Report On Industrial Training Niagara Textiles Ltd.

COURSE NO: TEX-500 NAME OF THE STUDENT :• MD. SHOHEL RANA • ROLL: 05.01.06.023

SUPERVISED BY:-

* PROF. DR. MD. MUSTAFIZUR RAHMAN.
HEAD, DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY.

4TH YEAR 2ND SEMESTER, FALL-2008

DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY

Acknowledgement
Industrial training is very much essential for textile students after completing theoretical course. I am grateful for completing my industrial training in Niagara Textiles Ltd (NTL). Firstly, I am very much thankful to our head of the department Prof. Dr. Md. Mustafizur Rahman for his encouragement and valuable suggestions for constant improvement of the report. I would like to express my sincere gratitude & appreciation to Mr. Abraruzzaman Diamond, GM- Niagara Textiles Ltd. Finally I want to thank Mr. Abu Baker Siddique, Manager, Knit Dyeing department for his enormous support as well as Asst. Manager & Production Officers for helping me to get proper information about every section during industrial training.

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INTRODUCTION
Textile technology education is based on industrial ground. Theoretical background is not sufficient so, industrial training is an essential part of study to make a technologist technically sound in this field. Industrial training provides us that opportunity to gather practical knowledge. Niagara Textiles Ltd is a truly integrated undertaking. The textile division has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export & domestic textile markets. The goal of the textile division is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics & clothing from Bangladesh. With high advanced technology & an emphasis on developing local human resources, the textile division has the potential to make an important contribution to the nation’s growing ready made garments export sector. The rational behind the existing structure & future expansion of the textile division is to capture value added at each stage of the textile manufacturing process. Despite Bangladesh’s lack of indigenous cotton production capability, NTL has leveraged Bangladesh’s labor cost advantage & export competitiveness to maximum level.

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•BUSSINESS LINE: Manufacturing & Marketing of high quality Knitted fabric. Ahsan Habib. namely our employees. We firmly believe that. and strong revenue based product portfolio. •TOTAL PRODUCTION: 28 ton per day. Shahinur Islam Zinnah. Nurul Hasan Mukti. 4 . Kaliakoir. •VISION: Building a true marketing led enterprise with motivated workforce. innovative vision. Director Mr. Suite# C-1 (1st Floor). Gazipur. •OWNER OF THE MILL: Mr. M. our fellow. Dhaka-1000. citizens & our shareholders. customer satisfaction & understand of global market. •MISSION: Each of the activities must benefit & add value to the common wealth of our society. our business associates. Mr.Atabah. (NTL). Director •LOCATION OF MILL: Chandra Circle. Union.GENERAL INFORMATION •NAME OF FACTORY: Niagara Textiles Ltd.D. our customers. Chairman Mr. •HEAD OFFICE: 27 Bijoy Nagar. Abu Baker Siddique. •COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION: 2001. in the final analysis we are accountable to each of the constituents with whom we interact.

Pleated Jersey. Wafle. Capacity : Textile division : Garments division : 20.000 Kg fabric / day 40.000 Sft Office: 5.500 employees (Approx. Mesh Fabric. Fleece.) Member of: Bangladesh Knitwear Manufactures & Exporters Association (BKMEA) Industrial and Bussiness Welfare Foundation (IBWF) Bank details: :: Islami Bank Bangladesh Ltd. Rib etc.500 Sft Total : 1.000 Sft Finishing: 20.000 Sft Total : 55.500 Sft 5 .13. Interlock.000 Sft Sample room: 2. Interlock Pique.000 Sft Garments division Cutting: 20. :: Shahjalal Islami Bank Ltd.000 Sft Store: 6. Garments division: All kinds of knitted tops and bottom.000 Sft Sewing: 60. :: Bank Alfalah Limited Product Type: Textile division: Single/ Double Jersey . Terry. with or without Spandex.000 pcs/ day (based on basic items) Area details : Textile division Knitting : 15. Pique.Company Profile: Manpower: Existing workforce: 4.000 Sft Dyeing : 40. Single/ Double Lacoste.

08. NTL is also concern about social welfare issues of its worker. Fully Compliant with environmental ETP & other social welfare issues NTL is very much concern for hazard free environment and have constructed an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) that is running and rectifying waste water. Labor Fair-2008. Computerized Automated Management Information System (MIS) by ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) As part of automation. In-house Printing Section : NTL has an in-house printing facility Carrying facility by own covered van for timely shipment NTL has own covered vans for carrying products on time. NTL Social Welfare Officers regularly monitor these at floors. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design) Machine: NTL has an in-house CAD/CAM machine NTL Present Clients ::        H&M Target Big Star New Look Loblaws Techibo Lazy Jacks 6 .500 Sft Other developments/prospects: Government & BKMEA award winner for the best compliant factory NTL has awarded as one of the best compliant factory for fulfilling major compliance issues which was jointly organized by Labor Ministry of Bangladesh Govt. Furthermore NTL has also awarded by Naari Uddug Kendra (NUK) for fulfilling core standards on social compliance issues.Bonded warehouse – 40.000 Sft Grand Total : 2. implemented in-house developed ERP database software for MIS (Management Information System). and BKMEA on 1st May.

 Sears  Okaidi Location Map of the Factory Niagara Textiles Ltd Chandra Circle Kaliakoir Konabari Nandan Park Zirani Bazar 7 .

ORGANOGRAM OF NTL DYEING 8 .

Manager Production Asst.GM Manager Asst.Helper(D&C) 8X S Helper (Del) Batch Prep(15) 3 X Supervisor 12 X Helper QC Sec (33) 1XQC Incharge 3XQCO 10XQCI 19XHelper Dyeing(108) Finishing(120) Sample Sec(4) 1 X In Charge 3 X helper A-shift(36) 2× PO 2 × Sr.OP 1 × shift incharge 22 ×M/c Operators 9 × Helpers C-shift(36) 2 × PO 2 × Sr.OP 1 × shift incharge 22 ×M/c Operators 9 × Helpers A-shift(40) 1 × Finishing incharge 2x Supervisor 9 x OP 28 × Helpers B-shift(40) 1 × Finishing incharge 2x Supervisor 9 x OP 28 × Helpers C-shift(40) 1 × Finishing incharge 2x Supervisor 9 x OP 28 × Helpers 9 . (D&C) 4X SK (Fabrics) 3X S. Manager Production Maint(13) 1 X Maint Officer 2 X SAE(Elec) 2 X SAE(Mech) 3 X Fitter 5 X Helper LAB(13) 2 X lab incharge 3 X shift incharge 3 X Supervisor 5 X lab asst.OP 1 × shift incharge 22 ×M/c Operators 9 × Helpers B-shift(36) 2 × PO 2 × Sr. Store(18) 1X store Offer 1X ASO (D&C) 1X SK. Manager Production Administrative Section (19) 1 X Admin officer (Common with knitting division) 1X computer operator(MIS) 4 X TK 13 X floor Cleaners/ sweeper Asst.

