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**ESTIMATION OF STRUCTURAL HEALTH IN CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS: A STUDY CASE
**

A. J. García Palencia Doctoral Student, University of New Hampshire, USA E. S. Bell Associate Professor, University of New Hampshire, USA

In this paper, the quantification of damage in a concrete bridge deck is presented by using frequency-response functions via structural parameter estimation. Simulated measurements from a structural bridge model are used to validate the proposed algorithm. Two controlled load test were simulated, one prior to the bridge's opening and another after the first 24-month inspection cycle under service conditions. These data sets are then used to update the stiffness parameters of a finite element model (FEM) of the bridge through an objective function based on the changes in Frequency Response Functions (FRFs). The resulting optimization problem was solved with a Gauss-Newton Least Squares technique. The difference between the estimated structural parameters at the initial and final iteration is then used to assess the condition change in the structural concrete deck. Using a discrete FEM, the parameter estimates reveal not only damage location but also damage severity. Directly using FRF data for parameter estimation and condition assessment circumvents the errors induced during curve fitting for the extraction of modal parameters from collected test data. FRF data also provides abundant information over a wide frequency range and fully characterize the dynamic properties and response of the structure. Corresponding author’s email: ajw77@wildcats.unh.edu

USA 2 Associate Professor. i. There are several researchers investigating the use of passing vehicles and ambient vibration to dynamically excite the bridge structure (Yang et al. Durham. Simulated measurements from a structural bridge model are used to validate the proposed algorithm. a more accurate health diagnosis could be achieved (Santini-Bell et al. Two controlled load test were simulated. 2007). These data sets are then used to update the stiffness parameters of a finite element model (FEM) of the bridge through an objective function based on the changes in Frequency Response Functions (FRFs). USA ABSTRACT: In this paper. University of New Hampshire.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. University of New Hampshire. The resulting optimization problem was solved with a Gauss-Newton Least Squares technique. certain types of damage can be hidden from view. . the parameter estimates reveal not only damage location but also damage severity. FRF data also provides abundant information over a wide frequency range and fully characterize the dynamic properties and response of the structure. Antonio Javier García Palencia1. Erin Santini-Bell2 1 Doctoral Student. Condition assessment of in-service bridges primarily relies on visual inspection and observation to evaluate its structural integrity (Phares et al 2001). Directly using FRF data for parameter estimation and condition assessment circumvents the errors induced during curve fitting for the extraction of modal parameters from collected test data. The difference between the estimated structural parameters at the initial and final iteration is then used to assess the condition change in the structural concrete deck. spalling concrete behind stay-in-place forms or delamination in bridge decks under asphalt membranes. Department of Civil Engineering.e. Durham. The second is that in some instances performance has been used to justify an evaluation for a bridge that has remained in service. 2006). the quantification of damage in a concrete bridge deck is presented by using frequency-response functions via structural parameter estimation. First. Cancún. Department of Civil Engineering. 2004 & Hseih et al. By using non-destructive test data as a complement of visual inspections. Using a discrete FEM. one prior to the bridge's opening and another after the first 24-month inspection cycle under service conditions.. but would have otherwise been closed. 1 INTRODUCTION In-service bridge condition assessment is primarily based on visual damage estimates. which means two important factors are not evaluated. México ESTIMATION OF STRUCTURAL HEALTH IN CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS: A STUDY CASE.

the extraction of modal parameters from test data could lead to errors due to curve fitting. damping and stiffness matrices respectively. (2009)) have performed successful parameter identification using FRF-based damage indexes with a minimum number of sensors. Frequency Response Function data (FRF) data circumvents these shortcomings while providing abundant information over a frequency range and fully characterizing the dynamic properties of the system. Cancún. the occurrence of damage affects the stiffness of the structure. (1998). Sanayei et al. 2 THEORETICAL BASIS The damage detection technique presented here is an extension based on the method proposed by Thyagarajan et al. (1998). A solution of the (2) where is a complex receptance frequency response vector. On the other hand. Yang et al. The proposed method considers incomplete measurements and incorporates information from visual inspection reports. is the displacement vector. Substitution of Equation (2) into Equation (1) gives: (3) A solution to Equation (3) is: (4) . an error function based on the changes in the Frequency Response Functions (FRF’s) will be used to diagnose a bridge deck‘s structural health using receptance data prior to the bridge's opening and that other after some time under service conditions. location and extent of damage can be identified by comparing the stiffness matrices of the healthy and damaged updated FEMs. (2002). Lee & Shin. Equation (1) is given by: . Esfandiari et al. We assumed that non-destructive test (NDT) data is available in the form of receptance FRF and a finite element model (FEM) of the structure is updated to match the collected FRF in the lower frequency range. is the frequency of the excitation load. This approach will be also the basis for the FEM calibration using data from the structure’s healthy condition. In this paper. Then. obtaining complete modal data is impractical in most of the cases. The equation of motion of a viscously damped system subjected to a harmonic force can be written as: (1) where . which would represent a baseline model that can be used for future condition.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. Nevertheless. (1999) performed model updating using modal data and boundary conditions. (2009). then it is possible to locate and quantify damage by measuring its dynamic signature. and is time. México Recently. non-destructive vibration test data has received considerable attention. is a vector that contains the amplitude of the applied forces. Several researchers (Thyagarajan et al. and are the mass. In addition to the aforementioned.

