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AC1 Fundamentals

by A
by
A

Instructor’s Guide

AC1 Fundamentals by A Instructor’s Guide Ê>{X5è>Æ7ÀË 3091562100307 Edition 2 91562-10

Ê>{X5è>Æ7ÀË

3091562100307

Edition 2

91562-10

SECOND EDITION

First Printing, July 2003

Copyright March, 2003 Lab-Volt Systems, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopied, recorded, or otherwise, without prior written permission from Lab-Volt Systems, Inc.

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ISBN 0-86657-228-7

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Table of Contents

Section 1 – Workstation Inventory and Installation

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Inventory of Workstation Minimum Computer Requirements

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1-1

1-1

Equipment and Supplies

.....................................................................................................

1-1

Equipment Installation Software Installation

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...............................................................................................................

1-1

1-1

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

................................................................

2-1

Getting Started

........................................................................................................................

2-2

Screen Buttons

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2-3

F.A.C.E.T Help Screens and Resources

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2-4

Internet Access

........................................................................................................................ Instructor Annotation Tool

......................................................................................................

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2-5

Student Journal Assessing Progress

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2-6

Real-Number Questions and Answers

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Recall Values in Text

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Safety

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Section 3 – Courseware

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3-1

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

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Exercise 1 – AC Waveform Generator Familiarization

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3-3

Exercise 2 – Generator Impedance

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3-6

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

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3-11

Exercise 1 – AC Amplitude Measurement

............................................................................ Exercise 2 – Measuring With an Osc illoscope

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3-17

Exercise 3 – Measuring and Setting Frequency

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3-20

Exercise 4 – Phase Angle

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3-24

Unit 3 – Inductance

..................................................................................................................

3-29

Exercise 1 – Inductors

........................................................................................................... Exercise 2 – Inductors in Series and in Parallel

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3-36

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Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

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3-49

Exercise 1 – Inductive Reactance Exercise 2 – Series RL Circuits ............................................................................................ Exercise 3 – Parallel RL Circuits

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3-50

3-57

3-62

Unit 5 – Transformers

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3-71

Exercise 1 – Transformer Windings Exercise 2 – Mutual Inductance

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............................................................................................ Exercise 3 – Transformer Turns and Voltage Ratios

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3-78

3-81

Exercise 4 – Transformer Secondary Loading

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3-87

Unit 6 – Capacitance

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3-99

Exercise 1 – Capacitors

....................................................................................................... Exercise 2 – Capacitors in Series and in Parallel

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3-101

3-105

Unit 7 – Capacitive Reactance

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3-113

Exercise 1 – Capacitive Reactance Exercise 2 – Series RC Circuits .......................................................................................... Exercise 3 – Parallel RC Circuits

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3-121

3-126

Unit 8 – Time Constants

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3-135

Exercise 1 – RC Time Constants

........................................................................................ Exercise 2 – RC and RL Wave Shapes

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Appendix A – Pretest and Posttest Questions and Answers

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A-1

Appendix B – Faults and Circuit Modifications (CMs)

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B-1

Appendix C – Board and Courseware Troubleshooting

.......................................................

C-1

ii

Introduction

This Instructor Guide is divided into three sections and the appendices. It provides a unit-by-unit outline of the Fault Assisted Circuits for Electronics Training (F.A.C.E.T) curriculum.

Section 1 – Workstation Inventory and Installation contains a list and description of equipment and materials required for all units in this course of study as well as installation instructions.

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum provides a description of the courseware structure, instructions on getting started with the multimedia presentation, and an explanation of student-progress assessment methods.

Section 3 – Courseware includes information that enables the instructor to gain a general understanding of the units within the course.

The unit objective

Unit Fundamentals questions and answers

A list of new terms and words for the unit

Equipment required for the unit

The exercise objectives

Exercise Discussion questions and answers

Exercise Procedure questions and answers

Review questions and answers

CMs and Faults available

Unit Test questions and answers

Troubleshooting questions and answers (where applicable)

Appendices include the questions and answers to the Pretest and Posttest plus additional specific information on faults and circuit modifications (CMs).

Please complete and return the OWNER REGISTRATION CARD included with the CD- ROM. This will assist Lab-Volt in ensuring that our customers receive maximum support.

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THIS

iv

SECTION 1 – WORKSTATION INVENTORY AND INSTALLATION

THIS

AC1 Fundamentals

Section 1 – Workstation Inventory and Installation

SECTION 1 – WORKSTATION INVENTORY AND INSTALLATION

Inventory of Workstation

Use this section to identify and inventory the items needed.

Minimum Computer Requirements

100% compatible Windows ® PC with Windows98 second edition or newer, NT, 2000, Me or XP; Pentium class CPU, (Pentium II or newer); 126 MB RAM; 10 GB HDD; CD-ROM drive; SVGA monitor and video card capable of 32-bit color display at 1024 x 768 resolution and sound

capabilities.

Equipment and Supplies

The following equipment and supplies are needed for AC1 Fundamentals:

Quantity

Description

1

F.A.C.E.T. base unit

1

AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board

1

Multimeter

1

Oscilloscope, dual trace

1

Generator, sine wave

1

Student Workbook

1

Instructor Guide

Equipment Installation

To install the hardware, refer to the Tech-Lab (minimum version 6.x) Installation Guide.

Software Installation

Third Party Application Installation

All applications and files that the courseware launches, or that are required for the course should be installed before the courseware. Load all third party software according to the manufacturers' directions. Install this software to the default location and note that location. (Alternatively, you can install this software to a different location that you designate.) Remember to register all software as required.

No third-party software is required for this course.

Installation of Courseware and Resources

To install the courseware and resources, refer to the Tech-Lab (minimum version 6.x) and Gradepoint 2020 (minimum version 6.x) Installation Guide.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 1 – Workstation Inventory and Installation

1-2

SECTION 2 – INTRODUCTION TO F.A.C.E.T CURRICULUM

THIS

AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

SECTION 2 – INTRODUCTION TO F.A.C.E.T CURRICULUM

Overview

F.A.C.E.T curriculum is multimedia-based courseware. The curriculum gives students hands-on experience using equipment and software closely associated with industry standards. It provides students with opportunities for instruction in academic and technical skills.

All courses are activity-driven curricula. Each course consists of several units containing two or more exercises. Each unit begins with a statement explaining the overall goal of the unit (Unit Objective). This is followed by Unit Fundamentals. Next is a list of new terms and words then the equipment required for the unit. The exercises follow the unit material. When students complete all the exercises, they complete the Troubleshooting section and take the Unit Test.

The exercises consist of an exercise objective, exercise discussion, and exercise procedures. The Exercise Conclusions section provides the students with a list of their achievements. Every exercise concludes with Review Questions. Available circuit modifications (CMs) and faults are listed after the review questions. Additional specific information on CMs and faults is available in Appendix B.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Getting Started

Desktop After the Tech-Lab System is installed, the TechLab icon appears on the desktop.

  • 1. Click on the TechLab icon.

  • 2. The student clicks on LOGON and selects his or her name.

  • 3. The student enters his or her password and clicks on OK. (If he or she is creating a password, four alphanumeric characters must be entered. The system will ask for the password to be entered again for verification. Keep a record of the students' passwords.)

  • 4. The previous two steps are repeated until all members of the student team have logged on. Click on Complete and then Yes.

  • 5. When the Available Courses menu appears, students click on the course name.

  • 6. A window with the name of the course and a list of units for that course appears. Students click on the unit name. The unit title page appears and the students are ready to begin.

Selecting Other Courses and Exiting the Courseware

  • 1. Clicking on Exit when in a unit returns the student to the list of units for that course.

  • 2. If students wish to select another unit, they click on it.

  • 3. If students wish to exit F.A.C.E.T, they click on the X symbol in the upper right corner.

  • 4. If students wish to select another course, they click on the Course Menu button. The Available Courses menu screen appears. They may also exit F.A.C.E.T from this screen by clicking on the LOGOFF button.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Screen Buttons

If you click on the F.A.C.E.T logo on the top right of the unit title page the About screen appears. It acknowledges the copyright holder(s) of video and/or screen-capture material used in the topic.

The Menu button calls these menus:

when on an exercise menu screen, it calls the Unit Menu. when on an exercise screen, it calls the Exercise Menu. when on a unit screen, it calls the Unit Menu.

