Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


August 27, 1770 Stuttgart, Württemberg November 14, 1831 (aged 61) Berlin, Prussia Germany German 19th-century philosophy Western Philosophy German idealism Founder of Hegelianism Historicism Precursor to German Historism Logic · Aesthetics · Religion Philosophy of history Metaphysics · Epistemology Political philosophy Absolute idealism · Dialectic Sublation · Master/slave


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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel


G. W. F. Hegel
People Immanuel Kant Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Gottlieb Fichte Friedrich Hölderlin Friedrich Schelling Arthur Schopenhauer Søren Kierkegaard Baruch Spinoza Works Phenomenology of Spirit Science of Logic Encyclopedia Philosophy of Right Philosophy of History Schools Hegelianism Absolute idealism British / German idealism Dialectic Master–slave dialectic Related topics Right Hegelians Young Hegelians The Secret of Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [ˈɡeɔɐ̯k ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡəl]; August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism. Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept

The birthplace of Hegel in Stuttgart, which now houses The Hegel Museum

Bradley. James. where two fellow students were to become vital to his development—his exact contemporary.[3] Hegel had a sister. Marx.e. "absolute idealism". Nietzsche. who was to perish as an officer in Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812. Gadamer. "ethical life" and the importance of history. he already knew the first declension. Stirner. Fukuyama. Russell. Here Hölderlin exerted an important influence on Hegel's thought. Maria Magdalena Louisa (née Fromm).Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united. Croce. T. Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions. Peirce. Kojève. H. His father. his own felt need to engage critically with the central ideas of Kantianism did not come until 1800. Georg Ludwig. negativity. Schelling and Hölderlin immersed themselves in theoretical debates on Kantian philosophy. H. and a brother. Hegel accepted an offer mediated by Hölderlin to take up a similar position with a wine merchant's family in Frankfurt. Popper.. without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. the poet Friedrich Hölderlin. During his adolescence Hegel read voraciously.[5] While in Frankfurt Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on ." Tübingen (1788-93) At the age of eighteen Hegel entered the Tübinger Stift (a Protestant seminary attached to the University of Tübingen). Hegel at this time envisaged his future as that of a Popularphilosoph. Küng. the "Master/Slave" dialectic. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. having been taught it by his mother. Bauer. Authors he read include the poet Klopstock and writers associated with the Enlightenment such as Christian Garve and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Hegel and his father also caught the disease but narrowly survived. was Rentkammersekretär (secretary to the revenue office) at the court of Karl Eugen. Iqbal) and his detractors (Schopenhauer. where he moved in 1797. Sartre. Dilthey. When he entered the "Latin School" aged five. and the younger philosopher-to-be Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling. Brandom. Žižek. Hegel's studies at the Gymnasium were concluded with his Abiturrede ("graduation speech") entitled "The abortive state of art and scholarship in Turkey. In 1776 Hegel entered Stuttgart's Gymnasium Illustre. Kierkegaard. Heidegger. Hegel became Hofmeister (house tutor) to an aristocratic family in Bern (1793–96). Green. Deleuze). His relations with his employers becoming strained. Herbart. was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court. "Spirit". a "man of letters" who serves to make the abstruse ideas of philosophers accessible to a wider public. in the Duchy of Württemberg in southwestern Germany. Duke of Württemberg. Feuerbach. Vygotsky. from which Hegel remained aloof.[4] At age three Hegel went to the "German School". 3 Life Early years Childhood Hegel was born on August 27. Engels. the three became close friends and mutually influenced each other's ideas. F. Christiane Luise (1773–1832). including both his admirers (Strauss. 1770 in Stuttgart. and between immanence and transcendence. Dewey. Schelling. i. Georg Ludwig (1776–1812). Bern (1793–96) and Frankfurt (1797–1801) Having received his theological certificate (Konsistorialexamen) from the Tübingen Seminary. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom. copying lengthy extracts in his diary. They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm.[1] His influential conceptions are of speculative logic or "dialectic". During this period he composed the text which has become known as the "Life of Jesus" and a book-length manuscript titled "The Positivity of the Christian Religion". sublation (Aufhebung in German). he was known as Wilhelm to his close family.[2] Hegel's mother. She died of a "bilious fever" (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. Sharing a dislike for what they regarded as the restrictive environment of the Seminary. Baur.

again through Niethammer. a post he held until 1816. In 1805 the University promoted Hegel to the position of Extraordinary Professor (unsalaried). but failed.[6] Hegel attempted to enlist the help of the poet and translator Johann Heinrich Voß to obtain a post at the newly renascent University of Heidelberg. . 1806. In 1799 he wrote another essay entitled "The Spirit of Christianity and Its Fate". where Niethammer had declined and passed on to Hegel an offer to become editor of a newspaper. Napoleon. as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on October 14. gave joint lectures on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and held a "Philosophical Disputorium". unpublished during his lifetime.[7] His finances drying up quickly. Fries was later in the same year made Ordinary Professor (salaried) there. Although Napoleon chose not to close down Jena as he had other universities. appointed headmaster of a Gymnasium in Nuremberg. the long-promised introduction to his System. who. Ludwig Fischer and his mother (whom Hegel may have offered to marry following the death of her husband) stayed behind in Jena. falling into . Hegel was putting the finishing touches to this book. Napoleon entered the city of Jena. Hegel moved to Bamberg.[9] In March 1807. astride a horse. making Hegel's financial prospects even worse. Hegel. reaches out over the world and masters it . Later in the year Hegel's first book. Hegel developed the idea of an encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences. the city was devastated and students deserted the university in droves. Hegel secured a position at the University as a Privatdozent (unsalaried lecturer) after submitting a Habilitationsschrift (dissertation) on the orbits of the planets. unable to find more suitable employment. While in Nuremberg Hegel adapted his recently published Phenomenology of Spirit for use in the classroom. The following February Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt (who had been abandoned by her husband) gave birth to their son Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–31). with Schelling. in the Battle of Jena on a plateau outside the city. aged 37.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Religion and Love". Bamberg and Nuremberg: 1801–1816 In 1801 Hegel came to Jena with the encouragement of his old friend Schelling. to his chagrin. after Hegel wrote a letter to the poet and minister of culture Johann Wolfgang von Goethe protesting at the promotion of his philosophical adversary Jakob Friedrich Fries ahead of him.[8] Hegel sees the "world spirit on horseback".[10] He was then. 4 Career years Jena. concentrated here at a single point. the Kritische Journal der Philosophie ("Critical Journal of Philosophy") to which they each contributed pieces until the collaboration was ended by Schelling's departure for Würzburg in 1803. Hegel was now under great pressure to deliver his book. The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy. the Bamberger Zeitung. who held the position of Extraordinary Professor at the University there. In 1802 Schelling and Hegel founded a journal. whom it is impossible not to admire. On the day before the battle. the Phenomenology of Spirit. It is indeed a wonderful sensation to see such an individual. appeared. reluctantly accepted. this extraordinary man. Part of his remit being to teach a class called "Introduction to Knowledge of the Universal Coherence of the Sciences". He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and. Hegel recounted his impressions in a letter to his friend Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer: I saw the Emperor – this world-soul – riding out of the city on reconnaissance. in November 1808. .

