CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
“THE CAT IS ON THE MAT,” is not the story. “THE CAT IS ON THE DOG’S MAT,” now that’s the story.

Advetising is both art and science. The science of advertising is the analyititcal part that we have been looking at up yo this point: setting goals, deciding strategy, choosing among different creativity styles. Some people call this step convergent thinking because the process is to distill lots of information into the core advertising strategy. What is it that adds sparkle and life to a well-planned and implemented advertising campaign? It’s th ‘ah’ factor: that brilliantly simple,but inspired creative edge. In Advertising the world is flat. Agencies are structured on a linear basis. Campaigns are created in linear formats. There are all kinds of rails and fences and obstacles to keep creative thinking linear. Advertising is a big business and ranks among the top industries in the world. The growth of the top advertising industry in any country is in direct relation, its creative senses and talents if the advertising professionals. The word advertising is derived from the Latin word ‘adverto’, that means “To turn towards”. Advertising leads to attention towards something i.e.

the advertising message, which is the purpose of advertising and the objective of the advertising Creative Advertising starts with proper
creative planning. This includes the conceptualizing of basic ideas to

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HTTP://PAKISTANMBA.JIMDO.COM FOR DOWNLOADING THIS REPORT AND FOR MORE PROJECTS, ASSIGNMENTS, REPORTS ON MARKETING, MANAGEMENT, ECONOMICS MARKETING MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING, HUMAN RESOURCE, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT COST ACCOUNTING VISIT HTTP://PAKISTANMBA.JIMDO.COM their final
implementation. The ideas are visualized considering basic human motives. 2
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Advertising is nothing but selling ideas. Creative thinking is the sound ground where one can reap a rich harvest of ideas. The creative part of advertising is what comes before the potential customers and it is here that the fate of the campaign and consequently of the product being sold could be decided.

Objective of the Project:
Creativity is something you cannot think of as ‘Let’s stop and be creative’. You need to think of “Creativity” as a discipline, just like ‘Organization’, ‘commitments to results’, or ‘responsibility’. This project tells us the importance of Creativity in Advertising as creativity demands abundance. The foundation of creativity is in individual, and so the techniques and methods discussed in this project are just mere tools to enhance and liberate one’s creative skills. So don’t confuse the menu with meal It is observed that “Far too many people are leading their lives lie they’re driving their cars with brakes on” this projects will enable you to know how your foot is taken off that brake pedal.

Research Methodology:
The information is gathered from various sources like books, periodicals and journals and sites.

Limitations:
Creativity is a gift most of us desire, but only a few seem to have. Project report debunks some of the myths surrounding creativity and then carefully takes through the five I’s of the creative process. It also gives the 3
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insight of future creativity and the tools that can be helped to help advertising professionals to enhance and enliven their work.The subject of creativity in advertising is something of an enigma. Project shows how creative director in an ad agency goes ‘under the skin of creative’ to use it to greater effect in their work and in wider aspects of their lives.

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WHAT IS CREATIVITY
There are many definitions of creativity. A number of them suggest that creativity is the generation of imaginative new ideas (Newell and Shaw 1972), involving a radical newness innovation or solution to a problem, and a radical reformulation of problems. Other definitions propose that a creative solution can simply integrate existing knowledge in a different way.

Definitions of Creativity
There are many definitions of creativity; dictionaries give the following meanings:

Heritage Illustrated Dictionary:
create: To cause to exist, Bring into being, Originate, To give rise to, Bring about, Produce, To be first to portray and give character to a role or part (appropriate to creating fictional characters and writing stories) creation: An original product of human invention or imagination. Creative: characterized by originality and expressiveness, imaginative

Macquarie Dictionary (an Australian dictionary)
Create: to evolve from one's one thought or imagination to make by investing with new character or functions.

