement as trustworthy. pain.. (Shortly after we had left this spot) a sudden rain 1 corroboration of this stateto be found in the Acaranga (published by Professor Jacobi in the Pali Text Soc. and. i.250 APPENDIX. and to take upon me the vow of a half-month s fast in the Tantuvaya-sala near the town. Gosala. I answered that the shrub would perish. which was covered with leaves and flowers and in a very Gosala asked me if it would perish or not. he was born in a cow-stable (go-sdld). later on. he approached me cause I had taken my again and renewed his request. parents. each representing a particular living object or &quot. it approached the shrub. and we lived together during six years on the ground of the bazaar (paniya-bhdmte). Mahavira It is believes himself to be a Jina. A ment 2 is was a place opened to all comers. to the death of my 1 I left it to When.

developed into a fruit. it . came on. or merely the abode of The ascetic did not answer. through mine. After the lapse of six months he himself acquired magical power by means of the austere discipline. and wished to know how he could himself acquire that magical power. and learnt me about asked that what it.e. tion. He was somewhat terrified at the account. so that the all in 251 ground was moistened and the sesam .&quot. him the austere discipline which it required. but he is wrong in &quot. Gosala again would reminded ment. Gosala saw the and he went to (mock) him with the ques Art thou believed to be a sage. so the seven lives really When we the same pericarp of the same shrub. 1 known in the for. and paralysed the hot flash ascetic Vesibayana. That is his doctrine of the change through reanimation. we again passed the place where the sesam shrub was. and he me that I had certainly been wrong in my state answered that. some days afterwards. and now (recently) the six Disacaras have intrusted themselves to his guidance. I see. The rivalry of Mahavira and Gosala became I.APPENDIX. when he had counted so he turned to the plant to split open the the seven living beings. he became angry and peated Bat through com shot forth his magical power to kill him.. wondering from me that he had been saved through my mediation. the flower had . passion for Gosala I interceded. believing himself to be a Jina. I not believe pericarp . When we once 1 returned to the town Siddhatthagama. a rain which had fallen in the meantime had made true all that I had foretold of the shrub. he said to me (pacified). as will be seen farther on. but when Gosala had re lice ? his question again and again. meant. came to the town Kummagama. I ex plained to &quot. and from that time Gosala left me. and I added that in this way plants in general can undergo the change of a reanimation. on the contrary. I see. and he thought of undergoing it. shrub was able to take root again reappeared &quot. he at once formed the idea that in this way (not only plants) but all living beings can undergo the change of a reanimation. of the ascetic ascetic When the s power by a cool flash of mine. saw that his power had remained without effect * Gosala.

he began to bear a grudge against Mahavira. Ananda. he said. Savatthi). then I will burn him up by means of my magical power. Nayaputta (i) (i. for the fourth might possibly bring them some evil. returned In like manner. has Ananda. the Samana obtained in a threefold manner Mahavira).e. Vammiya? . so 1 they could easily withstand (valmUia). and from the third a heap of jewels.e. and he asked him if the Nayaputta. Mahavira answered him in the affirmative. Ananda entered. and on open ing the fourth part they met with a huge serpent of a terri fying aspect. The others did not follow his advice. Tell this to thy teacher. Before had set about the fourth in which they opening part. with the exception of the one who had given the advice. and Gosala said to him. Samana Gosala really possessed the faculty of burning up anybody. Gosala could not do any harm to one of the teachers of the faith (arahantd bhagavanto). and also Mahavira s statement that Gosala was wrong. it .. they obtained an abundant supply of water from the second part they got a quantity of silver. and (3) many adherents among men as well as gods . saying that he would tell him (of) a simile. town (i. home merit of ascetism. who now. at last they discovered a large fourfold ant x opening the first part. no fresh supply . but thou shalt be saved like the man who advised (them). one of the men who was thought ful. the serpent). through the favour of the goddess (i. be still mightier than his. because their magical power would &quot. they expected to find some ivory. Gosala called him in.&quot. imparted them all to Mahavira. but if he turns to me..252 APPENDIX. After a while ing through they exhausted their (supply of) water. safe and provided with rjches.. Once in days of old some merchants were pass a forest with waggons and goods. thy teacher. only. just as those who were burnt up by the serpent . and they could find &quot. (2) great fame. &quot.&quot. recommended not opening any more. who had been horrified at these words. and to let the three hill : . who dwelt out side the town near the Kotthaya ceiya. When Gosala heard of it. and through the fire of its eyes all the men were at once burnt up.e. and once when a pupil of Maha vira s named Ananda passed the settlement of the Ajivakas in Halahala s pottery bazar. parts be enough.

he 2 After is dead and reborn in one of the worlds of the gods.649* Ganga be supposed that Auso Kasava (dyuchmah Ka$- gabbhe. Seven Avati-Gangas make a Paramdvati-Gangd. Gosala but extremely ingenious. reached or who will reach final beatitude 3 had or will have to pass (through) the eighty-four of hundred thousands of great kalpas. according to my doctrine. (in my last having originally change) the body of Ajjuna Goyamaputta and entered that of Gosala Mankhaliputta. seven with change of body by means of reanimation . seven births as a deity. &quot. shall hereafter hold any religious conversation with Gosala. the body of that former of Mahavira. satta pauttaparihdre. sat- ta divve. If. All these sayd blavantiti statements about the different Ganga s m aunapannam Ganga . Which 1 gives the last one an amount of rivers. venerable Kasava. consents to being called Mahavira s retains he now. and approaching Mahavlra he said. Seven Lohiya-Gangas make an Avati-Gangd. and I still retain this seventh body &quot. and the six hundred and the three of mine. those who have particles of actions. Seven Ganga rivers of these dimensions make a Mahti-Gangd. pupil 3 The text from here on is Can3 : kammani-sayasahassdim sat t him ca sahassdim chac-ca sac tinni ya kamm amse anupuvvenam khavaittd tas pacclid sijjhanti bujjhanti Java antam karentl. because accident. because he has turned out a heretic. Seven Sadina-Gangas make a Nadu-Ganga. sattavasa Gangd-sayasahassam sahassa chac-ca ya raslti mahdkappa-sayasahassdim. O vene Ajlvikas. all According to my doctrine. 253 but none of our Niggantha ascetics. seven as a bulky (insensible) being. : 500 yoj i- nas in length. satta samjUhe. he continued. now. Seven Madu-Gangas make a Loliiya-Gangd. While Ananda was .Ganga. Gosala came out of the town with his Thou. The river Ganga has the following dimensions &quot. by pupil. they will reach final beatitude. The argument is very obscure. 4 I. a half yojana in breadth. it 1 17. 7x7x7x7x7x7x7.APPENDIX. panca yapa). Seven Maha-Gangas make a Sddina..&quot. still communicating this to the other Niggantha ascetics. and the sixty thousand. 500 dhariu in depth. 1 hast been right in calling me thy pupil but as this thy pupil has emaciated himself through austerity. rable Kasava.&quot.e. I left Udai been Kundiyayaniya. and having by this time gradually expiated the five hundred thousand actions. satta sanni- akkhdyd. seven as a sensible being.

