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A MARKET RESEARCH PROJECT ON TOOTHPASTE Submitted by: Priyanka Saha Siddharth Mukul Baruah Suraj Rajagopalan Sankhadip Chatterjee

In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of Post Graduate Programme in Business Administration (Phase1)

Indo German Training Centre Quantitative Methods Project coordinator- Mohit Jain October-2011

Analysis of Buying and Disposing Behaviour of Toothpaste amongst Consumers Index 1.Introduction 2.An Overview of The Toothpaste Market in India 3.Summary 4.Acknowledgement 6.Case study a) formulation of questionnaire b) the survey experience c) data inferred 5.Objective of study 7.Research Methodology a) Type of research b) Source of data c) Data collection method d) Sampling 8.Data collection 9.Findings-Data Analysis and Data Interpretation a) buying frequency b) package size c) buying location d) purchase influence e) usage longevity f) areas to improve g) brand loyalty h) switch simulator i) brand image j) source of brand awareness k) Annova testing (age vs brand preference) l) occupation vs brand 9.Limitations 10.Suggestions and Recommendations 12.Conclusion 13. Bibliography Page No. 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 22 22 26 29 31 33 34 36 37 38

Introduction Consumer is king the statement carries profound truth in it. Today the success of any firm depends upon the satisfaction of customers. For satisfying the consumers the firm should know about the behaviour of the

consumers. In these circumstances understanding consumer is a very difficult task because of the changing technology, innovation, and changes in life style. Researchers conducted many research in this area, and they have given only few suggestion, but there is no final conclusion. It is difficult to classify consumers by conventional demographic factors and unless their thought process and buying behaviour are fully understood, decisions on product designs and packaging, branding and distribution channels are likely to be misplaced. With the inevitability of change looming large over the horizon, Indian companies must learn from their western counterparts; not only to identify the sources, timing and direction of the changes likely to affect India, but also the new competencies and perspective understanding the external factors like demographic, social that will enable them to respond to these changes, comprehensively and effectively. This study mainly focuses on price, quality, and product attributes etc. for buying toothpaste. The market share of any product is highly determined by the purchasing behaviour of the consumers. Following study is to find out the behaviour of the consumers, to analyse the preference of consumers, & consumer awareness in the toothpaste market.

An Overview of Toothpaste Market in India Toothpaste market in India is worth Rs. 2200 crores (2006).

In India, per capita toothpaste consumption stood at 74g in 2005, which is amongst the lowest in the world, compared to 350g and 300g in Malaysia and Vietnam respectively. Toothpaste enjoys a country wide penetration level of 50%. Rural: 39% Urban: 75% Oral hygiene continues to be under aggressive competition, with sales increasing by a modest 3% in current value terms in 2006 to Rs. 2,400 crores. Toothpaste accounted for a whopping 83% of value sales. HLL's market share in the dental care market has grown from a mere five per cent in 1979 to an impressive 36 per cent today, whereas Colgate-Palmolive has been seen its market share decline from a dominating 75 per cent to a struggling 56 per cent.

Summary We,a group of four people had been assigned a project on the market survey of a F.M.C.G product i.e toothpaste. We were hired by a reputed market research agency to conduct a survey on the consumer buying behaviour of toothpaste according to the present scenario of the toothpaste industry. The purpose of the survey was to project the condition of the market in the toothpaste industry as a new product will be launched by the Himalayan company .As per previous research made by the company the penetration of toothpaste is very high in eastern regions of the country so, we were supposed to conduct the survey in Kolkata. In the survey we were told to approach 100 respondents from various parts of the city and make a study on their buying and disposing behaviour. Consumers make many buying decisions every day. Most companies, research consumer buying decisions in great detail to answer questions about what consumers buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy. Marketers can study actual consumer purchases to find out what they buy, where, and how much. But learning about the whys of consumer buying behaviour is not so easythe answers are often locked deep within the consumer's head.

