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No part of this PROJECT may be republished in any form whatsoever, electronic, or mechanical — without expressed written consent from the promoter, the company Etanolsa S.A., of Guayaquil, Ecuador, Disclaimer And/Or Legal Notices The information presented herein represents valuable and proprietary information for developing biofuel projects in Ecuador only under the patronage of Etanolsa S.A., Wellington Gallardo, President. Etanolsa S.A. is an Ecuadorian corporation exclusively engaged in developing agro-industrial projects to convert carbohydrates into ethanol and biodiesel in Ecuador, using sugarcane, cassava roots, agriculture waste of banana crops, and Jatropha Curcas as feedstock. The production and use of fuels using vegetable oils has been with man since the days of Rudolph Diesel when he first demonstrated biodiesel derived from peanut oil. Today’s world of Global Warming and Climate Change, high fuel prices, at this moment the barrel of oil is over US$100.00 dollars, and uncertain political realities has created a new and intensified interest in Biofuels. Etanolsa S.A. has been actively working in gathering fertile lands to develop the cultivation of jatropha curcas under the best geographically conditions, mainly in the Peninsula of Santa Elena, and also in the near future operating and maintaining jatropha nurseries and jatropha plantations throughout the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Upon maturity of the Jatropha seedlings and a successful harvest of the oil bearing seeds, we will process and refine the oil to produce biodiesel that can be used pure or mixed to create a biodiesel blend. The Jatropha oil and Jatropha biodiesel can be used in a number of applications ranging from automotive fuel to electric generation using a diesel generator. Auto manufacturers like Mercedes and Daimler-Chrysler are already trial running cars on Jatropha biodiesel with great results. Aside from our large scale activities Etanolsa S.A. is actively involved in a number of local community based micro generation projects in the intercrop plantation. By enabling small local communities to get involved in various stages of the biodiesel process we are assisting them in growing towards economical independence and bringing the freedom and safety of a reliable power supply to areas that previously had none. We are ready to ensure sustained use of water supplies, land and natural resources, the development of biofuels must be planned, managed and maintained. Ecosystems and Rainforests through out the world, that are being destroyed for the sake of biofuels, must be stopped. Other major considerations are land competition for food vs. biofuel production, considerations on habitat destruction and animal species, availability of water, pollution of lands with fertilizers which can lead to soil erosion, safety of people who harvest phytoproducts for biofuel production and issues of developing large massive plants instead of small localized plants near the crops that will be used to manufacture biofuels. FIGHTING DESERTIFICATION & CREATING WEALTH IN THE PENINSULA OF SANTA ELENA Jatropha curcas is a tough perennial tree could survive even in the desert, and could actually stabilize soil and combat desertification, at the same time as its beans could be refined for diesel fuel. In Ecuador by employing and developing this cultivation project seems to be hopeful momentum towards increasing use of


biofuels worldwide and replacing the traditional derivative fossil diesel. The selected area of the Peninsula of Santa Elena has been devastating by high level of deforestation during the last 50 years. Over 60% of The Peninsula of Santa Elena’s land has the right climate for growing Jatropha Precisely in our JC cultivation project It is in the field of Bio Diesel fuel our main focus, however, that Jatropha’s properties are the most exciting. At same power output, Jatropha curcas oil specific consumption and efficiencies are higher than those of diesel fuel. International Tests conducted show that out of these various vegetable oils including copra, palm, groundnut, cottonseed, rapeseed, soya and sunflower - the lowest exhaust gas emissions were obtained with copra and Jatropha Curcas crude oil. CHALLENGES TO JATROPHA’S COMMERCIAL VIABILITY There are still some inherent problems with Jatropha and research work is still required. We are learning more and more about the properties of Jatropha. These potential problems include: 1) Jatropha oil is hydroscopic - absorbs water and needs nitrogen blanketing on steel tanks. One issue that is quite clear is because Jatropha is high in acid, it has the tendency to degrade quickly, particularly if not handled properly through the supply chain. This will be well treated in our project 2) Right from the time of expelling, the oil needs to be kept in storage conditions that prevent undue degradation. Exposure to air and moisture must be minimized - hence the need for nitrogen blanketing on the tanks. Our technology will be implemented to prevent degradation. 3) The range of fatty acids present in the various seeds will differ but the oil and biodiesel that is produced must be acceptable. However, this assumes that that oil is fully degummed. The degumming may well be more of a problem than making biodiesel. Our technological contractors are fully specialized to overcome this important issue. 4) Seeds degrade as soon as they are picked and so careful storage and handling is required. In the warm humid atmosphere in countries the degradation of seeds can be rapid. Even in the U.K. seed storage is a problem. The free fatty acid must not increase above 2% according to our expertise. Alternative feedstock in our project The emerging industry worldwide is facing a lack of feedstock supplies and rising crude palm oil /soya oil prices and also the debate of crops for food versus fuel and needs initiatives in crop cultivation technologies and competitive sourcing of appropriate feedstock - all of which can alter the biofuel economics. As such the greatest challenges to the widespread deployment and use of biofuels is developing a dedicated energy crops that are cost-effective, easy to sustain and can produce greater yields. JC cultivation as energy crop that produces biofuels and holds particular