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Create: author, bring into being, compose, conceive, parent, form, give rise to, and throw together Creative: generative, ground-breaking, innovative, originate, handmade According to Boden (1998), there are three main types of creativity, involving different ways of generating the novel ideas: • The “combinational” creativity that involves new combinations of familiar ideas. • The “exploratory” creativity that involves the generation of new ideas by the • • Exploration of structured concepts. The “transformational” creativity that involves the transformation of some dimension of the structure, so that new structures can be generated Other related words re: creativity: Creativity creativeness, formativeness, innovation, inventiveness, originality, productivity, craftsmanship, authorship, creatorship "Being creative is seeing the same thing as everybody else but thinking of something different" There are many aspects to creativity, but one definition would include the ability to take existing objects and combine them in different ways for new purposes. For example, Gutenberg took the wine press and the die/punch and produced a printing press. Thus, a simple definition of creativity is the action of combining previously uncombined elements. From art, music and invention to household chores, this is part of the nature of being creative. 6
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Another way of looking at creativity is as playing with the way things are interrelated. Creativity is the ability to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions to everyday problems and challenges. Creativity involves the translation of our unique gifts, talents and vision into an external reality that is new and useful. We must keep in mind that creativity takes place unavoidably inside our own personal, social, and cultural boundaries. The more we define our creativity by identifying with specific sets of values, meanings, beliefs and symbols, the more our creativity will be focused and limited; the more we define our creativity by focusing on how values, meanings, beliefs and symbols are formed, the greater the chance that our creativity will become less restricted. In the creative process there are always two different (but interrelated) dimensions or levels of dynamics with which one can create: • The system which may be a particular medium (e.g. oil painting or a particular musical form), or a particular process (like a problem solving agenda, or an approach to creativity like Synectics). The creative person manipulates that means to a creative end. The second dimension is described by the conceptual "content" which the medium describes. Again, the creative person depicts changes, manipulates, and expresses somehow the idea of that content. There is no one definition of creativity that everyone can agree with.

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Creativity researchers, mostly from the field of psychology, usually claim at being creative means being novel and appropriate. Subsumed under the appropriateness criterion are qualities of fit, utility, and value. At least three aspects of creativity have drawn much attention. The creative process, receiving the most attention, focuses on the mechanisms and phases involved as one partakes in a creative act. • A second aspect of creativity is the creative person. Here, personality traits of creative people are central. The environmental atmosphere and influence are concerns of a third aspect, the creative situation. • Lastly, the criteria or characteristics of creative products have been sought. This area is of particular importance because it is the basis of any performance assessment of real world creativity and may provide a window on the other aspects of creativity. Briefly stated, creativity is often thought to exist on at least five levels: 1. A higher level versus a lower level 2. Grand versus modest 3. Big "C" versus little c 4. Paradigm-shifting versus garden-variety 5. Eminent versus everyday Some researchers claim other categories of creativity as well: 1. Expressive versus Productive 2. Expressive versus Inventive

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3. Expressive versus Innovative 4. Invention versus Discovery 5. Theory versus Invention versus Discovery 6. Accommodative versus Assimilative 7. Personal versus Public. There are three general ways of achieving a creative solution: • • • Serendipity Similarity and meditation

Also, the mode of activity one is in when being creative differs. For example, there is a distinction between real-time creativity and multistage creativity. Real-time creativity is spur-of-the-moment, improvisational, and demands output in a short interval of time; whereas in multistage creativity, sufficient time is allowed for the generation and selection of ideas. Creative thought can be divided into divergent and convergent reasoning. • • Divergent thinking is the intellectual ability to think of many original, diverse, and elaborate ideas. Convergent thinking: the intellectual ability to logically evaluate critique and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas. Both abilities are required for creative output. Divergent thinking is essential to the novelty of creative products whereas convergent thinking is fundamental to the appropriateness. To combine this variety of definitions, we can say that creativity involves the generation of new ideas 9
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or the recombination of known elements into something new, providing valuable solutions to a problem. It also involves motivation and emotion.