and from empiricists like David Hume. in 1811. having thus far spent his childhood in an orphanage. His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. philosophy of nature. This period saw the publication of his second major work. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera. the Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik. which distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus.)[13] Hegel published The Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Outline (1817) as a summary of his philosophy for students attending his lectures at Heidelberg.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel three parts (logic. He was deeply disturbed by the riots for reform in Berlin in that year.[16] Early the following year Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. Soon after.. for soul or mind or divinity.[14] He is said to have uttered the last words "And he didn't understand me" before expiring. 5 Hegel's son Ludwig Fischer had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia. What all these thinkers share. is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications. Hegel's remaining two sons . he preserves Plato's cornerstones of the ontological . and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from lecture notes taken by his students. Hegel chose Heidelberg. the philosophy of religion. Plotinus. Hegel with his Berlin students Sketch by Franz Kugler Hegel was appointed Rector of the University in 1830. Now in a weak state of health. Hegel was buried on November 16 in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Solger. the news of his death never reached his father. By November 14 Hegel was dead. the philosophy of history. This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion (in the Phaedo. and Immanuel. and philosophy of spirit). taking up lodgings in Kreuzberg. Thought Freedom Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Kant. In 1831 Frederick William III decorated him for his service to the Prussian state. when he was 60. In 1818 Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin. 1816). and Timaeus) of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than inanimate objects possess. Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering his lectures. and Heidelberg. in April 1817. 1812.lived long and safeguarded their father's Nachlaß and produced editions of his works. where he moved in 1816. the Stoics. To this list one could add Proclus. In August 1831 a cholera epidemic reached Berlin and Hegel left the city.[11] Hegel married Marie Helena Susanna von Tucher (1791–1855). and Rousseau. Jakob Boehme. Here he published his Philosophy of Right (1821). Meister Eckhart. 1813. While Aristotle criticizes Plato's "Forms". Hegel returned to Berlin. with the (mistaken) impression that the epidemic had largely subsided. Republic. As the new semester began in October. Hegel seldom went out.[15] In accordance with his wishes. his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household. but it is likely he died from a different gastrointestinal disease. Leibniz.[12] (Ludwig's mother had died in the meantime.Karl. the eldest daughter of a Senator. who followed a theological path . 3 vols. and Thomas Hobbes. and the birth of his two legitimate sons. who became a historian. Karl Friedrich Wilhelm (1813–1901) and Immanuel Thomas Christian (1814–1891). Berlin. which had remained vacant since Fichte's death in 1814. Heidelberg and Berlin: 1816–1831 Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen. his lecture courses on aesthetics.

Modern philosophy. as "finite" things. Finite things don't determine themselves. over against other finite things. in Plato's case. freedom and authority. So. but instead the latter (in each case) is self-transcending of the former. with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites. such as those between the subject and object of knowledge. the "Concept" (or "Notion": Begriff). and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations. self and Other." The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning. their essential character is determined by their boundaries. the order of the cosmos. and the and and 6 Progress The obscure writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. Hegel intends to defend the germ of truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like those of materialism and empiricism. in order to become "real". as Hegel suggests by his introduction of the concept of "reality". All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the scheme of things. . and nature and freedom) becomes intelligible as a progressively developing and self-perfecting whole. by extension. Hegel's concern with Kantian topics such as freedom and morality. "good") which transcends bodily restrictiveness. a solution that is reached. rather than remaining a brute "given. Hegel preserves this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite (a process that Hegel in fact relates to "freedom" and the "ought"[18]). the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature. and by the French Revolution. because. And Hegel renders these dualities intelligible by (ultimately) his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic. perhaps even the sole. culture. and with their ontological implications. This evolution was. In this manner. Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity". the universal going beyond the particular (in the Concept). all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life". Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature. and Spirit going beyond Nature. the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness. in different contexts. he called "the absolute idea" or "absolute knowledge"." The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method. evolving. This is because. particular and universal.[19] what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" (following the Latin etymology of "real": more "thing-like") than what does not. known by the discussed categorical differences from animals and inanimate objects. In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia. and an assumption with reasoned arguments for a prime mover. and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions. "Spirit". and Goethe.[17] In his Phenomenology of Spirit and his Science of Logic. Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive. Like Plato. is pervasive. work of philosophical value on this topic". in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic's chapter on "Quality". mind and nature. Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable. In this way. they must go beyond their finitude ("finitude is only as a transcending of itself"[20]). including those already mentioned. in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia. the Enlightenment and Romanticism. Kant pursues the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" (or. Hegel was fascinated by the works of Kant. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole. in principle.[21] Rather than stress the distinct singularity of each factor that complements conflicts with others—without explanation—the relationship between finite and infinite (and particular universal. Kant imports Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty to his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom. Böhme had written that the Fall of Man was a necessary stage in the evolution of the universe. itself. is to begin with basic concepts like Being and Nothing. Rousseau. and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible. is repeated in new guises at later stages. The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—and. as well as to God. rational unity that. in the third volume of the Encyclopedia. nature freedom—don't face one another as two independent realities. knowledge and faith.