. the term sdyarovama. a deity in the lower Manasa. &quot. I left outside Uddandapura. a deity in the middle Manasa. (1) With (2) the first change. after having passed already through endless births. and entered that of Mandiya for the space of twenty years. a deity in the upper Manasuttava. and 84.. the body of Enejjaga. a sensible being for the fourth time. (3) With the third change. and MahdAs to Sara(s). to denote one of those immense periods of time which period.(Living beings. and entered that of Encjjaga for the space of twenty-two years. a deity in the lower Manasuttava. &quot. word is used by the Jains for the same purpose. a sensible being for the second time. every century one single grain of sand is removed. a deity in the Bambhaloga. terms Sara(s\. near the ceiya Candoyarayana. a sensible being for the fifth time. a similar mdnasa. Samlchdnam. with the to Jains. the body of Ud&i Kundiydyana. With the second change. the body of Mallarama. are successively reborn in the following order :) (1) (2) As As As As (5) As (6) As (7) As (8) As (9) As (10) As (u) As (12) As (13) As (14) As (3) (4) &quot. I left outside Rajagriha. this the last birth as a sensible being.In a deity in the upper Manasa. hundred thousand of such Sara(s) periods make one Mahdkappa period.Ma/tdkappa. are merely introduced as a simile to give an approximate idea of the immensity of time implied by the human J could only suggest themselves to It is fancy on Indian soil.254 APPENDIX. a sensible being for the sixth time. viz. a sensible being for the seventh time. a deity in the middle Manasuttava. a sensible being for the first time. This term seems have had the same value with the Ajivikas as Kevali-nxna. near the ceiya Mandikucchi.000 of these make one Mahdmdnasa. 1 1 underwent the seven changes home of body by means of reanimation. then the time which would be required for the disappearance of the whole amount of those Gangas would be one Sara(s) three . I myself left my early in youth for religious life. near the ceiya Angamandira. I left outside Campa. and then. a sea-like &quot. after having obtained universal knowledge. a sensible being for the third time. and entered that of Mallardma for the space of twenty-one years.

said to the I have formerly been to a place where was a ramana or brahmana. &quot. I left outside Alabhiya&quot.D. The Buddha &quot. I left in Savatthi. said. There is no such thing as this. tion to any mana 1 The king &quot. the death of Gosala. Bhavantltl m akkhdyd. .&quot. Nanjio. The Buddha said to the king. THE DOCTRINES OF THE Six HERETICAL TEACHERS ACCORDING TO Two CHINESE VERSIONS OF THE SAMANA-PHALA StiTRA. &quot. and have asked him a have you ever asked such a ques tion to any heretic 1 The king said to the Buddha.. No.D. (4) 255 With the fourth change. according to my doctrine. near the ceiya (7) Kandiyaya. 593. Tripit. (A. (6) With the sixth change. Bud. the body of Roha. I remember 9ramana). I once upon a time went to the place where Fu-ran ka-shio (Furna Kagyapa) was. I left outside Vanarasi. i (A. f. Tripit. 381-395).. II. (5) With the fifth change. By Bunyiu No. &quot. and hav1 He answered me. and entered that of Ajjunaga for the space of seventeen years. nor (such &quot. 412-413). the body of Mandiya. I left outside Vesali. and I asked him (about the reward of the &quot. c . and entered that of Eh&raddai for the space of eighteen years. With the seventh change. &quot.. and entered that of Roha for the space of nineteen years. and his punishments in a long series of subsequent births j but there is no further mention of any of his doctrines. Bud.APPENDIX. near the ceiya Kamahavana. been right in calling me thy pupil. The story goes on to relate subsequent events. Esq. Chin. 17. similar question. in Halahala s pottery bazar the body of Ajjunaga. 545. and entered that of Gosdla Nankhaliputta for the space of sixteen years. Maharaja. kh. Chin. So I have fulfilled the seven changes in the course of 133 1 In this respect thou hast years. the body of Bharaddai. having once gone to Fu-ran-kashio (Puma Kftgyapa). Have you ever asked this quesramana or brahBuddha. near the ceiya Pannakalaga.

nor this world and a world to come. Maharaja. &quot. . beings) have body and life. . nor the present world and the world to come. their house by entering jumping over * and mother. father his the fence of their house). comes to nought. Maku-ka-ri Ku-ga-ru (Maskarin Gosaliputra)and asked went to him me. nor is there and destroyed. Maharaja. &quot.nor fairy (?).. &quot. or does evil by cutting a path to do even these things. if any one cuts all sets . &quot.2S6 APPENDIX. he path. yet after death the four elements are scattered about their heart (or soul) beings into pieces. He answered is there no (such thing law of nor good and evil. and makes a heap which will fill the world. nor world to come. . nor (is there) sin and me. as) dis (the same question). buried under the any requital for this crime. or commits adultery. I f the kills or injures beings who cry and grieve on account of it. nor reward and punishment for good and evil deeds. for which one can show others any proof. nor world of beings. Moreover. their pleasure and pain (?). is not to do evil. King A-ga-se(Ajatasatru) &quot. and who . and brahrnana who practise equally. &quot. ing asked him (about the reward of the m ana). Therefore. rior power and powerlessAll men have ness. nor is there a reward for the righteous doer who makes a great assem bly for distributing (alms). &quot. &quot. . There no requital for the evil-doer who cuts beings to pieces on the is ground. or robs others (lit. nor deva. nor world to come. they left of them. and They are is never born again. Matsu-ka-ri ku-sha-ri (Makkhali Gosala) and asked question). rot. gives to all equally. nor one who walks with happiness. nor reward for righteousness and favour. Maharaja. nor Ra-kan (arhat) who has ac quired the path (marga).e. nor energy. nor sacrifice. All . and nothing is south (bank) of the Ganga. answered me. though they (i. nor ramana tributing. Again (the king) said to I once went to the Buddha. &quot. it is not an evil deed. or lies.He obtained &quot. nor mother.That PurnaKacyapa answered king hi mself or another a thing as) the world honoured. or if whole heart and mind in the anything on fire. nor happiness in worship. said to the I him (the same Buddha. nor father. nor present world. nor giving. era&quot. . or if he steals. There is no present world.

no power. who . perience either pain or pleasure. to But if there is a world come in which we shall be is born.There is&quot. . 3 &quot. he is a world to to wind. also said. and asked Ha-ku him (the same ^ question). he does not lose it. &quot. or Whether one be wise or There foolish. come. When a man who is composed of the four &quot. good and evil. nor cause. Ka-sen-zen. There fore if he has obtained a body. are all . What is dom. &quot. is not. where it has been carried on a bed. liars. Maharaja. . or not answers). the wind dies. no there is &quot. &quot. to the Again Buddha. Thus all become de and all one s organs go dies. . back to nought. all is de stroyed. he said . If there is a man who has been cut off. No power in all living beings who are unable to obtain free ment He has obtained a dwelling-place pride and accumulated injuries. (he &quot. answered me. when he dies. (&c. no rea son (for the) purity of beings.&quot. (Ajita). there he lives and stands. if there is a man who has received a body. the fire to fire. he also made ^ raja. stroyed. &quot. world to come any one asks hin. and in these six different thought (by him). If the life K . When : others went to this reply There I is a world to the earth element goes back to the earth. elements come in which we again. Again he said to the Buddha. &quot. (about the question). no cause. no reason (for) the attach of beings. Maha raja. no enemy. He answered me. and asked him (the Again I went to A-i-tan and asked him (the same Yes. Shi-sha-kin-ba-ra (Ajita Kesakambara).&quot. and his body is put in a cemetery. When -a man there a world or not ac cording to idea ? ? my If conception and Is there a &quot. I once went to A-i-da &quot. . no means. . and who sees with his eyes. nor idea. &quot.). question). the bones become pigeon-coloured if the body has been burnt. no energetic man. there is no dispute conditions of existence they ex. the water to water. All are fixed in certain num bers. Again I went to &quot. or all are changed into ashes and earth. I once went to Hi-fuda Ka-sen-zen (Kakuda Katyanana). question). Maha him and questioned him. . (are) called sin and virtue. and asked him (the same . There asked him. there is no cause or reason (for it). &quot. because (all is subject to) the law of destruction. 257 say that these things are. no power. same question). what he knows and thinks prevail within him. . Yes.&quot. . shall be born When &quot. He answered me. . He He answered me.APPENDIX.&quot. (these questions) whether there is a world to come or not.