32 S 32 S – 28 S 28 S 26 S 24 S → Rib without lycra Fabric G. . → Rib . → Polo pique.S. → Lycra Rib . which are available in knit dyeing floor are given below : → Single jersey / Single jersey with lycra. (9x2). → Interlock . Drop needle fabric . → Grey mélange . → Stripe ( S/J.M 180 – 190 190 – 200 200 – 215 215 – 230 230 – 250 250 – 300 Yarn Count 36 S .( 1x1). grey mélange ) For cotton / Blend / CVC fabric :→ S/J without lycra Fabric G. Lacost ( Single / Double) .PRODUCT VARIATION ● Name of product mix : The product .S. (9x1) .M 200 – 220 220 – 230 230 – 250 250 – 300 Yarn Count 34 S 32 S 30 S 26 S 10 .M 110 – 120 120 – 130 130 – 140 140 – 150 150 – 160 170 – 210 Yarn Count 40 S – 36 S 36 S . (8x2). (2x2). rib. interlock.S.32 S 30 S 28 S 26 S 24 S 24 S → Interlock without lycra Fabric G.

250 250 .210 210 .280 280 .190 190 .S.M 180 .300 Yarn Count 32 S 30 S 26 S 24 S → 40D Lycra S/J Fabric G.220 220 – 240 240 .S.S.240 240 . D/L ) without lycra Fabric G.M 230 .→ Lacost ( S/L.M 180 – 190 190 – 210 210 – 230 230 – 250 Yarn Count 30 S 28 S 26 S 26 S → 40D Lycra Rib Fabric G.250 Yarn Count 34 S 32 S 30 S 28 S 26 S 11 .

26S. 28S. 26S 24S. 32S.40S. 28S.KNITTING Process flow chart of knitting: Yarn in cone form Feeding the yarn cone in the creel Feeding the yarn in the feeder via trip-tape positive feeding arrangement and tension devices Knitting Withdraw the rolled fabric and weighting Inspection Numbering Raw materials for knitting: Type of yarn Cotton Polyester Spandex yarn Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) Cotton Mélange (100%) PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) CVC(60% Cotton & 40% Polyester) Count 20S . 34S. 70D 24S. 30S. 26S. 36S . 30S 24S.150D 20D. 100D.40D. 30S 12 .24S. 26S. 28S 24S. 28S 24S. 28S. 45S 70D. 26S. 26S.

FABRIC TYPES: 13 .Source of yarn for knitting: • • • • • • • • • • Arif textile HK Spinning Padma Textile Prime Textile Kader Synthetic Shohagpur Textile Jamuna Spinning Shamim Spinning Amber Textile Square Textile Lycra : CREORA Made in Korea Type # H-100 (20D) This fibre contains less than 1% di-methylacetamide( DMAC) which can be released during processing.

v) Race Collar. 5) Different decorative single and double jersey fabric. iii) Jacquard Collar. vi) Stripe Collar. iv) Tipping Collar. 4) Collar and Cuff i) Plain Collar or Solid collar ii) Shaving Collar.1) Single Jersey a) Single jersey (Plain) b) Single lacoste c) Double lacoste d) Polo pique e) Fleece fabric 2) Double jersey a) Rib fabric i) 1x1 Rib ii) 2x1 Rib iii) 2x2 Rib iv) Lycra Rib v) Flat Back Rib b) Interlock Fabric i) Plain interlock ii) Drop needle interlock 3) Back Brush. 14 .

Germany 30" 34" 36" 20" 21" 22" 23" 24" 25" 34" 36" 30" Single jersey Pailung .Lock) Terrot. of set 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 01 01 01 05 01 02 Interlock (8. Taiwan Orizio . Italy 3. Italy 30" 20 02 Stoll . Germany Kaoheng/Taiwan 84" 54" 14 14 01 26 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND OPERATIONS OF KNITTING DIVISION PROCESS DEFINITION: 15 .Knitting Section (Capacity: 7. Germany Pai Lung .500 kgs/day): Name of Machine Rib (8. Taiwan Dia 30" 36" 34" 36" 38" 40" 42" Gauge 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 22 22 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 No.Thread Fleece Flat Knit (Computerized) Orizio .Lock) Brand Terrot.

16 . maintenance complexity. It is also followed in this mill where we were in industrial attachment. Then he comes in spot. are called WALES. The process sequences are in list below: 1) Firstly. GAUGE corresponds to the yarn in a woven fabric. while warp knits are those in which the Wales are composed of single strand of yarn. PROCESS REQUIREMENTS: We have already discussed there are basically three kinds of machine which is used to produce knit fabric and these are: 1. 4) Production officer with experienced mechanical fitter adjusts required stitch length and grey GSM for required final GSM. corresponding to the filling in woven cloth. knitting manager gets a production shit from the merchandiser as accordance as consumer requirements then he informs or orders production officer about it. 2. etc. 5) Supervisor checks daily production regularity and make operator conscious about finishing tin due time. FILLING KNITS (WEFT KNITS) are those fabrics in which the courses are composed of a single strand of yarn. the cross wise rows of stitches. DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS: In every mill. Mechanical fitter then fixes it if he can or he informs technical in charge. they sent in dyeing section. production capacity. The higher the gauge. 2) Production officer informs technical in charge and knows about machine in which the production will be running.Knitting is the interlocking of one or more yarns through a series of loops. then he calls for the mechanical fitters in duty. the more compact and finer is the cloth. 6) Operators operate machine in high attention as if there were no faults in the fabrics. If he thinks or sure about any fabric fault. and is defined as the number of needles of yarns in half inches of cloth. 7) After required production and final inspection in 4-point system. The length wise columns of stitches. they two take decision about machine for production considering machine condition. 3) Technical in charge calls for leader of mechanical fitter troops. Circular knitting machine (Double Jersey Machines). corresponding to the warp in woven cloth. there maintains a sequences in production processing. Circular knitting machine (Single Jersey Machines). are called COURSES.

suided Changing of GSM:  Major control by VDQ pulley.Color depth.S. Machine rpm (revolution per minute).M. Machine Gauge.S. G.Type of Fabric or design of Fabric. No. Count of yarn. Machine running efficiency. Required time (M/C running time). Point considered while setting grey GSM: Enzyme level Color Suided or non. 7. Those are as follows. 2. It is technical term that indicates the weight of the fabric per square meter. CONSIDERABLE POINTS TO PRODUCE KNIT FABRICS: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality.3. Before production of knitted fabric. .Yarn count .Diameter of the fabric. 6. 17 . Flat knitting machine. .Stitch length . of feeds or feeders in use.  Minor control by stitch length adjustment. these factors are needed to consider. PRODUCTION PARAMETERS: 1. 3. 5. Machine Diameter.M. . 4.Types of yarn (combed or carded) .Finished G.