the term was split. This whole is mental because it is mind that can comprehend all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension. developmental order underlies every domain of reality and is ultimately the order of self-conscious rational thought.[] "Mind" and "Spirit" are the common English translations of Hegel's use of the German "Geist". it comes to completion only in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who. SomeWikipedia:Avoid weasel words have argued that either of these terms overly "psychologize" Hegel. as these societies were not fully conscious or aware. the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation. which is intimately bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity. through recognizing itself in them.[26] This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was followed by Alexis de Tocqueville. Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality—consciousness. nature. and makes it possible for human beings to became subjects. Hegel's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a philosophy of absolute negation: as long as absolute negation is at the center. art. civil society (Hegel used the term "bürgerliche Gesellschaft" though it is now referred to as Zivilgesellschaft in German to emphasize a more inclusive community) was a stage in the dialectical relationship that occurs between Hegel's perceived opposites. to come along and destroy that which was not fully realized. self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. The rational. 7 Civil society Hegel made the distinction between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. as it were. solipsistic consciousness like ghost or "soul. Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear.[25] to the right. bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself. Rather. history. On the left." Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god. through their own understanding.[25] In fact. while it seems to be the case that he felt that a civil-society such as the German society in which he lived was an inevitable movement of the dialectic. is "with itself" in these external manifestations. it became the foundation for Karl Marx's civil society as an economic base. the macro-community of the state and the micro-community of the family. including culture. it became a description for all non-state aspects of society. In Hegel's early philosophy of nature (draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena). he made way for the crushing of other types of "lesser" and not fully realized types of civil society. that is that mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects that stand outside of it or opposed to it. This notion of identity in difference. systematization remains open. it was perfectly legitimate in the eyes of Hegel for a conqueror. underlying. Thus. For example. however in his later works (after Jena) Hegel did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether" any more. such as Napoleon.[23] In this work. ghost or mind—with an intentional force. to the political left and right.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel According to Hegel. society and politics. like Hegel's followers. . although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness. society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up (Aufhebung) to a higher unity. logical. and that. It is rational because the same.[24] Broadly speaking.[citation needed] implying a kind of disembodied.[22] Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge and mind (and therefore also of reality) was the notion of identity in difference. so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. Hegel's notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of "Aether" from which Hegel also derived the concepts of space and time. is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from that of other philosophers. as to the lack of progress in their societies. philosophy.

etc. Hegel asserted that in Heraclitus he had an antecedent for his logic: ". His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day. Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true (in Hegel's terms "speculative") philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense. however. complex. although he may well have regarded them the same. which is not-A. as he continues to refer to god's plan. Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought. Heraclitus does not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and in that fragment seems to be opposing any identity A to any other identity B. The universe as becoming is therefore a combination of being and non-being.and 20th-century theology. God is not ineffable (so incomprehensible as to be unutterable) but can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality.[31] Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian. Heraclitus's great achievements were to have understood the nature of the infinite. reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process in and through philosophy. the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking. stripping away the concepts of divinity. which is identical to pure or unlimited thought. an atheistic version of his thought was adopted instead by some Marxists. The limitations represent fetters.. for its being. For Hegel. there is no proposition of Heraclitus which I have not adopted in my logic."[28] Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.[29] One to which he attributes great significance is the fragment he translates as "Being is not more than Non-being". interprets not-A as not existing at all. Hegel argued that. "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite. . Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being. For his god Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers rather to the nous of Anaxagoras. This interpretation of Heraclitus cannot be ruled out. that is.[30] Pure being and pure non-being or nothingness are for Hegel pure abstractions from the reality of becoming.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 8 Heraclitus According to Hegel.. Hegel. although he has had a major influence on 19th."[27] For Hegel. that is. which some saw as originating in Heraclitus. but even if present is not the main gist of his thought. not nothing at all. self-relating particulars. but indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity. At the same time. C. as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle. who. and that "being" and "nothingness" are mere empty abstractions. when fully and properly understood. The essential nature of being-for-itself is that it is free "in itself". that is. so God himself becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming. which he interprets to mean Sein und Nichts sei dasselbe Being and non-being are the same. According to Hegel. but more remains to be thought in the substrate of non-being. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. it does not depend on anything else. its essence as process. The particular is never complete in itself but to find completion is continually transformed into more comprehensive. which it must constantly be casting off as it becomes freer and more self-determining. styled what was left dialectical materialism. Just as humans continually correct their concepts of reality through a dialectical process. his ideas of God are not acceptable to some Christians. and to have grasped that reality is becoming or process.. which is identical to God. such as matter. as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought. which for Hegel includes understanding the inherent contradictoriness and negativity of reality. and this is also how he interprets Heraclitus. which cannot be conceived.

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 9 Religion As a graduate of a Protestant seminary. embodying both the benevolent organizing power of rational government and the revolutionary ideals of freedom and equality. including schools that opposed Hegel's specific dialectical idealism. The revolution therefore has nowhere to turn but onto its own result: the hard-won freedom is consumed by a brutal Reign of Terror. which claimed that laws were not necessary..[] The French Revolution for Hegel constitutes the introduction of real individual political freedom into European societies for the first time in recorded history. in three volumes. it has already consumed its opponent. Hegel's thought is not just a philosophical system. published in 1807. religion. aesthetics. and British Idealism. but a system which knows about its own relationship to the rest of experience which is not philosophy. his political philosophy. and knows above all that its own knowing cannot exhaust this relationship. historism. that is to say. A number of other works on the philosophy of history.God. maintains himself in the process.[32] Hegel's thoughts on the person of Jesus Christ stood out from the theologies of the Enlightenment. has to generate the Son.. God rises again to life. considered in terms of his eternal Idea. published in 1811. It would come to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools. but ". He also published some articles early in his career and during his Berlin period. love and Spirit". the historical materialism of Karl Marx. In his posthumous book. To Hegel. he is the process of differentiating. and the latter is only the death of death. a summary of his entire philosophical system. Legacy Hegel's tombstone in Berlin There are views of Hegel's thought as a representation of the summit of early 19th-century Germany's movement of philosophical idealism. Hegel's remarks on the French revolution led German poet Heinrich Heine to label him "The Orléans of German Philosophy". Hegel sees both a relational unity and a metaphysical unity between Jesus and God the Father. however. The Christian Religion: Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion Part 3. while on the other. namely. the logical and metaphysical core of his philosophy. the Science of Logic. and the history of philosophy were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. progresses by learning from its mistakes: only after and precisely because of this experience can one posit the existence of a constitutional state of free citizens. a reversal takes place: God. and thus things are reversed. History. Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences. such as Existentialism. Hegel further attests that God (as Jesus) not only died. his account of the evolution of consciousness from sense-perception to absolute knowledge. which was originally published in 1816 and revised in 1827 and 1830. .." Works Hegel published four books during his lifetime: the Phenomenology of Spirit (or Phenomenology of Mind).rather. But precisely because of its absolute novelty. he espouses that. published in 1820. "God is not an abstraction but a concrete God. Jesus is both divine and Human. Hegel’s theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures. and the Elements of the Philosophy of Right. and 1816 (revised 1831). has to distinguish himself from himself. 1812. it is also unlimited with regard to everything that preceded it: on the one hand the upsurge of violence required to carry out the revolution cannot cease to be itself. This means that Jesus as the Son of God is posited by God over against himself as other. he criticized von Haller's reactionary work.. In the latter.

