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1.1 Explain the importance of effective operations management in achieving organizational objective.

Operation management is about to be able to produce professional managers capable of fulfilling strategic roles with in business and government enterprises the need for the practice of operations management can‟t be for gone. Operations management is very important in business operations since it forms the heart of the organisation by controlling the system of operation. Operation management deals with the design. Operation and improvement of the systems that create and deliver a firm‟s primary products and services. Like marketing and finance, operational management is a functional field of business with clear management responsibilities.

Operational management is about the management of the processes that produce of deliver goods and services. Operational management is always helpful to achieve our company goal. Every organization not take a department for operational but in real they undertake activity because every company produce the good and delivers services. In UK I would like to choose ASDA. All operations use some kind of process technology, and the operation will have chosen to use the technology because it hopes to get some kind of advantage from it.

From the past decade retailers have start traditional approach to logistics and product distribution on their head, as there has been a move to hold total supply chain management. While many companies have implemented new operational systems, leading retailer ASDA has taken the technology step further, implementing a data warehouse that provides the information to make the operational systems.

The role of operational management how many things you enter and how quality you enter that type of outcome come. That means first thing to process inputs for example airline you have to take an aircraft, pilots and crew, also ground crew, and passenger and freight. This is input process. Then move passenger and freight to around world. And last outcome is that you reached where you want to reached.

Process technologies are the machines, equipment and devices which help the operation transform materials and information and customers in order to add value and fulfil the operations strategic objectives. Some technology is peripheral to the actual creation of goods and services but plays a key role in facilitating the process that create and delivers the goods and services efficiently.

For example, the computer systems which run planning and control activities, accounting systems and stock control systems can be used to help managers and operators control and improve processes.

The important things to remember about operations management are,



All types of organisation must „do‟ operations management because all organisations

produce some mixture of products and services. Operations management is important. The decisions it makes have a major impact on both the cost of producing products or services and how well the products and services are produced and delivered which has a major impact on the revenue coming into the

organisation. Operations management has strategic importance. The box on IKEA in the text illustrates a company which has been strategically successful because of the way it manages its operations.

Management information systems (MISs)

Managing information system is used in there planning and control activities. It‟s

connected with inventory management, with timing and scheduling of activities, demand forecasting, order process and quality management.

The rise to prominence of the service sector in the economies of developed countries is due to an increase in what are termed consumer services and producer‟s services.

Consumer services :

These services aimed to final customer and theses have a risen in line with

people‟s increasing disposable income in developed countries

Producer services:

It‟s use for production or delivery of goods and services and constitutes firms providing services such as consultancy advice.

It‟s not possible to every employees in a service operation have to deal with

directly with customer and customer also not free to waste time to take appointment and come so ASDA try to solve all problems at that time in mall and ASDA start customer service at that time

and if u have problem then they also provide call on helpline.



1.2 Evaluate the success of existing operations management processes in meeting an

organisation’s overall strategic management objectives.

Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organisation through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations Supermarket Asda says a “world-class customer engagement programme” will underpin a growth strategy that includes wider multichannel buying choices. The plans are aimed at making it the UK market leader in general merchandise and number two in the food market.

As per Asda president and chief executive Andy Bond said: “Our aim is to become Britain‟s favourite retailer across even more channels. That means extending our reach and helping customers order online, pick up in store or let us deliver to their door.” He added: “All of our businesses are supported by a world-class customer engagement program that is taking advantage of the rise in social media to enable us to get even closer to our customers.” Our

purpose at Asda is simple - to save our customers money every day. But at Asda it‟s not just what we do, it‟s how we do it. In the way we treat our colleagues, trade with our suppliers and

serve our customers. (

Asda smaller food stores increases to 100 and Asda Living, non-food stores to 150.

The 25th Asda Living store opens on 16 th April 2011 in Telford, Shropshire. The company also revealed that‟s home shopping service now serves 97% of the country. A second

dedicated home shopping selection centre is to open in Enfield in July. The first is in Leeds, West Yorkshire.

Asda is now setting the pace with its use of social media. Election broadcasts from political leaders including Gordon Brown, David Cameron and Nick Clegg are now online at its Asda Mums forum, where they sit alongside election blogs from Asda mums.

Asda was late to internet shopping, but is embracing it with the passion of a convert and now boasts 97% coverage across the UK for its home shopping service. With its customer commitment strategy it‟s challenging the established pioneers at Tesco while also introducing new and more flexible ways to shop. The competitive supermarket sector has led the way in multichannel retailing and it looks as if it may do the same with the mainstream use of social media by retailers.



Strategy can be seen to exist at 3 main levels of corporate, business and function.

  • a. Corporate level strategy:

Corporate level strategy is concerned with the overall purpose and scope of the business to meet stakeholder expectations. This is a crucial level since it is heavily influenced by investors in the business and acts to guide strategic decision-making throughout the business. Corporate strategy is often stated explicitly in a "mission statement".

  • b. Business level strategy:

Business level strategy is concerned more with how a business competes successfully in a particular market. It concerns strategic decisions about choice of products, meeting needs of customers, gaining advantage over competitors, exploiting or creating new opportunities etc.

