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EC2353 -Antenna and wave propagation Introduction
 An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors  Transmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space  Reception - collects electromagnetic energy from space  In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for transmission and reception  An antenna is a circuit element that provides a transition form a guided wave on a transmission line to a free space wave and it provides for the collection of electromagnetic energy.  In transmit systems the RF signal is generated, amplified, modulated and applied to the antenna  In receive systems the antenna collects electromagnetic waves that are “cutting” through the antenna and induce alternating currents that are used by the receiver

CONCEPT OF VECTOR POTENTIAL

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Hertzian dipole
A simple practical antenna is a doublet or Hertzian dipole (see a figure below). It is very short length of wire over which the current distribution can be assumed uniform. Maxwell’s equations show that such an antenna when energized by a high frequency current is associated with an induction field which decreases inversely as square of the distance and a radiation field which decreases inversely as distance only. The later is still measurable at large distances from the doublet and is well-known radiation field used in radio communications

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 Beamwidth is the angular separation of the half-power points of the radiated pattern .eeeexclusive. In a given direction. (2) Power gain does not include reflection losses arising from mismatchof impedance.  Power Gain. In a given direction. the power gain is usually taken to be thepower gain in the direction of its maximum value. In a given direction. NOTES: (1) When thedirection is not stated. the power radiated form an antenna per unit solid angle.blogspot.com DEFINITIONS  Radiation Intensity. 4ð times the ratio of theradiation intensity in that direction to the total power radiated by the antenna. The value of the directive gain in the direction of its maximum value.www.  Directivity. 4ð times the ratio of the radiationintensity in that direction to the net power accepted by the antenna from the connected transmitter.  Directive Gain.

eeeexclusive. Optimum signal strength occurs at right angles or 180° from opposite the antenna . If Pd is a power density at the antenna and Pr is received power.com RECIPROCITY:  An antenna ability to transfer energy form the atmosphere to its receiver with the same efficiency with which it transfers energy from the transmitter into the atmosphere  Antenna characteristics are essentially the same regardless of whether an antenna is sending or receiving electromagnetic energy An antenna with a non-uniform distribution of current over its length L can be considered as having a shorter effective length Le over which the current is assumed to be uniform and equal to its peak. Every antenna may be considered to have such a collecting area which is called its effective aperture A.blogspot. Power radiated from a λ/2 dipole occurs at right angles to the antenna with no power emitting from the ends of the antenna. The relationship between Le and L is given by:  Effective aperture The power received by an antenna can be associated with collecting area. then:  Polarization is the direction of the electric field and is the same as the physical attitude of the antenna  A vertical antenna will transmit a vertically polarized wave The receive and transmit antennas need to possess the same polarization Antenna Gain  Relationship between antenna gain and effective area G = antenna gain Ae = effective area f = carrier frequency c = speed of light (» 3 ´ 108 m/s) λ = carrier wavelength Radiation Pattern  Radiation pattern is an indication of radiated field strength around the antenna.www.

This temperature is not the physical temperature of the antenna. This temperature can be used in the above equation to find the total noise power of the system. These concepts begin to illustrate how antenna engineers must understand receivers and the associated electronics.eeeexclusive. . Hence.www. rather the temperature depends on its gain pattern and the thermal environment that it is placed in. The noise power received from an antenna at temperature can be expressed in terms of the bandwidth (B) the antenna (and its receiver) are operating over: In the above. the antenna temperature will only depend on the temperature in which the antenna is "looking". The receiver also has a temperature associated with it ( ).this is the temperature in every direction away from the antenna in spherical coordinates. and the total system temperature (antenna plus receiver) has a combined temperature given by . an isotropic antenna would have a noise temperature that is the average of all temperatures around the antenna. This temperature distribution will be written as .blogspot. For an antenna with a radiation pattern given by mathematically defined as: . To define the environment. because the resulting systems very much depend on each other. the value of the temperature pattern in the direction of the Earth's ground is the physical temperature of the Earth's ground.com  Radiation pattern  Graphical representation of radiation properties of an antenna  Depicted as two-dimensional cross section  Beam width (or half-power beam width)  Measure of directivity of antenna  Reception pattern  Receiving antenna’s equivalent to radiation pattern Antenna Temperature ( ) is a parameter that describes how much noise an antenna produces in a given environment. an antenna's temperature will vary depending on whether it is directional and pointed into space or staring into the sun.38 * 10^-23 [Joules/Kelvin = J/K]). we'll introduce a temperature distribution . the noise temperature is This states that the temperature surrounding the antenna is integrated over the entire sphere. K is Boltzmann's constant (1. For instance. and weighted by the antenna's radiation pattern. the night sky is roughly 4 Kelvin. for a perfectly directional antenna (with a pencil beam). Moreover. Hence. an antenna does not have an intrinsic "antenna temperature" associated with it.

UNIT _2 WIRE ANTENNAS AND ANTENNA ARRAYS Half wave antenna .www.com A parameter often encountered in specification sheets for antennas that operate in certain environments is the ratio of gain of the antenna divided by the antenna temperature (or system temperature if a receiver is specified). This parameter is written as G/T. and has units of dB/Kelvin [dB/K].blogspot.eeeexclusive.

It is formed by a conductor in length. .blogspot. which is near a conductive surface which works as a reflector (see Effect of ground). The set quarter-wave plus image forms a half-wave dipole that radiates only in the upper half of space. that behaves as a dipole antenna. The current in the reflected image has the same direction and phase that the current in the real antenna.eeeexclusive.www. It is fed in the lower end.com Quarter wave or unipole antenna  The quarter wave or unipole antenna is a single element antenna feed at one end.

and is assumed to be much smaller than a wavelength ( a<< ). Generally any combination of elements can form an array.eeeexclusive.com Antenna array is a group of antennas or antenna elements arranged to provide the desired directional characteristics. where impedance mismatch loss can be tolerated. equal elements in a regular geometry are usually used. These antennas have low radiation resistance and high reactance. The radius is a. these antennas are most often used as receive antennas. . LOOP ANTENNA The small loop antenna is a closed loop as shown in Figure 1. PATTERN MULTIPLICATION The pattern multiplication principle states that the radiation patterns of an array of N identical antennas is equal to the product of the element pattern Fe( ) (pattern of one of the antennas) and the array pattern Fa( ).blogspot.www. where Fa( ) is the pattern obtained upon replacing all of the actual antennas with isotropic sources. so that their impedance is difficult to match to a transmitter. The loop lies in the x-y plane. As a result. However.