By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder. By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge. FACTORS THAT SHOULD BE CHANGED IN CASE OF FABRIC DESIGN ON QUALITY CHANGE: a) Cam setting b) Set of needle c) Size of loop shape EFFECT OF STITCH LENGTH ON COLOR DEPTH: If the depth of color of the fabric is high loop length should be higher because in case of fabric with higher loop length is less compact. METHODS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION: By the following methods the production of knitted fabric can be increased – 1. 18 . If pulley moves towards the positive directive then the G.S. So by using machine of higher gauge production can be increased. then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time. 3.M will increase. In dark shade dye take up% is high so GSM is adjusted then. And in the reverse direction G. 4. By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased.M.S. Altering the position of the tension pulley changes the G. b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation. c) Photo electric fabric fault detector. of the fabric. But it has to make sure that excess tension is not imposed on yarn because of this high speed. By imposing automation in the m/c: a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system. the more the production is.S. is decrease. 2. Similarly in case of light shade loop length should be relatively smaller.M.

5. of Needles knitting = Wales / cm ×100 = 5) Grey Fabrics are checked by 4 point grading system. c) Using yarn feed control device. Production calculation: 1. of Feeder × 60 ×12 × Efficiency = Course / cm ×100 = 3. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: RPM ×No. Course / cm RPM × No.2046 ×Yarn count RPM ×No. Fabric width in meter: Total no. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. of Needle ×SL ( mm) = 3527. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. of Feeder ×No. LIST OF EQUIPMENT FOR QUALITY CONTROL: The list of equipments to assure quality:1) Inspection m/c. Production/shift in meter: Course / min .80 ×Yarn count = 2. of Needle ×SL ( mm) ×60 ×12 10 ×2.54 ×36 ×840 ×2. of wales Wales / cm ×100 Total no. of Feeder ×No. 19 .

oil lines. needle line. holes. 20 . If stitch length increase then fabric width increase and WPI decrease. fall out. wrong design. the four point system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. contamination. slubs etc are recorded in inspection report to classify the fabric based on the four point system. hole. slubs. first round problem etc properly counted and recorded. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at NTL.2) Electronic balance 3) GSM cutter. fly. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet. For any major or minor faults like thick-thin. QUALITY STANDARD: NTL maintains the ISO: 9001:2000 standards in case of quality. 2. Four point grading system Size of defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point Relationship between knitting parameter: 1. barre mark. 4) Measuring tape. 5) Scissors. QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURE: Body & rib inspection: All rolls are kept in front of the inspection m/c time to time and are inspected over the inspection m/c visually in a pre-set speed against light. 6) Indication sticker. Therefore. Stitch length increase with the increase of GSM. needle line. Collar & cuff inspection: Collar& cuff are inspected visually under the light box. any major or minor fault in collar/cuff like having wrong ply.

If shrinkage increases then fabric width decrease but GSM and WPI increase.M. Oil spot/Grease spot: Causes: ⇒ Excess oil/Grease use. Sinker mark: 21 . 4. 5. If yarn count increase (courser) then fabric width increase. 6. Grey GSM should be less than finish GSM. If machine gauge increase then fabric width decrease. ⇒ Low G. finer count yarn should use.S.3. Needle mark: Causes: ⇒ Faulty needle use in the m/c. 7. ⇒ Yarn tension variation during production. ⇒ Jamming of needle & sinker. Patta: Causes: ⇒ Yarn comes from different lot.M Star mark: Causes: ⇒ Buckling of the needle latch.S. ⇒ Faulty cam use in the m/c. Faults and their causes in knitting: Hole mark: Causes: ⇒ Buckling of the needle latch ⇒ Buckling the sinker ⇒ Higher G. For finer gauge.

M. to classify the fabrics according to standard qualities based on the end-use and costumer demands and second. the grading of fabric is a difficult task.S.M. to supply information as to the qualities actually being produced. 22 . taking two primary considerations: as the frequency of effects and the seriousness of defects. ⇒ Fabric G. Twist ` G. The grading has two primary functions: First.Causes: ⇒ Faulty sinker use in the m/c Fabric Shrinkage: Causes: ⇒ Yarn twist. ⇒ Knitting tension. Shrinkage Shrinkage GREY FABRIC INSPECTION KNITTED FABRIC INSPECTION AND GRADING BASED ON THE FORTY POINTS SYSTEM The inspection and grading of fabric quality is one of the important functions of Quality Control in the grey or finished state.S.

At the end of each piece of fabric. Major or unsightly defects in the first and last yard of a roll or piece will be cut. 56The quality control supervisor must approve the grading of all quality levels and check the lower quality. 10. All fabric must meet specifications. All defects of one yard length or more will be cut out of the piece.Fabric up to 70 inches will be allowed a bow of not more than 1 inch and a Bias of not more than 2 inches. each one have a number of points for defects as follows. 80 points or more per 100 Linear Yards. (40 – 80) points per 100 Linear Yards. General Instructions for the final inspections: 1All pieces will be graded on the base of 40 points per 100 Linear yards Mapping will be done on each piece to insure proper grading. Defects within the first 2 inches or the last 2 inches of a piece will not be cut out or counted in the grading. Do not count more than 4 points per one yard. 7Open defects on the back of fabric such as drops. 23 . runs and hanging picks are to be included in the grading of fabric. the inspector will add up total points and decide whether the piece can be shipped as first quality or not. All defects such as runs that extend more than a yard in length will be cut out. Fifteen yards or more can be shipped as first quality. 234All defects must be recorded and marked in final inspection and an accurate account of points made to insure proper grading. or cut and upgraded for shipment. The First quality level The Second quality level The Third quality level 40 points per 100 Linear Yards. reworked. placed in lower quality.The Knitted fabric can be classified into three levels of quality.

Grading procedure: 1. 2.11. 24 . needle lines. PC. 4. Turn the grey fabric if require. To keep the no of batch as less as possible for same shade. To perform the grey inspection. 5. barre. To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade. All defects will be counted in tubular goods. CVC) • Other To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card. PET.Defects within one inch of the fabric edge will not be counted except on tubular fabrics. such as tucks. Surface defects over 9 inch length counted with 4 points per defect. crack marks. Running defects. 3. Surface defects up to 3 inches length counted with one point per defect. To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time. Surface defects 3 to 6 inches length counted with 2 points per defect. 6. To keep records for every fabrics before dyeing. - Proper batching criteria: To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c. Surface defects 6 to 9 inches length counted with 3 points per defect. light or dark) • M/C capacity • M/C available • Type of fabrics(100% cotton. are judgment defects Function or purpose of batch section: To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other source. All open defects or major defects counted with 4 points per defect. To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria – • Order sheet (Received from buyer) • Dyeing shade (color or white.

Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager.Batch management: Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Some time planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency. M/Cs in batch section: M/c no Machine Name Origin Capacity : 01 : Turning m/c : Local : 10 ton to 16 ton per day DYEING Sequence of operations for each product:For Cotton Knitted fabric Fabric receiving Fabric inspection Batching Scouring & Bleaching Dyeing 25 .

Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year M/c No: 02 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max.After treatment & Softening Fixing Dewatering/ Squeezing Drying Compacting Final Inspection Machine Description for Dyeing Section: M/c No: 01 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year M/c No: 03 : PMM (AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 300 Kg : 03 : 980 C : 2001 : PMM (AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 200 Kg : 02 : 980 C : 2001 26 . of Nozzle Max.

Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 07 Brand Name Origin : PMM(AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : ACME (High Temperature Winch) : Taiwan : 600 Kg : 02 : 1350 C : 2005 : PMM (AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 700 Kg : 08 : 980 C : 2002 27 . Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year M/c No: 04 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. of Nozzle Max. of Nozzle Max.Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year : PMM (AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 400 Kg : 04 : 980 C : 2001 : PMM (AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 600 Kg : 06 : 980 C : 2001 M/c No: 05 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year M/c No: 06 Brand Name Origin Capacity No.

Operating Presser Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 11 Brand Name Origin Capacity No.Capacity No. of Nozzle Max.5 Bar : 2005 : Dilmenler (High Temperature Winch) 28 . Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 09 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Presser Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 12 Brand Name : 750 Kg : 05 :980 C : 2005 : PMM (High Temperature Winch) : Turkey : 300 Kg : 02 : 1350 C : 2003 : PMM(AtmosPheric Winch) : Turkey : 100 Kg : 01 : 980 C : 2005 : Dilmenler(High Temperature Winch) : Turkey : 150 Kg : 01 : 1350 C : . of Nozzle Max. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 10 Brand Name Origin Capacity No.5 Bar : 2005 : Dilmenler(High Temperature Winch) : Turkey : 300 Kg : 01 : 1350 C : 2. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 08 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Max. Operating Temperature Max.2.

Operating Temperature Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 14 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 15 Brand Name Origin Capacity No.5 Bar : 2005 Dyeing M/c No: 13 Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max.2. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 01(sample) Brand Name Origin : PMM(Atmospheric Winch) : Turkey : ACME(High Temperature Winch) : Taiwan : 1500 Kg : 05 : 1350 C : 2006 : ACME(High Temperature Winch) : Taiwan : 1200 Kg : 04 : 1350 C : 2008 : ACME(High Temperature Winch) : Taiwan : 1200 Kg : 04 : 1350 C : 2006 29 . of Nozzle Max. Operating Presser Manufacturing Year : Turkey : 450 Kg : 02 : 1350 C : . of Nozzle Max.Origin Capacity No.

of Nozzle Max.Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 03(sample) Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year Dyeing M/c No: 05(sample) Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year : PMM(Atmospheric Winch) : Turkey : 25 Kg : 01 : 980 C : 2005 : PMM(Atmospheric Winch) : Turkey : 25 Kg : 01 : 980 C : 2002 Dyeing M/c No: 04(sample) Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year : 25 Kg : 01 : 980 C : 2001 Dyeing M/c No: 02(sample) Brand Name Origin Capacity No. of Nozzle Max. of Nozzle Max. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year : PMM(High Temperature Winch) : Turkey : 25 Kg : 01 : 1350 C : 2005 : ACME(High Temperature Winch) : Taiwan : 50 Kg : 01 : 1350 C : 2005 30 .

Grey fabrics 2. Operating Temperature Manufacturing Year : Dilmenler(High Temperature Winch) : Turkey : 50 Kg : 01 : 1350 C : 2005 Raw materials for dyeing: Raw materials used in the dyeing section are: 1. Dyes 3. Grey fabrics: Following types of gray fabrics are dyed:     Single jersey Single jersey with lycra Polo pique Single laquest 31 . of Nozzle Max.Dyeing M/c No: 06(sample) Brand Name Origin Capacity No. Chemicals.

BlueG Remazol Yellow RR Remazol Red RR Remazol Blue RR Remazol Br Blue RR (SPL) Remazol Blue RGB Remazol T/Blue G Type Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Dyestar Dyestar Dyestar Dyestar Dyestar Dyestar Source N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Origin India India India India India India India India Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany 32 .      Fleece Interlock Interlock with lycra Rib Rib with lycra Different types of collar & cuff Dyes: No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Dyes name Kemifix Red XF-3B Kemifix Yellow XFRL Kemifix Red XF-6B Kemifix Yellow XF-4G Kemifix Blue XF-2R Kemifix Orange XF2RL Kemifix BLACK GR Kemifix TURQ.

Turquis Blue K2B Imcozin Black VB Imcozin Red 3BF Imcozin Yellow E3R Imcozin Blue V3R Imcozin T. Blue VG Imcozin Br. Turquis Blue CLB Drima. Yellow W3R Terasil Navy WRS Terasil Red W4BS Terasil Blue WBLS Terasil Black WNS Terasil Black BFE Taicon Yellow HW-T Taicon Brown XF-T Taicon Crimson XF-T Taicon Red XF-T Taicon Navy Blue HWT Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Reactive Dye Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Disperse Dyestar Dyestar Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Clariant Impo color Impo color Impo color Impo color Impo color Impo color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Dyestar Dyestar Dyestar Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Swiss Color Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Germany Germany Germany Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland 33 . Orange V3R Ciba Yellow FN2R Ciba Red FB Ciba Blue FNR Ciba Navy Blue NFB Ciba Red FN3F Ciba Yellow F4G Levafix Blue CA Levafix Rubine CA Levafix Amber CA Terasil Yellow W4G Terasil G.15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Remazol Navy RGB Remazol Red 3BS Drimarin Yellow CL2R Drimarin Red HF2B Drimrin Blue CL-2RL Drimarin Navy CL-GN Drimarin Red CL5B Drimarin Navy CLBN Drimarin Orange CL3R Drimarin Yellow CL3GL Drima.

0 80 20.0 (g/l) 0.5 – 6.5 – 6.5 : 5.0 80 20.1 Glauber’ss 30 Salt(g/l) Soda Ash 3.11 : 5.0 : 4.Chemicals: Chemical list is not given by the factory.0 – 6.5 : 6.5 : 10.0 60 15.0 2. M: L ratio D.5 – 11.0 5. The amount of Glaubers’ salt and Soda ash on the basic shade percentage: 600C Soda Ash (L:R=1:10) Dyes <0.5 – 5. Fixation Time: For light shade For medium shade For deep shade : 30 – 40 min : 45 – 50 min : 50 – 60 min : 1:6 – 1:10 C.0 3. PH Check during Wet Processing: Bleaching bath Ph Neutralization / After bleaching Ph Initial dye bath Ph After salt addition Ph After alkali addition Ph After dyeing Ph Fixation bath Ph Softener bath Ph : 10.0 ( for color) : 5.0 >7.0 50 10.0 -5.0 80 20.0 50 12. Dyeing Parameter: A.5 – 7.5 : 4.0 1.0 800C Soda Ash (L:R=1:10) 34 .5 – 6.5 .2 : 5.0 (for white) B.5 30 5.0 4.

