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# DESIGN OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL

A)Data:Height of Retaining wall = Height of wall above G.L= Height of wall below G.L= Dry density of back fill material = Water content = Density of back fill soil&material ( Submerged unit weight) = Grade of concrete = Grade of steel = Ground water Table level (Below G.L) = Angle of shearing resistance of back fill material&material at toe portion (Φ) (As per report) = Angle of face of wall supporting earth with horizontal(α)(In degrees) (in anti clock wise direction) Slope of back fill(β) = Angle of wall friction (δ) = Surcharge over the back fill in terms of height of back fill = Undrained Cohesion ( c) = Characteristic compressive strength = Tensile strength of steel = Unit weight of concrete = 4.50m 4.50m 0.00m 1600Kg/Cum 0.23m 1968Kg/Cum M25 Fe415 1.20m 32 87.5 0 16 1.20m 0Kg/sqm 25N/sqmm 415N/sqmm 2500Kg/Cum

B)Dimensions of the Cantilever wall(Assumed for preliminary design):Thickness of stem at bottom = Thickness of stem at top = Thickness of base slab = Breadth of beam = Depth of beam = Dia of Bored Cast-in situ straight pile assumed = Depth of pile = C/c spacing of piles in transverse direction = C/c spacing of piles in longitudinal direction = 0.40m 0.20m 0.40m 0.45m 0.60m 0.50m 5.00m 1.50m 2.00m

C)Design:i)Earth pressure calculations:Coefficient of active earth pressure by Coulomb's theory 2 Ka = sinα sin(α-δ) Sin(α+Φ) sin(Φ+δ)sin(Φ-β) sin(α+β) From the above expression, Ka = Hence,maximum pressure at the base of the wall The pressure distribution along the height of the wall is as given below:Pressure due to Surcharge load = 0.3 Pa = 2656.80Kg/sqm

708.48 708.48

4.50m

2656.80

77Kg/m 2906.76m Height from the bottom of the wall = The active earth pressure acts on the wall as shown below:- CROSS SECTION DETAILS 200 18 . 55 ° 92 600 2300 1000 500 Horizontal component of the earth pressure Ph = Vertical component of the earth pressure Pv = ii)Intial proportioning of the structure :- 5000 400 .98Kg/m .Total Active earth pressure force = 9165.54 ° 1760 4500 8692.96 1.

00kg 2300.00kg 500.6.13kg 3375.51t To estimate the safe bearing capacity of pile.either gravity or cantilever retaining walls are not economical. Hence.00m in longitudinal direction Two rows of 450mm dia Bored cast-in-situ straight piles are proposed at spacing of Computation of total vertical load on the pile :i)Self weight of pile = ii)Self weight of wall(2.00Kg/sqm .It is proposed to support the wall on base slab supported by longitudinal beams.30m 2.68kg 18045.00kg 8413. As per Appendix A of IS 2911(1)-1 Ultimate bearing capacity of a pile is given by .01kg The total lateral load due to earth pressure on the wall = Deduct lateral force to be resisted by the pile cap-cum-beam system = 17385.In view of the very poor bearing capacity of the soil. As per the clause 5.40m(As per soil testing report) Qs = fs x As fs = K Pdi tanδ Where. Static formulae are used in estimating ultimate bearing capacity of pile. Pdi = average effective overburden pressure in kgf/cm’ δ = angle of wall friction between pile and soil in degrees(To be taken equal to Φ ) As = surface area of pile Effective overburden preesure at top of the pile = 960.20kg 1003. Qp = End bearing resistance In the present case.55Kg -2361.it needs to be designed for lateral load carrying capacity of ii)Design of pile :a)Safe vertical load carrying capacity:- 18. the ultimate bearing capacity of pile is calculated.the pile needs to be designed for safe vertical load carrying capacity of Similarly.35m is adopted.2 of IS 2911(1)-1.which are supported on piles.05t 7.the minimum spacing between friction piles should not be less than 3 times the diametre of the shaft.the pile passes through the fine sand for a depth of 8. Qu = Q s + Q p Where Qs = Skin frictional resistance.hence transverse spacing of 1.total width of the pile cap = 2.00m length on two piles) = iii)Self weight of pile cap = iv)Self weight of beam = v)Weight of earth on heel side = vi)Weight of earth on toe side = 2453.95Kg Hence. K = coefficient of earth pressure.60Kg 15023.