promise for sustainable development and a sustainable environment, Jatropha has been selected as the one and other intercropping food crops. Sustainability Jatropha cultivation is a valuable multi-purpose crop to alleviate soil degradation, desertification and deforestation, which can be used for bio-energy to replace petro-diesel, for soap production and climatic protection, and hence deserves specific attention Jatropha can help to increase rural incomes, self-sustainability and alleviate poverty for women, elderly, men, rural communities, small farmers and finally large farmers. It can as well help to increase income from plantations and agro-industries. There are various trees that are suitable for bio-diesel production. Out of all these trees, Jatropha must be regarded as a sure inclusion and the foundation around which a good plan can be built if for nothing but its pure hardiness and stress handling ability. It is just a tree that has enough credentials. That is why many developing countries has been nominated JC cultivation as ideal plant for biodiesel. Carbon Savings Biodiesel produced from jatropha is one of the most promising solutions for tackling the growing carbon emissions from transport. Breaking the cycle of poverty Consider that oil priced is too high per barrel has had a disproportionate impact on the poorest countries, 38 of which are net importers and 25 of which import all of their oil; Developing countries consume roughly twice as much oil per dollar of GDP as the United States All the while, the high cost and Inaccessibility of fossil fuels, leaves approximately 2 billion people worldwide without reliable energy sources, without refrigeration, basic communication, heat, or even light. For developing countries, then, climate change and world’s energy policies are a source of oppression, a source of sickness and a source of human suffering. Since the two-thirds of the people in the developing world who derive their incomes from agriculture and Jatropha based biodiesel as the Santa Elena project has enormous potential to change their situation for the better and poverty can be broken by Jatropha Cultivation as this dedicated crop has a huge potential for replication world -wide, improving the livelihood of many more. In our project more than 20,000 families will employed for all stages of JC cultivation including into its conversion of Biodiesel to be marketed domestically and worldwide and other derivative sub-products will an enormous impact on benefits of all our people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. At the community level, farmers that produce dedicated energy crops can grow their incomes and grow their own supply of affordable and reliable energy backed by our international project by means of investing US$200 Millions per Biofuel plant and 15,000 hectares of fertile lands along the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Our project at regional level, producing more biofuels will generate new industries, new technologies, new jobs and new markets. At the same time, producing more biofuels will reduce energy expenditures and allow our nation to put more of their resources into health, education and other services for their neediest citizens inside our territory, covering more than 50,000 hectares.


