Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar

ZFHF ZVS \PEYF

introduction to the zohar

R

abbi H . izkiyah opened, ``Like

maidens
3

(Song of Songs

a rose 1 among thorns, so is my beloved among the 2 2:2). Who is a rose ? Assembly of Israel. For there is a
1

rose, and then there is a rose! Just as a rose among thorns is colored red and white, so Assembly of Israel includes judgment and compassion. Just as a rose has thirteen petals, so Assembly of Israel has thirteen qualities of compassion surrounding Her on every side.
1.
4

Similarly, from the moment

OK FN B

(Elohim),

rose

FR [G [

(Shoshanah)

probably

with them. The lovers in the Song of Songs are pictured as the divine couple:

means ``lily'' or ``lotus'' in Song of Songs, but here Rabbi H . izkiyah has in mind a rose. See Vayiqra Rabbah 23:3; Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 2:2; Zohar 1:137a, 221a; 2:20a (MhN ), 189b; 3:107a, 180b, 233b, 286b; Ezra of Gerona, Peirush Shir ha-Shirim, 489 (lily); Joseph ibn Akhnin, Peirush Shir ha-Shirim, Â n, Sefer ha63±65 (rose); Moses de Leo Rimmon, 183±84; Zohorei Ya'bets. A Ladino translation of the verse (The Ladino Five Scrolls, ed. Lazar, 4±5) reads: Commo la roza entre los espinos, ansi mi Äera entre las duen Äas. conpan 2.

Tif'eret and
As is

Shekhinah.
3.

gallica versicolor di ), one of the

colored red and white
(also known as

Rosa Rosa mun-

oldest of the striped roses,

whose flowers are crimson splashed on a white background. The striping varies and occasionally flowers revert to the solid pink of their parent,

Rosa gallica.

The parent was

introduced to Europe in the twelfth or thirteenth century by Crusaders returning from Palestine. Both parent and sport were famous for their aromatic and medicinal qualities. Elsewhere (2:20a±b) the

Assembly of Israel NBZ[K \SRM (Kene-

Zohar

alludes

set Yisra'el ). In rabbinic Hebrew, this phrase
denotes the people of Israel. The midrash on the Song of Songs describes an allegorical love affair between the maiden (the earthly communit y of Israel) and her lover (the Holy One, blessed be He). See

to the process of distilling oil from the petals of the flower to produce rose water, a popular remedy. During this process the 4. thirteen petals . . . thirteen qualities of compassion . . . A rose blossom can have thirteen petals in its second tier. In rabbinic tradition, God's thirteen attributes of compassion are derived from Exodus 34:6±7. See BT color gradually changes from red to white.

im Rabbah

on 2:1. In the

Shir ha-ShirZohar, Keneset YisShekhinah, the di-

ra'el can refer to the earthly community but
also (often primarily) to vine feminine counterpart of the people, the aspect of God most intimately connected

Rosh ha-Shanah

17b. According to Kab-

balah, these qualities originate in

Keter, the

[1:1a]

the zohar

[1:1a]

God,

is mentioned, it generates thirteen words to surround Assembly of Israel
5

and protect Her; then it is mentioned again. sturdy leaves surrounding the rose. five gates.
8 6

Why again? To produce five
7

These five are called Salvation;

they are

Concerning this mystery it is written:

I raise the cup of salvation

(Psalms 116:13). This is the cup of blessing, which should rest on five fingersÐ and no more Ðlike the rose, sitting on five sturdy leaves, paradigm of five fingers. This rose is the cup of blessing. ``From the second
9

OKFNB (Elohim) till the third, five words appear. From here
10

on: lightÐcreated, concealed, contained in the covenant, emitting seed into Her. This is the 1:12).
11

entering the rose, (Genesis

tree bearing fruit with its seed in it

That seed endures in the actual sign of covenant. Just as the image of

the covenant is sown in forty-two couplings of that seed, so the engraved, explicit name
highest
12

is sown in forty-two letters of the act of Creation.''
10.

13

sefirah, the realm of total compassion

untainted by judgment.

2

5.

The divine name here to

OKFNB (Elohim), God, is mentioned . . . OKFNB (Elohim), God, refers
Binah, the Divine Mother. Between

H . agigah

lightÐcreated, concealed . . .

See BT

12a: ``Rabbi El'azar said, `With the

light created by the blessed Holy One on the first day, one could gaze and see from one end of the universe to the other. When the blessed Holy One foresaw the corrupt deeds of the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion [the generation of the Tower of Babel], He immediately hid it from them, as is written:

its first and second occurrences in the opening verses of Genesis there are thirteen words, which allude to the thirteen qualities of compassion originating in ing from

Keter, emanat-

Binah and surrounding the rose of
The leaves of

The light of the

Shekhinah.
6.

five sturdy leaves . . .

wicked is withheld
to come.'''

(Job 38:15). For whom

did He hide it? For the righteous in the time

rose plants grow in clusters of five, nine, or thirteen leaves. And bet ween the second and third occurrences of

Elsewhere, the Midrash links the hidden

OK FNB

(Elohim) in

Genesis are five words, alluding to five divine leaves: the five

sefirot emanating from

Binah and transmitting the flow to Shekhinah. These sefirot are H . esed, Gevurah, Tif'eret (including Yesod ), Netsah . , and Hod.
7.

Light is sown for the righteous. See Tanh uma, Shemini 9; Shemot . Rabbah 35:1; Midrash Tehillim 27:1. Rabbi H . izkiyah now specifies where the
light with Psalms 97:11: primordial light was concealed: in the covenant, which is a name for the

Salvation

sefirah of

The flow of emanation

YesodÐthe divine phallus, site of the covenant of circumcision. Righteous. See

saves the rose of

Shekhinah from the demoBy which one enters the

Yesod is also known as
1:21a, 31b±32a, 45b;

nic thorns surrounding Her. 8.

five gates

Zohar

2:35a, 148b±149a; 166b±167a, 230a. 11. tree bearing fruit . . . bolizes male divinity. 12. The tree sym-

divine realm. 9.

cup of blessing . . . on five fingers . . .
Berakhot
51a: ``One takes

According to the Talmud, the cup of wine is held in the right hand during the blessing after food. See BT

YHVH. See Devarim Rabbah 3:8; Midrash Te-

explicit name
Zohar

The Ineffable Name,

hillim

it with both hands and places it on the right hand.'' Cf. 143b, 157b.

Zohar

1:156a ( ST ), 250a; 2:138b,

forty-two couplings . . . forty-two letters of the act of Creation The forty-two13. letter name is mentioned in the name of

114:9;

2:48a.

[1:1b]

Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar

blossoms have appeared on the earth, the time of pruning has arrived; the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land (Song of Songs 2:12). The blossoms are the act of Creation, which appeared on the earth. When? On the third day, as is written: The earth brought forth vegetation (Genesis 1:12). Then they appeared on the earth. The time of pruning has arrivedÐ the fourth day, on which the pruning of tyrants (Isaiah 25:5) took place.14 \ZBP (Me'orot), lights, spelled 15 deficiently. The voice of the turtledove is the fifth day, as is written: Let the waters swarm [with a swarm of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth, across the expanse of the sky] (Genesis 1:20), generating offspring. Is heard is the sixth day, as is written: Let us make a human being (Genesis 1:26), who was

\K[BZC (Be-reshit), In the beginning.

Rabbi Shim'on opened, `` The

destined to declare acting before hearing, for here is written: [1b] (Na'aseh),

Let us make, a human being, and there is written: F[TR (Na'aseh), We will do, and we will listen (Exodus 24:7).16 In our land is the Sabbath day,
paradigm of the land of eternal life.
17

F [T R

3

Rav, though not recorded, in BT

Qiddushin

the pruning of humans by the demonic tyrants (OY ).

71a. According to one later view, it consists of the first forty-two letters of the Torah, from the

C

through the (Genesis 1:2). See

C

(bet)

of

(bet)

\ K [ B Z C (Be-reshit) of G F C (bohu), void
11b, s.v.

ciently

15.

\ZBP (Me'orot),

lights,

spelled defi-

In Genesis 1:14, the word

\Z B P

(me'orot) is written without

vavs, the vowel

letters. (Such variant spelling is common in

KP 1:46c±d; Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, 94±95; cf. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed, 1:62. Cordovero (OY ) describes
how the name

Tosafot, H . agigah

ein doreshin;

the Torah and affects neither pronunciation nor the plain meaning of the words.) This deficient spelling implies that something was missing on the fourth day of Creation, a lack representing the potential for evil or ``curse'':

YHVH (``the engraved, explicit

name'') can be permuted into a forty-twoletter name; cf.

FZBP

(me'erah).

Zohar

2:260a. In

Zohar

1:9a,

See Proverbs 3:33; JT

Moses' staff is described as ``radiating the engraved name in every direction with the radiance of the wise who engraved the

Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana Rashi and Minh . at Shai Zohar 1:12a, 19b, 33b.

5:1;

Ta'anit 4:4, Soferim
on Genesis

68b; 17:4; 1:14;

explicit name in forty-two colors.'' Cf.

Zohar
which

16. We will do and we will listen

Spo-

1:15b, 30a; 2:130b, and 175b: ``. . . the forty-two holy letters of the holy name, by heaven and earth were created.'' 14. pruning of tyrants . . .

ken by the people of Israel at Mount Sinai. With these words, Israel demonstrated true faith by committing themselves to fulfill and enact God's word even before hearing the details. See BT 17. to BT

ZKPH (Zemir) is

usually translated ``singing of '' in this verse, but Rabbi Shim'on understands it as ``pruning of,'' i.e., the pruning of the demonic powers, the

Berakhot

paradigm of the land . . .

Shabbat

88a.

According

57b, the Sabbath is ``a reflec-

tyrants (KP ;

cf.

Zohar

3:4b), or

tion of the world to come.''

the zohar
``The tion
18

[1:1b]

blossoms

are the Patriarchs, who entered the divine mind before Crea19

and entered the world that is coming,

where they were treasured away.

From there, they emerged secretly and were concealed within prophets of truth.
20

When Joseph was born, they were concealed within him.

21

When

Joseph entered the Holy Land, he planted them there. Then they

appeared on

earth,

were revealed there. When are they visible? When the rainbow is re22

vealed in the world.

When the rainbow appears, they are revealed. Then, the time of pruning has arrived, time to excise the wicked from the world. Why are they spared? Because the blossoms have appeared on the earth. Had they not appeared, they would not remain in the world,23 nor would the world endure.
24

Who sustains the world, enabling the Patriarchs to be revealed? The voice of children engaging in Torah. Corresponding to them, For the sake of those children, the world is saved. (Song of Songs 1:11).

We will make you wreaths of gold
See

18.

4

reshit Rabbah

Patriarchs, who entered . . .

Be-

1:4: ``Six things preceded

Creation. . . . The Patriarchs arose in thought [i.e., were intended] to be created.'' In the Kabbalah, the Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob) represent the triad of

Cf. Bahir 106 (160); Asher ben David, Peirush Shelosh Esreh Middot, in Kabbalah 2 Â n, Sheqel ha(1997): 293; Moses de Leo Qodesh, 26 (30); idem, Sod Eser Sefirot, 375; Zohar 1:83a, 92a. 20.

sefirot:

H . esed, Gevurah, and Tif'eret. Cf. Zohar 1:39b,
97a±b; 3:4b. 19. (Alma

prophets of truth

The

sefirot of se-

Netsah . and Hod, the source of prophecy.
21.

the world that is coming K\BE BPNT
BC F ON G TF
(ha-olam

Joseph . . .

Joseph symbolizes the

firah of Yesod, the divine phallus, since he
withstood the test of sexual temptation in Egypt (Genesis 39). The upper triad of (H . esed,

de-atei ), the Aramaic equivalent of the ha-ba),

rabbinic Hebrew

sefirot

``the world that is coming.'' This concept is often understood as referring to the hereafter and is usually translated as ``the world to come.'' From another point of view, however, ``the world that is coming'' already exists, occupying another dimension. See

Gevurah, and Tif'eret) flow into him, Yesod enters Shekhinah (``the Holy

and when

Land,'' ``earth''), the sefirotic triad is planted there and revealed. Though Joseph never returned to the land of Israel, his bones did. See Joshua 24:32. 22.

Tan-

ha-ba not because it does not exist now, but
for us today in this world it is still to come.'' Cf. Maimonides,

h . uma, Vayiqra

8: ``The wise call it

ha-olam

When the rainbow is revealed . . .
Yesod and She-

The rainbow symbolizes both

shuvah 8:8; Judaism, 37:

