or

GREEK GRAMMAR

ACCIDENCE

) SYNTAX.. C. The Syntax of Attic Prose distinguished from the Syntax of Poetry and the Dialects. A GREEK GRAMMAR: (In Preparation. NEW YORK .. the use of the book. the latter being printed will in shorter lines. LONDON HEATH & CO. LTD. with copious citation and is translation of illustrative examples. CO. facts of will contain all the any importance in Greek Syntax.. This work. both for general study and SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & D. facilitate The general system of arrangement be such as to for reference. already completed by the Author.BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

LIM. HEATH & .A.GREEK GRAMMAR ACCIDENCE BY GUSTAVE SIMONSON. CO. AUTHOR OF M.. " A PLAIN EXAMINATION OF SOCIALISM " SWAN SONNENSCHEIN NEW YORK: D.D. C. 1903 & CO. M.

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. .. Contraction f>3-58. . 45.... . 23-28. .. Interchange of Vowels 44. . Exchange of Quantity Crasis Elision . . . Breathings 29-36. . . . . 24 64-69... . .. . The Alphabet . Pronunciation . . 26 . . 38.. 15-22. .-. . . Lengthening Compensative Lengthening 42-43.. . 1-8 PART I PHONOLOGY The Alphabet 11-14... PAGE INTRODUCTION THE GREEKS AND THEIE LANGUAGE . 26 Metathesis . 25 . 70-71. . Movable Consonants . 72-73. . .. . . . Syncope . 12 12-14 ' Historical Note on the Alphabet . . f. . .CONTENTS SECTION 1-10. 14-15 15-18 Changes of Vowels .. . Strong and Weak Root... . 18-19 19 19 . ..'. 9-10 10-11 Vowels and Diphthongs .. . 39. . 40-41. . Addition of Vowels 74... ... .. .. .9-63. \ 20 20 20-23 23-24 46-52. .Vowels . . 25-26 . .. Consonants 37.

.. 140-141.. 32-33 33 33-34 34-36 114-122. . . .. . > 36-37 38-41 41 41 . Syllables their Division and Quantity . . 46 Nouns 160-167. . . . 26-27 . . Proclitics 42 43-44 151-156. Case .. . Declension and Paradigms of the First 49-53 191-194. . . Cases FIKST DECLENSION 47-48 168-172. . . . Stems.. . . . Declensions: Case-endings. 41 . Accent of Contracted Syllabic 144.... Euphony of Consonants 80-83.. Nouns : their Numbers. Words distinguished by Accent . T before Vowels 86-89. Mutes before a 85. .. .vi CONTENTS Changes of Consonants SECTION PAOK Doubling of Consonants 79. 28 28 28 29 30-31 96-97. v before Consonants 75-78. 108. Mutes before n 90-95. . Accent with Crasis 145. . Anastrophe . . . 109-113.. . . : . . ....'. .. Principles of Greek Accent 128-146. . Mutes before Mutes 84.. - ' . . . . .. . . ... . . .-. Genders. ... 105-107. ... 31-32 . . . 27 27 . . .. ..' .. Accent with Elision 146. .". Accent 48-49 173-190. Enclitics 157. Stems. 41-42 149-150. Accent 123-127. Accent. General Rules of Accent . Inflection. .. . . . ..endings. Changes before y Changes in Aspirated Letters Oner On F Final Consonants . Punctuation 45 PART 158-159. 98-104. - . . .. . Roots II INFLECTION . 41 147-148. Contract Nouns of the First Declension 53 51 . ' . .... ...

. 73-75 75-76 267-276.. . 90 ... . . . 59-61 61-64 Stems classified 234-239. Contract . Stems.... . Stems ending in w or o (including Paradigms) 255-261. Gender of the Third Declension 277-283. -rj... Inflection of i^yat.. . . Accent. Stems ending in a (including Paradigms) 250-254. . .. .. 54-56 56 57-58 58-f>9 THIRD DECLENSION 214-223. .. 67-68 . .. . . and Quantity of the Third Declension 224-232. Case-endings.. 240-242. Syncopated Stems (including Paradigms) . Contract Adjectives in -eos and 296-304. 77-79 79-80 .. -ov . Participles in -os.. .. Mute Stems (including Paradigms) . 84 ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 306-313. .. Adjectives of 305. . ... Adjectives of . Gender of the Second Declension . Adjectives of Two Endings One Ending .. . 6S-G9 69-70 244-249. Local Endings .. Stems ending in a Diphthong (including Paradigms) .. 71-72 72-73 . . Liquid Stems (including Paradigms) 243. 64 64-67 . Nouns of the Second Declension 206-211.CONTENTS SECOND DKCLESKION SECTION Vli PAOE 195-201. . 84-86 86 ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND THIRD DECLENSIONS 315-325. Adjectives and Participles ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 286-289. Irregular Declension 284-285. . . . Adjectives of 314.. iroXiJj. . Attic Second Declension 212-213.. - . . Formation of Cases 233. Accent. Stems. Formation and Inflection of the ahove 86-89 IRREGULAR DECLENSION 326-327. and Paradigms of the Second Declension 202-205. . . 89-90 PARTICIPLES 328. Adjectives of Three Endings 290-295.. . . Stems ending in t or v (including Paradigms) 262-266. . wywoi .. 80-81 -oos 81-83 83-84 Two Endings One Ending .

