Light ng affects every indiv dua n one way or anothel from the homeowner to the commercial offtce bu lding

managel from the factory foreman to the drugstore cashier, from the ighting scientist to the ocal electrical contractor. What makes ghting unique is that, with this widespread impact, it rs an

industry based on science and tech no ogy. The deve opment and manufacturing o{ ight sources rnvolves the sc ences of physrcs and chemistry, the measurement of light and color

'equi'es sopl'isticated pholonetric techniques and devices, and the accurate caicu aton o{ rghting uti zes detailed mathematica procedures. This combinat on of a technology based industry w th such a broad
mpact creates a need for educat on. Since many of the peop e nvo ved in the ighting ndustry have a limted techn ca background, the science and technology underlyrng much of the f eld of lighting needs to be communlcated in such a way as to prornote greater understand ng and better app cation. This need exists for a wrde range of people, f rom a saLesperson for an electrical d strlbutor to an interior designer: from an owner of a small retail store to a facilities manager for a arge corporation.

The purpose of this brochure js to fu f il thls need. lt is ntended for a reader who has an interest in ightng, but who has lim ted background knowledge. The brochure defines some of the basic term nology used n the lighl rrgrndust'y. ' arso g ves a1 overvie\\ of the physical propert es which characterize light and color, and descnbes the various types of light sources wh ch are available today. The informat on presented here wi I hopefully equip the reader to 'na^e "no'e ilo'ned deci s ons regarding ghting, no matter what h s or her part cular area of nterest may be.

i

tI I

FOOTCANDTXS VS. CANDTEPOTTTR Watts, umens and LPW al describe basic character st cs of a tght source. But they do not provide any nformatton

mended footcand e eve s for var ous types of rooms and tasks Someof the
r o'.1 r 6r, ;.od o l-- .e,et o'rr^1d.,-o' d F . Lt ra. zed n

-ro

When most peop e want to describe the amount of ghtthata ght bulb or other lght source produces the first quant ty that comes to mind s watts lf a table lamp in the I ving room does not prov de enough lght, a hgher wattage bu b s purchased. Thus many peop e may think of \,,/attage as a measure of ight output.
However, wattage s actua yameasure of eectr ca po\'ver tdescrbesthe

'ega dr.to r^,. gr lt.tg - a 'oo- -o examp e, f we want to know how much oht is fal nct onto a desktop in an off ce, we need to def ne a new un t
the

Table

1.

F=ootcand e is often confused

footcandle.

with candlepower. Candlepo\ii er or ."^deas 1,. ,gl L tp .. , measure of the ghtsource tsef.The footcande, on the other hand isamea sure of the lghtrng n a room. Therefore t is ncorrect to ta k about "cand e power on the desk ' or 'band epo\,,jer at the task," s nce these phrases rea y refer to footcand es

do. oe oad-p ? a(a d.-c o'.

a

The footcand e is a measure of the quant ty of lqht ( lluminance) wh ch fa is onto a surface. Thus the light ng leve n a room rs usual y descr bed as a cer ta n footcand e evel The I lumrnat ng

amount of power going
ight coming out.

n notthe

f -orr-or r o So. ^-, pub rshes tables

o \o tl l-e..co
prov/de recom

"vhich

r'ed " lumens. l.le.-mel a measure of the totai ght produced by a amp t measures the quant ty of ght, but does not indicate the direct on of ight at ai . The lumen rat ng va ue can best be thought of as the tota surn of a lthe licrht (in a I directlons) that the amp produces. By estab ishing a rat o between the iight output (lumens) of a amp and the power input (watts), an effjc ency 1 ea'L d Cd- be d^' r^d. Tl . 'a o > ca led the lumen-per-watt rat o or LPW The LPW value s s milar in some ways to a miles-per-gal on rating for a car, s nce t expresses what you can qe
ou, of o

The word 'lamp' s used to ind cate incandescent f uorescent or other ight sources To descr be ight output the

o-

$BLEI

IES IILI]MINANCE VATUES
Ranges ol llluminances (Footcandles)
Public spaces with dark surroundings Simple orientation for short temporary visits Working spaces where vrsual tasks are on y occasional y performed Performance of visual tasks of: High contrast or large size