Pdi = Effective overburden pressure at tip of the pile in kgf/cm’ Nq = Bearing capacity factor as per Fig.4Kg/sqm 0.52kg 4822.04kg Applying a factor of safety of 2.failure takes place when the load applied to the pile is equal to the ultimate lateral resistance of the soil Pu = 1. L = Length of embeddment d = Diametre of pile Kp = Coefficient of passive earth pressure Hence Pu = 100000. as it will have the major contribution in the lateral load capacity of pile.33t 2 Safe lateral load carrying capacity = (Applying a factor of safety of 3) Case2:.25t b)Lateral load carrying capacity:Case1:. As the top most soil layer is normally consolidated clay.Qp = 43667.1 of IS 2911(1)-1 Ap = End bearing area of pile Nq = Pdi = Ap = 40 5598.00kg 33.52kg 3279.Pile considered as short fixed head pile embedded in normally consolidated clay The lateral load capacity of the pile is estimated as per the layer of soil situated at the ground level.20Kg/m Ultimate bearing capacity of pile = 48490.Pile considered as short fixed head pile embedded in cohesion less soil The pile considered as short restrained(Fixed head) pile embedded in cohesionless soil.As per Broom's theory. . allowable safe bearing capacity = 24.40Kg/sqm Average effective overburden pressure along pile shaft Pdi = Hence Qs = Qp = qp x Ap qp = Pdi (Nq-1) Where.20sqm Hence.Effective overburden preesure at the level of pile tip = (Upto Water Table + After water table) 5598.5 γ L d Kp Where.

the length of fixity is greater than the actual length.40t . Q = 12EIY/L3 where.324243631 Applying a reduction factor of 0.71 2. depth of fixity L f = As the pile is short pile.03 0.00307 m 5 5260.40t c)Structural design of pile:Now.of bars required for each pile = Hence provide 8 Nos of 16mm dia bars for each pile Provide 8mm ties at 200mm c/c Hence.90KNm 77.043 0.037 0.00KN/cum From Figure 2 of IS: 2911 (Part 1)-19793.82 as per IS 2911(PartI)-I.47t Load carrying capacity is taken as average of the above two values 31.No.the safe lateral load carrying capacity of pile is 31.15 1471.00KNm 270.lateral load capacity of fixed head pile is calculated as.T = √(EI/ηh) E = 5000√fck = I= For medium sand ηh = T= 1.75KN 115.72KN 29.the moment = The pile is to be designed for axial load Pu = and moment of Mu = Assuming percentage of steel p = p/fck = Pu/fckD2 = Mu/fckD3 = d'/D = Area of steel required = Using 16mm dia HYSD bars.39t-m =93.88sqmm 7.500m 25000000 4 0.hence actual length is to be considered for design.75 0. Hence.50KNm 0.the fixed end moment of the equivalent cantilever is given by Mu = Q(Lf)/2 = 9. Y = limiting lateral deflection of pile head = 5 mm for bridge substructures Hence Q = 294.

39KN 0.0m length = 3936.8 N/sqmm (As per Table 20 of 1S 456) 0.853 From table 2 of SP 16.32sqmm Curtail 1/3rd of the reinforcement from half of the height Check for shear:Percentage of tension steel = Maximum shear force on the member = Factored Design shear force = Nominal shear stress tv =Vu/bd = Hence section is safe from shear strength point of view The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from Table 19 of IS 456 is 0.The passive earth pressure on grade beam = Kpγh = Passive earth pressure force for 2.26Kgm 257.60sqmm 0.percentage of steel required = Area of steel required = Hence provide 16mm dia HYSD bars@ 100mm c/c spacing Hence Ast provided = 2009.37 N/sqmm <2.51 N/sqmm > 0.16t 17385.the total lateral load carrying capacity of the structure is The total lateral load due to active earth pressure = Hence safe.37 Hence.50m 2.98mm Effective depth provided(Assuming 40mm cover) d = Mu/bd2 = 1.93KN Provide 1/3rd of above reinforcement on earthen side = Provide 8mm dia @ 300mm c/c on earthen side .60Kg 2.16t Hence.57 86.00sqmm 120.00mm 352. Centre to centre spacing between two rows of 500mm dia piles = Hence.00mm 22960.55Kg 17.12% Area required = 360.566 1992.39t < 65.30m Design of wall or stem:Factored bending moment Mu = Effective depth required d = Over all depth provided = Mu/0.00Kg/sqm 2361.00sqmm 130.the over all width of the base slab = 1.36t 65. Provide temperature re inforcement @ 0.138fckb = 400.no shear reinforcement is required.