The Bookmark button marks the current screen. A student can click on the button at any time in the lesson. The second time the student clicks on the button, the page displayed when the button was first clicked will return to the screen. Any bookmarks used during a lesson are not saved when the student logs out of the lesson.

The Application Launch button opens third-party software.

Click on the Resources button to view a pop-up menu. The pop-up menu includes access to a calculator, a student journal, new terms and words, a print current screen option, the Lab-Volt authored Internet Website, and a variety of F.A.C.E.T help screens.

The Help button aids students with system information. On certain screens the Help button appears to be depressed. On these screens, clicking on the Help button will access Screen Help windows (context-sensitive help).

The Internet button opens an Internet browser. Students will have unrestricted access to all search engines and web sites unless the school administration has restricted this usage.

Use the Exit button to exit the course.

The right arrow button moves you forward to the next screen. The left arrow button moves you backward to the previous screen.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

F.A.C.E.T Help Screens and Resources

There are three ways to access F.A.C.E.T help screens and other resources.

System Help Students access System Help by clicking on the Help button at the bottom of the screen when the button does not appear to be depressed. The menu selections access a variety of system help, navigation, and information windows.

Screen Help On certain screens, the Help button appears to be depressed. On these screens, clicking on the Help button will access Screen Help windows. This is information specific to the content of that particular screen.

Resources Students click on the Resources button to access the following windows.

Calculator F.A.C.E.T 32-Bit Microprocessor Help F.A.C.E.T Analog Communications Setup Procedure F.A.C.E.T Digital Communications Help F.A.C.E.T Electronics and Troubleshooting Help F.A.C.E.T Fiber Optic Communications Help F.A.C.E.T Math Help Internet Link New Terms and Words Print Current Page Student Journal

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Internet Access

There are two ways for students to access the Internet:

The Internet button opens an Internet browser. Students have unrestricted access to all search engines and websites unless the school administration has restricted this usage.

The Resources button pops up a menu that includes access to the Lab-Volt authored Internet website. If students wish to access this site when they are not in the lesson, then they must go to http://learning.labvolt.com.

NOTE: The Lab-Volt Internet site does not have content-filtering software to block access to objectionable or inappropriate websites.

Instructor Annotation Tool

The annotation tool gives the instructor the ability to add comments or additional information onscreen. Refer to the Tech-Lab and GradePoint 2020 Installation Guide for detailed information.

Student Journal

The student journal is an online notebook that each student can access while they are logged into TechLab. The journal allows students to share notes with other students in their workgroups. When used in conjunction with GradePoint 2020, the instructor may post messages, review, edit, or delete any journal note.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Assessing Progress

Assessment Tools

Student assessment is achieved in several ways:

Exercise questions

Unit tests

Pretest and Posttest

Troubleshooting questions

Exercise and Troubleshooting Questions

Throughout the unit material, exercise discussion, exercise procedure, and troubleshooting sections there are several types of questions with instant feedback. These questions occur in the following formats:

Multiple choice

True-false

Real-number entry

In most cases, when your students encounter a question set, they must answer these questions before continuing. However, there are cases where students may progress to the next screen without answering the questions. Lab-Volt recommends that you encourage your students to complete all questions. In this way, students reinforce the material that's presented, verify that they understand this material, and are empowered to decide if a review of this material is required.

Review Questions

At the end of each exercise, there are review questions. The student receives feedback with each entry. Feedback guides the student toward the correct answer.

Unit Tests

A unit test appears at the end of each unit. The test consists of 10 multiple-choice questions with the option of having feedback. The Tech-Lab System defaults to no feedback, but the instructor can configure the test so that students receive feedback after taking the test. You can randomize questions in the unit test. Use the Tech-Lab Global Configurator to make feedback available, randomize questions, and select other configuration options if desired. Refer to the Tech Lab Quick-Start Guide for detailed information.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Pretest and Posttest

Every course includes a pretest and a posttest. These are multiple choice tests. Refer to the Tech Lab Quick-Start Guide for detailed information on how to record student competency gains.

Grading

Student grades are based on exercise questions, troubleshooting questions, a unit test, and a posttest. The default weighting value of the unit test and the threshold for passing the unit test can be adjusted by using the Global Configurator of the Tech-Lab System. Refer to the Tech Lab Quick-Start Guide for detailed information.

Student Progress and Instructor Feedback

Unit progress is available through the Unit menu. The Progress window allows the instructor and student to view the percentage of the unit completed, number of sessions, and time spent on that unit. The Progress window shows whether the Unit Test was completed. If the test was completed, it indicates whether the student passed based on the scoring criteria.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Real-Number Questions and Answers

Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses students may encounter real-number questions such as the one shown below. Answers to real-number questions are graded correct if they fall within an acceptable tolerance range.

The computer saves this input value so that it can be recalled for use in later questions.

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses

The answer to the question posed in the illustration above does not involve a recall value from a previous question. It appears in the Instructor Guide (IG) as shown in the box below.

The information in the IG tells you where the question is located and the range of acceptable answers. In this case, the acceptable answers fall within the range of the nominal answer plus or minus 5 percent tolerance: (15 ± 5%).

e1p1 stands for Exercise 1 Procedure screen 1

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses
AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses

Location: Exercise Procedure page:

se1p1, Question ID: e1p1a

V S =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: V1

Nominal Answer: 15.0

Min/Max Value: (14.25) to (15.75)

Value Calculation: 15.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 5 Correct Plus Tolerance = 5

This is the name the computer uses internally

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses

to identify the input value. In this case, 14.5 will be stored under the name V1.

NOTE: The recall value V1 is not the same as the voltage V 1 . The recall label does not appear onscreen.

In this case, the answer to this question is not

based on a value recalled from a previous question. Therefore, the Value Calculation is equal to the Nominal Answer.

The word "true" tells you that the tolerance is calculated as a percent.

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses
AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Real-Number Questions and Answers Throughout F.A.C.E.T courses

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

A second example (shown below) illustrates an answer that the computer grades using a value recalled from a previous question.

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum A second example (shown below) illustrates an

When a real-number question is based on a recall value from a previous question, the Min/Max Value shown in the Instructor Guide is based upon a calculation using the lowest and highest possible recall value. It represents the theoretical range of answers that could be accepted by the computer. (It is not the nominal answer plus or minus the tolerance.)

To find the actual range of answers that the computer will accept onscreen, you must use the actual recall value (14.5 in this example) in your calculations; see below.

Location: Exercise Procedure page: Any letter enclosed in "#" signs refers to a recall value from
Location: Exercise Procedure page:
Any letter enclosed in "#" signs refers to a
recall value from a previous question.
se1p5, Question ID: e1p5c
I T =
mA
Since the value for #V1# is 14.5, the
computer will accept answers in the
following range as correct:
Recall Label for this Question: I1
Nominal Answer: 9.091
* Min/Max Value: (6.477) to (11.93)
Value Calculation: #V1#/1650*1000
Correct Tolerance Percent = true
Correct Minus Tolerance = 25
Correct Plus Tolerance = 25
14.5/1650*1000 ± 25% or
8.79
± 25% or
6.59
to 10.99
This calculated range is different from the
Min/Max Value shown in the IG, which
was based upon a calculation using the
lowest and highest possible recall value.

NOTE: After four incorrect answers, students will be prompted to press <Ins> to insert the correct answer if this feature has been enabled in the configuration settings. When the question is based on a value recalled from a previous question, answers obtained using the Insert key may not match the nominal answers in this guide.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Recall Values in Text

Sometimes numbers displayed on screen are values recalled from input on previous screens. Because these numbers are recall values, they will change for each student.

The value of 10 was recalled from a previous screen.

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Recall Values in Text Sometimes numbers displayed

The Instructor Guide lists the recall label in place of a number in this question.

Location:Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11c

I R2 = V R2 /R2 = #V4#/3.3 kmA

=

Recall Label for this Question: I1

Nominal Answer: 2.818

Min/Max Value: (2.489) to (3.164)

Value Calculation: #V4#/3.3 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 4 Correct Plus Tolerance = 4

This is a recall label for a value recorded in a previous question.

AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Recall Values in Text Sometimes numbers displayed
AC1 Fundamentals Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum Recall Values in Text Sometimes numbers displayed

The correct answer will depend on the value the student recorded in the previous question.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

Safety

Safety is everyone’s responsibility. All must cooperate to create the safest possible working environment. Students must be reminded of the potential for harm, given common sense safety rules, and instructed to follow the electrical safety rules.