  • c. Functional Level Strategy:

Functional Level Strategy is concerned with how each part of the business is organised to deliver the corporate and business unit level strategic direction. Operational strategy therefore focuses on issues of resources, processes, people etc. An organization's core competencies should be focused on satisfying customer needs or preferences in order to achieve above average returns. This is done through Business level strategies. Business level strategies detail actions taken to provide value to customers and gain a competitive advantage by exploit core competencies in specific, individual product or service markets. Business level strategy is concerned with a firm's position in an industry, relative to competitors and to the five forces of competition.

The five basic operation’s performance objectives allow the organisation to measure its operation’s performance in achieving its strategic goals. The performance objectives


- Quality:

Quality covers both the quality of the design of the product or service itself and the quality of the process that delivers the product or service. From a customer perspective quality

characteristics include reliability, performance and aesthetics. From an operations viewpoint quality is related to how closely the product or service meets the specification required by the design, termed the quality of conformance. The external affect of good quality within in

operations is that the customers who „consume‟ the operations products and services will have

less to complain about. And if they have nothing to complain about they will be happy with their products and services and are more likely to consume them again. This brings in more revenue

for the company.


As we talk about Asda they give us best quality in very low price. As we can say that many international student are come for study and London is very costly for everything so as Asda give very low price food to us.


  • - Speed:

Speed is important because it helps to respond quickly to customers. Again, this is usually viewed positively by customers who will be more likely to return with more business. Sometimes also it is possible to charge higher prices when service is fast. The postal service in most countries and most transportation and delivery services charge more for faster delivery.

Speed is the time delay between a customer request for a product or service and then receiving that product or service. The activities triggered from a customer request for a product or service will be dependent on whether a make to stock or customer to order delivery system is in place. The advantage of speed is that it can be used to both reduce costs and reducing delivery time leading to better customer service.

  • - Dependability:

Dependability means „being on time‟. In other words, customers receive their products

or services on time. Again, it has external and internal affects. Dependability refers to consistently meeting a promised delivery time for a product or service to a customer. Thus an increase in delivery speed may not lead to customer satisfaction if it is not produced in a

consistent manner. Flexibility:

Flexibility is the ability of the organisation to change what it does. Flexibility can be measured in terms of range (the amount of the change) and response (the speed of the change).

  • - Cost:

The chapter makes two important points here. The first is that the cost structure of different organisations can vary greatly and most importantly, the other four performance objectives all contribute, internally, to reducing cost. This has been one of the major revelations within operations management over the last twenty years. Cost is considered to be the finance required to get the inputs and manage the transformation process which produces finished goods and services. Cost is also important for a strategy of providing a product or service to a market niche, which competitors cannot provide. Thus cost nearness is important to maximise profits and deter competitors from entering the market.




2.1 Explain the importance of effective quality management in achieving organizational objectives.

Quality management is a principle that ensures quality in a company's products and services. There are many types of quality management programs which include Six Sigma, Theory of Constraints and TQM (Total Quality Management). Although the approach to solving quality issues vary with the different quality management programs, the goal remains the same to create a high quality, high performing product or service that meets and exceeds the customers' expectations. Quality management is important to companies for a variety of reasons.

Quality is reliable conformance to customer expectation. Operation management have to clear about manufacture the product and deliver the service to requirement. Operation must e connects with customer. What they think about our product.

As quality how we can define the problems for that there are two main important points one is the gap model. In this you can see why customers might perceive quality to be different to their expectation. The responsibility for ensuring customers see good quality products or service is not just the responsibility of operation managers but also marketing to provide information about customers expectations.

  • 1. Product quality

Quality management ensures product quality. Some primary aspects of product quality include: performance, reliability and durability. Through the use of a quality management program, the company can produce a product that performs according to its stated promises. The will endure normal, everyday use. Use quality management programs to improve the quality of a product and to design new products. Six Sigma has a specific component called DFSS (Design for Six Sigma) which is a methodology to build Six Sigma quality into a product or service.

  • 2. Customer Satisfaction

Quality management ensures customer satisfaction. Conduct customer satisfaction surveys to understand the qualities of the product important to the customer. Also conduct surveys with those who are not the company's customers. This will also provide insight into why these businesses use the services of the competitor. Use customer surveys to target those features of a product or service that need improvement. The quality management program provides a methodology to use to create the type of product the customer desires.

  • 3. Increased Revenues



Quality product and services give the company a spotless reputation in the industry. This reputation allows the company to gain new customers and sell additional products and services to existing customers. A quality management program also removes inefficient processes within the system. By removing unnecessary processes, employee productivity increases. The employee is spending less time on activities that do not contribute to the product's quality. As a result, the employee is producing more work in less time while the company has not increased the salary. Quality management programs help recapture lost monies due to inefficiencies.

  • 4. Reduce Waste

A quality management program helps companies reduce waste. Companies that house inventory are paying for the storage, management and tracking of the inventory. The costs of having the inventory are built into the price of the product. Implementing a quality management program reduces the amount of inventory that costs the company money and occupies valuable space. Quality management means that there is a systematic approach to keeping inventories at acceptable levels without incurring waste. Work closely with suppliers to manage inventory using a Just-in-Time (JIT) philosophy. In short, a JIT inventory system helps the suppliers and manufacturer remain in close communication to become more responsive to the customer.