to cut. they will be at ease. Again I went to Sen-hiand asked him (the same &quot. (or the desire of desire conies to an end. When they are in heaven.. Maha what a man does himself or answered me. I asked. ro-ji. He lets another do.. or . nothing to grieve about in the death of life. there are eightyfour great remembrances (or in tense thoughts) which are accom by magical arts and Then they can remove the pain of old age and disease. He raja. .ramana. These sixty-two different kinds are spoken of by those who have no nature (?).&quot. as sixty-two matters or things which accompany nature.258 APPENDIX. Maharaja. and there is no brahmachari who has found the &quot. There are neither men acquainted with the way nor brahrftacharis. without any thought or idea. panied miracles. . question). As to these desires and supports (?).Once upon a time I went to San-niya Bi-ra-ri s son and (Sanjayin Vairattiputra). to dislike what is c. to break . that state of being which always follows is as the going out of a burning lamp. . Thus it is. answered me. &quot. see or not to see. of the body comes to an end. Yes. rob. . there are five theories and sixty-two different sorts or species. and being benefited thereby. When they enter into eight difficulties they will throw them away. path. Thus do I say my precepts are pure and free from love and de . asked him (the same question). there is a visible reward of the &quot. sire When love). Being at ease. to lament. way Again he said to the Buddha. * (Is it) thus? sought after. Others do not speak of this there &quot. they are constantly in heaven. is desire. . .

the truth so . it is the He karma of their ing man. there is neither sin nor virtue. I am always enlightened. They were born through the cause and by reason of love and desire. no honesty. there is no visible reward of the ramana. (Is it) thus ? plied. as above). kinds of evil. . question. .B. as above).. vases. there is. &quot. to injure people. who acts unright all eously. * It is so/ (&c. * It (&c. and after that they obtain the path N.One who is charitable does not receive any reward for his virtue. and who commits plied. there is nothing in it which corresponds with right or wrong. Maharaja. to kill.. to steal. to be doubletongued. . Maharaja.. thus? He replied. Even the man who practises what is right and lawful. I He answered me. . I asked. to break (down) and destroy castles of the country. no cause nor reason. to drink intoxicating liquors though one commits these deeds there is no crime nor demerit. no truth. and my wis is former existences. Once upon a time I went to Ni-ken s son (Nirgrantba Djnatiputra). It is BO . and asked him (the same question). I asked. &quot. as above). He is 259 replied. it is different (from that). sitting or lying down. ityasamudpada) are old age and Then there are the ideas of cause and reason in their learning the path. in the way their children and grandchildren are born to them. nothing to be lost or made. it is not not different. &quot.APPENDIX. answered me. The Chinese characters for Japanese sounds. mit adultery. Again I went to Ni-keu s and asked him the same . and there is not a visible reward of the 9ramana. Maharaja. whether it be evil or good which is here given to all sentient creatures. Maha raja. . Again he said to the Buddha.&quot. (Is it) is so. know everything that While walking or standing still. Yes. &quot. son. proper names are given with their . For one who does injury (to others). to lie. It is so. (prat- dom ever manifest. Maha raja. to be devoid of covetousness. (&c. am an all-knowing and all-see &quot. He re I asked. to com it is not different. (Is it) thus ? He re &quot. there is a visible noreward of the ramana. Through cause and reason disease. (1). . I is.

.

88. 134. Aditta pariyaya sutta. 79. 84. 189. 17. 14. 132. Anama. Bal-po. I4i&amp. 15. 250. 13. 41. Anauma. 57. Akanishta. 252. 35. 84. 165. 31. 254. Ararita. 167. Anoma. Abhasvara. 117. 220. 89.GENERAL INDEX. Bal-ti or Sbal-ti. 59. Adi Buddha. Arata Kalama. 183. 120. 48. 49. BA-BEU-HBRANGS-PAI-SA. or Asita. Adjita. 129. A-lo-hjah. in. 32. Amra Amragama. 182. 82. 13. 77. 79. Amritachittra. 125. Akelaka. Aklega. An-se. 33. 64. Angirasas. r &amp. 212. 184. 220. 65. 196. I3 132. 235. 13. Atuma. 13. Avalokitesvara sutra. Abhinishkramana 33- Ananda Djaya. 202-204. 1 86. 147. 126. Ananda. 146. Attheda. 145. Arnritodana. Abhaya. 128. 73. no. also Anutnana (?). Agnavi. 26.. Appriya. 28. 53. 240. 184. 13. 150. 134-137. 251. 161. 200. 18. 257. ^ 134. Abhinanda. 65. 164. 79. 249. 151. 103. Atraya. Ajjuna Goyamaputta. pupil of 253- Mabavira. Ananda 130. 57. 61. 44. 96. 49. the pundit. 77. 221.. 217. 16. et seq. 86. 253. Alabhiya. Agoka. Ambalatthika. 20.gt. 129. 70. Angulimaliya sutra. 58. 116. 151. 47. 132. 217. 30. 160-167. Aranemi Brahmadatta. 85-88. Atisha. 102. Anandagri. Atnrapali. 130. Agvaghosha. 247. Avantaka. 255. 115. 240. Arati. 127. 233. 155- 90 A-no-shos. 100. Aparagaudani. Bahugrutiya. 116. 70. 25. Abhayagiriya. 214. Aryadeva. 242. 26. 137. 141144. Avaragaila. 240. 1-2. 58. 27. 64. 106. 123. . 30. 142. 28. 182. 152. Aryakosha. 93. Ananda. 212. Avalokitesvara. Bahuputra tchaitya. Adjivaka. Asaudjasattva devas. 205. 183. 249. or Jo-vo-rje. Adjatasatru. Anga. 247. 122. Aniruddha. 52. 82. 70. 249. Atharva veda. sutra. 227. 16. 220. 225. See Kalagoka and Anantanemi. See Nepal. 144. 154-158. 32. 256. 35. grove.gt. Dharmagoka. Armandju. 32. Bahula. 187. ABASSIDES. 253. 182. 126. 215. II. Ajjana. Ambarisha. I 7i 176. 152. 54. 176. Balamitra. 28. 85. 64. 20. 124. 200. Ajita Ke^akambala. (Prince). 64. 245. Agvadjit. 183. Aggivesayoma. 224. 224. Anathapindada. 182. 255. 228.