the history of philosophy would be. Adorno devoted an essay to the difficulty of reading Hegel and asserted that there are certain passages where it is impossible to decipher what Hegel meant. esoteric. The refutation of a philosophy. After the period of Bruno Bauer. For first. Hegel assumed that his readers would be well-versed in Western philosophy. the German word "Geist" has connotations of both "mind" and "spirit" in English. Feuerbach. Fichte had been accused of writing atheistic philosophy. And that in two ways. a much misunderstood phenomenon in the history of philosophy — the refutation of one system by another. Now although it may be admitted that every philosophy has been refuted. The German philosopher Theodor W. and was firmly rejected by the left-wing in multiple official writings. of all studies. Hume. and which is today popularly called dialectics. and its special principle reduced to a factor in the completer principle that follows. whether adopting or rejecting his ideas. The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. which he called speculation. Hegel began to write in an obscure. therefore. displaying. 10 Reading Hegel Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy. like many philosophers. To understand Hegel fully requires paying attention to his critique of standard logic. every philosophy that deserves the name always embodies the Idea: and secondly. up to and including Descartes. many of the central themes of Hegel's philosophy.[citation needed] If one wanted to provide a big piece of the Hegel puzzle to the beginner. Marx. Kant. every system represents one particular factor or particular stage in the evolution of the Idea. English translators have to use the "phenomenology of mind" or "the phenomenology of spirit" to render Hegel's "Phaenomenologie des Geistes". Hegel's philosophy was suppressed and even banned by the Prussian right-wing. Difficulties within Hegel's language and thought are magnified for those reading Hegel in translation. Nevertheless. For those wishing to read his work without this background. For example. it must be in an equal degree maintained that no philosophy has been refuted. and Engels—among many others—were all deeply influenced by.. Fichte. Many philosophers who came after Hegel and were influenced by him. One especially difficult aspect of Hegel's work is his innovation in logic. and persists into the 21st century. Throughout the 19th century many chairs of philosophy around Europe were held by Hegelians. that the German language was particularly conducive to philosophical thought and writing. and Schelling.[33] . unintelligible manner after Fichte was removed from his professorship at Jena. only means that its barriers are crossed. of an earlier by a later. although his "Encyclopedia" was intended as a textbook in a university course. but also strongly opposed to. such as the law of contradiction and the law of the excluded middle. In response to Immanuel Kant's challenge to the limits of pure reason. most saddening. Hegel himself argued. Were it so.. in his "Science of Logic". thus altering the original meaning. did so without fully absorbing his new speculative or dialectical logic. After less than a generation.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Hegel's influence was immense both within philosophy and in the other sciences. as it does. since his philosophical language and terminology in German often do not have direct analogues in other languages. introductions to and commentaries about Hegel can contribute to comprehension. Most commonly the refutation is taken in a purely negative sense to mean that the system refuted has ceased to count for anything. has been set aside and done for. Hegel developed a radically new form of logic. The difficulty in reading Hegel was perceived in Hegel's own day. one might present the following statement from Part One of the Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences: The Logic: . and Kierkegaard. Hegel's influence did not make itself felt again until the philosophy of British Idealism and the 20th century Hegelian Western Marxism that began with Georg Lukács. although the reader is faced with multiple interpretations of Hegel's writings from incompatible schools of philosophy. the refutation of every system which time has brought forth.

the French Revolution) would cause the creation of its "antithesis" (e. encompassing the Russian Revolution. antithesis. in Hegel's language.[34] No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as "Right Hegelians". Hegel's dialectic was most often characterized as a three-step process. without the preconceptions of the prior schools of thought.g. The "thesis-antithesis-synthesis" approach gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. The Left Hegelians.[citation needed] The Left Hegelians also spawned Marxism. that a "thesis" (e. abstract-negative-concrete) is about this movement from inner contradiction to higher-level integration or unification. Walter Jaeschke and Otto Pöggeler in Germany. have attempted to discard the triadic approach altogether. the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität. movement. leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics. and he attributed the terminology to Immanuel Kant. and myriad revolutionary practices up until the present moment. logical positivism. From Hegel's point of view. immediate-mediate-concrete.g. the Reign of Terror that followed).g. However.. however. like Raya Dunayevskaya. The Right Hegelians. synthesis". what he called "aufhebung". The Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile. not "dialectical". Critiques of Hegel offered from the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a disproportionately large part of the literature on and about Hegel. "thesis.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 11 Left and Right Hegelianism Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps.. secondly. for example). which inspired global movements. with its life. According to their argument. this paradigm has been questioned. although Hegel refers to "the two elemental considerations: first. reason is but "speculative".[36] Believing that the traditional description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis-antithesis-synthesis was mistaken. namely. and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements. the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions." Furthermore. more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction. the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality. interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense. It was spread by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus in accounts of Hegelian philosophy. the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim. The terminology was largely developed earlier by Johann Fichte.holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy. In more recent studies. Triads In previous modern accounts of Hegelianism (to undergraduate classes. and would eventually result in a "synthesis" (e. also known as the Young Hegelians. which grasps the unity of these opposites or . especially those formed prior to the Hegel renaissance. ". a self-styled Left Hegelian. and since then the terms have been used as descriptive of this type of framework. is only preliminary to the "speculative" (and not "synthesizing") aspect or "moment". by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface. since the fall of the USSR. the subjective side of knowledge and will. a few scholars. The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel (e.e. Hegel used this classification only once."[35] However. the means for realising it. advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post-Napoleon Restoration period. the Chinese Revolution. Marxism.g. To the contrary. the constitutional state of free citizens). being-nothingness-becoming. according to Benedetto Croce. i. For Hegel. and Fascism. that was a term of insult originated by David Strauss. Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British Idealism. This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented itself and to a higher-level. and activity" (thesis and antithesis) he doesn't use "synthesis" but instead speaks of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom. analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction. a new wave of Hegel scholarship arose in the West. as well as Peter Hodgson and Howard Kainz in America are notable for their recent contributions to post-USSR thinking about Hegel.

Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. and some contemporary scholars have suggested that Marx's interpretation of Hegel is irrelevant to a proper reading of Hegel. This view. who referred to his seminal work. Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has attempted to challenge the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z. Criticism Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel contradiction. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th Century German group known as the Young Hegelians. In Britain. Theodore Geraets (1985). Russell. in the United States. Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions. J. such is the persistence of this misnomer that the model and terminology survive in a number of scholarly works.S. Ernst Bloch. For these scholars. Friedrich Nietzsche. The direct and indirect influence of Kojève's lectures and writings (on the Phenomenology of Spirit. also of Pittsburgh. has had a decided influence on many major English language studies of Hegel in the past 40 years. as a series of "incipient Méditations Hegeliennes" (in homage to Edmund Husserl's treatise. Some American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich. Josiah Royce) was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers G. referred to as the Pittsburgh Hegelians). G. and. half-seriously. Eric Voegelin and A. those published prior to the Phenomenology of Spirit. The Hegel renaissance also highlighted the significance of Hegel's early works. have produced philosophical works exhibiting a marked Hegelian influence. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse. Among modern scientists. after the fall of the USSR. two prominent American philosophers. i. fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke. Beginning in the 1990s. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri.[citation needed] A late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes such writers as Dale M.e. sometimes referred to as the 'non-metaphysical option'. Adorno. in particular) mean that it is not possible to understand most French philosophers from Jean-Paul Sartre to Jacques Derrida without understanding Hegel. and their followers. Each is avowedly influenced by the late Wilfred Sellars. Moore. Karl Marx. Theodor W. The contemporary theologian Hans Küng has also advanced contemporary scholarship in Hegel studies. Merklinger (1991). which included Ludwig Feuerbach. It is widely admitted today[37] that the old-fashioned description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of "thesis-antithesis-synthesis" is inaccurate. The book that did the most to reintroduce Hegel into the Marxist canon was perhaps Georg Lukács' History and Class Consciousness. Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Recently. 12 Renaissance In the latter half of the 20th century. the Hegelian British Idealism school (members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley. Stephen Rocker (1995) and Cyril O'Regan (1995). (b) a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything. Raya Dunayevskaya. Meditations Cartesiennes).[citation needed] Beginning in the 1960s. U. Rudolf Siebert and Theodore Geraets. a diverse range of individuals including Arthur Schopenhauer. Schlitt (1984). the physicist David Bohm. the mathematician William Lawvere.A. in . This was due to: (a) the rediscovery and reevaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists. Nevertheless. E. Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind. Søren Kierkegaard. E. neoconservative political theorist Francis Fukuyama's controversial book The End of History and the Last Man was heavily influenced by Alexandre Kojève. Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. Karl Marx. the logician Kurt Gödel and the biologist Ernst Mayr have been interested in Hegel's philosophical work. John McDowell and Robert Brandom (sometimes. a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West. Friedrich Engels. and (c) an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method. Moore and Bertrand Russell. Bernard Bosanquet. Marx plays a minor role in these new readings. Philip M. Bertrand Russell.

translated by Terry Pinkard. T.g. Harris. and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers.[43] 13 Selected works Published during Hegel's lifetime • Life of Jesus • Differenz des Fichteschen und Schellingschen Systems der Philosophie. B. Harris and Walter Cerf. 2nd ed.[38] Logical positivists such as Alfred Jules Ayer and the Vienna Circle also criticized Hegelian philosophy and its supporters. 1971 • Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. Miller. V. 1817. Miller. Other scholars. H. 1991 . tr. and that Hegel's idea of the ultimate goal of history was to reach a state approximating that of 1830s Prussia. 1929. Dahlstrom 2010 (Pt. by A. II:) Hegel's Philosophy of Nature. 1991. Miller. H. G. 1821 Elements of the Philosophy of Right. 1910. A. Walter Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri. 1827. William Wallace. such as F. This view of Hegel as an apologist of state power and precursor of 20th century totalitarianism was criticized by Herbert Marcuse in his Reason and Revolution. and Maistre. William Wallace. tr. 2010 • Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften. T. Allen W. W. Karl Popper makes the claim in the second volume of The Open Society and Its Enemies that Hegel's system formed a thinly veiled justification for the absolute rule of Frederick William III. 1894. H. 1802 • Phänomenologie des Geistes. 1977 Phenomenology of Spirit. Bradley. 1830 (Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) (Pt. Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century. tr. 1969. A. ed. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical.. tr. 1970 (Pt. along with Rousseau. whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. H. tr. tr. A. tr. referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". 1892. 1977 • The German Constitution. 2012 [44] • Wissenschaft der Logik. stifling all real thinking"[39] Kierkegaard criticized Hegel's 'absolute knowledge' unity[40] Scientist Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works. Suchting and H. 1874. tr. e. M. III:) Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. Klaus Brinkmann and Daniel O. Miller. 1931 Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. 1942. tr. 2nd ed. A. 1813. tr. S. Fichte. Saint-Simon.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel particular. V. 3rd ed. tr. S. 1816 Science of Logic. I:) The Logic of Hegel. W. B. rev. Helvetius. V. tr. Knox. 1807 Phenomenology of Mind.[42] Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy. tr. have also criticized Popper's theories about Hegel.[41] Bertrand Russell stated that Hegel was "the hardest to understand of all the great philosophers" in his Unpopular Essays and A History of Western Philosophy. George di Giovanni. considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. 2 vols. Nisbet. J. 1812. Geraets. F. Baillie. Wood. Struthers. on the grounds that Hegel was not an apologist for any state or form of authority simply because it existed: for Hegel the state must always be rational. Johnston and L. 2nd ed. V. 1801 The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy.