Comparison of Adverbs . ..viii CONTENTS PAOI 90-92 -6ui> SECTION 329-333. Contract Participles in -duv. . 99-100 100-101 374-375.. ... etc. 111-112 Verbs 430-442. 396-400. Correlation of Adverbs Numerals 406-407. 94-95 95-96 96-97 Adverbs and their Comparison 357-359. Kinds of Verbs. Comjiarison hy -tuf. . Tenses. 99 Pronouns 367-373. 336. .. Contract Participles in -dut .. Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 390-395. Reflexive Pronouns 376. Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. The Article 6. . Various Numeral Words . -tuv.. ..... 92-93 93-94 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 337-349... Numbers.. 408-416. Relative Pronouns . -KTTOS 354-356. Possessive Pronouns 101 101 379-384. Comparison by -Tepos and -TOTO* 350-353.. Notation 420. . ij.. Correlation of Pronouns 103-104 104-105 105-106 106-107 401-405. . .. . Formation of Adverbs 360-363. . ' " .. Demonstrative Pronouns 102-103 385-389.. Moods. . Suffixes. Personal and Intensive Pronouns . 98 98 364-366. Augment.. and Numeral Adverbs .. Irregular Comparison ... .. 455 Endings. Declension of Ordinals and Cardinals.. Participles with Stems in -vr334-335. 108-109 109-110 110-111 Ill .. 112-114 PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJURATION 443-454.. Declension of the Article r6 . . Verb -stems. Thematic Vowel. Persons . Voices. Fractions 421-429. Reciprocal Pronoun 377-378. 417-418. Reduplication Principal Parts of a Verb 114-117 117 .

. ... <t>aivw 466-476. SelKvvfu . .. 548-550.. Elements of a Verb AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION 523. . Conjugation of Contract Verbs in -dw..... General Rules 517-521. 117-118 118 -o> 118 119 120-124 125 126 127 128-129 Systems of Xe/Tw ..CONTENTS SECTION ix PAOE 456-457... . didufu. .OI. Reduplicated Presents 553. -/M ..U. 57?X6w. -4u.Aorist Systems of rlOijfu. ... . .... Special Rules . Plupf.^ .. Reduplication of the Perfect. . . Inflection of the Second -Perfect System of ?<m?/u .... GENERAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB 522.... ... Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in 477... ...i)v 499.. lynnu. .. . Conjugation of Xdw 462.... Synopsis of Tl8i)fu.. .... Synopsis of \eliru 463. . Verbs in -w and Verbs in . . -6w 478-482... . Synopsis of \6u 461. ... 152 152 152-153 153-154 154-156 156-157 551-552.. .. Notes on the Conjugation of Verbs in -fu 508-511. ..fj. .... .. Account of tbe following Paradigms 460. SISufu. ..... ACCENT OF THE VERB ... ... Characteristics of Verbs in -AH 498. deiKWfu... 6-rjpAu 484-489.. . . also tSvv and tvpid. and Fut.. ... Definition of Augment 624-525. 2 Aor. ..... Perf. iffTyfii. . Conjugation of the Fut. ... 458..... Two Forms Meaning of Inflection . 512-516. of the Tenses CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN 459... 157 157-158 158-160 Augment and Reduplication in Compound Verbs ... . . . and 2 Passive Systems of 130 131-133 134 Consonant Stems CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN 490-497..... .. .. <f>i\tu.. ... . Conjugation of 2 Aor........ Reduplicated Aorists 554-568... Temporal Augment 535-547.. 150 151-152 '. .. .. . Synopsis of TI/J.. ... 464. Inflection of the Present and Second... 500-507... Perfect and Pluperfect Middle and Passive ....... .. and 2 Perf.... . Syllabic Augment 526-534.. . Notes on the Contract Verbs 483. Synopsis of tpalvu 465. 134-136 136-139 of Verbs with -pi 139-140 140-145 145-146 146-147 147-150 ... .. .. .. Attic Reduplication .