219. Jeylon. 55% 5 8 &amp. Beluva. Cambi. Bhikshu varshagrapritsha. 72. 56. Culekasataka tirthikas. 114. 59. 1 6. 163. 167. 241. 45. Crilendrabodhi. vihara. 69. 228. 94. Crivadjra. 54. 9. 29. 159. 84. 53. 218. 55. 56. 30. 246. 219. 213. 80. Devadatta. Devala. 25. 1 10. 174. 216. 162. DA^ABALA KACYAPA. 224. 175. 64. Cravakayana. 136. 206. 109. 52. 132. Crithadra. 37. Baradvadja. 2 1 8. 148. !aradvatiputra. Dhanvadurga. 128. 107. 13. 73. 254. 52. Dharma dbyig-dur in. Cantarakshita. Bamyan. 8l. Brahma. 47. Canavasika. Conaka. 19. 49. 89. btsan-po. Cari. 208. 132. 83 106-109. 40. 170. 20. II. 24. Bamboo See also Veluvaua. grove. 221. 50. 1 1 6. 12. 5 2 S3. 143. Bulls or Buluka. 237. 1 6. (Jiuddhodana. 81. 12. 196. 91. 20. Brigu. Bru-sha. 45. Devadaha. 157- . 205. C. Dgung srong hdam rja. 96. 85. 182 et seq. 27. Crested tchaitya of the Mallas Bhandagama. 112. 54. 13. 255. Bhavya. 58. 1 6. 52. 227. 44. 130. Danagila. ^rughna. 74. 35. 233. 127. 27. 17. 219. &amp. 15.AKRA. 199. 85. Bimbisara. 58. 51. etseq. 183. 53. 232. Buddhaghuya. 144sutta. 68. 58. in. 1 Bhallika. 28. Chabbaggiya bhikshus. 145. 22O. Banyan grove. 72. 132. 14. 13. Bimbi. 26. 55. 164. 30. Bathang. Chang Chang an. 241. 197. 181. 46. Chin-cheng. Cir^aka. 48. Bon-pa. 90. 93. 2O. 10. Banyan tree of Gautama. 162. 128. 49. 63. Bhadrika Cakyaraja. 90. 59. Crimahadevi. 146. 128. 221. Deva the brahman. 243. 44. 94. Dahara Dandapani. Bhadra. 51.29. 67. 224. 1 6. Datta. Bharaddai. 94. III. 21. 72. 113. 122. 72. 3 2 51. 236.. 157. 159. 1. Cakyavardana. 174. 175. 214. 210.gt. 13. ^udddha. 33. 69. 86. 198. 35. 76. Bhadrika. 136. 2 1 6. 225. 48. Bhagirathi. 182. 70. gampa. (Juklodana. Brahmajala Brahmaloka. 26. See Nyagrodharama. (Makuta bhandhana). 207. 242. 109. 214. 35. 149. 213. itanika. 219. 39. Bhadda. 164. 218. Danshtasena. 93. Cincapa grove. 130. sutra. 43. son of. 31. 222. 174. 1 Chintamam. 117. 87. Dgah-ldan monastery. Brtson-pa-gtong. 72. Bhadrayaniya. 221. 208. 145. 27. Bhadra. 1 6. itagatha. 13. 71. Cukla. 73. 64. 181. Dharma chakra pravartana sutra. 63. Bodhimanda. Cariputra. 176. 49. 13. 247. 70. 161. 14. Bu-ston. 49. in. See also Varanari. 79.262 INDEX. Chen-ming. 165.gt. Chen-fa. 171. 41. Bod-yul. Citavana. 28. 250. 248. 82. 31. 26. also See Q arlputra. 132. 176. 87. 44. Buddhatcharita. Candoyarayana. 255. 82. 71. 33. Benares.37. 47. Cilamanju. Buddhasanti. 194. 117. Cravasti. 248. 254. 116. Bharata. 238. 217. 218. Buddhadhuta. Cronavimsatikoti. 24. See Glang der-ma. ^rimant Dharmapala. 132. !ataketu. 241-244.

226. Gtsang-ma. 232. 57. or Himavat. 165 253. Hetuvidya. Gunjaka. EKAVYAVAHARIKA. 128. 190. Dmar-po-ri. Dharmapala. 240. Dharma^riprabha. DurdarQa. 2OO. 9. 184. prince. 239. 146. 208. 207. 134. Halahala. 186. Gey a. See Kakustana. Ganges. 255. 41. 46. 146. Itivritaka. 182. 214. 226. Djina. Hwa-shang zab-ino. 42. 1 86. Dpal-gyi rdo-rje (Qrivadjra). Ganuta. 60. 184. 187. Hastinajaka. 245. 206. 182. 194. 249. 72. 1 1. Gundak. Hastipura.gt. 187. 228. Haimavata. 189. Himatala. 170. 182. 185. jrshen-rabs. Dharmagupta. 214. Hor (or Hur. 224. 263 182. 219. Enejjaga. 145. 228. 238. 246. 21. Drona. 220. 83. 132. 40. Hastigama. 19. the brahman.INDEX. Gay a Kacyapa. Ekottaragama. 251. 209. 64. 129. Gungu Meru. 149. 240. Gantacabda. 27. 215. 167. :&amp. 12. 140. 242. 117. Gandharva. 1 214. Ikshavaku Virudhaka. 183. 128. 217. Gaya girsba. 56. 13.9irsha. Djriung-ri. 133. 231. 233. omayuputta. Gaya. nya-khri btsan -po. Dronasama. 128. II. 191. Dharmauanda. Glang dar-ma. 63. 28. 217. Drug-gu. 239. Dhyani Buddhas. Gesser khan. 225. I35&amp. 2 54. 184. 244. okulika. 9. 158. IO2. 235. 194. 13. Himalaya. 39. 243. 175. 238. 189. Hdon-hdros. 230. 53. 21. 223. Elapatra. Dharmottariya. Guge. 245. Hgen-to-shan. 182. 214. 10. Dharm&goka. Gu-zan. See Mas- Dhitika. 211. 26. 41. HA-CHANG or Hwa-chang Mahadeva.gt. 236. 252. 219. 185. ogringa. 52. . 183. 97. 195. Ilichi. 235. 158. Guptaka. IKSHVAKU. 249. 86. 215. Dharmaghosha. Dharmaguptaka. 240. Dronodana. Galien. 225. 140. Ghoshaka. Gosala Mankhaliputta. Gandhara. Gupta. 140. 164. 233. 31. Gopa. 211. Hindustan. 233. Djinamitra. India. II. 183.gt. 185. 6 Gautami. kharin. 47. 1 86. 215 Hsam-yas. Gupta. Gautama. 239. Djnanagarbha. 244. Mahaprajapati. Hui-ho). 215. 256. Hgum-stir (or tir). 206. Gdpala. 169. 249. 207. Hulunta (or Hu-lor). 21. Hastigarta. 240. 234. 220. 89. GA-HJAG. Drona. Dharmottara. 12. 208. 244. 240. 215. Hang-gu-jo. 1 8. 2O. 236. J 43- 213. 20. n. 238. 27. Gung-ri gung btsan. 238. 220. Gus-tik. 228. 156. 2 37- nam-ri srong btsan. 235&amp. Gyung-drung. 137. 182. FEN HSIANG. Disacaras. II. Gavampati. 239. 240. 13. 195. 24. Hbru-so-lo-nya. !93- 183. Gatha. Gandhamadana. 184. 254. 184. Little. Hiranyavati.