Theodor W. 1993.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 14 Published posthumously • • • • Lectures on Aesthetics Lectures on the Philosophy of History (also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History) 1837 Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion Lectures on the History of Philosophy Secondary literature General introductions • Francke. Howard. Translated by Shierry M. Shapiro. Hegel. Hegel: A Reinterpretation. suivi de : « Aimer Penser Mourir : Hegel. Truth and History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1978) • Plant. ed. with an introduction by Nicholsen and Jeremy J. 1965. 1994. Jay Lowenberg. . Freud en miroirs ». ISBN 0-8214-1231-0. Charles. 1996. Oxford: Blackwell • Kainz. Frederick C. Schiller. G. Hegel ou de la Raison intégrale. James Hutchison. 1975. 2005. 2000. ISBN 0-19-519879-4 • Gouin. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. • Beiser. A comprehensive exposition of Hegel's thought and its impact on the central intellectual and spiritual issues of his and our time. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 Essays • Adorno. Walter. William Guild. Essays on Hegel's concept of spirit/mind. Nietzsche. Oxford University Press.. F. ISBN 2-89007-883-3 • Houlgate. "Understanding Hegel" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. Hegel: An Introduction. The Hegel Myths and Legends. Éditions Bellarmin.. Peter. Friedrich. Jean-Luc. Freedom. The Secret of Hegel: Being the Hegelian System in Origin Principle. Hegel: A Re-examination. Northwestern University Press. Frederick C. N. • Kaufmann. Hegel. 1983. Oxford: Blackwell • Singer. Hegel: A Very Short Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1996. Hegel: Three Studies. 225 p. 1983) • Stirling.). 1913-1914 "The German classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries: masterpieces of German literature translated into English Vol 7. and why Hegel is difficult to read. MIT Press. Jon. A collection of articles covering the range of Hegel's thought. 2005. Ohio University Press.. 2001. ISBN 0-262-51080-4. Form and Matter • Taylor. The Life of Georg Wilhelm Freidrich Hegel" [45]. Retrieved 2010-09-24.. (ed. • Beiser. Routledge • Findlay. W. Hegel's concept of experience. Manchester: Carcanet Press. 1958.. An Introduction to Hegel. Stephen. • Stewart. Hegel. Montréal (Québec). Raymond. Kuno. New York: Doubleday (reissued Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press. • Scruton. Howard P. J. 1990. ISBN 0-521-29199-2. ISBN 0-521-38711-6. Roger. Nicholsen. Oxford University Press (previously issued in the OUP Past Masters series.

1938. Still an important source for Hegel's life. Rodney Livingstone as The Young Hegel. Michael N. 1948. 2012. 1968.. Columbia University Press.. Before and After Hegel: A Historical Introduction to Hegel's Thought. Berlin. Overcoming Foundations: Studies in Systematic Philosophy. By a leading American Hegel scholar.. 1959. 2012. Hegel's Development: Towards the Sunlight 1770–1801. tr. 1993. Terry P. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegels Leben. aims to debunk popular misconceptions about Hegel's thought. Temple University Press Westphal. Indiana University Press Pinkard.. Wilhelm.. 2000. 2000 • Pinkard. parue dans la revue Nuit Blanche : Le Commissaire et le Détective [46] • Mueller. • Hondt. State University of New York Press. Translated by David E. Hegel on Action. 2 vols. ISBN 0-231-07008-X. Cambridge University Press. Terry P. 1963) Recent English-language literature • • • • • • • • • • • • Inwood. ISBN 0-521-49679-9. 2010. 1989. 1844. 1989. ISBN 0-262-12070-4 • Harris. S. his vision. ISBN 0-674-38707-4 Pippin. Kenneth. Leipzig (repr. 1988. Hegel: sein Wollen und sein Werk. 1986. Philosophy Without Foundations: Rethinking Hegel. Donald P. 1972. From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought. 1989. Arto & Sandis.. • Löwith. Eng. in Gesammelte Schriften. Theodor L. 2007. Robert C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gustav Emil. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Harris. New York: Columbia University Press. Hegel and Skepticism. ISBN 0-87220-648-3. 1983. Advocates a stronger continuity between Hegel and Kant. London: Verso • Wheat. Hegel's Development: Night Thoughts (Jena 1801–1806). vol.. Zürich and Vienna (2nd ed. ISBN 0-7914-2100-7. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (Arguments of the Philosophers) Solomon. In the Spirit of Hegel. Der junge Hegel. Die Jugendgeschichte Hegels (repr. H. Cambridge: Polity Press. 1964. Hegel und die heroischen Jahre der Philosophie. Historical • Rockmore. Aalen: Scientia Verlag. Hegel's Epistemological Realism. Tom. William. Maker. Hegel's Dialectic: The Explanation of Possibility. Georg. 1954). Kluwer Academic Publishers Forster. 1989. NY: Prometheus . Hegel's development • Lukács. Karl. Hegel's Idealism: the Satisfactions of Self-Consciousness.). Hegel's Undiscovered Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis Dialectics: What Only Marx and Tillich Understood. 1994. 1998. Leonard F. 1929. Richard Dien. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press..Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 15 Biography • Althaus. London: Merlin Press. Tom.. Green.. Less Than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press Rockmore. Karl. Winfield. Hegel's Absolute: An Introduction to Reading the Phenomenology of Spirit. Žižek. New York: Pageant Press. IV) • Haering.Constantine (eds. Verene. and work. Horst. H. 1906. tr. Hegel: A Biography. ISBN 0-521-37923-7. 1975. Albany: State University of New York Press Laitinen. Hegel: the man. Eng. Michael Tarsh as Hegel: An Intellectual Biography. Robert B. Hegel's Circular Epistemology. S. Palgrave Macmillan. 1983. • Rosenkranz. Calmann-Lévy /// Recension (2009) de cette biographie en tandem avec celle de Horst Althaus (1999). Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. Hegel: Biographie. Jacques d'. Hegel. Indianapolis: Hackett. Michael. Oxford: Clarendon Press • Dilthey. Amherst. 1992. Slavoj. 1983.

