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DESIGN CRITERIA

Structural Design Criteria of the Proposed


CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013


1.0 GENERAL

This document defines the structural engineering requirements and design
philosophy for the structure. Included herein is a list of applicable codes,
standards, and specifications used as reference in determining the parametric
values; the basis upon which the design criteria are established and
methods/procedures used for the analysis and design of the structures included
in Castellano Bridge.

Noteworthy among the design requirements is the DPWH Advisory for
Seismic Design of Bridges, Dept. Order No. 75 that specifies for earthquake
analysis the requirements of AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic
Design.

Following the above-mentioned DPWH Advisory and the AASHTO Guide for
Seismic Design, the followings are the important design concepts adopted in
our structural design:

a. The stiffness of the bridge as a whole was considered in the
analysis
b. The provision of column transverse reinforcements for
confinement at expected plastic hinge regions.
c. The adaptation, in general of the design forces and analysis, and
design procedures for piers, abutments and foundation as required
by the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design.

2.0 CODES AND STANDARDS

A summary of the codes and industry standards used in the design shall be as
follows:

2.1 Design Codes and Standards

2.1.1 DPWH Standard Specification, Highway, Bridges and
Airport, 1995.

2.1.2 National Structural Code of the Philippines (NSCP), Volume
2 - Bridges, 1997.

2.1.3 American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials (AASHTO), Standard Specifications for Highway
Bridges, 17
th
Edition, 2002.


2.2 Material Codes and Standards
2.2.1 American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM).



Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



3.0 BRIDGE DESCRIPTION

Based on requirement as indicated in design report a proposed new bridge is to
be constructed to replace the existing Castellano Bridge.

The new bridge shall have a new span of 14.0 meters with no central pier and
shall function as a box culvert serving as spillway for flush flooding during
heavy rain conditions. The same level as the existing bridge shall be
maintained.

The new bridge shall be constructed using reinforced concrete materials. The
superstructure shall be flat slab from end to end of the abutment walls. The
bridge structure shall be founded on four (4) bored pile deep foundations
based on the recommendation of the geotechnical study. The river bed under
the bridge shall be covered by reinforced concrete slab for smooth channel
flow.

Separate apron structures with cut-off walls and compacted stones at ends are
provided at the upstream and downstream side of the bridge to protect
surrounding areas from the destructive effect of scouring. The new apron
retaining wall and floor slab structures shall be founded using shallow mat
footing and shall be provided with edge beams/walls to minimize the effect of
foundation settlements due to the existing poor soil condition.




















PROFILE OF THE PROPOSED CASTELLANO BRIDGE



Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



4.0 MATERIALS

4.1 Concrete

The following concrete compressive strengths (fc) shall be based on
the 28-day strength of 150 x 300 mm cylinder:
Structural Member fc

Box Culvert 28.0 MPa (4,000 Psi)
Bored Pile 21.0 MPa (3,000 Psi)
Sidewalk, railings, parapet, median 21.0 MPa (3,000 Psi)
Other concrete 21.0 MPa (3,000 Psi)
Lean concrete 17.0 MPa (2,400 Psi)
Non Shrink Grout 58.0MPa (8,000Psi)

4.2 Reinforcing Steel

Steel reinforcing deformed bars shall conform to AASHTO M31
ASTM A615) Grade 40 (276 MPa) for 10mm diameter below and
Grade 60 (414MPa) for 12mm diameter above.


5.0 STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONCEPT

5.1 Method of Analysis

5.1.1 Superstructure

The box culvert bridge superstructure was modeled in three-
dimensional space frame using STAAD Pro 2007 software.

The maximum stresses produced by the design loads
(combination of loads will be used to investigate and
strengthened every component of the superstructure.


5.1.2 Substructure

The substructures of the bridges were analyzed using the
Multimode Spectral Analysis Method (Procedure 3 of Div. IA,
Seismic Design, AASHTO 2002). The structures were modeled
as three dimensional space frames and the analysis was
performed using a structural analysis computer program called
STAAD Pro 2007. The member forces and displacements were
estimated by combining the respective response quantities from
individual modes by the Complete Quadratic Combination
(CQC) method as recommended in AASHTO Guide
Specification for Seismic Design Section 4.5.5
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013




5.1.2.1 Determination of Elastic Forces and Displacements

The elastic forces and displacements shall be determined
independently along two perpendicular axes by use of analysis
procedure. Typically, the perpendicular axes are the
longitudinal and transverse axes of the bridge.