0 50 10.1 Glauber’ss 10 Salt(g/l) Soda Ash 3.1 % 0.1 % 0.0 40 6.5 30 3.0 >7.12 % 0.0 E.11 % 0.0 50 10.0 % Ex.0 3. Reduction clearing is done for medium and deep shade in case of PET/CO dyeing.0 2.0 5.5 GSS = Sequestering + Levelling + Anticreasing.Dyes <0.0 30 6.09 % 0. F.0 1.5 to 6.0 50 10. 1-2 % 2-3 % 3-4 % 4-5 % 5-7 % >7.13 % Salt (g/l) 20 25 30 40 50 50 50 Soda 5% 5% 5% 5% 8% 8% 8% Caustic 0.70 % 2.0 50 6. Application of Multifunctional Chemical (GSS) & its Dosing% : Dye Conc. Dark / Black GSS use 0.0 % GSS : Procedure of Dosing: Chemical GSS Color Salt Soda Caustic Temperature(0C) Dosing Time (min) 40 10 40 30 40 15 40 40 30 10 Run Time (min) 10-15 10-15 10-15 10-15 05-10 Remarks 1st PH adjust by green acid.50 % 1.085 % 0.66 % 0. Liqour Ratio 1:10 35 .30 % 1.0 4. Fixation is done for medium and deep shade. NOTE: 1) Use only in dye bath 2) All chemicals dosing at 400C.10 % 1.0 (g/l) 0.88 % 1. PH keep in range 5.

Run Time 10 min. Run time 15 min. Run Time 5 min.CH-10 Anti Creasing-JET WBL DOSING% 0.6 g/l 36 .Process Wise Parameters: Process Name Scouring M:L 1:8 1:10 Enzyme Process Dyeing Process 1:7 1:8 1:10 Temperature 1000C 1000C 550C Std. Remarks ACME & Dilmenler PMM PH 4. Run Time 20 min. Soda Ash: Dosing at 400C 40 min. Dye: Dosing at 400C 30 min.8 ACME & Delmenler PMM Leveling Agent: Dosing at 400C 5 min. Softener: Dosing 20 min at 50-600C. Run Time 20-30 min.5-4. Salt: (Only for light color) Dosing at 400C 20 min. Soda Dosing at 600C Fixing Agent: Dosing 15 min at 40-450C.5 g/l 0. Temperature rise at 600C . Turquish Color: Leveling Agent: Dosing at 600C 5 min. Recipe For Light Shade(Light Blue) CHEMICAL Detergent-WBL Sequestering agent. Salt.Then Dyes. Time (min) 40 50 60 Std. Run time 5 min. Run Time 10 min.4 g/l 0.4 g/l TEMPERATURE DOSING RUN 400C 600C TIME(Min) DOSING RUN Inject 10 0. Std. Std.

00178% 0.0 g/l 0.4 g/l 0.CH-10 JET Caustic Soda Stabilizer H2O2 PK Acid Acid Enzyme Fistol RL CH-10 JET Remazol Red RR Remazol Yellow RR Remazol Blue RSPL Salt Soda Acetic Acid Albatex SP Green Acid Softener 0.5 g/l 0.0 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.5 g/l 1.CH-10 Anti Creasing-JET WBL CH-10 JET Caustic Stabilizer DOSING% 0.7 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.4 g/l TEMPERATURE DOSING RUN 400C 600C TIME(Min) DOSING RUN Inject 10 0.5 g/l 1.6 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.00502% 0.7 g/l 4.6% 1.2 g/l 0.0 g/l 0.5 g/l 1.0 g/l 0.136% 30 g/l 4.5 g/l 1.3 g/l 3.7 g/l 0.0 g/l 400C 1000C 700C 800C 600C 550C 450C 450C 600C 30 10 15 45 10 30 Inject 60 450C 450C Normal 800C 400C 550C 20 40 10 10 30 10 Depends on shade 10 RECIPE FOR MEDUM SHADE(Grass) CHEMICAL Detergent-WBL Sequestering agent.0 g/l 1.3 g/l 400C 1000C 700C 37 Inject 60 .0 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.

0 g/l 0.5 g/l 1.6% 400C 1000C 70 C 800C 600C 550C 10 15 45 38 0 Inject 60 .0 g/l 0.23% 0.40% 50 g/l 10 g/l 0.H2O2 PK Acid Acid Enzyme Fistol RL CH-10 JET Remazol Blue RSPL Remazol T.35% 0.6% 1.5 g/l 0.0 g/l 0.0 g/l 450C 450C 450C 800C 600C 550C 450C 10 15 45 10 600C 30 20 40 30 10 30 10 Depends on shade 10 Normal 800C 400C 550C 10 RECIPE FOR DEEP SHADE(Arban Red) CHEMICAL Detergent-WBL Sequestering agent.7 g/l 0.7 g/l 0.2 g/l 0.2 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.CH-10 Anti Creasing-JET WBL CH-10 JET Caustic Stabilizer H2O2 PK Acid Acid Enzyme DOSING% 0. Blue G Kemifix Yellow XFRL Salt Soda Acetic Acid Albatex SP Green Acid Softener 3.5 g/l 1.0 g/l 0.0 g/l 0.7 g/l 0.4 g/l TEMPERATURE DOSING RUN 400C 600C TIME(Min) DOSING RUN Inject 10 0.3 g/l 3.5 g/l 0.4 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.5 g/l 1.6 g/l 0.

0 g/l 0.Fistol RL CH-10 JET Remazol Red RGB Remazol Yellow RGB Remazol Black RR Salt Soda Acetic Acid Albatex SP Green Acid Softener 1.5 g/l 0.5 g/l 0.0 g/l 450C 450C 450C 450C Normal 800C 400C 550C 10 600C 30 20 40 10 30 10 30 10 Depends on shade 10 Common faults in knit dyeing Fabric faults creating during dyeing:  Crack.0 g/l 3.0122% 80 g/l 20 g/l 0. rope & crease marks: • Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Shock cooling of synthetic material  Incorrect process procedure  Higher fabric speed • Remedies:  Pre-Heat setting  Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature  Reducing the m/c load  Higher liquor ratio  Running at a slightly higher nozzle pressure  Fabric distortion and increase in width: • Causes:  Too high material speed 39 .5 g/l 3.5 g/l 1.206% 0.045% 1.

Ballooning: • Causes:  Seam joining with too densely sewn •  Remedies: Running By cutting a vertical slit of 10-15 cm in length for escaping the air.• Remedies:  Pilling: • Causes:  Low liquor ratio  By decreasing both nozzle pressure & winch speed  surface of the fabric   Too high mechanical stress on the Excess speed during processing Excess foam formation in the dye bath By using of a suitable • Remedies:  chemical lubricant  agent  Fabric before dyeing By using antifoaming By turn reversing the  problem: a. Intensive foaming: • Causes:  Pumping a mixture of air and water • Remedies:  By using antifoaming agent 40 . b.

 Dye spot: • Causes: • Remedies:  Improper mixing of dyestuff in the solution. bleaching & mercerizing) Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres Quick addition of dyes and chemicals Lack of control of dyeing m/c • Remedies: By ensuring even pretreatment By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibres By slow addition of dyes and chemicals Proper controlling of dyeing m/c  Shade variation (Batch to batch): Batch to batch shade variation is common in exhaust dyeing which is not completely avoidable. in right amount of water. at the temperature. Even though. hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily.  Patchy dyeing: • Causes: 41 .Dyeing faults & their remedies:  Uneven dyeing: • Causes:         Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring. to ensure a consistent batch to batch production of shade the following matters should be controlled carefully Use standard dyes and chemicals  Maintain the same liquor ratio  Follow the standard pretreatment procedure  Maintain the same dyeing cycle  Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the shade  Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process.  The Ph. so that the large un-dissolved particles are removed.  We should pass the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer when adding it to the chemical tank.

