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Technical Terms for Tubing

Please note that the definitions below are provided for reference purposes only. • Annealing - A general term referring to the thermal treatment process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to change mechanical or physical properties, produce a desired microstructure.

Annealing (Bright Annealing) - An annealing process usually carried out in a controlled atmosphere furnace using a reducing atmosphere to achieve desired mechanical properties with minimum surface oxidation. The tube surface is relatively bright. Annealing (Normalizing) - An annealing process in which a steel is heated to a temperature that is above the upper transformation range and then cooled in air. A slight surface oxidation occurs during this process. The tube surface has a black or blue color. Annealing (Solution Annealing) - An annealing process in which stainless steel is heated to a suitable temperature to ensure the solution of constituents, such as chromium carbides, and cooled rapidly to hold these constituents in solution. Carbon Steel Tube - Steel tube containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon and manganese. Typical industrial AISI designate grades include 1008, 1010, 1020, 1026, 1030, 1035 etc. Cold Drawing - The process of pulling a tube through a die and over a mandrel to reduce its diameter and/or wall thickness to a specific outside diameter, inside diameter or wall thickness. Higher tensile properties, tighter dementional tolerances, and improved surface finish are obtained due to the cold working at room temperature. Decarburization - The loss of carbon from the surface of ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon. Dimensions of Tubing - A round tube section has three dimensions, any two of which may be measured. The three dimensions are outside diameter (OD), inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness (t or W). Nominal as applied to any of these dimensions refers to the theoretical or stated single value of that dimension. The dimensions ordinarily specified by the customer are termed "nominal". Maximum and Minimum referring to the greatest and least values of any dimension. Average dimensions are those secured by averaging a series of micrometer readings. Elongation - The amount of permanent extension in the vicinity of the fracture in

A test to determine the energy absorbed in fracturing a test bar at high velocity. in accordance • . niobium and titanium are used in various combinations.20% C) in order to produce adequate formability and weldability. An imperfection should be rated on a scale of severity. • • • • • • Impact Test . • Fatigue .When referring to the physical condition of a product. When referring to the dimensional condition of a product. The typical test for tubing is a notch test with an artificial notch present and tested at the various temperatures. usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length.The tendency for a metal to break at a point that is considerably below the ultimate tensile strength due to the conditions of repeated cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength. Hardenability . They are not considered to be alloy steels in the normal sense because they are designed to meet specific mechanical properties rather than a chemical composition. and the amount of deformation required to cause fracture. Formability . nitrogen. nickel. Typical HSLA steels have minimum yield strengths 50 ksi. molybdenum. 70 ksi or 80 ksi. copper. The chemical composition of the specific HSLA steel may vary for different product thickness to meet mechanical property requirements.The ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation.Resistance of metal to plastic deformation. Brinell. nor does it have any implication as to the usability of a product in service. but whose microstructure and mechanical properties were altered by the heat. The existence of an imperfection does not imply nonconformance.05 to ~0. The HSLA steels have low carbon contents (0.Steels designed to provide better mechanical properties and/or greater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than conventional carbon steels. Evaluation of the formability of a metal involves measurement of strength.the tension test. Various hardness tests such as Rockwell. 60 ksi. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. any departure of a quality characteristic from its intended level or state. vanadium. ductility. Small quantities of chromium. High-Strength Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels . any dimensional characteristic that is out of intended range.That portion of the base metal that was not melted during welding.In a ferrous alloy. Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) . Hardness . Imperfection . Vickers and Knoop may be used.

magnetic permeability. thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical applications. for example. Killed steel is deoxidized with strong deoxidizing agent(s) to reduce the oxygen content to a minimum so that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.Properties of a material that are relatively insensitive to structure and can be measured without the application of force. for example tensile strength. the molten metal as it comes from the furnace contains more or less oxygen in the form of dissolved oxides. Killed Steel . a steel is called "Stainless" when it contains 10. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding. The chief alloying elements are chromium.A physical and mechanical discontinuity occurring within a metal product.5 % or more chromium. density. nickel.During the steel making process. but to a noticeably different degree than from the parent material. silicates or combination of these. Physical Properties . Residual Stress . killed steel is one of the methods of deoxidizing. • Inclusion . sulfides. to establish whether or not the product is of acceptable quality. the amount varying with the composition desired and with certain conditions of steel making. • • • • • • • .The value obtained by dividing the maximum load observed during tensile straining until breakage occurs by the specimen cross-sectional area before straining.The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior when force is applied. Also called "ultimate strength". the metal will solidify quietly without evolution of gases.A process of reducing residual stresses in a metal by heating the part to a suitable temperature and holding for a sufficient time. The foreign particles are usually compounds. coefficient of thermal expansion. Inclusions are often capable of transmitting some structural stresses and energy fields. killed steel has the best internal cleanliness condition.Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation. molybdenum. yield strength. Stainless . usually consisting of nonmetallic foreign material.with applicable specifications. Tensile Strength .A trade name given to alloy steel that is corrosion and heat resistant. If certain elements such as manganese. This treatment may be applied to relieve stresses induced by cold working or welding. silicon or aluminum are added in sufficient amounts to molten steel in the ladle. Mechanical Properties . By AISI definition. and fatigue limit. When processing rimmed steel and semi-killed steel. Usually. Stress Relieving . electrical conductivity. elongation. hardness. such as oxides.

mechanical. Inert Arc . mechanical properties and other characteristics may be required for applications in automotive. An offset of 0.The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from proportionality of stress to strain. Welding.A form of electric resistance welding wherein the welding heat is generated within the metal by resistance to the flow of an electric current induced in the metal by means of a circumferential coil. Chemical composition. • • • • . Welding.e. or OD and ID. is used for steel. generally round and manufactured to specified requirements or dimensions. Induction . It is generally specified to two dimensions. Electric Resistance . i. pressure or structural uses. whereby the resistance of the metal results in a temperature increase at the joining surfaces sufficient to weld. Upset pressure is also applied to insure sound contact of the surfaces to be welded.2 %. outside diameter (OD) and wall. inside diameter (ID) and wall..A non-standardized hollow shaped product with a relatively uniform wall thickness. Welding.• Tubing .Arc welding in an atmosphere of an inert gas which serves to protect the molten puddle from contamination and oxidation by preventing air from coming in contact with the metal while it is at elevated temperatures. Yield Strength .The method of joining metals by passage of an electric current through the metal.