5.1.2.2 Combination of Orthogonal Seismic Forces

A combination of orthogonal seismic forces is used to account
for the directional uncertainty of earthquake motions and the
simultaneous occurrences of earthquake forces in two
perpendicular horizontal directions. The elastic seismic forces
and moments resulting from analyses in the in the two
perpendicular horizontal directions shall be combined to form
two (2) load cases as follows:

LOAD CASE 1: Seismic forces and moments on each of the
principal axes of a member shall be obtained by adding 100
percent of the absolute value of the member elastic seismic
forces and moments resulting from the analysis in one of the
perpendicular (longitudinal) directions to 30 percent of the
absolute value of the corresponding member elastic seismic
forces and moments resulting from the analysis in the second
perpendicular direction (transverse). (NOTE: The absolute
values are used because a seismic force can be positive or
negative.)

LOAD CASE 2: Seismic forces and moments on each of the
principal axes of a member shall be obtained by adding 100
percent of the absolute value of the member elastic seismic
forces and moments resulting from the analysis in the second
perpendicular direction (transverse) to 30 percent of the
absolute value of the corresponding member elastic seismic
forces and moments resulting from the analysis in the first
perpendicular direction.

For seismic design of structural components, Loading
Combination VII shall be modified.

Group Load = 1.0(D + B + SF + E + EQM or EQF)

Where,
D = dead load
B = buoyancy
SF = stream flow pressure
E = earth pressure
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



EQM or EQF = elastic seismic force for either Load Case
I or Load Case 2 modified by
dividing the appropriate R-Factor



5.2 Method of Design

5.2.1 Reinforced Concrete Structural Member

Design of reinforced concrete members shall be based on Strength
Design Method (Load Factor Design) shall be used for the design of
reinforced concrete structural members (abutments, piers, pile caps,
piles, deck slabs, wing walls, approach slabs), wherein the required
strength of a section is the strength necessary to resist the factored
loads and forces applied to the structure in the load combinations. All
sections of structures shall have design strengths at least equal to the
design strength as specified in Article 8.16 of NSCP Volume 2,
Bridges Part A, 2
nd
Edition, 1997.

6.0 LOADINGS

6.1 Dead Loads

The dead loads shall consist of the weight of the entire structure
including the roadway, sidewalks, car tracks, pipes, conduits, cables,
and other public utility services.

The following unit weights of construction materials were used in
computing the dead loads.


Materials
Unit Weight
(kN/m
3
)
Concrete, plain or reinforced 24
Compacted earth, sand, gravel,
or ballast
18.9
Structural Steel 77
Cast Iron 71
Water (without sediment) 9.81
Bituminous wearing surface
(50 mm thk)
1.05 kPa

6.2 Live Loads

The live loads shall consist of the weight of applied moving loads of
the vehicles, cars and pedestrians.

6.2.1 Highway Loads
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013




The highway live loading on the bridges or incidental structures
shall conform to the following highway live load, whichever
governs;

6.2.1.1 MS18 (HS20) Loading

For bridges that may carry heavy truck traffic the
minimum live load shall be MS18 (HS20) as designated
herein and shown in the following figures.



Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013





STANDARD MS (HS) TRUCKS

6.2.1.2 Alternate Military Loading

The alternate military loading shall consist of two axles,
1.22m apart with each axle weighing 107kN (see figure
below).

6.2.1.3 Permit Design Loading

The permit loading was developed to ensure sufficient
bridge live load capacity to carry extra legal live loads
allowed by permit (see figure below).

6.2.2 Impact

Highway Live Loads shall be increased for those structural elements in
Group A, below, to allow for dynamic, vibratory and impact effects.
Impact allowance shall not be applied to items in Group B. It is
intended as part of the loads transferred for superstructure to
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



substructure, but shall not be included in loads transferred to footings
nor to those parts of piles or columns that are below ground.

a) Group A Impact shall be included

(1) Superstructure, including legs of rigid frames.
(2) Piers, (with or without bearings regardless of type)
excluding footings and those portions below the ground
line.
(3) The portions above the ground line of concrete or steel piles
that support the superstructure.

b) Group B Impact shall not be included

(1) Abutments, retaining walls, piles except as specified in
6.2.2.a (3).
(2) Foundation pressures and footings.
(3) Timber structure.
(4) Sidewalk loads.
(5) Culverts and structures having 0.90m or more cover.