 By proper pretreatment. They are – A.  Sufficient after treatment.  By using a good wetting agent in the dye bath.  By adding extra wetting agent. Tube line B.  Dye migration during intermediate dyeing. • Remedies:  By using antifoaming agent. FINISHING Machine Description for Finishing Section: Finishing section is consisting of two lines. The machine that are used for open line are given bellow – 42 . Open line A.  Fall of water droplets on fabric surface before or after dyeing.• Remedies:  Uneven heat in the machine.  Specky dyeing: • Causes:  Excessive foam in the dye bath.  Improper impregnation of dye liquor due to the low wetting property of the fabric.  Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor.  In sufficient after treatment.

The machines that are used for tube line are given bellow –.- Slitting and Dewatering machine Stenter machine Compector machine B. Ltd : Taiwan 43 . Dewatering machine Dryer Compector machine Tube Line: Machine name Brand name Origin : Dewatering machine : Heliot & Beneks : France & Turkey Machine name Brand name Origin : Dryer machine : PMM : Turkey Machine name Brand name Origin : Compactor machine : Tubetex & Sekteks : USA & Turkey Open line Machine name Brand name Origin : Slitting & Dewatering machine : Bianco Slitting machine : Italy Machine name Brand name Origin : Stenter machine : LK & LH Co.

Product testing. the color of fabric everything include to their demand. The type of fabric. Firstly. OBJECTS OF QUALITY CONTROL: - Research or analysis. we tried to present the way by which standard samples are being brought in the factories & principle work done with the sample before bulk production of it. This is the object of an industry to produce the product with complete satisfaction of buyers. Specification test.Machine name Brand name Origin Machine Name Brand Name Origin : Open Compactor machine : Bianco : Italy : Bag Sewing Machine : Tunna Makine : Turkey QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT The Quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. The laboratory dyeing techniques & procedure are given below – 44 . he/she gives a standard sample of fabric or mentions on the book which represents the demand of the buyer. ● The way to bulk production : In this topic we are going to discuss about the role & responsibilities of testing laboratory from where it is possible to get a direction of doing bulk production of dyed fabric. Should be given economic requirements. Process control and development. when a buyer goes to a factory with an order. Here. Selection of raw materials. Quality assurance and so on.

2.LABORATORY WORK 1. Development of lab dip Physical test Chemical test Purity test (dyes and chemicals) Development of lab dip: Receiving standard swatch Spectrophotometer reading Recipe start up software 45 . 3. 4.

Start up recipe given Manual dispersion (pipatting) Pot dyeing Unload Normal wash Acid wash Hot wash Cold Rinsing Drying 46 .

This method’s accuracy completely depends on the vision of the person related to it but person must be needed gather experience about color matching. strength. The sample with which the color of the std. the sample is dyed with the new one and then compared with previous samples by visual observation and then they check new sample’s absorbency. Shade matching of the produced sample with the standard one is compulsory. that sample’s color recipe is being taken for shade matching . But still for dyes. sample’s color is measured by comparing it with previously produced samples of different tri-chromatic color combination. Purity test Purity tests of dyes and chemicals are not done in the lab because of the good will of the supplier.4. then the instrument suggest a recipe with required tri-chromatic colors within the tolerance 47 . Color measurement can be done by two methods – Color measurement Manual method Instrumental method In manual method. “Spectrophotometer” interfaced with a PC is used for shade matching . When the standard sample is being subjected under spectrophotometer. and fastness. → Colour measurement of standard samples :Color measurement is mainly done for the purpose of shade matching as perfectly as possible. matched. especially newly introduced dyes. the std.This instrument works with the principle of reflectance measurement of light at different wave length. The instrumental method is more reliable if it is operated accurately to do the work of color measurement.

for daily DYES AND CHEMICALS MEASURING FORMULA FOR LABORATORY: The amount of dye solution (ml) is calculated as follow Fabric weight x Shade % Amount of dye soln (ml) = ------------------------------------------Concentration of stock dye soln % Example – In recipe. Preparation of Concentration of stock chemical soln Similarly 25% salt and 25% soda stock solutions are prepared in beakers use. = 5gm Shade % = 2% 48 . 1. color measurement of the standard sample is carried out for the purpose of shade matching. PREPARATION AND STORAGE OF STOCK DYES AND CHEMICALS: Preparation of Concentration of stock dye soln Normally 0.1%. 1%. In this way.5%.5% and 2% stock solution of dyes are prepared in beakers for daily used.limit of color difference. 0. Fabric wt.

Amount of dye sol (ml) = n 5X2 --------0. The amount of chemical soln (ml) is measured as follow Fabric wt. 5 = 20ml . Fabric wt. = 5 gm Salt = 20 g/l M: L = 10 [ if taken 25 % stock soln of salt ] then .= 4 ml 1000 x 0. of stock soln % Amount of chemical soln (ml) = Example – In recipe. 5 x 10 x 20 Amount of chemical soln (ml) = --------------------.[If used 0. * M : L * g/l -------------------------------------1000 * Conc.25 49 . 5 % stock soln of dyes ] then .

C On-Line Off-Line Off-line Tests: All the Off-line tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows. c. b. d.QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Q. 1) Physical test a. GSM Spirality test Shrinkage test Pilling test 2) Chemical test or Color fastness test 50 .

On-Line Tests: 1) For Pretreatment pH test. 2) For Dyeing Shade matching check. NTL. GSM checking 3) Machine checking. e. Most of the American buyers prefer AATCC and Oeko-Tex method. Fastness to light and perspiration. Oeko-Tex Standard and ISO methods. QUALITY STANDARD: In NTL is mainly followed AATCC. b. c. Fabric width measure. Fastness to wash. For the European buyers ISO method is followed. Fastness to rubbing and crocking. Fastness to perspiration. Selection of the method depends on the buyer requirements. Wash fastness Check. Whiteness test. Fastness to light.a. is certified by Oeko-Tex Standard 100 and ISO 9001:2000 Shortly described about Oeko-Tex stdandard 100: 51 . d. pH check. Absorbency test. Water quality test.

Spectroflash. e. SCOPE OF QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING: The scope of quality control testing in NTL LTD. Penta Chloro Phenol. So. 7. This certificate ensures “Confidence in Textiles . c. It also depends on the processing conditions. Toxic pesticides. Oeko-Tex std. These products tested in foreign countries and it is done by the buyers. it is just only ensures the safety of the textile goods and eco-labeled. Smart dyer. Fabric. Chlorine bleaching. Halogen carriers. 100 from ecological point on textile substrates (Yarn.) marked by textile manufacturers. is good. Formaldehyde. 100 certificates are designed by the International Association for Research & Testing considering the consumer safety & environment protection for the purchase of textiles. g. Oeko-Tex std. Dryer. a. 6. 3. Heavy metal traces. h. f. 100 is not a quality label. 4. Data color – mixture station. Observer Machine name Machine function Model : Spectro Photometer : Data Color : SF 600X 52 . garments etc.Oeko-Tex std. 1. This does not depend solely on the dyestuffs.tested for harmful substances” & show to the consumer that goods bought by them are free from any hazards to health such as . b. 2. Azo dyes which release carcinogenic amines. 5. PH of the aqueous extract. d. Rota wash. Washing machine. various chemicals & other auxiliaries used in the manufacture of such a substrate. It has the following ability for quality control & testing.