12Knm Moment at A = 8.85 0.Provide 2/3rd of above reinforcement on other side = Provide 8mm dia @ 200mm c/c on other side 240.540kN 141.69 0.76m RA 0.170kN The bending moment diagram is as shown below:- 100.sagging moments.12Knm 100.4 Analysis is carried out assuming fixed supports to arrive at max.of earth = 8692.77Kg/m Self weight = 8856kg/m/m 1000.75 Earth pressure = Wt.hogging moment.4 0.00Kg/m 33.of wall = 3375. After analysis. RA = RB = 12.64Knm .81 RB 0.further supports are assumed to be hinged to arrive at max.00kg/m/m 1.40m The loading on the base slab can be approximated as shown below:- Wt.00sqmm Provide 10mm bars at 300mm c/c vertically on the outer face to support horizontal rods Design of base slab:Thickness of base slab assumed = 0.

Moment at B = 36.138fckb = 400.76KN 0.64mm Effective depth provided(Assuming 40mm cover) d = Mu/bd = 2 355.43 N/sqmm > 0.45m 0.192 0.no shear reinforcement is required.00mm 150.24Knm Factored bending moment Mu = Effective depth required d = Over all depth provided = Mu/0. 211.percentage of steel required = Area of steel required = Hence provide 16mm dia HYSD bars@ 150mm c/c spacing Hence Ast provided = Check for shear:Percentage of tension steel = Maximum shear force on the member = Factored Design shear force = Nominal shear stress tv =Vu/bd = Hence section is safe from shear strength point of view The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from Table 19 of IS 456 is 0. Design of beam:Breadth of the beam assumed = Depth of the beam assumed = UDL on beam :Due to self weight of slab = Due to weight of retained earth = 1150.00mm 1.00Kg/m 8413.60m .38 1339.17KN 0.8 N/sqmm (As per Table 20 of 1S 456) Provide same reinforcement at bottom also.353 1253.15sqmm From table 2 of SP 16.18Knm 208.17 Hence.73sqmm 141.60 N/sqmm <2.Provide 10mm dia bars @150mm c/c at top&bottom as distribution reinforcement .20Kg/m 9563Kg/m 0.

92 N/sqmm <2.498 552.42Knm 363.40KN 69.138fckb = 600.75mm Effective depth provided(Assuming 40mm cover) d = Mu/bd2 = 1.51 0.80Knm 157.78KN 1.00mm 47.00sqmm 0.42Kgm 2.90Knm 15.Twisting moment on beam :Due to earth pressure(Distributed to both beams) = 7653.00mm From table 2 of SP 16.00m After analysis.32sqmm Percentage of tension steel = Maximum shear force on the member = Factored shear force = 46.the bending moment diagram is 31.449 1115.90Knm Factored bending moment Mu = Torsional Moment 'T' in KN-m Equivalent bending moment Mt in KN-m Design Moment Me1 in KN-m Effective depth required d = Over all depth provided = Mu/0.60KN 477.8 N/sqmm (As per Table 20 of 1S 456) Design shear force including equivalent shear due to torsion = Nominal shear stress tv =Vu/bd = Hence section is safe from shear strength point of view .percentage of steel required = Area of steel required = Hence provide 4 Nos of 20mm dia HYSD bars both at top&bottom Provide 2-12mm dia on each face as side face reinforcement Hence Ast provided = 1256.57Knm 205.85Knm 114.

45 KN/cm 85mm 356.72KN Using 10mm dia two legged vertical stirrups.06KN 121.provide 10mm dia 2 legged stirrups @ 80mm c/c .49 N/sqmm Hence Vuc = Vus = Vu-Vuc = Vus/d = 6.The design shear strength of concrete for the above steel percentage from Table 19 of IS 456 is 0.from safety point of view.from table 62 of SP 16.the spacing required is However.

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30 0.15 1.DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENT 0.15 0.50m Main steel:4-16mm both at top and bottom Shear steel:8mm stirrups@110mm c/c At bottom 10mm mat 150mm c/c At top 10mm mat 150mm c/c 375mm DUR piles .375x0.00m 0.00 8mm bars@300mm c/c 10mm bars@300mm c/c 12mm bars@175mm c/c 8mm bars@200mm c/c 0.80m Beam size 0.

5 Nos--12mm dia main 6mm dia stirrups at 300mm c/c .

30m 1.10mm bars@300mm c/c 8mm bars@200mm c/c 0.75m 1.15m .

85m .0.