Impact Formula

The amount of this allowance or increment is expressed as a
fraction of live load stress, and shall be determined by the
following formula:


38
24 . 15
+
=
L
I

Where,
I = impact factor (maximum of 30 percent)
L = length in meters of the portion of the span that is
loaded to produce the maximum stress in the
member

6.3 Sidewalk, Curb, and Railing Loading

6.3.1 Sidewalk Loading

Sidewalk floors, stringers and their immediate supports shall be
designed for a live load of 4070 Newton per square meter of
sidewalk area. Girders, trusses, arches, and other members shall
be designed for the following sidewalk live loads:

Span 0 to 7.80 m in length .. 4070 Pa
Span 7.80 to 30.5 m in length . 2870 Pa
Span over 30.5 m in length according to the formula

Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2 . 15
7 . 16 800 , 43
435 , 1
W
L
P

In which

P = live load in Pa. max. 2870 Pa.
L = loaded length of sidewalk in meters
W = width of sidewalk in meters

Bridges for pedestrian and/or bicycle traffic shall be designed
for a live load of 4070 Pa.

6.3.2 Railing Loading

Although the primary purpose of traffic railing is to contain the
average vehicle using the structure, consideration should be
given to (a) protection of the occupants of a vehicle in collision
with railing, (b) protection of other vehicles near the collision,
(c) protection of vehicles or pedestrians on roadways
underneath the structure, and (d) appearance and freedom of
view from passing vehicles.


6.4 Seismic Loads

Structure shall be designed to resist earthquake motions by considering
the relationship of the site to active faults, the seismic response of the
soil at the site, and the dynamic response characteristics of the total
structure in accordance with the criteria as prescribed in Section 21 of
Division IA- Seismic Design of the AASHTO Standard Specifications
for Highway Bridges, 17
th
Edition, 2002.

6.4.1 Acceleration Coefficient

The coefficient A to be used for the area shall be 0.4.

6.4.2 Importance Classification

An importance classification (IC) of I shall be assigned for the
structure with a classification of being an essential structure.

6.4.3 Seismic Performance Categories

Seismic Performance Category (SPC) D shall be assigned to
the structure, based on the Acceleration Coefficient (A) of
0.40g and the Importance Classification (IC) of I.


Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



6.4.4 Site Effect

The effects of site condition on bridge response shall be
determined from site coefficient (S) based on soil profile types
defined as follows:

Acceleration Coefficient
Importance
Classification
(IC)
A I II
A 0.29 C C
0.29 < A D C

SOIL PROFILE TYPE I is a profile with either

1) Rock of any characteristics, either shale-like or crystalline
in nature (such material may be characterized by a shear
wave velocity greater than 760m/sec, or by other
appropriate means of classification); or

2) Stiff soil conditions where the soil depth is less than 60m
and the soil types overlying rock are stable deposits of
sands, gravels, or stiff clays.

SOIL PROFILE TYPE II is a profile with stiff clay or deep
cohesionless conditions where the soil depth exceeds 60m and
the soil types overlying rock are stable deposits of sands,
gravels, or stiff clays.

SOIL PROFILE TYPE III is a profile with soft to medium-stiff
clays and sands, characterized by 10m or more of soft to
medium-stiff clays with or without intervening layers of sand
or other cohesionless soils.

In location where the soils properties are not known in
sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type or where the
profile does not fit any of the three types, the site coefficient for
Soil Profile Type II shall be used. The soil profile coefficients
apply to all foundation types including pile supported and
spread footings.