Any environment can be hazardous when it is unfamiliar. The F.A.C.E.T computer-based laboratory may be a new environment to some students. Instruct students in the proper use of the F.A.C.E.T equipment and explain what behavior is expected of them in this laboratory. It is up to the instructor to provide the necessary introduction to the learning environment and the equipment. This task will prevent injury to both student and equipment.

The voltage and current used in the F.A.C.E.T Computer-Based Laboratory are, in themselves, harmless to the normal, healthy person. However, an electrical shock coming as a surprise will be uncomfortable and may cause a reaction that could create injury. The students should be made aware of the following electrical safety rules.

  • 1. Turn off the power before working on a circuit.

  • 2. Always confirm that the circuit is wired correctly before turning on the power. If required, have your instructor check your circuit wiring.

  • 3. Perform the experiments as you are instructed: do not deviate from the documentation.

  • 4. Never touch “live” wires with your bare hands or with tools.

  • 5. Always hold test leads by their insulated areas.

  • 6. Be aware that some components can become very hot during operation. (However, this is not a normal condition for your F.A.C.E.T. course equipment.) Always allow time for the components to cool before proceeding to touch or remove them from the circuit.

  • 7. Do not work without supervision. Be sure someone is nearby to shut off the power and provide first aid in case of an accident.

  • 8. Remove power cords by the plug, not by pulling on the cord. Check for cracked or broken insulation on the cord.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Section 2 – Introduction to F.A.C.E.T Curriculum

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SECTION 3 – COURSEWARE

SECTION 3 – COURSEWARE

THIS

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

UNIT 1 – THE AC WAVEFORM GENERATOR

UNIT OBJECTIVE

Operate a basic ac waveform generator by using equipment provided.

UNIT FUNDAMENTALS

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf4, Question ID: f4a

Is the waveform shown an ac or dc waveform?

  • a. ac

  • b. dc

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf6, Question ID: f6a

Does this ac waveform (square wave) display four complete cycles of a repeating pattern?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

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AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

NEW TERMS AND WORDS

alternating current (ac) - a flow of electricity that first increases to maximum, then decreases to zero, reverses polarity, and reaches maximum in the opposite direction. waveform - the shape of an electric wave as the amplitude is graphed over time. amplitude - the level, or magnitude, of an alternating voltage or current. cycle - one complete alternation of an ac current or voltage. frequency (f) - the number of complete cycles in one second of alternating voltage or current; measured in hertz (Hz). impedance (Z) - the total opposition a circuit offers to the flow of alternating current at a given frequency. ac waveform generator - an electronic device that produces ac voltage of a desired frequency, wave shape, and amplitude.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

F.A.C.E.T. base unit AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board Multimeter Oscilloscope, dual trace Generator, sine wave

3-2

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

Exercise 1 – AC Waveform Generator Familiarization

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Operate an ac waveform generator by using equipment provided. Verify results by observing generator waveforms on the oscilloscope.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d2, Question ID: e1d2a

Suppose the range of control is set to X100 and the frequency control is set to 20. The output frequency is

  • a. 200 Hz

  • b. 2000 Hz

  • c. 20 kHz

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d6, Question ID: e1d6a

Look at the generator symbols on the AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board. Is the waveform generator internal or external?

  • a. internal generator

  • b. external generator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p1, Question ID: e1p1a

While observing the oscilloscope, increase the generator frequency control. Does the number of

cycles displayed increase or decrease as the frequency is increased?

  • a. increase

  • b. decrease

3-3

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1

  • 1. The controls that adjust frequency on an ac generator are the frequency and

    • a. range controls.

    • b. amplitude controls.

    • c. function controls.

    • d. vertical controls.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2

  • 2. When the range (multiplier) control of a generator is set to X10 and the frequency control is

set to 20, the output frequency is

  • a. 2000 Hz.

  • b. 20 Hz.

  • c. 200 Hz.

  • d. 20,000 Hz.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3

  • 3. The amplitude control on an ac generator is usually labeled

    • a. MULTIPLIER.

    • b. FUNCTION.

    • c. RANGE.

    • d. LEVEL.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4

  • 4. Which statement is not characteristic of a typical ac generator?

    • a. All are capable of generating ac waveforms.

    • b. All can vary the frequency of the waveform produced.

    • c. All can vary the amplitude of the waveform produced.

    • d. All are capable of generating a dc waveform.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5

  • 5. When the range (multiplier) control of a generator is set to X1K and the frequency control is

set to 10, the output frequency is

  • a. 1000 Hz.

  • b. 10 kHz.

  • c. 100 Hz.

  • d. 1.0 kHz.

3-4

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-5

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

Exercise 2 – Generator Impedance

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Determine the output impedance of an ac waveform generator. Verify results with an oscilloscope.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d2, Question ID: e2d2a

If R L decreased in value from 100to 50, would the output voltage across R L increase or decrease?

  • a. increase

  • b. decrease

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d3, Question ID: e2d3a

V OPEN CIRCUIT =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 10.0

Min/Max Value: (9.9) to (10.1) Value Calculation: 10.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true

Correct Minus Tolerance = 1 Correct Plus Tolerance = 1

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4a

To measure the generator output impedance, adjust R L so that the loaded generator output voltage is half of the open circuit voltage output. Is the output load resistance (R L ) equal to the internal generator resistance (R S )?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

3-6

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a

  • 5. Connect the channel 1 (X10) probe across R1 and R2. Do R1 and R2 represent the generator's

load (R L )?

a.

yes

b.

no

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a

R L =

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 50.0

Min/Max Value: (35) to (65) Value Calculation: 50.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1

  • 1. The load (R L ) equals the output impedance (R S ) of the generator when the

    • a. loaded output voltage equals the open circuit output voltage.

    • b. loaded output voltage is half of the open circuit output voltage.

    • c. open circuit output voltage is half of the loaded output voltage.

    • d. loaded output voltage is twice the open circuit output voltage.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2

  • 2. The loaded output voltage of a generator is always

    • a. greater than the open circuit voltage.

b not dependent on the open circuit voltage.

  • c. equal to the open circuit voltage.

  • d. less than the open circuit voltage.

3-7

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3

  • 3. A 50load resistor is connected to a generator with an open circuit voltage of 10 V pk-pk and

an output impedance of 50. The generator's output voltage is

  • a. 10 V pk-pk .

  • b. 5 V pk-pk .

  • c. 20 V pk-pk .

  • d. 3.3 V pk-pk .

Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4

  • 4. A generator has an open circuit voltage of 10 V pk-pk and an output impedance of 600. What

value of external load resistor would result in a 5 V pk-pk output?

  • a. 600

  • b. 30

  • c. 60

  • d. 300

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5

  • 5. The output impedance of the generator shown is

    • a. 600.

    • b. 60.

    • c. 500.

    • d. 50.

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-8

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

UNIT TEST

Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1

Alternating voltage and current differ from direct voltage and current because alternating voltage and current

  • a. maintain a constant polarity.

  • b. change in level and polarity.

  • c. never change level or polarity.

  • d. are not measured in volts or amperes.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2

One complete repetition of an ac waveform is called

  • a. the amplitude.

  • b. a cycle.

  • c. the frequency.

  • d. polarity.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3

If a 20 kHz sine wave is needed on the output of an ac generator and the multiplier control is set to X100, the frequency control should be set to

  • a. 20.

  • b. 10.

  • c. 100.

  • d. 200.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4

A generator has an open circuit voltage of 5 V pk-pk and an output impedance of 50. What value of external load resistor would result in a 2.5 V pk-pk output?

  • a. 50

  • b. 25

  • c. 5

  • d. 500

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5

A 600load resistor is connected to a generator with an open circuit voltage of 20 V pk-pk and an output impedance of 600. The generator's output voltage is

  • a. 20 V pk-pk .

  • b. 25 V pk-pk .

  • c. 10 V pk-pk .

  • d. 6.6 V pk-pk .

3-9

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 1 – The AC Waveform Generator

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6

What type of waveform does not change polarity with time?

  • a. sine wave

  • b. square wave

  • c. dc wave

  • d. triangle wave

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7

The controls that adjust frequency on an ac generator are the frequency and

  • a. amplitude controls.