  • 5. Teamwork

Quality management systems force company departments to work as a team. Different areas of the company become reliant upon one another to produce quality product that meets and exceeds the customers' expectations. A quality system incorporates measures that affect sales, finance, operations, customer service and marketing. The balanced scorecard is a one-stop-shop for evaluating how various departments are operating against their performance expectations. Use the balanced scorecard to show how close the company is to the financial, operational, customer service and learning/growth targets.

What steps lead towards conformance to specification?



Defining the quality characteristics is important because not only should these compare to customer needs they also provide the measurement against which operations can check and control that quality is being again and again delivered.

Deciding how to measure each characteristic is important some will be easier to measure than others. All the quality characteristics have to be measured to ensure conformance to expectations.

In some cases delivering perfect quality might be impossible or too expensive Operations managers have therefore to decide what will be acceptable standards for performance.

Having decided what is to be measured and the standards to be achieved operations managers have to design systems to ensure that the operation is delivering products or services to that specification.

The final step is to check that the operation is actually delivering quality to the set standard. it‟s happen by checking a sample of the products or services. This is called quality control and is death with in detail in the sections on statistical process control and acceptance sampling. It is important to realise that there are risks inherent in taking samples.

Six Sigma is a quality improvement project to achieve quality levels which are within 6 sigma control limits. Six Sigma is now according to many business development and quality improvement experts, the most popular management methodology in history. Six Sigma is certainly a very big industry in its own right, and Six Sigma is now an enormous 'brand' in the world of corporate development. Six Sigma began in 1986 as a statistically-based method to reduce variation in electronic manufacturing processes in Motorola Inc in the USA.

The UK Department for Trade and Industry says Six Sigma is:

"A data drive method for achieving perfect quality. Six Sigma analyses can focus on any element of production or service, and has a strong emphasis on statistical analysis in design, manufacturing and customer-oriented activities." June 2005.















organization’s overall strategic management objectives.

Total Quality Management is a structured system for meeting and greater than customer needs and expectations by creating organization open contribution in the planning and performance of improvement processes. Organisation performance comprises the actual output or result of an organisation as measured against its intended output.

Cost benefit analysis is to decide how good and how poorly a planned action will turn out. Then it identifies, quantifies, and subtracts all the negatives, the costs. The difference between the two indicates whether the planned action is advisable.

Quality risks analysis can help one focus the test effort. Since it is not possible to test

everything, it is necessary to pick a subset of the overall set of tests to be run. While the express quality risk analysis may sound for bidding, clear, and complex, the original ideas and the techniques need not be. Simply put, quality risk analysis is a process for identifying, analyzing,

and prioritizing categories of potential quality problems in one‟s systems.

Because quality risks are potential problems with probabilities between zero and 100 percent one factor that influences the relative importance of a risk is the likelihood of the undesirable outcome. In other words, is it likely that these kinds of bugs exist in the system and is it likely that users will encounter these kinds of bugs if they exist?

If you are an employer and you want to recruit 20 graduates it is likely that you will interview each one of them. If the batch size is large or the items of lesser value at that time we need a simpler, quicker and cheaper means of testing a sample to decide if the whole batch is OK or not this is acceptance sampling. If you were the quality controller overseeing the manufacture of light bulbs it would be too time consuming to check each of the thousands made each day, and. if the check involved seeing how long they lasted it would destroy the entire output. If you were the quality controller for the marking of an A level examination, it would be impossible to check that every one of the thousands of examiners had correctly marked every one of hundreds of thousands scripts.

Using acceptance sampling we can:

  • 1. decide the best size of sample to use

  • 2. judge the acceptable number of defects in a batch which results in the batch being rejected for a specified level of risk


Why TQM?


In a global marketplace a main characteristic that will differentiate those organizations that are successful will be the quality of leadership, management, employees, work processes, product, and service. This means that products must not only meet customer and community needs for value, they must be provided in a continuously improving, timely, cost effective, innovative, and productive manner.

GOAL/QPC's Synthesis

GOAL/QPC offers small business leaders the ability to be part of a self directed organizational learning and networking society through membership in its CQM division. Members of CQM are a true business community. CQM operates through regional chapters that are self-directed and staffed by qualified administrators, trainers, and advisors who are further supported by GOAL/QPC staff.

There are a variety of strategies being used to implement quality management. These include a "guru" approach, a "quality award" approach, and an ala carte approach. From observation and direct experience with companies implementing TQM, as well as an analysis and analysis of different TQM implementation strategies, GOAL/QPC constructed a TQM Wheel to provide a holistic view, and a Ten Element Model to outline an implementation strategy that allows organizations to get started fairly quickly and begin to improve effectiveness, even though it will take several years to become fully operational.

TQM Evolves

Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach that seeks to improve quality and performance which will meet or beat customer expectations. This can be achieved by integrating all quality related functions and processes throughout the company. TQM looks at the overall quality measures used by a company including managing quality design and development, quality control and maintenance, quality improvement, and quality assurance. TQM takes into account all quality measures taken at all levels and involving all company employees.

In today's world, two of the most effective and popular "new" management models are Lean and Six Sigma. Both of these models utilize the basic TQM elements and add on some extra refinements to achieve a more robust and powerful system for customer-focused product and service excellence that also focuses on optimizing costs and profits.