In our project bio-diesel will be “cultivated Ecuador as other developing countries have the potential to be a leading world producer of diesel, but the rural farmers still need to get comfortable with the idea that diesel fuel can be “harvested,” but they understand one thing very clearly that they can use Jatropha plants as a source of their main earnings to live under very reasonable standard of living as the one offered in our SEA-Santa Elena Agreement with good salaries, and in addition of 15% of participation in the shares of our promoting company. Farmers need to know that there is going to be a good domestic and international market for what we will produce as energy crops. We – in Etanolsa S.A.’s Task Team - are very keen to build that confidence and promote Jatropha cultivation by assisting in the whole process from planting, buying the seeds for refining and providing the refining technology to enable growers, workers and employees to make our own biodiesel. We’ve been privileged to represent Etanolsa as the Task Team, promoting sustainable farming for biodiesel production and looking for international research findings and on-hand field experiences in respect of various technical, agronomical/silvicultural aspects of plantations of Jatropha and we will contract the best expert companies that have resulted in significant improvements in knowledge and technical background related to Productivity, profitability and sustainability of commercial production of Jatropha oil crop worldwide. Our plant will be cultivating these energy-producing plants, processing them and finally producing biodiesel, we are creating new sources of income for the rural farmers. Etanolsa S.A. the project’s promoter Task Team is happy and proudly presents its commitment to exploring, developing and establishing the correct process, procedures and systems for growing, crushing refining and use of Bio Diesel from seed oil, Jatropha curcas in particular under the respective international off take contracts. We will contract the best companies specialized in each stage of the process who are fully equipped with Technical knowledge and plant science expertise, process engineering and operational expertise to plan, design and Create Fuel Farms; deploy and commission Non-food vegetable oil refining and design and construct biodiesel plants Jatropha plant - Biodiesel and so much more The seeds of the Jatropha contain high percentages (30%-35%) of oil, which can be extracted easily for further processing (transesterification) and refinement. This processed oil can then be used in diesel engines after minor modifications. To avoid engine modifications the bio-diesel can also be blended with convention-al diesel. On average, each mature tree produces about four kilograms of seed per year. The byproducts of the bio-diesel processing plant are nitrogen-rich press cake and glycerol, which are said to have good commercial value as fertilizer and as a base for soap and cosmetics respectively. The leaves, root and bark could also have potential for numerous other industrial and pharmaceutical uses Because of its growing requirements this tree could easily be growing in the south, especially the south west It was learned that three kilos of jatropha seeds can produce one liter of bio-diesel fuel. It reportedly can also produce oil from which ethanol, a gasoline additive, can be derived. is seen by many to be the perfect biodiesel crop. It can be grown in very poor soils actually generating top soil as it goes, is drought and pest resilient, and it has seeds with up to 40% oil content.


Here are some facts and figures about Jatropha relating to its growth as an oil product:Jatropha grows well on low fertility soils however increased yields can be obtained using a fertilizer containing small amounts of magnesium, sulphur, and calcium. - Jatropha can be intercropped with many cash crops such as coffee, sugar, fruits and vegetables with the Jatropha offering both fertilizer and protection against livestock. - Jatropha needs at least 250mm of rain annually to thrive however it can survive three years of drought by dropping its leaves. - Jatropha is excellent at preventing soil erosion, and the leaves it drops act as a wonderful soil enriching mulch. - Jatropha prefers alkaline soils. - The cost of 2500 jatropha saplings (enough for one hectare) in Ecuador is around or equivalent to US$100 - The cost of 1kg of jatropha seeds in Ecuador is around or equivalent to - Each jatropha seedling should be given a 2m x 2m area to grow into. - 20% of seedlings planted will not survive. - Jatropha seedlings yield seeds in the first year after plantation. -After the first five years, the typical annual yield of a jatropha tree is 3.5kg of beans - Jatropha trees are productive for up to 40-50 years in Ecuador. - 2,500 trees can be planted per hectare. - 1 hectare should yield around 24 tons of seeds per year with two crops. - The oil pressed from 4kg of seeds is needed to make 1 liter of biodiesel. - 91%+ of the oil can be extracted with cold pressing. - 1 hectare should yield around 2.2-2.8 tons of oil. - Press cake (seedcake) is left after the oil is pressed from the seeds. This can be composted and used as a high grade nitrogen rich organic fertilizer (green manure). The remaining oil can be used to make skin friendly soap. • One job is created for each 4 hectares of jatropha plantation. - The average Ecuadorian agricultural worker earns less than $200 per month, but in our project they will earn more than US$500 per month. - Biodiesel costs around US$0.90 per gallon to grow and refine in Ecuador. - Glycerol, a biproduct of biodiesel refinement, can be sold in India for around US$2,000 per ton. - One hectare of jatropha plantation yields US$5,800/ year in Ecuador. The following stats come from D1 Oils - the UK’s biggest biodiesel company : - Crushing 1 ton of Jatropha seeds costs around $40. - 1 ton of (the leftovers after pressing) can be sold for $100. - The transport costs of shipping 1 ton of jatropha from Ecuador to Pacific Rim of USA is US$________. - Filtered jatropha oil can be used as is in many diesel vehicles (as SVO) with only small modifications required to the engine. - Jatropha oil can be used as a kerosene substitute for heating and lamps. - Jatropha oil burns with a clear smokeless flame About Jatropha Curcas Jatropha Curcas is a non edible oil crop predominately used to produce bio-diesel. In addition to bio-diesel production, the by-product of Jatropha Curcas’ transesterification process can be used to make a wide range of products including high quality paper, energy pellets, soap, cosmetics, toothpaste, embalming fluid, pipe joint cement, cough medicine and as a moistening agent in tobacco. The Jatropha Curcas seed cake which is the waste by-product of the bio-diesel transesterification process can be used as a rich organic fertilizer.