  • b. multiplier controls.

  • c. function controls.

  • d. vertical controls.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8

When the loaded output voltage of a generator is half of the open circuit output voltage, the external load is

  • a. much greater than the output impedance of the generator.

  • b. twice the output impedance of the generator.

  • c. half of the output impedance of the generator.

  • d. equal to the output impedance of the generator.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9

Which control on a generator determines the type of output waveform?

  • a. amplitude

  • b. function

  • c. range

  • d. frequency

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10

Which control on a generator adjusts the level of the output waveform?

  • a. function

  • b. frequency

  • c. amplitude

  • d. range

3-10

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

UNIT 2 – AC MEASUREMENTS

UNIT OBJECTIVE

Take amplitude, frequency, and phase measurements of ac waveforms by using an oscilloscope.

UNIT FUNDAMENTALS

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf6, Question ID: f6a

Which of the following ac instruments can be used to measure the amplitude, frequency, and phase shift of ac waveforms?

  • a. multimeter

  • b. oscilloscope

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf7, Question ID: f7a

As in a circle, one complete cycle of a sine wave equals 360 degrees. One fourth of a cycle is

  • a. 180 degrees.

  • b. 90 degrees.

  • c. 270 degrees.

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-11

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

NEW TERMS AND WORDS

phase angle - the angle of separation between two ac waveforms of identical frequency. peak-to-peak value - amplitude between opposite peaks of an ac waveform (Vpk-pk = Vpk x 2). peak value - maximum amplitude in either polarity of an ac waveform (Vpk = Vpk-pk/2). effective value (rms) - an ac value that produces the same heating effect in a resistor as an equivalent dc value does. average value (avg) - the value obtained by dividing the sum of a number of quantities by the number of quantities. For sine waves, Vavg = 0.637 x Vpk. period - time required for an ac waveform to complete one cycle (T = 1/f).

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

F.A.C.E.T. base unit AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board Multimeter Oscilloscope, dual trace Generator, sine wave

3-12

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Exercise 1 – AC Amplitude Measurement

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Measure the amplitude of ac waveforms by using an oscilloscope. Verify results with a multimeter.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d1, Question ID: e1d1a

If the peak-to-peak value is 15 V pk-pk , the peak voltage is

  • a. 15 V pk .

  • b. 30 V pk .

  • c. 7.5 V pk .

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d5, Question ID: e1d5a

The rms value of a sine wave measuring 10 V pk on an oscilloscope is

  • a. 7.07 Vac.

  • b. 7.07 V pk-pk .

  • c. 7.07 V pk .

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d8, Question ID: e1d8a

The average value of a sine wave measuring 10 V pk on an oscilloscope is

  • a. 6.37 V pk .

  • b. 6.37 V avg .

  • c. 12.7 V avg .

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d10, Question ID: e1d10a

V rms =

V rms

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 4.44

Min/Max Value: (4.351) to (4.529) Value Calculation: 4.44 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 2 Correct Plus Tolerance = 2

3-13

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a

  • V pk-pk V pk = ————=

2

V pk

Recall Label for this Question: Vpk1

Nominal Answer: 3.0

Min/Max Value: (2.7) to (3.3) Value Calculation: 3.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2c

V rms = V pk x 0.707 =

V rms

Recall Label for this Question: Vrms1

Nominal Answer: 2.1

Min/Max Value: (1.89) to (2.31) Value Calculation: 2.100 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2e

V avg = V pk x 0.637 =

V avg

Recall Label for this Question: Vavg1

Nominal Answer: 1.9

Min/Max Value: (1.71) to (2.09) Value Calculation: 1.900 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

3-14

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p3, Question ID: e1p3a

  • 8. Disconnect the X10 probe from the circuit. Turn on the multimeter and set it for ac voltage

measurement. Connect the multimeter across R1, then measure the voltage.

V R1 =

Vac

Recall Label for this Question: Vrms2

Nominal Answer: 2.1

Min/Max Value: (1.68) to (2.52) Value Calculation: 2.100 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 20 Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a

  • 9. Compare your multimeter reading of #Vrms2#V with your oscilloscope values, shown above.

The multimeter displays values in

  • a. peak-to-peak.

  • b. peak.

  • c. rms.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1

  • 1. The effective value of an ac waveform is the

    • a. peak-to-peak value.

    • b. peak value.

    • c. rms value.

    • d. average value.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2

  • 2. The peak value of an ac waveform is

    • a. twice the peak-to-peak value.

    • b. half of the peak-to-peak value.

    • c. 0.707 of the peak-to-peak value.

    • d. 0.637 of the peak-to-peak value.

3-15

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3

  • 3. The rms value of a sine wave is

    • a. half of the peak-to-peak value.

    • b. twice the peak value.

    • c. 0.637 of the peak value.

    • d. 0.707 of the peak value.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4

  • 4. When measuring the peak-to-peak value of an ac waveform on the oscilloscope, measure from

the

  • a. top of a peak to the bottom of a valley.

  • b. top of a peak to the top of a valley.

  • c. bottom of a peak to the top of a valley.

  • d. bottom of a peak to the bottom of a valley.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5

  • 5. Most digital multimeters display the

    • a. peak-to-peak value of a sine wave.

    • b. peak value of a sine wave.

    • c. rms value of a sine wave.

    • d. average value of a sine wave.

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-16

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Exercise 2 – Measuring With an Oscilloscope

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Measure voltage by using an oscilloscope and determine current and impedance by using Ohm's law. Verify results with information found in this exercise.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d3, Question ID: e2d3a

The circuit shown uses 10resistor R2 as the current-sensing resistor. If the voltage across R2 is 50 mV pk-pk , what is the circuit current?

I = V/R2 =

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: IT

Nominal Answer: 5.0

Min/Max Value: (4.95) to (5.05) Value Calculation: 5.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 1 Correct Plus Tolerance = 1

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d6, Question ID: e2d6a

Placing the oscilloscope input directly across a component, as shown,

  • a. shorts out R2 and L2.

  • b. provides an accurate circuit voltage display.

3-17

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p2, Question ID: e2p2a

I =

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 17.2

Min/Max Value: (12.04) to (22.36)

Value Calculation: 17.200 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a

V R1 =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 8.0

Min/Max Value: (5.6) to (10.4) Value Calculation: 8.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1

1. The oscilloscope measures

  • a. voltage only.

  • b. voltage and current only.

  • c. voltage, current, and impedance.

  • d. current only.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2

2. The oscilloscope ground clip and the generator common

  • a. are independent of one another.

  • b. are of opposite polarity.

  • c. are virtually the same point.

  • d. cannot be connected together.

3-18

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3

  • 3. To measure, with an oscilloscope, the voltage drop across an ungrounded component in a

system with common grounds,

  • a. place the probe directly across the component being measured.

  • b. use the ALT-INVERT method.

  • c. place the probe in series with the component being measured.

  • d. use the ADD-INVERT method.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4

  • 4. To measure circuit current with the oscilloscope,

    • a. use a current-measuring inductor.

    • b. place the probe in series with the circuit.

    • c. use a current-sensing resistor.

    • d. divide the source voltage by the generator impedance.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5

  • 5. To determine circuit impedance,

    • a. divide the source voltage by the measured circuit current.

    • b. measure directly with a multimeter.

    • c. divide the source voltage by the generator impedance.

    • d. assume it is always a constant 50.

CMS AVAILABLE

CM 7 TOGGLE

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-19

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Exercise 3 – Measuring and Setting Frequency

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Measure and set frequency by using an oscilloscope. Verify results with information found in this exercise.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se3d4, Question ID: e3d4a

To set the generator frequency to 100 Hz, adjust the frequency control on the generator so that the period (T) of the waveform trace on the oscilloscope equals

  • a. 1 ms.

  • b. 10 ms.

  • c. 10 µ .

AC1 Fundamentals Unit 2 – AC Measurements Exercise 3 – Measuring and Setting Frequency EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se3d6, Question ID: e3d6a

A waveform trace on the oscilloscope has a measured period of 0.7 ms. The frequency is

  • a. 1.43 kHz.

  • b. 1.42 Hz.

  • c. 14.3 kHz.

3-20

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p3, Question ID: e3p3a

  • 4. Set the time base control on the oscilloscope to 0.1 ms/div. Adjust the frequency of the

generator for a waveform cycle that is seven divisions wide along the horizontal axis (time axis).