Acknowledgement

We sincerely want to thank our faculty and project co-ordinator Mr Mohit Jain for giving us the opportunity to work in this project. We thank him for extending his full co-operation for completion of the project. We also like to thank our programme director Mrs Sabina Pandey for extending her co-operation and encouraging and giving us full moral support for completion of the project. Lastly we would like to thank and extend our heartiest gratitude to all the 100 respondents without whose time, support and co-operation the project could not have been possible.

Formulation of the questionnaire: The first few questions were attempted towards finding out the buying behaviour of the people. Later people were questioned not only about their tastes, preferences and their perceptions about a variety of brands but also were tested on their brand loyalty of the current brand they are using. After which we have also tried identifying the various marketing methodologies that can be explored by various companies for better marketing of their products. The design of the questionnaire can be understood as follows. The first question was about the frequency of the buying and since all questions were supposed to be closed ended ones, we were limited to providing four options such as weekly, monthly, fortnightly and when they feel the need. This was question was basically designed to find out the rate at which the toothpaste sold. Next question was targeted to know the place from where the toothpaste was bought which consisted of the options- local shop, supermarket, medical store and general store. We wanted to know the place from where majority of the people preferred to buy their toothpaste. Then came the strategic question on the most influential parameter which decided the buying pattern of a certain brand of toothpaste and the options were retailer, family tradition, flavour, advertisement and looks or packaging. This question would basically help us understand the parameter which affected a certain purchase decision. Following question was to know the exact brand preference of a particular individual which consisted of four major brands Colgate, close-up, Sensodyne and Pepsodent. Next, question was about brand loyalty and where we wanted to know the period of time for which a person had used a particular brand of toothpaste. Hence loyalty was based on people who would use toothpaste for more than a year and disloyalty was based on people who would choose the option for more than a year. Following question was to know the kind of improvisation that people wanted in their current brand despite the brand being their favorite and its options were based upon the following attributes such as color,

flavor, more fluoride content and better foaming. Next we wanted people to rank all four brands of toothpaste based on perception on the following attributes Breath freshening, cavity prevention, enamel protection, teeth whitening and taste. The ranking scale was provided from 1 to 5 where 1 stood for most liked and 5 for most disliked. This was followed by a question which went like this would you try out a new brand brought out by a new company and the options were yes, no and maybe. Using this we could categorize people based on all who chose yes and maybe taken together and people who chose No. This way people who had voted for yes and maybe could answer the following question which focused on the influential factor which would make them buy the a completely new brand. Hence the options for this question were price reduction, offers such as buy one get one free, and oral health benefits of the new toothpaste or any other factor which a respondent may specify by writing it down. Question number 11 was to find out the rating of the consumers favourite brand based on the 4 Ps of marketing viz. Price, Place, Promotion, and Product. This question was designed in order to know the sector where the brand excelled and if there was any scope of improvement in any of the 4Ps or not. The scale here provided was from 1 to 4 where 1 stood for poor and 4 stood for best. The next question was intended to know the market share of mouthwashes which have recently stormed the market and which could actually pose a significant threat to the existing toothpaste portfolio as a whole and hence we really wanted to know if they even competed with the toothpaste or not. So the question went this way do you think that mouthwash could ever replace the art of brushing and the options were yes and no. Interestingly enough, later we came to know that out of 100 respondents, every single person opted for no which means that mouthwash is not perceived as a rival product to toothpastes. Final two questions were about the demography of the people to be death with in terms of their age and occupation.

