You are on page 1of 12

19-3677; Rev 3; 6/10


16-Port, 5.5V Constant-Current LED Driver
General Description
The MAX6969 serial-interfaced LED driver provides 16 open-drain, constant-current-sinking LED driver outputs rated at 5.5V. The MAX6969 operates from a 3V to 5.5V supply. The MAX6969 supply and the LEDs’ supply or supplies can power up in any order. The constant-current outputs are programmed together to up to 55mA using a single external resistor. The MAX6969 operates with a 25Mb, industry-standard, 4-wire serial interface. The MAX6969 uses the industry-standard, shift-registerplus-latch-type serial interface. The driver accepts data shifted into a 16-bit shift register using data input DIN and clock input CLK. Input data appears at the DOUT output 16 clock cycles later to allow cascading of multiple MAX6969s. The latch-enable input, LE, loads the 16 bits of shift register data into a 16-bit output latch to set which LEDs are on and which are off. The outputenable, OE, gates all 16 outputs on and off, and is fast enough to be used as a PWM input for LED intensity control. For applications requiring LED fault detection, refer to the MAX6984*, which automatically detects open-circuit LEDs. For safety-related applications requiring a watchdog timer, refer to the MAX6979, which includes a fail-safe feature that blanks the display if the serial interface becomes inactive for more than 1s. The MAX6969 is one of a family of 12 shift-register-pluslatch-type LED drivers. The family includes 8-port and 16-port types, with 5.5V- or 36V-rated LED outputs, with and without open-circuit LED detection and watchdog. All versions operate from a 3V to 5.5V supply, and are specified over the -40°C to +125°C temperature range.

♦ 25Mb, Industry-Standard, 4-Wire Serial Interface at 5V ♦ 3V to 5.5V Logic Supply ♦ 16 Constant-Current LED Outputs Rated at 5.5V ♦ Up to 55mA Continuous Current per Output ♦ Output Current Programmed by Single Resistor ♦ 3% Current Matching Between Outputs ♦ 6% Current Matching Between ICs ♦ High-Dissipation, 24-Pin Packages ♦ -40°C to +125°C Temperature Range


Ordering Information
PART MAX6969AUG+ MAX6969AWG+ TEMP RANGE -40°C to +125°C -40°C to +125°C PIN-PACKAGE 24 TSSOP 24 Wide SO

MAX6969ANG+ -40°C to +125°C 24 PDIP +Denotes a lead(Pb)-free/RoHS-compliant package.

Typical Application Circuit and Selector Guide appear at end of data sheet.

Pin Configuration
GND 1 DIN 2 24 V+ 23 SET 22 DOUT 21 OE

Variable Message Signs Marquee Displays Point-of-Order Signs Traffic Signs Gaming Features Architectural Lighting

CLK 3 LE 4 OUT0 5 OUT1 6 OUT2 7 OUT3 8 OUT4 9 OUT5 10


20 OUT15 19 OUT14 18 OUT13 17 OUT12 16 OUT11 15 OUT10 14 OUT9 13 OUT8

*Future product—contact factory for availability.

OUT6 11 OUT7 12


________________________________________________________________ Maxim Integrated Products


For pricing, delivery, and ordering information, please contact Maxim Direct at 1-888-629-4642, or visit Maxim’s website at