. 2005. ISBN 0-7734-9509-6 • Schäfer. "Hegel's "Phenomenology" and Postmodern Thought" [47]. 2005. 1979. Basic Books. Amherst. Hamburg/Meiner. ISBN 1-55111-633-2 De Boer.. 2004. Peter. 2003. Animus 8. John. 1983. Indianapolis: Hackett. Philadelphia: Paul Dry Books. A Thing of This World: a History of Continental Anti-Realism. 2001. • Kojève. Paris: Aubier. 1969. • Braver. Hegel's Philosophy of Reality. 2002. • Doull. 1992. Joseph. Cambridge University Press. • Doull. Paris: Gallimard. Through a detailed analysis of Hegel's Science of Logic.. Inwardness and Existence: Subjectivity in/and Hegel. Rainer. "The Idea of a Phenomenology of Spirit" [49]. Hegel's Epistemology: A Philosophical Introduction to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Heidegger. 2012. as Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit. • Wallace. 2007. Paris. An Introduction to Hegel's Logic. ISBN 3-7873-1585-3. James H. (2003). ISSN 1209-0689 [48] . ISBN 1-55753-257-5 • Rinaldi.L. On Hegel: The Sway of the Negative. • Bristow. Hegel: Phenomenology and System. Kenneth R. Galilée. 1989. Robert. Purdue University Press. John. Indianapolis: Hackett. • Hyppolite. This work provides insights on Hegel's complex work as a whole as well as serving as a sure guide for every chapter and for virtually every paragraph • Scruton.. Hegel and the Transformation of Philosophical Critique. 1946.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 16 Phenomenology of Spirit • Stern. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 • Wheat. Roger. Leonard F. The Logic of Hegel's Logic: An Introduction. ISBN 0-87220-424-3 Houlgate. Karin. F. ISBN 978-0-8101-2380-9 This study covers Hegel's Phenomenology and its contribution to the history of Continental Anti-Realism. Retrieved August 17. Hegel and the Phenomenology of Spirit. Walter A. A History and Interpretation of the Logic of Hegel Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Jackson. ISBN 0-253-21692-3. Routledge. Freedom. • Harris. An introduction for students. Indianapolis: Hackett. ISBN 0-415-21788-1. Marx and Freud. Reading Hegel's Phenomenology. S. Le sacrifice de Hegel. In the Spirit of Hegel. Nichols. Broadview Press. A distillation of the author's monumental two-volume commentary Hegel's Ladder. and God. NY: Prometheus Logic • • • • Burbidge. A classic commentary. ISSN 1209-0689 [48]. 2007. Oxford University Press. • Solomon. tr. 1947. 2011. ISBN 0-521-84484-3. Northwestern University Press: 2007. Retrieved August 9. Lee. Genèse et structure de la Phénoménologie de l'esprit. • Westphal. 1995. William. ISBN 978-1-58988-037-5. The Opening of Hegel's Logic: From Being to Infinity. ISBN 0-8101-0594-2. Alexandre.. • Davis. ISBN 0-19-929064-4 • Kalkavage. Stephen. Eng. ISBN 0-230-24754-7 Hartnack. Palgrave Macmillan. Samuel Cherniak and John Heckman as Genesis and Structure of Hegel's "Phenomenology of Spirit". Jean. H. Eng. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1998. tr. James.. Animus 5. Jr. Hegel's Undiscovered Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis Dialectics: What only Marx and Tillich Understood. 1990. ISBN 0-87220-645-9 • Russon. 2006. 2010. Wallace shows how Hegel contributes to the broadly Platonic . 2011. ISBN 0-8014-9203-3 Influential European reading of Hegel. Evanston: Northwestern University Press.. James (2000). (In French language). Justus. • Cohen. "Understanding Hegel" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. Manchester: Carcanet Press. Giacomo. 2007. An extensive study of the question of sacrifice in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Indiana University Press. Die Dialektik und ihre besonderen Formen in Hegels Logik. Robert C. The Logic of Desire: An Introduction to Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. Introduction à la lecture de Hegel. Robert M. University of Wisconsin Press.

F. Maker. J. Between Tradition and Revolution: The Hegelian Transformation of Political Philosophy. 2003. . William. Athlone Press. K. Herbert. Hegel Contra Sociology. Richard Dien. Alain P. Gans.). William (ed. Gillian. Autumn 2007). K. Plotinus. Arthur Coleman. Hinrichs. 1941. 2: Hegel and Marx. Albany. 1986. C. Gethmann-Siefert. 1984. From Concept to Objectivity: Thinking Through Hegel's Subjective Logic. B. • Scruton. 1987. A Systematic Study and a Critique of Hegel. Rethinking the Artforms after Hegel. Retrieved August 17. • Moggach. Joachim. • Marcuse. Mark-William. vol. An influential attack on Hegel. Roche. Hegel and Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press. Art and the Absolute. 2000. 1990. Erdmann. ISSN 1209-0689 [48]. In the course of doing this. • Rose. The Philosophical Disenfranchisement of Art. • Ritter. Olivier. ISBN 0-85635-857-6 Aesthetics • • • • • • • • Bungay. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Texte aus den Werken von F. Cambridge University Press. An introduction to the philosophy of Hegel. E. Republicanism and Modernity". 17 • Winfield. Hegel's Theory of the Modern State. Albany. including the one presented by Charles Taylor in his Hegel.). ISBN 0-485-12036-4." [51] Footprint (#1. Carové. Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory. "Introduction: Hegelianism. Mark Jarzombek. Roger. • Winfield. Michelet. The New Hegelians edited by Douglas Moggach. Best introduction to Hegel's political philosophy. 2011. • Lübbe. • Kierans.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel tradition of philosophy that includes Aristotle. Richard Dien. and Kant. Tragedy and Comedy. Die Hegelsche Rechte. H. W. Stephen. Shlomo. New York. Hegel et la Musique. Desmond. Fischer. 1984. "Hegel as a conservative thinker" in The Philosopher on Dover Beach. "The Cunning of Architecture's Reason. 1998. 2006. Rosenkranz und C. ISBN 0-7546-5536-9. 1974. Suny Press. Danto. A Study of Hegel's Aesthetics. "'Absolute Negativity': Community and Freedom in Hegel's Philosophy of Right" [50]. 31–46. Cambridge. Stylistics. Douglas. pp.jdj Politics • Avineri. Animus 12. L. E. Paris (French). • Riedel. devoted to debunking the conception that Hegel's work included in nuce the Fascist totalitarianism of National Socialism. 1981. Columbia University Press. H. 1986. Friedrich Frommann Verlag. • Popper. Kenneth (2008). 1962. Rößler [The Hegelian Right]. Manchester: Carcanet Press. New York. Karl. 2006. Albany (New York). Hegel and the French Revolution. Ashgate. Einführung in Hegel's Ästhetik. New York. Hermann (ed. W. Oppenheim. Annemarie. Manfred. the negation of philosophy through historical materialism. Wallace defends Hegel against major critiques.. Beauty and Truth. Wilhelm Fink (German). MIT Press. 1996.