6.4.5 Site Coefficient

The site coefficient (S) approximated the effects of the site
conditions on the elastic coefficient or spectrum of Article
21.5.2 of NSCP Volume 2 - Bridges, 2
nd
edition, 1997, is given
below:

Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



Soil Profile Type
I II III
S 1.0 1.2 1.5

6.4.6 Response Modification Factors

Seismic design forces for individual members and connections
of bridges classified as SPC C and D are determined by
dividing the elastic forces by the appropriate Response
Modification Factor (R) as specified in Article 21.4.6 of NSCP
Volume 2 - Bridges, 2
nd
edition, 1997. The Response
Modification Factors for the various components are given
below

Substructure
1
R Connections R
Wall Type Pier
2
2 Superstructure to Abutment 0.8
Reinforced Concrete Pile
Bents
a. Vertical Piles only 3
Expansion Joints within a
Span
b. One or more Batter
Piles 2 of the Superstructure 0.8
Single Columns 3
Columns, Piers or Pile Bents
to
Steel or Composite Steel and
Cap Beam or
Superstructure
3
1.0
Concrete Pile Bents Columns or Piers to
a. Vertical Piles only 5 Foundations
3
1.0
b. One or more Batter
Piles 3
Multiple Column Bent 5
1
The R-Factor is to be used for both orthogonal axes of the substructure.
2
A wall-type pier may be designed as column in the weak direction of
the pier provided all the provisions for columns in Article 21.8 of NSCP
Volume 2 - Bridges, 2
nd
edition, 1997 are followed. The R-factor for a
single column can then be used.
3For bridges classified as SPC C and D it is recommended that the
connections be designed for the maximum forces capable of being
developed by plastic hinging of the column bent as specified in Article
21.4.6.6 of NSCP Volume 2 - Bridges, 2
nd
edition, 1997. These forces
will often be significantly less than obtained using an R-factor of 1.

6.5 Earth Pressure

6.5.1 Active Earth Pressure Coefficient

Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



Lateral earth pressures shall be computed assuming active
stress conditions and wedge theory using a planar surface of
sliding defined by Coulombs Theory.



(

=
) sin( ) sin(
) ' sin( ) ' sin(
1 ) sin( sin
) ' ( sin
2
2
| u o u
o | o |
o u u
| u
a
k


Where,

k
a
= active earth pressure coefficient
= effective unit weight
= effective angle of internal friction
= angle of wall friction
= slope angle
= wall face batter

All angles are positive (+) as shown.

For seismic lateral earth pressures, the pseudo-static approach
developed by Mononobe-Okabe specified in Division IA,
Seismic Design of the AASHTO was used to estimate the
equivalent static forces for seismic loads. The estimation of
seismic design forces also accounted for structure inertial
forces in addition to the equivalent static forces.

) cos( 2 cos cos
) ( cos
2
u | o | u
| u |
+ +

=
ae
k

Where,

k
ae
= total Mononobe-Okabe seismic lateral earth
pressure coefficient
H = height of soil face
= unit weight of soil
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



= angle of friction of soil
= arc tan (k
h
/1-k
v
)
= angle of friction between soil and abutment
= backfill slope angle
k
h
= horizontal acceleration coefficient
k
v
= vertical acceleration coefficient
=
2
) cos( ) cos(
) sin( ) sin(
1
(

+ +
+
+
| u | o
u | o |
i
i



6.5.2 Earth Load

2
2
1
H k Pa
a
|
.
|

\
|
= for normal condition

2
) 1 (
2
1
H k k Pa
v ae

|
.
|

\
|
= for seismic condition

6.6 Load Combinations

Every structure component shall be designed to withstand the forces
resulting from each load combination according to the requirements of
Division I Article 3.22 and to the additional requirements of Division
IA Article 7.2 (AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway
Bridges).

The following Groups represent various combination of loads and
forces to which a structure may be subjected. Each component of the
structure, or the foundation on which it rests, shall be proportioned to
withstand safely all group combinations of these forces that are
applicable to the particular site or type. Group loading combinations
for Service Load Design and Load Factor Design are given by:

Group (N) = {
D
D +
L
(L + I) +
C
CF +
E
E +
B
B +
S
SF +

W
W +
WL
WL +
L
LF +
R
( R + S + T ) +
EQ
EQ}

Where,
N = group number,
= load factor,
= coefficient,
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



D = dead load;
L = live load;
I = live load impact;
E = earth pressure;
B = buoyancy;
W = wind load on structure;
WL = wind load on live load --- 1.46 kN/m;
LF = longitudinal force from live load;
CF = centrifugal force;
R = rib shortening;
S = shrinkage;
T = temperature;
EQ = earthquake;
SF = stream flow pressure;


