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You are on page 1of 7

MITESH SOLANKI

2K10/ME/070

TURNING MOMENT DIAGRAM

Derivation

Figure 1 shows a layout of a horizontal engine.

p = effective gas pressure on the piston in N/m

2

,

A = area of the piston in m

2

,

m

rec

= mass of reciprocating parts, i.e. mass of the piston gudgeon pin and part of

mass of connecting rod ‘m

1

’,

Q = thrust force on the connecting rod in N,

Let

ω = angular velocity of the crank, and

M = Turning moment on the crank. A

m

2

l

(Gas Force)

P A

B Q θ

φ

O

2

N

(a)

D

Q

Q (Connecting Rod Thrust)

P A

A

φ

φ

φ

mrec x (inertia force)

Gas

Force

(θ + φ)

N

(b)

Figure 1 : Turning Moment Diagram

(c)

Q cos φ · p A +

m

rec

¸ r _

· p A − m

rec

rω

2

cos θ + cos 2θ

l

¸ ,

r ¸ _

pA − m

rec

rω

2

cos θ + cos 2θ

Q ·

¸

l

,

cos φ

or,

M · Q r sin (θ + φ) ·

¹

pA − m rω

2

¸

cos θ +

r

cos 2θ

_

¹ r sin (θ + φ

∴

'

¹

; rec

l cos φ

¸ ,

¹

· r

¹

pA − m rω

2

¸

cos θ +

r

cos 2θ

_

¹ (sin θ cos φ + cos θ sin φ

'

¹

; rec

l cos φ

¸ ,¹

¹ _¹ ¸ r

· r

'

pA − m

rec

rω

2

cos θ + cos 2θ

;

(sin θ + cos θ tan φ) . . . (1)

l

¸ ,¹ ¹

¹ _¹ ¸ r

M ·

'

pA − m

rec

rω

2

cos θ + cos 2θ

;

O

2

D or, . . . (2)

l

¸ ,¹ ¹

In case of a vertical engine.

C

θ

O

2

Q

r ω

m

rec

x

¹ r ¹ ¸ _

M · r

'

pA − m

rec

rω

2

cos θ + cos 2θ

+ m

rec

g

;

(sin θ + cos θ tan φ) . . . (3)

l

¸ , ¹ ¹

¹ r ¹

2

¸ _

·

'

pA

−

m

rec

r

ω

cos

θ

+

l

cos 2

θ

+

m

rec

g

;

O

2

D

. . . (4)

¸ , ¹ ¹

Considering the correction couple also, the actual turning moment is

M

t

· M + M

C

Turning Moment Diagram of a Single Cylinder

4-stroke IC Engine

If the effect of correction couple is ignored, the approximate turning moment

M = (Gas force + Inertia force) O

2

D

The diagram which is plotted for ‘M’ against crank angle ‘θ’ is called turning moment

diagram. This diagram can be plotted progressively as explained below :

(a) There are two forces, i.e. gas force and inertia force.

Gas force = p × Piston area

where p is the gas pressure.

Exhaust Compression Expansion Suction

Net Gas Force

Inertia Force

4π

θ

Figure 2(a)

The variation in the gas force will be due to the change in pressure. The gas

force and inertia force have been plotted in Figure 2(a) for all the four stroke

The net force is the resultant of gas force and inertia force. It can be plotted

in reference to θ as shown in Figure 2(b). (b)

4π

Figure 2(b)

The value of O

2

D is given by

O

2

D · r (sin θ + cos θ tan φ)

For various values of θ, O

2

D can be determined and then plotted. The plot

of this is shown in Figure 2(c).

(c)

4π

θ

Figure 2(c)

O

2

D

F

o

r

c

e

N

e

t

F

o

r

c

e

π

2π

3π

π 2π

θ

3π

Net

I

π

2π 3π

(d) The approximate turning moment ‘M’ = Net force × O

2

D. The plot of ‘M’

Vs θ is shown in Figure 2(d).