and Guttmann,

Mishneh Torah, Hilkhot TePhilosophies of

khinah, in whose union H . esed, Gevurah, and Tif'eret are revealed in their respective colors:
white, red, and green. 23.

```The world to come' does not

they would not remain . . .
See BT

The

succeed `this world' in time, but exists from eternity as a reality outside and above time, to which the soul ascends.'' In Kabbalah ``the world that is coming'' often refers to

wicked would not remain. 24.

bat

voice of children . . .

Shab-

119b: ``Resh Lakish said in the name of

Rabbi Yehudah the Prince, `The world endures only for the sake of the breath of children in the house of study.''' Cf. 1:146b; 3:17b.

Binah, the continuous source

of emanation, who gives birth to the lower

Zohar

sefirot. See Zohar 3:290b (IZ ): ``the world that
is coming, constantly coming, never ceasing.''

[1:1b]

Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar

These are little children, youngsters, as is written: (Exodus 25:18).''
25

Make two cherubim of gold

your eyes \K[BZC (Be-reshit), In the beginning. on high and see: Who created these? (Isaiah 40:26). Lift your eyes on high. To which site? The site toward which all eyes gaze. Which is that? Opening of the eyes.26 There you will discover that this concealed ancient one, susceptible 27 to questioning, created these . Who is that? Who. The one called End of
Heaven above,
28

Rabbi El'azar opened, ``Lift

whose domain extends over every thing. Since it can be ques-

tioned, yet remains concealed and unrevealed, it is called no question.
29

Who.

Beyond, there is

25. Make two cherubim . . .

In BT

Suk-

turns into quest. See Shim'on Lavi,

KP,

kah

5b, Rabbi Abbahu interprets the word (keruv), ``cherub,'' as

1:91a: ``Concerning every thing that cannot be grasped, its question constitutes its answer.'' See

CGZM

B KC Z M

(ke-ravya),

``like a child.'' The plump childlike angels of Christian art derive either from this tradition or from the Greco-Roman Erotes, ``loves.'' Here Rabbi Shim'on relates the golden cherubim to the golden wreaths of the Song of Songs, concluding that both images allude to children. 26. Opening of the eyes OKRKT I\V (Petah . einayim). The phrase originates in Genesis 38:14, where it means ``the entrance to Einayim,'' a village where Tamar seduced her father-in-law, Judah. The midrash on Genesis (Bereshit

5
1:29b±30a, 45b, 85b±86a, 237b;

Zohar

2:126b±127a, 138a, 139b, 226a, 231b. 28.

For ask now of primal days, which were before you: from the day that God created humankind on earth, and from one end of heaven to the other. In BT H . agigah 11b, this verse is interpreted as imposing
onomy 4:32: a limit on cosmological speculation: ``You may inquire concerning

End of Heaven above

See Deuter-

from one end of hea-

ven to the other,

but you may not inquire

Rabbah

85:7) discovers a dee-

concerning what is above, what is below, what came before, what will come after.'' See M

per meaning: ``Rabbi [Yehudah the Prince] said, `We have searched through the entire Bible and have not found a place called

Pe-

H . agigah

2:1;

Bereshit Rabbah

1:10.

These restrictions on cosmological speculation recall the Gnostic striving after ``the knowledge of who we were, what we have become, where we were, where we have been thrown, where we hasten, from what we are redeemed, what birth is and what

tah . Einayim? This in. Einayim. What is Petah
dicates that she [Tamar] gazed at the opening toward which all eyes gaze and said, `May it be the divine will that I not leave this house empty.''' In the ing is identified with

Zohar,

this open-

Shekhinah, gateway to Binah, the Divine
A spiritual seeker

the divine. See 3:71b±72a. 27.

Who

KP

(Mi ).

Mother, is called

Who.

may inquire about Her, but such questions do not yield ordinary answers. The identity of the divine is discovered only in a realm beyond words. The mystical name

Excerpts from Theodotus 78:2). See Zohar 1:30a; Moses  n, Sheqel ha-Qodesh, 31; idem, Sefer de Leo ha-Rimmon, 20, 375; idem, Sod Eser Sefirot Belimah, 371.
rebirth'' (Clement of Alexandria, 29.

Beyond . . .

The realms beyond

Bi-

Who

nah, namely, H . okhmah, Keter, and Ein Sof,
are so unknowable that no question concerning them can even be formulated.

be-

comes a focus of meditation, as question

'' See Gerona. Israel low state of exile. as before. 183b. Israel resembles Shekhinah perfectly. J [ V \ P G.'' 32. Shekhinah. concealed oneÐcalled questioned. . until the earthly Jerusalem is restored. called What. See Zohar 2:127a. . 39: ``Thought expands ( \J [ V \P . . . What can I liken . . the holy people do not enter you in holy array. a city bound together (Psalms 122:3). 3:15b. I call heaven and earth . 36. another name for Shekhinah (What ) are compared.the zohar [1:1b] ``This end of heaven is called Who. and Azriel of Peirush ha-Aggadot. symbolizes 33. . precisely! this rung Shekhinah. ibid. When it reaches there. Zohar 1:80b Cr reads here: expands. her ruin is vast as the Shekhinah. as is written: witness against you this day precisely! 33 (Deuteronomy 30:19). What as a witness to you. . Ta'anit 5a. Earth Psalms 122:3. When the holy Temple was destroyed. He fashioned another above. since days of old. Umphashpesh. 31 WhoÐcan contemplating and knowing rung after rung to the very last rungÐonce one reaches there: What? What do you know? What have you contemplated? For what have you searched? All is concealed. 31. Just as now. a name for She- 35. uma. . really! you say you cannot endure or That concealed. Bahir 134 (194). BT ( ST ). and ocean. u-mitpashshet.. mitpashshetet) and asce- nds to its source.'' See Revelation 21:2. last of the ten sefirot. so I swear to you that I Myself will not enter above until your inhabitants enter you below. 32 I compare you to I crowned you with holy crowns. to console you? (Lamentaworld.). daughter of Binah . ``and aligned with Jerusalem below. I called you Jerusalem built up. shares Israel's exile. 13). The khinah. 1: ``There is a Jerusalem above and searches [V[VPG. 37. be 36 35 This is your But now that you are your ruin is vast as the ocean (ibid. . . I Myself will not enter . as it were. 231a. Every single day I have called witnesses against you. gave you dominion over the 6 Is this the city that was called perfect crown of beauty.). here. blessed Holy One promises not to enter the heavenly Jerusalem. 34 Just as you sit desolate. Now. Targum Yonatan . joy of all the earth? (Lamentations 2:15). it is stopped and can ascend no further.30 be What distinguishes the two? The first. above and below Heaven. who 34. 68b. There is another below. a voice cried out: `What can I take as a witness to you? What can I I call heaven and earth to What. Once a human being questions and searches. then Who will heal you (ibid. Again. consolation: I compare this rung to you completely. . What. high rung in which all exists will heal you and raise you up. I compare you to Shekhinah.37 Yet if healed. 30. But now that you are here. He has sworn that His presence will not enter the heavenly Jerusalem until the earthly Jerusalem is rebuilt. so it is above. your ruin Now that Israel has fallen to the is vast . See Tif'eret. . 147b. who is called Pequdei Tanh . What FP (Mah). Binah and Shekhinah comprise the t wo ends of heaven. 128b. What can I liken to you. as is written: tions. Out of His love for the one below. ``Concerning this mystery it is written: What can I take as a witness to you? What can I compare to you? compare to you?' I take (Lamentations 2:13).

my son. 231a. Elijah `Rabbi.' they are always visible there and were created by What. implying that there is something new by you. in which case a better rendering would be: ``Complete your words. Rabbi Shim'on said. I answered. as is written: (Psalms 8:4. ``El'azar. . such would not be referred to as these. Thus the heavens were made by Her (also known as Tif'eret. ``Recite for me your verse''. Rabbi Shim'on wept and paused for a moment. Elsewhere (ZH . who spans the from Binah (Who). so that the concealed mystery on high. unknown to any human. Rabbi Shim'on explores the meaning of 41. Lift up your eyes and see: Who created these? Now that the mystical meaning of Who has been established. `Stars and constellations. Who created these. ``El'azar. 7 38. cf.'' 40. 73c [ShS]) Elijah So why encourages him to reveal the secrets and says (62c). 19±21.'' this.'' Rabbi El'azar was silent. ``My words will be written would the verse say. Binah (Who) to Shekhinah (What ). do you know the meaning of 43 came and asked me. YHVH our Lord. H . According to the Bible (2 Pesoq Kings 11:12). the central sefirah. 3:221a. 193b. cease your words. Elijah instruction! they are always visible there these.'' See BT 15a±b: pesoq li pesuqekha. So. 39 ``Who is End of Heaven above. . the work of [2a] Your fingers.42 As for things concealed. The this description to of YHVH symbolizes Shekhinah.38 from first end. are 121b) and revealing divine secrets to righteous humans (BT In Kabbalah Bava Metsi'a mystical experiences known as revelations of Elijah. Jacob inherited running from end to end (Exodus 26:28). The word tion of the central wooden beam of the Tabernacle in the desert. as is said: By the word of YHVH the heavens were made (Psalms 33:6). to last end. 59d. the prophet Elijah did not die a normal death but was carried off to heaven in a chariot of fire.'' or ``Cut your words. turns to On the Kabbalah. these In the verse from Isaiah 40:26: Bava Batra 59b). the work of the blessed Holy One. running from end to end A descrip- 42. . See 43.'' to see? .[1:2a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar What is End of Heaven below. Zohar ``Cease'' fits the context of our passage. Then he said. He became associated w ith the Messianic age (Malachi 3:23±24) and in rabbinic tradition is described as ``still existing'' (BT millekha. but the ambiguity may be intentional. See 1:148b ( ST ). sefirot What ). for he stands in the middle. Who. the moon and stars that You set in place. what is these?40 41 If you answer. Lift up your eyes and see. for that word indicates something revealed. cease your words LKNP YGSV. `These are Who created these?' the heavens and their array. See Scholem. 70d. Zohar Zohar 39. Human beings When I behold Your heavens. . 63d. agigah 1:238b. not by symbolized by Jacob. may be revealed. 3:191a. who conveys Zohar applies the divine essence. 10). . Elijah 1:119b. This mystery was only revealed one day when I was at the seashore. In Zohar 3:241b Rabbi Shim'on for 1:151a. What. By the word of YHVH . L Y G SV K N Y G SV . Zohar ZH . how majestic is Your name throughout the earth! should contemplate them and bless Him. The phrase could also be translated: ``utter your words.

sefirot (FNB [elleh]. Qohelet Zuta 5:17.the zohar [1:2a] ``Elijah said to me. 48. . From him I discovered the word. are your gods. Zohar often in the 1:148b. . a deep structure emerging from thought. These. their mysterious Binah (KP Who).'' 42±43. 240a. 55. . Elohim refers not only to Binah. Binah was not (Elohim) until She emanated Concealed of all Concealed single point the seven lower Ein Sof or 53. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 3:11. 122a. 54. it garbed itself in a splendid. O Israel! '' (Exodus 32:8). these .' ``Then Elijah flew off. Weeping. 47. . See Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 1:3. the universe exists. culminating in the name 51 52 53 54 FNB (elleh). 121b. ``If we have come . 49 Existent and non-existent. The sefirot It drew all drawings . Academy on High The Heavenly 52. The letters letters name FNB (elleh) (these) joined with the KP (mi) (who) to form the divine OKFNB (Elohim). but also to Gevurah and Shekhinah. called by no name but Who. deep and hidden. it did not attain the name OKFNB (Elohim). KP 1:20d. . okhmah (``Wisdom''). `Seeking to be revealed. BT Berakhot 16a. H . ``FNB (Elleh). 193b. O KF N B Until it created . . graved all engravings. the most hidden recesses of divinity.'' concrete Keter. 2:99a. Who. were prefigured within divine thought before they emerged in the process of emanation. See Zohar 2:105a. 164b. they said. OKFNB (Elohim) Zohar. whose mysterious secret I have demonstrated. carving within the concealed holy lamp 48 a graving of one hidden design. called KP (Mi ). 24b. radiant garment and created OKFNB (Elohim). I did not see him. Similar excla- Binah mations appear in rabbinic literature and emanated the seven lower less hidden than to as sefirot. so the name OKFNB (Elohim) is constantly polysemous. graving of one hidden design . these letters joined . sefirot. . the origin of the structure of the seven lower 50. to be named. . . Shabbat 41a.'' Rabbi El'azar and all the Companions came and bowed down in front of him. it produced at which ascended to become thought. these) source. the word was concealed with the blessed Holy One and revealed in the Academy on High. The primordial point of Their sin was that they separated the lower. 51. . created FNB (elleh). sefirot. these. it drew all 47 drawings. These are your gods .50 F NB (Elleh) attained the name: these 8 mystery. Qohelet Rabbah on 6:2. Through this letters joined with those. holy of holies. more from [Mi]. . and human judges.'' 55 44. okhmah. 45. where souls of the righteous study Torah with God. Until it created FNB (elleh). . Within. those who sinned with the Golden Calf said `` FNB (Elleh). it is enough. . the first emanation. 49. 46 45 44 Here it is: verged on being revealed. constantly polysemous and worshiped these alone. which are Binah and therefore referred these. ``If we have come into the world only to hear this. called Academy. origin of structure. . ha-Mishqal. Just as KP (mi) is combined with FNB (elleh). 46. `When Concealed of all Concealed first a single point. as well as to angels  n. `Rabbi. The name concealed holy lamp H . . See Moses de Leo Sefer Binah. 3:26a. Based on this mystery.

in my yearning I poured out my tears. Sheqel ha-Qodesh. (Psalms 57 8:4. Shekhinah. I remember (Psalms 42:5). FP (Mah). Then She rules the world. When the masculine powers of the ``a light for its light. On the masculine Binah. the covenant. does not emerge until seven lower Binah emanates the sefirot. med from feminine to masculine. and Sukkot (Fesse- Here the verse describes both the earthly pilgrimage to the Temple and the divine procession of emanation to tival of ``Booths'').60 This one is called Sovereign.'' Shekhinah. FNB (Elleh). FP (Mah) was not so . YHVH (Exodus 23:17). from above to this site: Other letters Israel draws 63 FNB (Elleh). Pesah . conducting them to the house of Elohim with joyous shouts of praise. to attain the name. the lower sefirot. one enclothed in the other. and She adorns Herself in masculine 62 clothing in the presence of every male in Israel. the moon and stars that You set in place. and it attained a high name. the festive throng. For FP (Mah) was not so. With the arrival of these verse continues: letters. 62. Then 61 the letter F (he) departs and K (yod ) enters. Above heaven . like Him. .'' Binah attained the Shekhinah sefirot reach Shekhinah. Sovereign of all the earth (Joshua 3:11). So Shekhinah Shekhinah is adorned. Elohim. the ark of the covenant. . the Sovereign. In the beginning OKFNB 58 (Elohim) created (Genesis 1:1). 59 When does She adorn Her fittingly? When all males appear before Her. She is transfor- Elohim. OKFNB (Elohim) above. 59b. . By emanating the lower masculine. Tif'eret. . 228b. Shekhinah is the nature of 2:127b. Â n. the Divine Mother. how. 75 (95). letter F (he) . 58. 17b. So. All your males . above which lies Binah. These. will be firot must be drawn down to Shekhinah. ``So the heavens and their array were created by (Mah). . like Binah. beginning OKFNB (Elohim) sefirot.' 64 I conduct them from above to the house of Elohim. is not composed until these lettersÐ FNB (elleh)Ðare drawn from above to below and Mother lends Daughter Her garments. 96a. FP (mah). Here the command implies that the masculine power of the Shekhinah. . from (Mah) to 63. the work of Your fingers. . . sefirot above. to be Elohim. majestic is Your name throughout the earth! Your splendor is celebrated above heaven .56 as is written: When I behold Your heavens. 1). Heaven refers to See Zohar 1:33b. 72b ( ShS ). . These I remember The are commanded to appear in God's Temple in Jerusalem three times a year on the pilgrimage festivals: O KF N B Shekhinah also attains the name of (Elohim): KP (mi ) plus FNB (elleh). 61. 60. . to Her daughter. lend Her garments. . the letter K F (he) (yod ). `With my 9 mouth I mentioned them. . FP KP (Mi). Behold. . . All Israelite males and pour out my soul: how I walked with the crowd. drawing forth these letters. FP What. Only then can Binah. as is written: [ All your males shall appear ] before the Sovereign. as is said: Behold.[1:2a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Rabbi Shim'on said. Shavu'ot (Festival of ``Weeks''). The letter signifies the feminine. Then Elohim. In the What 57. to be With what? With joyous shouts of praise. For it created a light for its light. . The two meanings are linked since the human ritual below stimulates the 64. the ark . Moses de Leo 56. . the festive throng. (``Passover''). name 59. Above heaven. ark housing the sefirah of Yesod. like Him ZH . though not adorning Her with Her adornments. see Zohar 1:5b. Through the ritual of pilgrimage. the created .

it did not give birth nor bring forth what was hidden. What does this mean: by name? If you say they were called individually by nameÐnot so. Rabbi El'azar's silence stimulated his father. these. shares Her name (Elohim). Tanh . and is 71.'' Rabbi Shim'on said. as is written: The one who brings forth their array by number (Isaiah 40:26). 71 standing together. Mekhilta. Binah. also known as by Rav Dimi in BT 67. See 72. both the 600. Megillah 600. This is the meaning of calls them each by name: 72 by its very name. then by the power of this name. Shirata 10. . the interpreted as a definite article. . the lower rung. One is What. the lower rung. Pequdei 1±3. erected as one. to reveal mysteries of two realms. the other. not one is missing.' F (he) is The traditional blessing over bread. JT Berakhot 4:5. The The number represents the six sefirot between verse that Rabbi Shim'on and his son have Binah and Shekhinah. A proverb cited 18a. 69. who brings forth.] it is as if he built the heavenly and earthly palaces. `a word is worth one coin. beyond number Zohar 1:21b±22a. a temple below. it yielded them perfectly. Vayaqhel 7. . the one who is known. the meaning I aroused. . generating forces according to their kind. each of which should be inscribed. derived from Psalms 104:14. Who brings forth their array by number and calls them each by name: because of His great might and vast power.000 and their forces. `The one who brings forth bread from the earth. ``From here on. See. This is above. . beyond number. the compare. Who. . . the one below. the completion of the verse.' 66 65 `A word is worth one coin': what I said. silence. Rabbi Shim'on interprets the opening letter temple above . `The one who brings forth bread . By number: 600. beyond 69 Similarly. that is below. Rabbi Shim'on.' 70 the one who is known. Indeed.''' On the heavenly and earthly temples. as long as this rung had not ascended and was still called KP (Mi ). beyond compare Binah. `[Who- F (he) of BK XG PF (ha- ever engages in Torah for its own sake. and all is one. for then the verse should read each by its name. Earth. (Exodus 31:2): 65. two': by holding my silence. ``My silence assembled a temple above. I have called by name Bezalel `I mentioned My name so that Bezalel would attain perfect The temple 68. 70. uma. . and all is one Shekhinah is modeled on a word is worth . Shemot Rabbah 33:4. I have called by name Bezalel Referring to the chief artisan of the Tabernacle in the Sinai Desert. see motsi ). See.the zohar [1:2a] Rabbi El'azar said.000. two. two worlds were created. though all of them were hidden within. . as a definite article (``the one who'') rather than simply a relative pronoun (``who''). each according to its kind. completion of the verse . 10 And calls them each by name. which generate innumerable offspring. O KF N B (Elohim). Again. Similarly. `Silence.000 . 66. 99b: ``Rav said. been expounding continues: . . it called forth each and every kind to exist perfectly. 68 is inscribed by the words: one who is known. Once it created FN B (elleh). The one above The one who brings forth their array by number. the one who is known. 67 These are two rungs. Shekhinah. Rather. below Sanhedrin above is See BT Binah. and attained its name. Who. 8c. Midrash Tehillim 30:1.