. LE.....±10mA OUT_ Sink Current ................+260°C Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device........7 x V+ 18 25 mA VIH VIL ∆VI IIH........... DIN and LE = V+ or GND.. All Output Ports High Impedance......-40°C to +125°C Junction Temperature .............. CLK.. V+ = 3V to 5..... SET ..........5 5.......8 V V +1 µA V 0........ OE........... Typical values are at V+ = 5V................. OE Input Leakage Current DIN. DOUT unloaded 0......................0 TYP MAX 5.......5 8 UNITS V V mA I+ fCLK = 5MHz....3V to +6V OUT_ ...............3 x V+ 0....... CLK. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.......... RSET = 360Ω) Input High Voltage DIN........ CLK........................... CLK...16-Port............. LE.................. TA = +25°C........5 V mA µA -1 V+ ........ ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Typical Application Circuit.........-0. LE....... and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated in the operational sections of the specifications is not implied.480mA Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = +70°C) 24-Pin TSSOP (derate 12........................... 10s) .... TA = TMIN to TMAX...+150°C Storage Temperature Range ............ DOUT unloaded 6 8........1067mW 24 Wide SO (derate 11......7 CONDITIONS MIN 3..........) (Note 1) PARAMETER Operating Supply Voltage Output Voltage Standby Current (Interface Idle......5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Voltage with respect to GND................975mW 24-Pin PDIP (derate 13.5V 37 50 61 1 2 _______________________________________________________________________________________ . OE Hysteresis Voltage DIN..5V.-0...60mA Total GND Current . V+ .. RSET = 360Ω) Standby Current (Interface Running.............. DOUT unloaded 5..............941mW Operating Temperature Range .............. These are stress ratings only...0.3V) DOUT Current ..... All Output Ports High Impedance........ OUT_ = V+ V 0..... LE.... RSET = 360Ω) Supply Current (Interface Idle.3V to (V+ + 0....5V............ 5.. RSET = 360Ω OE = V+. OE = V+................. unless otherwise noted.......5V to 2...-0..+300°C Soldering Temperature (reflow) .............3mW/°C over +70°C)........... CLK.................. All Output Ports Active Low.......................3V to +6V DIN........ VOUT = 0..................5 mA I+ All logic inputs at V+ or GND............ IIL VOH VOL IOUT ILEAK ISOURCE = 4mA ISINK = 4mA V+ = 3V to 5...2mW/°C over +70°C) ..5V...8mW/°C over +70°C).... OE Input Low Voltage DIN...-65°C to +150°C Lead Temperature (soldering.... LE........... OE Output High-Voltage DOUT Output Low Voltage Output Current OUT_ Output Leakage Current OUT_ SYMBOL V+ VOUT I+ All logic inputs at V+ or GND...

5V. pullup resistor = 65Ω CDOUT = 10pF. tDF tLW tLS tLRR tLRF tCRR tCRF tOEH tOEL tf tr 80% to 20%.16-Port. 5. V+ = 4. 2) PARAMETER CLK Clock Period CLK Pulse-Width High CLK Pulse-Width Low DIN Setup Time DIN Hold Time DOUT Propagation Delay DOUT Rise and Fall Time LE Pulse-Width High LE Setup Time LE Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay LE Rising to OUT_ Falling Delay CLK Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay CLK Rising to OUT_ Falling Delay OE Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay OE Falling to OUT_ Falling Delay LED Output OUT_ Turn-On Fall Time LED Output OUT_ Turn-Off Rise Time SYMBOL tCP tCH tCL tDS tDH tDO tDR. TA = TMIN to TMAX.5V to 5.) (Notes 1. 20% to 80% 20 10 100 300 100 310 100 320 120 120 CONDITIONS MIN 40 19 19 4 8 12 32 10 TYP MAX UNITS ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns MAX6969 _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3 .5V Constant-Current LED Driver 5V TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (Typical Application Circuit. unless otherwise noted. pullup resistor = 65Ω 20% to 80%.

25 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 4.5 4.0 3.4 5.0 4.0 3.00 3. TA = TMIN to TMAX. ALL OUTPUTS OFF.0 SUPPLY CURRENT vs. Typical Operating Characteristics (TA = +25°C. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (INTERFACE IDLE.50 3.5 3. pullup resistor = 65Ω CDOUT = 10pF. Specifications over temperature are guaranteed by design. unless otherwise noted.0 5. 5.16-Port.0 TA = +125°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C TA = +85°C 18 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 16 14 12 10 8 6 TA = +25°C TA = -40°C TA = +25°C TA = -40°C TA = -40°C TA = +25°C 3.50 6. ALL OUTPUTS ON. 20% to 80% 20 15 120 310 120 330 120 330 120 120 CONDITIONS MIN 52 24 24 4 8 12 50 12 TYP MAX UNITS ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns Note 1: All parameters tested at TA = +25°C.5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 3.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 4 _______________________________________________________________________________________ MAX6969 toc03 4.0 5.5 4.0 4.2 5.3V TIMING CHARACTERISTICS (Typical Application Circuit. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (INTERFACE IDLE. 2) PARAMETER CLK Clock Period CLK Pulse-Width High CLK Pulse-Width Low DIN Setup Time DIN Hold Time DOUT Propagation Delay DOUT Rise and Fall Time LE Pulse-Width High LE Setup Time LE Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay LE Rising to OUT_ Falling Delay CLK Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay CLK Rising to OUT_ Falling Delay OE Rising to OUT_ Rising Delay OE Falling to OUT_ Falling Delay LED Output OUT_ Turn-On Fall Time LED Output OUT_ Turn-Off Rise Time SYMBOL tCP tCH tCL tDS tDH tDO tDR.0 5. Note 2: See Figure 3. RSET = 720Ω) MAX6969 toc01 MAX6969 toc02 4.6 4.0 5.) SUPPLY CURRENT vs.5 4.5 5.50 3.25 3.) (Notes 1. RSET = 720Ω) 20 .0 4. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (INTERFACE IDLE.75 2.4 4.5 3. RSET = 360Ω) SUPPLY CURRENT vs.8 5. tDF tLW tLS tLRR tLRF tCRR tCRF tOEH tOEL tf tr 80% to 20%. unless otherwise noted.75 3.8 4.0 4.5 5.00 2.6 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 5.5V. V+ = 3V to 5.5 5. pullup resistor = 65Ω 20% to 80%.2 4. ALL OUTPUTS OFF.