45. 30. 204. Kalantakanivasa (or nipata). 51. Kolita. 43. 255. 19. 232. 247. 240. 148. Kanika.Tin-ch an. Kasbgar. 240. 212. 215. 114. 44. 128. 218. 95. 225. 232. 82. 40. 12. 112. Kanakavarna. Karkata. Kaniyara. 87. 52. 16. 94. Kdmalagila. 204. Kapilavastu. 23. 236. 118.264 JAINS. 96. 249. Gautami. 104. 45. 132. 38. 231. 211. Kamahavana. Kosala. Kecbana. Kamaloka. 246. Kao-tchang. 75. 255. 144. 221. 70. Kosbtbila. 134. 159. 222. 218. 96. 215. Kokalika. Kalinga. 212. . 23. 243. 31. 47. 213. 153. 133. 193. III. 21. Kalika. Kagyapa. 98. gataka. (Kumarabhanda). n. 50. Jo-vo-rje. 249. See Udayin. See Srong btsan sgam-po. 218. Teta. 170. 215. Jivaka 6 5&amp. Kisbkindba. Kakuda Katyayana. Kong-dzung. Veluvana. 49. K See Ral-pa-chan. 73. Mali a. 50. 79. 183. Ivaldgoka.gt. 67. 220. 231. 42. 222. Nyagrodba. See Bbadr a . 185. 12. Kollaga. 32. Kagyapiya. 93. Katamorakatisya. Jetavana. 115. 44. 26. 254. 335. Kanthaka. 24. Kbri-ldan srong btsan. 217. 220. Karandavyuba Karakarna. 128. INDEX. 69. Kagi. 257- Kasava. 57. 147. Kaiu. 223. Keiissa Kboten darya. 241. 9. 13. Janapada Kalyani. n. 170. 58. KACHMERE. 68. 191. Jambugama. 21. 167. 210. 1 8. 14. ranasi. 202. 17. Kalandaka. 64. 77. 253. Jambudvipa. Kaundinya. Kandiyaya. 51. 50. 104. 9. 33. Kbri-lde gtsug bstan mes Ag-ts oms. I0 5. 203. Kbri. Kaugika. 81. 94. 228. iang. Katissabba. 79. 117. Kala. Gaya. 145. 47. 211. 221. 208. Ka-sar vibara. 131. 121. Jyotishka. 240. 87. 76. celestial. See Maudgalyayana. Kokan. 147. See also 230. 202. 132. 9. Koko-nor. Kalyana. 183. Kalauda. 20. Kaugambl. 75. 44. Kalyanavardana. 166. Katyayana. Nadi. sfttra. Koliyas of Ramagama. 157. 220. 235. See UruviIva. Kinkinisvara. Janta. Kamapala. 116. 19. II. . Kbandadvaja. 94. See Bamboo grove and 151. Potala. 60. 185. 209. See also Asita. 28. 9. 25. Karata. 48. Karnika. See liajyanauda. 145. 55. 141. in. 65. 10. 107. Kanishka. 35. Kapila. 240. 219. 246. 79. 223. Kapala tcbaitya. Kaundiuya Kakudha. seven Kbri-cbam. Khoten. 94. Kaltidayi. 186. Kbri-ral. 9. 69. 9. 55. Jataka. See Atisha. 55. 17. 121. Jaluka mabavana. 70. Kanuavatcbaradeva. 85. Kbri-srong Ide btsan. Karumant. 74. See Benares and Va- Kacyapa. 83. Kanakavati. Kao-tsuug. 112. 18. Klui-rgyal-mts an. 182. Li-yul. 132. 249. 49. 49. 12. 55. 228. 238. Kanyakubdja. 140. K iang. 97. 73. Kalidasa. 168. 169. 250. 121. 84. 142. 18. 81. 215. Kakustana. Jetavaniya. Karma 63.

207. 14. snyen bshal. 128. 202.. 40. 167. 206. n. Kotigama. 138. ill. 13. Mahapurusha. 130. 183.hbum. Knkutupada. 138. 142Kueu-lun. Mahavlra. 25. Kuyyasobhito. Milaraspa. 136. Lde-dpal-hkhor-btsan. 86. 9. no. Metsurudi. 183. 185. 133. 136. 192. 186. Mandiya. 129. 74. Mahayana. 9. 76. 246. 44. 54. 139. 239Mab. 186. 70. 185. 96. 88. Mahanimitta doctrine. 161. 49. 101. dristanta sutra. Lha-tho-tho-ri 2IO. 9. 31. 249. - 209. 191. 162. Lo-bo-tchum-rings. 228. 96. Gau Maudgalyayana. 238. 144. 84. Mahigasaka. 184. 44. Kshitigarbha. 165. Mahavyutpatti. 183. 199. 58. 148. Mango Mani bkah&amp. 226. 75. 230. 183. 252. 1 79. 204. 97. 251. Ma-dza. 97. Kra-krag tribes. 165. 21. Mahaviharavasina. 145. Mallika. 185. 226. Kusthana. 208. Ma-twan-lin. 183. 137. 175. 186. 251. 236. Lokottaravadina. 56. Madhyamika. 144. 76. 27. 77. 186. 222. 276. nS. 212. Kumara 214. 72. Manjugri. 211. 64. Kurukullaka. 7. 250. 230. 75. 14. 64. J Mahaprajapati Gautami. 63. Mahinda. Kusavati. Mallas. 113. 148. 254. . 86. tami. 255. 90. 13. 62. 119. 26. Li-thang. 32. brahman. Mang-srong mang-btsan. Maskharin. Meghaduta. 254. 86. 16. 237. 220. 143. Mallarama. LAHUL. III. 24. 200. 223. Mahesvarasena. 63. 237. Mahadeva. 204. 235. 141. 203.gt. Mahabharata. MADHYANIKA 167. 249. Mahasanghika. 265 Matialoma. 247. 217. Legs. 185. 249. 150. 64. 233. Lokapalitas. Licchavis. 194. Mantasidhi. See KhoLi-yul. 10. Mahasammata. 250-255. Mahaparinirvana sutra. 94. Ko^thaya ceiya. 237. Lumbini. Li-byin. Magadha. 149 etseq. 90. 142. Kusumapura. 227. Matanga forest. 198. 170. 60. 33. 213. 230. 1 Lde. 230 et seq. 132. Krichnavarna. 241. Marpa. 189. 145. 216. Maha Kagyapa. 238.asudarc. or Madhyantika. 201. 245. 215. 77. 236. 182. 250. Me-skar. 72. Mahagiriya. 138. Majjimagama. 45. 35&amp. grove. 227. 209. 184. 169. 107. 81.ana. 123. Kurukula.. 170. Mathara. 194. 1 66. 20. 166. Mara. 237. I. 15. 239. 125. six terrestrial. 182. 212. seq. 214. Lokayata system. 14. 122 et Kumbhira. 19. 53. 58. son of Gogali. 114. 134. 70. Maitreya. 92. Kumara. Maya. 39. 28. 40. 248. 217. Manclhatar. 182. 109. 158. 114. Lo-los.gt. 136. 238. 134. 44. 182. 179. 234. 136. Lhasa. 59. Kummagarna. 52. 164. 182. Mahasudarcana sdtra. 9. 67.INDEX. 14. 13. 164. 129. eight terrestrial. Mahanama. 132. 142. 251. Mahaushada. 197. Madhyadega. 119. Mahismati. 239. See Pradjap. ten. 209. 68. Mahapadma. Mathura. 52. Kuginagara or Kusinara. 95. 217. 27. Mahagandhara. 176. 152. 137. 146. 200. 183. 216. 1 66. 88. 196. 93. 235. 117. Mahamaya.