T (period) =

ms

Recall Label for this Question: T

Nominal Answer: 0.7

Min/Max Value: (0.49) to (0.91) Value Calculation: 0.700 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p3, Question ID: e3p3c

1

f = —— = T

Hz

Recall Label for this Question: f

Nominal Answer: 1429.0

Min/Max Value: ( 1000) to ( 1858)

Value Calculation: 1429.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se3p4, Question ID: e3p4a

  • 6. Compare your calculated value of frequency (#f# Hz) with the frequency read from the dial of

the generator. The two frequencies do not agree. What method do you think results in the closest

setting of the correct frequency? a. generator dial

b. oscilloscope (period)

3-21

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se3r1, Question ID: e3r1

  • 1. The period (T) of a waveform is

    • a. equal to the frequency.

    • b. the reciprocal of the amplitude.

    • c. the reciprocal of the frequency.

    • d. unrelated to the frequency.

Location: Review Questions page: se3r2, Question ID: e3r2

  • 2. The frequency of a waveform is

    • a. equal to the period.

    • b. unrelated to the period.

    • c. the reciprocal of the period.

    • d. unrelated to time.

Location: Review Questions page: se3r3, Question ID: e3r3

  • 3. What is the period of a 2 kHz sine wave?

    • a. 2 ms

    • b. 200 µs

    • c. 5 ms

    • d. 500 µs

Location: Review Questions page: se3r4, Question ID: e3r4

  • 4. What is the frequency of a sine wave having a period of 250 µs?

    • a. 4 kHz

    • b. 2.5 kHz

    • c. 250 Hz

    • d. 5 kHz

Location: Review Questions page: se3r5, Question ID: e3r5

  • 5. The period is the

    • a. number of waveform cycles that occur in one second.

    • b. time it takes a waveform to go from maximum positive value to maximum negative value.

    • c. time it takes a waveform to complete one cycle.

    • d. time it takes a waveform to go from maximum positive value to zero amplitude.

3-22

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-23

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Exercise 4 – Phase Angle

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Measure phase angle by using an oscilloscope. Verify results with information found in this exercise.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se4d4, Question ID: e4d4a

Suppose the channel 1 oscilloscope display is adjusted so that one cycle is exactly 8 divisions

wide. What is the phase angle between the two sine waves (use CH 1 as the reference)?

  • a. 80°

  • b. 45°

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se4d6, Question ID: e4d6a

Is the sine wave displayed on CH 2 leading or lagging the reference sine wave displayed on CH 1?

  • a. leading

  • b. lagging

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se4p2, Question ID: e4p2a

  • 6. Make certain the oscilloscope trigger source control is set to CH 1. Switch the vertical mode to

ALT. Set both channel ground references to the center graticule line. Is the phase angle between

the input (CH 1) and output (CH 2) waveforms approximately zero?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se4p2, Question ID: e4p2c

  • 7. Slowly turn potentiometer R2 completely counterclockwise (CCW). Did a phase shift occur?

    • a. yes

    • b. no

3-24

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se4p3, Question ID: e4p3a

  • 8. Switch the vertical mode to CH 1 (display CH 1 only), and adjust the time base and variable

time base controls on the oscilloscope so that one cycle of the waveform is exactly 8 divisions. How many degrees does each horizontal division represent?

  • a. 80°

  • b. 45°

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se4p5, Question ID: e4p5a

Phase angle = (d)(45/div) degrees

=

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 72.5

Min/Max Value: (50.75) to (94.25)

Value Calculation: 72.500 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se4p5, Question ID: e4p5c

11. Is the output (CH 2) waveform leading or lagging the reference (CH 1) waveform?

  • a. leading

  • b. lagging

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se4r1, Question ID: e4r1

  • 1. What waveform is usually used as a reference for measuring phase angle?

    • a. the output waveform

    • b. the input waveform

    • c. the line voltage waveform

    • d. the oscilloscope calibrator waveform

Location: Review Questions page: se4r2, Question ID: e4r2

  • 2. When the reference waveform is 8 divisions wide (horizontally) on the oscilloscope, how

many degrees does each division represent?

  • a. 90°

  • b. 80°

  • c. 45°

  • d. 36°

3-25

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Review Questions page: se4r3, Question ID: e4r3

  • 3. What is the phase angle between the two sine waves (use channel 1 as the reference)?

    • a. 45° lagging

    • b. 90° leading

    • c. 45° leading

    • d. 90° lagging

Location: Review Questions page: se4r4, Question ID: e4r4

  • 4. What is the phase angle between the two sine waves (use channel 1 as the reference)?

    • a. 90° leading

    • b. 90° lagging

    • c. 45° leading

    • d. 45° lagging

Location: Review Questions page: se4r5, Question ID: e4r5

  • 5. When you measure phase angle, both waveforms must be

    • a. of identical frequency.

    • b. of identical amplitude.

    • c. square waves.

    • d. different frequencies.

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-26

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

UNIT TEST

Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1

A sine wave has a period (T) of 1 ms. The frequency is

  • a. 1 ms.

  • b. 100 Hz.

  • c. 1000 Hz.

  • d. 10 ms.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2

One complete cycle of a sine wave equals

  • a. 360°.

  • b. 270°.

  • c. 180°.

  • d. 90°.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3

The degree of separation between two sine waves of the same frequency is the

  • a. amplitude.

  • b. period.

  • c. phase angle.

  • d. root mean square.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4

The time required for an ac waveform to complete one cycle is the

  • a. amplitude.

  • b. period.

  • c. phase angle.

  • d. root mean square.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5

The reciprocal value of the period equals the

  • a. phase angle.

  • b. peak value.

  • c. period.

  • d. frequency.

3-27

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 2 – AC Measurements

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6

Measuring a waveform from the top of a peak to the top of a valley on the oscilloscope accurately measures

  • a. peak-to-peak amplitude.

  • b. peak amplitude.

  • c. the effective value.

  • d. the waveform period.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7

The peak value of a 10 V pk-pk sine wave is

  • a. 10.0 V pk .

  • b. 5.0 V pk .

  • c. 7.07 V rms .

  • d. 6.36 V avg .

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8

The reciprocal value of the frequency equals the

  • a. frequency.

  • b. phase angle.

  • c. period.

  • d. peak current.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9

The peak value multiplied by 0.707 is the rms value of

  • a. sine waves only.

  • b. sine waves and square waves.

  • c. square waves only.

  • d. sine waves and triangle waves.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10

The oscilloscope directly measures

  • a. current only.

  • b. voltage and current.

  • c. voltage only.

  • d. voltage, current, and impedance.

3-28

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

UNIT 3 – INDUCTANCE

UNIT OBJECTIVE

Describe the effect of inductance on a circuit by using an oscilloscope.

UNIT FUNDAMENTALS

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf2, Question ID: f2a

What type of circuit would produce the greatest cemf?

  • a. dc circuit

  • b. ac circuit

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf4, Question ID: f4a

Which wire configuration would result in the greatest inductance value?

  • a. coil of wire

  • b. straight piece of wire

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf7, Question ID: f7a

What value of inductance would result in a lower circuit current for any one frequency?

  • a. 5 mH

  • b. 10 mH

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-29

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

NEW TERMS AND WORDS

inductance (L) - one property of a conductor that opposes change in current flow. counter electromotive force (cemf) - a voltage developed in an inductive circuit by alternating current. The polarity of this voltage is, at every instant, opposite to that of the applied voltage. inductor - a conductor, usually a coil of wire, wound to concentrate its magnetic field, which produces a predicted measure of inductance. henry (H) - unit of inductance. An inductance of one henry will produce one volt of cemf when ac current of one ampere at one hertz is applied.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

F.A.C.E.T. base unit AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board Multimeter Oscilloscope, dual trace Generator, sine wave

3-30

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Exercise 1 – Inductors

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Describe the effect an inductor has on dc and ac circuits by using measured values. Verify results with an oscilloscope and multimeter.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d2, Question ID: e1d2a

If inductance decreases, opposition to current flow will

  • a. increase.

  • b. remain the same.

  • c. decrease.