0 4.5 5.5 PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs.0 1.0 3.5 3. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (INTERFACE IDLE. V+ = 5.0V) MAX6969 toc07 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs.5 2.5 TA = -40°C TA = +25°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C 60 50 TA = -40°C 40 30 20 10 0 TA = +25°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C 27.0 TA = +25°C 30 25 TA = -40°C 20 15 10 5 0 TA = +25°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 TA = -40°C TA = +25°C TA = +85°C TA = +125°C PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) TA = -40°C 5.5V Constant-Current LED Driver Typical Operating Characteristics (continued) (TA = +25°C.0 25.0 1.5 4.0 2. VOUT = 2V) TA = +25°C MAX6969 toc09 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 TA = +85°C 25.5 4.0 26.0 1.0V) MAX6969 toc08 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs. VOUT = 2V) MAX6969 toc10 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs.5 1.3V) MAX6969 toc05 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs.0 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs. unless otherwise noted.5 SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V) 0 0 300 600 900 1200 1500 RSET RESISTANCE (Ω) _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5 .5 24.0 5. PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (RSET = 720Ω.5 3.5 0 0.5 2.5 2.5 1.5 1.0 0 0.0 24.5 5.0 2. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (RSET = 720Ω.0 2.) SUPPLY CURRENT vs.0 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) TA = -40°C TA = +125°C 3.5 5.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 5.0 4. V+ = 5. V+ = 3. PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (RSET = 360Ω.5 3. 5. PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (RSET = 360Ω.5 1.5 2.5 4.3V) MAX6969 toc06 22 20 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) 18 16 14 12 10 3.0 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 0 0.16-Port.0 4. RSET = 360Ω) TA = +125°C TA = +85°C MAX6969 toc04 MAX6969 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT vs. SUPPLY VOLTAGE (RSET = 360Ω. RSET RESISTANCE (V+ = 5. PORT OUTPUT VOLTAGE (RSET = 720Ω.0V) MAX6969 toc11 54 50 PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) PORT OUTPUT CURRENT (mA) 53 TA = -40°C 52 TA = +25°C 40 30 51 TA = +125°C TA = +85°C 20 50 10 49 3.5 26. V+ = 3.0 1. ALL OUTPUTS ON.

1µF ceramic capacitor. Load-Enable Input. 5. High forces outputs OUT0 to OUT15 high impedance.16-Port. Serial-Data Output. LED Current Setting.5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 Pin Description PIN 1 2 3 4 5–20 21 22 23 24 NAME GND DIN CLK LE OUT0–OUT15 OE DOUT SET V+ Ground Serial-Data Input. Data is clocked out of the 16-bit internal shift register to DOUT on CLK’s rising edge. LED Driver Outputs. and retained while LE is low. without altering the contents of the output latches. Block Diagram 6 _______________________________________________________________________________________ . constant-current-sinking outputs rated to 5. Output-Enable Input. Data is loaded transparently from the internal shift register(s) to the output latch(es) while LE is high. Data is loaded into the internal 16-bit shift register on CLK’s rising edge. Data is loaded into the internal 16-bit shift register on CLK’s rising edge. Serial-Clock Input.5V. Positive Supply Voltage. Data is latched into the output latch(es) on LE’s falling edge. Low enables outputs OUT0 to OUT15 to follow the state of the output latches. Bypass V+ to GND with a 0. Connect SET to GND through a resistor (RSET) to set the maximum LED current. FUNCTION CLK MAX6969 DIN D0 SERIAL-TO-PARALLEL SHIFT REGISTER D15 DOUT LE D0 LATCHES D15 POWER-ON RESET V+ OE V+ D0 CONSTANT-CURRENT SINKS D15 CURRENT REFERENCE RSET OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 GND GND Figure 1. OUT0 to OUT15 are open-drain.