The survey experience: The first few days of the survey were fun when we actually decided to go together to one particular region and target the consumers there. The whole idea was to go to a particular place and select four different corners so as to get the feedback from a wide variety of people ranging in different age groups and occupation. There were different kinds of people with different mentality to start with. As we approached or confronted individuals one by one, some would patiently take the questionnaire form and fill it out, while there were others who would look down upon us with a frowned look on their faces thinking that we were some kind salesmen trying to lure them into buying something. There were other people who would fill out the questionnaire in about a minute which kept us thinking if the options that they chose were unbiased or if they had filled it out just for the silly sake of doing it. After a few days we almost mastered the art of understanding a person by the look in their faces and that if they would entertain us by answering the questionnaire or not. This made our job a bit difficult because as it turned out that most of the people in Kolkata were either impatient and/or in a hurry all the time and they sort of had this frowned look on their faces with ripples on their forehead and every time this happened we were left in ambiguity about whether to approach or not. After about 3 weeks we decided to target restaurants as we thought since people hung around there for a while and as it takes time to process the order, we could get the questionnaire filled up in the meantime. But as bad luck always has it people always turned out in groups or in a family and we were seldom entertained as one of the customer there explained to us that we were invading their personal private space in the restaurants and that is when we decided to drop the idea. Then came the turn of supermarkets such as big Bazaar where we did get a handful of customers. Then we decided to split and go on individually to different parts of city and this went on for about a week. This part of the week was boring and frustrating for us as we

had nobody to talk to and we had to stand and gaze for hours together before anybody showed the slightest interest in filling up the questionnaire. At the end of the month we had all the 100 questionnaire forms filled up.

DATA INFERRED: The data feeding was done on one particular computer with all four of us sitting together and feeding the data onto the excel sheet. After data feeding quantitative analysis of the data was done and the following was found. For our study we selected four major players in the industry and made a brand comparison among them so that not only does it help us understand what their current market position is but also how they function and what are the aspects they need to improve in. Through this research we also are in a position to conclude that Colgate emerges the market leader on almost all the judgment parameters which we had chosen. After Colgate came the two arch rivals Pepsodent and Close-Up, in their closely fought battle for supremacy over the other it seems really difficult to judge which one is better than the other. Finally comes Sensodyne, the newest yet the fastest growing brand.

Objectives of the Study To study the Consumer Buying habits in Toothpastes. To study the various factor and identify important parameters for customer acceptance. To plot popular Toothpastes Brands versus their attributes. To know about the attributes that a consumer looks in for a toothpaste brand. To know about the possible reasons that lead to brand switch over. To know brand preference.

Research Methodology

Our research comprised of the following: Defining the problem Formulating Hypothesis (using Annova, done only for age vs brand preference) Collecting, Organizing and Evaluating Data Making Deductions Reaching Conclusions & Testing that conclusion Fits the Hypothesis or not Keeping in view the specified objectives and nature of project, research methods were adopted. Research in the common parlance refers to the search for the knowledge. In fact, it is an art of scientific knowledge. .A successful completion of any project and getting genuine results from that depends upon the method used by the researcher. The plan or the methodology for this study is laid upon the following basis:Types of research: Descriptive method has been used in this research for the collection of data. As the research is related to the study of consumer behaviour, which could more effectively be studied through direct questions. A questionnaire consisting of 15 strategic questions was adopted. Sources of data: To overcome the limitations of incompatibility, obsolescence, and bias, primary data was collected. Considering the time and money constraints, sampling method of data collection was suitable for the project.

Primary data: Primary data are those data that are collected for the first time, It is better to go for primary data since it is first hand information and there is less chances of personnel bias and information can be collected with accuracy at the same time. It could be retabulated and survey concerned in various forms this data can be used. For collecting primary data we have chosen the questionnaire method. Data collection method: Data has been collected through questionnaire method. The questionnaire was designed in such a way to cover as many aspects of consumer behaviour as possible. Sample size: Total 100 persons were contacted and interviewed.