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p2, Question ID: e1p2a

R L3 =

Recall Label for this Question: RL3meas

Nominal Answer: 42.0

Min/Max Value: (29.4) to (54.6) Value Calculation: 42.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true

Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a

I dc =

mA

Recall Label for this Question: Idcmeas

Nominal Answer: 15.0

Min/Max Value: (10.5) to (19.5) Value Calculation: 15.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true

Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

3-31

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a

V L3dc =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: VL3meas

Nominal Answer: 0.656

Min/Max Value: ( .459) to ( .853)

Value Calculation: 0.656 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a

R L3cal =

Recall Label for this Question: RL3cal

Nominal Answer: 43.73 * Min/Max Value: (22.83) to (83.68) Value Calculation: (#VL3meas#)/(#Idcmeas#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a

9. Compare the coil resistance of R L3 (#RL3meas#), measured by using the resistance function of the multimeter and the calculated coil resistance of R L3cal (#RL3cal#). Based on this comparison, is inductor L3 producing cemf with constant dc current applied? a. yes

b. no

* NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

3-32

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p9, Question ID: e1p9a

I ac = V R2 /R2 = mA pk-pk Recall Label for this Question: Iac

Nominal Answer: 12.6

Min/Max Value: (8.82) to (16.38)

Value Calculation: 12.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a

V L3ac =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL3ac

Nominal Answer: 7.5

Min/Max Value: (5.25) to (9.75) Value Calculation: 7.500 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a

Z L3 =

Recall Label for this Question: ZL3 Nominal Answer: 595.2 * Min/Max Value: (310.9) to ( 1139) Value Calculation: #VL3ac#/(#Iac#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

* NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

3-33

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p12, Question ID: e1p12a

  • 15. Compare the coil resistance of R L3 (#RL3meas#) and the calculated coil impedance Z L3

(#ZL3#). Based on this comparison, is L3 producing cemf when ac current is applied?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p16, Question ID: e1p16a

  • 19. Does an increase of inductance increase or decrease circuit current?

    • a. increase

    • b. decrease

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p18, Question ID: e1p18a

  • 21. What is the effect of an increase in frequency on circuit current?

    • a. remains the same

    • b. decreases

    • c. increases

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p20, Question ID: e1p20a

  • 25. Does the circuit current lead or lag the inductor voltage?

    • a. lead

    • b. lag

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1

1. When constant dc is applied to an inductor, current flow is opposed by

  • a. cemf only.

  • b. coil resistance only.

  • c. cemf and coil resistance.

  • d. emf only.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2

2. When the CM is toggled off and on, what can you conclude about the inductance of L3 based on the circuit current?

  • a. The inductance of L3 was reduced in value.

  • b. Changing the inductance of L3 had no effect on circuit current.

  • c. The inductance of L3 increased in value.

  • d. Changing the inductance of L3 decreased the circuit current.

3-34

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3

  • 3. Decreasing the frequency of the signal applied to an inductor

    • a. decreases current flow.

    • b. increases cemf.

    • c. neither increases nor decreases the current.

    • d. decreases impedance.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4

  • 4. In an ideal inductor,

    • a. voltage leads current by 90°.

    • b. current leads voltage by 90°.

    • c. voltage lags current by 90°.

    • d. voltage and current remain in phase.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5

  • 5. An increase in cemf produced by an inductor is seen as

    • a. a decrease in voltage drop.

    • b. an increase in circuit current.

    • c. an increase in impedance.

    • d. a decrease in the coil resistance.

CMS AVAILABLE

CM 16 TOGGLE CM 17 TOGGLE

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-35

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Exercise 2 – Inductors in Series and in Parallel

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Determine the total inductance of a circuit containing inductors in series and in parallel. Verify results with an oscilloscope.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d3, Question ID: e2d3a

L T =

mH

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 6.0

Min/Max Value: (5.94) to (6.06) Value Calculation: 6.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 1 Correct Plus Tolerance = 1

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d6, Question ID: e2d6a

What is the total inductance (L T ) in the above circuit?

  • a. 2 mH

  • b. 4 mH

  • c. 1 mH

3-36

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p3, Question ID: e2p3a

L T =

mH

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 4.7

Min/Max Value: (4.653) to (4.747) Value Calculation: 4.700 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 1 Correct Plus Tolerance = 1

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a

  • I ac

V

R2

= ———

R2

=

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: Iacc

Nominal Answer: 12.6

Min/Max Value: (8.82) to (16.38) Value Calculation: 12.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a

V L3ac =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL3acc

Nominal Answer: 7.5

Min/Max Value: (5.25) to (9.75) Value Calculation: 7.500 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

3-37

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p6, Question ID: e2p6a

Z L3 =

Recall Label for this Question: ZL33 Nominal Answer: 595.2 * Min/Max Value: (310.9) to ( 1139) Value Calculation: #VL3acc#/(#Iacc#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p8, Question ID: e2p8a

L T =

mH

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 9.4

Min/Max Value: (9.212) to (9.588) Value Calculation: 9.400 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 2 Correct Plus Tolerance = 2

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a

12. Did adding the inductor in series increase or decrease total circuit inductance (L T )?

  • a. increase

  • b. decrease

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a

  • V R2

I ac = ——— =

R2

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: Iac1

Nominal Answer: 7.6

Min/Max Value: (5.32) to (9.88) Value Calculation: 7.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

* NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

3-38

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p11, Question ID: e2p11a

V LT =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VLT

Nominal Answer: 8.96

Min/Max Value: (6.272) to (11.65)

Value Calculation: 8.960 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p12, Question ID: e2p12a

Z LT =

Recall Label for this Question: ZLT Nominal Answer: 1179.0 * Min/Max Value: (615.8) to ( 2256) Value Calculation: #VLT#/(#Iac1#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p13, Question ID: e2p13a

16. Compare your data from the two circuits. Which circuit offers the greatest opposition (impedance) to current flow for the same signal input (V GEN )?

  • a. single inductor circuit

  • b. two-inductor series circuit

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p15, Question ID: e2p15a

L T =

mH

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 2.35

Min/Max Value: (2.28 ) to (2.421)

Value Calculation: 2.350 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

* NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

3-39

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p16, Question ID: e2p16a

  • V R2

  • I ac

= ——

R2

=

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: Iac2

Nominal Answer: 17.1

Min/Max Value: (11.97) to (22.23)

Value Calculation: 17.100 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p17, Question ID: e2p17a

V L =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL

Nominal Answer: 5.0

Min/Max Value: (3.5) to (6.5) Value Calculation: 5.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p18, Question ID: e2p18a

Z L =

Recall Label for this Question: ZL

Nominal Answer: 292.4 * Min/Max Value: (152.7) to (559.3) Value Calculation: #VL#/(#Iac2#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

* NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

3-40

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p19, Question ID: e2p19a

23. Compare your data from the two circuits. Which circuit offers the greatest opposition (impedance) to current flow for the same signal input (V GEN )?

  • a. single inductor circuit

  • b. two-inductor parallel circuit

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p21, Question ID: e2p21a

24. While observing the oscilloscope, toggle the CM off and on by pressing <CM>. Based on the circuit's current change, was the new inductor added to the circuit in series or in parallel with L3 and L4?

  • a. series

  • b. parallel

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1

  • 1. The total inductance of inductors in series is

    • a. determined from the reciprocal method.

    • b. the sum of the inductor values divided by two.

    • c. the sum of the inductor values.

    • d. the reciprocal of the sum of the inductors.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2

  • 2. The total inductance of inductors in parallel is

    • a. determined from the reciprocal method.

    • b. the sum of the inductor values.

    • c. the sum of the inductor values divided by two.

    • d. the reciprocal of the sum of the inductors.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3

  • 3. As more inductors are added in parallel,

    • a. circuit current increases.

    • b. impedance increases.

    • c. circuit current decreases.

    • d. inductance increases.

3-41

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4

  • 4. As more inductors are added in series,

    • a. inductance decreases.

    • b. circuit current increases.

    • c. circuit current decreases.

    • d. impedance decreases.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5

  • 5. Toggle the CM off and on by pressing <CM>. Based on the circuit current change, the unseen

inductor

  • a. was added in parallel.

  • b. had no effect on circuit current.

  • c. was added in series.

  • d. caused the circuit current to increase.

CMS AVAILABLE

CM 17 TOGGLE CM 16 TOGGLE

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-42

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

UNIT TEST

Depending on configurator settings, these questions may be randomized onscreen.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut1, Question ID: ut1

Inductance is the property of a conductor that

  • a. aids any change in current flow.