2-3-5 FC 5-75-10 FC

la.rp ir le

put into t. A higher LPW ndicates that a amp LS able to produce more light for the same amount of powef and thus is a more eff cient I ght source. LPW is of ten referred to as a measure of 'btf cacyl' since it is a rat o of two different units (umens and watts), and not a percentage as a true eff ciency measure would be.

r.

ol

,r'raL

i-

t0-15-20 FC

Medium contrast or small size
Low contrast or very sma I size Low contrast and very sma I size over a pro onged period

20-30-50 FC 50 75-100 FC 100-150-200 Fc 200-300-500 FC 500-750 1000 FC
1000 r500-2000 FC

Performance of very prolonged and exacting visua tasks
Performance of very special v sua tasks of extremely ow contrast and sma size

/

Candlepower differs from lumens epower measure a ways has a certa n direction associated with it, whereas the umen rating for a amp is the general tota light output in al directrons. Cand epower va ues for any given amp will change depend ng on the direction. Figure 1 illustrates how the angles are determ ned when a cand epower rating s g ven. For
in that a cand

WATTSXHOURS=ENERGY A f na concept which must be understood rs that of energy. Many
Centerbeam

Illusbation of Candlepouer Rating Angles

example,'benter-beam candelas" expresses the liqht ntensty in the center of the beam of ght produced
by a lamp, or

1

rIGUB'
the ang e where the candlepower is equal to 100/o of the maximum candlepower. These two measures, jl ustrated in Figure 2, are often used to evaluate how w de or narrow the beam of light produced by a certain lamp wil be. For example, the beam angle of a 'spot" lamp type will be much smaller than that of a 'Tlood" amp, ind cating a mrch narrower beam.

the ght intensity at the

0" angle.
When dea ing w th reflectorized lamps, PAF lamps, or MR amps, (see Figure 14), the terms "beam angle" and 'f ield angle" are often used. The beam angle is def ined as tl'e angle where lhe candlepower rreasu'e is eqral Lo 500 o ol lhe na,,irrun cand epowe' -1-s 1s 6 3ngle is

people think of wattage as a measure of eneroy, but as discussed previously, wattage measures power nPUt, not energy consumption. Energy is measured by watt-hours, or kiowatt hours (kWH). lr is tlJS a corrb rat or o[ botl' power npLr (war-s) and tirre (hou''). This def jnition is significant because the lighttng user can save energy by controlling both connected load (wattage) and the t me of opera tion. ln fact, it is sometimes true that a hlgher connected oad may provide g'eater Iexb ty 'n lerns of swtchrg ard controls. wh.ch g ves lhe lser qreaLe cortrol ove lhe tine aspPcl of 6rerqy corsutrptior. I hrs. arrloLg'1 reducing the wattage of a ighting system will indeed help to conserve energy, it is the management of the energy be ng used which ts critical. From this perspective, both wattage and time of use must be carefulLy evaluated ln any applicaton.

mm
Radiant Energ/ Spectrun

u'dtt

n
550 600 650 m0

m
7s0
800

350 400

450

500

(xlfix'4

Visible Light Spectrum

flcry

WHAI IS UGHT?
To rea ly understand lghting, the 'i'st qrestio'r wh cl' needs answering is, 'What is igh?"

Probab y the sirnp esr desc'ipt or of light is the phrase 'Visua ly evaiuated radiant energy." In other words, ght s
a form of radiant enerqy, lust as radio waves and X-rays are forms of radiant energy. But what makes rght unique

frorr othe. 'o'ns of 'ad arr e'rerqy
that the human eye
rs

is

sensitive to this

form or ere'gy and responds lo I. Figure 3 shows the spectrum of the various types ol radiant energy.
As this frgure il ustrates, the types of energy are described by the r wave

engths, and the human eye responds
to a limited band ol wavelengths along this spectrum. lt is this band of waveengths which is ca led visible lght.