DCI match. After dyeing the sample with the sample dyeing machine the specimen is putted again into the spectro-Photometer for the assessment of the shade. 2. the wavelength of light. Machine name Machine function Origin Model Manufacturer Manufacturing year Crock Meter : Fastness to Rubbing : England : M238AA : SDL ATLAS : 2002. Color tools.Spectro Photometer SpectroPhotometry involves the use of a spectroPhotometer. A spectroPhotometer is a Photometer (a device for measuring light intensity) that can measure intensity as a function of the color. In DCI color match the machine is first calibrated by a white and a color tiles. If the shade does not match then it shows the reason also for taking further step. For having the percentage of different colors for the selected shades these soft wares are used. or more specifically. Then here the color is selected or retrieved. For automatic color matching there are two software that are used. 1. The software then gives a clear of the shade. : 53 .

Crock meter The AATCC Crock meter is the official instrument of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. The Crock meter tests the transference of color from the surface of one material to another by either wet or dry rubbing. Test conditions are controlled and reproducible through the use of standard pressure and motion. The rubbing arm is attached to the hook. Center a piece of abrasive paper, abrasive side up, on the base of the Crock meter. The paper’s long dimension should be in the direction of the rubbing. The specimen is placed flat and face-up on the abrasive paper. The specimen’s long dimension should be in the direction of the rubbing. A piece of test cloth is centered over the finger so that the weave is parallel with the direction of rubbing. Wrap the sides of the cloth evenly around the finger, making sure the cloth is smooth and taut over the finger’s rubbing area. The covered finger is then lowered onto the test specimen. The cycle counter is reset. The handle is turned at the rate of one turn per second for ten times. (Each back and forth motion of the arm equals one stroke and at a speed of 1 stroke/second.)  After 10 strokes the specimen is removed and compared with the gray scale. The acceptable range is normally 3.

QUALITY CONTROL STANDARD VALUES:

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Wash fastness test by ROTAWASH: Standard value: For color change, grey scale = 4.5 For color staining, grey scale = 4.5

Rubbing fastness test by Crocking meter. Standard value: For dry fabric staining value, grey scale = 4.5 For wet fabric staining value, grey scale = 4

G.S.M test: At first, Cut the fabric by G.S.M cutter and then it is weighted by electric balan

PROCEDURE OF LAB DIP: For 100% cotton fabric (all in method) • • • • • Fabric weight measured by electric balance. Calculate the recipe. Keep the fabric in the pot. Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by pipe ting. Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depend on types of dyes being used. Program – 1: For light shade Fixed temp. = 600c Time = 60 min. Program – 2: For dark shade Fixed temp. = 800c Time = 60 min. • After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times. • Acid wash for neutralization.

55

• •

Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950c. Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard.

For Polyester/cotton blend fabric (all in method) • • • • Fabric weight measured by electric balance. Calculate the recipe for polyester part. Keep the fabric in the pot. Then required amount of dyes, water, dispersing agent, acetic acid and sodium acetate are taken to the pot by pipetting. • Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature are carried out for 30 min. at 1300c. • After finished the dyeing time then cold wash two times. • Then reduction clearing by hydrose, caustic & detergent for 20 min at 700c. • Cold wash then drying and match with the standard sample. Again, Calculate the recipe for cotton part. Keep the fabric in the pot. Then required amount of dyes, water, salt, soda and other chemicals are taken to the pot by pipetting . • Start the program for dyeing. The dyeing time and temperature depends on what types of dyes are being used. Program – 1: Fixed temp. = 600c Time = 60 min. Program – 2 : Fixed temp. = 800c Time = 60 min. • Then soaping by required soap solution for 10 min. at 950c. • Cold wash then drying the lab dip and compare with the standard sample. • • •

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SCOPE OF INVENTORY CONTROL: Raw materials inventories In process inventories Finished good inventories Maintenance. Inventory management is a vital part for any factory because smooth production as well as cost of storage depends on it. repair and operational inventories Miscellaneous inventories FUNCTION OF INVENTORY: To smooth production requirement To meet anticipate demand To protect against stock outs To take advantages of order cycles To take advantages of quality discounts PROCUREMENT SYSTEM: ` 57 .Inventory Inventory is stock or store of good.

- Dyes (mostly used like Dyechufix. dye house and lab section. There are shelves in the store room to keep the small spare parts. Spares are arranged in the store room according to there size. All the delivered fabrics are noted on the tally khata according to the lot no. Stabilizer etc. there are different inventory systems for different raw materials. dyed finished fabrics are stored for short time in the finishing section.) are imported from CHINA. fabrics diameter. Remazol. So. quantity & requirements. buyer's name. color & considering other technical parameters. Dyes and Chemicals store: There is a different store for dyes and chemicals. Anti creasing agent. Grey Fabric Store: All the grey fabrics are stored in the fabric store near the batch section. 58 . INVENTORY STORE SYSTEM FOR RAW MATERIAL: In NTL LTD. Crystal salt and Soda ash is purchase from local distributor. In the sheet the stored quantity of dyes and chemicals are also included. Caustic. Different types of dyes and chemicals are listed in a sheet. All the spares are listed in a sheet which is controlled by the mechanical & maintenance personnel. Some dyes (from Clarient) and chemicals (from BASF) are collected by direct purchase through indent. quantity and consumer’s requirement. Every day the sheet is updated and a copy of this sheet is supplied to the dyeing manager. Varies types of dyes and chemicals are stored here according to dyes and chemicals companies. Spares part store: In NTL required amount of spares of different machines are stored in the mechanical store room. Levafix dyes) and chemicals (regular items like Sequestering agent. GERMANY & INDIA. Different types of fabric are listed in the sheet according to fabric types. Finished goods store: In NTL supplies its finished dyed fabrics to its garments section. quantity.