Creativity “is a fundamental feature of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in everyday capacities such as the association of
ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching a structured problem-space, and reflecting self-criticism. It involves not only a cognitive dimension (the generation of new ideas) but also motivation and emotion, and is closely linked to cultural context and personality factors.” (Boden 1998). Thus, any general definition of creativity must account for the process of recognition or discovery of novel ideas and solutions and hence most of the definition fall into one or more of these categories like as an individual talent, as a process, as a product and last but not the least as a recognition by others.

OBJECTIVES OF CREATIVITY
Main objectives of a creative thinking process is to think beyond existing boundaries, to awake curiosity, to break away from rational, conventional ideas and formalized procedures, to rely on the imagination, the divergent, the random and to consider multiple solutions and alternatives (Candy 1997, Schlange and Juttner 1997). The result of the creative thinking process is especially important for businesses. Managers and managerial decisions and actions, confronted with fast-changing and ambiguous environments in business, need to develop creative solutions and creative action-based strategies to solve 10
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problems, as they allow to increase understanding of problematic situations, to find multiple problems, to produce new combinations, to

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generate multiple solutions that are different from the past, to consider possible alternatives in various situations that could occur in the future and “to expand the opportunity horizon and competence base of firms” (dt ogilvie 1998).

DESCRIPTION / STRUCTURE OF THE METHODOLOGY / ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS
Creativity is not an innate quality of only a few selected people. Creativity is present in everyone. It can be learned, practiced and developed by the use of proven techniques which, enhancing and stimulating the creative abilities, ideas and creative results, help people to move out of their normal problemsolving mode, to enable them to consider a wide range of alternatives and to improve productivity and quality of work. “Creativity is thus constructed as a learned ability that enables us to define new relationships between concepts or events, which seemed apparently unconnected before, and which results in a new entity of knowledge” (European Commission 1998). Knowledge and information are the basis for creativity. There are numerous creative techniques, which are also classified in many ways (Higgins 1994). In general, a certain type of question or a certain area of application (such as marketing, product or service development, strategic and decision planning, design, quality management, etc.) often calls for a certain type or a certain group of creativity techniques. Fundamental concepts for all creative techniques are: 12
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• the lack of filtering of ideas.

The suspension of premature judgement and

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Use the intermediate impossible.

Create

analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc., by finding similarities between the situation, which we wish to understand and another situation, which we already understand. • the ideal vision). • • unrelated. • Generate multiple solutions to a problem. Find ways to make the ideal vision happen. Relate things or ideas which were previously Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent

Main points to increase or encourage creativity in a company are: · To be happy, to have fun · Keep channels of communication open · Trust, failure accepted · Contacts with external sources of information · Independence, initiatives taken · Support participatory decision-making and employees’ contribution · Experiment with new ideas.

EXPECTED RESULTS / BENEFITS
Creativity, through the generation of ideas with value, is needed in order to solve concrete problems, ease the adaptation to change, optimize the performance of the organization and best practice manufacturing, and 14
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changes the attitude of the staff of the organization. Creative thought processes are also important at all stages in the R&D process. Some expected results of the creativity process are: • • Innovation through new product and process ideas Continuous improvement of products or service

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• • • • • •

Productivity increase Efficiency Rapidity Flexibility Quality of products or services High performance

CHARACTERISTICS OF PROVIDERS
The implementation of creative techniques within work groups, requires the assistance and advise of external consultants. One or two consultants, experts in creative techniques, is normally enough to undertake the implementation process in a company. His/hers job normally consists of presenting the different techniques and their application method, defining the problem to be studied for the participants, initiating and clarifying the rules of the technique, gathering the necessary data and information to approach the problem, stimulating the generation of ideas of participants, and evaluating the ideas before proceeding to put them in practice. Training of management staff by experts may also be very useful. Management staff must be trained to stimulate creativity in employees, to provide motivation, to facilitate a creative climate and to encourage the use of creative techniques. Managers can also be trained to implement creative techniques by themselves.