3.1 Plan a strategic quality change to improve organisational performance.

Strategic quality planning is a regular approach to defining long term business goals, including goals to improve quality and to achieve them. Many organizations have created a

vision “to be the best,” toward a goal of outperforming competitors. Many of these organizations

fall short in achieving this vision. Most do not align, or have difficulty aligning, their performance excellence initiatives like lean and Six Sigma to the annual business plan. This leads to lack of resources to complete projects, which in turn makes them hard to justify.

The potential benefits of strategic quality planning and deployment include:

Clarification of goals Achievability of goals Scheduled reduction of chronic wastes and improved quality of products and services Better or new focus on customers

Strategic quality planning is the systematic process by which an organization defines its long term goals with respect to quality and customers, and integrates them into a solid business plan. It enables an organization to execute organizational breakthroughs to achieve a competitive advantage and quality leadership.

The approach to providing organization wide financial goals has evolved into a more robust strategic plan, incorporating these goals into a chain of command that includes the voice of the customer. A structured methodology must include a provision of rewards, universal participation, a common language, and training.

Launching a strategic plan

First we have to look at the problem and what is the problem customer feel. The strategic deployment process requires incorporating the customer focus. The elements needed are generally alike for all organizations. The ones in most widespread use tend to be:





The mission is the reason for the organization‟s existence. The vision is the desired

future state of the organization. Values are what the organization stands for, and they tie into

strategies, which are the means to achieve the vision. Policies represent a guide to managerial action, guiding day-to-day decision-making. And finally, the deployment plan is what turns vision into action.

Developing the plan



Strategic deployment begins with a customer focused vision, which should define the benefits that can be expected. Good vision statements should be compelling and shared throughout the organization. But vision statements are only words a reminder of what the organization is pursuing, which must be carried out through actions. When form a vision, it‟s important not to focus exclusively on shareholders, to properly explain the vision to everyone involved, and not to create a vision too easy or difficult to achieve.

To convert the vision into an achievable plan, it must be broken into key strategies. Responsibility for them must be distributed to key executives. To determine what the strategies should be, five areas must be assessed

Customer loyalty and satisfaction

Costs related to poor quality of products or processes

Organization‟s culture

Business processes

Competitive benchmarking

Each of these areas can form the basis for a balanced business scorecard. The key strategies can be modified to reflect long term goals. An organization must set specific strategic goals that must be achieved for the broad strategy to be a success. Seven areas must be addressed to ensure that the proper goals are established:

Product performance

Competitive performance

Business improvement

Cost of poor quality

Performance of business processes Customer satisfaction

• • Customer loyalty and retention

Goals that affect product saleability and revenue generation should be based primarily on meeting or exceeding marketplace quality. A widely used basis for setting goals has been historical performance. Some organizations create value statements to further define themselves. Values are what an organization stands for and must be supported with actions from management lest their publication create distrust.

Policy declarations are a necessity during a period of major change. Most declare the intention to meet the needs of customers, and include language relative to competitiveness in quality. Some include specific reference to internal customers, or indicate that the improvement should extend to all phases of the business. Enforcement of new policies is a problem due to the relative newness of documented quality policies. Sometimes, an audit process is mandated to ensure the policy is carried out.


Once the strategic goals have been agreed upon, they must be subdivided and communicated to lower levels. Those who are assigned responsibility must determine the needed resources and communicate this to higher levels. The deployment process starts by identifying the needs of the organization.


Measuring progress

There are several reasons why an organized approach to measuring performance is necessary:

Performance measures indicate the degree of accomplishment of objectives.

Performance measures are needed to monitor the improvement process.

Performance measures are required for periodic reviews by management.

Once goals have been broken down into sub goals, key measures need to be established. The best measures of the strategic planning process are simple, quantitative, and graphic. As goals are set and deployed, the means to achieve them must be analyzed to ensure they satisfy the objective they support. Once the system is in place, it must be reviewed periodically to ensure that goals are being met.

Efficient review process will increase the probability of reaching the goals. The review process looks at gaps between what has been achieved and the target. Common measurements of progress displayed in graphic form help identify the gaps in need of attention. Success in closing those gaps depends on a formal feedback loop with clear responsibility and authority for acting on those differences.

Pursuing too many objectives at the same time will reduce the results. Trying to plan without enough data can create an unachievable plan. If leaders hand over too much there will be a lack of direction. The biggest disturbance caused by strategic planning is created by imposing a structured approach on those who prefer not to have it. Resistance will be evident at the outset. Therefore the most important prerequisite is the creation of an environment conducive to change.

In our organisation ASDA we have to see that what is quality customer needs and which we are given to them. In first step we have to see the gap between Customer‟s experience of product or service and Operation‟s concept of product or service and then find out the problem

that where is it? Now second step is Communication of intentions for quality change with customer so we know the mistake by customer it may be in Oral/written, Verbal/non-verbal. Then our third step Stakeholder participation in quality change and stakeholder involve, Where the stakeholder is a group rather than an individual, you will probably want to include in your decision the style of participation appropriate: for example, direct participation of everyone, or representation.