Jatropha Curcas grows best on well drained soils with good aeration but is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. Jatropha Curcas grows well with more than 250mm rainfall per year and it can withstand long periods of drought. The plant sheds its leaves during a prolonged dry season. Jatropha Curcas prefers temperatures averaging 20-28 degrees Celsius (68-85 degrees Farenheit). It can, however, withstand a very light frost which causes it to lose all its leaves and may produce a sharp decline in seed yield. One ton of Jatropha Curcas seeds will produce up to 150 gallons of biodiesel with proper management. Recommended planting rates of Jatropha Curcas are 2,000 / 2,500 plants per hectare (2.5 acres) One person can professionally plant, manage and harvest 5-8 hectares of Jatropha Curcas. 30kg of Jatropha Curcas fruit can be harvested per person, per hour. Jatropha Curcas oil volume produced depends on: • • • • • • Production capacity (genetics) of the plants The moisture level of the soil The nutrient level of the soil Stage of ripening at harvest Quality of processing and refining equipment Quality of plantation management, particularly pruning methods

Jatropha Curcas Seeds & Seedlings Our Superior high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds and seedlings will: • • • • • • Reach first harvest within 7 months with full production in their 4th year Have a life-span of 50 years, while producing seed for up to 40 years Be freshly harvested and professionally packed & shipped Exceed guaranteed 90% germination rate Produce fruit with high oil content (60%) - far exceeding industry average Have selected genetics from plants that have produced over 10 Tonnes of Oil per Hectare, per Year. (10 - 15kgs per tree at maturity)

Projected growth rates of our high yielding Jatropha Curcas seeds With correct growing procedures, soil nutrient and adequate moisture our seeds will achieve the following yields planted at 2,500 plants/Ha : • • • • • Year 1 - 3kg/tree Year 2 - 6kg/tree Year 3 - 9kg/tree Year 4 - 10-12kg/tree Year 5 - 10-15kg/tree


Jatropha Curcas Propagation and Cultivation : The advantage of Jatropha Curcas seeds and seedlings over Jatropha curcas cuttings Jatropha Curcas grows readily from seeds or cuttings. However trees propagated from cuttings have a shorter productive lifespan and lower drought/disease resistance than plants propagated from seed. Also, Jatropha Curcas trees produced from cuttings do not produce true taproots. Instead, they produce pseudo-taproots (surface roots) that may penetrate much less than half the depth of soil as taproots produced on trees grown from seed. Note: This year’s cold weather in China completely killed all Jatropha Curcas plants propagated from cuttings. Only those that were propagated from seeds with a true tap root survived the frost. Although this will never happen in the Coastal region of Ecuador, because our coldest temperature is 12 degrees Celsius due to our geographical position with two season a year: winter and summer (Rainy and Dry).

Achieving Outstanding Jatropha Curcas production Jatropoha Curcas plants inoculated with MYCORRHIZAE will likely survive stressful conditions and give higher yields since the Funghi increases the volume of roots hence increasing drought tolerance of plants by facilitating the transport of moisture to and within the root system. The uptake of other nutrients essential for plant growth is also facilitated by mycorrhizae, and it has the ability to convert normally unavailable forms of Phosphorous to forms available for plant uptake. Jatropha Biodiesel – plant based biofuel from seeds. The Jatropha Curcas is a drought resistant oleaginous bushy shrub/tree belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae and its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3,500 kilograms of waste biomass. Hectares Oil Gallons Waste Biomass Kilos 1 500 1,000 500,000 15,000 60,000

75,000,000 300,000,000

3,500 3,500,000 52,500,000 210,000,000


Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source. The scientific name of Jatropha Curcas is Jatropha Curcas L and its origin is believed to be Central America, which currently found in huge densities in the Asian and African countries. Physically, Jatropha Curcas grows like a small tree or shrub with 2 – 8 meters high and has large green leaves with three to five lobes. Jatropha Curcas is a long term crop, which starts providing its effective harvest after 18 – 24 months depending upon the soil and the climatic conditions. The Jatropha Curcas plant grows like a small tree or shrub and has a long lifetime of 40-50 years. The plantation can be grown in waste lands and requires a minimum maintenance and when compared to other crops. The plant doesn’t take much water to survive and requires minimal of water source equivalent to 250 mm of annual rainfall, which enables us to grow jatropha curcas plantations marginal land or even in arid regions, where other common plantation crops cannot be grown. Jatropha curcas is grows well in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions. Even when Jatropha adapts with lower temperatures it cannot withstand a frost and grows well at 20-32 deg mean annual temperature and its ideal altitude ranges from 0 to 500 m. Jatropha Oil to Biodiesel – by the process of transesterification. The following chart shows the process of converting the jatropha oil into biodiesel:

Advantages of Jatropha – as a promising biofuel crop.