5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. for most parameters would be the value of the parameter in its healthy condition and for initial FEM calibration. Let and . For this within the range [0-35 Hz] (5 Hz intervals starting at paper. the following expression is obtained: (7) The left hand side of Equation (7) represents the error between the damaged and undamaged systems. The matrix can also be partitioned as: (5) Rewriting Equation (4) using and Equation (5) gives (6) By condensing out the unmeasured FRF. . with the known force and that is measured from the undamaged structure. unit represents the number of frequency points used to is the error term given by (9) The basis of this constrained minimization problem is detailed in Equation (10): (10) where is user defined. Cancún. to be minimized is defined as the square root of the : (8) where is the vector of unknown parameters (usually modulus of elasticity. where and represent d. was set to three times the value of the initial parameter. México Equation (4) relates the healthy system matrices is subjected to damage and the FRF vector . for damage estimation. moments of inertia). .f on the damaged structure where the FRF are measured and not measured respectively.o. For example. eight frequencies The scalar objective function Frobenius norm of the residual error vector masses. The damage detection procedure consists of updating the unknown structural parameters in from Equation (7) until a desired tolerance level is reached. defined the frequency response curves and . Now we assume the initial structure is measured.

(2009)). Damping matrix was obtained by superposing modal damping matrices and assuming ζ = 0. This produces an equation for (14) The minimization technique is based on a least squares algorithm. therefore can be linearized as: (11) represents the change in unknown parameter values and is the matrix of error function partial derivatives with respect to the unknown parameters. The updated vector of unknown parameters is calculated with Equation (15): (15) The updated is used as the starting point for the next iteration. as the simulated damage is a deck delamination then these matrices will be kept constant during the optimization process (Sampiao et al. : minimizes Equation . UNH's model updating software MUSTANG is a MATLAB®-based program that performs parameter estimation at the element level. (2009) and Yang et al. Substituting Equation (11) into Equation (8) yields (13) Taking the partial derivative of Equation (13) with respect to (13). México zero) were used based on recommendations on the selection of frequency ranges (Lee & Shin (2002). Esfandiari et al.005 for all modes. in this case the relative change in parameter values. 1999). is typically a non-linear function of the unknown parameters . In this paper. Each column of this sensitivity matrix is calculated using Equation (12): (12) where is the unknown parameter number. changes in mass and damping are assumed to be negligible for damage estimation purposes.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. Cancún. are met. The iterations continue until the user-defined minimization convergence criteria. MUSTANG is linked to SAP2000® and allows for the updating of a given FEM via modification of the stiffness and mass properties.

89 kg/m3 are assumed for this model.47 kg/m3 and ρsteel = 7849. Beams are modeled as frame elements whose nodes are connected to the shells with body constraints. A second FEM which represents our analytical model is created but now the deck is modeled using a four-node Mindlin/Reissner shell element and ignoring the presence of reinforcement. Cancún. . A modulus of elasticity Emodel = 24.05 kg/m3.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. Simulated instrumentation and testing included eight accelerometers and four controlled load tests conducted separately (see Figure 1) resulting in thirty two sets of FRFs for this study. Esteel = 200 GPa. simply supported bridge represented by the FEM shown in Figure 1.048 m. The bridge's overhang in both sides of the deck is 0. The process is illustrated in Figure 2. Consider the two-spans. It consists of two main parts: The concrete deck which has reinforcement in the two in-plane directions and four A992Fy50 steel girders spaced at 3.86GPa and unit mass ρmodel = 2402. Dimmensions of the bridge and accelerometers layout. The modulus of elasticity and unit masses of the concrete and steel are Econcrete = 29. The deck was modeled assuming layered shells which consider the effect of the reinforcement. México 3 BRIDGE EXAMPLE Simulated data in this study will demonstrate the feasibility of using FRFs as a damage index. The updated model will have an equivalent modulus of elasticity E* and unit mass ρ* that incorporates the effect of the deck's reinforcement and represents a baseline model that will be used for future condition assessment.914 m approximately. Figure 1. This structural configuration is representative of overpass bridges and was modeled using SAP2000®. FRF's from the “true” structure are used to update the "analytical" FEM by changing the unknown parameters Emodel and ρmodel.84 GPa. The proposed methodology uses model updating to obtain a simplified model that captures the behavior of the real structure in its healthy condition. ρconcrete = 2883.