600. TZ. See Mekhilta. Before Creation. . ZH . Numbers 1:46. (Elohim). T he 600. 79.550 (Exodus 38:26. Children of Israel . `The Torah preceded the t wo thousand 80. 88c±d (MhN. odesh 3: ``If even one of them had been missing [at Mount Sinai]. nuation of the verse from Isaiah: 74. ``We find the letters backward: followed by 77 B (alef ): OKFNB BZC C (bet): Then (bara).'' Cf. as we have which attained the name Not one is missingÐnot one of those 600. . C (bet). ashevet Yisra'el 3 (1984): 97±109. . in Meh .000 . of Lakish said. next two words of the Torah begin with the first letter. Exodus 19:11. qerei Yerushalayim be-Mah . See Michal Oron. the upper world Binah. Desire''). 73 What is this? First of rungs. C (Bet) \ K[B Z C B (alef ) first.000 Israelites parallel the 600.000 generated by the power of name.000. Numb er s 1:4 6 ) . ascending there [2b] secretly. 1:62±63). followed by 78 \B created.000 divine forces. 16a. all the letters presented themselves before Him. or H ..' His great might (Isaiah 40:26). the letters were concealed w ithin the divine mind and arranged in reverse order. 76. Numbers 26:51. (et). Numbers 11:21. . Midrash Shir ha-Shirim (ed. (Befirst. First of rungs . Haqdamah. cf. from last to first. . . Bah . the first sefirah that can be identified. 75. . L. Zohar 1:205b. the The first two words of the Torah begin with the second letter of the alphabet. said. 2:231b. See Exodus 12:37. and not even one of the 600. Mekhilta de-Rasbhi.''' For two thousand years . the people were counted. . 80 73. Version 2 (Battei Midrashot. followed by followed by Rav Hamnuna Sava said. Midrash Aseret haDibberot (Beit ha-Midrash. known as See hidden away B (alef ).000 was lacking. Because not one is missing. world. . reshit). . Greenhut) 5:11. . As He verged on creating the world. on Alfa Beita de-Rabbi Aqiva. . Either Keter. In the beginning. also Ratson (``Will. so not one is missing below. The Zohar draws primarily on Alfa Beita de-Rabbi Aqiva. cited above. whenever any of the Children of Israel 76 died as punishment for their sins. not one is missing. Zohar Bereshit Rabbah creation of years. okhmah. A similar story appears in Leqah . Because of His great might and vast power.[1:2b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar existence. the world by See 8:2: ``Rabbi Shim'on son The total number of male Israelites above the age of twenty who left Egypt was approximately 600. We find the letters backward . mystery of the upper world. Tov. just as so that every thing accorded with the paradigm: not one is missing above. 2:396±404).'' \K[BZC (Be-reshit). The precise total of the first census taken in the Sinai Desert was 603. note 67. all the letters were hidden away. 78. . In the beginning. the 75 And vast powerÐ Elohim. His great might This is the conti- 77. all the letters presented themselves before Him . Rut ). 79 For two thousand years before creating the 11 the blessed Holy One contemplated them and played with them. ``The reason is: When the blessed Holy One wished to fashion the world. they would not have been worthy of receiving [the Torah]. Devarim Rabbah 7:8. to 74 which all desires ascend.

The prongs of the [ (shin) stand for the Zohar 2:215b. and you are true. but since letters of deceit take you as their accomplice. She said. See Zohar 1:25b (TZ ). For a lie cannot exist unless Z "Y (qof-resh) take you. See Eze- (shin) and continues: ZY [ (qof. may it please You to create the world by me. ``evil. . 85. 86. So 84 you do not deserve to serve as the instrument of Creation. Ac55a). who symbolize the triad of sefirot: H . . and by your \GP (mavet). conspiracy. 3:161a.a son of Rabbi H . the simplest mark. . ben Barzillai.'' See Zohar 2:180b. . three [ (shin) is a letter of truth . Rashi on Numbers 13:27. ``He replied. ``lie. She said. Ezekiel. 86 For [ (shin) is a letter of truth. Your seal: \PB (emet). . ``death'' (mavet) ends with the The letter (tav). who were 87 united in it. and Tif'eret. is the God of truth. F GF K You are called Truth (YHVH ) letters of deceit . but according to Rabbi Ah . through Jerusalem. `You are seemly. but not deserving to initiate Creation. 146. ``Pass through the city. . esed. because Shabbat 55a). word cording to Rabbi H .' ``The blessed Holy One replied. appear on the evil side they stand for Perhaps (qelippah). 83 B (alef ) to Furthermore you are the seal of \ (tav). and Jacob.'' See Greenberg. forming Z[ Y (qesher).'' the final \ \ GP seal of \GP (mavet). .the zohar [1:2b] ``The letter \ (tav) entered first of all. resh).' 85 So whoever wants to tell a lie will first lay a foundation of truth and then construct the lie. she left His presence. 81. In the old Hebrew script. since their silence in the face of the wicked implicated them. . `Master of 82 the worlds. . anina (BT God's seal is letter of which is 82. See BT Shabbat 104a. 8c ( SO ).' She immediately departed. 10:10: 83. It is fitting for the King of Truth to begin with a letter of truth and to create the world by me. Gevurah.'' and TZ (ra). . Z" Y (qof-resh) are letters that appear on the evil side. Shabbat ``truth. even ``husk. Peirush See whoever wants to tell a lie . since you are destined to be marked on the foreheads of the faithful who fulfilled the Torah from mark they will die. . Its purpose in Ezekiel was to distinguish the righteous from the rest of the population.' [ (shin) came before Him. `Master of the worlds. \ (tav). ZH . for I complete Your seal: truth 81 \PB (emet). 84. anina (BT destined to be marked . Ðand You are called Truth. death. ``truth'' \PB (emet). FVK NY those marked were killed. for by me You are named and it is fitting to create the world by a holy name. they entangle the letter Seeing this. ZY[ (sheqer). 88. 177. I do not wish to create the world 12 by you. three Patriarchs: Abraham. the \ kiel 9:3±4: (tav) was shaped like an X. Z"Y (qof-resh) . and put a mark [G\ (tav)] on the foreheads of those who moan and groan over all the abominations being committed in it. `You are seemly and worthy. Isaac. and FGFK (YHVH ) said to him. 35a. 88 In order to survive. ``The letter please You to create the world by me. a true letter of the Patriarchs. may it KE[ (Shaddai). [ (shin). you are good. 264a. Judah Sefer Yetsirah. who paraphrases BT Sotah 87. 2:204a.'' begins with See Jeremiah The word He [FGFK (YHVH )] called to the man dressed in linen with the scribe's kit at his waist.

for I intend to split you and transfigure you face-to-face. He created him with two faces. the righteous. like this: . 47a. BT 2:176b ( SdTs). 65. See 3:292b (IZ ). like this: . . Circle in the Square. 21a. (Du X (tsadi). 29±48. Liebes (Studies. `Master of the world. . He created him androgynous.'' The mark of the covenant of circumcision is pictured as the smallest of the Hebrew letters. JQR 78 (1987): 77±112. 217. See BT 61a. 139. in Alei Sefer 12 (1986): 13± 19. is united with her. Righteous. See Scholem. KP. 99a. Wis- son of Nah .' How so? She is R (nun). She said to Him. Zohar. 94. Wolfson. and You. nn. amani said. 3:5a. Qovets Sifrei Setam. See Tishby. This is the mystery: When the blessed Holy 90 One created Adam. `Turn back. 92. (tsadi ). This in- Zohar 1:13a. 2:36a. 44b. (nun) ( R (nun) and a K (yod ). Berakhot FCYR Shekhinah. uma. A German Hasidic tradition identifies the mark with the See yod of F GF K not turned face-to-face . The (Genesis 1:27). 215b. The R Eruvin 18a. may it X (Tsadi ). ` X (tsadi ) entered. as is said: Male and female He cre- ated them It looked upward . are sealed by me. idem. Symposium 189d±191d. 149±52. K X 13 (tsadi ) See Bahir Sefer ha-Temunah. 94 She left His presence and 89. 8. . 239±40. the feminine (yod ) symbolizes the K (yod) faces backward . (Shaddai ). It is fitting to create the world by me!' ``He replied. downward .''' dom of the Zohar. (yod ) and the not See here K (nun) will face one another J (tet). Matt. 2:55a. 163±66. you will arise elsewhere R but in another letter: 2:564. `When the blessed Holy One created Adam. . who are called YKEX (Tsaddiq). 93 It looked upward like this: The blessed Holy One said to her. symbolizes The letter consists of a 42 (61). but you will arise elsewhere.' Rabbi Shemu'el Trying to face its partner. 41±55. 3:142a (IR ). 93. this mark is identified with the (yod ) of the divine name K E[ K Tsidqat ha-Tsaddiq. Ta-Shma. . for (Psalms 11:7). 216b. who is called ``covenant. 91 So the K (yod ) faces . 56a. one on this side and one on that. remain hidden so that this secret will not become widely know n and ``prov ide the world a pretext'' to impugn the div ine union. Then He sawed him and gave him two backs. Zohar Bava Batra Initially (YHVH ). 2. as is written: For FGFK (YHVH ) is YKEX (tsaddiq)Ðloving righteousness please You to create the world by me. the union between the masculine and feminine aspects of God was back-to-back and thus incomplete. 8:1: ``Rabbi Yirmeyah son of El'azar said. are signified by me. Zohar 1:13b.[1:2b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar ``The letter OKYKEX (tsaddiqim). In X Friedman. 92 They were not turned face-to-face. She is R (nun) . . Havlin.' departed. Plato. . 91. It looked downward like this: . Ha-Nigleh she-ba-Nistar. . 8. intro. . This [neqevah]). K (Yod ) from the name of the holy covenant comes and 89 rides on her. Meshi-Zahav. See complete union is symbolized by the configuration of the Bereshit Rabbah two faces QKVGXZV GE X (tsadi ) alludes to Jesus. 95a±b. you are YK E X (tsaddiq). . backward. The X (tsadi) must partsufin). but you should remain hiddenÐnot so revealedÐso as not to provide the world a pretext. Shemini Tanh . 220a. The reflects the Sephardic practice of writing Yesod. `When the blessed Holy One created Adam. He created him with two faces. 256a (RM ). Tsav 14. 36. . the div ine phallus. 154±58) sugin gests that the 90.

'' eliminated. you along with L (khaf ). She said to him. She said to Him. may it please You to create the world by me. but you signify hidden transgression. She said to Him. ``Glory. `You are seemly. deliverance. Awesome. R (Nun) stands for Zohar L letter M (kaf ) descended . who depend on you?' She immediately left His presence. which precede the letter alphabet.''' 95. the praise of the righteous is called R (Nun). for by me You are called King. for by me You are called BZ G R S (Nora). . she said to Him. do not move! If you leave. His presence.' ``He replied.' the blessed Holy One replied. (anavah). for by me support. since the world needs a king. 14 what would happen to the fallen. ``The letter may it please You to create the world by me. may it please You to create the world by me. `I imply S (samekh) entered. She said to Him. letter The form someone 3:119b. `I will not create the world by you. `Master of the world. ``He replied. `Master of the world. ``king.' ``Similarly 95 so one who sins bows his F GRT T (ayin) stands for QGT (avon). `Master of the world.the zohar [1:3a] ``The letter V ( pe) entered. iniquity. N (lamed ) and 98 97 for the world should not be without a king. for because of you 96 (samekh) returned to her place.' LNP (Melekh).' ``He replied. N (lamed) and L (khaf ) The other two letters in the word LNP (melekh). . return to your place. M approaches God.' She left His presence. `So you are needed where you are. `Master of [3a] the worlds. the ``fallen. may it please You to create the world by me. as is written: FG F K L P G S B M KP S (semikha). Return to your place.' ``At that moment the letter M (kaf ) descended from His throne of glory. It is fitting to create the world by me!' \G E V ``He replied. exists for those who fall. . ``The letter R (nun) entered. of the hidden transgression . YHVH supports all who fall (Psalms 145:14). 98.'' 97. `Master of the worlds. O K N V GR because of you . . See 96. ``The letter Depend on her. like a serpent striking.' She returned immediately. for I am Your E G CM (Kavod ). `Certainly so. . final V P (mem) in the ( pe) resembles trying to hide his head. comely (Psalms 33:1). may it please You to create the world by me. Trembling. the redemption. stretching out his hands. ` me. that You will someday bring to the world. LNP but now the regular The (kaf ) (khaf ) in the word (melekh) was (nofelim). leaving P (mem) entered. then tucking its head into its body: head. humility. but I will not create the world by you. By FGBR (na'vah). . Although she said. for I signify B RY Z GV ( purqena). also called ( pedut). . in praises (Exodus 15:11). (Somekh YHVH ).

I desire you entirely. Remember. She said to Him. 173b. the throne trembled. because your goodness is hidden within you. 220a±b. I (h . ``The letter H (zayin) entered. into the earth (Lamentations 2:9). et). destructionÐa M M (Kaf. may it please You to create the world by me. Shemot Rabbah 35:1. She said to Him. (h . She said to Him.' She thereupon left His presence and returned to her place. note 10). Ascend! You should not be uprooted from My name. et). facing you is (h .' ``He replied. kaf ). Return to your throne and stay there. for I am the beginning of the holy Name. 101 Furthermore. See 101. 230a. to hallow it 99. 47a. .[1:3a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar ``When M (kaf ) descended from the throne of glory. 103. not create the world by (kelayah). `Master of the world. letters facing you is I (h . JT Yoma 7:7. rather in the world to come Zohar 1:30b. How abundant is Your goodness that You have hidden away for those in awe of You (Psalms 31:20). Tanh . Return to your place. 100.000 worlds trembled. Shemini 9. See BT Yoma 73b. for by me Your children observe the Sabbath. may it please You to create the world by me. inscribed in Me. 100 as is written: Since it is hidden within you. as is written: Her gates 103 GT C J Further. may it please You to create the world by me. BJI (h . agigah 12a (cited above. et). have sunk. ` . these letters are not inscribed .' I (tave'u). 99 It is fitting for You to create the world by me!' ``He replied. but rather in the world to come. et) and See BT The J (tet) do not appear in the names of the twelve tribes. See Zohar 1:204a. and all the worlds verged on collapse.' Z GM H (Zakhor). . 44c. Zohar 1:31b±32a. which were engraved on the jewels of the breastplate worn by the high priest. 45b±46a. for you imply FK N M decree of destruction (Isaiah 10:23). `I will not create the world by you. 2:127a. `Master of the world. good and upright (Psalms 25:8). the Sabbath day. . Bahir 97±98 (147). uma. sin. beginning . et) The letter H . `It is enough for you to be engraved in Me. 41:3. 148b±149a. as is written: (Exodus 20:8). The first letter of FG FK 102. what are you doing here? I will you. The blessed Holy One said to her. . it plays no part in this world that I am about to create. for by me You are called Z[KG CGJ (tov ve15 yashar). immediately left His presence. hidden within you the preceding The point at (tet) is turned the upper right of inward. the gates of the Temple will sink. Zohar 2:152a. Bereshit Rabbah 3:6. J J (tet) in the alphabet. 3:88a. . ``sin'' Which ends with a quiescent B (alef ). `Master of the world. for your goodness is concealed and hidden within you. 104.' ``The letter J (tet) entered. 200. (YHVH ). 102 and when you join together you spell 104 BJI She So these two letters are not inscribed in the holy tribes. 3:188b. ``The letter K (yod ) entered.

The letter E (dalet) signifies NE (dal ). 105 She immediately left His presence. The third let- By me. for by me You are blessed above and below.'' 106.' ``The letter ` . B 110. 111. With you all counting begins and every deed in the world. No union is actualized except by B (alef ).' ``The letters E (dalet) and D ( gimel ) entered and made the same request. `Master of the world. . you will be the first of all the letters. and it is not fitting for the exalted (Alef.'' words of the Torah are C. ``blessing. look. then . (eh . one and also for The word (alef ). since the poor will never cease from the world is poor.'' begins with dalet: gemol dallim). ``poor. You will be the beginning of Creation.' 111 ``The blessed Holy One fashioned high. The blessed Holy One said to her. and need to be treated kindly. B (alef ) stood and did not enter. poor will never cease . the first sefirah . `Master of the world! Because I saw all the letters leaving Your presence fruitlessly.'' See BT Shabbat 104a: ``OKNE NGPD { \"NE N"PKD 108. . (vav) entered. B. `Indeed. He 107 replied to them as well. for I am a letter of Your name. ``one.' ``He replied. C. She said to Him. 108 D ( gimel ) N P GD E (Dalet) ( gomel ). . bet): BZ C \ K [ BZ C (Be-reshit bara). small letters. You are blessed . See Deu- one . Only 110 through you do I become one. may it please You to create the world by me. agigah 2:1. small The initial letters of the first four to the poor. [3b] You have given this enormous gift to the letter C (bet). may it 106 please You to create the world by me. goodness to her. 77c. C (Bet. B FMZC (Alef. The word QKH (zayin) means letter of Your name F GF K (YHVH ). `It is enough for you to be with each other. Bereshit Rabbah Midrash ha-Gadol. What could I do there? Furthermore. why do you not enter My presence like all the other letters?' ``She replied. EIB Keter. . `Master of the world. included in the mystery of My name. like a ``The letter G Q (nun). Do not separate from one another! It is enough for one of you to sustain the other. Render kindness letters high. She said to Him. alef ). ` . `I will not create the world by you.the zohar [1:3b] ``He replied. ``weapon. I will not create the world by either of you. engraved and carved in My name. 109. 10. large letters and low. . King to take back a gift He has given to his servant and give it to another!' ``The blessed Holy One said.' ``The letter C (bet) entered. B B (Alef. ter of the name 107. ` G (Vav). of a like a Q (nun) Like the straight line Q (final nun). Genesis 1:1. H .' 16 109 ``The blessed Holy One replied. large letters and low. Only through you do I become The B (alef ) stands for the number E (Dalet) is poor . . renders. . alef ): \B O K F N B (Bet) 105. ad ). So. world with the letter C B B alef )! Although I will create the (bet). it is enough for you and F (he) to be letters of My name.'' See 1:10. (Gimel teronomy 15:11. C stands for JT (berakhah). bet). C (bet. by you I will create the world. for you imply warÐa sharp sword and a spear for battle. .

3:66b. 117. shit). Midrash ha-Gadol. esed to Yesod. okhmah. \K[BZC (be-reshit). includes the six BZC (bara). penetrated by the primordial point of .'' Wisdom (H . Binah is the H . Seder Rabbah di-Vreshit. 118 17 punctuated by a thrust point. As they reached the \ K [ BZ C site of a certain field. flowing into the immense ocean. the primor- The unmentioned. the emphasis here is not on the size of the letters but rather their origin. 112. for there are six supernal days in the 116 Torah. \K [ B Z C This is the Wisdom on which the world standsÐthrough which one enters hidden. which locks every thing B.'' Rabbi H . the unnamed subject (reshit). Letters above and letters below. . holy hidden one 1:10a. 21±22 (25±26). widely. from which issued six springs and streams. 3:2a. from which every thing emerges. ``What is (Be-reshit)? With Wisdom. He engraved that engraving. the hidden unknown. 1:242±45. . They were all as one. supernal dimensions. See 220a. Sheqel ha-Qodesh. 16b. high mysteries. tion. 39b. iy ya said to Rabbi Yose. \ K[ B Z appears Ein Sof or Keter. okhmah) is the second dial point of emanation. Rabbi H . the hidden unknown The hidden source of emana115. Nah . 66c (ShS ). \ K[ B Z C (bara 1:13. ``created. 1 (Battei Midrashot. recess . 180b. 2:132a. (Be-reshit) is divided in two and Binah. thrust point H . ``created six. \K [B Z C read as See \K[ BZC (bara shit) . 113. See Targum Yerushalmi \K[BZC (Be-reshit)? With Wisdom (frag. The first of each pair derives from and flowing to the ocean of Shekhinah. Moses de  n.).'' The mystical Torah. 112 \K[BZC (Be-reshit). The identification with of sefirah. ``What you have saidÐ (bara shit)Ðis certainly true. Apparently Keter. does open with a large C (bet). 266±69. like one who locks up every thing under a single key. 74c (ShS ). Although the first word. the higher Shekhinah. B (alef. Zohar 1:2a. manides on Genesis 1:1. or womb. the six sefirot from H .'' world. the others . 20a. where it is said that the world was created by six letters (the divine names [YH] and Zohar 1:159b. Zohar 118. 174a. In the beginning. Who created them? The 115 unmentioned. esed to Yesod are etched. Rabbi Yudai said. . have discovered this: ```The holy hidden one 117 But in the Secrets of Creation we engraved an engraving in the innards of a recess. Wisdom See Wolfson. . ZH . beginning. Genesis 1:1: F GF K FK [YHVH]). the others are concealed. alef ). Zohar 1:15b. Genesis 1:1. . . from the upper world and the lower world. n. . of the verb 116. Major Trends. Bereshit Rabbah 1:1. BT Sukkah 49a. supernal dimensions . 81. Tif'eret. Here were engraved six vast. 1:19). Peirush haAggadot. subsequently emerging recess. okhmah. iy ya and Rabbi Yose were walking on the way. . not more. . the second of each from the lower world. hiding it away. . 145a. ``With w isdom God created. Leo Scholem. Within six supernal days . 391. 11±12. See The word Sefer Yetsirah 114. sefirot from H . the six primordial days of Creation. created six. Philo. whereas the higher sefirot are concealed. Azriel of Gerona. 113 This is \ K[ B Z C (bara shit). 114 created from here. 15a. 80.[1:3b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar (Elohim et). See six vast.