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APPLICATION
Creativity processes are used regularly by many private and public sector organisations of all sorts in manufacturing, services, banking, or construction companies. Big firms such as Xerox, AT&T, Frito-Lay, as well as car manufacturing firms, software development firms, railroad pharmaceutical firms etc., use creativity techniques to increase efficiency and quality, especially in their research, strategic planning and marketing departments. Creativity techniques may be applied in almost any functional area of the company: strategic planning, corporate business strategy, product development, improvement of services, functional strategy, finance, human resources, marketing, management of collection of information, product design, software design, quality management, etc.

TYPES OF FIRMS / ORGANISATIONS CONCERNED
Creativity techniques can be implemented by all firms and public organizations that confront with problem solving and focus on innovation in processes, products or services. In case where the implementation of creative techniques is focused on the support of personal creativity, such as to support individual designers work for new product development, or to support individual scientists work in 17
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the laboratory, very small firms or a person can implement creative techniques for individuals. In case where the company focus is to increase group creativity and to create environments where a collaborating team works creatively together, the firm must have at least 20 employees, including 3 members as management staff.

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WHAT CREATIVITY MEANS IN ADVERTISING
I once read a quote somewhere that said, "We do not separate advertising from life."
Creativity is a very subjective term. Who can really say what is creative, for we all have different opinions on what we individually think is creative. Some people believe creativity is an engrained concept that you are born with it. Other people believe it is a talent that can be learned and taught. I personally believe it is a little of both. The essential elements of creativity are really imagination and inventiveness disciplined by routine skills. Your imagination is something you are born with, it can be large and wild or it can be small and constrained. Inventiveness is something that can be disciplined, it can be taught and learned with practice and skill. Put those two concepts together and anything is possible. In advertising, agencies live and die by creative communications. Creativity is one of the reasons clients justify advertising and their choice of agencies So what exactly is creative in advertising? Some creative commercials are effective, some effective ads are creative, and other ads are neither creative nor effective. Creativity and effectiveness ultimately join in the consumer’s minds rather than remain separate. We must then ask, what is efficiency? Well, efficiency of an ad is determined by the correct combination of its impact and retention. Impact 19
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being the ability of an ad to attract attention and retention being the ability of an ad to stay on viewers’ minds. We can thus say with certainty that an advertisement needs to be creative to succeed. Its creativity needs to be

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effective in both its impact and retention. I found the quote at the beginning of the page and thought it was just great. Although creativity in advertising is an important factor, one must remember to not be creative just for creative sake. The creativity must also be effective. Successful creative strategies result from pinpointing an idea, a nuance, an insight, or a nugget of information gleaned from research or sometime from an intuitive understanding or quickness of human nature. The true role of the strategy is to make that intuitive leap which defines the relationship between the brand and its user.

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HOW CREATIVITY IS DIFFERENT FROM INNOVATION
Creativity versus Innovation
As this is an advertising study on the subject of “Creativity” it is only right there should be some advertising efforts to create greater understanding on behalf of the subject “Creativity” itself. For many the word ‘creativity’ has what may be called a touchy –feely nature to it, not really suitable for the hard world of business. Yet, mention the word ‘innovation’ and suddenly the act of creating new ideas takes on a more credible resonance in certain quarters, such as the business media and various government-backed development agencies. Professor Simon Majaro of Cranfield School of Management defines innovation in this manner in his book Managing Ideas for Profit (Majaro, 1992): ‘Creativity is the thinking process that helps us generate ideas. Innovation is the practical application of such ideas towards meeting the organization’s objectives in a more effective way.’ But this means all ideas are creative. In reality, many ideas will be rejected. Using the working definition of creativity, it would recognize that, to be ‘creative’, the idea must offer some form of added value. Innovation can instead be defined as the ‘adoption, adaptation, or implementation by a third party of someone’s creativity (ie an added value product)’. When appraising a painting, one does not say: ‘artist is being 22
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innovative.’ Should another artist adopt some element of this work , such as its style, subject matter, materials or techniques used, then the original

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work can be said to be innovative; it has inspired the application of some creative element of the original work by a third party. Thus, creative thinking in a disciplined manner can play a real role in innovation. “Creativity and innovation are normally complementary activities, since creativity generates the basis of innovation, which, in its development, raises difficulties that must be solved once again; with creativity…It is not possible to conceive innovation without creative ideas, as these are the starting point.” (European Commission 1998).Innovation results when creativity occurs within the right organizational culture. The right organizational culture is one that provides through creativity processes (creative techniques) the possibilities for the development of personal and group creativity skills. We can define creativity IMT as the establishment of skills by implementing creativity generation techniques.