o
Breahdoun of lYhite Lighl

WHITT I,IOHT An expanded vjew of th s band of v sible light energy is shown in Figure 4. Each wave ength of energy is associated w th a certain co or sensat on, and "wh te ight ' s s mp y the
summation of var ous colors or wave lengths of light. The simple pr sm exper ment performed in most high schoo science classes (Figure 5) demonstrates this pr ncip e, by div ding wh te ight into its various wave ength components. Understanding that light s made up of certa n wave ength compofents is important in understand nq the nature of the light produced by amps. The

ight output from a lamp can, ke sunight, be broken down into its ndrv dua wave ength components. For example, Figure 6 shows the wave ength com position of the ight produced by a Coo White fluorescent amp. SPD A graph of this type s caled a

"spectral power distribution curve," oT an SPD. This name is
der ved from the fact that the graph il ustrates the distribut on of power produced by the amp, at each wavelength (or coior) across the spectrunr. Figure 7 shows the SPD s for some other common amp types, al of wh ch are cons dered Wh te' light sources.

\,iavelengihs (Nanometers) Cool White SPD

Curft

Eramples ol Othet SPD

Cu

res

f$sBI'7
INCANDESCENT AND TUNGSTEN HALOGEN
DESIGNER "830"

ocTRoN"4100

Uihvelenglhs (Nanometers)

l

bvelenqths (Nanometers)

LUMALUX"

METALARC' COATED

$bvelengths (Nanometers)

l/llavelenEths (Nanometers)

COLOR IS HOIY YOU LIGHT Although an SPD curve f ul y describes the co or characteristics of the lqht produced by a lamp, it s diff cult for the normal ighting user to derive much mean ng from such a curve. nstead, bryo measures of ctht source color have been established, and are common y used to describe the color character stics of lamps. These meas ures are color temperature and the color rendering index or CRl.
Relationship Behoeen CRI and Color Temperalure

II

THX IIDIVIN SCAI.E

efe'erce solce s used which s known as the blackbody radiator. This source can be thought of as simply a p ece of meta wh ch is conplelPl) b acl. u her co d. Dassiag
electricity through this piece of meta causes it to heat up. unt eventual y it beg ns to glow When t f irst begins to glow, the light be ng emitted is red orange n appearance. As the meta is heated to progressively hrgher tem' peratures, the co or appearance w sh ft to orange, then yel ow, and evenLua ly wrI oe olJe o' b Le \ hite at extreme y h gh temperatures. At any po nt dur nq th s process, the actual temperature of the b ackbody could be measured. For co or temperature measurements, the Kelvin scale is used, which s def ned as degrees Celsius plus 273. Thus, a certain Kelvin measurement can be associated with the various co or appearances of the blackbody as t is heated
I

n def ining color temperature, a

CORREI,JIITD COI,OR TEMPERAIURE
Co or temperature is a measurement of temperature on y when the source berng considered s the blackbody rad ator. For other light sources, the term s used. Thus, a ight source wh ch has a corre ated co or temperature (CCT) of 4100 Ke vin, such as the

ature"

"correlated color temper-

cool white flourescent lamp, is simiar n color appearance to the blackbody radiator when t is heated to 4100K. A standard ncandescent amp, with a CCT of 2700K, ls sim ar n co or appearance to the b ackbody when
heated to a temperature of 2/00K. A photograph of the appearance of the ght produced by these two ght sources is shown rn Figure g. Figure 10 shows the range of correated co or temperatures for typica commercia lamps.

E

fIGUB'
Co or temperature describes the actual color appearance of the light produced, in terms of its apparent warmth or coolness. CRI is a measure of how the lamp influences the color appearance of the objects which are being il uminated. The relationship between these two 'neasJres is sl'owr schematical y in

Figure 8.