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL BASIC PROCEDURE OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL: 59 . There is not enough space to store the finished goods. For example if the lead time of a product is two month then normally re ordering quantity may be for two and half months. It requires increasing the store area. REMARKS: NTL has individual stores for raw materials. In SKL the store for inventory control is satisfactory. It also depends on the store capacity of factory. Re order quantity depends on the lead time of the product with some additional safety period. etc. Sometimes.STORE CAPACITY: Items Dyes Chemicals Yarn storage Grey fabric Finished fabric Amount 7-8 tons 30-35 tons 300 tons 120 tons 200 tons FREQUENCY OF INVENTORY CONTROL: Daily inventory control Monthly inventory control Yearly inventory control RE-ORDER POINT: The re-order point is stated in terms of level of inventory at which an order should be placed for replenishing the current stock of inventory. finished goods. they fluctuate from ideal process otherwise they are okay.

this section analyzes the orders according to buyers order quantity. type of yarn used. knitting balance. no of m/c to be used. color to be dyed etc. width. GSM and priority of delivery etc and written in a batch card. RFD (ready for delivery). from which source yarn will be collected. fabric construction. type of fabric. It is only a basic procedure. Batch plan is prepared according to the batch no. Planning for dyeing the fabric. Planning gives a scheduled task and control completes it successfully. • Planning for finishing the fabric: 60 . delivery fabric & delivery balance etc. Planning for knitting the fabric. This section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted (order quantity + 10% of the order quantity). So planning has its own importance which is intolerable. With out planning nothing is complete within the required time. Planning for finishing the fabric. delivery date etc. • Planning for dyeing the fabric: Production planning for dyeing is called “Batch plan”. width etc. It selects m/c for knitting the fabric. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric. It may change according to the type of order. fabric to be dyed. Sometimes the order is placed only for finishing the materials or only for dyeing the goods. • Taking order from marketing division: Marketing division supplied fabric orders to the planning and control division by a specific format. Then some steps are minimizing for planning. color. • Planning for knitting: This section plans for knitting production. required GSM. dyeing balance.). type of orders (i. But production planning and control is not an easy task. Analyzing the orders. RFD balance. Its basic working procedure is as follows• • • • • Taking order from marketing division.e. • Analyzing the orders: After getting the fabric order.A planned work brings success.

Finishing data is written to the batch card and is informed to the planning section. accessories etc • Cost of printing (If any) • Labor cost (direct & indirect) 61 . As it is a garments manufacturing factory. However. COST ANALYSIS COSTING OF THE PRODUCT: Costing system mainly describe how the cost of the final product is fixed by the company or top managements. Then it is calculated how much dyestuffs & chemicals are required for processing. COSTING OF A PRODUCT INCLUDES: • Yarn cost • Knitting cost • Dyes & chemicals cost • Cost of dyeing • Cost of finishing • Cost of cutting .Finishing schedule are same as the dyeing. materials go to the finishing section with the batch plan. After that. merchandiser give the consumption of the fabric with specifications. this section always forces to all the departments to finish all the work within the delivery time given by the buyers. the final cost is fixed including some profit. After dyeing. it plays a very important role in the success of the company. Thus. so according to the buyer or customer requirements of final garments.sewing. Then the unit price is offered to the buyer for their approval.

So. So we could not collect the price of the product. etc.• • • • • Factory cost Office & administrative cost Sales and caring cost Others cost Profit. They are not interested to flash the cost related data. UTILITY SERVICE NTL is a big project. REMARKS: The costing of the product is most secret matter of the industry. Here the following utility services are availableWater Electricity Steam Gas Compress air Water Treatment Plant: 62 . it has adequate utility services.

By using various pump and pipe arrangement surface water is carrying to the raw water tank. Then sodium hypochlorite (NaoCl) is added directly into water tank for removing Fe. NaoCl is used as one third of total raw water in tank. For renewing per kg of permutit NaCl is used 150 gm. For this NaCl is used for renewing permutit efficiency. After sometimes permutit is lost its softening capacity. artificial zeolite.: Capacity: Manufacturing Year: WAUKESHA USA VHP 5904 GSID 900 KW 1125 KVA 1565 AMP 2006 Gas Generator 02 Brand Name: Origin: Model No. Then passing through carbon filter unit for removing odour. After that water is passing through multigrade filter unit for filtering dirt. It takes 45 minutes to renew the resin. Now raw water is entered into the water softening unit composed of permutit.: WAUKESHA USA VHP 5904 LTD 63 . Electricity: Gas Generator: Gas Generator 01 Brand Name: Origin: Model No. The source of water is the surface water.Raw Water Tank Multigrade Filter Unit (For Dirt) Activated Carbon Filter Unit (For Odour) Softener Unit (Permutit for softening ) The plant processes 160 cubic meters per hour.

Capacity: Manufacturing Year: 900 KW 1125 KVA 1565 AMP 2008 Diesel Generator: Diesel Generator 01 Brand Name: Vibro Power Origin: Singapore Capacity: 600 KW 750 KVA 1083 AMP Diesel Generator 02 Brand Name: Petvow Origin: USA Capacity: 287 KW 359 KVA 520 AMP Diesel Generator 03 Brand Name: Perkins Origin: Denmark Capacity: 208 KW 255 KVA 360 AMP REB(Rural Electrification Board): 600 KW 750 KVA 1080 AMP 64 .

Allowable Pressure: 11 Bar-g Max.71 ton per hour Max. Alllowable Temperature: 1880c Max. Allowable Pressure: 10Bar-g Max. Heat Output: 3. Gas burner Capacity: 5 ton per hour Max. Alllowable Temperature: 1830c Max. Heat Output: 4833 KW Manufacturing Year: 2005 Boiler 02 Brand Name: OMNICAL Origin: Germany Type: Fire tube Boiler.Boilers: Boiler 01 Brand Name: COCHRAN Origin: England Type: Fire tube Boiler. Gas burner Capacity: 7.25 MW Manufacturing Year: 2001 Compressed Air: Brand Name: CompAir Origin: England Capacity: 1000 L Allowable Pressure: 11 Bar Allowable Temperature: 500c Manufacturing Year: 2005 Brand Name: Origin: Capacity: Atlas Copco South Korea 1000 L 65 .

3 Bar Allowable Temperature: 500c Manufacturing Year: 2001 Effluent Treatment Plant: Dye House Effluent Tank High Rate Solid Contact Clarifier Tank PH Correction Tank Sludge Tank Sludge Sludge 66 .Allowable Pressure: 14.

procurement system. production process. It has a huge production capacity with a very efficient production team. Acid is inputted into PH Correction Tank. NTL has a very good. and machineries and teach us to adjust with the industrial life.03 g/l FeSO4. Urea fertilizer is inputted into Aeration Tank 01 & 02. well equipped and modern laboratories and producing a wide range of color. CONCLUSION Industrial training is an important and essential part of education as through this training we learn all the implementations of the processes which we have studied theoretically. The management of NTL is very organized.90 g/l =0. This industrial training also gives us an opportunity to enlarge our knowledge of textile administration. pre-active and co-operative.0015 g/l =0. I have found myself fortunate to have my industrial training at NTL. lime and polymer are inputted into High Rate Solid Contact Clarifier Tank.70 g/l = 0. production planning.85 g/l = 0. During my training period I have noticed that NTL is very concern about their quality and they rarely have any quality complain.De Chlorination Tank Secondary Clarifier Tank Aeration Tank 02 Aeration Tank 01 Chemical Dosing System: ETP water quantity 60.60 g/l = 0. 67 . NaOCl is inputted into De Chlorination Tank.000 litre per hour 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) FeSO4 Lime (CaO) HCl Polymer NaOCl Urea Fertilizer = 0. It gives us an opportunity to compare the theoretical knowledge with practical facts and thus develop our knowledge and skills.

At the end of the day I realized that industrial training make my knowledge’s application practically and make me confident to face any problem of my job sector. 68 .

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