SAMPLING: Here study of the consumer behaviour of the people of Kolkata city. Within the city samples were collected from different areas to reduce the biases this may come through difference in the level of income, attitude lifestyle etc. of the people in different areas

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Data Collection Administering a questionnaire on 100 respondents residing in Kolkata, to know about consumer preference and perception regarding various aspects related to toothpaste such as factor which influences the consumer most when he buys the toothpaste, attributes that he looks for while buying it. This data was then tabulated to make calculations on the analysis of which the finding of the study has been done. SAMPLE SIZE - 100 Respondents SAMPLE PROFILE Age wise: <15 years 15-25 years 25-35 years >35 years Status wise: Salaried Business Students Others 37 12 41 10 0 57 24 19

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Data Interpretation & Analysis

Buying Frequency

BRANDS COLGATE PLAX CREST PEPSODENT LYSTRINE

WEEKLY 1 2 0 0

FORTNIGHTLY 1 0 1 0

MONTHLY 25 10 14 8

WHEN NEEDED 22 3 6 7

PACKGED SIZE : BRAND COLGATE PLAX CREST PEPSODENT LISTRINE FAMILY 33 10 16 7 MEDIUM 15 5 4 7 SMALL 1 0 1 1

The frequency of purchase mainly depends on the brushing habits and the number of members in the family. 66% of the people preferred the family pack while 31% preferred the medium pack.

Based on this survey, most of the respondents are unhappy about the price that they pay for their favourite brand. This is evident from the fact that pricewise the rating of the brand is very poor compared to product, availability and promotion. Hence as far as the price is concerned, the company should consider the views of consumer otherwise the consumer switch over to competitors product is inevitable. Currently, price range varies from Rs. 05-10 for a small pack in the economy segment, Rs15-25 for a medium pack in the regular segment and Rs 40 and above for a family pack in the value added segment. Thus, analysing economic factor is an important task for the company to fix the price.

Buying Location:

BRAND LOCAL COLGATE 18 CLOSE-UP 8 PEPSODENT SENSODYNE 7 3

SUPER GENERAL MART 11 4 6 4 13 3 5 4

MEDICAL 7 0 3 4

The above data helps us conclude that respondents of all other brands except Sensodyne mostly buy toothpaste from a local shop. The other buying locations such as a general store or a super mart or a medical store have relatively less buyers. The

only exception that we found to this rule is the brand Sensodyne which people prefer to buy from a general store or a super mart or even a medical store more than a local store.

Purchase Influence:

BRANDS COLGATE PLAX CREST PRPSODENT LISTRINE

RETAILER 6 7 6 1

FAMILY 14 3 5 4

FLAVOUR 12 4 8 4

ADV 16 2 1 5

LOOKS 1 0 0 1

Based on the study it is interesting to see that in the sample size of 100 respondents 27 of them prefer their brand of toothpaste only due to the taste or flavour factor while 25 of them are influenced by their family tradition in buying their preferable brand. Further 23 people are influenced by advertisement and 20 people buy toothpaste which is of their retailers choice. It is important for the manufacturer to keeps these attributes in mind for deeper penetration into the market.

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It is also seen that basically there are three kinds of purchase influences for any product. Informational influence, normative influence, and identification influence. Informational influence means that an individual uses the behaviour and options of group member to gather useful information. Normative influence refers to an individuals achieving group expectations and gaining the respect of and sense of belonging to the group. Identification influence occurs when an individual understands the values and norms of the group. Usage Longevity:

BRAND COLGATE CLOSE-UP PEPSODENT SENSODYN E

> 1 YEAR 19 10 11 6

<1 YEAR 30 6 9 9

It was seen that the penetration of toothpaste was high in Kolkata as all the 100 respondents who were questioned used toothpaste. It was also seen that 55 out of 100 people have been using their brand of toothpaste for over a 21

year while the remaining 45 have been using their brand of toothpaste for less than a year. This implies that a large part of the population have switched brands over the last year which means that the toothpaste market is still lucrative and this factor might encourage some new players to come into the market in the future provided they have the right mix of strategy. This is already true with the brand Sensodyne which was launched only last year and it is already competing fiercely with global leaders like Colgate and Close-up.

Areas in Which Brands Can Improve: BRAND COLGATE CLOSE-UP PEPSODENT SENSODYNE FLORIDE 22 5 10 4 FOAMING 11 4 3 7 COLOUR 1 2 3 FLAVOU R 15 4 5 4

For Colgate the biggest improvement should be in its Fluoride content followed by its flavour, foaming and colour. 22

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