\
--t

Color appearance co nparison betoeen an incandescent lanp (2700K. uarn) and acool bhite lluorescent lanp (1200K cool),

F$a*J's

Oi

WARM UGHI VS. COOI, UGHT As described above, at low color temperatures the blackbody source emits a red or red-orange light. Psycholog ca ly, these co ors are usua ly considered to be 'Warm" in appear ance; thus, lamps with low correlated color temperature (be ow 3200K) are thought of as 'Warm" ghtsources. Conversely, at high color temperatures the b ackbody gives off a b ue or b ue-white light, which is psycho-

ogrca ly considered 'boo 'l Lamps with correlated color temperatures above 3900K are thus 'bool" light sources. Lamps with CCT ratings between these values (3200-3900K) are cons dered intermediate sources. These d vis ons are sometimes confusing, since h gh temperatures are norma ly associated with 'Warm," and low temperatures with 'bool." ln the case of the color temperature scale, these associations are the exact opposite of what might be expected.

fiE

COTOR RXNDtrRING INDEX Although correlated color temperature describes the actual appearance of the light being produced by a lamp, it gives no indicat on of how the lamp wi I affect the color appearance of objects being lghted by the lamp. This second considerat on is usual y at least as important as the color

appearance of the amp itse f

.

For example, Figure 11A shows two ditferent light sources which have s milar CCT values, and so are simiar in terms of their co or appearance.

f(lr0x'to

9000

85oo

NoFrFiLcFrri

8000

BLUE SKY

7500

7000

rl

j
1

\
DAYLIGHT The color appearance ol tuo light sowces ofthe sdme conelaied color

:''

r

F.'

6000

-..^'r MEBCURY
LAN4P

,'nofil)"),y:x,::';i!!rrri!,i{i,r.ti"!!ir:,iii:
as shoun belob. This denonstrates the need lor a neasure oflhe colot rcnde ng properties ofa [amp.

tenDeraturc

Ls

sinilar.

as

shoun

icaltf,

5500

5000

4000
CLLAB [,IfTAi

HALIDF AMP

cooLWP -F
FLUOFESCENI LAMP

3500

-

CAPSYL

TE'

TUNGSTEN HALOGEN LAIi/P 40 WATT NCANOESCENT

WABi,4 WH TE

2500

_
fft./Jqfr1-l9
H GH PBESSURE SOD IJM LAMP

-

FLI]OFESCENT LAMP

2000
CANDLE

1500
The Correlated Color Tenperature Scale

-

',]

The eighl

standafucolors

used to

detetnine

CRI aalues.

f$tJBJ't2,
EIGHT SIANDARD COLORS effect of a light source on the co or appear alce ofobjects. -he firs- s-ep 1 de.i\ ^g this measure is to def ne some stand
ard colors. The internationa ght ng community has sett ed on eight stand ard colors for use n determ ning the CRI rat ng for amps. These eight colors are depicted n Figure 12. To detern r ne the CR of a particu ar arP. the co 61 3PPoa ance o[ ll-esa eight standard colors is f rst eva uated under the blackbody reference source at the same co or temperature as the lamp being invest gated and a CRI value of 100 is assigned to the apoearance of each of the eight co ors.
S nce the CRI measures the

Howeve4 simply knowing that these lamps are s mi ar in co or appearance gives no indication of how they w affect co ored objects. As il ustrated jn Figure 118, the effect of these two light sources on the appearance of the same red object is surpris ngly different. Thus. the CCT color measure does not provrde enough nformation by itself and we need a second measure to describe how a amp wil affect the co or appearance of objects. The
L

,

color rendering index, CR
performs this f unction.

,

The eight co ors are then eva uated under the lamp in quest on, and their co or shrft from the appearance under the blackbody s measured a ong a scale from 0 to 100. The pub shed CRI va ue represents the average of these eight nd vidua CR values. A few mportant observations can be made from this discussion. A CR value of 100 does not mp y "ideal" color render ng ab ity, t s simply the reference measure used. Fortunate y the blackbody reference source does tend to render co ors as people expect them to appear, so that in genera a 100 CR is interpreted as exce lent color render ng

j

Furthermore, since the general CRI value s an average of eight different co or shif ts, it provides no nsight into how a liqht source wr I affect any specif ic color Consequently, two lamps with the same CRI wil not necessari y
render a I co ors the same. Addrtionally, s nce the CRI is an average measure, small differences of only one or two points in the CRls of two lamps should not be considered irnportant.