Our organisation fourth step is Action plan for quality change and timescales that means now start the action which we have to taken for complete the goal and achieve objective. ASDA want to become a first retail wholesaler. There will be time scale for every steps. And last step is Final feasibility review that means quality change should be on Economic feasibility, Operational feasibility, Schedule feasibility, Resource feasibility.



3.2 Define resources, tools and systems to support business processes in a strategic quality change.


Behind every success quality change there is a some resource , tools and system which support us which we see below.

  • 1. Facilities:

Offices of this nature comprise of business or institutional structures for example a lodging, modern plant, retail outlets, resort, school, office complex. Offices are usually transforming assets that empower handling of merchandise and utilities to happen.

  • 2. Workforce:

Every last trace of the folks included in the operations process. The workforce is the labour pool in vocation. It is usually utilized to depict those working for a lone ensemble or industry. They back the business technique through their preparation of products and procurement of utilities.

  • 3. Machinery:

Equipment and processing technology can also be classified as machinery. Essentially, machinery manages power to accomplish a task. Examples include a mechanical system or a computing system. They are important in supporting business processes as they support and facilitate the workload of a company.

  • 4. Transportation:

Transport or transportation is the development of folks and merchandise from one area to an alternate one. Modes of transport incorporate atmosphere, rail, street, water, link, pipeline, and space. Transport foundation comprises of the settled instatements fundamental for transport, and would be ways, tracks, aviation routes, conduits, waterways and pipelines.They are essential in supporting business procedures by transforming the area of merchandise and individuals from one put to a different one.

  • 5. Technology:

Innovation is the making, mode and information of apparatuses, strategies, specialties, frameworks or strategies of organisation so as to tackle a situation or serve some reason. In the current sense, mechanics includes PCs and alternate IT offices that empower teams to perform at a development level.

6. Total Quality Management:



Total quality management is a management system for a customer focused organization that involves all employees in continual improvement of all aspects of the organization. TQM uses strategy, data, and effective communication to integrate the quality principles into the culture and activities of the organization.

Seven Important Principles of Total Quality Management

  • 1. Quality can and must be managed

  • 2. Processes, not people, are the problem

  • 3. Don‟t treat symptoms, look for the cure

  • 4. Every employee is responsible for quality

  • 5. Quality must be measurable

  • 6. Quality improvements must be continuous

  • 7. Quality is a long-term investment

TQM is not something that happens overnight. While there are a number of software solutions that will help organizations quickly start to implement a quality management system, there are some original philosophies that the company must add throughout every department of the company and at every level of management. Whatever other resources you use, you should adopt these seven important principles of Total Quality Management as a foundation for all your activities.


3.3 Evaluate the wider implications of planned strategic quality change in an organisation


Any change has implications for an organization across the range of the value chain. The adjustments that will result from a strategic plan need to be considered systemically. The possible impact throughout the organization requires consideration. The changes must be planned for made and monitor. The idea is to reduce surprises and increase the practical handling of future changes

A planned strategic quality change could affect the strategic goals of the organization. The introduction of strategic quality change could impact the entire vision of the organization and as a result every part of the organizations process.

Changes could also affect the personnel and managers within the organization. Change can create confusion throughout the organization. Change alters the clarity and stability of roles and relationships, often creating chaos. This requires realigning and renegotiating formal patterns of relationships and policies.

By definition, change creates loss and therefore generates interpersonal conflict. Change can create loss of meaning and purpose. People form attachments to symbols and in symbolic activity. When the attachments are severed, people experience difficulty in letting go of old attachments. Avoiding or smoothing over these issues drives conflict underground, where it can fester and boil over. The psychological wounds that come with change require the creation of arenas where issues can be dealt with that may require symbolic healing.

Once the strategic map is defined, organizations must create measures for each focal point. The first step is to create these measures at an organizational level. Once these are defined, each functional area should identify how they contribute to the overall measures, and then define measures of their own. Ideally, this process cascades downward through the organization until each individual is linked with the strategy and understands the goals and outcomes they are responsible for and how their individual success will be measured and rewarded. Good performance measures identify the critical focus points for an organization, and reward their successful achievement. When used to guide an organization, performance measures can be a competitive advantage because they drive alignment and common purpose across an organization, focusing everyone's best efforts at the desired goal. But defining measures can be tricky. Teams must continue to ask themselves, "If we were to measure performance this way, what behaviour would that motivate?" For example, if the desired outcome is world-class customer service, measuring the volume of calls handled by representatives could drive the opposite behaviour.


3.4 Design systems to monitor the implementation of a strategic quality change in an organisation.


1. Manufacturing Process Types:

In production, handle sorts might be thought about under five distinctions of activity, jobbing, group, mass and persistent.

  • a) Project processes: Handles that produce result of heightened mixture and easy volume are termed ventures. Venture methods are utilized to produce a one-off unit to a client particular. A specialty of a venture that the area of the unit is stationary. ASDA is one of the best quality and very cheap production process. As u can buy many different type of product in your budget and it‟s provide you many thing which is very costly but in asda it‟s cheap.

  • b) Jobbing processes:

Prepares that produce result of elevated mixed bag and level volume are termed jobbing. Jobbing procedures are utilized to construct a one-off (or easy volume) unit to a client detail. A headliner of a jobbing technique is that the unit moves to the area of transforming assets for example supplies.