The drivers use current-sensing feedback circuitry (not simple current mirrors) to ensure very small current variations over the full allowed range of output voltage (see the Typical Operating Characteristics). 4-Wire Serial Interface The serial interface on the MAX6969 is a 4-wire serial interface using four inputs (DIN. OE. regardless of the initial logic levels of the CLK. DIN. DIN is the serial-data input. D0. The data output allows multiple drivers to be cascaded and operated together.5V to 2.5V). OE) and a data output (DOUT). The shift register is written through a clock input. LE.5V. and must be stable when it is sampled on the rising edge of CLK. The 4-wire serial interface comprises a 16-bit shift register and a 16-bit transparent latch. RSET. The functions of the five interface pins are as follows. tr 20% tf OUT_ Figure 2. This interface is used to write display data to the MAX6969. See Figure 2. D0–D15. but also over a realistic range of driver output voltage drop (0. and latches the current state on the falling edge of LE. The LED anode can be connected to a supply voltage of up to 5. Each driver output is an open-drain. 5. MSB first. The serial-interface data word length is 16 bits. and a data input. LE tCL tCH tCP CLK tDH tDS DIN D15 D14 D1 tDO DOUT D0 tLS tLW D7 OE tOEL tOEW tOEH 80% . DOUT. opendrain output ports. and LE inputs. LE. MAX6969 Initial Power-Up and Operation An internal reset circuit clears the internal registers of the MAX6969 on power-up. independent of the MAX6969 supply. V+.5V Constant-Current LED Driver Detailed Description The MAX6969 LED driver comprises a 4-wire serial interface driving 16 constant-current-sinking. Data is shifted in. This means that data bit D15 is clocked in first. All outputs (OUT0–OUT15) initialize to high impedance. and the data propagates to a data output. The outputs drive LEDs in either static or multiplex applications (Figure 1). The constantcurrent outputs are guaranteed for current accuracy not only with chip-supply voltage variations (5V ±10% and 3V to 5. The constant-current capability is up to 55mA per output. CLK. The contents of the 16-bit shift register are loaded into the transparent latch through a latch-enable input. set for all eight outputs by an external resistor. constant-current sink that should be connected to the cathode of either a single LED or a series string of multiple LEDs. 4-Wire Serial-Interface Timing Diagram _______________________________________________________________________________________ 7 .16-Port. DIN. The latch is transparent to the shift register outputs when high.5V). CLK. followed by 15 more data bits finishing with the LSB.

Data can be shifted into the serial-interface shift register and latched.5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 CLK is the serial-clock input. and low to enable outputs OUT0–OUT15 to follow the state of the output latches. OE is independent of the operation of the serial interface. H = High-logic level. without altering the contents of the output latches. LE and CLK to OUT_ Timing Table 1. The fourth input provides output-enable control of the output drivers.16-Port. Hi-Z = High impedance. regardless of the state of OE. DOUT is the serial-data output. 8 _______________________________________________________________________________________ . R = Previous state. 4-Wire Serial-Interface Truth Table SERIAL CLOCK DATA INPUT INPUT CLK D0 DIN H L X — — — — — — H L R0 X P0 — SHIFT-REGISTER CONTENTS D1 R0 R0 R1 X P1 — D2 R1 R1 R2 X P2 — LOAD INPUT LE … Dn-1 Dn … Rn-2 Rn-1 … Rn-2 Rn-1 … Rn-1 Rn … — X — X — … Pn-1 Pn — — — L H — LATCH CONTENTS D0 — — — R0 P0 X D1 — — — R1 P1 X D2 — — — R2 P2 X OUTPUT CONTENTS BLANKING INPUT OE D0 D1 D2 … Dn-1 Dn … Dn-1 Dn — — — — — — — — — — L H — — — — P0 — — — — P1 — — — — P2 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Rn-1 Rn … Pn-1 Pn … X X … Pn-1 Pn Hi-Z Hi-Z Hi-Z … Hi-Z Hi-Z L = Low-logic level. which shifts data out from the MAX6969’s 16-bit shift register on the rising edge of CLK. 5. P = Present state. X = Don’t care. which shifts data at DIN into the MAX6969 16-bit shift register on its rising edge. OE is high to force outputs OUT0–OUT15 high impedance. tLRF OUT_ LE LE tLRR OUT_ CLK tCRF OUT_ CLK tCRR OUT_ LE is the latch load input of the MAX6969 that transfers data from the MAX6969 16-bit shift register to its 16-bit latch when LE is high (transparent latch). Data at DIN is propagated through the shift register and appears at DOUT 16 clock cycles later. Figure 3. and latches the data on the falling edge of LE (Figure 2).