CRft IS IT USF,rUL?
The CRI measure is definite y use fu , but its limltations must be clearlv understood to avoid drawing erroneous

conc usions about the co or rendering
properties of light sources. Comparing the CFI values of two lamps which have the same correlated co or temperature can provide much useful nformation regarding the color performance of the lamps. In this case, a higher CRI rating genera ly indicates that the amp wiLi render colors more accurate y than the lamp with the lower CRI value.

For example, consider again the sources shown in Figures l1A and 118. These lamps have sim ar CCT va ues, but the CR1 for the lamp on the left ls 7Z wh e the CRI for the amp on the right is actually 0. ln th s case, comparing the CRls of the two tght sources provides a good deal of usef ul information. As long as the limitat ons are understood, the CRI system can be a very helpful lighting tool.

CRI AND COI,OR TDMPERAII]Rf, It is important to recognize that the Cql rreasJre tor a pa'licular lanp is
related to the blackbody reference at the same color temperature as the lamp. As the color temperature of the blackbody varies, the color appear ance of the e ght standard co ors will arso vary. brt the CIL va ue 'ema:rs 100. Thus, the reference va ue of 100 CRI rs drfferent for a 'bool" lamp than it is for a 'Warm" lamp. As a result, the CR values of lamps with different

correlated color temperatures should not be compared, s nce they do not have the sarne reference source. Figures 13A and 138 illustrate this po nt, by showing how two lamps with different corre ated color temperatures but equal CBls w I affect colors
d fferently.
5000K "Cool"

q

fi($Ufifil'

2750K

"warn"

Roth lamp tlpes shoun haoeCR] ualues ofabout 90, let affect colors differentt!. This is due to the large

f('XBll39

differcnrc in correlated color temperatLre. In (A), the btue objeus appear more saturated and uibftnl undet the "cool" light soune;(B) shotls lhat lhe "uarm" source mahes red objects appear nore saturatedand Dibrant.

The first part of this brochure covers some of the important terminology related to llghtinq, and provides an overview of the principles of lrght and color The remainrng pages are devoted to a discussion of lrght sources and their charactenstics. Lamps are usually drvided into lhree famrlies: incandescent, fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HlD). Incandescent lamps were the f irst lype of elecr.ic liql^t deve'opeo. Io p'oduce ligl-t. e ectr ca erergy s passed through a wire, heating the wire until it glows or "rncandesces." The wire is ca led the f lament, and today is usua ly made of tungsten. Many different conf igurat ons ex st for the f ament. The bulb enciosure around the trlament can have a w de variety of shapes, and can be used lo d rect the ight, diffuse the light, or provrde for decorative effects. Figure 14 ilustrates the many shapes o{ incandescent lamps now ava able.

M Zr

???
Zps
?:ed

a
Zrt
I nca ndesce n t lam p Shapes

F$LJ$^J

WHY SOMX BULBSBLACKXN
Due to the h gh ternperature at which the tunosten f ilament operates in these lamps, some ot the tungsten mater ai slow y evaporates f rom the f ament and deposits on the bulb wall This causes a blacken ng effect, and resuits n reduced rght output. To s ow th s evaporat ve process, a iJre O'drgo^ aTo r I'Oqer gab ) used n most ncandescent lamps. But even with th s gas fil , tungsten evapo' ration stil occurs. reducing the light output of the lamp over t me.

'l

'll

1,'

!,

\ ,\

'tl

s
*

*
J.=:::_-,

O,n

t0

TUilGSTEIU HAI.OGDN I,A.IUPS A special family of lamps was developed to alleviate the problem of tungsten evaporation. These light sources, known as "tungsten halogen" lamps, utilize halogen elements such as bromine and iodine to minimize bJlb blackening by creatirg a cleanirg cycle within the lamp. Basically, the halogen prevents the tungsten from depositing on the bulb wall, and rnstead, redeposits i1 onto the
filament.