they were forty-nine. 28b. ``son. KP ) gates. Cr) read ``forty.'' The lower sefirot. N BZ [K ZR (Ner 125. nine . 2:122b±123a. The six sefirot hidden Binah are re- vealed in four lower the four directions: sefirot. enclosing them within itself. The ``precise place'' is the subtle link between the primordial point of Rabban Yoh . the essence of every thing lies in that key. . Enveloping 119. . Rabbi Yose said. which closes and opens. were created in the world. fortyForty-nine gates of within 123. Instead of ``forty-nine'' (preferred by Holy Lamp B[KEY BRKXGC several witnesses (C12. See 2 Samuel 21:17. it was not. ai. . M. . One gate has no side. revealed word .''' 123 124 BZC BZC was created. Elsewhere in the Zohar world Yisra'el ). . Six gates . The fiftieth gate remains hidden. ``Certainly so! I heard the Holy Lamp say so. (Job 28:7). . and Berakhot Binah. Binah. As long as the world 18 locked within the word BZ C (bara). as is said: to a different pronunciation and meaning: BZC (bera). .''' Zohar. See 1:29a±b.'' indicating KP and Her fifty (the gimatriyya of and that this word was misread as ``forty. . Binah Zohar 1:4a. okhmah opens and closes the palace of Binah. H . BT Ketubbot 17a. In the beginning God created . Tif'eret (east). where Rabbi Abbahu is Shim'on son of Yoh . 'P (mem). (Be-reshit)Ða revealed word combined with a concealed word. See Zohar 2:177a (SdTs). key of a single key . \K[BZC (Be-reshit) contains two BZC (bara). 3:61b. Rut). inserting the key. Within that palace stand gates built cryptically. and Shekhinah (west). known only to the key. understanding. ``six''.'' See BT Shemu'el (shit). and Liebes. did not exist. `Fifty 21b: ``Rav and gates of Yehuda Liebes argues that the insistence on the concealed nature of F RK C BZC (bara) alludes Studies in the (Botsina (binah). . H . a single palace The as a path unknown to any vulture 122. Within that palace lie hidden treasures. closing. 146±52. See Zohar 2:178b ( SdTs). referring to hidden mystery of creation. B Z G F RE B RK X G C (Botsina di-Nhora). esed (south). concealed word . one greater than the other. not opening. okhmah. Six gates are contained in that key that closes and opens. anan son of Zakkai is called H . okhmah and the womb of the Divine Mother. You made him little OL). that 125 (bara) is a concealed word. referring to the revelation of the six Rosh ha-Shanah both said. . Ms3. . When it closes those gates. Although every thing is hidden away within that palace. closing. fifty of them. . not opening.'' 121. 156a. Concerning this mystery it is written: OKFNB BZC \K[BZC (Be-reshit bara Elohim). . all of which were given to Moses except for one. 3:171a. which con- this site is identified stitute the pattern of all the worlds. is always concealed. 121 120 In those gates is one lock and one precise place for marked only by the impress of the key. See called: one lock . ``Lamp of Israel. ``created''. it is shut. corresponding to The word words: the H . less than God (Psalms 8:6). Bereshit Rabbah 85:4. and \K[ sefirot. No one knows whether it is above or below. .the zohar 119 [1:3b] within a single palace.'' the Divine Son. . . ``Who. t he Z o h a r ic t i t le o f R a b b i 197b. 122 closing and opening. \K[BZC (Be-reshit) is the key enclosing all. KP suggests that the original read(Mi ). 124. 120. Carved into four sides. Carved into four sides . ZH 85d (MhN.'' ing was Qaddisha) . Gevurah (north). then indeed: \ K[B Z C (Bara). where The opening within ``Lamp of Light''. it ``has no side'' and ``is shut.

The transition from KP (mi ) to FNB (elleh) corresponds to the transposition of BZC (bara) into ZCB (ever). . emanated hyle. the divine phallus and cosmic pillar. the name OFZCB (Avraham) was formed.[1:4a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar every thing was GF \ (tohu). of F As one was completed . known as FNB BZC KP (Mi vara elleh) . FNB (elleh) at one end and ZCB (ever) at the other The verse These are the gen- elleh (these ). in FNB (elleh). P to complete the name (he) and (mem) were added to which beginning OFZCB (ever) (Avraham) but also signifies the male (Avraham).'' Yesod (``Foundation''). . 154b. OBZCFC (be-hibbare'am). GF\ (tohu). Out of BZC (bara) it generated ZCB (ever). . . ``When ZCB (ever) was inscribed in the word BZC (bara). 91b. 128 Whereas every thing was concealed in the word BZC (bara). so was the other. A pillar emerged. the 127 world was not. when they were The let- BZC (bara) were rearranged into not only forms the ZCB (ever). 132. . chaos H . KP (Mi). Abraham sefirah of H . Shekhinah is known as FP (mah). .126 and as long as GF \ (tohu) reigned. ZCB (ever) exists. chaos. 128b. first of the lower sefirot emanating from Binah. Who (see above. 127. pages XX27±XX62). OK FNB FNB K (yod ) and P ZCB OFZCB (mem) (elleh) to complete the (Elohim). 230b. . the pri- 130. when they were created. now 129 the letters were transposed and rendered fruitful. It produced O"P (two offspring: 130 131 132 19 mems). the letters were added to name ``organ. ``through Abraham. According to Rabbi Yehoshu'a son of Korh . The holy blessed name FP (Mah). This is KP FNB BZC (Mi vara elleh). pages XX30±XX62). Who created these (Isaiah 40:26). What. 131. Binah. when they were created contains FNB (elleh). When did that key open gates? When was it fit to be fruitful. What . See erations of heaven and earth. The letters of the word 129. symbolizes the 128. The holy name was completedÐ becoming OKFNB (Elohim)Ðand the name OFZCB (Avraham) as well. the supernal concealed one inscribed another inscription for its glorious name. the OFZCBC (be-Avraham). K (yod ). esed. What (see above. mordial divine substance representing pure potential. to generate offspring? When Abraham arrived.'' indicating that the world was created for his sake. okhmah. ah (Bere- shit Rabbah 12:9). primordial When Abraham arrived OFZCBC (be-Avraham) . These. . 105b. Whereas everything was concealed . as is written: These are the generations of heaven and earth OBZCFC (be-hibbare'am). through Abraham. did not exist. and we have learned: OFZCBC (be-Avraham). at the other. one to that. . Holy concealed one! FNB (Elleh) exists. organÐHoly Foundation on which the world stands. corresponding to the Greek philoso phical concept of matter. inscribing FNB (elleh) at one end and ZCB (ever) at the other. . As one was completed. generating ZCB (ever). 133. Then life was generated and the complete 126. OBZCFC created. at one end and Zohar 1:86b. 3:117a. Letters were aroused to complete one side and the other. ters ZCB (ever) (included in the word [be-hibbare'am]. . When FP (mah) was added to ZCB (ever). FP (Mah). 93a. . . In ZCB (ever) it engraved F (he). when they were created (Genesis 2:4). was also inscribed. moving one to this side. is an anagram of lower sefirot. so was the other. [4a] As one 133 was completed. ZCB (ever) .

In the 9:4. Bereshit Rab- bah 12:15. `You are not worthy. Rabbi H . `You did not teach Torah as he did. the divine qualities of compassion and justice. and let happen what happens!' He saw his steps [the steps of Rabbi H . he exiled himself [wandering for the sake of Torah]. and his eyes grew dim. 70d (ShS ). iy ya rose and walked on together with Rabbi Yose. 134. ah (Bereshit 12:9) referred to above: (be-hibbare'am) is an anagram of (be-Avraham). and 13:3. . you decompose in the dust. the holy name was completed. See Sifrei. ``Dust. in Sinai 59 (1966): Metsi'a 139. saying. All remained 134 suspended until the name of Abraham was created. where YHVH Elohim is called ``a complete name. and his spiritual power still guides the world. 137. `If someone is a nobody but speaks of himself as though he were somebodyÐbetter for him if he had never been created. The soul of Rab- see him. He was told. 84b. note 124. respectively. These are the generations of heaven when they were created. 139 He was until the name of Abraham . . radiance of the lamp.' He said to them. prince whose merit sustains the world. . who had recently died. In rabbinic literature these t wo names represent. 2:161a. OK FNB FG FK (YHVH They replied. Once that name was completed. .'' See J T the righteous do not decay. . . 3:138b (IR ). ``Dust. 135. `Show him to me.'' Rabbi H . Lerner. He was told. How insolent you are! The Holy Lamp 136 who has illumined the world. All pillars of light in the world you consume and pulverize. 229a. ZH . 19±32. Mystic Tales from the Zohar. From that day on. . `You exiled yourself to learn. iy ya Rabbah but did not Elohim). The bodies of ven]. O Rabbi Shim'on.' `Why?' he asked. yet you subsist and guide the world!'' 137 For a moment he was shocked. how impudent! All delights of the eye decay in you. Rabbi bbi Shim'on Qohelet Rabbah on 9:10: . he fasted forty days to envision RaSee Zohar Rabbi H .the zohar [1:1a] Name emerged. dust. 136.' He sat for 300 fasts. Zohar 1:20a.' Rabbi Assi fasted for thirty days to envision Rabbi H . iy ya's throne in hea- bi Shim'on endures in the Garden of Eden. 32b. He cried out. 33:3. On the following passage see Wineman. Rabbi Shim'on has not decayed in you!'' 20 138 Still weeping. majestic ruler. see above.'' Cf. radiance of the worlds. concerning Rabbi El'azar son of Rabbi Shim'on. on the day . and then exclaimed. See BT Bava Kil'ayim 20±21. decays in you. Holy Lamp Rabbi Shim'on. he fasted forty days to envision Rabbi Shim'on. `You are not worthy. as the verse concludes: that OKFNB FGFK (YHVH Elohim) made earth and heaven on the day 135 (Genesis 2:4). do not boast! The pillars of the world will not be surrendered to you. but rather the devotee who seeks. iy ya is no longer the saint whose appearance is sought by fasting. . iy ya] appeared to him in a dream. Rabbah See ``Resh Lakish (according to another version: Rabbi Yehoshu'a son of Levi) was longing to see Rabbi H . and not only that. 138. kissing the dust and weeping. he exiled himself to teach. `Didn't I exile myself?' They replied.' He said to them. unlike before. as is written: and earth O BZ C F C (be-hibbare'am). Deuteronomy 26. yet you subsist . and then he [Rabbi H . 48b. how stubborn you are. `Didn't I study Torah as he did?' the remark by Rabbi Yehoshu'a son of Kor- OBZCFC OFZCBC h . dust. has not decayed . iy ya Rabbah [in a dream]. iy ya prostrated himself on the ground.

but in the evening they looked as if they had been burnt by fire. I gazed at it. Zohar's description here of Rabbi Shim'on and Rabbi El'azar: ``Rabbi H . Embarrassed.'''''' On the special relationship between Rabbi (MhN ). where Rabbi Yosef is said to have fasted forty fasts. the blessed Holy One will rejuvenate the light of But may those that love him be as the sun going forth in its might (Judges 5:31). . see Idel. H . iy ya saw himself entering. ``You are not entitled to see him. `In the time to come. iy ya and Rabbi Shim'on. Rabbi Shim'on opened. A voice issued: ``Lower your eyes. iy ya. roaming the 21 Shim'on. then forty more. then forty more. a passage which influences the Zohar 2:14a Kabbalah: New Perspectives.. 140 141 with thousands listening. Two sparks of fire shot forth and struck that man [i. saying.'' and I was healed. o r ``w i ng e d 75±88. See above. hidden. Rabbi El'azar mounted. iy ya enter and see how the blessed Holy One intends to rejuvenate the faces of the righteous in the time to come. beings. crying out. me]. pages XX124± O f a ng e l s . See Qohelet on 1:7: ``Rabbi Yirmeyah son of Ra- bbi El'azar said. The voice returned: ``O high. at which you cannot gaze. 142 Happy is one who enters here without shame.' `Unable to restrain myself. which ascends and descends on its own. aviva said. Happy is one who 143 stands in that world as a sturdy pillar. studying the word that Rabbi Yose had spoken. anilai (Midrash cend and descend. `All are accompanied by angels as they as- in that world On earth.'' He wept and fasted another forty days.'' Rabbi H .' `What is their sign? [How can I distinguish between them?]' ken 140. `Rabbi H . who has replaced him as the spiritual hero. as is said: 143. In a vision he was shown Rabbi Shim'on and his son Rabbi El'azar. wings Rabbah rejuvenate the faces .[1:4a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar told. Rabbi El'azar rose together with the other pillars sitting there. . open-eyed. see Mishlei 1:1).''' the faces of the righteous. the word that Rabbi Yose had spoB Z C \K [B Z C bara). um son of H . . All those wings waited for them. welcomes him to heaven. aviva son of Surmaki told me: ``I saw one of the rabbis whom Elijah used to frequent. he saw a light shining in the distance. and they shone more brilliantly than the dazzle of the sun. The next day I went and prostrated myself upon his [Rabbi H . ``Your mishnah is my mishnah. do not raise your head. concealed ones. Rabbi Yose had transmitted a teaching of Rabbi Shim'on's concerning (Be-reshit XX135. `What is this?' He told me that he had asked Elijah.'' See BT Bava Metsi'a 85a. and they soared to the Academy of Heaven.e. I asked him. in order to ensure that Torah not depart from him. Meanwhile which Rabbi Shim'on and his son he noticed many huge celestial wings. do not gaze!'' Lowering his eyes. their splendor renewed. On weeping as a technique for attaining a vision. iy ya's carriage. Solomon did the same ``so that God would give him a spirit of wisdom and understanding. In the morning his eyes were lovely.'' 142. `Show me the [departed] rabbis as they ascend to the Heavenly Academy. then entered and sat at the feet of Rabbi Shim'on. He saw them returning. On Mount Sinai Moses fasted for forty days (Exodus 34:28). iy ya's] grave. On the following page (85b) we read of Rabbi H .' He [Elijah] replied: `You can gaze at all of them except for the carriage of Rabbi H . blinding him. iy ya's glorious state in heaven. ``Let Rabbi H . 141. except for Rabbi H . he drew back. According to Rabbi Tanh .

agigah Midrash. bitter into sweet before arriving here? Who among you awaits each day the light that shines when the King visits the doe 147 and is glorifiedÐdeclared King of all kings of the world? Whoever does 148 not await this each day in that world has no portion here. See BT [Rabbi H . Shabbat Whoever does not await . 56a: ``He is one and de-gadpei ). See the passage from BT Bava 149. .'' See 1:44a. Sefer H . saw them being raised to the Academy . sleeping ones . who wore tefillin despite a Roman prohibition). identified as ``Master of Wings. 3:80b. . bitter into sweet visits the doe Joins ( gadpin). Zohar 1:231a. ``Were you honest in your business dealings.'' itself means ``angels''. See the title is applied to Elisha.g. Elijah is . ZH . okhmah (Beit haSee Master of Wings KVEDE KZBP (Marei Derekh Erets Rabbah. the chief angel. see BT 59a.'' See BT Bava Metsi'a 85b. At that moment He kicks the 390 firmaments. . When he arrived. awake! Who 146 among you turns darkness into light. 3:21b. Ecclesiastes 10:20 (in both of which the corresponding Hebrew expression means simply ``a winged dwells in 390 firmaments. ZH . 2:13a. 92a. 1:60). which all 144. JT Berakhot 1:1. anokh (Beit ha-Midrash. . concealing God from the world. Seder Gan Eden (Beit ha-Midrash. `When a human is led in for judgment. O high. the eyes of YHVH roamHuman creature. Proverbs 1:17. QKVED darkness into light. so ``the Master of wings'' would be the chief angel. ``wings. See BT 31a: ``Rava said. . 152.'' is 390. . Again. .'' ``a bird''). 2:195b±196a. note 139): ``He Heavenly Academy. sleeping ones. 150. did you await salvation. Cf. The curtain 85b.'' Meanwhile he noticed many of the Companions surrounding all those erect pillars. note 139. did you engage in the dialectics of wisdom. 152a. Bereshit Rabbati 5:24. 147. 25b. ``heaven. 2c. gaze and see! O low. At times (e. Zohar 2:169b. redeems Her from exile. Elsewhere in the 22 and Zechariah 4:10: Zohar. `Show me the [departed] rabbis as they ascend to the Heavenly Academy. cited above. Apparently Metatron. O low. The 148.'' The O KP [ khot gimatriyya of (shamayim). Rut ).. 2:115±16). In Targum Qohelet 10:20 and Ma'yan H okhmah (Beit ha-Midrash. 3:134±35). a passage which influences the Zohar here (cited above. above. 1:60). he is asked. See Zohar 2:7b. On kicking the firmament. and he saw them being raised to the Academy of HeavenÐsome ascending. . BT Shabbat 49a (where Referring to the angels or perhaps the souls of the righteous. he solemnly swore that he had heard from behind the curtain 151 that the King remembers the doe who lies in the dust and 152 visits Her every day. 76d (MhN. He kicks the 390 firmaments 2. some descending.''' 151. ZH . Metatron is often associated with the By acting righteously on earth. 2:171a). Bera53b. aviva] had asked Elijah. concealed ones . Ma'yan H . 149 Above them all. stand one thing from another?''''' Metsi'a behind the curtain 15a. iy ya is transferred here to Rabbi Shim'on. did you generate new life. . 145. the expression means simply ing the whole earth. 36b ( ST ). hidden. Shekhinah and Zohar identifies Shekhinah with the doe of love (Proverbs 5:19) and the doe of dawn (Psalms 22:1). H . 146. See BT what is said in rabbinic literature about Rabbi H . did you set aside time for Torah. ``angel. close-eyed. he saw the Master of Wings 150 approaching. beings.the zohar 144 145 [1:4a] entire world. did you under- Avodah Zarah 3b. 122b.

Seder Gan Eden (Beit ha-Midrash. ZH . Mystic Tales from the Zohar. and those academies are designated there. where both gatherings (of the water and of the nations) are peaceful.[1:4b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar tremble and quake [4b] before Him. 35. 195b. The image of sealing . 155. 3:133). his light radiating to the vault of heaven. H . agreeing to swallow up all the waters of Creation and absorb them when all the nations gather against the holy people. Vayiqra Rabbah 27:4. The Messiah visits all those academies. ``Make way. I will show him wonders. 30±31. Prince of the Ocean 1. Wineman. KP reads: 390. Recalling pure balsam Thirteen rivers of bal- sam await the righteous in the world that is coming. Cf. When he refuses. See OY. 153. Here. 161 160 ``Happy are you. and His voice resounds from one end of the world to the other. where God commands the Prince of the Ocean to swallow the chaotic waters of creation. Endorsing their See 74b Bava Batra He said to him The Messiah said to Rabbi Shim'on. will dry up and they will pass through on dry land. He sheds tears over this. corresponding to the 390 firmaments. Avot de-Rabbi Natan A. 158. 157. 80b (MhN. Isaiah 11:15±16. 159. seal Torah among my disciples. 613 (IR ). of The blessed Holy One sets His seal on the Shekhinah. Rabbi. See 160. . . And he hallows the name of the Holy King. and BT Apparently Leviathan. mitsvot of the Torah. Eden. adorned by the heads of the academies with celestial crowns. 163. BT H agigah 15b. and all members of each academy ascend from the Academy here 158 to the Academy of Heaven. (in the name of Rav). On the parallel between the waters and the nations. See Micah 7:15: Ta'anit 25a. Rut ). uma. setting his seal . 162. see 370 lights Apparently the number 300 signifies the three highest sefirot.'' See As in the days when You went forth from the land of Egypt. who are plunged in suffering among the nations of the world. Bereshit Rabbah . 156. He said to him. 3:128b (IR ). lights. See BT the crossing of the Red Sea. He sheds two tears into the Great Sea. page XX168. while the number 70 represents the seven lower sefirot emanating from them. . setting his seal on the Torah issuing from the mouths of the rabbis. See BT Berakhot 59a: ``When sheds tears over this Over the exile the blessed Holy One remembers His children. Torah originates in Isaiah 8:16: Bind up the testimony. God kicks and slays him. Zohar 3:173a. the Academy here In the Garden of 3:172a±b. Meanwhile he 157 156 155 so that the waters heard a voice proclaiming. Zohar 2:14a±b (MhN ). 19a±b (MhN ). Cf. Tanh . uqqat to swallow up all the waters . At that moment all the Companions rose and Rabbi Shim'on rose. he Rabbi H . 153 and those tears of bubbling fire fall into the vast ocean. 163 ascending and bath- ing in rivers of pure balsam. Exodus 14:21±22. the prince obeys the divine command. teachings. From those tears the Prince of the Ocean 154 emergesÐby them he is sustained. 161. See Zohar 3:128a 613 senses Corresponding to the pass through on dry land Zohar 1:119a. 159 At that moment the Messiah arrived. Zohar 2:9a. iy ya. 154. make wayÐfor King Messiah is coming to the Academy of Rabbi Shim'on!'' For all the righteous present there are heads of academies. . mentioned below. for your Torah ascends in 370 162 23 each and every light refracting into 613 senses.

``Let him be gathered in. of the academy of Ahiyah of Shiloh. . See the reaction of the angels when Moses ascends to receive the Torah (BT Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 4:8. Bereshit Rabbah 35:2. Binah to Shekhinah. influences the compares Rabbi H . Rather. 167.'' Rabbi Shim'on said. Accord- told him Told the Messiah. See (which also influences this 171. prophet who revealed to King Jeroboam that Solomon's kingdom would be divided (1 Kings 11:29±39).e. According to Rabbi H . 165 164 and I have not come to set my seal on what issues from your academy. Hasidic legend portrays ``Let him be granted time'' ZH . 5:8) and the teacher of Elijah (JT 5:1. 3:181a). Hezekiah . ``Who placed a human here. the rivers teachings have been confirmed by God. Cf. and of the academy of Hezekiah. 49:29). According to rabbinic tradition. radiance of the lamp of Torah!'' The Messiah said. he noticed Rabbi H . iy ya sitting at the feet of Rabbi Shim'on. clothed in the garb of that world Shabbat 88b): ``Rabbi Yehoshu'a ing to rabbinic tradition. King of Judah toward the end of the eighth century b. the Master of Wings has come here. Rabbi Ahiyah in Shim'on associates Midrash Tehillim Eruvin himself with aim Rabbi H . so Zohar (2:127a. that they become members of your academy. Zohar 3:287b (IZ ). the biblical idiom ``to be gathered to one's people'' (Genesis 25:8. the vast ocean trembled.c. .the zohar [1:4b] Torah of your academy. . The heavens trembled. In the 171 169 170 together with his sons. as your . BT Sanhedrin 94b. founder of Hasidism. . iy ya remain alive on earth a while longer. 165. iy ya. king of Judah. I have come to hear the words of Metatron. Rather. Ahiyah of Shiloh ``Let him be gathered in'' Let his Ahiyah was the life on earth come to an end. Leviathan trembled. son of Levi said. Let Ahiyah as the mentor of Israel Ba'al Shem Tov. See I have not come .'' Then Rabbi Shim'on told him 167 166 the oath that the Master of Wings had sworn. he was a master of the secrets of Torah (BT together with his sons Zohar The amor- Sanhedrin 102a. 19a (MhN ). ``Let him be granted time. In BT Bava Metsi'a 85b (which. 35:29. At that moment. 168. izkiyah and Rabbi Yehudah. iy ya and his sons with the Patriarchs. The Messiah began trembling and cried aloud. Qohelet Rabbah on 9:10 Zohar passage). clothed in the garb of that world?'' 168 Rabbi Shim'on answered. as already here).'' 24 62:2. ``Master of the Universe! What is one born of woman doing here among us?''''' 169. of balsam are the fragrant flow of emanation from 164. Elijah noted. ``This is Rabbi H . See In a physical body. where Rabbi Shim'on intercedes with God to spare the life of Rabbi do not need my confirmation. `When Moses ascended on high. ZH . He said. Rabbi H . 166. 170. the ministering angels said before the blessed Holy One. there was no need of the covenantal sign of the rainbow in the generations of Hezekiah and of Rabbi Shim'on because of the righteousness of those two figures. 80c (MhN. 22b). izkiyah (Bereshit Rabbah 35:2). and the world verged on overturning. Rut ). for I know he enters no academy but yours. Hezekiah was extremely devoted to the study and teaching of Torah. and Zohar Your teachings 1:217b±218b.