NJ: Humanities. Miller [Atlantic Highlands.. I. and describes Hegel as aged eleven. Le spectre juif de Hegel (in French language). [14] Ibid. marxists. [8] Ibid. Joseph. ISBN 0-7546-0565-5 • O'Regan. T & T Clark.. Krug. Hegel: Religion..Z. 228. 223. marxists. [12] Ibid. see also German Wikipedia. Preface by Jean-Luc Nancy. 133-136 and 138. [5] Ibid. Paris. 356.. [15] Norman Davies. Laurence. 3. The Heterodox Hegel. ISBN 978-3-639-28451-5 [23] Etext of Philosophy of Right Hegel. Cf. [4] Ibid. 224-5. and existentialists agree with the dialectical theologians is that Hegel is to be repudiated: their attitude toward Kant. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 745. Hegel: A Biography. 2011). Hegel: A Biography. Beacon Press. Religion. Europe: A history p. [17] par. ISBN 0-521-33035-1.. Ashgate.. 'The Significane of Hegel's speration of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski. 1984. 1984. 1995. [9] Ibid. Plato. 658-9. 145 [21] See Ibid. Aristotle. Hegel's Rational Religion: The Validity of Hegel's Argument for the Identity in Content of Absolute Religion and Absolute Philosophy. [13] Ibid. 111 [20] Ibid. William. • Cohen. [7] Ibid. Albany. ISBN 0-7914-2006-X. Stephen. it opened the door for new teachers [such . • Fackenheim. the index to Pinkard's book and his "Chronology of Hegel's Life".. 192. • Rocker. and the Politics of Spirit. 4. "The Hegel Myth and Its Method" (http:/ / www. This event had momentous implications. trans.." Kritisches Journal der Philosophie. absolutely prior to all else as the one and only ground of everything.Z. in From Shakespeare to Existentialism: Studies in Poetry. no.. E. 745). atoning spirit (London. [32] "[T]he task that touches the interest of philosophy most nearly at the present moment: to put God back at the peak of philosophy.. and the other great philosophers is not at all unanimous even within each movement. pages 91-115) [33] Karl Ameriks wrote of "the famous 'Atheism Controversy' of 1798 in which Goethe eventually chose to allow Fichte to be removed [from his position as professor] in order to avoid complications. 2-3. and of the Marxists. pp.. htm) [24] Pelczynski. 378 [18] See Science of Logic. 2003. [6] Ibid. top [19] Ibid. pp. p. Lectures on the History of Philosophy Volume I. [10] Ibid. 1770–1807. htm). A. 337. 1989]. The most authoritative work to date on Hegel's philosophy of religion. but opposition to Hegel is part of the platform of all four. 2010. Economics. University of Chicago Press. 354-5. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ us/ kaufmann.. Galilée. which correctly give the date as 1783 (pp. 548. pragmatists. Cyril. 1827 (translated by Dyde. Notes [1] "One of the few things on which the analysts. 80. Hegel and Religious Faith: Divided brain. State University of New York Press. (ed. top [22] Stefan Gruner: "Hegel's Aether Doctrine". "How the Ordinary Human Understanding Takes Philosophy as displayed in the works of Mr.). org/ reference/ archive/ hegel/ works/ pr/ preface. 0226233502. too.." Walter Kaufmann. page 88-119 [2] Pinkard. 1781. 1.. A. The Religious Dimension in Hegel's Thought. and Philosophy by Walter Kaufmann. Cambridge University Press [26] ibid [28] Hartnack quotes Hegel. 1802. 687 [16] Pinkard." (Hegel... p. Hegel's God: A Counterfeit Double?.An extensive study of the Jewish question in Hegel's Early Theological Writings. • Andrew Shanks. 1897) (http:/ / www. 146. 238. 1987. [3] Ibid.. A fascinating account of how "Hegel became Hegel". Boston 1959. using the guiding hypothesis that Hegel "was basically a theologian manqué". The State and Civil Society. incorrectly gives the date as September 20. 1994. [11] Ibid.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 18 Religion • Desmond. • Dickey. [31] The notable Introduction to Philosophy of History expresses the historical aspects of the dialectic. Cambridge University Press. 773. 2005. VDM Publ.

edu/ mmj4/ www/ downloads/ footprint1. mun. translated by David E. doi. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Supplementa/ jackson5addendum. D. Section 1. The idealist achievement. History of western philosophy. 155. William Torrey entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Hegel page in 'The History Guide' (http://www. 238 (http:/ / books. 2003) [44] http:/ / terrypinkard.Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel as Hegel] in Jena. From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought.archive. 1874 . p.historyguide. in German classics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. "Translator's Introduction". [35] Benedetto Croce. Theoretical physics and philosophical problems: Selected gouin_jean_luc. The Bobbs–Merrill Co. as the National Philosopher of Germany (1874) (http://www.html) . Gray. Isaiah. swgc. • Hegel. pg 701 chapter 22. org/ stream/ germanclassicsof07franuoft#page/ n25/ mode/ 2up [46] http:/ / germanclassicsof07franuoft#page/n25/mode/2up). (1913) "The Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel" (http://www. google. Reidel. Karl Ameriks.Russell. Translated by Patrick Romanell. mun. in libraries (WorldCat catalog) • Lowenberg J. worldcat. Pg. ISBN 90-277-0250-0 [42] (See for instance Walter Kaufmann 1959. 1964. Guide to Aesthetics.archive. weebly. paragraph 1 [39] On the Basis of Morality [40] Søren Kierkegaard Concluding Unscientific Postscriptt [41] Ludwig Boltzmann. htm)) [43] Berlin. hegelasnational00unkngoog) Karl Rosenkranz. org/ issn/ 1209-0689 [49] http:/ / www2. and it taught them to express any radical implications of their idealism in a much more esoteric form [italics added]. archive. [38] B. pdf [48] http:/ / www. 1965 [36] Hegel and Language edited by Jere O'Neill Surber. pdf [51] http:/ / . com/ books?id=HFpQHr07IAkC& pg=PA238). Granville Stanley Hall. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Volume%2012/ New York: German Publication Society. The Hegel Myth and Its Method (http:/ / www. "Introduction: interpreting German Idealism.. Green. mit. org/ reference/ subject/ philosophy/ works/ us/ kaufmann. 1974.html) • Hegel. New York: Columbia University Press. 1522/ 030141313 [47] http:/ / www2. pdf [50] http:/ / www2. pdf 19 External links • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (http://plato. html [45] http:/ / www.Works on Hegel in Université du Québec site (in French) • Works by or about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( (http://hegel. marxists. com/ phenomenology-of-spirit-page. Baker & Co. Freedom and Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty (Princeton University Press. swgc.." page 6.stanford. swgc. org/ doi:10." The Cambridge Companion to German Idealism. The Library of Liberal Arts. [34] Karl Löwith..freely available resources (under the GNU FDL) • « Der Instinkt der Vernünftigkeit » and other texts (http://classiques. ca/ animus/ Articles/ Volume%205/ doull5a.uqac.

htm). Librivox.html) .Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel 20 Audio • Introduction to The Philosophy of History.hegel.class.htm) • Hegel's The Philosophy of Right ( Hegel's texts online • Works by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( • Phenomenology of • Hegel's The Philosophy of History ( Hegel) at Project Gutenberg • Philosophy of History Introduction (http://www. translated by Terry Pinkard (2012) ( • Hegel by HyperText (http://www.gutenberg. reference archive on 2007 from Vimeo Andy Blunden Societies • The Hegel Society of America (http://www.Philosophy of ( introduction-to-the-philosophy-of-history-by-georg-wilhelm-freidreich-hegel/) Video • Hegel: The First Cultural Psychologist (https://vimeo.

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