TABLE OF COEFFICIENTS AND
COL.
No. 1 2 3 3A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
FACTORS
GROUP D
( L +
I)
n

( L +
I)
n
CF E B SF W WL LF
R + S
+ T EQ %
S
E
R
V
I
C
E

L
O
A
D

I 1.0 1 1 0 1
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 100
IA 1.0 1 2 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150
IB 1.0 1 0 1 1
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 **









Culverts
II 1.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 125
III 1.0 1 1 0 1
E
1 1 0.3 1 1 0 0 125
IV 1.0 1 1 0 1
E
1 1 0 0 0 1 0 125
V 1.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 140
VI 1.0 1 1 0 1
E
1 1 0.3 1 1 1 0 140
VII 1.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 133
VIII 1.0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 140
IX 1.0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 150
X 1.0 1 1 0 0
E
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100














Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



TABLE OF COEFFICIENTS AND


For seismic design of structural member, loading combination VII shall be modified
as per section 5.1.2 of the design criteria.


7.0 DEFLECTION

7.1 Members having simple or continuous spans preferably should be
designed so that the deflection due to service live load plus impact shall not
exceed 1/800 of the span, except on bridges in urban areas used in part by
pedestrians whereon the ratio preferably shall not exceed 1/1000. For checking
deflection, the service live load preferably shall not exceed HS 20 Loading.

7.2 The deflection of cantilever arms due to service live load plus impact
preferably should be limited to 1/300 of the cantilever arm except for the case
including pedestrian use, where the ratio preferably should be 1/375.


8.0 FOUNDATIONS

The foundation shall be designed based on the allowable bearing capacity of
bored piles/ driven piles recommended in the Geotechnical Investigation
Report conducted by A. M. Geoconsult & Associates dated January 21, 2013.
COL.
No. 1 2 3 3A 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13





















Culverts


FACTORS
GROUP D
( L +
I)
n

( L +
I)
n
CF E B SF W WL LF
R + S
+ T EQ %
L
O
A
D

F
A
C
T
O
R

D
E
S
I
G
N

I 1.3
D
1.67* 0 1.0
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
N
o
t

A
p
p
l
i
c
a
b
l
e

IA 1.3
D
2.20 0 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
IB 1.3
D
0 1 1.0
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
II 1.3
D
0 0 0
E
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
III 1.3
D
1 0 1
E
1 1 0.3 1 1 0 0
IV 1.3
D
1 0 1
E
1 1 0 0 0 1 0
V 1.25
D
0 0 0
E
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
VI 1.25
D
1 0 1
E
1 1 0.3 1 1 1 0
VII 1.3
D
0 0 0
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 1
VIII 1.3
D
1 0 1
E
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
IX 1.20
D
0 0 0
E
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
X 1.30 1 1.67 0 0
E
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100
Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013





9.0 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN

9.1 Allowable Stresses for Steel

A. Allowable Tensile Stress

On gross section Fy Ft 55 . 0 =
On net section Fu Ft 50 . 0 =

B. Allowable Axial Compressive Stress

When
r
kl
Cc
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
E
Fy
r
kl
FS
Fy
Fa
2
2
4
1
t

When
r
kl
> Cc
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
kl
FS
E
Fa
t


Where,

Cc =
Fy
E
2
2t

FS = 2.12


C. Allowable Compressive Bending Stress

When compression flange is supported laterally in its full
length by embedment in concrete,

Fy Fb 55 . 0 =

When compression flange is partially supported or is unsupported,

2
87 . 9
772 . 0 344750
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

d
I
J
I
S
C
Fb
yc
yc
xc
b
Fy 55 . 0 s

Where,
C
b
= 3 . 2 3 . 0 05 . 1 75 . 1
2
2
1
2
1
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
M
M
M
M


Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013





|
.
|

\
|
2
1
M
M
= positive when moments cause reverse curvature
|
.
|

\
|
2
1
M
M
= negative when bent is in single curvature.