For a circular loop with radius a and wire radius p. because if a small dipole had magnetic current flowing (as opposed to electric current as in a regular dipole). the reactive component of the impedance can be determined by finding the inductance of the loop. the E-field is horizontally polarized in the x-y plane. the fields would resemble that of a small loop. While the short dipole has a capacitive impedance (imaginary part of impedance is negative).and H. However. The variation of the pattern with direction is given by . the radiation resistance for small loops can be approximated (in Ohms) by: For a small loop. The radiation resistance (and ohmic loss resistance) can be increased by adding more turns to the loop.eeeexclusive. Small loop antenna. which depends on its shape (then X=2*pi*f*L). the current within the loop can be approximated as being constant along the loop. the impedance of a small loop is inductive (positive imaginary part). each with a surface area S (we don't require the loop to be circular at this point). so that I= The fields from a small circular loop are given by: . so that the radiation pattern of a small loop antenna has the same power pattern as that of a short dipole. the fields of a small dipole have the E. If there are N turns of a small loop antenna.fields switched relative to that of a short dipole.com Figure 1.blogspot. The small loop is often referred to as the dual of the dipole antenna.www. Since the loop is electrically small. the reactive component of the impedance is given by: .

 Direction finding with loops . and as field strength probes used in wireless measurements. and have a radiation pattern similar to the dipole antenna. A circular loop gets higher gain (about 10%) than the other forms of large loop antenna. it is less sensitive to near field electric noise when properly shielded. an AM loop may have multiple turns of wire and still be less than 1/10 of a wavelength. However. Most directional receiving loops are about 1/10 of a wavelength.  Loop antenna A loop antenna has a continuous conducting path leading from one conductor of a two-wire transmission line to the other conductor. they are most often used as receive antennas. This is the opposite mechanism as the large loop. and nulls in the axis perpendicular to the plane of the loop.  AM loops AM loops are loops tuned for the AM broadcasting band. Typically these loops are tuned with a capacitor. All planar loops are directional antennas with a sharp null. the current around the antenna is nearly completely in phase. Hence. The large loop has its strongest signal in the plane of the loop. the large and small loops have different orientations with respect to their radiation pattern. Typically a loop is a multiple of a half or full wavelength in circumference.  Small loops A loop is considered a small loop if it is less than 1/4 of a wavelength in circumference. making squares and triangles much more popular. Since the small loop is small with respect to a wavelength. but circles can be hard to support in a flexible wire.  Large loops The (large) loop antenna is similar to a dipole. The small loop is also called the magnetic loop because it is more sensitivie to the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave. except that the ends of the dipole are connected to form a circle. and may also be wound around a ferrite rod to increase aperture.com Small loops often have a low radiation resistance and a highly inductive component to their reactance. This is the opposite orientation to the small loop. triangle () or square.www. As such. as gain of this antenna is directly proportional to the area enclosed by the loop.blogspot. Therefore. Large loop antennas are more immune to localized noise partly due to lack of a need for a groundplane. The received voltage of a small loop can be greatly increased by bringing the loop into resonance with a tuning capacitor. Exaples of their use include in pagers. waves approaching in the plane of the loop will cancel. and waves in the axis perpendicular to the plane of the loop will be strongest. Because of the extremely long wavelength.eeeexclusive.

Therefore. other methods must be used to determine if the signal is in front or behind the loop. Uniform linear array .blogspot.com Loops are somewhat directional along the axis of highest gain.eeeexclusive. to obtain a combined cardioid radiation pattern with a sharp null on only one side. when using a loop for direction finding. Frequently. a dipole and a loop are used together. but have a sharp null in the axis perpendicular to their highest gain.www. the plane of the antenna is rotated until the signal disappears. As planar loops have a 180 degree symmetry.

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with a rectangular slot cut out of dimensions a and b. The slot size. If we can excite some reasonable fields in the slot (often called the aperture). These antennas are popular because they can be cut out of whatever surface they are to be mounted on.com Slot antennas are used typically at frequencies between 300 MHz and 24 GHz. as we'll see).blogspot.eeeexclusive. and have radiation patterns that are roughly omnidirectional (similar to a linear wire antenna. . as shown in Figure 1.www. shape and what is behind it (the cavity) offer design variables that can be used to tune performance. The polarization is linear. we have an antenna. Consider an infinite conducting sheet.

that is.www. Booker in 1946). An example of dual antennas is shown in Figure 2: . the slot antenna became a metal slab in space. The dual of a slot antenna would be if the conductive material and air were interchanged . To gain an intuition about slot antennas.com Figure 1. This principle relates the radiated fields and impedance of an aperture or slot antenna to that of the field of its dual antenna. Rectangular Slot antenna with dimensions a and b.eeeexclusive. first we'll learn Babinet's principle (put into antenna terms by H. G.blogspot.

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Figure 2. Dual antennas. Note that a voltage source is applied across the short end of the slot. This induces an E-field distribution within the slot, and currents that travel around the slot perimeter, both contributed to radiation. The dual antenna is similar to a dipole antenna. The voltage source is applied at the center of the dipole, so that the voltage source is rotated. Babinet's principle relates these two antennas. The first result states that the impedance of the slot ( ) is related to the impedance of its dual antenna ( ) by the relation:

In the above, is the intrinsic impedance of free space. The second major result of Babinet's/Booker's principle is that the fields of the dual antenna are almost the same as the slot antenna (the fields components are interchanged, and called "duals"). That is, the fields of the slot antenna (given with a subscript S) are related to the fields of it's complement (given with a subscript C) by:

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Hence, if we know the fields from one antenna we know the fields of the other antenna. Hence, since it is easy to visualize the fields from a dipole antenna, the fields and impedance from a slot antenna can become intuitive if Babinet's principle is understood. Note that the polarization of the two antennas are reversed. That is, since the dipole antenna on the right in Figure 2 is vertically polarized, the slot antenna on the left will be horizontally polarized.

Duality Example
As an example, consider a dipole similar to the one shown on the right in Figure 2. Suppose the length of the dipole is 14.4 centimeters and the width is 2 centimeters, and that the impedance at 1 GHz is 65+j15 Ohms. The fields from the dipole antenna are given by:

What are the fields from a slot at 1 GHz, with the same dimensions as the dipole? Using Babinet's principle, the impedance can be easily found:

The impedance of the slot for this case is much larger, and while the dipole's impedance is inductive (positive imaginary part), the slot's impedance is capacitive (negative imaginary part). The E-fields for the slot can be easily found:

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We see that the E-fields only contain a phi (azimuth) component; the antenna is therefore horizontally polarized. Horn antennas are very popular at UHF (300 MHz-3 GHz) and higher frequencies (I've heard of horns operating as high as 140 GHz). They often have a directional radiation pattern with a high gain , which can range up to 25 dB in some cases, with 10-20 dB being typical. Horns have a wide impedance bandwidth, implying that the input impedance is slowly varying over a wide frequency range (which also implies low values for S11 or VSWR). The bandwidth for practical horn antennas can be on the order of 20:1 (for instance, operating from 1 GHz-20 GHz), with a 10:1 bandwidth not being uncommon. The gain often increases (and the beamwidth decreases) as the frequency of operation is increased. Horns have very little loss, so the directivity of a horn is roughly equal to its gain. Horn antennas are somewhat intuitive and not relatively simple to manufacture. In addition, acoustic horns also used in transmitting sound waves (for example, with a megaphone). Horn antennas are also often used to feed a dish antenna, or as a "standard gain" antenna in measurements. Popular versions of the horn antenna include the E-plane horn, shown in Figure 1. This horn is flared in the E-plane, giving the name. The horizontal dimension is constant at w.