  • b. opposes change in current flow.

  • c. produces a magnetic field.

  • d. opposes unchanging current flow.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut2, Question ID: ut2

Increasing the number of turns on an inductor

  • a. decreases the inductance.

  • b. increases circuit current.

  • c. increases the inductance.

  • d. decreases impedance.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut3, Question ID: ut3

When dc is applied to an inductor, the only opposition to current flow is the

  • a. counter electromotive force (cemf).

  • b. changing impedance of the inductor.

  • c. frequency effect on the value of inductance.

  • d. resistance of the wire in the coil.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut4, Question ID: ut4

Two 10-mH inductors in parallel have a combined inductance of

  • a. 5.0 mH.

  • b. 20 mH.

  • c. 10 mH.

  • d. 3.3 mH.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut5, Question ID: ut5

A straight piece of wire has relatively little inductance because

  • a. it does not possess any inductive property.

  • b. the magnetic field is spread over a large area.

  • c. cemf is produced only in coils.

  • d. there is no core.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut6, Question ID: ut6

Increasing the frequency of the signal applied to an inductor

  • a. increases current flow.

  • b. increases the inductor impedance.

  • c. decreases the inductor impedance.

  • d. decreases the amount of cemf produced.

3-43

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut7, Question ID: ut7

Two 7-mH inductors in series have a combined inductance of

  • a. 7 mH.

  • b. 3.5 mH.

  • c. 7.5 mH.

  • d. 14 mH.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut8, Question ID: ut8

Increasing the number of inductors in series

  • a. decreases total inductance.

  • b. increases circuit current.

  • c. increases impedance.

  • d. decreases cemf.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut9, Question ID: ut9

Increasing the number of inductors in parallel

  • a. decreases total inductance.

  • b. decreases circuit current.

  • c. increases impedance.

  • d. increases cemf.

Location: Unit Test Question page: sut10, Question ID: ut10

The current in an inductor

  • a. leads the voltage by 45°.

  • b. leads the voltage by 90°.

  • c. lags the voltage by 90°.

  • d. lags the voltage by 45°.

3-44

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

TROUBLESHOOTING

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2a

Connect the channel 2 oscilloscope probe across R1, which is the output (VR1) of the full-wave bridge rectifier. Are both alternations of the ac input waveform being rectified to dc pulses atthe output?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba2, Question ID: trba2c

VR1 =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 6.93

Min/Max Value: (6.237) to (7.623) Value Calculation: 6.930 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrba3, Question ID: trba3

6. The faulty component is

  • a. T1 (an open secondary coil).

  • b. R1 (shorted).

  • c. D2 (shorted).

  • d. T1 (an open primary coil).

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2a

Connect the channel 2 oscilloscope probe across R1, which is the output (VR1) of the full-wave bridge rectifier. Are both alternations of the ac input waveform being rectified to dc pulses at the output?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

3-45

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb2, Question ID: trbb2c

V R1 =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 6.93

Min/Max Value: (6.237) to (7.623) Value Calculation: 6.930 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbb3, Question ID: trbb3

  • 6. The faulty component is

    • a. T1 (an open secondary coil).

    • b. R1 (shorted).

    • c. D2 (shorted).

    • d. T1 (an open primary coil).

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbc2, Question ID: trbc2a

Connect the channel 2 oscilloscope probe across the output (R1 and R2). Is the output essentially a constant dc voltage signal with no observable ripple?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbc2, Question ID: trbc2c

  • 4. With a multimeter, mesure the dc voltage of the output (Vo).

Vo =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 20.2

Min/Max Value: (17.17) to (23.23) Value Calculation: 20.2 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 15 Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbc3, Question ID: trbc3

  • 6. The faulty component is

    • a. CR2 (shorted).

    • b. CR1 (open).

    • c. C2 (open or not connected).

    • d. C1 (open or not connected).

3-46

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbd2, Question ID: trbd2a

Connect the channel 2 oscilloscope probe across the output (R1 and R2). Is the output essentially a constant dc voltage signal with no observable ripple?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbd2, Question ID: trbd2c

  • 4. With a multimeter, mesure the dc voltage of the output (Vo).

Vo =

Vdc

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 20.2

Min/Max Value: (17.17) to (23.23)

Value Calculation: 20.2 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 15 Correct Plus Tolerance = 15

Location: Troubleshooting page: ttrbd3, Question ID: trbd3

  • 6. The faulty component is

    • a. CR2 (shorted).

    • b. CR1 (open).

    • c. C2 (open or not connected).

    • d. C1 (open or not connected).

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

Fault 7

Fault 9

Fault 10

Fault 11

3-47

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 3 – Inductance

3-48

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

UNIT 4 – INDUCTIVE REACTANCE

UNIT OBJECTIVE

Determine the characteristics of resistive-inductive (RL) circuits by using an oscilloscope and given information.

UNIT FUNDAMENTALS

Location: Unit Fundamentals page: sf4, Question ID: f4a

If the frequency of the power source (Vac) increases from 1 kHz to 10 kHz, inductive reactance (X L )

  • a. increases.

  • b. decreases.

  • c. remains the same.

CMS AVAILABLE

None

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

NEW TERMS AND WORDS

inductive reactance (XL) - the opposition to the flow of alternating current by the inductance of a circuit. It is measured in ohms. phasor - a quantity consisting of magnitude and direction used to describe an ac waveform.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

F.A.C.E.T. base unit AC 1 FUNDAMENTALS circuit board Multimeter Oscilloscope, dual trace Generator, sine wave

3-49

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Exercise 1 – Inductive Reactance

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Determine inductive reactance (X L ) by using calculated and measured values. Verify results

with an oscilloscope.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d3, Question ID: e1d3a

If L1 is decreased from 1 mH to 0.5 mH, inductive reactance

  • a. increases.

  • b. decreases.

  • c. remains the same.

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se1d5, Question ID: e1d5a

When a sine wave of 30 kHz is applied to n inductor of 1 mH, inductive reactance is:

  • a. 5000 ohms.

  • b. 5.31 x 10 ohms.

  • c. 188 ohms.

3-50

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p4, Question ID: e1p4a

I ac = V R2 /R2 =

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: Iaca

Nominal Answer: 5.4

Min/Max Value: (3.78) to (7.02) Value Calculation: 5.400 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p5, Question ID: e1p5a

V L3 =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL3a

Nominal Answer: 9.6

Min/Max Value: (6.72) to (12.48) Value Calculation: 9.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p6, Question ID: e1p6a

X L3 =

Recall Label for this Question: XL

Nominal Answer: 1778.0

Min/Max Value: (928.5) to ( 3401) Value Calculation: #VL3a#/(#Iaca#/1000) Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

NOTE: Min/Max Values shown are based upon a calculation using the absolute lowest and highest recall value. By using the actual input in your calculations, you will determine the correct value.

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AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p7, Question ID: e1p7a

  • 7. Calculate the value of X L3 . X L3 = 2πfL =

Recall Label for this Question: XL1

Nominal Answer: 1771.0

Min/Max Value: ( 1718) to ( 1824)

Value Calculation: 1771.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p8, Question ID: e1p8a

  • 8. Comparing your values of X L3 from the practical method (#XL#) and the calculated method

(#XL1#), does it appear that either method can be used?

a.

yes

b.

no

I ac = V R2 /R2 =

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p10, Question ID: e1p10a

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: IaL3

Nominal Answer: 17.6

Min/Max Value: (12.32) to (22.88)

Value Calculation: 17.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p11, Question ID: e1p11a

V L3 =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL3L

Nominal Answer: 5.6

Min/Max Value: (3.92) to (7.28) Value Calculation: 5.600 Correct Tolerance Percent = true

Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

3-52

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p13, Question ID: e1p13a

Does decreasing inductance increase or decrease inductive reactance?

  • a. increase

  • b. decrease

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p14, Question ID: e1p14a

 

V

L3

X L3 = ———

 
 

I

ac

 

=

Recall Label for this Question: XL2

Nominal Answer: 592.0

 

Min/Max Value: (414.4) to (769.6)

Value Calculation: 592.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p15, Question ID: e1p15a

14.

Compare your values of inductive reactance at 60 kHz (#XL#) and at 20 kHz (#XL2#).

Does decreasing the frequency of the applied signal increase or decrease inductive reactance?