Then to find the particular zone that contains the damaged elements the unknown parameters obtained using Equation (15) are compared to E*. Next. México Figure 2. .5% with respect to its initial modulus of elasticity E*. The idea is to subdivide the deck into a certain number of quadrants (see Table 1) and make their E unknowns. Results from each stage are described below: Stage 1: The initial eight unknown areas are shown in Table 1. The aforementioned frequency range includes the first 10 modes of vibration. a different approach is introduced here which is similar to the one proposed by Lee & Wooh (2005). damage is introduced in the “true” model by reducing Econcrete and Esteel to 50% of the initial values of deck elements 127 and 128 (Figure 4). Two scenarios are assumed here: In the first one. according to the preset limits (E* ± 5% E*) except for E5. given the reduction of 15.84. as it can be seen in the FRF plots (Figure 3). 4 DAMAGE ESTIMATION PROCEDURE Without any information about possible damage locations in the deck. an overlay prevents the inspector to visually evaluate deck's health therefore no inspection reports are available. After parameter estimation is performed. while the J(p) value for the updated model was 0. Table 1 shows the subdivision sequence corresponding to Scenario number one (Deck with overlay). Note that the smaller the J value. further area subdivisions are required only in those elements having variations outside of the preset limits. Model updating of the bridge in its healthy condition producing an equivalent model with modulus of elasticity E*. the better the correlation between experimental and analytical models.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. the deck is completely exposed and from the inspection reports is concluded that some deterioration is taking place in the bridge's surface. Cancún. J(p) value for the initial model was 13. The cooperative collaboration of these factors is the only way to ensure successful parameter estimation through model updating. one would have to search monotonically for all the 200 elements in the model.36. the damage estimation process requires an iterative process that incorporates a FEM. Due to limitations on the number of measurements in the deck. In the second one. Elements with E that are greater than or equal to 95% of E* will be considered undamaged.42 GPa and ρ* = 2988.57 kg/m3 match the healthy condition in the frequency range [0-35Hz]. Otherwise. engineering judgment and information from the inspection reports. The updated E* = 32. In order to investigate the robustness of the proposed parameter estimation method. it was found that all of the elements can be assumed as damage-free.

due to a unit impulsive load. Damage identification procedure is described below: Stage 1: Four possible damaged areas were identified from the inspection reports (E1.4% in modulus of elasticity. E3 and E4. Several subdivision schemes were attempted in order to evaluate the algorithm’s robustness and it was found that convergence to the real solution (global minimum) was not possible in all the cases. according to the preset limit (within the 95% of E*).0% with respect to its healthy modulus of elasticity E*. it was found that E1.6% respectively. Table 3 shows the results from Scenario number two (No overlay). Damage was correctly located in E3. Table 2). Stage 3: Areas E10 and E12 are regrouped into a new area and further subdivided into E13. México Figure 3. E10. and 11. with reductions in modulus of elasticity of 46. Stage 4: E14 is subdivided in element E16 and E17. Up to this point.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. E2 and E4 might be assumed as damage-free. The final estimates result in reductions of 50. .0% for E17. with a reduction of 53. E2. E9 and E11 can be assumed as undamaged. E14 and E15. From the inspection reports is concluded that some deterioration is taking place in the bridge's surface.1% for E16 (which contains the actual damaged area). After parameter estimation. E11 and E12 as shown in Table 1. Stage 2: E5 will then be further subdivided in elements E9. with a reduction of 50. After the optimization is performed. E10 and E12 are found to be damaged. "true" and updated models. the algorithm has narrowed down the search for damage to approximately 6. Cancún.0% and 60. E14 is the only element found damaged. The most successful scheme is described in Stage 3. This deterioration might represent deck damage but is not possible to evaluate structural health based solely on inspection reports.0% of the total area of the deck. FRFs from the "analytical". for the vertical displacement at a node located in the right span of the bridge.

Damage identification process for Scenario 1. {0} E3=15.42.5} E6=30.77. {0} 4 E16=16.42 . {0} . {0} E12=12. {53.0} Table 2 Damage identification process for Scenario 2. {0} (MPa).42.50.7} E14=16. {Reduction (%)} E1=32.42. {0} E4=32.0} E4=32.4} E15=32.42. {0} 2 E9=32. Cancún. Stag e Subdivision 1 Modulus of elasticity (MPa).42. {15. México Figure 4.42 .42.6} 3 E13=31.42.56. {50. Location of actual damaged section (left) and information from visual inspection reports (right) Table 1. {0} E2=32.24. {0} E8=32.8} E7=32.42.76.39. E5=27. {46.1} E17=28. {4. {2.26. {0} E3=32. {0} E10=17.1.42. Stag e Subdivision 1 Modulus of Elasticity {Reduction (%)} E1=32.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011.42. {60. {0} E2=32.87. {50.0} E11=32. {11.