C
b
= 1.0 for unbraced cantilevers and for member
when the moment within a significant point of
the unbraced segment is greater than or equal to
the larger of the segment end moments.
= length in meters
yc
I = moment of inertia of compression flange about
the vertical axis in the plane of the web, mm
4

d = depth of girder, mm
J =
( ) ( )
3
3 3 3
Dtw bt bt
t c
+ +
,where b and t
represent the flange thickness of the
compression and tension flange, respectively
(mm
4
)
xc
S = section modulus with respect to compression
flange, mm
3

E = modulus of elasticity of steel
r = governing radius of gyration
L = actual unbraced length
k = effective length factor
FS = 2.12

D. Allowable Shear Stress

Shear in girder, webs, gross section Fy Fv 33 . 0 =

E. Combined Stresses

1. Axial Compression and Bending Stresses

a. At intermediate points

0 . 1
'
1
'
1
s
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
y
y
y my
x
x
x mx
Fb
Fe
fa
Fb C
Fb
Fe
fa
fb C
Fa
fa

b. At point of supports (points braced in the plane of bending
5
0 . 1
472 . 0
s + +
y
y
x
x
Fb
Fb
Fb
fb
Fy
fa


Structural Design of the Proposed
CASTELLANO BRI DGE MAY 2013



Where,

Fe =
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
b
b b
r
L k
FS
E t

fa = computed axial stress
fbx of fby = computed compressive bending
stress about the x-axis and y-axis,
respectively
Fa
=
axial stress that would be
permitted if axial force alone
existed, regardless of the plane of
bending
Fb
x
, Fb
y
= compressive bending stress that would
be permitted if bending moment alone
existed about the x-axis and the y-axis
respectively evaluated according to
AASHTO Table 10.32.1A
Fe = Euler Buckling stress divided by a factor
of safety
E = modulus of elasticity of steel
k
b
= effective length factor in the plane of
bending (see AASHTO Appendix C)
L
b
= actual unbraced length in the plane of
bending
r
b
= radius of gyration
Cm
x
, Cm
y
= coefficient about the x-axis and the y-
axis, respectively, whose value is taken
from AASHTO Table 10.36A
FS = 2.12


2. Axial Tension and Bending Stress

a. At intermediate points
0 . 1 s + +
y
y
x
x
Fb
Fb
Fb
fb
Ft
ft

b. At point of supports (points braced in the plane of bending
0 . 1
472 . 0
s + +
y
y
x
x
Fb
Fb
Fb
fb
Fy
ft