  • a. increase

 
  • b. decrease

 

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p16, Question ID: e1p16a

15.

Adjust the frequency of the generator to 60 kHzand V GEN for 8 V pk-pk . Remeasure the

circuit current (I ac ) and voltage drop across L3 (V L3 ). Calculate X L3 with the generator

amplitude at 8 V pk-pk .

 
 

V

L3

X L3 = ———

 
 

I

ac

 

=

Recall Label for this Question: XL3

Nominal Answer: 1777.0

Min/Max Value: ( 1244) to ( 2310)

Value Calculation: 1777.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

3-53

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se1p17, Question ID: e1p17a

16. Compare your value of inductive reactance at a generator input of 10 V pk-pk (#XL#) and 8 V pk-pk (#XL3#). Decreasing the amplitude of the applied signal causes inductive reactance to

  • a. increase.

  • b. decrease.

  • c. remain the same.

REVIEW QUESTIONS

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1a

  • 1. Locate the INDUCTANCE/INDUCTIVE REACTANCE circuit block on the AC 1

FUNDAMENTALS circuit board. Connect the circuit shown. Adjust V GEN for a 10 V pk-pk , 60

kHz sine wave.

V

L3

X L3 = ——— =

I

ac

Recall Label for this Question: XL4

 

Nominal Answer: 1777.0

Min/Max Value: ( 1244) to ( 2310)

Value Calculation: 1777.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1c

  • 1. CM 16 alters the value of L3. Remeasure the circuit current (I ac ) and voltage drop across L3

(V L3 ). Calculate X L3 with CM 16 activated.

V

L3

X L3 = ——— =

I

ac

Recall Label for this Question: XL5

Nominal Answer: 5539.0

Min/Max Value: ( 3600) to ( 7478)

Value Calculation: 5539.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 35 Correct Plus Tolerance = 35

3-54

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Review Questions page: se1r1, Question ID: e1r1

  • 1. Compare your value of inductive reactance before CM 16 was activated (#XL4#) with the

value after CM 16 activated (#XL5#). You conclude that CM 16

  • a. decreased the inductance.

  • b. increased the amplitude of V GEN .

  • c. increased inductance.

  • d. decreased X L3 .

Location: Review Questions page: se1r2, Question ID: e1r2

  • 2. A 10 kHz, 12 V pk-pk sine wave applied to an inductor measuring 1.0 mH has an inductive

reactance (X L ) of

  • a. 62.8.

  • b. 14.1.

  • c. 590.

  • d. 7.8 k.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r3, Question ID: e1r3

  • 3. Increasing the amplitude of the signal applied to an inductor

    • a. decreases inductive reactance.

    • b. has no effect on inductive reactance.

    • c. increases inductive reactance.

    • d. decreases circuit current.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r4, Question ID: e1r4

  • 4. Inductive reactance increases when

    • a. frequency increases.

    • b. inductance decreases.

    • c. frequency decreases.

    • d. amplitude increases.

Location: Review Questions page: se1r5, Question ID: e1r5

  • 5. The equation used to determine inductive reactance (X L = 2πfL) in this exercise is valid for

    • a. sine waves and square waves.

    • b. square waves only.

    • c. sine waves only.

    • d. all ac waveforms.

3-55

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

CMS AVAILABLE

CM 17

CM 16

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None

3-56

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Exercise 2 – Series RL Circuits

EXERCISE OBJECTIVE

Determine characteristics of series RL circuits by using calculated and measured values. Verify results with an oscilloscope.

EXERCISE DISCUSSION

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4a

The total value of resistance (R T ) in the series RL circuit shown is 1700(R T = R1 + R2 + R3). The total value of inductive reactance (X LT ) is

  • a. 600.

  • b. 2500.

  • c. 1000.

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d4, Question ID: e2d4c

__________ Z = R T 2 + X LT 2

=

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 3023.0

Min/Max Value: ( 2932) to ( 3114)

Value Calculation: 3023.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d6, Question ID: e2d6a

______________ Vac = V RT 2 + V XLT 2 V

=

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 10.0

Min/Max Value: (9.7) to (10.3) Value Calculation: 10.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 3 Correct Plus Tolerance = 3

3-57

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Discussion page: se2d8, Question ID: e2d8a

θ =

degrees

Recall Label for this Question: None

Nominal Answer: 52.8

Min/Max Value: (47.52) to (58.08)

Value Calculation: 52.800 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 10 Correct Plus Tolerance = 10

EXERCISE PROCEDURE

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p4, Question ID: e2p4a

I T = V R2 /R 2 =

mA pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: IT10

Nominal Answer: 12.7

Min/Max Value: (10.16) to (15.24)

Value Calculation: 12.700 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 20 Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p5, Question ID: e2p5a

  • V L3

X L3 = ——— =

  • I T

Recall Label for this Question: XL6

Nominal Answer: 590.0

Min/Max Value: (472) to (708) Value Calculation: 590.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true

Correct Minus Tolerance = 20 Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

3-58

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p6, Question ID: e2p6a

  • V GEN

Z = ———— =

  • I T

Recall Label for this Question: Z10

Nominal Answer: 787.0

Min/Max Value: (550.9) to ( 1023)

Value Calculation: 787.000 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 30 Correct Plus Tolerance = 30

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p7, Question ID: e2p7a

8. Compare your value of Z (#Z10#) with the individual values of R T and X LT . Can impedance (Z) be determined by directly adding R T and X LT ? a. yes

b. no

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p9, Question ID: e2p9a

V L3 =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: VL3d

Nominal Answer: 7.5

Min/Max Value: (6) to (9) Value Calculation: 7.500 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 20 Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p10, Question ID: e2p10a

V R1 =

V pk-pk

Recall Label for this Question: Vr1d

Nominal Answer: 5.9

Min/Max Value: (4.72) to (7.08) Value Calculation: 5.900 Correct Tolerance Percent = true Correct Minus Tolerance = 20 Correct Plus Tolerance = 20

3-59

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p11, Question ID: e2p11a

  • 12. Compare the applied value of V GEN with V R1 and V L3 . In a series RL circuit, does V GEN

equal the sum of the individual component drops?

  • a. yes

  • b. no

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p13, Question ID: e2p13a

  • 13. Observe the phase angle (θ) between the circuit current (circuit current and V R2 have

identical phase) and V GEN . Use V GEN as a reference. Does the circuit current lead or lag the

applied generator voltage?

  • a. lead

  • b. lag

Location: Exercise Procedure page: se2p15, Question ID: e2p15a

  • 15. Observe the phase angle (θ) between the circuit current and V GEN . Use V GEN as a

reference. Did the added series inductor increase or decrease the phase angle between V GEN and

 

circuit current?

a.

decrease

b.

increase

REVIEW

Location: Review Questions page: se2r1, Question ID: e2r1

1. While observing the oscilloscope, toggle the CM off and on by clicking on <CM>. Based on your observation of the circuit current, you conclude that adding a series inductor to this circuit

a.

increased circuit current.

b.

decreased circuit impedance.

c.

had no effect on circuit current.

d.

decreased circuit current.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r2, Question ID: e2r2

2. An RL circuit containing three series-connected inductors with reactances of 200, 500, and 1500has a total inductive reactance of

a.

131.

b.

2.5 k.

c.

2.2 k.

d.

150.

3-60

AC1 Fundamentals

Unit 4 – Inductive Reactance

Location: Review Questions page: se2r3, Question ID: e2r3

  • 3. In a series RL circuit, the applied generator voltage equals the

    • a. square root of the sum of the squares of the individual voltage drops across the individual resistors and inductors.

    • b. sum of the voltage drops across the individual resistive components.

    • c. square root of the sum of the squares of the individual voltage drops across the inductors.

    • d. sum of the voltage drops across the individual resistors and inductors.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r4, Question ID: e2r4

  • 4. The total inductive reactance of inductors in series is

    • a. determined from the reciprocal formula.

    • b. the sum of the individual reactances.

    • c. the sum of the individual inductances.

    • d. the reciprocal of the individual inductances.

Location: Review Questions page: se2r5, Question ID: e2r5

  • 5. The phase angle between the applied generator and circuit current in a series RL circuit is

    • a. 90°.

    • b. 180°.

    • c. greater than 90°.

    • d. less than 90°.

CMS AVAILABLE

CM 17 TOGGLE CM 16 TOGGLE

FAULTS AVAILABLE

None