Figure 1. E-plane horn. Another example of a horn is the H-plane horn, shown in Figure 2. This horn is flared in the H-plane, with a constant height for the waveguide and horn of h.

metal cavity. The Efield distribution for the dominant mode is shown in the lower part of Figure 1. Figure 3. as shown in Figure 4. The waveguide itself is often fed with a short dipole. Horns are typically fed by a section of a waveguide.blogspot. and has width B and height A at the end of the horn. . This is a pyramidal horn. The most popular horn is flared in both planes as shown in Figure 3. Waveguides are used to guide electromagnetic energy from one place to another. A waveguide is simply a hollow. which is shown in red in Figure 4. H-Plane horn. Pyramidal horn. with b>a.eeeexclusive. The waveguide in Figure 4 is a rectangular waveguide of width b and height a.com Figure 2.www.

The angle between the plates will be 90 degrees. if we start with a wire antenna (lets say a half-wave dipole antenna). a corner reflector may be used.blogspot. To further increase the directivity. a fairly intuitive solution is to use a reflector. Figure 1. as shown in Figure 1.com Figure 4.eeeexclusive. For example. we could place a conductive sheet behind it to direct radiation in the forward direction. Geometry of Corner Reflector. . Waveguide used as a feed to horn antennas.www. Reflector Antenna To increase the directivity of an antenna.

The dotted circles indicate antennas that are in-phase with the actual antenna.www. Then the radiation pattern (R) of the "equivalent set of radiators" of Figure 2 can be written as: The above directly follows from Figure 2 and array theory ( k is the wave number.blogspot. valid for the region in front of the plates. Since we assumed the plates were infinite. the fields for this case are shown in Figure 3. The directivity will be increased by 9-12 dB.eeeexclusive. the fields behind the plates are zero.com The radiation pattern of this antenna can be understood by using image theory. we'll assume the reflecting plates are infinite in extent. and then calculating the result via array theory. . The directivity will be the highest when d is a half-wavelength. Assume that the original antenna has an omnidirectional pattern given by . the x'd out antennas are 180 degrees out of phase to the actual antenna. The resulting pattern will have the same polarization as the original vertically polarized antenna. Equivalent sources in free space. For ease of analysis. The above equation gives the radiated fields in the region in front of the plates. Figure 2 below shows the equivalent source distribution. Assuming the radiating element of Figure 1 is a short dipole with a pattern given by . Figure 2.

The input impedance is increased by the reflector when the spacing is one half wavelength. Polar and azimuth patterns of normalized radiation pattern. commonly known as a satellite dish antenna. if tracing a ray travelling along the y-axis from the antenna. this parameter is not critically important. it can be reduced by moving the antenna closer to the reflector.eeeexclusive. impedance and gain of the antenna will be influenced by the distance d of Figure 1.www. however since linear antennas do not radiate well along the z-axis. this will be reflected if the length is at least . However. The Parabolic Reflector Antenna (Satellite Dish) The most well-known reflector antenna is the parabolic reflector antenna. The height of the plates should be taller than the radiating element. The length L of the reflectors in Figure 1 are typically 2*d. Examples of this dish antenna are shown in the following Figures. The radiation pattern.com Figure 3.blogspot. .

.www.eeeexclusive.blogspot.com Figure 1. The "big dish" of Stanford University.

www. .com Figure 2. Parabolic reflectors typically have a very high gain (30-40 dB is common) and low cross polarization.5 GHz). The large dishes can operate in the VHF region (30-300 MHz). which can operate from 150 MHz to 1. The basic structure of a parabolic dish antenna is shown in Figure 3. They also have a reasonable bandwidth. The smaller dish antennas typically operate somewhere between 2 and 28 GHz. A random "direcTV dish" on a roof.blogspot. but typically need to be extremely large at this operating band. with the fractional bandwidth being at least 5% on commercially available models. It consists of a feed antenna pointed towards a parabolic reflector. and can be very wideband in the case of huge dishes (like the Stanford "big dish" above. The feed antenna is often a horn antenna with a circular aperture.eeeexclusive.

but the diameter can be on the order of 100 wavelengths for very high gain dishes (>50 dB gain). Components of a dish antenna. The dish is at least several wavelengths in diameter. To start. .blogspot. let the equation of a parabola with focal length F can be written in the (x. Unlike resonant antennas like the dipole antenna which are typically approximately a half-wavelength long at the frequency of operation.www. This is in contrast to the corner reflector. we'll look at the parabolic dish geometry in detail and why a parabola is a desired shape. where the antenna is roughly a half-wavelength from the reflector.eeeexclusive. the reflecting dish must be much larger than a wavelength in size.com Figure 3. In the next section.z) plane as: This is plotted in Figure 1. The distance between the feed antenna and the reflector is typically several wavelenghts as well.

the diameter D and the focal length F. with each ray acting as a plane wave. The reflector is assumed to be perfectly conducting.www. We also define two auxilliary parameters. Illustration of parabola with defining parameters. arriving from two distinct angles as shown in Figure 2.blogspot. Since the reflector is large relative to a wavelength. this assumption is reasonable though not precisely accurate. We will analyze the structure via straight line rays from the focal point. so that the rays are completely reflected. These parameters are related to each other by the following equations: To analyze the reflector. the vertical height of the reflector (H) and the max angle between the focal point and the edge of the dish ( ). . we will use approximations from geometric optics. The parabola is completely described by two parameters.eeeexclusive. Consider two transmitted rays from the focal point.com Figure 1.

This can be proved with a little bit of geometry.com Figure 2. Finally. Two rays leaving the focal point and reflected from the parabolic reflector. As a result of these observations. These facts can be proved for any set of angles chosen. The rays are said to be collimated. . . This is why the shape of the dish is parabolic. by revolving the parabola about the z-axis. Hence. The first is that both rays end up travelling in the downward direction (which can be determined because the incident and reflected angles relative to the normal of the surface must be equal).  The distance each ray travels from the focal point to the reflector and then to the focal plane is constant. a paraboloid is obtained.blogspot. which I won't reproduce here. it follows the distribution of the field on the focal plane will be in phase and travelling in the same direction.www.eeeexclusive. it follows that:  All rays emanating from the focal point (the source or feed antenna) will be reflected towards the same direction. as shown below. There are two observations that can be made from Figure 2. This gives rise to the parabolic dish antennas highly directional radiation pattern. The second important observation is that the path lengths ADE and ABC are equal.

com For design. Factors affecting the choice of this ratio will be given in the following sections. The focal length F is then the only free parameter. In the next section.0. we'll look at gain calculations for a parabolic reflector antenna. This efficiency term will often be on the order of 0.6-0. The fields across the aperture of the parabolic reflector is responsible for this antenna's radiation. .blogspot.7 for a well designed dish antenna: Understanding this efficiency will also aid in understanding the trade-offs involved in the design of a parabolic reflector. The maximum possible gain of the antenna can be expressed in terms of the physical area of the aperture: The actual gain is in terms of the effective aperture. typical values are commonly given as the ratio F/D.3 and 1. the value of the diameter D should be increased to increase the gain of the antenna. which usually range between 0.eeeexclusive. The efficiency can be written as the product of a series of terms: We'll walk through each of these terms. which is related to the physical area by the efficiency term ( ).www.