Jatropha Curcas needs very less amount of water for survival - only about 10 inches (250 mm) of rainfall per year - thus can be grown in arid regions and will grow well on marginal lands. Once grown, it has a long life, about 40-50 years and needs very minimal maintenance when compared to other crops. It can stop land degradation and reverse deforestation. Intercropping can be done with various food crops and won’t compete. Biproducts of Jatropha – additional products from the crop. The efficiency and profitability of the jatropha curcas bio-fuel industry, increases with the commercial usage of by-products like jatropha cakes and glycerol generated during the process of oil extraction. The Jatropha cake left after oil extraction is an excellent organic fertilizer and can also be burnt for power generation.. These cakes contain proteins and carbohydrates as major constituents and several bioactive compounds as minor constituents. There is a lot of potential to use these cakes for production of biogas, producer gas, briquettes and several products like surfactants and lubricants. The by-product glycerol can be used for production of Propylene Glycol, which can be used for making unsaturated polyster resins, poly ether polyols, functional fluids, cosmetics and toiletries flavor. Propanediol produced from glycerol has a number of applications in laminates, composites novel polysters solvents, and special polymers. Liquid phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol can result in the formation of propylene glycol and ethylene glycol for manufacture of polyster fibre and synthetic cloth. Jatropha Plantation – tomorrow’s oil fields. Jatropha Curcas is hardy drought resistant and grows well in tropical and subtropical regions in a band around the earth between latitudes 30 degrees north and south of the Equator. Jatropha Curcas Trees have a lifespan of up to 40-50 years. Jatropha Curcas grows on a wide range of land types, including non-arable, marginal and waste land, and need not compete with vital food crops for good agricultural land. Jatropha can be intercropped with various crops including vegetables, tubers, medicinal plants. The first stage to establish Jatropha Cultivation System will be to buy the necessary tonnage of seeds available in bulk quantities from the international market to fit our needs for our large scale projects to install and construct 5 biofefineries to be develop in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. Biodiesel Unit – oil extraction and conversion machinery. The biodiesel unit consists of an expeller and a transesterifier reactor. The oil is extracted from the jatropha curcas seeds with the help of an oil expeller and then converted into biodiesel with the help of a chemical process called transesterification, which can be then blended or directly used in diesel engines. Several automotive companies have found their vehicles successively running over the pure biodiesel.


Biodiesel unit with the expeller and the transesterifier are available with various processing capacities. If there are new machineries that need biodiesel with special specifications unit, you can contact us with your processing requirements in terms of liters/day Jatropha Oil Fields – tomorrow’s oil source. With apparent shortcomings of other renewable fuels sources, the enthusiasm for initiating today’s jatropha curcas plantations which will be tomorrow’s oil fields have increased among the large and small scale farmers which can also make use poor lands with minimal water sources. Analysis of the bioenergy market suggests that jatropha, which can be grown in variable conditions with little water or fertilizer, could be used to produce a barrel of fuel for around $43, less than the cost of sugar cane-based ethanol ($45 per barrel) or corn-based ethanol ($83 per barrel). Further, because jatropha isn’t edible and grows on land unsuitable for foods crops, its expansion doesn’t compete with traditional food production. Unlike soybeans, canola and many other agricultural sources of biodiesel, Jatropha can be cultivated on arid and semi arid non-agricultural land. This means growing Jatropha never has to compete with growing food. Also, on a per acre basis ,Jatropha can yield up to 10 times the amount of oil as other sources of biodiesel. Finally, Jatropha is a perennial, lasting up to 50 years without replanting. The byproducts like jatropha curcas cake (portion of the seed left over after extraction of the seed’s oil) is full of nitrogen compounds making it an excellent organic fertilizer. After 4 or 5 years of treatment with this “cake” the soil of this originally non-agricultural land will be suitable for planting food crops or trees for reforestation to help considerable agriculture in Ecuador. Jatropha in Rural – creating new opportunities. Our Jatropha curcas plantation systems have the ability to lift many people from poverty to financial independence, from despair to respect and unemployment to business owners and partners in our project to be developed in the Peninsula of Santa Elena. Our project will help and increase in a significant way Ecuador’s economic development and in the energy demand. It is a real matter that conventional energy sources are the major cause of climate change, leads to understanding that clean renewable energy technologies are to be widely introduced. Thus enables us – SEA-The Santa Elena Agreement - to utilize the large tracts of cheap barren land, large and inexpensive rural workforce to develop alternative energy options. A real alternative for transportation and energy production, which benefits four main aspects of development and secure a sustainable way of life for thousands of people in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. Jatropha Curcas – tropical crop with minimal water source. Jatropha is bush that grows in the warm regions of the world as it is sensitive to colder climates. Once it’s planted it grows and produces nuts that contain oil within a few years, and produces these annually for up to 50 years. Jatropha has been grown in developing countries for many years. In fact, it was distributed by Portuguese sailors from Mexico and South America over a hundred years ago to places such as India, Africa, and South East Asia. It’s been used locally for production of oil that was used in local village based industries for soap production. Since the plants are toxic they have also been used to plant hedges and to keep animals out of areas of land. Jatropha Machinery – oil extraction and conversion.