composed by Gonzola There St. 2:116). ``Happy is the share of the righteous in that world! Happy is the share of the son of Yoh . 47b. which rises higher than other new interpretations. According to rabbi- nic tradition. seventy crowns The number Mekhilta. Ibn Ezra.'' 176. See Daniel 7:9: The Ancient of Days Ancient of Days QKPGK YK\T Bemidbar Rabbah 13:16. introduction to Commentary on the Torah. Oria. Rabbi Shim'on opened. and adorns her with 174 seventy crownsÐengraved and inscribed. Every ut terance emerging from the mouth of Power branched into seventy languages. 242b. of the righteous in the afterlife. Shekhinah and the Avot 5:19. 167b. Cf. he cried. 172. the seven lower 178. his eyes streaming with tears. anan said. it flies and soars through 70. 2:166b. 135b. See Wineman. who channels Tales from the Zohar.[1:4b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Time was granted to him. YKEX (Tsaddiq). 173 who lifts that word. nispah . 16. 174. anokh (Beit ha-Midrash. ``I have put (Isaiah My words in your mouth 51:16). Vezot Haberakhah. 177. the Worlds. Quivering. § 275. See M 173. Uqtsin 3:12. . kisses her. and with every word innovated in Torah by one engaged in Torah. We have learned: The moment a new word of Torah originates from the mouth of a human being. He fashions one heaven. wine.. where sits. Pish . Yitsh . So that I may endow those who love .'' see Daniel 12:7. innovated word of wisdom Zohar 1:26a (TZ ). 54a. the hair on His head like clean fleece. 451. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana. dom 175 But an innovated word of wis- ascends and settles on the head of 176 Y K EX 178 (Tsaddiq). Me with substance 28±29.'' See Vida de Santa de Berceo. Torah is compared to wine: ``Just as QKK (yayin). is numerically equivalent to seventy. He emerged trembling. Synopse zur Bereshit Rabbah 1:5. 175. Orea ascends to heaven and sees her reward as a throne but is told that for now she must return to earth and continue her spiritual practice. Righteous OneÐ Vitality of the Worlds Yesod. ak when it was decreed that he was to die.''' See yomin). im. `. se- venty appears in the context of revelation in BT Shabbat 70. On various senses of the title ``Vitality of the blessed Holy One Tif'eret. 177 From there.a È fer. this verse describes the reward the flow of emanation to worlds below. so Torah assumes seventy faces. A new mystical insight. OY: ``One is Mystic able to innovate in Torah matters that Moses himself was not permitted to reveal. that word ascends and presents herself before the blessed Holy One. Sefer H . Corresponding to (Attiq 88b: ``Rabbi Yoh . worlds. His .. BT Sanhedrin 100a.000 worlds sefirot. Zohar 1:158a. In the beginning.000 All the words of the Ancient ascending to the Ancient of Days. ai who has attained this! Of him is So that I may endow those who love Me with substance and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21). Righteous OneÐ 25 Vitalit y of the Worlds. The theme of a holy person remaining on earth appears in a contemporary thirteenthcentury Spanish hagiography.''172 written: \K[BZC (Be-reshit). Scha Hekhalot-Literatur. 206a. How vital it is for a human being to engage in Torah day and night! For the blessed Holy One listens to the voice of those who occupy themselves with Torah. Zohar 1:132a. .

for He makes them continually out of those innovations and mysteries into a throneÐflames of fire . The verse does not read I have made.'' God. Zohar 3:105b. existing enduringly in the presence of the Ancient of Days. iy ya son of made In the past tense. . one earth ling the phrase above. 181 The word flies. . .000). but You. 138b (IR ). which 64:3). He rides his light cherub and sails through 18. 179. eighteen hidden worlds . referring to the Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yoh .the zohar [1:5a] of Days are words of wisdom. hidden mysteries of supernal wisdom. (Isaiah 66:22). 2:168a. man son of Yitsh . . then ascend and are transformed into earths of the living 183 (Psalms 116:9). newly created heavens.000 sefirot (3 sefirot (7 182. . ei almin). which have been transformed into planetoids. concerning masters of return [those who succeed in turning back to God]. So each and every word of wisdom is transformed into a heaven. Keter. What does [God] do at night? . O God. it joins those words of the Ancient of Days. ak. Yesod. conveying supernal. 180 no eye has seen. QK P N T KI KI (MhN ). the Ancient of Days inhales the aroma of that word and it pleases Him more than anything. full and complete. Lifting that word. [what You will do for one who awaits You ] .''' 180. . Berakhot The verse does not read orbiting Her. ascends. 370. See 6 An allusion to the three 100.'' describing the word (h . `.''' 1:9a. 183. 6 10. . but You (Isaiah Emerging from there. original creation of heaven and earth. . O God. miniature eighteen. innovated here. in words of the Ancient of Days. presenting themselves before the Ancient of Days. crowning themselves upon one earth. but as for the world name designates the primordial sefirah of Pesah . and 3:20a: ``Rabbi Yose said to Rabbi H . 119a.000 crowns. See BT Avodah Zarah 3b: ``Rabbi Abba said to Rabbi Nah . anan. concealed mysteries. . secrets of Torah are No eye has seen. iy ya. but as for the completely righteous. 232b. `Let us engage in words of Torah. referred to as ``things hidden by the Ancient of Days. but You. In BT In the Zohar this `All the prophets prophesied only concerning the days of the Messiah. it ascends and descends.000) and seven lower Zohar 1:4b. earths of the living ``vitality of the worlds.000 worlds. At that moment. and is transformed into a heaven. 2:14a±b Recal- all other innovated words of Torah . 34b: ``Rabbi H . All the prophets prophesied only that is coming. 3:128b (IR ). O words of the Ancient of Days.184 but rather I am making. . entering eighteen hidden worlds. Nonmystical insights. He adorns her with 370. ei ) has a numerical value of Shekhinah is the singular ``earth of the living. ascending and descending. Then they descend. . Along with them. Concerning this is written: As the new heavens and the new earth that I am making endure before Me.''' See BT earths I have of the living 184. . 179 When that secret word of wisdom. 181. higher Bava Batra 91b. As for all other innovated words of Torah.'' See the rabbinic blessing in BT Berakhot See BT 17a: ``May your steps run to hear No eye has seen. 26 which is renewed and transformed new earth through that renewed word of Torah. im words of the Ancient of Days . . . (h . 182 they stand before [5a] the blessed Holy One.'' who is adorned and renewed by human insights of Torah. . . He calls them new heavens. they roam until they arrive.

Of this is written: He replied. as is I have covered you with the shadow of My hand.''' Rabbi Shim'on amplifies this teachlaces.'' Ta'anit every word concealed . man Jeaobserved. as already explained. . From this we learn that every word concealed from the eyes 187 attains supernal value. as is written: ing and radicalizes it. ``That precious treasure hidden by You for 974 generations before the world was created. and stands before the blessed Holy One. 27 ens . . .'' Based on this passage. 185 The verse does not read the heavens. distinguished by O K RK KG X P halakhah. to plant heavens and establish earth.''' See 187.'' said the blessed Holy One to Moses. as is written: to plant heavens and establish earth. ``He has come to receive Torah. and BT Shabbat 88b: ``Rabbi See Yehoshu'a son of Levi said. and answer them. Zohar 8b: ``Blessing is not found in any- thing weighed. lous that a mere mortal dared to enter the celestial realm. sought to scorch him with the breath of their mouths. to plant heavens and establish earth. Rabbi Shim'on iden- . See BT Sanhe- drin 99b: ``Rav said. `[Concerning one who studies Torah for her own sake. ``I fear they could scorch me with the breath of their mouths. My people!' (ibid. . Why was it covered and hidden from view? For the sake of supernal value. ``To say to Zion: `You are KPT (ammi ).''' Rabbi Nah . . . See BT ``When Moses ascended on high. He shelters that word and covers that person so that he will not be discovered by themÐarousing their jealousyÐ before that word is transformed into new heavens and a new earth. Zion . ``What is the meaning of: I have covered you with the shadow of My hand?'' of Torah. To say to those 188 gates.[1:5a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar I have put My words in your mouth and covered you with the shadow of My hand. distinguished words the name of Rav H . okhmah (Beit ha-Midrash. gates . 186. note how the phrase ``it is as though'' has disappeared. but to new heavens. Pesiqta Rabbati Glory.'' They said. those distinguished words. the ministering angels said before the blessed Holy One. 202a.. the phrase gates of QGKX (tsiyyon). Zohar 1:64b.] it is as though he built heavenly and earthly pa- I have put My words in your mouth and covered you with the shadow of My hand. but only in that which is hidden from the eye. a band of angels of destruction .. What did the blessed Holy One do? He spread over him some of His splendor.' written: 185. . ``Grasp My throne of angels came to scorch him . 156b. as is written: I have covered you with the shadow of My hand. ``Master of the Universe! What is one born of woman doing In BT Berakhot 8a. Ma'yan H . 1:58±60). to plant heavens and establish earth (Isaiah 51:16). See 20: Shekhinah and 2:58a. ``When Torah was transmitted to Moses. measured.'' Cf. . . myriads of celestial angels came to scorch him with flames from their mouths.'' Rabbi El'azar asked. 186 Now when this word ascends.'' He said. . . The verse does not read the heav- here among us?'' He answered. . ``Answer give to flesh and blood! them. . . . but the blessed Holy One sheltered him. or counted. `When Moses ascended on high. `This teaches that the Almighty spread some of the luster of His His cloud over him. ``Master of the Universe. is crowned. . a human being that You take note of him?'' (Psalms 8:5).'' he replied. isda as ``gates (metsuyyanim). but rather heavens.). Zion (Psalms 87:2) is interpreted in 188. You desire to The reference is not to the existing heavens. What is a human that You are mindful of him. these above those: `You are KPT (ammi ).

balah. For as long as she endures in that heaven. Who has struck them dead? This sin who 194 Concerning this is written: slays human beings. 356±61. He196 hauls the one called iniquity with those cords of falsehood. `What is the meaning female demon. Kab- Many are those she has struck dead. and the Angel of Death in eightÐin time of plague. 189. with Me. come and see: One who is unaccustomed to the mysteries of Torah and innovates words he does not fully understandÐwhen that word ascends.''' his destination] in one [glide].' The that heavenÐ6. killing thousands.' but rather `You are KP T (immi ). the Sotah He The distorted heaven. khot in a single moment See BT Bera- Numerous are her slainÐ 4b: ``A tanna taught: `Michael [reaches this refers to a disciple qualified to teach who does not. and then sin as with a cart rope. 189 bursts forth from to obtain that 190 leaping 500 parasangs 191 word. that female called sin. the heavens were made (Psalms 33:6). in Samael. Zohar 1:57a. however. 192. See BT 22a: ``Rav said.''' 195. . she is empowered to swoop through the entire 28 world in a single moment. 197 May the Compassionate One save us!'' two.5 miles.000 parasangs in one glide. . See BT tifies original interpretations of Torah as Zion. 190.' Happy are those engaged with Torah! ``Now if you say that the word of any ignorant person has the same effect. so do you. myriads. he takes that word back to his chasm and transmogrifies her into a distorted heaven called `chaos. So. . 191. . 196.'' 2:245a. ``the Other Side.''' Cf. male demon who schemes and accuses falsely. . (Proverbs 16:28. becoming My partner! Just as I made heaven and earth by speaking. as is said: abode of demons. ra. and sin as with a cart rope.the zohar [1:5a] Do not read `You are KP T (ammi ). 193. From there she sets out. Many are those she has struck dead (Proverbs 7:26). clinging to it. numerous are her slain? Many are those she has struck deadÐthis refers to a disciple of the verse unqualified to teach [to decide questions of law] who teaches. Gabriel in . and sin as with a cart rope (Isaiah 5:18). 194. 6:17). Sitra Ah . empowers Samael.195 Iniquity is the male. a woman of whoredom (Hosea 1:2) joining with it. wife of Samael. tongue of falsehood the chasm of the immense abyss. Woe unto them who haul iniquity with cords of falsehood. A disciple unqualified . Elijah in four. the one. providing him a fast celestial highway. Sukkah chasm of the immense abyss parasangs 52a: ``Rabbi Assi said. The Greek parasang equals about 3. Together they comprise See Zohar 1:148a ( ST ). Who causes this? A disciple unqualified to teach who teaches. Scholem. . Who is sin? The female. in one glide The distorted heaven Woe unto them who haul iniquity with cords of vanity. as is said: By the word of YHVH. a man of perversity. 197. is established. man of perversity . My people. 192 man of perversity 193 flies through As soon as the distorted heaven emerges. woman of whoredom Lilith. `The evil impulse at The first resembles the thread of a spider but ultimately it resembles cart ropes. who is empowered there to fly and kill human beings. Grabbing her. Woe unto them .

200 He gazed upon her once. 2. . . Bereshit Rabbah 1:1: ``Rabbi Oshaya opened. . . 202. a nursling .) means: If you must depend on an authority. and the physical . three and four times. Zohar 1:47a. First. To teach human beings not to err in then spoke. . .204 Before generating His work. With Torah . Shekhinah to ar- ranged . containing respectively the sefirot. corresponding to those four Perhaps a reference to the four worlds. 3:35b. In the beginning God created. world. the angels. as is written: I was with Him as a nursling. One who says something that he has not heard from his teacher causes depart from Israel. declared .'' . . 1:243±45.'' See told humanity to imitate Him by studying Torah intensively. One of the five things that the imprisoned Rabbi Akiva taught Rabbi Shim'on (BT Pe- sah . 2:161a±b. The blessed Holy One gazed into Torah and created the world. allegorical.''' 203. 202 (Proverbs 8:30). im 112a) was: ``If you want to be stran- Wolfson. According to M Avot 3:14. the Chariot. and mystical. an artisan. creating through her. Torah says. . 201. . I was a daily 201 delight her. 204. ``I beg of you not to utter a word of Torah that you do not know and have not heard properly from a lofty tree. .'' 198. . 134a±b. . After creating the world. Then He saw . See 19 9 . 29 from a lofty tree From a recog- (umman). Philo. see that it is a great one. . Only after perusing Torah did God proclaim her words. 200. BT Eruvin 54b: ``Rabbi Eli'ezer said. These correspond to the four times that the blessed Holy One contemplated Torah before actualizing His work of art. these four.''' The conservative attitude here contrasts with the preceding encouragement to innovate. See Bereshit Rabbah 24:5. OKP[F (ha-shamayim). See the similar expression: ``from high tamarisks'' (BT artistic tool of the blessed Holy One. This has been established . . . ``May the Compassionate One save us! May the Compassionate One save us!'' ``Come and see: With Torah the blessed Holy One created the world. `One must `. God and study Torah thoroughly. . perhaps also to the four methods of interpretation: literal. Torah is the ``precious instrument by which the world was created. .203 The blessed Holy One created what He created corresponding to those four times: He saw and declared her. probed .'' which according to Rashi (ad loc. arranged her and probed her. `I was with Him as QGPB (amon). See b. . midrashic. Zohar and BT Berakhot 27b: ``Rabbi 2:87a. But rather to imitate Kallah Rabbati. then spoke . . saying. . thereby creating the world. . then be hanged on a large tree. This has been established.'' 199 They all opened. QGPB (amon)ÐQPGB times . . 3:76a± Eli'ezer says. gled.[1:5a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Rabbi Shim'on said to the Companions. The four verbs correspond to the four times that God gazed into Torah. twice. . not to err . Cf.''' See Beitsah 27a). then. God slay multitudes without cause OY and KP. He told humanity (Job 28:27). as is written: Then He saw and declared her. ``I was the nized authority. . Righteous and sinners die together in the plagues and disease brought by Lilith. arranged her and probed her. the heavens. He introduced four words: \B OKFNB BZC \K[BZC (Be-reshit bara Elohim et). teach his student four times. lest you enable 198 sin to slay multitudes without cause.

Devarim Rabbah 7:11.'' Rabbi El'azar opened. to Ma'aserot 3:8. ``My Sabbaths you are to observe (Leviticus 19:30). 10d. concerning which is 30 written: Let the earth sprout vegetation. (In BT Bava Metsi'a 85a the name of See JT Rabbi El'azar's brother-in-law is given as Rabbi Shim'on son of Issi [Yose] son of Lekonya. and Tif'eret. Shim'on ben Yose ben Lekonya. Shekhinah actualizes the potential of the other sefirot. his father-in-law. as here in the On the fourth day Corresponding Shekhinah. Each sefirotic day displayed its creative power on the corresponding day of the week. their work unrevealed until earth revealed them. th- rough which God fashioned the world. and The earth brought forth vegetation (Genesis 1:11±12). completing the triad of H . for the time is ripe to adorn ourselves on our way. the four elementsÐwater. Seder ha-Dorot. ``Let us open openings of Torah. transforming Shim'on son of Yose into Yose son of Shim'on. But although written of the third day. esed. every thing in nature comes into being and passes away. his father-in-law See the similar setting in Abba (``father''). since fire. fire. 143b. ai. Come and see: In six days the blessed Holy One created the world. Note who accompanies Rabbi El'azar: Rabbi ZH .v. 208. Soon another father and son appear. Then the skill of each one of them was made known. El'azar's father-in-law was named Shim'on son of Yose. In the Zohar. and airÐalthough they are three ethereal elements 208 Ðwere all suspended. switches father and son. 193a. Hilkhot Yesodei ha-Torah 4:1. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana In six days . (MhN ). 14a Sefer Yetsirah 3:3. saying.) The author of the to Empedocles and later Greek and medieval thought. 205. Zohar. 3:84b. Bemidbar Rabbah Mishneh Torah. not revealed. Creation correspond to six primordial days.the zohar [1:5b] Rabbi El'azar was going to see Rabbi Yose son of Rabbi Shim'on son of Lekonya. Zohar consistently and earthÐare the ultimate root of all things. When did it reveal its work and transmit its power? On the fourth day. Maimonides. 207. 188a. By their combination and separation. Rabbi Abba said. 50d. Rabbi Yose son of Rabbi Shim'on son of Lekonya. transmitting its power through that day. which would make Yose his fatherin-law. of course. When the fourth day arrived. 22c (MhN ). ``Now you might say this happened on the third day. El'azar's own father. . his father-in-law. water. the four See 14:12. is Rabbi Shim'on son of Yoh . She can also be seventh of the lower characterized as the fourth primordial day (the middle of the cosmic week). 205 [5b] Rabbi Abba accompanied him. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 4:11. Although usually pictured as sefirot. .'' According to this rabbinic tradition. See 1:61b. Every single day revealed its work. The six days of 11:20: ``Rabbi El'azar son of Rabbi Shim'on was going to Rabbi Shim'on son of Rabbi Yose son of Lekonya. . 206. 207 206 for those first three days were all concealed. the sefirot from H . air. Gevurah. it was really the fourth. . . and a man was goading the donkeys behind them. . esed through Yesod. s. it generated the work and power of them all. but nowhere in three ethereal elements According rabbinic literature is he named Yose son of Shim'on.