167. Nirgrantha. 121. 240. 51. Mulasarvastivadina. Kaivata. 217. Mon tribes. 239. 224. 211. 226. 84. 51. pura. 214. Nagarjuna. Nyagrodha cave. 13. 231. ISTyagrodhika country 147. Nalanda. 65. Na-kie. See Sena. 224. 16. 38. 82. 159. 79. 53. 50. 215. 30. 210. 16. 45. 220. Pu-nye-shar. 92. 253. 114. Peshawar. 128. 243. 76. 48. 40. 242. 140. 159. 34. 238. 93. Om-mani padme hum. 63. 164. 175. Phyi-dbang stag-rtse. Nadika. 115. Monkey Pava. 48. 30. 183. 50. 12. Nata. 42. 80. 65. 59. 96. 164. 144. 255. 238. 138. Naudabala. Pin-chu. 228. 177. 138. Nanda. Purvarama. 57. also 151. 14. 43. 29. no. 246. Potala. Purvagaila. Ral-pa-chan. 105. 30. 174. Pradjnavarman. 15. Ravigupta. 182. 2IO. 215. 50. Ratnavali. Po-ta-rya. Purna Ka^yapa. 189. 2IO. 128. Nanda. 208. 243. 127. 1 6 1. 37. 39. 58. Panda va. 28. 71. 200. See also Kusuuia179. NA ? I. 131. 120. Opapatika birth. 245. Pratimoksha sutra. Pipphalivana. 220. 186. Ramayana. 32. 54. Nairanjana. 30. Nandika. Nigrantha Juatiputra. 56. 1 86. Punyabala avadana. 206. 103. Pradyota. Naga. Rajagriha. 1 86. 104. OD-SRUNQ. 101. 46. 73. Mongols. 182. Prasenadjit. 70. or God. 242. 7i 75. 6l. 90. 83. 126. Naradatta). 220. 133. 70. 234. 66. 134. 184. Purvavideha. Nirnbarkas. 55. 222. 215. 71. Pradjnaptivadina. 35. 103. Revata. 235. Pataliputra. 228. Raktaksha. 32. Purna. See grove. Rajyananda. 186. 259- 49. 70. Eajagiriya. 184. 256. Ratnapala. 26. 44. 49. See Nyagrodhika. 128. 148. RAHUL A. or Gar. 17. 44. 183. 156. Muduntaka or Muruntaka. 109. 58. 218. 216. 79. 223. 149. 33. 69. 236. 70. 219. Nakaikundjika. 128. 150. 100. 250. Pannakalaga. 175. Ram an uy as. 18. Mngari Korsum. Nang-kod. 217. Nalada (Nalaka. | Pushkarasarin. 182. PADMA SAMBHAVA. 49. Phata. 96. j Bamboo Rajana. Na-pi-ka. 9. 182. 242. 40. 6 1. Pataligama. 79. 255. 27. Patali pond. 56. 126. Nyayrodharama. 227. Patali tchaitya. 151. Minak Mkhar or Manyak. Nepal. 96.266 INDEX. 123. 208. 45. Mu-khri btsan-po. 230. 67. 156. 230. Mletchas. 40. Puny a. Pushkasa. 1 1 1-116. 73. 203. 237. 217. 120. 53. Nikata. 153. Pippala cave. 179. 50. . Nadi Kagyapa. Mrigadava. 239. n. 140. 187. 226. 246. 186. 40. Pro-nyo vihara. 208. 208. Ombo-blang-gang. 225. 202. 189. Parivradjaka. Rgya Par-inkhan-pa. 19. pond. 11. 51. (China). 136. 27. 120. 254. 100. 53. 223. 215. Mrigadhara. 84. Mutchilinda. 151. See Katyayana. Persia. 47. 58. 64. 183. 49. 13. 48.

245. 39. river. 184. 21. 9. Sahadsha. 1 1 8. Seger Sandalitu. 241. Suvarsbaka. Rupananda. See Sudatta. 184. 176. Sanghaghosha. 185. 12. Sundarananda. 193. 187. 222. Sse-tchuen. 18. 17. 196. Rubbed side. 182. See Nanda. Sinhahanu. 246. 132. 99. 249. 71. Sinha. 128. Shur-pai-grong. 218. 1 86. Sinidba. Shu-lik. 208. 148. Suratha. 231. 206. Samayabhedo parachana chakra. 195. prince of. II. 132. Sarnmatiyas. 46. 63. 20. 183. Senayana. 186. Sumeru. 213. 156. Ta-chien-lu. 171. 183. Samavadho paracha chakra. Suryavamsa. 96. 267 Seven amra tree. Rimurunda. Saketa. Sarvarthasiddha. Taksba9ila. 213. Sambbuta. Spu-de gang rgyal. 15. 127. 106. 104. Sinhaghosha. 13. 128. 49. 13. Rishyasringa jataka. Siddha-thagg^ma. Rishivadana. 176. So-kid. town of. 206. Sang-tir vibara. 214. 145. Sarvakama. Sse-ma-tsien. 177. Rokha. 19. 217. . 77. Sahadeva. 176. Sad-na-legs. 239. 63. 39. 239. grove of. 28. 147. Samangasarana Parvata. See Nanda. 217. 14. 13. Sanrftativ&dina. 21. 48. 121. 239. 23. Sama veda. 179. Sanghavardana. 182. 30. Sanjaya. 19. 143. 205. Stong-nya vihara. 224. 118. 30. 185. 194. 49. 136. 241. Sho-rgya. 258. 164.. SADDHARMAVARSHAKA. 190. 216. 148. 13. 82. 52. 46. pool of. 79. Sarvadhara. 159. 77. Srong-btsan sgam-po. 138. Senanigama. 221. 13. 81. 209 et seq. 170. Sinhanada. Samkrantivadina. 68. Rohita. 65. Snar-tbang. San-pu valley. Sattapani cave. Tachilhunpo. tchaitya of. 209.29. Suvarna prabhasa sutra. 33. 20. 135. 39. 185. 88. 183. Rtseb-pa tchaitya. 236. 55. San jay a Vairattiputra. 232. 124. 65. 182. Shampaka. 246. 212. 1 8 1. 240. 30. 174. Sbuli. 241. 182. 193. Sujata. 68. 31. Subabu. TABUTA. Subhadra. Svastika. 17. Rig veda. Sautrantika. 151. 1 86. 194. Susroni. Sarandada tcbaitya. Ska-ba-dpal-brtsegs. Sutra in 42 sections. 28. 206. 21. Sow. Rudraka Ramaputra. Sulabha. 94. 88. 186. 173. Sana. 30. 13. 14. 45. 40. 81. 208. Swat. Sthiramati. Sakala. 66. 208. Roruka. Sudar9ana. 183. Sagaradatta. 132. Surendrabodhi. Sbannagarika. 57. Samkagya. 63. 119. 1 Sammata. Samanna phala sutta. 20. 250. 243. 240. 224. 204. 215. 176. 215. 161. Sala grove. Siddh&rtha. 101. 217. Suprabuddha (or Suprabodha). Stag-gzig. 67. 9. 120. Shing-dkam. 176. 191. Skam-shed. 153Salha. Sena. 2 1 8. 13. 47. 184. Anathapindada. 117. monastery of.INDEX. Santusbti. Severed hand. 124. 35. Rupaloka. 219. Sbi-dkar. 217. 181. place of (Vadjravarahi ?). 239. 35.