eeeexclusive. we'll make use of some results by S. there will be some loss due to a non-perfect phase center for a horn antenna.  Non-Ideal Feed Phase Center . but can be approximated well using the function above for some value of n. Instead of introducing complex formulas for some of these terms.blogspot. Silver back in 1949.The parabolic dish has desirable properties relative to a single focal point. . Using the above pattern. the aperture efficiency of a parabolic reflector can be calculated.The feed antenna (and the physical structure that holds it up) blocks some of the radiation that would be transmitted by the reflector. He calculated the aperture efficiency for a class of radiation patterns given as: TYpically. This is displayed in Figure 1 for varying values of and the F/D ratio.com  Aperture Blockage . Calculating Efficiency The efficiency is a function of where the feed antenna is placed (in terms of F and D) and the feed antenna's radiation pattern. Since the feed antenna will not be a point source.www. the feed antenna (horn) will not have a pattern exactly like the above.

the 3d radiation patterns are presented to give an idea of what they look like. In the next section. the actual gain is 29. we'll look at the radiation pattern of a parabolic antenna. for varying feed antenna radiation patterns. A circular horn antenna will be used as the feed. The F/D ratio will be 0. The 3D patterns are shown in the following figures. In this section.eeeexclusive.com Figure 1. The maximum gain from the physical aperture is . Note that the equation that relates the ratio of F/D to the angle can be found here. . D is made as large as possible so that the physical aperture is maximized.3 dB = 851.5. Aperture Efficiency of a Parabolic Reflector as a function of F/D or the angle .www. First. so we can conclude that the overall efficiency is 77%. Then the F/D ratio that maximizes the aperture efficiency can be found from the above graph.blogspot. Figure 1 gives a good idea on design of optimal parabolic reflectors. This example will be for a parabolic dish reflector with the diameter of the dish D equal to 11 wavelengths.

. and the front-to-back ratio is approximately 33 dB. view A. Consider the action of the two types of lenses. The HPBW is approximately 5 degrees. Since this type of antenna uses a lens to straighten the wavefronts. The lens of an antenna is substantially transparent to microwave energy that passes through it. rather than reflection. To the wave these strips look like parallel waveguides. Two types of lenses have been developed to provide a plane-wavefront narrow beam for tracking radars.blogspot. LENS ANTENNA. which is similar to an optical lens to straighten the spherical wavefronts.com As can be seen.www. the pattern is highly directional. This antenna uses a microwave lens.eeeexclusive. The velocity of phase propagation of a wave is greater in a waveguide than in air. It will. The conducting type of lens is illustrated in figure 1-10. These are the conducting (acceleration) type and the dielectric (delay) type. This type of lens consists of flat metal strips placed parallel to the electric field of the wave and spaced slightly in excess of one-half of a wavelength. its design is based on the laws of refraction. the outer portions of the transmitted spherical waves are accelerated for a longer interval of time than the inner portion. while avoiding the problems associated with the feedhorn shadow. cause the waves of energy to be either converged or diverged as they exit the lens.—Another antenna that can change spherical waves into flat plane waves is the lens antenna. however. since the lens is concave. Thus.

.www. as can be seen in the following picture.eeeexclusive.blogspot.com Helical Antenna Antennas List Antenna Theory Home Helix antennas have a very distinctive shape.

Lee Boyce. The basic geometry is shown in Figure 1. and can produce circularly polarized fields.eeeexclusive.www.blogspot. These helixes are referred to as axial-mode helical antennas. The most popular helical antenna (often called a 'helix') is a travelling wave antenna in the shape of a corkscrew that produces radiation along the axis of the helix. is easily constructed. The benefits of this antenna is it has a wide bandwidth.com Photo courtesy of Dr. . has a real input impedance.

Diameter of a turn on the helix.pitch angle. which controls how far the antenna grows in the z-direction per turn.Circumference of a turn on the helix ( C=pi*D).www. Geometry of Helical Antenna.  H . The parameters are defined below.  S .Vertical separation between turns. The antenna in Figure 1 is a left handed helix.  D . because if you curl your fingers on your left hand around the helix your thumb would point up (also.blogspot. and is given by  N . the waves emitted from the antenna are Left Hand Circularly Polarized). H=NS. If the helix was .Number of turns on the helix.com Figure 1.  C .  .eeeexclusive.Total height of helix.

The design of helical antennas is primarily based on empirical results. which is true of axial helices in general. which means the current travels along the antenna and the phase varies continuously. In addition. then the highest frequency of operation will be given by the smallest wavelength that fits into the above equation. The helix is a travelling wave antenna.blogspot. For instance.333C=0. which corresponds to a frequency of 450 MHz. or =1. and the fundamental equations will be presented here.5 meters). The normalized radiation pattern for the E-field components are given by: For circular polarization. the inequalites above roughly determine the operating bandwidth of the helix.www. The lowest frequency of operation will be given by the largest wavelength that fits into the above equation. the fractional BW is 56%.com wound the other way. which corresponds to a frequency of 800 MHz. if C=19. the pitch angle is taken as 13 degrees. Helices of at least 3 turns will have close to circular polarization in the +z direction when the circumference C is close to a wavelength: Once the circumference C is chosen. Hence. The pattern will be maximum in the +z direction (along the helical axis in Figure 1). This occurs in directions near the axis (z-axis in Figure 1) of . the orthogonal components of the E-field must be 90 degrees out of phase. Typically. or =0. the input impedance is primarly real and can be approximated in Ohms by: The helix functions well for pitch angles ( ) between 12 and 14 degrees.375 meters.eeeexclusive. it would be a right handed helical antenna.667 meters.75C=0.68 inches (0.

the pattern is shown in Figure 2. S.5 meter circumference as above.3 (9. N).com the helix. the gain is 8. the gain increases with frequency. and an pitch angle of 13 degrees (giving S=0. For the same example helix.eeeexclusive. that has a 0.blogspot. c is the speed of light. The Half-Power Beamwidth for helical antennas can be approximated (in degrees) by: . Figure 2. The axial ratio for helix antennas decreases as the number of loops N is added.2 dB). and can be approximated by: The gain of the helix can be approximated by: In the above. Note that for a given helix geometry (specified in terms of C.13 meters).www. Normalized radiation pattern for helical antenna (dB). For an N=10 turn helix.