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BASICS OF CREATIVITY
Creative Thinking Skills Can Be Learned!!

What can I do to Increase my creativity??
The first task in becoming more creative is giving you permission to do things creatively. The second is overcoming your personal blocks to creativity. For some people, being creative involves trying not to be embarrassed by their own ideas; for others, it is a matter of being aware that things can be done in many different ways. Some people are selfaware or confident enough to have fewer inhibitions and can just let their creative natures work. Surround yourself with people who love and support you and you will be even more creative. Spend time meditating on your own worthiness, reading about other creative people and creative solutions, concentrating on the positive power of your own creative forces - these activities, combined with a belief in your own intuition and creative abilities, will help improve your confidence. Action Steps Here are a few additional things you can do to improve your creativity: • • Study books on creative thinking techniques and put them into practice Attend courses on creative thinking and put the ideas into practice. 25
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Keep a daily journal and record your thoughts, ideas, sketches, etc. as soon as you get them. Review your journal regularly and see what ideas can be developed.

• •

Indulge in relaxation activities and sports to give the mind a rest and time for the subconscious to digest information. Develop an interest in a variety of different things, preferably well away from your normal sphere of work. For example, read comic books or magazines you wouldn't normally get. This keeps the brain busy with new things. It is a common trait of creative people that they are interested in a wide variety of subjects.

Don't work too hard -you need time away from a problem to be creative after periods of intense focus. It really helps to think of creativity as a skill or set of skills. By practicing, one can get better at using them. So whenever you have a chance try and do mundane things in novel ways - it will make them more entertaining and you will get more used to expressing your abilities.

Practicing at overcoming irrational inhibitions will also help to improve your creativity. When you're at a standstill, and you witness somebody with a vital and flowing creative force, it can be intimidating. The thing that's easy to miss when you're caught up in the magic of somebody doing something effortlessly that seems impossible is that it doesn't happen all at once. Anything can be achieved by breaking it down into its component parts. Creativity requires patience and a willingness to work for a creative outcome rather than simply wait for enlightenment. Still, it is important to creativity to happen. This can be encouraged by setting up an 26
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environment that encourages creative output, a comfortable space within which you feel non-threatened and able to create. A program to improve your personal creativity might include the following steps. 1. First set a measurable goal. Some goals might be:  to generate 10% more solutions within 6 months to come up with an original solution for problem "X" within 2 weeks to practice generating ideas bybrainstorming (for example, "find at least 100 ideas for a new pen")  to find a new and effective way to relate to my children that results in them wanting to spend more time with me. 2. Second, set up criteria to indicate whether or not you have or are reaching your goal. Typical criteria are: a) the ideas are novel (in that particular context) b) the ideas are useful, they solve the problem or meet the challenge c) the ideas can be implemented within an appropriate time and budget 3. Third, read and learn about creativity techniques which are one of the sections of the Creativity Web. This information can be gathered from books, conferences, other people, software products and the Internet. Spend time with people who you believe are