..A

IJLIUP-Mtf, IN-A-LA.lltP'

Traditionally, tungsten halogen light sources were mostly available in a tubular shape. But today, tungsten halogen lamps are avaihbb in many
of the standard incandescent shapes

by using a small capsule within the bulb itseli. Lamp types such as the
Sylvania Capsylite@ family use this technolooy to achreve the advantages

when the lamp contains an integral reflector (such as a PAR or MR lamp, see Figure 14). Low voltage operation may be achieved via two main methods: either a transformer is used external to the lamp, or a diode is placed within the lamp to reduce the voltage to'lhe frlament. In either case, the advantages of low-voltage operation are realized.

of better lumen maintenance and longer life.

The main advantages are maintaining most of a lamps initial brightness over the li{e of the lamp and longer lamp life. Because quarlz glass is sometimes used for these lamps, many peopie re'er Io I rngsten halogea sources simply as quar2 lamps.

LOWVOIIAGE IA"ITPS
Another variation in the traditiona

operating parameters o{ incandescent lamps is the increased popu arily of low voltage sources. A lamp which is
desrgned for low voltage operation has a shorter thicker {ilament. This translates nto better optical contro

$,

-=a
-- aJ
*
11

rx

o
".1rr \,\\i I /,'/7/' //
Fluorescent lamps operate on the principle of energizing a gas. A fluorescent lamp contains a small amount of low-pressure mercury vapol which produces ultraviolet radiation when an electrical arc is passed through the lamp. This ultraviolet radiation is in turn absorbed by a phosphor coating on the lamp, which then produces visible light (see Figure 15). The wavelength composition of the light from the lamp, and thus its color properties, are determined by the chemical elements used in the phosphor. ln addition to the mercury vapol a fJuorescent amp also contains an inert gas fill, usually erther argon. krypton, or neon. TWO NDQINREMDI{TS With any type of gaseous discharge light source such as a {luorescent lamp, two electrical needs exrst. First of ali, n order to establish an electr cal arc through a gas atmos phere, an initial voltage surge rs required. This suroe is only needed to start the amp. Secondly, once the lamp is started, the gas atmosphere offers a decreasing amount of electrical resistance. This means that, if the current available lo the lamp is not contro led, the

u\",t,1 /isible Light' ,-in h

/,/.,, Ullr.aviolel
Radiation

Mercury
Pr inc ip lei o f FIuoresce n t Ope r a I io n

Atom

- ae r"
FrcUBD

lamp will continue to draw more and more current, until it burns itsel{ out in
a short period of time.

THE BAIIJIST Because of these two concerns, an auxilrary prece of equipment known

PHOSPHOR TT,CHNOLOGY The aspect of f uorescent lamp development which has changed most raprdly ls phosphor technology. Tradit onal f uorescent lamps such as the Cool White lamp use a single coating of halophosphor materra . Wrth
this type of technology, a trade off

ballast is required for gas d scharge light sources. The ba last serves two main purposes: lt provides the nitial voltage surge needed to start the lamp, and it limits the amount of current available to operate the amp. Bal asts wh ch have been approved by the Cert f ied Ba last l\lanufacturers (CBM) assure the user of certain performance character strcs. Since the bal ast helps to determine the f na lght output of the ohtino system, a non-CBM ba last may provide many ess umens than the user wou d expect.
as the

must be made between energy eff,

as n he Cool Whrle Deru;e lanp. tl-e .f Iciercy o' rhe grtsolrcerusr be

:.";,:15;::?::f :q::,$ J: ",""#"

O

compromised, result ng in lower output. A newer technology which addresses this concern is the use of rare earth phosphors. These phosphor types give the new f uorescent lamp types both high eff iciencies and good color properties. To ut ze these new phosphors economically, a doub e-

t

i

gYrr'AcrlA

eft*-'

q "fu
* '\**-'
1?

SrWntu.tn

fiHn^

.'x:e'' ill.H. ;;;iwll: - tv

coat phosphor process was developed by GTE Sylvania. This process combines a base coat of the standard halophosphor with a second coat of the rare earth phosphor. This combination is used in manufacturing more advanced Sylvania lamp types. This technology is illustrated
in

rescent lamps have become quite popular. These lamp types, having a diameter of one inch (T8) as opposed to the traditional one and one-half inch (T12) diameter lamps, offer improved eff iciency and better optics within a
fixture.