211 for the fourth All the work of all of 212 them. . agigah 2:1 (BT H . TZ 23. Hod. . Bava Batra 73b. . See Zohar 1:20a. perplex. which are indivisible. an artisan . Tif'eret. Steinschneider. was dependent on the Sabbath day. esed. Sanhedrin 110a. Rabbi El'azar understands this word in light of the related root gather. . and as H . The continuation of the verse with which Rabbi El'azar opened: (klh). fourth leg of the throne. 388. T he fou r sefirot See Rosh ha-Shanah 26b. sym- the masculine Sabbath day. . JT H agigah 2:1. idem. 209.'' elements symbolize the quartet of sefirot: 214. 145b. 46. Gevurah. 165. took place on the fourth day but is included in His day to ensure and demonstrate their union. symbolized by  n. Cf. . and Tif'eret. included in the third . ``include. Arab merchant. Hod. included NMKG NNM (Vaykhal ). 215. (H . BT Mo'ed Qatan 25a±b. Sefer Tif'eret or Yesod.'' He said. . . and Shekhinah). 209 From the fourth day on. 4:11. These three artisans completed the work of the preceding skilled trio: KCZT (aravi).'' (kll ). 155b±157a. H . See OY. also constitute the four legs of the divine throne upon which sits Binah. My Sabbaths you are to observe . 227. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 4:3. Shekhinah. as well as the next triad: Netsah . Arab donkey-driver BTKKJ (Tayya'a). and Yesod. ``And He completed. She is the Sabbath. why My Sabbaths you are to observe. . Kabbalah. Cf.'' from the root FNM ZH . In the Zohar. symbolized by The third Shekhinah. . tayya'a in BT Berakhot 6b. fourth leg . . There 31 H . Tif 'eret. . The prophet Elijah returns to earth to appear as a an sefirot emerged: Netsah . tayya'a indicates one of several wandering donkey-drivers who annoy. Gevurah. Scholem. `If so. 69a. the lower triad of ``Arab. Gevurah. the male sefirah. earlier and later days . . two?' The 214 215 answer is: the Sabbath of Sabbath eve and the Sabbath of the day itself. 94b±114a. n. 210. both earlier and later days. Polemische und apologetische Literatur. Pushinski. are two aspects of the Sabbath: the feminine Sabbath eve. Bereshit Rabbah 32:10. (Leviticus 19:30). ullin 7a. From the fourth day on . 211. . day constitutes the fourth leg of the celestial throne. This is God included in the seventh day His work that He had made (Genesis Sabbath. 83a±d (MhN. its 210 work was revealed. Moses de Leo The activity of the female. and primordial day is Tif'eret. . My sanctuary . written: 213 as is 2:2). H . 213. Beginning on the fourth day. Gevurah. Sabbath of Sabbath eve . 77a). Tosefta. the four elements. comprise. . in Yavneh 2 (1940): 140±47.. 212. esed. ``Now you might ask. 1±10. culmination of the primordial week of Creation. . Yevamot 120b. ``This is the holiness of the Sabbath.'' That Arab donkey-driver goading behind them said. 186b.[1:5b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar included in the third to be one without division. ``Arab'' in Rut Zuta 1:20. . and Yesod. and Shekhinah. ``And what is (Leviticus 19:30)?'' 216 My sanctuary you are to hold in awe He replied. and enlighten the Companions on the road. and Tif'eret. See 2:45b. Sabbath Shekhinah completes the triad of H . Rut ). bolized by earth. ``This is the holiness drawn down from above. esed. agigah 14b. 216. . ``What is the holiness of the Sabbath?'' He replied. 248±54. yielding an artisan for each and every skill. Major Trends. traveler.'' apparently derived from the name of the Arabian tribe taiy. 3:21a±23a. ha-Mishqal. esed.

to the range of holiness beyond the realm who conveys the attribute of Judgment. the accusa(et) has no ascertainable in- Sabbath seventh 220. Here it refers Sabbath eve'' (Friday night) is Shekhinah. Zohar Another Sabbath Shekhinah.'' They said to him. ``So it is: honored rately. who is holy of YHVH?'' honored. Sabbath eve. . 223 This is the Sabbath of Sabbath eve. FBD SBN amplifies the meaning to include (Le-asga'ah). who is awe and in whom awe dwells. concealed as one. the lower The higher Sabbath is Binah. .'' He said. 247a. ``Let this man be! Within him lies a new word we do not know. See Mekhilta.'' See BT 223.the zohar [1:5b] He said. ullin Vayassa of the Zohar who is awe . according to KP. which is 2000 cubits So the meaning is expanded: K \G \C [ \ B (Et Shabbetotai ). the other. `Master of the universe. the seventh sefirah Binah. um of Gimzo and his disciple Rabbi Akiva taught that when sefirah counting up from Yesod. 2000 cubits 6. The sefiro- tic day of See Yesod needs the night of Shekhinah. She said before Him. the lower Sabbath. . since the day You created me. The traditional limita- tion on how far one may walk beyond the cit y limits on the Sabbath. `My daughter. 11:8. saying. or widen the scope of meaning. ``If so. Yet it is written: Rabbi El'azar said to Rabbi Abba. ``Holiness that descends from above. you are SabbathÐI call you SabbathÐbut I am about to crown you with a higher crown. the feet of the divine chariot. . 135b.)!'' He replied. Sabbath Call the Sabbath a delight. ``If so. H . 219.' He issued a proclamation: My sanctuary you are to hold in awe. you have turned the Sabbath into something not holy except for the holiness that rests upon it from above!'' Rabbi Abba said. cf. tive particle \B (Et) \B Grammatically. See BT counting down from 221. the higher Sabbath . to include. 217. . amplify.'' (Isaiah 58:13). the holy of YHVH and holy of YHVH are each mentioned sepa- He said. okhmah. is also called sefirot. `` K\ G\ C [ \ B 218 (Et Shabbetotai ). inspiring awe and fear. Pesah . . agigah 12a±b. I have been called SabbathÐand there can be no day without night. the dependent sense. sy- et lower Sabbath is appears in a biblical verse. 1:79b. 220 My SabbathsÐone is the higher Sabbath.'' a Zoha- there can be no day .' 222 He replied. the father of Shekhinah. . resting upon it. ``to increase''Ðthat is. the Sabbath complains to God that she has no partner among the days of the week. H . ``To increase. 218. My Sabbaths. both included as one. mbolizing 222. 60b. and she is told: ``The Assembly of Israel is your partner. (le-rabbot). 32 219 the range of Sabbath. ai. ``Speak!'' He opened. The Yesod. \B (Et) 217 amplifies the meaning to include in every direction. ``If holiness drawn down from above is called appears that the Sabbath is not honored. but Nah . ``Another Sabbath 221 was left unmentioned and felt ashamed. im 22b. it amplifies the original meaning. where according to ric rendering of the rabbinic Hebrew \G C Z N Bereshit Rabbah Rabbi Shim'on son of Yoh . 2:90a. then it And honor it (ibid. The sefirah of H . The ``Sabbath of 2:207a.

138±39. I am YHVH The full verse reads: My Sabbaths you are to observe. 2:350±51). 229 altogether amounting to seventy names of the blessed Holy One. . Tif'eret and Both as- Shekhinah. 227. as You are to observe (Leviticus 19:30). OKPTF (ki vanu vah . . Cf. lines of the S (samekh) symbolizes O (final The opening Zohar Assembly of Israel N B Z [ K \ S RM 2:127a. Zohar qiddush. are included in . Keneset YisShekhinah. Bahir is to the higher sefirot (beginning with Binah Yesod ) and Shekhinah. 63. 231. The Zohar's phrase ``that we recite'' veals the full spectrum of divine personality and is thus called joined with indicates a particular custom. 493 (unnumbered).224 ``I heard my father say so precisely: \B (Et) includes the range of Sabbath. Nah . They are two. Scholem. 227 2:1±3). . thirty-five words This total requires the 228. within 225 . the aspect of God most intimately connected with them. My sanctuary you are to hold in awe. circle with a square inscribed 83 (114±16). 226. pects of the Sabbath. (Shamor). Rabbah 1:135. I. Ha-Nigleh she-ba-Nistar. blessed be He). Hallowing. In the Shir ha-ShirZohar. Here the reference 2:207b. the other. See GNMKG (Vaykhullu) . manides. 14:12. . where Yisra'el ). 225 My Sabbaths (Vaykhullu). . while the square of the letter mem) symbolizes Shekhinah. omission of the following ten words from the Sabbath. cf. Alfa Beita de-Rabbi Aqiva Midrashot. 159. .'' See Shma. See Bemidbar Kitvei Ramban. qiddush: the day. both included in 230 with which Assembly they are Since this circle and square are G Z G P[ \ is lower Z G P[ My Sabbaths. okhmah. One is GN M KG 226 [GE Y And they [heaven and earth] were completed . the di- [GEY (Qiddush) . the masculine and the feminine Yesod Shekhinah. . Scholem. . are a circle with a square inscribed within. ``for it is and NMP \[EY GR\GBG \ZIC GRC KM they are both included . which differs from the standard 229. the circle of the letter Binah. these names. Shekhinah mani- fests in both sacred time (Sabbath ) and sacred space (sanctuary ). qiddush (``hallowing. . and Ba'al ha-Turim. I is YHVH (Tif'eret). The midrash on the Song of Songs describes the love affair between the maiden (the earthly communit y of Israel) and her lover (the Holy One. the prayer recited over wine Friday evening to hallow the Sabbath. Numbers 11:16.'' OGK BGF KM (ki hu yom). The lovers in the Song of Songs are pictured as the divine couple: The rest of the prayer. (Battei seventy names . ``for You have chosen us and hallowed us from among all nations.231 whereas is written: the higher ``awe'' and is reflected in His daughter. Observe (Deuteronomy 5:12). Genesis 46:8. . For various lists of The phrase derives from BT Eruvin 76b. . I am YHVH (Leviticus 19:30). ra'el can refer to the earthly community but also (often primarily) to vine feminine counterpart of the people. cf. which includes the blessing over w ine and the blessing of hallow ing the in the qiddush that we recite . Vaykhullu contains thirty-five words. sanctifica- tion''). (Keneset and culminating in See KP. (Tishmoru). (Genesis (Qiddush). see 230.[1:5b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Who is that? The one included by the blessed Holy One when He said I am YHVH. corresponding to which are two hallowings we should recite. 228 and in the qiddush that we recite there are thirty-five words. Shir ha-Shirim Zuta 1:1. im Rabbah on 2:1. Ta- 224. of Israel is adorned. God reIn this phrase. . n. In rabbinic Hebrew this phrase denotes the people of Israel. Through 33 Shekhinah. arta ve-otanu qiddashta mikol ha-ammim). who H . Midrash ha-Gadol.

eret. . represents a more reTif'eret . `the King who possesses peace' . alaf ta refers to the phallus as ``peacemaker of the home. 232. So it is written: GZGP[\ (Tishmoru). 1:96a. Remember. 72b ( ShS ).'' In the verse in Leviticus 19. who are indi- cated together by (Tishmoru). indicates the union of male and TZ 21. From afar is the highest 238 point. appeared from afar. . who is called YHVH. . 164b. Tif'eret issues from them. Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 1:2. Here it designates Yesod and Shekhinah. So it is written twice: Peace. . 237. From afar sefirot from H . 496±97. 48b. . ``male.'' encompassing the entire configuration of through citation is striking. from afar. Observe. since the verse in Deuteronomy refers to false gods. the plural verb G Z GP [ \ Tif'eret. 235. You are to observe. Â n. 2:4a.239 My sanctuary you are to hold in below: one.the zohar [1:6a] Sabbath is not included here in (Zakhor). since he withstood the test of sexual temptation in Egypt (Genesis 39). which implies (zakhar). or the Sabbath day to keep it holy. 34 This word Tif'eret with Shekhinah. where Rabbi Shim'on ZGMH and Sabbath day. See BT Sotah 11a. but rather in Remember 233 (Exodus 20:8). from nearby cently. finds its completion in the masculine subject of the sentence. the primordial point of emanation. ZH . lizes (zakhor) suggests (tishmoru). 43b. 45b. insuring peace in the sefirotic realm. the feminine. This ed as the Divine Mother. ad loc.'' Although often depict- Yesod. 2:127b. the other. YHVH appeared to me (Jeremiah 235 31:2). Binah is also desc- cent emanation than Jacob. . 239.'' Joseph. peace to the far and the near (Isaiah 57:19). ``male. 46b. ZGMH (Zakhor). Bahir 124 (182). as is said: New 237 [gods] who came from nearby (Deuteronomy 32:17). is situated in the palace of Binah. (zakhor). 163a. ZMH (zakhar). See observe. . Together they constitute a Shekhinah. ZGP[ (Shamor). included in ZGP[ (Shamor). female. and unite with SheTif'- khinah.'' 234. Jacob symbo- You are to divine phallus. between right and left. See Rashi. Ezra of Gerona. Sefer ha-Rimmon. esed Yesod. G Z G P[\ You are to observe. signified by ZMH (zakhor). . To the far refers to Jacob. okhmah. His sister stood far off (Exodus 2:4).236 And the near. manides on Exodus 20:8. Moses de Leo See BT 118. because of the two peaces 234 ZGMH (zakhor). His sister stood far off the supreme King and higher Sabbath. ribed as ``World of the Male. Cf. Both of these mediate Berakhot 20b. 149a. 246a. Observe sefirot. as is said: From afar. 160b. 1:17b. [6a] and the near refers to Joseph. who is called ``peace'' either because He mediates between the right and left poles of the because He unites See BT Z GP [ (Shamor). signifies the feminine because the other version of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:8) reads: Shabbat 152a. completed by ZGMH (zakhor) ZG MH Zohar 1:120a.' and His peace is That is why there is no strife above. 236. Peirush Shir ha-Shirim. To the far.. who faces Tif'eret. . Z G P[ (Shamor). the two peaces below . Joseph symbolizes Yesod. masculine entity ready to join See Zohar H . the Binah. 238. for the supreme King is completed by Z GM H Z GM H 232 So He is called `the King who possesses peace. YHVH appeared . From afar. Nah . 233. Jacob. Observe. is the highest point . Joseph. See Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana 1:2. the son of H . 248b. Miriam. which is signified by the opening word of the fourth of the Ten Commandments: Binah. who contains Yesod. Referring back to the two Sabthe plural verb Observe baths. standing in its palace. 147a. symbolizes Shekhi- sefirah of Ye- nah. Zohar 1:47b. . In midrashic literature this phrase is applied to God. Idiomatic for ``re- sod. So it is written . .

The Sabbath in the Classical Kabbalah. UM (Kaf ) 332±35. 242. 85±92. ``Do not ask who I am! Rather. Those who profane it. goading donkeys? EGK (Yod ) waged war with two letters. The letter LPS (samekh) stands for the word LPGS tremble when 248. 110. `` to be bound together with me. to be bound together . See Moses de Leo mon. 3:250a. page X98 (transmitted in the name of Rav Hamnuna Sava). Leo cited in Elijah de Vidas. The conclusion of the I am YHVH. Sefer ha-Rimkhinah. presses the personality of God. 77a. but such was not the case. since it cannot survive for a moment any where else.'' from El'azar son of Arakh. called 111. unrevealed. where Yoh . who fully ex- BSM (kisse). so it could support those who fall. all is one Shekhinah. . Reshit H . . H . On the Sabbath as sacred center. point standing in the center The ma'aseh merkavah. where God tells her: ``You are needed where you are. 1:160a. 240 which one should fear more than shall surely be put to death. alal ). agigah 2:1. okhmah. See Tosefta. aleleha). . aleleha). ( somekh). more concealed than 244. LPS (Samekh) did not want . who depend on you?'' Shekhinah are united.'' See above. UM (Kaf ) did not want . ``supporting. those who profane it? Whoever enters the NNI (h . as is written: the circle and the squareÐthe site where that point restsÐand damages it 241 awe is the point standing in the center. where the throne begins to Tif'eret. LPS (Samekh) did not want to depart. ``All this wisdom in your hand. see Ginsburg. is called 243. 246 247 248 35 240. 247. Zohar three H . See 241. damages it Sefer ha-Mishqal. of any thing. kissing and He replied. JT H . 2.'' They said to him. who had been driving the donkey from behind. wanted to remain at the head of the word I Shekhinah. That point is 242 243 called I. hollow. indicates that I. for without LPS (samekh) they cannot survive. dismounted Out of respect for the sanctity of Torah. See BT central point of Shekhinah inside the square inscribed within the circle. Who are FKNNIP (meh . . So it is written: You are to hold in awe. engaging in Torah. . do not move! If you leave. They said.'' 244 245 Rabbi El'azar and Rabbi Abba dismounted and kissed him. anan son of Zakkai dismounts from his donkey to hear an exposition of . and you are goading our donkeys behind us? Who are you?'' He replied. 246. agigah 14b. This is YHVH. Moses de  n. and on it rests that high concealed one. idem. letters SK M ``pocket. then the wandering donkey-driver would have been wealthy. . agigah 2:1. Pro- faning the Sabbath damages the core of She-  n. ``Who appointed you to go here. shall surely be put to death (Exodus 31:14). what would happen to the fallen. ``the account of the chariot. . Sefer ha-Mishqal. the divine ``throne. and all is one.[1:6a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar FKNNIP (Meh .'' If all three had joined together.'' See above. Let each one speak words of wisdom to illumine the way. UM (Kaf ) did not want to depart and be bound. Zohar 2:204a±b. . page X95. 245. . Whoever enters . EGK (yod ) came to me. Alone. for its punishment is death. let us go together. Sha'ar ha-Qedushah. . spell the word These (kis). Joseph Gikatilla. UM (kaf ) and LPS (samekh). that high concealed one . verse. Tif'eret and UM (kaf ) descends from it.

the blessed Holy One and a certain poor person Tif'eret and Shekhinah. the foal of an ass. Sanhedrin 106b). 1:127. okhmah (``Wisdom'') and Binah (``Understanding''). agigah passage (ad loc. In several Qumran texts the N of the alphabet. and fill their treasuries (Proverbs 8:21). ing to Todros Abulafia. blessed Holy One will endow every righteous So that I may endow those who love Me with [K (yesh). 37b. goading donkeys. Cf. chariah 9:9: 251. . more valuable than wealth.'' 249. ``But you haven't told us your name. See Ze- Sheqel ha-Qodesh. . your king is coming to you. go and goad donkeys. but I have gone into exile. higher than those that departed. which is the ultimate substance.'' while G (vav). what can I do for you? But look. . towering sefirot. (shin). ``In the world to come. 96b. They said. agigah 15b. my son. The expression originates in the Talmud (BT sefirot.). and In (lamed ) is composed of (dalet) (dalet) symbolizes Shekhinah.' That is why I go like this. Sha'arei Orah. and 66a±b (ShS ). . including one from his teacher that the tower refers to the letter Q K[ of N (lamed ). the letters Kabbalah who is Oholot 4:1). So. person with 310 worlds. saying. 251 grand and splendid. 143. See 2:91a. ( ShS ).'' See Gikatilla. discusses this interpretation of the H . (dallah). until the one driving donkeys arrives?'' 250 They said to him. ``Go ride! We will goad the donkeys behind you. 36 This is where I reside. cf. highest letter emanation from H . serving as your support. `My son. celestial. ``The site I inhabit is fine and lofty for me: a certain tower soaring in the air. nection between N (lamed ) and the tower is Until the cited from the Book of Rav Hamnuna Sava. 93a±b. 249 (shin)Ðas your treasuries filled with every thing. where the phrase counter of the towers (Isaiah 33:18) is interpreted as: ``one who counted 300 fixed laws concerning a tower soaring in the air. . 102a. The gimatriyya of [K (yesh) is 310. the H . 108.'' He said to them. agigah the two 15b.the zohar [1:6a] embracing me. I will ascend and fill myself with goodnessÐwith hidden. H . ``substance'' . over the lower 70a Zohar. 3:164a±b. She wept with me. Rashi (on both Talmudic E FNE N E Otsar ha-Kavod. Messiah arrives riding on a donkey. splendid letters! Then I will come to you. namely. the The Hebrew Scripts. ZH . Shoshan Sodot. as is written: 250. substanceÐcelestial EG K (yod ) and QK[ [K (yesh). AccordG (vav). Â n.'' The laws are apparently laws of defilement (see M in the tower of N (lamed ). in [lamed] is written above the normal line of letters. The site you inhabitÐwhat is it?'' He replied. . Moses de Leo (112±14). ``poor. the tower is Binah. Those dwelling in this tower are the 252 blessed Holy One and a certain poor person. . and Otsar ha-Kavod. In the according to Rabbi Yehoshu'a son of Levi (M Uqtsin 3:12). I will endow you with two letters. ``Didn't I tell you it is the command of the King. 252. where the con- until the one driving . substance. These two sefirot are joined Binah. 89±90 Behold. He is righteous and triumphant. posed of the two letters [K (yesh). 58a. See Birnbaum. EGK (yod ) [K (Yesh) designates the Comand flow passages) offers several interpretations.'' Rabbi El'azar and Rabbi Abba rejoiced and wept. humble [or: poor] and riding on a donkey. who is poor in the sense that She has no emanation of Her own but receives emanation from the other Zohar 1:9a. tower soaring in the air . on a colt. Todros Abulafia.

. 103b. note 250. . Qiddushin 25a. Zohar assumes KP ). he could swim the ocean in one moment.g. asidim.e. See Tif'eret.g.'' see Zechariah 9:9. note 124. Bereshit Rabbah 97:3.. before the story related here. par. Margaliot. So grand and splendid. ed. Temurah 15a). (nuna).[1:6a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Rabbi Abba and Rabbi El'azar gazed at him. 522): ``A person whose father is called `Rabbi. He shot me out like an arrow from the hand of a mighty warrior. ``You are the son of the Holy Lamp! 256 You are the son of Rav Hamnuna Sava. ai. like an arrow . . (ed. cited above. Gevurah.' and his son [i. 136b. BT od.' e. Sefer H .'' He said. idem. who joins with the five sefirot around Him (H . filled with all goodness of the world. esed. Wistinetzki. see Stroumsa. the title usually reserved by the Bahir.. In the Zohar. They said to him. par. ``If you tell us the name of your father. Zohar. The donkey-driver had hinted at the name Hamnuna by saying that his father was a driver is apparently hinting that on the material plane he resides there. 368. ullin 21a. 254 253 But my father's circumnavigating the vast ocean from one end to the other. 253. Scholem. disappearing into the ocean.'' See Zohar 3:187a. Netsah . Major Trends. It is not my habit to boast . and several prayers are attributed to him (BT 11b. . Holy Lamp B[KEY BRKXGC (Botsina Das Buch Qaddisha). 2:88a. 250a. He was a fish. Tosafot. and several original ritual acts are attributed to him. Throughout See Psalms 127:4: roles are reversed and Rabbi Shim'on cites Rav the Hamnuna (e. 124a.''' 254. so are the children of one's youth.g. we will kiss the dust of your feet. B RG R See s. symbolizes Zohar for Rabbi Shim'on son of Yoh . 255. Cf.'' Rabbi El'azar contemplated his words. ancient of days. 257. 58a). he would swallow all the other fish in the ocean. ``fish. . Hamnuna is greatly revered. `Reu'ven son of Rabbi Ya'akov. and the donkey- t h a t he d ie d i n t he l i fe t i me o f Ra b b i Shim'on. Then he returned to his site. Cf. 188a. 1:8a±b). the Elder. n. 134. and Christianity.'' In the Talmud Rav Hamnuna occasionally transmits teachings of Rabbi Shim'on (e. He said. 145b (IR ). then spew them out alive. swimming the ocean of divinity. Berakhot Gittin 39b. dwelling was in the great ocean.' but rather simply `Reu'ven. `Any emission of semen that does not shoot forth like an arrow does not fructify. fish BRGR (Nuna). BT H . He had flavored his words for them as sweet as manna and honey. 17a. `Rabbi Ya'akov. 3:87b. .v. a Babylonian teacher who lived in the third century. though the EG N (Lod ).''' 256. thriving. above. 257 son of the radiance of Torah. 68. swimming in the BT ocean of Torah. On the messianic implication of ``poor. Like arrows in the hand of a warrior. So strong. ' s hou ld no t sign h i s n a me The fish carries messianic overtones in both Judaism ``The Early Christian Fish Symbol Reconsidered. ``Why? It is not my habit to boast of Torah. . 255 secreting me in that site I described. Sefirotically. agigah 15a: ``Shemu'el said.. the fish is Yes- H . Hod. See 1:240a. 1945 hamnuna karnuna. he himself] is called ` Re u ' v e n . and you are goading donkeys behind us?'' 37 whose numerical value is six. and Yes- Rav Hamnuna Sava Rav Hamnuna od ) to form the sixfold sefirotic torso. The three letters joined together spell the city of Lydda (cf.