Uda probably invented it. A picture of Professor Yagi with a Yagi-Uda antenna is shown below. These antennas typically operate in the HF to UHF bands (about 3 MHz to 3 GHz). It is simple to construct and has a high gain. my sources are conflicting).com The Yagi-Uda antenna or Yagi is one of the most brilliant antenna designs. although their bandwidth is typically small. who went to America and gave the first English talks on the antenna. You are probably familiar with this antenna. The work was presented for the first time in English by Yagi (who was either Uda's professor or colleague.eeeexclusive. even though the antenna is often called a Yagi antenna. with results first published in 1926. The Yagi antenna was invented in Japan.com Yagi-Uda Antenna Antennas List Antenna Theory . which led to its widespread use.blogspot. on the order of a few percent of the center frequency. . typically greater than 10 dB. An example of a Yagi-Uda antenna is shown below. as they sit on top of roofs everywhere.www. Hence. but published in Japanese. The work was originally done by Shintaro Uda.

eeeexclusive. as shown in Figure 1. This feed antenna is often altered in size to make it resonant in the presence of the parasitic elements (typically.45-0. The feed antenna is almost always the second from the end. This is the only member of the above structure that is actually excited (a source voltage or current applied). typically a dipole or a folded dipole antenna. 0.</FONT< CENTER> The antenna consists of a single 'feed' or 'driven' element. The length of the feed element is given in Figure 1 as F. Geometry of Yagi-Uda antenna.48 wavelengths long for a dipole antenna). Figure 1. The rest of the elements are parasitic .www.they reflect or help to transmit the energy in a particular direction.blogspot. The basic geometry of a Yagi-Uda antenna is shown in Figure 1. we'll explain the principles of the Yagi-Uda antenna. .com In the next section.

This element is important in determining the frontto-back ratio of the antenna. shortened to be resonant (gain = 2.www. This will cause a phase distribution to occur across the elements. the better of a physical reflector it becomes. if the reflector is longer than its resonant length. the Yagi-Uda antenna becomes an end-fire array . and separated from the adjacent director by a length SDi. and sometimes computer simulations. the current on the reflector lags the voltage induced on the reflector. which encourages wave propagation in the direction of the directors.15 dB). The length of this element is given as R and the distance between the feed and the reflector is SR.blogspot. .eeeexclusive. The rest of the elements (those to the right of the feed antenna as shown in Figure 1) are known as director elements. lets look at a two-element Yagi antenna (1 reflector. The above description is the basic idea of what is going on.the radiation is along the +y-axis as shown in Figure 1. The director elements (those to the right of the feed in Figure 1) will be shorter than resonant. Each element is of length Di. Hence. There is typically only one reflector. This leads to the array being designated as a travelling wave antenna. For instance. By choosing the lengths in this manner. so that the current leads the voltage. The reflector element is typically slightly longer than the feed element. making them capacitive. 1 feed element. The gain as a function of the separation is shown in Figure 2. As alluded to in the previous paragraph. simulating the phase progression of a plane wave across the array of elements.com The element to the left of the feed element in Figure 1 is the reflector. Yagi antenna design is done most often via measurements. The first is that the larger the element is. 0 directors). which is typically anywhere from N=1 to N=20 directors. the lengths of the directors are typically less than the resonant length. adding more reflectors improves performance very slightly. The feed element is a half-wavelength dipole. There can be any number of directors N. Secondly. Having the reflector slightly longer than resonant serves two purposes. the impedance of the reflector will be inductive.

the increases in gain will be less than 0. 1968. and another director is added. Note that the "boom" is the long element that the directors. the process basically follows this outline:  Look up a table of design parameters for Yagi antennas  Build it (or model it numerically).www. the first director will add approximately 3 dB of overall gain (if designed well).3 wavelengths.5 dB if the separation SD is between 0. The design of a Yagi-Uda antenna is actually quite simple. consider the table published in "Yagi Antenna Design" by P Viezbicke from the National Bureau of Standards. Gain versus separation for 2-element Yagi antenna. Adding an additional director always increases the gain.eeeexclusive. and tweak it till the performance is acceptable As an example.15 and 0.5 dB. the third about 1. given in Table I. Because Yagi antennas have been extensively analyzed and experimentally tested. The above graph shows that the gain is increases by about 2. the gain can be plotted as a function of director spacings. In the next section. or as a function of the number of directors used. the second will add about 2 dB. and . however.com Figure 2. Typically. I'll go further into the design of Yagi-Uda antennas. For instance. Similarly. if there are 8 directors. reflectors and feed elements are physically attached to.5 dB.blogspot. the gain in directivity decreases as the number of elements gets larger.

407 0.20 0.390 0.386 0. lengths.394 0.386 0.4 R D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 Spacing between directors.398 0.2 0.com dictates the lenght of the antenna.35 14.420 0.386 0.398 0.407 0.424 0. The above table gives a good starting point to estimate the required length of the antenna (the boom length). all the spacings.424 0.407 0. and a set of lengths and spacings that achieves the specified gain.eeeexclusive. diamters (including the boom diameter) are design variables and can be continuously . The spacing between the directors is uniform and given in the second-to-last row of the table.415 0.20 0.390 0.390 4.www.386 0.394 0.35 Gain (dB) 0.432 0.482 0.390 0.420 0.0085 SR=0.398 0. The diameter of the elements is given by d=0.390 0.390 0. In general.482 0.420 0.398 0.390 0.2 0.428 0.420 0.386 0.2 Boom Length of Yagi-Uda Array (in ) 0.386 0.0085 .20 0.55 16.390 0. Optimal Lengths for Yagi-Uda Elements.386 3.386 0.475 0.403 0.390 0. for Distinct Boom Lengths d=0.442 0.390 0.390 0.407 2.25 11.424 0.2 0.386 0.35 12.blogspot.8 0.482 0.20 0.2 0.428 0.482 0.428 1.25 0. Table I.428 0.428 0.308 There's no real rocket science going on in the above table. (SD/ ) 9.40 15.482 0. I believe the authors of the above document did experimental measurements until they found an optimized set of spacings and published it.

a 6-element Yagi antenna (with axis along the +x-axis) is simulated in FEKO (1 reflector.www. As an example of Yagi-antenna radiation patterns. Figure 1.com optimized to alter performance. and the optimal diamters of the elements. There are thousands of tables that further give results. . and the plots are given in Figures 1-3.eeeexclusive. 1 driven halfwavelength dipole.blogspot. The resulting antenna has a 12. E-plane gain of Yagi antenna.1 dBi gain. such as how the diamter of the boom affects the results. 4 directors).

H-Plane gain of Yagi antenna.com Figure 2. . Figure 3.www.blogspot. 3-D Radiation Pattern of Yagi antenna.eeeexclusive.