Figure 16. Lamps such as the

Sylvania Octron@ family and the Sylvania Desigre.o Series rrse tris new technology to make possible fluorescent lamps which exhibit both high eff iciencies and good color characteristics. TS AJIll TT2 IIIJUPS Another area of new development in fluorescent lamps is in the size of the lamp itself. For general lighting applications, reduced diameter f lLro-

Single Coat

Furthermore, because the total area of the bulb is less. the rare earth phosphors can be used more economrcally. Sylvanra Octron and Octron Curvalume@ lamps are examples of smaller diameter fluorescent sources which may be used in traditional general lighting applications. For other types ol applications, compact fluorescent lamps are now widely used. Lamps such as the Sylvania Twin Tube and Double Tivin Tube, originally thought of as options for replacing incandescents, are now also used for many task lighting, downlighting, and decorative purposes. These amps exhibit much higher eff iciencies than incandescent lamps.

1:

rtcuBE
Phosphor Technologl/

,tii,'i11

Sp

silw4!lA
S\]PER\A'!L'O

@
SraI:

3"1\'t"

;

,,$,rt
-{S-

ifl,fti#*ut
13

"b

The family of light sources known as high intensity discharge (HlD) lamps includes mercury vapor lamps, metal

halide lamps, and high pressure sodrum lamps. These light sources all produce light i.r the same basic rnanne., by ere'g'zing a gaseous arc stream which operates under increased pressures. The addition of various elements to the arc stream affects the efficiency and color properties of the light. These three main types are thus differentiated by the makeup of the arc stream, as

inements of the light produced may be made through the use of phosphor coatings. For e>ample, Sylvania Metalarc@ metal halide lamps are available in cleal coated, and 3K coated versions. wilh each type having dif{erent color properties. This variety allows Metalarc lamps to be well-suited to many difierent commercial and industrial app cations. Because of their high eificiency and the intensity or brightness of traditional metal halide lamps, they have been widely used in commercial
ref

Further

interiors where high cetlings call for lamps with high light output, long

o

lamp life, and economical lamp operation. A major trend in the development of these light sources has been to produce low-wattage metal halide lamps for such applications as retail lighting, where the features of high e{ficrency, good colol and compactness are important. The Sylvania family of low-wattage medium base and tubular Metalarc lamps is an example of this trend.

ligLfitl AIIVAJIIAGES & IDRAWBAGKS
OF
Lamp Type
lncandescent

MAJOR LAMP IYPES
Drawbacks

described below
MERCURY VAPOR IIIJTIPS As the name implies, mercury vapor lamps produce lighl by ene€,2rng mercury gas. At low pressures, mercury vapor produces mostly ultraviolet energy, as described {or fluorescent lamps. Howevel the increased pressure used in mercury vapor lamps shifts the energy produced into the range oJ visible light. Although some ultraviolet light is still produced, the glass outer jacket on a mercury vapor lamp effectively f ilters this UV energy. Mercury amps were the first HID type manufactured, but the usefu less o[ lhese lorg 'fe lamps -oday is lmited by their ower eff iciency and poor color properties.

Advantages

.

Fluorescent

. excellent color . variety of shapes . simple circuitry . ease o{ dimming . higher efiiciencies . long life . variety ot colors

low initial cost o small size

. low efiiciencies . high heat output . high operating costs . short life . glare potentlal .
.
higher initial cost temperature sensitivity limited optical control auxiliaries needed

o low brightness . low operating temperature Metal Halide

. . .
. . . . .

. diffuse rght source . high eff icrencies . long life . reasonable optical contro

high initial cost o auxiliaries needed . start-up & re-str ke requirements co or cons stency giare potential high initia cost auxiliaries needed start up & re-str ke requirements poor co or propert es glare potential

.
.
H gh Pressure

ow operat ng cost good co or properties

IIIDTAI HAIJDE III"MPS
An improvement in H lD technology came about through the deve opment of metal halide lamps. Although mer cL'y vapo'is srll used as lhe nail
light produc ng element, certain chem-

.
. .

ong

life

Sodium

. .

very h gh ef{ ciencies reasonable optical contro very low operat nct costs

ica add tlves (halides) are used in the arc stream to provide excelent color quality for many commerc al, industrial and outdoor applications plus outstanding lamp eff iciency.

hgh umef mantenance

. .