7a. Zohar 258. The name prevails. in a rung containing all. for even in his death he was called living.'' He opened.'' 262. 263 Qavtse'el (ibid. The name GFKRC (Bena- This verse has been established 263. 258 This verse Ðwhich is fineÐbut this verse alludes to supernal appears on behalf of a mystery Benayahu son of Yehoyada of wisdomÐa concealed word.'' and Qavtse'el refers to Binah. of ten identified w ith the Tree of Life. ``Vitality of the Worlds. Master of deeds (ibid. Lord of Hosts. iy ya of a living man. 260. He went down and slew the lion within the pit on a snowy day. in the name of Rabbi Yoh . ``son he.) 261 ÐMaster of all action.'' see BT 1:58b. Berakhot 18a ±b : ``Rabbi H . . concealed rung that [6b] no eye has seen . Zohar said . 2:179b. Righteous One .''' Cf.'' animates all of existence. in Eshel Be'er Sheva 4 (1996): 198±201. . 259 son of Yehoyada (2 Samuel 23:20). (ibid. of. 2:232a. See BT interprets the biblical word CZ (rav). anan: ``He is the insignia among His myriad. three letters symbo- H . vav). Righteous OneÐVitality of the Son of a living man 260 Worlds. `Son 1:132a. . . ``From \ G B C X F G FK (YHVH Tseva'ot). [what You will do for one who awaits You] . from Qavtse'el. On the notion that ``the No eye has seen. YKEX (Tsaddiq). one of the heroes mentioned in 2 Samuel 23. and from which all emerges. son of a living man. 264. On various senses of this title see above. Masu'ot. 261. . and Tif'eret.)Ð YK EX 262 (Tsaddiq). He is His hosts. ``Benayahu has been established mysteries of Torah. . The donkey-driver begins to answer the question of his identity with a verse about Benayahu. . supreme above all. Binah. H . 265.'' G FK Yesod. . let him reveal his name to us. but as for the world that is coming. . kissed him. Qavtse'el The root Yesod. according to its alternate meaning: ``master. and the name prevails. Master of deeds Berakhot 7b. `All the prophets prophesied only concerning the days of the Mes- yahu) lizing indicates (yod. saying. . WC Y (qvts) means ``to gather. hidden palace. note 176. . He is called Master of deeds. agigah Zohar insignia of all His hosts See BT 16a. a loyal follower of King David. .)Ðthis grand and dignified tree. See Zohar 1:136a. who is QC (ben). abounding in deeds. for all emerge from Him. no eye has seen tinues: The verse con- O God. . phets prophesied only concerning masters of return [those who succeed in turning back . of all celestial powers. . See BT Berakhot 34b: ``Rabbi H . but You. what You will do for one who awaits You. . 164a. Sha'arei Tsedeq. 259. insignia of all Distinguished and supreme. okhmah. ``If it pleases our master.'' Cf. and went on. this grand and dignified tree . gathered in from upper light. from which site did it emerge? From which rung did it come? The verse goes on to say: From Qavtse'el 264Ða 64:3).the zohar [1:6b] They both wept together. O God. 486±91. He smote the two Ariel of Moab. anan. the name prevails . in which all rungs are Goldreich. but You. 136a. It is the holy. 265 high. (Isaiah 38 Liebes. They said to him. . iy ya son of Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yoh . Yesod. All the prosiah. Benayahu son of Yehoyada verse continues: The donkey-driver son of a living man. Gikatilla. okhmah. who gathers in the upper light of H . Are all other people then sons of dead men? Rather. abound- ing.

272 A is All the lights illumining Israel He went down and slew the lion (2 Samuel. 273. causing the destruction of the Temple and the exile of meaning of in Samuel the is Ariel In in the Ezekiel unclear.''' 268. 269. they originated . Two sanctuaries . River Kevar. offering offerings and sacrifices to atone for their souls. 149a±b. Zohar 1:85a. Gruenwald. in Temirin 1 (1972): 111±14. Two sanctuaries existed because of Him. when this river gushed its waters below. and the Holy Throne as is written: rung called I 269 was 270 And I was in the midst of the exile (Ezekiel 1:1)Ðthat in the midst of the exile. He. and when that flow ceased they were destroyed. 205. contains within HerselfÐ and then gives birth toÐall the lower 267. and BT 18a±b: ``Rabbi H . O God. 266. . who reveals the full spectrum of divine personrefers to ality. 271. that rung called I Shekhinah. ibid.'' ``long ago. See M Zohar 1:26a (TZ ). ` He Berakhot smote 272. the word Divine Mother. darkened. 3:150b. word Yesod was of the past and had ceased to flow. He went down and slew the lion the two Ariel of Moab. A river dries up and is parched See 43:15±16 it apparently means ``hearth'' of an altar. . ibid. No eye has seen.). above. 268 smote them.).[1:6b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar gathered and concealed. CBGP (Mo'av). In Hebrew. . Essential Kabbalah. As soon as He departed. parchedÐin the Second. since David was descended from Ruth the Moabite. so that it did not flow as before. t wo The verse (kevar) means ``already. in heaven and were destroyed and obliterated because of Him. as is written: 271 river dries up and is parched (Job 14:11). but You. from it. destroying and obliterating them. from Father. 2:166b. iy ya said .'' The point here is that the river of . . 273 In former 39 times. whom they could see on the altar. hidden palace .''' In the Zohar. ezqel. waters and springs ceased. 67a.'' See 1:4b. 270. . So He smote the two Ariel of Moab. to God]. . MoabÐfor they originated CBP (me-av). ``Further. . In rabbinic sources Ariel of King Moab refers to the Temple. fell. . . who is identified with ``the world that 163a. Babylon. though. as it were. the flow flowing from above ceased. Ariel Binah. whose River of Already. Binah. ed. See Re'uyyot Yeh .). Then from above would descend the image of a lion. 2:97b. the sefirot. . in Isaiah 29:1 the name is applied to Jerusalem. were destroyed The two Temples came into being through the flow of divine emanation. but as for the completely righteous. for he did not leave his like in either the First Temple or the Holy Throne fell Shekhinah fell The verse continues: within the pit on a into exile. Shekhinah. on account of the river gushing and flowing. Second. 126. Matt. Middot 4:7. smote the two Ariel of Moab (2 Samuel. River of Already ZCM The prophet Ezekiel experienced his vision by the River Kevar. all holy powers are nourished and deployed. . [the people of] Israel were fulfilled. snowy day. . Dries upÐin the First Temple. . this verse often is coming. a stream near Nippur in holy. Why? By the River Kevar (ibid. . were nourished by Him: First Temple and Second Temple. ``He 267 266 In the trunk of this tree all worlds exist. note 19. .

it was as clear as sunlight. Sin severed 275. king of Babylon (722±710 b. 241a. Gabriel. a lion. Midrash Konen (Beit ha-Midrash. where he is named Merodach Baladan son of Baladan. Sha'ar ha-Ra- Sanhe- drin 96a) comments: ``Why was he called zim. Here the donkey-driver blends several of these traditions to describe a demonic figure with the face of a dog who is empowered to devour the sacrifices. Uriel appears sometimes as the figure of the eagle. 211a. sometimes as the lion. ``lion'' and with NBK ZB FK ZB adam). 2 Esdras 4:1. He. with the QE B N C (Bal'adan) is a demonic figure whose name is taken to mean: OEB NC (bal my light. which represents the shadow of the divine. 276 ``When sins prevailed. human.'' though here connected by the Zohar similar-sounding (aryeh). and On a snowy dayÐa See BT 274. Legends. 278 N B K ZG B (Uri'el ). He descended to the rungs below. it de- dan) . .). On this the Talmud (BT 40 voured wet wood like dry wood. . ra bisha). by 277. In Kabbalah these angels of the Presence are identified with the four holy creatures seen by Ezekiel.'' Baladan's dog-face is probably a rabbinic explanation of the dogs seen on Assy rianBabylonian monuments (Ginzberg. 276. . 104. image of a lion . (Sitra evil Other Side B[KC BZIB BZJS Literally. n. See 1 Enoch 9:1. . Todros Abulafia. 6:368. with whom King Hezekiah of Judea had contact. Here connection bet ween Yesod and Shekhinah. in OY. the demonic realm.e. not venturing out. Zohar 3:32b. killed it.c. Seeing this. He descended .the zohar 274 [1:6b] crouching over its prey. Scholem. 90. See EBNK C (Bil'ad ). 279. dogs 275 consuming sacrifices like a fierce warrior. as it were. dogs The demonic powers. See Zohar 3:32b. Bemidbar Rabbah 2:10. who surround the divine throne. name of that dog? QEBNC (Bal'aThe name derives from Merodach Baladan. for his face is the face of What is the name of that dog? for it is excluded from the category of dogÐits face a dog. while in the Second Temple it crouched like a dog. He slew 277 the lion. 278. Yoma 21b: ``Five things were reported about the fire of the pile of wood on the Temple altar: it crouched like a lion. NBKZGB (Uri'el) . What is the name of that lion? (aryeh). Uriel is one of the four angels of the Presence (along with Michael. (adam).'' the demonic forces. but is rather a day when sins prevailed. [Merodach-]Baladan the son of Baladan? It has been told: Baladan was a king whose the face turned into that of a dog. as it were. Zohar 3:32b. 211a. In his documents he wrote his own name and the name of his father. Sodot. really! Within the pit (ibid. Pesiqta Rabbati 46. Shoshan Madda'ei ha-Yahadut Yoma 21b 1 (1926): 112±27. . sym- bol of the Temple. King Baladan. . The holy lion no longer received its prey and was thus killed. 82). no longer willing to provide its prey. ``God is Yesod. ``not human. so his son sat upon his throne instead. BT observes that in the First Temple the fire on the altar appeared crouching like a lion. . See 2 Kings 20:12±13.)Ðin plain sight of the evil Other Side. and Raphael).'' Cf. its flame was of substance. and it caused no smoke to rise. Isaiah 39:1±2.'' KP refers to non-Jewish magical traditions concerning prince of the demons. (Ariel). . . that Other Side was emboldened to send a dog to eat the offerings. while all hid themselves away. and He killed that lion. ah . 211a. 2:39). 279 OEB QE B N C FK Z B (Bal'adan) is its name. In the continuation of the passage cited above (note 274). cf. and the flow of emanation became available to ``the rungs below.

104a. of the Presence of Man of Elohim YHVH. See 1:238b.'' alluding to the fifty-twoletter name of God and to the word ``son. Tanh . appearance of the Pre- Liebes. Shekhinah is the prophets. ai ``sowed beans in fifty-two colors. Vezot Haberakhah. Zohar 2:34a. nispah . Qatan (Beit ha-Midrash. appearance. See 2:97b. judg- Zohar Zohar 1:16a. Here the mystery of the verse 283 discloses that whenever Israel sinned He departed. . and She executes the decrees of Judgment.[1:6b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Of this is written: She is not afraid of snow for her household (Proverbs 31:21)ÐJudgment on high. (Numbers 12:8). She gimatriyya is fifty-two. See Midrash Tehillim 90:5. light of that light illumining Israel. there . driver In plain sight. Pesiqta de-Rav Kahana. ``Until here. 282.. Pesiqta 1:62b. There . She is also known as Elohim. there he was raised.) and can judgment was decreed above by the celestial court. . . . 286. See JT 107b. im. mystery of the verse. Proverbs 31 is understood as tion. sins . has an affinity with he is called Her husband. and Aggadat Olam He Yesod. In Egypt. of that FBZP (mar'eh). `An Egyptian man rescued us' good appearance. 41 fear Judgment's fire or snow. there he rose to the highest light. Zohar who FBZPG (u-mar'eh). . . 284. 448 (variants). the congealing and hardening of water. Moses sefirah of Tif'eret and A descrip- Moses attained the 5:58): ``Snow is hu- transmitted some of its light. in Eshel Be'er Sheva sence of YHVH. de-Rav Kahana 10:4. so She does not . Man of Elohim Ðhusband. God appear s to Moses directly. esed. . . What is written next? He slew an Egyptian. Psalms 90:1).281 282 Why? Because her whole household is clothed in crimson (ibid.'' whose QC (ben). . There he was born. `An Egyptian man . . 68b. 109a. See 4 (1996): 200. all the light illumining them. 280. In appearance. unlike the experience of other 288. a man of good appearance (2 Samuel. See ment . . . clothed in crimson . as it were. 280 endure the fierce fire. . ibid. Zohar snow. the light of that light .'' According to rabbinic literature. . On a snow y day . the site of divine manifesta- 281.' man sin. . as indicated by his title: Man of Elohim (Deuteronomy 33:1. who Din (``JudgShekhinah on such intimate terms with does not fear the power of ment''). not in riddles (Deuteronomy 33:1)Ðhus- 287 Man. H . . . 283. the donkeyconfounds the rabbis refers 287. The of F BZP (mar'eh). . 443± 44. In appearance . . .288 for he was worthy of conducting this rung on earth in any way he wishedÐ something no other human attained. cryptically to a snowy day on which he and Rabbi Shim'on son of Yoh . as it were. uma. . 285. as is said: (Exodus 2:19). 21). Vezot Haber- Gevurah and Din. as is said: band. A man of FBZP (mar'eh). . withholding from them all the goodness. F B Z PG (u-mar'eh). 238b. . there . She is not afraid . the yearlong punishment of the wicked in Hell is equally divided bet ween fire and tion of Moses given by Jethro's daughters to their father after Moses rescued them from aggressive shepherds. Moses is Shekhinah that Shekhinah. Sanhedrin 10:3. sym- bolized by the color red. Who is He slew an Egyptian manÐthe 284 it? Moses. but snow symbolizes Gevurah and Din (``JudgWater sy mbolizes ment''). In 29b. of that FBZP (mar'eh) . as is written: They 285 286 said. .

he ZoThe three Ineffable Name. just before the first Sabbath began. Because of the sin of striking with that staff. the de Freud. This is the staff of God. Mishneh Torah. who confronts Moses the Sifrei. he was most honThe verse continues: but the three he did not attain.that staff Egyptian 293.the zohar ``The [1:6b] Egyptian had a spear in his hand 289 (2 Samuel. . 152b. Drawing on 42 akhah 2 (Ets Yosef. Apparently Zohar's author or a later scribe replaced this phrase with a different one. Abraham. The notion that Moses was an Egyptian who was killed by an Israelite foreshadows Freud's  vy-Valensi. Gevurah. Numbers 99. From the thirty. (2 Samuel 23:19). Sefer ha-Yashar. 600. 239a. several verses earlier. Tanh . 236b. bath . firot.e. Devarim Rabbah thirty celestial years se- 3:8.' Immediately enter the Holy Land. rod had previously been in the possession of Adam. . handed down to him. ``From the thirty. According to Èse Le Moõ Pirqei de-Rabbi Eli'ezer 40. See M 291. describing another of King David's warriors. he was most honored 295 (2 Samuel. is really Shekhinah. ibid. . Targum Legends. 290. because staff of God. The He struck the rock with his staff twice blessed Holy One said to him. 48a. 235b. in Masu'ot. Moses abstained from sexual contact with his wife and maintained union with See and wrenched the spear out of the Egyptian's hand and killed him with his own spear. and struck the rock to produce water.). and this light was withheld from Israel. See Of the three. Avot 5:6. Maimonides. on which He drew. n. (Heikh). Jacob. the subject. esed. 234b. each reflect . as is said: With the staff of God in my hand 290 (Exodus 17:9). Yesod. 244b According to rabbinic tradition. 2:222a. and Jethro. uma. ad loc. 3:148a. By He went down to him with a club (2 Samuel. Shemot. engraved with the holy name. And killed him with his own spear Benayahu killed Moses the Moses' own staff. 289. 148a. ibid. Ginzberg. Zohar 2:28a. split the Red Sea. With this he sinned at the (Numbers 20:11).. See Targum Yerush- almi.). He went down to him with a club 152a±b. Egyptian. 307. See 294. I did not give you My staff for this..)292Ðwith severe judgment.293 he died and did not your life! From now on. Zohar 1:22a. Exodus 2:21. Tsav 13. handed down to him with of Moses' own misuse of the staff. `Moses. ored Goldreich. Avishai: the last moments of the week of Creation. And wrenched the spear out of the Egyptian's hand. . See Zohar 2:114b (RM ). H . and Tif'eret. Noah. 2:22b. conveying them below. as is said: 291 a holy graving. for from that moment it was withheld from him and was never again in his hand. 292. And killed him with his own spear. Midrash Tehillim 114:9. Isaac. The actual biblical verse does not include the word the Yerushalmi. Enoch. rock. Exodus 2:21. on 33:1. 238b. Benayahu. (Lieberman). Shem. after encountering God on Mount Sinai. 295. 6:106. 23). BT Shabbat 87a. i. David set him over his guard. 180a. ibid. 294 These are the thirty celestial years. staff created on the eve of SabOne of the ten things created in most ( KMF [ha-khi]). it will no longer be in your hand. engraved with the holy name The was most honored har 1:105b. Joseph. Hilkhot Yesodei ha-Torah 7:6. See Amado Le The staff w ith which Moses performed miracles before Pharaoh. As the donkey-driver The verse continues: interprets the verse. thesis. . 486±87. This is the staff created on the eve of Sabbath at twilight. Devarim Rabbah Zohar 1:21b±22a. YHVH.

. 178±86. okhmah. Sha'arei The Orah. page XX254). 54a. the son of a living man (2 Samuel 23:20) Shekhinah and Her describing Benayahu refers to the fact that Benayahu (or the righteous in general) are called On whatever path . . .'' the ecstatic song and dance of the Dervishes. In the the donkey-driver. . Meanwhile they did not see him. partner. 87a.[1:7a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar them. but by a righteous soul who has reincarnated and comes to puzzle and enlighten them. David set him over his bodyguard. H . If two are sitting living even in death. with words of Torah between them. songs and love that the moon offers to the sun. but now they realize that he was really Hamnuna himself. BT highest triad of sefirot. Shekhinah dwells They form a total of thirty. This is: 298 She draws Him toward Her. One Sufi defense of sama invokes the Koranic tradi- Zohar 3:186a±88a. but could not see him. On the importance of engaging in Torah while on a journey. They sat down and wept. 76a. and they are visited not by Yesod. reincarnated as a lowly donkey-driver. According phrase ZH . so together engaged in words of Torah. cf. Dav id set him . Zohar 1:58b. 299. although He was not counted as one of Them. See Gikatilla. . moon . Note the reference to ``songs and love'' in the following lines. 48a. rect contact with Them. Eruvin 300. . Rav Hamnuna. 115b. virtuous ones of that world come to them. Zohar 2:94b±95a. 70a. ananya son of Teradyon said. Hamnuna's reincarnation is referred to (by his son) in sama . but He did not approach Them. [7a] They are never separated. so that He dwell with Her. for He never faded from the tablet of His heart.'' Rabbi El'azar and Rabbi Abba fell before him. and could not speak to one another. G\ T P [ P Yesod. . embodies Benayahu anew. Zohar. Keter. but He has no di297. and Binah. After a while Rabbi Abba said. 97b±c (Tiq ). ``his Rav Hamnuna Sava Earlier. But the three he did not attain. 300 coming to us from that world to reveal these words to us. Ta'anit 10b. Still. Mystical Di- mensions of Islam. . he vanished!'' 43 the full decade of the sefirot . see Deuteronomy 6:7. . . . 296. `. B RG R (nuna). tion (34:10) that David sang praises to God (ER 13:30±31).'' T P[ (shama). Father and son are one and the same. sun Yesod. David set him over his body297 guard. See M Avot 3:2: ``Rabbi H . 296 giving to Him wholeheartedly. not sitting. Liebes (oral communication) suggests that the use of the word in this passage is influenced by the Arabic Sufi term The rabbis concluded that he was the son of the late Hamnuna. 69b± King Dav id. . . looking in every direction. ``hearing. . Before we could recognize him. bodyguard . David set His heart on Him. Shekhinah.'' from the root ``to hear. See Schimmel. . They rose. to BT Berakhot 18a±b. ``This is precisely what we learned: On whatever path the righteous walk. emanate to Yesod. 299 This was indeed Rav Hamnuna Sava. with words of Torah . who sy mbolizes yearns to unite with ders the Hebrew Shekhinah. ``fish'' (above. which flow into and through between them.''' Here the seekers are walking. They approached Him . He drew near. They approached Him. not He on David for with the praises. the donkey-driver had hinted at the name Hamnuna when he said that his father was a obedient band. Bodyguard ren(mishma'ato). 298.