These antennas have directive patterns that are sharp in both the horizontal and vertical planes. and is noncritical as far as operation and adjustment are concerned. and this can also be optimized if desired.www. BEVERAGE ANTENNAS consist of a single wire that is two or more wavelengths long.com The above plots are just an example to give an idea of what the radiation pattern of the Yagi-Uda antenna resembles. The front-to-back ratio is approximately 19 dB for this antenna. This antenna has a wide frequency range. adding another refelctor).eeeexclusive. long wires arranged to form a V.blogspot. The RHOMBIC ANTENNA uses four conductors joined to form a rhombus shape. is easy to construct and maintain. . A LONG-WIRE ANTENNA is an antenna that is a wavelength or more long at the operating frequency. The gain can be increased (and the pattern made more directional) by adding more directors or optimizing spacing (or rarely. A V ANTENNA is a bi-directional antenna consisting of two horizontal.

eeeexclusive. narrow-beam antenna that has impedance and radiation characteristics that are regularly repetitive as a logarithmic function of the excitation frequency. LOG-PERIODIC ANTENNA  LOG-PERIODIC ANTENNA In telecommunication.com The TURNSTILE ANTENNA consists of two horizontal. multielement. also known as a log-periodic array) is a broadband. unidirectional. The individual . a log-periodic antenna (LP.blogspot.www. half-wire antennas mounted at right angles to each other.

Log. the impedance will go through the cycles of variation in such a way that each cycle is exactly like its preceding one and hence the name.e. currents and impedances in antenna systems.The result of this structural condition is that if a plot is made of the input impedance as a function of log of frequency then the variation will be periodic i. which is observed at the input port of every single antenna element. Log periodic antennas are arrays that are designed to be self-similar and thus are fractal antenna arrays. It is normal to drive alternating elements with a circa 180o (π radian) phase shift from the last element.com components are often dipoles. This is normally done by wiring the elements alternatingly to the two wires in a balanced transmission line. The voltage can be composed from contributions of single elements.-Periodic Antenna. 250 – 2400 MHz Mutual impedance& self-impedance  The method helps us to compute voltages. Each contribution is proportional to the current of the respective .increase logarithmically from one end to the other. being induced by the radiation of all the antenna elements (including the own element).blogspot. as in a log-periodic dipole array (LPDA).eeeexclusive. The method understands the voltage.www.The length and spacing of the elements of a log.

Z 11 is selfimpedance. They are becoming very widespread within the mobile phone market. Z 11. fed by a microstrip transmission line.g. Omnidirectional Biconical Antenna Microstrip or patch antennas are becoming increasingly useful because they can be printed directly onto a circuit board. Z 1n are mutual impedances between the first element and the other elements in the antenna system.com element. The patch. Z 12. which is driven by potential. and sitting on top of a substrate (some dielectric circuit board) of thickness h with permittivity The thickness of the ground plane or of the microstrip is not critically .www.blogspot. microstrip and ground plane are made of high conductivity metal. .. typically exhibiting a bandwidth of 3 octaves or more. voltage U 1 at the input of the first antenna element equals to the summation  where I 1. These impedances depend on the mutual position and mutual distance of antenna elements Biconical antenna A biconical antenna consists of an arrangement of two conical conductors. Biconical antennas are broadband dipole antennas. Z 13 are impedances. width W. They are low cost. The conductors have a common axis and vertex. have a low profile and are easily fabricated. The patch is of length L. I 3 are currents at the input ports of single elements. E. I 2. The two cones face in opposite directions. or an alternating magnetic field (and the associated alternating electric current) at the vertex. Consider the microstrip antenna shown in Figure 1.eeeexclusive. charge.

eeeexclusive. The frequency of operation of the patch antenna of Figure 1 is determined by the length L. Typically the height h is much smaller than the wavelength of operation.blogspot.com important. The center frequency will be approximately given by: .www. (a) Top View (b) Side View Figure 1. Geometry of Microstrip (Patch) Antenna.

. k is the free-space wavenumber. the input impedance will be on the order of 300 Ohms. The width W of the antenna controls the input impedance. The width further controls the radiation pattern. The normalized pattern is approximately given by: In the above. given by of the fields.www. For a square patch fed in the manner above.com The above equation says that the patch antenna should have a length equal to one half of a wavelength within the dielectric (substrate) medium.5 . By increasing the width. given by: . The magnitude The fields are plotted in Figure 2 for W=L=0. However.blogspot. to decrease the input impedance to 50 Ohms often requires a very wide patch. the impedance can be reduced.eeeexclusive.

It is shaped as a twoarm spiral.[1] Spiral antennas operate over a wide frequency range and have circular polarization.blogspot. The fields are linearly polarized.eeeexclusive. Normalized Radiation Pattern for Microstrip (Patch) Antenna. a spiral antenna is a type of RF antenna. or more arms may be used.com Figure 2. Spiral antenna In microwave systems. Applications . The directivity of patch antennas is approximately 5-7 dB.www. Spiral antennas were first described in 1956. Next we'll consider more aspects involved in Patch (Microstrip) antennas.

Figure 1.eeeexclusive.www. Suppose we want to measure the radiation pattern normal to the patch's surface (straight above the patch). A patch antenna oriented towards the z-axis with a Source illumination from the +y-direction. We record this power.com Measurement Example An example should make the process reasonably clear. . Suppose the source antenna illuminates the test antenna from +y-direction. Recall that we only rotate the test antenna. The source power again comes from the same direction. Then the measurement would look as shown in Figure 2. change the position and record again. hence it is at the same distance from the source antenna. As is usual. In Figure 1. Suppose the radiation pattern of a microstrip antenna is to be obtained. lets let the direction the patch faces ('normal' to the surface of the patch) be towards the z-axis. as shown in Figure 1. the received power for this case represents the power from the angle: .blogspot.

then the equation becomes: And that is all that needs done to determine the gain for an antenna in a particular direction.eeeexclusive. then the received power will increase.www. The separation between the source and test antennas is fixed. Record the received power with the test antenna (same source antenna). If the gain of the test antenna is higher than the gain of the "gain standard" antenna. Efficiency and Directivity . Let the received power from the test antenna be PR2. Let Gg be the gain of the "gain standard" antenna. Then the gain of the test antenna ( GT) is (in linear units): The above equation uses linear units (non-dB). If the gain is to be specified in decibels. we can easily calculate the gain of the test antenna. Using our measurements. and PR2 be the power received with the test antenna. (power received still in Watts). then the only thing that changes in the above equation is GR .com If we replace the gain standard antenna with our test antenna (as shown in Figure 2). and the frequency will be held constant as well.the gain of the receive antenna. PR be the power received with the gain antenna under test.blogspot. Figure 2.

They are also insulated from exterior sources of noise. Anechoic chambers range from small compartments to ones as large as aircraft hangars. The wavelength of audible sound in air falls in the same range as that of commonly used radio waves. In the next section. the efficiency follows directly from these. once we have measured the radiation pattern and the gain. and their propagation patterns bear many similarities. Anechoic chambers were originally used in the context of acoustics (sound waves) to minimize the reflections of a room. Recall that the efficiency of an antenna is simply the ratio of the peak gain to the peak directivity: Hence. radars. for example to test antennas. The size of the chamber depends on the size of the objects to be tested and the frequency . or electromagnetic interference.www. This is why both types look similar. Anechoic chamber An anechoic chamber An anechoic chamber is a room designed to stop reflections of either sound or electromagnetic waves.com Recall that the directivity can be calculated from the measured radiation pattern without regard to what the gain is. which is pretty simple. we'll look at measuring the phase of an antenna's radiation pattern.blogspot.eeeexclusive. Typically this can be performed by approximated the integral as a finite sum. The combination of both aspects means they simulate a quiet open-space of infinite dimension. Their radiofrequency counterpart have also been in use for a few decades. which is useful when exterior influences would otherwise give false results.