After define project process they decide man for job and they requirement for some special job and also packing and as we know in U.K. many unemployment so ASDA get employee very easily with good experience.

  • c) Batch processes:

Prepares that produce result of medium mixed bag and medium volume are termed batch. The size of a cluster can go from a few to hundreds. An item of parcel procedures is that, on the grounds that it is challenging to anticipate when a group of work will reach a machine, an absence of coordination can advance to a considerable number of units sitting tight for that machine at any one time.

ASDA manager define every part manager to him work and they provide them batch that means they can work on them batch and also not disturbing another work and

it‟s already define every candidates to what to work and what time to work?

d) Mass processes:



Prepares that produce result of heightened volume and level mixed bag are termed line or mass processes. Although there could be variants within the unit objective the handling methodology should basically be the same for every last trace of the items. In view of the heightened volumes of unit it is fetched adequate to utilize specialised labour and supplies.

As After mass production main problem to solve that and give a right price to that product with quality level so they require specialise labour to work on this process.

2. Service Process Types:

A couple aid method sorts, expert utility, aid shop and mass utility are categorised in terms of their capability to adapt to better volume and mixed bag aspects.

In service process we include Professional service, Service shop and Mass service that means one type of customer helping service and help to customer. Professional services that means they are characterised by high levels of customisation, in that each service delivery will be tailored to meet individual customer needs. And service shop is about There will be a certain amount of customisation of the service, but not as extensive as in professional services.

ASDA is best in customer service they also provide home delivery and also give customer service at that time so they can be very best service to customer. They also provide online and call central service to customer. Which make a confirm to direct production manager if there is problem in product and they can change that or stop product to sell.



TASK 4 4.1 Implement a strategic quality change in an organisation

Change is a basic module of continuous quality improvement. Any improvement methodology involves introducing change and measuring its impact. This is designed to assist the beginner in project management who, although enthusiastic, may be unprepared for some of the barriers that are normal to confront during the change process. It is not enough to provide the tools and strategies with which to improve safety and quality of product and expect success. There is a need to be aware of what to expect when introducing change, how to engage staff and to make change sustainable. Knowledge or awareness of change processes may assist in ensuring success of a project.

Successful implementation of system change is essential in the provision of safe, quality care to consumers. Implementation of improvement projects and filling the resulting change can be a difficult process. It has been stated all too often that quality improvement projects fail on a regular basis. The individual or the teams introducing change have a challenging task. Change management is one component of a successful project; the need for project planning and the use of quality improvement tools are also critical.

We will take your quality team through a process

Identify the changes required

Determine the major issues

Identify and assess the key stakeholders

Win the support of key individuals

Identify the obstacles

Determine the degree of risk and the cost of change

Understand why change will be resisted and how it can be managed

It is important to consider how people will personally be affected by the change process, “change requires that people do something they have not done before” (Galvin 2003). People are generally the most critical resource, supporter, barrier and risk when managing change. The uncertainty of change can needle strong emotions, with most people experiencing some sense of pain and loss as they let go of the old and move towards the new. A range of emotions may be displayed by those affected by the change process frustration, anger, despair, acceptance, enthusiasm and elation. Which emotion is encountered will depend on whether staffs make the change willingly or unwillingly, the level of consultation that occurred and the support provided by leadership. Awareness of the range of reactions to change will help the leader of the change process respond appropriately to concerns that are expressed. Understanding why these emotions occur may assist the leader to introduce change in a manner that anticipates, acknowledges and responds to concerns.



The strategic quality change implemented at ASDA will be the introduction of benchmarking. Benchmarking is the process of identifying "best practice" in relation to both products and the processes by which those products are created and delivered. The search for "best practice" can take place both inside a particular industry, and also in other industries. The objective of benchmarking is to understand and evaluate the current position of a business or organisation in relation to "best practice" and to identify areas and means of performance improvement


Communication should take place in some form with all those affected by the proposed change, staff, and consumers, internal and external stakeholders. Early communication and consultation, while the change implementation is still in the planning stage, will assist in getting people interested and prepared to participate in the change process. They will have some ownership of the project and an interest in its success.

Stakeholders will have different levels of involvement. At various stages of the implementation they can be informed, consulted, collaborated with or be active participants. Stakeholders should be provided with as much information as possible, including baseline data, the objectives of the change, and should be involved in anticipating problems and determining solutions. Implementing change in ASDA requires commitment from the people who will be affected by the proposed changes. Two important aspects are motivation and resistance.

As communication also helpful for motivate to labour and also give him direction. May be its use for to know progress of project and what‟s situation of Production.

Staff Training

Change will be more successful, and more people will be committed to the change, if

they believe it will improve things. The “What‟s in it for me?” test helps to identify useful

motivators. The best scenario is to have a „win-win‟ situation for all, where the change management will have a positive outcome for all.

Encouraging debate and discussion about the need for change through data presentation can help to create a sense of urgency. People tend to move away from a problem and towards an improved state. Clinical leaders can influence this process and create a positive planning environment and encourage staff to contribute creativity and innovation to the change.

influential and high level Training for new product recognition of different values and skills within the team effective leadership, which bridges the gap between management and staff training in communication and team processes appropriate infrastructure and resources Opportunity to reflect and evaluate. Learning on the job



Evaluation is an important component of any change process. As part of the project planning a decision needs to be made about measures that will be used to determine if the planned change leads to an improvement.