Turning-Moment

4π

π 2π

θ

3π

Figure 2(d)

The turning moment in the suction stroke and exhaust stroke is very small. In case of

compression stroke and expansion stroke turning moment is higher. In compression

stroke, energy is to be supplied and in expansion stroke, large amount of energy is

available. By surveying the turning moment diagram, it is observed that the energy is

supplied in three strokes and energy is available only in one stroke. Therefore, three

strokes, i.e. suction stroke, compression, and exhaust stroke the engine is starving of

energy and in expansion stroke it is harvesting energy. At the same time it is observed

that there is large variation of turning moment during the cycle. The variation in the

turning moment results in corresponding variation in speed of the crank.

Turning Moment Diagram of a Multicylinder 4-stroke IC Engine

In case of multi cylinder engine there will be more expansion strokes. For example, in the

case of three cylinder engine, there will be three expansion strokes in each cycle. In

case of 4 cylinder 4-strokes engine there will be four expansion strokes. Therefore, in

multi cylinder engine there will be lesser variation in turning moment as compared to

single cylinder engine and consequently there is expected to be less variation in speed.

The turning moment diagram for a multi cylinder engine is expected to be as shown in

Figure 4.5. Therefore the variation in the turning moment reduces with the increase in

the number of cylinders.

O

2π

θ

Figure 3 : Turning Moment Diagram

Turning Moment Diagram of a Single Cylinder Double Acting

Steam Engine

The cylinder and piston arrangement of the steam engine is shown in Figure 4.6(a) and

turning moment diagram is shown in Figure 4(b).

M

M

Turn

Diagram

Steam Inlet during

Outstroke

Steam Inlet during

In stroke

O π 2

Piston θ

Cylinder

(a) (b)

Figure 4 : Turning Moment Diagram of a Single Cylinder Double Acting Steam Engine

For outstroke, force = steam pressure × area of the piston.

For instroke, force = steam pressure × (area of piston – area of piston rod).

During out stroke the area over which steam pressure acts is more as compared to in

stroke where some of the area is occupied by the piston rod. Because of the difference in

the available areas there is difference in the maximum turning moments in the two

strokes. Steam pressure is nearly constant and variation in the turning moment is due to

the value of O

2

D and inertia force of the reciprocating masses. As compared to the single

cylinder 4-stroke engine, the variation in turning moment is less in case of double acting

steam engine.

FLUCTUATION OF ENERGY AND SPEED

As shown in Figures 1 to 4, the turning moment ‘M’ varies considerably whereas the

resisting moment say ‘M

R

’ which is due to the machine to be driven remains constant

over a cycle for most of the cases. If we superimpose the resisting moment over the

turning moment diagram, a situation shown in Figure 5 will arise. If M

R

is equal to the

average turning moment (M

av

), energy available shall be equal to the energy required

over a cycle. It can be observed that for some values of θ turning moment is more than

M

R

and for some values of θ turning moment is less than M

R

.

a

θ

Figure 5 : Fluctuation of Energy and Speed

The energy output can be expressed mathematically as follows :

E ·

∫

M d θ

M

M

b d e

M

R

c

Piston Rod

The average turning moment for the cycle is

E

Angle for cycle

M ·

av

The angle for the cycle is 2π for the two stroke engines and 4π for four strokes engines

and in case of steam engines it is 2π.

For a stable operation of the system

M

R

= M

av

In the stable system, the mean speed remains constant but variation of speed will be

there within the cycle. The speed remains same at the beginning and at the end of the

cycle.

If M

R

< M

av

, the speed increases from cycle to cycle. The speed graph is shown in

Figure 6(a).

If M

R

> M

av

, the speed decreases from the cycle to the cycle. The speed graph is shown in

Figure 6(b).

Time Time

(a) (b)

Figure 6 : Speed Graph

From Figure 5, we observe that M

R

= M

av

at points a, b, c, d and e. Since M > M

R

from

a to b, speed of the crank shaft will increase during this period. From b to c M < M

R

and

speed will decrease. Similar situation will occur for c to d and d to e. At e the cycle is

complete and the speed at e is same as that of a. The energy at all these points can be

determined.