DESIGN
CALCULATIONS




Design of Box Culvert with Seismic Design Code
Backfill Slope Angle i = 0 (deg)
Angle of Friction of Soil = 30 (deg)
Height of Soil Face H = 7.6 m
Total Span of Box Culvert Bridge S= 14 m
Total Width of Box Culvert Bridge W= 10.2 m
Tributary Width considered in analysis tW = 10.2 m
Acceleration Coefficient a = 0.4
Unit Weight of Soil soil = 18 kN/m
3
st = 17 (Static Condition)
se = 8.5 (Seismic Condition)
Horizontal Seismic Coefficient k
h
= 1/2 a = 0.2
Vertical Seismic Coefficient k
v
: 0.3k
h
< k
v
< 0.5 kh
0.06 < k
v
< 0.10 thus, use
k
v
= 0.08
Seismic Internal Angle = arc tan (kh / (1-kv))
= 12.265 (deg)
Slope of Soil Face = 0 (deg)
radian = 0.0175
K 0 4459
Compute Seismic Active Earth Pressure Using the Mononobe-Okabe Equation
Angle of Friction between
Soil and Abutment
Seismic Active Earth Pressure K
AE
= 0.4459
Seismic Active Earth Pressure PAE = 1/2 (soil) (H)
2
(1-K
V
) (K
AE
)
P
AE
= 213.25 kN /m
K
A
= 0.2994
Static Active Earth Pressure P
A
= 155.66 kN /m
Concentrated force of P
A
= 1587.7 kN (Applied at 1/3*H)
Thrust factor, Ft = [P
A
(H/3) + (P
AE
- P
A
)(0.6)H] / [P
A
(H1.6659
Ft (P
A
) = 259.31 kN/m
Dynamic Earth Pressure, EQL= 2645 kN (Applied at 0.6H)
Seismic Active Earth Pressure
Coefficient
Static Active Earth Pressure
Coefficient
Compute Equivalent Pressure Determine a single equivalent pressure:
Static pressure acting at H/3 & Seismic pressure at 6/10 of H
DESIGN OF BOX CULVERT TYPE CASTELLANO BRIDGE
1.0 FIGURE
2.0 LOADINGS
2.1 DEAD LOAD
a. Selfweight
b. Wearing Surface
c. Sidewalks/Curbs
d. Railings
2.2 LIVE LOAD
a. Truck Load MS 18 (HS20-44) & Equivalent Lane Loading
b. Permit design live load
Sid lk 2870 kP c. Sidewalk 2870 kPa
IMPACT FORMULA
I = 15.24 / (S + 38)
I = impact fraction, maximum 30 percent
I = 0.293
2.3 EARTH'S PRESSURE
a. Static Earth's Pressure
b. Dynamic Earth's Pressure (Mononobe-Okabe)
3.0 MATERIALS
3.1 CONCRETE
Unit Wt.of Concrete = 24 kN/m3
Compressive strength, f'c = 27.6 Mpa
Modulus Of Elasticity = 27336 Mpa
3.2 STEEL
Yield Strength Bars = 414 Mpa
Modulus Of Elasticity = 200000 Mpa
4.0 DESIGN MOMENTS (Kn-m)
B C D E F G I J Des Moment Des Axial
-2690 2760 2760 575 -1611 2195 2195 -1295 154 2183
-802 661 662 276 -110 33 33 33 49 160
-604 414 414 173 -69 21 21 21 31 181
-137 122 122 51 -20 6 6 6 9 37
161 161 161 -499 199 74 74 74 111 0
355 355 355 -1020 323 -101 -101 -101 151 0
-2827 2882 2882 626 -1631 2201 2201 -1289 163 2220
-802 661 662 276 -110 33 33 33 49 181
-137 122 122 51 -20 6 6 6 9 37
355 355 355 -1020 323 -101 -101 -101 151 0
4.1 LOAD COMBINATION
GROUP g D(L+I)n E A B C D E F G I J Des Moment Des Axial
I 1.3 1 1.7 1.3 4926 -3764 4925 4926 -668 -1670 2720 2720 -1817 510 3049
IA 1.3 1 2.2 0 4460 -4526 4459 4460 1111 -2239 2897 2897 -1640 265 3086
IB 1.3 1 0 1.3 4505 -3254 4505 4505 -844 -1600 2699 2699 -1838 479 2934
II 1.3 1 0 1.3 4505 -3254 4505 4505 -844 -1600 2699 2699 -1838 479 2934
III 1.3 1 1 1.3 4757 -3559 4757 4757 -739 -1642 2712 2712 -1825 497 3003
IV 1.3 1 1 1.3 4757 -3559 4757 4757 -739 -1642 2712 2712 -1825 497 3003
V 1.3 1 0 1.3 4332 -3128 4332 4332 -811 -1539 2595 2595 -1767 460 2821
VI 1.3 1 1 1.3 4574 -3422 4574 4574 -710 -1579 2607 2607 -1755 478 2887
VII 1.3 1 0 1.3 4505 -3254 4505 4505 -844 -1600 2699 2699 -1838 479 2934
VIII 1.3 1 1 1.3 4757 -3559 4757 4757 -739 -1642 2712 2712 -1825 497 3003