We are going to use the most efficient, reliable and durable expeller available in the international markets. These large oil expeller will be used to crush jatropha curcas seeds in single pressing operation whereas it is used as final press for other seeds/ nuts up to 500 tons in an hour with the help of the electrical motor. We will also count with the best transesterification machineries that is used convert Jatropha oil to biodiesel that is viable for industrial use in our project. Its oily seeds can produce 5–10 times of oil that is got from the common vegetable oil sources like soy bean and corn. One hectare of Jatropha plantation can produce around 500 gallons of biodiesel per year from its physic nuts along with more than 3,500 kilograms of waste biomass. Hectares Oil Gallons Waste Biomass Kilos 1 500 1.000 500.000 10.000 5,000,000 50,000 25,000,000

3.500 3,500,000 35,000,000 175,000,000

Biodiesel from vegetable oils – alternate to fossil fuels. Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as “biodiesel” are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable and domestic resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Pure Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel which runs in any unmodified diesel engine. This fuel is an environmentallyfriendly alternative to the higher emission petroleum diesel used in large transport vehicles and some cars and trucks. Our biodiesel will be manufactured at an industrial scale near a production of 80,000 gallons per year per plant for diesel engines that can also be run on unmodified vegetable oil like jatropha curcas bio-diesel. Even we Can extract the Jatropha oil from seeds and directly used in the vehicle. All depends on the engine. If we have a diesel engine with a pre-combustion chamber, we can use the oil directly (after good filtering). If we have a modern diesel engine with direct injection, we have to modify the engine. The best is, to start the engine with diesel, then switch to plant oil (when the engine is hot), and to stop the engine by using diesel again for some few minutes. This means It Can Be Use Direct As Fuel With Mobile, Car, Or Other Diesel Engine Without to be Modified. Yes, definitely Jatropha oil can be used as fuel directly in stationary diesel engines and in mobile ones (cars, trucks, busses), but you have to modify the diesel engine. You can also use Jatropha oil in some diesel engines with a pre-combustion chamber without modification. Further explanation and application with Which Diesel Engine Is Suitable For Bio Diesel Precombustion Chamber Or Direct Injection. Bio-diesel is a chemically modified plant oil. It behaves like diesel and can be used in any diesel engine (DI or pre-combustion chamber) directly. Since biodiesel is a strong organic solvent, it attacks joints and tubes from organic material (plastic, rubber). So you have to make sure, that your engine has bio-diesel proof joints and plastic parts. Then It is sure possible to plant and develop jatropha biodiesel biorefineries in Ecuador in macro scale as is the case of our project under the following conditions: 1. Good land price


2. Economic harvest cost, and processing 3. High-yield compare with other plant. 4. Availability of funds for biodiesel plant investing. 5. High Price for derivative fossil crude oil. Based on the above premises there are excellent chances for this future on green energy such as the biodiesel to be produce in our 5 biorefineries to be installed and established in the Coastal Region of Ecuador. We are sure that there is no obstacles in the plantation of Jatropha system. We visualize a model, where farmers are growing Jatropha, harvesting the seeds and extracting the oil. Then in our final stage converting jathropa oil into biodiesel to be sold domestically and internationally with a sustainable demand that will last for at least 50 years. We are ready to go into the new era of carbohydrates. Prepare by Wellington G. Gallardo, President of Etanolsa S.A., Guayaquil, Ecuador