and serial-interface speed. it is necessary to add an additional bulk electrolytic capacitor of 4. which sets the output currents to 55mA. The outputs are enabled again when the die temperature drops below approximately +140°C. MAX6969 Power-Supply Considerations The MAX6969 operates with a chip supply V+. RSET.5V Constant-Current LED Driver Applications Information Selecting External Component RSET to Set LED Output Current The MAX6969 uses an external resistor. The reference value. 5. sets the output currents to 50mA.6°C. in mW if currents are in mA Dissipation example: IOUT = 47mA. This is normally adequate for static LED driving. To set a different output current. Computing Power Dissipation The upper limit for power dissipation (P D ) for the MAX6969 is determined by the following equation: PD = (V+ x I+) + (VOUT x DUTY x IOUT x N) where: V+ = supply voltage I+ = operating supply current when sinking IOUT LED drive current into N outputs DUTY = PWM duty cycle applied to OE N = number of MAX6969 outputs driving LEDs at the same time (maximum is 16) VOUT = MAX6969 port output voltage when driving load LED(s) IOUT = LED drive current programmed by RSET PD = power dissipation.5kΩ. Inadequate V+ decoupling can cause timing problems. V+ = 5. DUTY = 1. use the formula: RSET = 18. For multiplex or PWM applications. alternately turning the LEDs off and then back on again. and one or more LED supplies. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 9 .25V PD = (5.767 x 82°C/W) so TA = +145.767W Thus. so when a driver is overdissipating. VOUT = 2V.7µF or more to each supply for every 4 to 16 MAX6969s. the external symptom is the load LEDs cycling between on and off as the driver repeatedly overheats and cools. and very noisy LED supplies can affect LED current regulation. Bypass each supply to GND with a 0.0122 = +82°C/W from the Absolute Maximum Ratings ).3Ω. Register contents are not affected. The necessary capacitance depends on the LED load current. the maximum allowed ambient temperature TA is given by: TJ(MAX) = TA + (PD x TJA) = +150°C = TA + (1.25V x 50mA) + (2V x 1 x 47mA x 16) = 1. N = 16. to set the LED current for outputs OUT0–OUT15. Overtemperature Cutoff The MAX6969 contains an internal temperature sensor that turns off all outputs when the die temperature exceeds approximately +165°C. for a 24-pin TSSOP package (TJA = 1 / 0. The minimum allowed value of RSET is 327. 360Ω. The maximum allowed value of RSET is 1.16-Port.000 / IOUT where IOUT is the desired output current in mA. PWM switching frequency.1µF capacitor as close to the MAX6969 as possible.

5 8 36 55mA 8 5.5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 Selector Guide PART MAX6968 MAX6977 MAX6978 MAX6970 MAX6981 MAX6980 MAX6969 MAX6984 MAX6979 MAX6971 MAX6982 MAX6983 16 36 16 5.16-Port. OF OUTPUTS MAX OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V) MAX OUTPUT CURRENT LED FAULT DETECTION — Yes Yes — Yes Yes — Yes Yes — Yes Yes WATCHDOG — — Yes — — Yes — — Yes — — Yes Typical Application Circuit +5V +5V µC SCLK MOSI MISO LOAD ENABLE 360Ω V+ CLK DIN DOUT LE OE SET GND MAX6969 OUT0 OUT1 OUT2 OUT3 OUT4 OUT5 OUT6 OUT7 OUT8 OUT9 OUT10 OUT11 OUT12 OUT13 OUT14 OUT15 0V 0V 10 ______________________________________________________________________________________ .5 NO. 5.

maxim-ic. Package drawings may show a different suffix character.16-Port. or “-” in the package code indicates RoHS status only. Note that a “+”. PACKAGE TYPE 24 PDIP 24 TSSOP 24 Wide SO PACKAGE CODE N24+1 U24+1 W24+1 DOCUMENT NO. go to www. but the drawing pertains to the package regardless of RoHS status. 21-0043 21-0066 21-0042 MAX6969 ______________________________________________________________________________________ 11 . 5. “#”.5V Constant-Current LED Driver Chip Information PROCESS: BiCMOS Package Information For the latest package outline information and land

5V Constant-Current LED Driver MAX6969 Revision History REVISION NUMBER 3 REVISION DATE 6/10 DESCRIPTION Updated Ordering Information. . Absolute Maximum Ratings. 2. Electrical Characteristics. 12 ____________________Maxim Integrated Products. Inc.16-Port. CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2010 Maxim Integrated Products Maxim is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products. 8 Maxim cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim product. 120 San Gabriel Drive. 5. Maxim reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. and Table 1 PAGES CHANGED 1. Sunnyvale. No circuit patent licenses are implied.