θb

E

b

· E

a

+

∫

θa

(M − M

R

) d

θ

θc

E

c

· E

b

+

∫

θb

(M − M

R

) d

θ

θd

∫

θc

E

d

· E

c

+ (M − M

R

) d

θ

θe

∫

E

e

· E

d

+ (M − M

R

) d θ ·

E

a

θd

Out of all these energies so determined, we can find minimum and maximum energies,

the difference in these energy levels shall give maximum fluctuation of energy (∆ E)

max

(∆ E)

max

· E

max

− E

min

S

p

e

e

d

′

ω

′

S

p

e

e

d

ω

M

R

> M

av

M

R

< M

av

The coefficient of fluctuation of energy is the ratio of maximum fluctuation of energy to

the energy of cycle

·

(∆ E)

max

∴ k . . . (1)

e

E

The maximum energy level point shall have maximum speed and minimum energy level

point shall have minimum speed. The coefficient of fluctuation of speed is defined as

follows :

·

ω

max

− ω

min

ω

av

·

2 (ω

max

− ω

min

)

(ω

max

+ ω

min

)

k . . . (2)

s

FLYWHEEL

It has been discussed in the preceding section that fluctuation of energy results in

fluctuation of the crank shaft speed which then results in fluctuation of the kinetic

energy of the rotating parts. But the maximum permissible fluctuation in speed of the

crank shaft is determined by the purpose for which the engine is to be used. Therefore, to

keep the maximum fluctuation of speed within a specific limit for a given maximum

fluctuation of energy, a flywheel is mounted on the crank shaft.

Mass Moment of Inertia of Flywheel for an IC Engine

The function of the flywheel is to store excess energy during period of harvestation and

it supplies energy during period of starvation. Thereby, it reduces fluctuation in the

speed within the cycle. Let ω

1

be the maximum angular speed and ω

2

be the minimum

angular speed.

Let I be the mass moment of inertia of the flywheel.

Neglecting mass moment of inertia of the other rotating parts which is negligible in

comparison to mass moment of inertia of the flywheel.

Maximum kinetic energy of flywheel

(K.E.) ·

1

I ω

2

max 1

2

Minimum kinetic energy of flywheel

(K.E.) ·

1

I ω

2

min 2

2

Change in K.E., i.e. ∆ K.E. ·

1

I (ω

2

− ω

2

)

1 2

2

∆ K.E. = fluctuation in energy, i.e. ∆ E

∆ E ·

1

I (ω

2

− ω

2

)

∴ . . . (3)

1 2

2

∆ E ·

1

I (ω − ω ) (ω + ω ) or,

1 2 1 2

2

·

1

I (ω − ω ) × 2ω

1 2

2

where ‘ω’ is average speed given by

ω ·

(ω

1

+ ω

2

)

2

∆ E ·

1

I

(

ω

1

−

ω

2

)

× ω

or,

2

∆ E · I k

s

ω

2

w

or, . . . (4)

Energy fluctuation can be determined from the turning moment diagram. For selected

value of k

s

, and given value of speed ω, I can be determined.

Eq. (4) can also be written as follows :

∆ E ·

1

M k

2

(ω

2

− ω

2

)

1 2

2

where k is the radius of gyration and M is mass of the flywheel

1

∆ E · M {(k ω

1

)

2

− (k ω

2

)

2

} or,

2

Let V

1

be the maximum tangential velocity at the radius of gyration and V

2

be the

minimum tangential velocity at the radius of gyration

∴ V

1

· k ω

1

and V

2

· k

ω

2

∆ E ·

1

M (V

2

− V

2

)

and . . . (5)

1 2

2

It can be observed from Eq. (5) that

(a) The flywheel will be heavy and of large size if ∆ E is large. The value of k

s

is limited by the practical considerations. Therefore, single cylinder 4-stroke

engine shall require larger flywheel as compared to the multi-cylinder

engine.

For slow speed engine also the flywheel required is larger in size because of

high value of I required.

For high speed engines, the size of flywheel shall be considerably smaller

because of lower value of I required.

If system can tolerate considerably higher speed fluctuations, the size of

flywheel will also be smaller for same value of ∆ E.

(b)

(c)

(d)

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