4.2 Embed a quality culture in an organisation to ensure continuous monitoring and development.

Quality, culture and motivation can be viewed as three points on a triangle. All are difficult to define. It is probably the case that it is not possible to consider them in isolation, since they all are characteristics of the way in which staff experience an organization. One approach which has sought to embed quality within the culture of an organization is total quality management (TQM). Library and information services managers have long recognized the need for customer orientation that is inherent in the TQM philosophy, and some have sought to implement TQM or have been involved with TQM initiatives within organizations that have been involved in TQM. In addition, customer care and other customer-focused programmes have been used in training those library staff who are in direct contact with the public.

  • 1. Quality is customer defined.

Quality is defined in terms of customers‟ perceptions or, in a more complex model that is widely debated in the service quality literature, as the gap between expectations and perceptions. Such customer focus requires not only an attention to internal processes, but also an awareness of the external marketplace. Only a match between the requirements of the marketplace and the internal processes and operations will lead to a quality service

  • 2. Internal and external customers are both important.

The only way to ensure that the organization has a focus on customers which has an equal affect on all departments and teams, including that not in direct contact with the external customer, is to encourage all employees to identify those to whom they provide a service and to view those people as their internal customers. In this way the customer orientation can permeate the organization.

  • 3. Employee involvement.

Employee involvement follows automatically from the need for all employees to consider their internal customer. Employee involvement means that each individual must take the initiative and not rely on someone else. In order for this to be achieved the organization needs a culture which encourages this behaviour. Everyone must understand that they contribute equally to quality and can only succeed through cooperation and support.

  • 4. Error-free processes.



The focus of TQM is on avoidance to eliminate waste, reduce costs and achieve error free processes. The traditional approach to TQM, which developed in a manufacturing environment, was a strong focus on process quality control. Service managers need to interpret this focus in a way that is appropriate for services with inherent variability and the less controllable element of the customer.

  • 5. Performance measurement.

Performance needs to be based on timely measures of, and feedback on, performance through superior quality information systems.

  • 6. Continuous improvement.

Nonstop improvement must be seen as the responsibility of everyone in the organization. To develop this focus on training, education, communication, recognition of achievements and teamwork is often seen as appropriate While there may not be universal agreement as to the most effective way to create a quality culture, the above six points would be accepted by most proponents. These characteristics identify the central role of motivation in creating a quality culture, and illustrate the way in which TQM might be used to create that culture. We start with a brief review of some of the established theories concerning motivation and then seek to apply these to libraries in the 1990s.



4.3 Monitor the implementation of a strategic quality change in an organisation.

The strategic plan document should identify who is responsible for the overall implementation of the plan, and also who is responsible for achieving each goal and objective. The document should also specify who is responsible to monitor the implementation of the plan and made decisions based on the results. For example, the board might expect the chief executive to regularly report to the full board about the status of implementation, including progress toward each of the overall strategic goals. In turn, the chief executive might expect regular status reports from middle managers regarding the status toward their achieving the goals and objectives assigned to them.

Key Questions While Monitoring and Evaluating Status of Implementation of the Plan

Are goals and objectives being achieved or not? Will the goals be achieved according to the timelines specified in the plan? If no, then why? Should the deadlines for completion be changed? Do personnel have adequate resources to achieve the goals? Are the goals and objectives still realistic? Should priorities be changed to put more focus on achieving the goals? Should the goals be changed? What can be learned from our monitoring and evaluation in order to improve future planning activities and also to improve future monitoring and evaluation efforts?

Frequency of Monitoring and Evaluation

The frequency of reviews depends on the nature of the organization and the environment in which it‟s operating. Organizations experience quick change from inside and outside the organization may want to monitor implementation of the plan at least on a monthly basis.

Reporting Results of Monitoring and Evaluation

  • 1. Answers to the above key questions while monitoring implementation.

  • 2. Trends regarding the progress toward goals, including which goals and objectives

  • 3. Recommendations about the status

  • 4. Any actions needed by management

Changing the Plan



Be sure some mechanism is identified for changing the plan, if necessary. For example, regarding changes, write down:

  • 1. What is causing changes to be made?

  • 2. Why the changes should be made

  • 3. The changes to make including to goals, objectives, responsibilities and timelines.



TASK 5 5.1 Evaluate the outcomes of a strategic quality change in an organisation.

1. Goal-based evaluation:

The point of objective-based assessment is to examine in case the adaptation venture has realized its objects. This inquiry is postured at the closure of the task methodology.

Process evaluations are used to document how well a program has been implemented they are conducted regularly throughout the duration of a program. This type of evaluation is used to examine the operations of a program, including which activities are taking place, who is conducting the activities, and who is reached through the activities. Process evaluations assess whether inputs or resources have been allocated or mobilize and whether activities are being implemented as planned. They identify program strengths, weaknesses, and areas that need improvement. Following are examples of the type of tangible program indicators measured by process evaluation:

The locale where services or programs are provided.

The number of people receiving services.

The economic status and cultural background of people receiving services.

The quality of services.