225. 118. 146. 237. 193. 51. Benares. 184. Upavasavi. 217. Udayi. 8l. 65. 206. grove. 193. 125. Tchao-tchang. 106. Tantuvaya sala. 107. 74. 167. 211. Thumi Anu. 95. 120.268 Tamra9atiya. Varakalyana. 213. 35. Upavana. 48. n. Vaisali. 241. 177. 70. 48. 255. 137. 182. Vethadvipa. 243. 63. no. 28. 40. INDEX. 237. 186. Vaidehi. 238. 21. 238. 185. Udyana. 159- Upatishya. 191. 194. 236. 25. Tho-tho-ri long btsan. 240. 35. 183. 45- U-BU BLA-SGANG. Vasumitra. 92. 1 1 Thumi Sambkota.235. 238. 5 6 &amp. Tripitaka. See Kaludayi. 112. 63. 209. 17. Vanararl. 46. Upali. 71. Udai Kundiyayaniya. 171. 74. 129. 41. 148. 180. 40. Tushita. u6. 39. See Bamboo Veluvana. 113. 224. 97. 239. 136. 221. 202. 77. Udayibhadra. Vairojana. 184. 130. 164. 1 86. Videha. 39. in. u 4&amp. 236. Vasabhagami. 29. 79. 120. 9. 38. 193. 214. Virudhaka. Viuiala. 155. 12. VACHPA. 186. 186. 114. 187. Varshakara. Vijayajaya.gt. . 28. 90. 235. 91. 189. 63. 128. 187. Thien chan. 41. 9.255. Tsal-byi. 20. 195. 232. Upagupta. Varanasi. 51. 170. 28. 254. 21 1. See Vararutchi. 185. Tangutans. 183. Upakarumant. 70. 241. 183. Tchaityika. 241. 173. 96. 15. 119. 187. 228. stupa of. 84. 136. Tevidja sutta. 193. 181. 233. 142. Vinitadeva. Tchang-tsang. 8 1. Vigvamitra 19. 97. 222. 235. Visakha. Varana. Trapusha. 123. 63. Vasistha. 241. 142. 121. 17. 196. I6 5. Tsu-chih hien. 19. J in. 183. 141. 239. 230. Tokara. 44. 250. 158. See Daabala Kagyapa. 136. 74. Udayana. Uttariya. U-then. 183. Utposhadha. 234. 82. 18. 17$. 26. nr. Vijayasambhava. 64. Thal-tsung. Tchudapratigraha. 215. Uddandapura. Tung-lin. Vijayasimha. Vijayadharma. 224. Tchampaka. 17. 242. 145. Tchunandana. 143. 48. 77. See Kaugambi. 240. 230. 254. Varshika. Vai ravana. 217. 182. 233. Vasubandhu. See (Jariputra.gt. 57. 46. 64. 79. 8. n. 253. 117. 62. 55. 78. See Nagi. 179. 144. 2O8. Uttarakuru. To-la. 212. 242. Tao-sse. Uruvilva Kagyapa. Vadjrapani. Vijayakirti. 238. Turkestan. 186. 68. 12. 176. 26. Tsar-ma. Tushti. 77. Udanavarga. 124. Tirthikas. Tishya. 22O. 136. Vairotchana. 154. 91. Vadsala. 230. 9. Vijayavirya. Tchandaka. Upaka. VaibadyavAdina. Upaksiru. 81. 230. 182. 172. 69. 237. 190. 222. 9. Vidyakaraprabha. 122. 132. Turks. 48. the bhikshu. 238. Uttara. 193. 9. 79. 148. 185. Ulkamukha. 118. 21. Uruvilva. 33. 34. 188. 183. 181. Vaku. 191. 21. 44. See Khoten. 247. Visakha. Utpalavarna. Udjayani. 127. 22. Tchos-kyi rgyal-rnts an. Vatsiputriya. 117.

125. 177. 128. 39. 57. 213. 174. Vulture s peak. 24. Yama. 214. Yambu-Lagari. Yeula. Vriji. 97. town of. Yagodhara. 155.INDEX. 240. 107. 248. 237. 164. Yarkand. 176. 63. 21. 43. 128. 164. ZA-KONG. 132. parvata. 130. Yajurveda. 173. 219. 62. 197. 17. See Khoten. Ye-shes-sde. season YA^AS. 208. Vrijians. 127. 200. 61. 32. 57. WEBHARA. See Gridhrakuta 126.233. 62. Yu-thien. 56. 125. 151. 124. 2O. Wen-ch eng. 124. 208. 77. HO. 90. Wooden paling. Vrijiputra. 42. 124. 123. Yang-tze-kiang. 151. Yok-chui. 213. 231. 29.236. Was. 27. 132. See Wen-cli eng. 123. 61. 50. 232. 84. 159. of. 217. 31. 224. 38. 269 i55 l6 5- Yagodatta. Yogatchariya. 221. . Yashtivana. 178. 235.