A recording studio may utilize a semi-anechoic chamber to produce high-quality music free of outside noise and unwanted echoes. Radio-frequency anechoic chambers An RF anechoic chamber. although scale models can sometimes be used by testing at shorter wavelengths.[3] Semi-anechoic chambers Full anechoic chambers aim to absorb energy in all directions.www. According to Guinness World Records. of which unofficially one is the quietest in the world with a measurement of −12. the interior surfaces of the RF anechoic chamber are covered with radiation absorbent material (RAM) instead of acoustically absorbent material [1]. All sound energy will be traveling away from the source with almost none reflected back. The internal appearance of the radio frequency (RF) anechoic chamber is sometimes similar to that of an acoustic anechoic chamber. Acoustic anechoic chambers Anechoic chambers are commonly used in acoustics to conduct experiments in nominally "free field" conditions. . however. This floor is damped and floating on absorbent buffers to isolate it from outside vibration or electromagnetic signals.blogspot.4 dBA. Semi-anechoic chambers have a solid floor that acts as a work surface for supporting heavy items. The RF anechoic chamber is typically used to house the equipment for performing measurements of antenna radiation patterns. Common anechoic chamber experiments include measuring the transfer function of a loudspeaker or the directivity of noise radiation from industrial machinery.com range of the signals used. 2005. In general.eeeexclusive. [1][2] The human ear can typically detect sounds above 0 dB. so a human in such a chamber would perceive the surroundings as devoid of sound. Orfield Laboratory's NIST certified Eckel Industries-designed anechoic chamber is "The quietest place on earth" measured at −9. or industrial machinery. such as cars. washing machines.4 dBA. the interior of an anechoic chamber is very quiet. The University of Salford has a number of Anechoic chambers. rather than the mesh floor grille over absorbent tiles found in full anechoic chambers. with typical noise levels in the 10–20 dBA range.

v is phase velocity of wave. at which measured reflections from the internal surfaces will be the most significant compared to higher frequencies. For most companies. Allowing for this and the extra space that may be required for the pyramidal RAM means that a substantial capital investment is required into even a modestly dimensioned chamber. while waves of lower frequencies have longer wavelengths and are lower in energy. where λ is the free space wavelength. the far field criteria sets a minimum distance between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna to be observed when measuring antenna radiation patterns. Installation into a screened room An RF anechoic chamber is usually built into a screened room. designed using the Faraday cage principle. and f is frequency.www. according to the relationship λ = v / f where lambda represents wavelength. Chamber size and commissioning The actual test setups usually require extra room than that required to simply house the test equipment. the hardware under test and associated cables. . Accordingly. Pyramidal RAM is at its most absorptive when the incident wave is at normal incidence to the internal chamber surface when the pyramid height is approximately equal to λ / 4. Sometimes for radar cross section measurements it is possible to scale down the objects under test and reduce the chamber size provided that the wavelength of the test frequency is scaled down in direct proportion. To shield for a specific wavelength. This is because most of the RF tests that require an anechoic chamber to minimize reflections from the inner surfaces also require the properties of a screened room to attenuate unwanted signals penetrating inwards and causing interference to the equipment under test and prevent leakage from tests penetrating outside. The performance quality of an RF anechoic chamber is determined by its lowest test frequency of operation.com Effectiveness over frequency Close-up of a pyramidal RAM Waves of higher frequencies have shorter wavelengths and are higher in energy. such an investment in a large RF anechoic chamber is not justifiable unless it is likely to be used continuously or perhaps rented out.eeeexclusive. increasing the pyramid height of the RAM for the same (square) base size improves the effectiveness of the chamber at low frequencies but results in increased cost and a reduced unobstructed working volume that is available inside a chamber of defined size. the cone must be of appropriate size to absorb that wavelength.blogspot. For example.

blogspot. would not be present inside the chamber. Unnecessary cables and/or poor filtering can collect interference on the outside and conduct them to the inside. Normally this may be located outside of the chamber provided it is not susceptible to interference from exterior fields which. This has the advantage of reducing reflection surfaces inside but it requires extra cables and particularly good filtering. the aircraft industry may test equipment for aircraft according to company specifications or military specifications such as MIL-STD 461E. It is normal to filter electrical power supplies for use within the anechoic chamber as unfiltered supplies present a risk of unwanted signals being conducted into and out of the chamber along the power cables.www. Operational use Test and supporting equipment configurations to be used within anechoic chambers must expose as few metallic (conductive) surfaces as possible. Fiber optic cables are non-conductive and of small cross-section and therefore cause negligible reflections in most applications. Often this is achieved by using non-conductive plastic or wooden structures for supporting the equipment under test. Once built. otherwise. they may be covered with pieces of RAM after setting up to minimize such reflection as far as possible. a certificate will be issued to that effect. For example. Where metallic surfaces are unavoidable. One useful application of fiber optic cables is to provide the communications links to carry signals within the chamber.com RF anechoic chambers are normally designed to meet the electrical requirements of one or more accredited standards. electrically noisy and high power equipment on the outside and sensitive equipment on the inside. valid for a limited period. A good compromise may be to install human interface equipment (such as PCs). Such risks are from RF or non-ionizing radiation and not from the higher energy ionizing radiation. acceptance tests are performed during commissioning to verify that the standard(s) are in fact met. . as these risk causing unwanted reflections. Health and safety risks associated with RF anechoic chamber The following health and safety risks are associated with RF anechoic chambers: • • • RF radiation hazard Fire hazard Trapped personnel Personnel are not normally permitted inside the chamber during a measurement as this not only can cause unwanted reflections from the human body but may also be a radiation hazard to the personnel concerned if tests are being performed at high RF powers. Provided they are.eeeexclusive. A careful assessment of whether to place the test equipment (as opposed to the equipment under test) on the interior or exterior of the chamber is required.