307. 92a. Hilkhot Teshuvah 8:8. Shekhinah .304 ``Further. and Gutt37: ```The and mighty tree Shekhinah. Tishby. who Shekhinah channels the flow of emanation to and the worlds below. Rabbi El'azar opened.'' Cf. however. FP (Mah). 304. Bahir 106 (160). . Tifer'et. but they would not move. constantly coming. Mis- plained 305.'' is a name for 306. the divine male who transflow of of emanation. note 176. who is the memory of Your immense goodnessÐ immense goodness for the house of Israel . 303. smaller tree 2:696. The cited verse Yesod is also known as is fitting because ``good.'' trunk of the cosmic tree. 307 smaller tree. How. Peirush Shelosh Esreh Middot. Still today that spot is called Donkeys' Site. connected ZMH (zakhar). Sod Eser Sefirot. but for us today in this world it is still to come. See above. dreading sin. as has been exFP (mah). (Psalms 31:20). memory . Wisdom of . world to come' does not succeed `this world' in time. the Aramaic equivalent of the rabbinic Hebrew ha-ba). idem. sefirot to Shekhinah. (Alma world that is coming K\BE BPNT BC F ON G TF (ha-olam de-atei ). See Zohar the Zohar. See Daniel 4:8. Zohar 1:83a. ``the world that is coming'' already exists. . uma. ``How immense is Your goodness that You have hidden away for those in awe of You! .the zohar [1:7a] They rose and tried to goad the donkeys. ``the world that is coming.'' emanation from the In Kabbalah ``the world that is coming'' often refers to Binah. 26 (30). also known as Assembly of Israel. as has been 305 explained. but they would not move. ``male. Frightened. in Kabbalah 2 Â n. Sheqel ha(1997): 293. Your when they enter that world! The verse does not read 301. On this title. . 3:170a. by Rabbi El'azar with denoting mits upper the ZMH (Zekher). How immense is Your goodness. immense hneh Torah. 2:99b. supernal goodness the blessed Holy One intends to lavish upon humanityÐfor the supremely righteous. Maimonides. Here is engraved a mystery of wisdom. but rather Your immense goodness. occupying another dimension. but exists from eternity as a reality outside and above time. ImmenseÐthe immense and mighty tree. Asher ben David. saying. never ceasing. . penetrating the vault of heaven. all mysteries intimated here. How great is the precious. FP (Mah). Who is that? The memory of Your immense goodness they express 301 (Psalms 145:7)Ðjoy of life flowing from the world that is coming 302 303 to Vitality of the Worlds.306 for there is another. See wise call it Vitality of the Worlds Yesod. house of Israel Shekhinah. . see above. .'' Cf. page XX30) Rabbi El'azar had explained that or ``how. Moses de Leo Qodesh.'' 302. ``what'' Earlier (above. How. (Isaiah 63:7). they left the donkeys behind. Philosophies of Judaism. 375. note 230. See Zohar 3:290b (IZ ): ``the world that is coming. engaging in TorahÐ 44 Your goodness. another. Vayiqra 8: ``The not exist now. They tried to goad them. the continuous source Yesod. but this one is immense. ha-olam ha-ba not because it does Tanh .'' From another point of view. to which the soul ascends. mann.'' This concept is often understood as referring to the hereafter and is usually translated as ``the world to come.

''' (Job 38:15). 311. Tanh . idem. ot 3:43a±b.v. The sponding to. `With the light created by the blessed Holy One on the first day. . For whom 313. Ta'anit upper Garden of Eden In the Bereshit Rabbah 62:2. Rashi on BT H . See 2:127a. agigah 45 the light was good 309. who coming. He concealed it . Bahir 97±98 (147). See BT eous souls who have departed this world Shabbat 88b. (Zohar the divine presence and dwelling. in the presence of human beings. 173b. Zohar. Rabbi El'azar now concludes the verse that he began. presence of . retains it while in the physical body until shortly before death. . in the presence of. 220a. 220a±b. the first of the lower seven sefirot. See 131a. dew of rivers of pure balsam 25a. Wisdom of the Zohar. Scholem. the dew of rivers of pure balsam. ve-ruh . The soul is clothed in this garment before descending to earth. 104a±b. Hebrew word did He hide it? For the righteous in the time means both ``in the presence of '' and ``corre- Bereshit Rabbah 3:6.'' 314. JT Berakhot 5:2.309 310 311 ``That You made (Psalms 31:20) Ðthe upper Garden of Eden. Kabbalah. constantly coming. In the presence of human beingsÐthe lower Garden of Eden. one could gaze and see from one end of the universe to the other. 41:3. 251±73. See BT for those who take refuge in You. for He concealed it for the righteous in that world. 227b. unshamot. 3:88a. 2:770± 73. Shemot Rabbah 35:1. Tarbiz 24 (1955): 293±95. On the Mystical Shape of the Godhead. the word ``good'' appears for the first time in the verse describing this light: God saw that H . Sometimes 308. That you made tinues: The verse con- Academy of Heaven . see 2:127a. EDR (neged). 310. 81a (ST ).. the seven primordial days. See BT ascending. light created on the first day abide in the Garden of Eden clothed in an ethereal body resembling their prev ious human form. the culmination of the emanation that was made. . in 150a. as is written: Zohar 1:38b (Heikh). 315 They soar and bathe in then descend and dwell below. . . Thir- teen rivers of pure balsam await the righteous in the world that is coming. Cf. 2:96b. When the blessed Holy One foresaw the corrupt deeds of the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion [the generation of the Tower of Babel]. ascending to the 314 Academy of Heaven in that upper Garden of Eden. 161b. then fly through the air. 148b±149a. Shemini 9. fragrant flow of emanation from is known as Binah. where all the righteous abide in spirit clothed in a splendid garment resembling the image of this world. 47a. esed. He immediately hid it from them. 312. . Zohar 1:31b±32a. Where the souls of the righteous study Torah with God. 315. Tishby. uma. The reference to dew recalls the rabbinic all the righteous abide . agigah 12b. Right- notion that God will resurrect the dead with dew. 90b±91a. . 313 There they stand. s. 3:181a. .308 That you have hidden away for those in awe of You. as is written: The place You have made to dwell in. 158±59. and then regains it upon H . in the in the image of . idem. 219a.[1:7a] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar goodnessÐthe light created on the first day. O YHVH (Exodus 15:17). This is that You made for those who take refuge in You. 45b±46a. 9b. 3:290b [IZ ]. (Genesis 1:4). human beingsÐin the image of human beings this world. 12a: ``Rabbi El'azar said.. the rivers of balsam ``the world that is never ceasing'' are the Shekhinah. 312 This is of EDR (neged ). In the Torah. The light of the wicked is withheld to come. Shekhinah actualizes the various div ine qualities. .

See BT 5:24. High Lamp Rav Hamnuna Sava. 119b. Shirah branches of the trees . though we were not privileged to contemplate and discover further mysteries of wisdom. Meanwhile a voice called out as before. . 319 seen and attained this light moving with us. Nah . Avodah Zarah 3b. See BT Berakhot 61a. immense fear falling upon them. `Since it is written: 33:20). `Rabbi Shim'on. the trees of the field sing differently: Yehudah wept and said. 316 enacting miracles for them like 317 celestial angels Ðas we just saw the radiance of the High Lamp. Manoah did not know that he was an angel of YHVH. Gikatilla. spreading wisdom. ad loc. Leaving the mountain. Souls of the 321. initiates of the Academy! Assemble at your places to delight with your 46 Lord in Torah!'' They were frightened. 320 dispersed among the living of this world! Luminous lamps. 28b. See Tar- gum to 2 Kings 11:14. such as Rav Hamnuna. they heard a resounding voice proclaim: ``Holy sons of God. They reached a certain mountain. intro. Happy is our share!'' They went on. 318 (Judges 13:22).'' Cf. 324. and 187a: ``Rabbi addressed by his students as ``Mighty Hammer. ZH . as indicated in Judges 13:16: 319. . saying. for (Exodus we have we have seen God!' nature. happy is your share! Happy is the genera- Then all the trees of the forest . 35). 317. Holy sons of God . behold the Master of Colors. and we certainly have seen. for the blessed Holy One sent him to us to reveal mysteries of wisdom. 36b. its nature The divine nature of the Master of Colors KP ). In Pereq (2:80). `We will surely die. where Yoh . . standing on a dais. The branches of the tree on the mountain began lashing one another. yet we are still alive. this light . Apparently Me- tatron (see According to 70. Enter and assemble!'' That moment. No human shall see Me and live so we will surely die. See tion! On account of you. 320. Even though Manoah did not know its he said. . 316. mighty hammers!''' 322. manides on Genesis 49:33. towering hammers.'' Rabbi Abba opened. Sha'arei Orah. then sat down. emitting a song. . righteous.the zohar [1:7a] they appear in the presence of human beings. even schoolchildren are towering. Metatron has TZ. khot towering hammers Zohar 323. 36b (ST ). they walked on. 16). As they were walking. went on. Rav Hamnuna Sava.' As for us. They rose hastily. 318. ``Manoah said to his wife. Sometimes they appear . . 324 The voice of YHVH breaks cedars (Psalms Rabbi El'azar and Rabbi Abba fell on their faces. proclaiming: ``Mighty boulders. He is often asso- ciated with the Heavenly Academy. . . who circulate among humanity. 3:134± Zohar 2:169b. anokh (Beit ha-Midrash. proclaiming: 29:5). Bereshit Rabbati Sefer H . See BT Bera- a dais BRGGJXB (Itstevana). the appearance of the rainbow (Ezekiel 1:28). angel. 2:115± Seder Gan Eden (Beit ha-Midrash. and heard nothing. 322 321 323 embroidered in figures. they heard the branches of the trees resounding intensely. Radak. an early mystical text accord- ing to which every created thing sings a biblical verse to God. stood in place. anan son of Zakkai is 3:206a. 7a. as the sun was inclining.

Zohar 1:4b. who was sending you two crowns 326 by the hand of a certain old man to crown you. appears again in Shabbat 327. A sage is preferable to a prophet 88a. Seder Gan Eden (Beit ha-Midrash. ai and rejoiced. Y GY C I . ``Well have you said. 3:291a (IZ ). died suddenly.''' 327 328 Rabbi El'azar approached. Rabbi Shim'on was frightened and wept. QKYGCI [(H . placed his head between the knees of his father and told him what happened. See JT placed his head . ibbuqin]). the Zohar changes Shim'on son of Yose Zohar into Yose son of Shim'on. oveqet). one concerning the Sabbath. I see your faces transfigured. The son of the Shunammite. agigah 2:1. He appears as a paradigmatic mystic in Bahir 46±47 (68±69). This particular verse. Elsewhere too the trees exult in song at the revelation of secrets of Torah. Similarly. The donkey-driver presented the rabbis with new interpretations of two biblical passages. Rimzei Haf- tarot for Shavu'ot (Scholem). 138b (IR ). his mouth on his mouth will sing before YHVH because He is coming to judge the earth (Psalms 96:12±13.. each of which becomes a crown. See Liebes. The blessed Holy One was certainly on this path! Further. page XX205. and was restored to life by the prophet Elisha (2 Kings 4).[1:7b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar Upon reaching the house of Rabbi Yose son of Rabbi Shim'on son of Lekonya. 3:166b. . . two embracings (H . Rabbi Shim'on's visionary power is unrivaled. 3:138). who was born miraculously. cf. which opens Habakkuk's theophany. See 1 Kings 18:42. avaqquq). Zohar 1:183b. This verse was spoken by Habakkuk when he saw his death and was restored to life by Elisha. I heard what You made heard. [7b] Rabbi Shim'on rejoiced. 1 Chronicles 16:33). As noted there. with the prophet Habakkuk. See 2:44b±45a. 34±35. 77a. is identified by the H . one by ElishaÐas is written: (ibid. with God are noted in two crowns Habakkuk's desire to know secrets and his Two new words of special intimacy Torah. See BT Midrash Tehillim 7:17. . Studies in the Zohar. BT H . a son He placed 47 (2 Kings 4:16). and I saw you and Benayahu son of Yehoyada. the other concerning Benayahu son of Yehoyada. spoken by Habakkuk when he saw his death . 326. 34). I am awed Why was he named (Habakkuk 3:2). agigah 14b. 331. 329. embracing. 3:35a. 325 they saw Rabbi Shim'on son of Yoh . avaqquq). He said. 329 Y GY C I written: At this time next year. story. which explains the doubling in the name He Habakkuk. Here Rabbi El'azar places his head between his father's knees before relating what has happened to them on the road. ``YHVH. 330. `A sage is preferable to a prophet. you will be 330 331 (H . 77:1. the apparent son of Hamnuna turned out to be Hamnuna himself. See BT Bava Batra 12a. Zohar 2:45a. above.'' Rabbi Yose said. in the name of Amemar. 3:128a. and El'azar of Worms. He two embracings was the son of the Shunammite! Furthermore there were Ðone by his mother. Zohar 1:77a. BT Ta'anit 23a. 328. Habakkuk? Because it is \ Y CG I (h . 2:6b. saying to them. 3:195a. Rabbi Yose son of Rabbi Shim'on son of Lekonya See the beginning of this 325. ``Indeed you have traversed a path of heavenly miracles and signs. Zohar Placing one's head between one's own knees was a meditative posture in early rabbinic mysticism. . For I was just now sleeping. transposing father and son.

2:51b. 23. Matt. see Leqah . . The letters of these seventy-two engraved names are 216 letters. according to which dust could be animated by the recitation of magical names. . Torah Shelemah. 334 For the letters of the flew away from him alphabet that his father had originally inscribed on him 335 when he died. a name fulfilling all sides: fulfilling embracings. 336 all of which Elisha inscribed with his breath to restore him to life through the letters of the seventy-two names. 216 letters . Exodus 14:21. Trachtenberg. Each of these three verses contains seventy-two letters. H . Sefer H . As a result of his curse. par. YGYCI has a numerical value of Golem. 107a). 132b. 284±86. The name 216. (ed. Bahir 79 (110). . etc. Jewish Magic and Superstition. Rashi on BT Sukkah 45a. 48 KP: ``All such books mentioned in the Zohar . according to the following pattern: the first letter of the first verse. letters . avaqquq) . Revival by means of a divine name recalls the legend of the Golem. whose potency suffices to restore the body. 225b. the second letter of the third verse (the second triad). the last letter of the second verse. . The name is composed of seventy-two triads (or ``words''). See Idel.the zohar [1:7b] ``I have discovered in The Book of King Solomon: 332 He inscribed on him 333 in words the engraved name of seventy-two names. Vayiqra Rabbah 23:2. and fulfilling the mystery of the 216 letters of the holy name. 219) states that Elisha was punished with illness for using the fortytwo-letter name of God to curse a group of children who had insulted him by calling him ``Baldhead'' (2 Kings 2:23±24). 216 letters The total number of letters in the sevent y-t wo triads derived from the three verses (Exodus 14:19±21). 14:67. Now that Elisha embraced him. 98±101. have been lost in the wanderings of exile. The 216 individual Kiryat Sefer 63 (1990±91): 1318±21. in Kasher. Ibn Ezra on Exodus 14:19. On the seventy-two-letter name. The Book of King Solomon One of Shunamite (see Scholem). . that his father . 336. . Elisha used the forty-two-letter name of God to revive the son of the letters. According to a magical text (British Museum 752:17. engraved name of seventy-two The divine name derived from the description of the splitting of the Red Sea: Exodus 14:19±21. Hai Gaon. 33b. 95±97. names 334. 338. the son of the Shunamite. 338 337 He was revived restoring his spirit. He called him Y GY C I (H . Zohar 1:17a. . . Habak- kuk. was born through the power of the letters of the alphabet. . Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah on 2:2. but not the particular combination of seventy-two triads of letters that Elisha employed. 270a. Liebes. and the comment on this passage by Shim'on Lavi. 3:150b±151a. 339 reviving his entire body 332. the penultimate letter of the second verse. Bereshit Rabbah 44:19. and in fact Abraham Abulafia notes that the seventy-two-letter name animates the Golem. . he inscribed on him all those letters of the seventy-two names. with words. asidim the many volumes housed in the real or imaginary library of the author of the See 1:13b. 339. the second letter of the first verse. the son of the Shunammite woman. as explained.t wo triads. and with letters. Nothing is left of them except what is mentioned in the 333. YGYCI (H . forty-two of the children were killed by two she-bears. Zohar. Wistinetzki.'' Elisha in- scribed on Habakkuk. Otsar ha-Ge'onim. Zohar. . . with words with letters T he s ev e nt y .v. avaqquq). . . agigah. s. whose greater spiritual potency is required for the restoration of the spirit. 337. He inscribed on him Zohar. 25. Tov. 335. ani. the first letter of the third verse (forming the first triad).

ayyehu). Shekhinah. Here the phrase refers to the sefirot ha-Midrash. 348 beginning of wisdom is awe of YHVH. from H . 347. They are also the six primordial days of the week culminating in the Sabbath of He said to him to Rabbi Shim'on. The verse concludes: revive it. His praise endures forever (Psalms 111:10). face-to-face! I was not so privileged. because awe of YHVH is really \K[BZC (Be-reshit). 341. that level that has no life at all Rav Hamnuna Sava. his son. ` YHVH. my tasting of that world GF K K I My brief 345. The beginning of wisdomÐthis verse should read The end of wisdom is awe of YHVH. 344. ayyav): its life. khot uprooting mountains In BT Bera- 64a. See Zohar 1:238b. ``Rabbi. referring to both rabbis. as is said: For I have seen God face-to-face (Genesis 32:31). 343. am afraid of the blessed Holy One. 346. 340 I heard what happened to me. (h . all who actualize it gain good insight . .[1:7b] Haqdamat Sefer ha-Zohar enduringly. For I have seen God face-to-face The verse continues: and my life has been Peni'el. who has nothing of Her own and is dependent on the flow from above. experience of death. 342. empowered masters in the presence of the blessed Holy One. my tasting of and I am frightened. In the beginning. So he was called Habakkuk.. it was he who said. 138b (IR ). 346 344 uprooting mountains. too. amani is called ``Uprooter of Mountains. saved. I heard what You made heard.'' From that day on. and Rabbi Abba N BK R V (Peni'el ). 341 Your action that You did for me. may its life be' (Habakkuk. Cf. iy ya opened.'' Whoever is bound to those primordial years.. Face of God. ibid. Faces of God. . 3:164b. radiance of Torah. GF KKI it in the midst of years (H . .)ÐConvey life is bound Convey it in the midst of years 343 to that level that has Rabbi Shim'on wept and said. (ibid. like 342 GKK I (h . Rabbi Shim'on reads this last word not as a verb but as a noun: those primordial years its life. to him. Rabbah son of Nah . Rabbi H . . 3:134b. in the midst of years (h . After surviving his wrestling match with the angel. esed through Yesod. ayyehu). 347 345 kindling lights in He said to him.'' Raising his hands above his head. I.'' He fell on his face and saw him the palace of King Messiah. Perhaps here the name is understood in the plural: him Penei El. ``The 340. exclaiming.'' based on his sharp mind. Jacob names the site Shekhinah. flowing into Shekhinah.). Seder Gan Eden (Beit Rav Hamnuna said chi 3:4. See Mala- palace of King Messiah 3:132). that world. 2:105b. ayyehu). no life at all. Your action . ``From what I have heard. I am awed. he exclaimed: ``What a privilege that you saw Rav Hamnuna Sava.' He began begging for compassion for his GF KK I soul. 348. in that world you will 49 be neighbors. he called Rabbi El'azar. `YHVH. Also known in the Zohar as ``the bird's nest'' (2:7b±8b).

See above.'' and both of sefirot are \K [B Z (reshit). In the beginning. lower Wisdom. beginning. beginning . . whose fruit was eaten by Adam and Eve. . She is also lower Wisdom. . See above. 36b±37a. signifies ``two. 356 (Psalms 83:19). who has fashioned the various gates ( sefirot). At the end of all the gates. evil. Orah. this gate will be first. openings. This is \K[BZ (reshit). 354. . 351. beginningÐone. the various divine qualities. C (bet)Ðtwo . He said. The Tree of Shekhi- nah. . not two. inseparable. In Kabbalah this Tree symbolizes Shabbat 352. one must pass through several levels of camps of angels. The opening word of the 31a±b. depending on human behavior. and is therefore called the name of God. palacesÐone above the other. the first gate to supernal Wisdom is \ K[B Z (reshit). counters higher Wisdom. first to be encountered. [8a] So awe abides at this site. and palaces. awe of YHVH Shekhinah is called awe of YHVH is really the end of Torah. The last gate. . `Whoever wishes to enter my presence.351 352 353 This is (bet)Ðtwo joined together as one. one above the other. tering two points and can eventually ascend to Wisdom. 2:134a. okhmah) and because She is characterized by the power of Judgment and inspires awe. if not. one will never enter. sefirot Through Her one enters the realm of 353. He and His name are one Zohar Shekhi- ble symbolizes supernal Wisdom. 141b. gateway to all goodness of the world. ``Why is it called awe of YHVH ? If a person is deserving. Who- ever attains one attains the other. it is good. who transmits either reward or punishment. 4b. the second letter of called the alphabet. Shekhinah is called Righteousness. The letter these C (bet). 350. H . it is the beginning of entering the level of supernal Wisdom. page XX230. . See BT Tree of Good and Evil the Knowledge of Good and Evil. YHVH. Sha'arei Whoever attains one .the zohar 349 [1:8a] the end of Wisdom. is nah reveals the sefirot. These are two points: one hidden and concealed. chariots. one en- Similarly . . while Shekhinah is the first gate on the spiritual path. Upon en- Shekhinah. However. ``This can be compared to an exalted kingÐhigh. This is the 350 gate to YHVH (Psalms 118:19±20). for He and His name are as is written: They will know that You.' ``Similarly. but even before reaching Her. one. See Zohar 1:11b. . Gikatilla. alone are Your name Because it is the Tree of Good and Evil. 161b. 1:18a. will enter through this gate. as is written: Open for me gates of righteousness. gates of righteousness. they are called Since they are \ K[B Z (reshit). culmination of the process of emanation that begins at upper Wisdom. reflected in Her. Whoever enters. he fashioned one gate with many locks. gate . okhmah and Shekhinah. She- alludes to both Wisdom (H . See 356. 50 355 354 All is one. Wisdom 349. one existing overtly. page XX240. Shekhinah. Truly! For unless one enters this gate. This is the khinah. C awe of YHVH. The king in the para355. concealed and hidden awayÐwho built gates for himself. \ K[ B Z C (Be-reshit). beginning: Wisdom is the beginning of ema- nation.

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