The actual events that occur while the services are delivered.

The amount of money the project is using.

The direct and in kind funding for services.

The staffing for services or programs.

The number of activities and meetings.

The number of training sessions conducted.

A process evaluation of a counter marketing campaign to reduce the cost of product which cheap in another mall

Has a workgroup been formed and is it meeting regularly?

Are any key individuals or organizations missing from the workgroup?

Was the counter marketing movement designed on schedule?

Have the movement products been pretested?

Are project activities being implemented on schedule?

What barriers have been encountered?

Who is the campaign‟s target audience and how well are they being reaching?

How many advertisements are actually running? When and where?

Where are the posters located?

What is the estimated number of people who see or hear the advertisements?

How might the action plan be improved on the basis of evaluation findings?



Process evaluations can also assess issues related to program services. For example, they can determine the

Availability and use of ASDA store services.

Implementation of online ASDA advertisement.

Accessibility of resource centers and materials.

Amount of technical support and training provided to grantees or staff.

Amount of technical support and training needed by grantees or staff.

Number of calls to a quit line.

Use of the quit line by various cultural groups.

ASDA customer service call central availability.

Customer needs and Problems

These are straightforward questions; monitoring them throughout the duration of your program ensures that the project is implemented as planned and is reaching the intended audience. As we can say that our organisation ASDA main aim to become a first retail whole seller in U.K. and as from our quality change management we can find out that many person are attract to come to our asda whole mart, we can also help to customer by saving them money by giving in low price product and same quality.



5.2 Recommend areas for improvement to a strategic quality change that align with organisational objectives.

Scheduled reduction of chronic wastes and improved quality of products and services Customer loyalty and satisfaction Costs related to poor quality of products or processes Product performance Cost of poor quality

An organization can implement a balanced scorecard in order to ensure that areas requiring improvement are dealt with. The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that aligns business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. The balances scorecard provides a framework that not only provides performance measurements, but helps planners identify what should be done and measured. It enables executives to truly execute their strategies.

  • 1. Customer feedback:

Client criticism is a valuable apparatus to encourage organisations to enhance their items or aids. Client criticism is normally gotten by data composed in a sentiment survey. The input is the weighed in on in a discussion or the same time as staff gatherings to actualize some of the valuable indicates made by clients the same time as the reaction practice.

ASDA would like to take customer feedback for improve quality and with cost reduction. Also we like to get problem in customer service and if there is some problem which we have.

  • 2. Key Performance Indicator:

KPIs serve to reduce the complex nature of organisational performance to a small number of key indicators in order to make it more digestible for us. This is the same approach we use in our daily lives. For example, when you go to your doctor he might measure blood pressure, cholesterol levels, heart rate and your body mass index as key indicators of your health. With KPIs we are trying to do the same in our organizations.

The module which was developed in conjunction with ASDA is included into their project collaboration portal called. It is designed to provide project performance feedback via selected members of the project team across a series of construction projects. The system collates the answers to provide clients with real time project progress reports to highlight project shortfalls and team strengths and weaknesses.

The KPI module provides the following benefits:



Highlights inefficiencies early in the project lifecycle and enables a more proactive approach

to managing a project. Allows the project manager and client real time access to control and monitor the project

team against defined Key Performance Indicators. Reduces administrative burden as the team do not need to complete paper or email based

forms. All information can be reported at the touch of a button. Provides the team players with feedback to improve the decision making process.

The module is designed to be highly user friendly and users should be able to reply quickly with minimal effort proving time and cost efficient to both the users and the project manager.

3. Developing Communication Channels:

Before you embark upon any communication activity it is important to have in place a communications strategy. This will help you to plan communications effectively with your stakeholders and your colleagues. Your strategy will form the blueprint of any activity to raise awareness, gather support and get others to take action on climate change adaptation. Good strategies provide a structure for identifying issues and actions that need to be addressed; they consider potential audiences and the appropriate messages; they also help identify channels to deliver information. The tool below will help take you through the steps to writing an effective communications strategy.

If you have a smaller scale project, which does not require a communication strategy but requires a communication plan, feel free to go straight to the tools and templates on developing a communications plan. If you do this you still need to ensure that your plan is linked to a set of communication objectives, which define the purpose of the plan. This communication plan should also link stakeholders to key messages, channels, timescales and responsibility for delivering.

How do you best reach your key stakeholder groups? The communication channels should be chosen based on knowledge about your stakeholders and their needs. Where are they based, how easy are they to access, what existing channels exist that reach them, what is their specific knowledge of or interest in climate change adaptation, how do they like to be communicated with etc?

Some stakeholders are perhaps so busy that you can‟t expect them to read a lengthy document or newsletter or pick up a leaflet, therefore it will often be necessary to meet with these individuals or groups face to face to get your messages across. Others may not have e-mail or internet access, whilst others may be located far away from you geographically. These are all challenges you need to consider when you select your channels. Also be aware of your budget and the time you have available to develop new channels.

Examples of communication channels are:

Face to face meetings

Staff briefings



Leaflets & Posters





Community Forums

Events such as workshops, focus groups, launches and conferences



There are usually a wide range of existing channels available in any organisation and it is advisable to list these and consider their usability before developing new channels.















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on September 1 st 2011.