Even for quite modest transmitting power levels. UNIT-5 WAVE PROPAGATION Propagation Modes  Ground-wave propagation  Sky-wave propagation  Line-of-sight propagation Ground-wave propagation . they are difficult to completely eliminate.www. high gain antennas can concentrate the power sufficiently to cause high power flux near their apertures.eeeexclusive. If this cannot be dissipated adequately there is a risk that hot spots may develop and the RAM temperature may rise to the point of combustion. Safety regulations normally require the installation of a gaseous fire suppression system including smoke detectors. Although recently manufactured RAM is normally treated with a fire retardant to reduce such risks. This can be a risk if a transmitting antenna inadvertently gets too close to the RAM. incident radiation will generate heat within the RAM. A common gaseous fire suppression agent is carbon dioxide.blogspot.com As RAM is highly absorptive of RF radiation. Gaseous fire suppression avoids damage caused by the extinguishing agent which would otherwise worsen damage caused by the fire itself. Normally the fire detection system is linked into the power supply to the chamber. so that the fire detection system can disconnect the power supply if smoke or a fire is detected.

blogspot.www. back and forth between ionosphere and earth’s surface  Reflection effect caused by refraction  Examples  Amateur radio  CB radio Line-of-Sight Propagation .com Follows contour of the earth Can Propagate considerable distances Frequencies up to 2 MHz Example  AM radio Sky Wave Propagation      Signal reflected from ionized layer of atmosphere back down to earth  Signal can travel a number of hops.eeeexclusive.

line of sight  d = distance between antenna and horizon (km)  h = antenna height (m)  K = adjustment factor to account for refraction.57 ( Κh1 + Κh2 ) . or radio.eeeexclusive.www. speed changes  Wave bends at the boundary between mediums  Optical line of sight  Effective.com  Transmitting and receiving antennas must be within line of sight  Satellite communication – signal above 30 MHz not reflected by ionosphere  Ground communication – antennas within effective line of site due to refraction  Refraction – bending of microwaves by the atmosphere  Velocity of electromagnetic wave is a function of the density of the medium  When wave changes medium. rule of thumb K = 4/3  Maximum distance between two antennas for LOS propagation: 3.blogspot.

and so have important applications in navigation. Between two points which are directly opposite each other. there are no straight lines. but all great circle arcs between antipodal points have the same length. Between any two different points on a sphere which are not directly opposite each other. using only cosines.blogspot. The length of the shorter arc is the great-circle distance between the points. straight lines are replaced with geodesics.dlong. where r is the radius of the sphere. A great circle endowed with such a distance is the Riemannian circle. On the sphere.cos(dlong) ). there is a unique great circle. i. Geodesics on the sphere are the great circles (circles on the sphere whose centers are coincident with the center of the sphere).e. the equations for greatcircle distance are important for finding the shortest distance between points on the surface of the Earth (as the crow flies).www. which can be constituted from the spherical law of cosines: A useful way to remember this formula is cos(central angle)= cos(longitude difference CTM ) . Formulae Let be the geographical latitude and longitude of two points (a base "standpoint" and the destination "forepoint").eeeexclusive. or πr. or central angle. respectively. Because the Earth is approximately spherical (see Earth radius). called antipodal points. . The central angle is alternately expressed in terms of latitude and longitude differences dlat. half the circumference of the circle. as: arccos( cos(dlat) . where CTM could be taken to mean 'Only the cos terms in longitude angle difference cosine expansion to be multiplied with cos(latitude difference)'. and their differences and the (spherical) angular difference/distance.cos(lat1)*cos(lat2)*(1 . Because spherical geometry is rather different from ordinary Euclidean geometry. however. the equations for distance take on a different form. there are infinitely many great circles.com  h1 = height of antenna one  h2 = height of antenna two Great-circle distance The great-circle distance or orthodromic distance is the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of a sphere measured along a path on the surface of the sphere (as opposed to going through the sphere's interior). In nonEuclidean geometry. The distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a straight line from one point to the other. The two points separate the great circle into two arcs.

Instead. and to compute unambiguously in all quadrants. so it is not normally used for manual calculations. but using using n-vector instead of latitude/longitude to describe the positions. one should use the atan2() function rather than the ordinary arctangent function (atan()). The great circle distance is proportional to the central angle. then the great-circle distance is . an equation known historically as the haversine formula was preferred. however. which is an ellipsoid with equal major and minor axes) of the Vincenty formula (which more generally is a method to compute distances on ellipsoids): [2] When programming a computer. Similarly to the equations above based on latitude and longitude.eeeexclusive. Although this formula is accurate for most distances. If r is the great-circle radius of the sphere. Vector version Another representation of similar formulas.www. in order to simplify handling of the case where the denominator is zero.blogspot. the expression based on arctan is the only one that is well-conditioned for all angles.com The distance d. a conversion to n-vectors must first be performed.e. is then: This arccosine formula above can have large rounding errors for the common case where the distance is small. A more complicated formula that is accurate for all distances is the following special case (a sphere. If the two positions are originally given as latitudes and longitudes. it too suffers from rounding errors for the special (and somewhat unusual) case of antipodal points (on opposite ends of the sphere). is:[3] where and are the n-vectors representing the two positions s and f. which is much more numerically stable for small distances:[1] Historically. for a sphere of radius r and given in radians. i. the use of this formula was simplified by the availability of tables for the haversine function: hav(θ) = sin2 (θ/2). the arc length. The great circle chord length may be calculated as follows for the corresponding unit sphere. From chord length A line through three-dimensional space between points of interest on a spherical Earth is the chord of the great circle between the points. by means of Cartesian subtraction[4]: . When using a spreadsheet program such as Excel the arccosine formula is suitable since it is simpler and rounding errors disappears with high precision used. The central angle between the two points can be determined from the chord length.

76 statute miles.378. When calculating the length of a short north-south line at the equator.blogspot. 3440.01 km (3958. any single formula for distance on the Earth is only guaranteed correct within 0.594 km.399.www. the origin of the spherical cosine for sides becomes apparent: ] Radius for spherical Earth The shape of the Earth closely resembles a flattened sphere (a spheroid) with equatorial radius a of 6.5% (though we can do better if our formula is only intended to apply to a limited area). The average radius for a spherical approximation of the figure of the Earth is approximately 6371. the sphere that best approximates that part of the spheroid has a radius of b2 / a.com Spherical cosine for sides derivation By using Cartesian products rather than differences.752 km. So as long as we're assuming a spherical Earth.eeeexclusive. while the spheroid at the poles is best approximated by a sphere of radius a2 / b. or 6. or 6. distance b from the center of the spheroid to each pole is 6356.439 km. a 1% difference.07 nautical miles). LOS Wireless Transmission Impairments  Attenuation and attenuation distortion  Free space loss  Noise  Atmospheric absorption  Multipath  Refraction  Thermal noise  Atmospheric absorption – water vapor and oxygen contribute to attenuation  Multipath – obstacles reflect signals so that multiple copies with varying delays are received  Refraction – bending of radio waves as they propagate through the atmosphere .335.137 km.

www.occurs at the edge of an impenetrable body that is large compared to wavelength of radio wave  Scattering – occurs when incoming signal hits an object whose size in the order of the wavelength of the signal or less The Effects of Multipath Propagation  Multiple copies of a signal may arrive at different phases  If phases add destructively.occurs when signal encounters a surface that is large relative to the wavelength of the signal  Diffraction .eeeexclusive.com Multipath Propagation  Reflection . making detection more difficult  Intersymbol interference (ISI)  One or more delayed copies of a pulse may arrive at the same time as the primary pulse for a subsequent bit Types of Fading  Fast fading  Slow fading  Flat fading  Selective fading  Rayleigh fading  Rician fading .blogspot. the signal level relative to noise declines.

com Error Compensation Mechanisms  Forward error correction  Adaptive equalization  Diversity techniques .blogspot.www.eeeexclusive.