Journal of Sound and Vibration. This simplified model has a deck with equivalent modulus of elasticity E* and unit mass ρ*. McLean: Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center. Some convergence issues arose when a finer searching was attempted given the non-linear behavior of the error function creating a complex solution space that may require a stochastic optimization method such as Genetic Algorithms. U and Shin. On the other hand. Two scenarios were considered in this study: Scenario number one assumes a bridge with a deck overlay. 6 REFERENCES Esfandiari. Phares. . 2006. damage was introduced in the deck by reducing the modulus of elasticity of two of its elements. J. Journal of Sound and Vibration. San Diego. M. and Barr. BM. Rolander. FRF's from the healthy structure are used to update the analytical FEM by changing the unknown parameters Emodel and ρmodel. other NDE techniques such as GPR. México 5 CONCLUSIONS This paper presented a methodology for damage detection in bridge decks using scarce measurements. After narrowing down problematic areas to a specific segment of the bridge. modulus of elasticity of those areas are the unknown parameters to be estimated. Massachusetts (Sanayei et al. a more accurate diagnosis of critical areas was achieved. Four impulsive loads are applied separately to the structure in both. 257(4): 615-634. representing the healthy bridge deck. 2001. Structural model updating using frequency response function and quasi-linear sensitivity equation. Lee. Cancún. The proposed method is able to identify both location and extent of damage. 4th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring. The next step in the research is the validation of the method using field data from a fully-instrumented bridge located in Barre.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. P. reducing costs and time delays due to bridge's closing. Comparisons of Excitation Sources for Use in Structural Health Monitoring. It is feasible to obtain a simplified baseline FEM from a somewhat complex reinforced deck. F. Best results were obtained for updating frequencies in the range [0-35Hz] and eight frequency points spaced at 5 Hz intervals starting a zero. and Washer. 2005. 2002. SY. its healthy and damaged conditions. Graybeal. Waveform-Based Identification of Structural Damage Using the Combined Finite Element Method and Microgenetic Algorithms. Halling. 326: 557-573. By tracking the changes in the unknown parameters. Lee. through model updating. BA. Bakhtiari-Nejad. SC. Hsieh. Rahai A and Sanayei M. A. based on inspection reports and engineering judgment.. DD. Changes in damping due to damage will be addressed as well as exploring alternative optimization techniques. and Wooh. Next.. A frequency-domain method of structural damage identification formulated from the dynamic stiffness equation of motion. GA. ASCE 131(9): 1474-1472. The presented method is able to reduce the search for damage to approximately 6% of the total area of the deck. Acoustic Emission and Chain Dragging could be used in a more efficient fashion. Journal of Structural Engineering. The damage algorithm requires the subdivision of the bridge's deck in segments. in scenario number two the deck surface is exposed and possible damage locations can be identified in advance from visual inspection. Reliability of Visual Bridge Inspection. 2009. K. Subsequent divisions were performed in such critical areas until the location of the damaged segments was approximately identified. (2011)). Proc.

M. Schulz. 2nd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing 2009. Wu Z and Yang Y. México Sampaio. Sanayei. Accepted for publication. Detecting structural damage using frequency response functions. Multi-Response Parameter Estimation for Finite Element Model Updating Using Non-Destructive Test Data. Wadia-Fascetti. Journal of Sound and Vibration. Damage Detection Using the Frequency-Response. and Silva. and FEM Updating for Bridge Evaluation using Strain Measurements. SK. M. JE. A study on structural damage detection method based on model updating. Thyagarajan. 2012. EM and Brenner. ASCE 133(4): 1068-1079. . 2009. 2004. Maia. Journal of Structural Engineering.. 272(3-5): 471-493. NMM. McClain. PF. E. 226(5). Instrumentation. Extracting Bridge Frequencies from the Dynamics Response of Passing Vehicles. Sipple. Phelps. Journal of Sound and Vibration. A and Santini EM. RPC. Journal of Structural Engineering. M. Yang H. Yang. YB and Yau. Sanayei. JMM. 1999.5th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (SHMII-5) 2011 11-15 December 2011. 1029-1042. Sanayei. Santini-Bell. E. IEEE: 1-5. 2011. 1999. MJ and Pai. Santini-Bell.. 210(1): 162-170. ASCE.Function Curvature Method. Javdekar. Nondestructive Testing. Journal of Sound and Vibration. Journal for Bridge Engineering in January. CN and Slavsky. JD. JAS.. Parameter estimation incorporating modal data and boundary conditions. 1998. 125(9): 1048-1055. 2007. BR. JD. Cancún.

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