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creative and ask them how they did it. There are many paths to creativity. 4. Fourth, surround yourself with people who love and respect you; people who encourage you to take risks. 5. Fifth, celebrate your progress in reaching your creativity goals. 6. Finally, begin thinking of yourself as a creative person. Surround that identity with beliefs about your creative abilities. Learn the skills of creativity, act creatively every opportunity you get and find environments that support creative behavior. Creativity is increased by acknowledging that it exists and by nurturing it. Create a sensory stimulating environment, increase awareness of that environment and provide sufficient quiet time to allow that ensory stimulation to be translated into external reality ... a poem, a bridge, a meal, a song, a quilt, a business report, a game, a dance, a garden. Flood yourself with information in your chosen area of creativity then deliberately expose yourself to information outside your area. Respect and care for your creativity as you would a child. Attend to your needs, listen to your creative inner voice, and spend time with yourself. Manage stress in your life as much as possible. Practice meditation or some kind of peaceful, relaxing activity such as handwork or quiet exercise. Avoid becoming too entrenched in your routines. Don't allow your beliefs to distort your perceptions. A useful technique is to deliberately and consciously attempt to integrate opposites at every opportunity within your own mind. Develop the attitude that your creative work is important even if others do not share your belief; allow 28
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such judgmental attitudes to be their problem, not yours. Practice using affirmations and reframing (seeing things from another angle or in another context) to de-program your self critical habits. Creativity is not a gift of some sort, it is a state of being ("un etat d'ame", as they say in French). Learning a creativity- increasing technique of some sort will give you some tools and help you, but will not automatically change your point of view about yourself and your creativity; your belief and value systems about creativity and creativity myths must change as well.

Creativity and Leadership
"Everyone has creative potential, but creative people think they are creative." Self-esteem is one of the most important elements of creativity. People must believe in their ability to develop original ideas and they must continue to believe in themselves after repeated failures. Creativity flourishes in an environment that rewards attempts, as well as successes, and is conducive to failure. People must feel comfortable failing before they will repeatedly take risks or attempt creative approaches. Roger von Oech labels four stages of the creative process: • • Explorer. Finding new ideas and resources from which an idea may be built. Artist. Transforming ideas (gathered by the explorer) into something new.

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Judge. Ideas developed by the artist are evaluated and their merits are weighed; suggestions are offered on how they can be improved or further developed.

Warrior. Implementation of the ideas approved by the judge requiring persistence and determination.

Secrets to Creative Problem Solving • • • • • • • • • • • • • Be an optimist Take your time Get enough information Brainstorm by yourself Redefine the problem Plan for results Break the routine Make a minus a plus Don't give up. Allow yourself to daydream Ask questions Have a sense of humor Tolerate ambiguity

CREATIVE FORCES
Force-Field Analysis Force-field analysis characterizes the conflicting forces in a situation. The recommended approach to this method is to outline the points involved in 30
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problematic situations at the problem exploration stage, followed by recognizing factors likely to help or hinder at the action planning and implementation stages. 1. Members of the group identify and list the driving and restraining forces (perhaps using a suitable brainstorming or brain writing technique) openly discussing their understanding of them. 2. The group leader is representative of the current position as a horizontal line across the middle of the page. The leader will draw all the driving forces as arrows that either pull or push the line upwards, and all the restraining forces as arrows that pull or push the line downwards (see below). Where driving and restraining are paired use arrow thickness to signify strength of impact of a force and arrow length to show how complicated it would be to adapt. It is normally best for the team to reach agreement on these details.

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3. The diagram should then be used to find as many possible combinations of moving the centre line in the desired direction. Try to: Find ways to strengthen or add positive forces a. Find ways to weaken or remove negative forces b. Recognize that the negative forces are too strong and abandon the idea.

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REATIVE ECHNIQUE
“How do you come with a creative idea when faced with a blank sheet of paper?” ‘Easy. Don’t have a blank sheet of paper.’
Every working day, creative directors are faced with emands to come up with creative solutions to the problems. Some outstanding creative heads may display what is called unconscious competence in appearing to be able to come up with ideas inuitively. There is no magic wand for coming up with ideas, but there are some echniques and process to help being creative. These tecniques, coupled with a knowledge and understanding of the creative process -- with its five stages  Information  Incubation  Illumination  Integration,  Illustration -- will help considerably to improve one’s creative abilities.

CREATIVE RANGE:

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Whenever faced with a well-defined task, such as coming up eith an idea for a launch product or phottocall, establish a ‘Creative Range’. Pose what is called ‘the Safe Bet’ questin: ‘What is the very least, the safest, most

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