O
14

IIIGH PRXSSTJRE SIilIIUM I.II"IUPS The third type of HID source, high pressure sodium lamps, were developed primarily to improve upon the
efficiency available in other light sources. Aga,n. rrercu.y is used in the arc stream but in this case sodium ls also added. This mixture provides the highest eff icacies available in HID lamps. A ceramic arc tube is needed instead of standard glass due to the use of n.& -r drum. The presence sod un in lhe arc stream results in the energy pro-

The excellent eff iciency and long, 24,000 hour life of high pressure sodium lamps like the Sylvania Lumalux@ family make them suitable for outdoor and industrial uses, but their relatively poor color properties limit their usefulness in commercial
interiors.

Since all HID lamp iypes are gaseous discharge light sources, they require ballasts {or operation. The ballast must be designed specilically for the lamp type and wattage being used.

WARIII.UPTIME
Another unique characteristic of HID lamps is that they require a certain period of time to warm up to f ull light output.
This is especially important in a re-strike situation, where the power 10 the lamp has been momentarily interrupted. ln this case, a jew minutes may be required before the lamp will come back on, and then it will take a few nore m;nJtes bdo.e the system s at full brightness. Thus, provisrons {or emergency lighting must be made by using a back-up tungsten halogen system or a specia liqht source such as the Sylvania Lumalux

soof
in

-

1

duced being mostly

A special type of hrgh pressure sodium lamp is also avaiable to replace existing mercury vapor lamps. Lamp types such as the Sylvanra Una ux@ family are designed to operate on reactor mercury ballasts, and allow the user [o ircrease lhe efliciency of his lighting system by

the yellow portions of the spectrum.

simply replaclng the mercury lamps with this special type of high pressure sodium lamp.

:-,r"'l-

III'

Standby lamp.

Low pressure sodium light
sources are a special type, in which sodium is used as the only element in the arc stream. Although this provides very high efiicacres, it also produces a monochromatic yellow light. With this type o{ light, few colors can be readily distinguished. Because of these qenerally unacceptabie color properties, low pressure sodium lamps have very limited application. Table 2 provrdes an overv ew of the features and drawbacks for each of the lamp families described above. Tl'is tab e can be helplul n co'npa'rnq the var ous types and consider ng which might be best surted for any specrfic app rcation.

!

l
1

1

I

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JC *n

);. --4 ;;=-

-

*:1 -;1
*

t5

IJSI
Although much o{ the lighting industry is technology based, the {.Lrdamenta s o' lightirg are farrly
straightforward and easily understood. Knowledge o{ the types o{ light sources available, the rnethods used to describe the color properties of those sources, and the basic terms used to describe the application of light should help those jnterested in lighting to make better decisions regarding their own specific needs. Hopefully, this brochure is a step toward that end.

OF FIGURDS 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 b 7
7

1. lllustration oi Candlepower Rating Angles

2. lllustration of Beam Angle and Field Angle 3. Radiant Energy Spectrum 4. Visible Light Spectrum 5. Example o1 Prism Breakdown of White Light 6. Cool White SPD Curve 7 Examples of other SPD Curves 8. Relationship between CRI and Color Temperature 9. Comparison of Cool White and Incandescent Color Appearance
10. The Correlated Color Temperature Scale

11A, 11B. lllustration: Same CCI Different CFI 12. Eight Colors Used in CRI Measurement

134, 138. lllustration: Same CRl, Dilferent CCT 14. Incandescent Lamp Shapes
15. Principles of Fluorescent Operation 16. Phosphor Technology

q
10 12 12

I

IJST OT TABI,N.S
1. IES llluminance Values

2
14

2. Advantages and Drawbacks of Major Lamp Types

16

D