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Glang-po-tcbe-bdul Hastinajaka. CAKYA-HPHEL dana. Dge-bai-snying-po Kalyanagarbba. Grags-bdzin-ma Yagodhara. Bla-ma Svastika. Bchom-ldan-hdas Bhagavan. Dmar-bu-cban grong Pataligama. Bzang-po Bhallika. Sakala. Dge-bdun hphel Dge-hpbel Itar-gyi-groug gama.po Bahuputra.pa Jaluka mabavana. Bkra-shis Dmag-brgya-ba Qatanika. Bzang-len Sulabha. Dgah-mo Nanda. Arhan. Kinkinisvara. Upavana. tchaitya. or spel Qakyavar- Cakya-thub-pa Qakyamuni. Dgah-stobs Nandab&la. Byang-tclmb-kyi sny ing po himanda. Guas-len-kyi-bu Mathara. AMRAI-GRONG Amragama. Bchom-brlag Mathura. - Dbang-phyug . and Gser-od Suvarnaprabhasa Kanakavati (?). Bu-ram shing-pa ELAT-MDAB Elapatra. Dmar-bu-chan grong-khyer Pataliputra. Tathagata. Ikshvaku. Bzod-dkah Durdarga (?). Byang-tchub-sems-pa Bodhisattva. Btsun-po Bhadanta. Gro-dzin Crona. Grong-kbyer epyil-po-cban Kotigama. Bre-bo Drona. Grong-khyer rtsa-cban Kusiuaia. (Jhod-pan-htching-pai-mchod-rten Makuta bandhana DE-BDZIN-GSHEGS-PA hesvarasena. Hasthi- Sangbavardana. WITH THEIE SANSKEIT EQUIVALENTS. Grags-pa Yagas. Bzang-ldan Bhadrika. GA-GON Trapusba.poi sde Ma- Gnas-hjug Vasisbta. G tsang-ma ^ uddha. Gang-po Purna. Dril-bu-sgra Btang-bzung Mutchilinda. Gso-sbyong-hpbags Utposhada. Bya-gag-rkang Kukutupada. Dgra-bchorn-pa Arahan or Dge-ba Kalyana. Gnod-pa-cban Nagi or Varana. Bre-bo-zas Dronodana. Dmar-bu-chan Patali. Kalyanavardana. Dkar-mo Cukla.ts al . BA-LANG bdag Bal-glang Gavampati. Dri-med Yimala. Dum-bu - Bod- Dus-legs Kalika. Gos-cban Vasavi. Gser-gyi-mdog Kanaka varna. Uttara. B u -mang. . Dza-lu-kai . Gdju-brtan Dbanvadurga. Gtang-ba tchen-po Mahatyaga. Dpe-med Dpe-cban Anupama. Bre-bo-ma Drona. Dge-mtcbog Varakalyana. Amra skyong-ma Ainrapali. Don-ka Karnika. Gru-bdjin Potala. Dgah-bo Nanda. Dbyar-ts ul-ma or Dbyar-byed Varshika and Varshakara.niang . Grong-khyer sgra-chan Nadika.tchen .( 271 ) INDEX OF TIBETAN WOKDS WHICH OCCUE IN THIS VOLUME.

Mdjes-dgah-bo Sundarananda. Rna-ba-chan Rjo (rje ?) grong Bhandagama. sdug Appriya (?). See Sa-skyongGop-lla. Nam-gru Revata.kyi . shea-kyi-bu Atraya. Nyer sbas-pa Upagupta. MA-HE Idan Ma-la gnod Ma-pham-pa Mahismati. Kun-hdzin Sarvadhara. Kunjikai-gnas Gunjaka. Rab-dgah Abhinanda. Rtag-tu smyos-pa Asaudjasattva. Sbos-kyis ngad . Senani. Rgyun Long-spyod grong Bhoga nagara.272 Gyo-ldan Salha. Legs-par rab sad Suprabuddha.gt.de-chan Gandhama NAG-PO Kala. Sa-pai-grong Pa-vai-grong ? Sdig-pa-chan Pava. Lhas sbyin Devadatta. Rgyu-stsal shea -kyi bu ring-du liphur Arata Kdlama. Sdig-pa-chan Pava. Nyer-rgyal Upatishya. 3eng-ge hgram Sinhahanu. Nor-chan Conaka and Ydsabhagami. Gyung-pa HDOD-PA-NA spyod-pai lha vatcharas devas. RAB-BZANG Subhadra. Legs-ongs Suratha (?). Nye-gos-chan Upavftsavi. Sai-snying-po Kshitigarbha. Nye-mdjes-ldan Upakdrumant. Ri-dags skyes Mrigadja\ Ri-dags hdzin Mrigadhara.bu Inag . Ming-tchen Mahauaman. Kun-dgah-bo Ananda. Ainbharisha. Ras-bal chan Karvasika. Od-mdjes Rokha.by ed .spyod Rdo-rje Rudraka Ramaputra. Rgyal-srid dgah Rajyananda. Od-mai dbyug-pa chan Ambalatthika. 3bas-pa Gupta. Rnam-thos-kyi-bu Vaigravana. Seng-ge sgra Sinhandda. Hdzam-bui grong Jambugama. Nye-mdjes-pa Upakaru and Sautushti. Mdjes-ldan Karumant. Kusinagara. Mdog-nag Krichnavama. Ajivaka. INDEX. Nga-las-nu Mandhatar. LAG-BZANGS Subahu.Idan dana. Kama- Nye-ba Xikata. Phreng-chan Mallika. Lha-yis bstan Devadaha. Nam-rnkah-lding Garuda. Adjatasatru. KA-TIT khyu mtchog Katissabha. Lhan-chig skyes Sahadsha. Mig-dmar Raktaksha. Nye-bar-hkhov Upali. Sa-hts o-Lna Gopa. &amp. Lag-rna Karakarna. Kun-tu hts o nyer-hgro Kus-tii grong OD-MA-CHAN-GYI grong Beluva. Sde-dpon . Rkang-gdub cban NUpara. Rangs . Ma-hgags-pa Aniruddha. Kun mongs med Asita (lit. Lag-na dbyug-chan Dandapani. Pushkarasarin. Hphags skyes-po Virudhaka. Legs-mthong Sudargana. Lhar bchas Sahadeva. Karnika. Mdjes-pa Karu and Tushti. Hdun-pa Tchandaka. Rab-snang Pradyota. PADMA snying-po Phreng-ba chan Mallika. Aklega). Adjita. Nayaka. MahasuLegs-mthong tchen-po dargana. Hts^o-byed gdzon-nus gsos Jivaka Kumarabhanda. 3a-las-nu Kusthana. Ma Ma-skyes-dgra SA-OA Visakha. 3de Sena. Lnga sde Pauchavarga. Nyi-mai-gung Madhyauika. Pushkasa. Khyab-hjug gling Vethadvipa. Rgyal-byed Jeta. Mchod-rten Tchaitya. phag-moi-gnas Vadjra- varahi.

Skal-ldan shing-rta Bhagirathi. HANSON AN U EDINBUKGH ANU LONDON. Sna tcben-po-la-gtogs Mabamatra. Yang-dag rgyal-ba-cban Sanjaya. Cuddbodana. tcben-mo Skye-dgubi bdag pradjapati gautaml. I-KINTHD BY BALLANTYNK. Snags-ldan Kautbaka. Ulkamukba. Pandava Skya-bseng-kyi-bu Tbams-cbad hdod-pa Sarvakama. Spong-byed Vriji. Sgra-gcban-zin Sba-nai-gos-cban Canavasika. Rabtila. Tcbu-dbus Madbyantika. Kuyyasobhito. Tchunandana. Skar-mdah gdong Skar-rgyal Tisbya. Ts ad-med zas Amritodana. THE END. CO. Skul-byed tcheu-po Skya-nar-gyi-bu Pataliputra. . Tcbu-bo-dbyig chan Hiranyavati. ^ ZAS dkar Zas gtsang Zla-sgrur Cuklodaua. Stobs-kyi bsbes-gnyen Balamitra. Maba- YAN-LAG skyes Angirasas. TCHAR-BYED Udayana. Ts ad-med-ina Amrita. Tbams-chad grub -pa Sarvartbasiddha. or Rgyu-baiSpyod-pai-bu ring-po bu ring-po Dirgbatcbarayana. Sho-shum-pa Susroni. Sgra sgrogs Roruka. Spu-tcben-po Mabaloma. Stogs-rings 273 Kosbtbila.INDEX. Yang-dag skyes Sambhtita. Ser-skya Kapila. Yid bstan-da StbiramatL Yid-ong Idan Anumana. Sprin-bu go-tcba Kaugika.

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.BINDING --T. JUN221977 DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET PLEASE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY Rockhill. William Woodville The life of the Buddha.