IX 1.2 1 0 1.3 4158 -3003 4158 4158 -779 -1477 2491 2491 -1697 442 2709
X 1.2 1 1.7 1.3 4547 -3474 4547 4547 -617 -1542 2511 2511 -1677 471 2815
4926 -4526 4925 4926 1111 -2239 2897 2897 -1838 510 3086
4.2 FLEXURAL REINFORCEMENT
Pile Head
Pile Head
DEAD LOAD
TRUCK LOAD
LANE LOADS
SIDEWALK 122
EARTH'S
DYNAMIC
A
2760
355
SIDEWALK
STATIC
662
414
122
161
DEAD LOAD 2882
LIVE LOAD 662
355
Design Data:
Bridge width 10200 mm db= 28 mm db= 20 mm
Bridge Span As= 615.8 mm
2
As= 314.2 mm
2
Clear cover 50 mm
t1= 700 mm db= 25 mm
t2= 900 mm tmid= 800 mm As= 490.9 mm
2
t3= 600 mm
footing= 1500 mm
Mu d w reqd design As
4926 811 0.0301 0.002 0.0032 26471
4526 711 0.0361 0.0024 0.0032 23207
4925 811 0.0301 0.002 0.0032 26471
4926 611 0.0538 0.0036 0.0036 22347
1111 611 0.0118 0.0008 0.0032 19943
2239 611 0.024 0.0016 0.0032 19943
2897 486 0.0499 0.0033 0.0033 16482
2897 486 0.0499 0.0033 0.0033 16482
1838 486 0.0313 0.0021 0.0032 15863
4.3 TEMPERATURE REINFORCEMENT
As Asb
1620 490.9
1440 490.9
2700 490.9
1260 490.9
1260 490.9
1260 490.9
2700 490.9
2700 490.9
1080 490.9
5.0 DESIGN SHEAR (Kn)
B C D E F G I J Des Moment Des Shear
Pile Head
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
bw=
Section Spacing
A
B
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
D
E
F
G
I
J
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
28mm @ 200
Section
C
cc=
As Spacing
A
B
C
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
25mm @ 150
D
E
F
G
I
J
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
0.0018bt
25mm @ 190
25mm @ 200
25mm @ 150
25mm @ 150
25mm @ 190
25mm @ 190
25mm @ 190
25mm @ 190
A
3 -1556 -659 -659 -659 845 846 0 154 -30
36 -320 -27 -27 -27 0 0 0 49 7
80 -131 -41 -41 -41 -1 -1 -1 31 6
0 -74 -23 -23 -23 0 0 0 9 1
0 0 -216 -216 451 0 0 0 111 -40
0 0 -673 440 440 0 0 0 151 -59
3 -1630 -682 -682 -682 845 846 0 163 -29
80 -320 -41 -41 -41 -1 -1 -1 49 7
0 -74 -23 -23 -23 0 0 0 9 1
0 0 -673 440 451 0 0 0 151 -59
DEAD LOAD 1556
TRUCK LOAD 320
LANE LOADS 362
SIDEWALK 74
STATIC 0
DYNAMIC 0
TRANSV
DEAD LOAD 1630
LIVE LOAD 362
SIDEWALK 74
EARTH'S 0
TRANSV
5.1 LOAD COMBINATION
GROUP g D(L+I)n E A B C D E F G I J Des Moment Des Shear
I 1.3 1 1.7 1.3 2446 55 -2419 -2081 -201 -181 1098 1099 0 510 -132
IA 1.3 1 2.2 0 2519 71 -2484 -952 -952 -952 1098 1099 -1 265 -31
IB 1.3 1 0 1.3 2215 4 -2215 -2054 -174 -155 1099 1100 0 479 -137
II 1.3 1 0 1.3 2215 4 -2215 -2054 -174 -155 1099 1100 0 479 -137
III 1.3 1 1 1.3 2353 35 -2337 -2070 -190 -170 1098 1100 0 497 -134
IV 1.3 1 1 1.3 2353 35 -2337 -2070 -190 -170 1098 1100 0 497 -134
V 1.3 1 0 1.3 2130 4 -2130 -1975 -168 -149 1056 1058 0 460 -131
VI 1.3 1 1 1.3 2263 33 -2247 -1990 -183 -164 1056 1057 0 478 -129
VII 1.3 1 0 1.3 2215 4 -2215 -2054 -174 -155 1099 1100 0 479 -137
VIII 1.3 1 1 1.3 2353 35 -2337 -2070 -190 -170 1098 1100 0 497 -134
IX 1.2 1 0 1.3 2045 4 -2045 -1896 -161 -143 1014 1015 0 442 -126
X 1.2 1 1.7 1.3 2257 51 -2233 -1921 -185 -167 1014 1015 0 471 -122
2519 71 -2484 -2081 -952 -952 1099 1100 0 510 -31
5.2 CHECK SHEAR
Vu=Vn =0.85
Vn=Vc+Vs
Vc=1 / 6 (f'c)(bw)(d)
Vu bw d Vn Vc
2519 10200 811 2963 38052
71 10200 711 83.989 33360
2484 10200 811 2921.9 38052
2081 10200 611 2447.8 28668
952 10200 611 1120.2 28668
952 10200 611 1120.2 28668
1099 10200 486 1292.4 22803
1100 10200 486 1293.9 22803
0 10200 486 0 22803
Pile Head
Section
A
B
F
G
I Ok
C
D
E
Ok J
Ok
Ok
REMARK
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok
Ok