. . oI5o. Infinitive Endings 602-606. 570-571. 'V ttl .' .. Formation of the Present System (Eight Classes of Verbs) . . . 163-165 165-167 . . Imper. . . Inflection of the First-Aorist System 691-703. .Form 769. . . .. Endiugs enumerated 557-586. 163 ... Presents in -fu 767. Personal Endings of the Indie.. Inflection of the Second-Passive System 762-763. Inflection of the Perfect-Middle System 748-749. -. MOOD-SUFFIX SK<TION P*GE 569. Tense-Suffixes 160-161 . .... 599-601. 191 191-194 System . THEMATIC VOWEL. 715-721. . .. . FORMATION OF TENSE-STEMS AND INFLECTION OF THE FINITE MOODS . .X CONTENTS TENSE-SUFFIXES. . 195-196 196-197 198 . Inflection of the First-Passive System 757... -f)fil. Irregularities and Changes in the Verb-Stem 622-663. . 186-189 189-191 . Two Forms of Inflection (Common Form and /u-Form) . Second-Future Passive . 198-200 200-203 . Inflection of the Present System 673-681.. Formation of the Perfect-Middle System 7:'.. Optative Mood-Suffix . . Opt... ... . .. . i :/u. . . . . . .7-J-f. .. . .. Formation and Inflection of the Future System 682-686.. Second-Aorists of the pi-Torni 768. . 687-690. 206-207 207-208 208-aOt . . . Subj. Second -Perfects of the fju.. Formation of the Second-Passive System 761.. el/u. 610.73. Participial and Verbal Adjective Endings 167-1G8 . 204-205 205-206 206 205 /u-FoiiMg . - 184-186 . .. Inflection of ?ij/u..Per feet System 726-731.-. 168-170 170-171 607-609. Formation of the Second-Perfect System 722-725. . '. . Inflection of the First-Perfect System 194-195 .. 587-598.. 161-162 162-163 574. Formation and Inflection of the Secoud-Aorist . 172 172-174 174-184 661-672. Verb-Stem and Present Stem 611-621. .Aorist System . . Formation of the First-Perfect System 710-714. 704-709. .. Observations on the Personal Endings .. Inflection of the Second. Formation of tho First-Passive System 753-756.. . .. . . <w.2-7 17. .. . . EKCMEKATION OF 764-766. Formation of the First. . .. . . 203 203-204 204 First-Future Passive 788-760. Thematic Vowel :. Irregular Verbs of the /ti-Form 770-790. ENDINGS . Future-Perfect 750-752. ftfu. XP^I 209-216 . . . . .

. .. 881-884. . Inflection 880. . Consonants in Doric . . 221-222 222-223 223-224 .. . . . . . . LOCAL ENDINGS. Third Declension in Dialeets 903-909. Quantity in Dialects 874-879. . ... 230-231 . Active Verbs with Future Middle 792. Breathings in Dialects . . 224-225 225 225-226 226 ' 833. 231 231 2T1 860-861. .. 818.. ... Vowels in Aeolic and Doric compared with Attic 805-814. 885-888. Vowels in . .. .. Consonants in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic 832. . 797-8DO. 234-235 235-236 . 796.. ' . . . .. . . . . . . Apocope..CONTENTS IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING SECTION xi PAGE 791. .."'.'. . . . and Passive Deponents Future Middle with Passive Meaning Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning Deponents with Passive Meaning Middle Passives Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings .. 226 227-228 834-839... . Compensative Dialects 844-852. . Second Declension in Dialects 889-902. . . .. Movable Consonants in Dialects . . Middle 793. . . Accent in Dialects . 286-240 240-242 . .. Aphaeresis in Dialects 858-859. Synizesis. 219-220 PAET III THE DIALECTS Phonology 801-804.. . .'>'> NOUNS. Metathesis in Dialects 863-873. Consonants in Aeolic compared with Attic 820-831.. . . compared with Attic 819.. Contraction in 228 2*28-230 and Crasis 853-857. Elision. Digamma Lengthening and Exchange of Quantity in Dialects . . .. .. 794. AND ADVERBS . . 795. . Consonants in New Ionic compared with Attic New Ionic . 216-217 217-218 218 218 218 218-219 . Addition and Assimilation of Vowels in Dialects 862... . . . Irregular Declension in Dialects . . ' 840-843. 231-233 233 . compared with Attic .. . Vowels in Old Ionic (Epic) compared with Attic 815-817. First Declension in Dialects . . ADJECTIVES. .. . . . . Numbers in Dialects . .

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns in Dialects . The Article in Dialects . '.. .. ...xii SECTION CONTENTS PAOK . .... The Numerals in Dialects . . Personal Endings in Dialects . . Infinitive in Dialects 1055-1061. Dialectic Correlative Pronouns and Adverbs . Passive Systems in Dialects ... . Iterative Imperfects and Aorists in -<TK%. Formation in -0%. .Aorist Systems in Dialects . Enumeration of Dialectic /u-Forms 263-265 . Second-Aorist System in Dialects . .... . 261-262 262 262-263 1062-1072. Dialectic Variations in Adjective Forms 934-946. .. 1029-1030. . AND NUMERALS 949. .. 959-961. . Perfect and Perfect-Middle Systems in Dialects 1038-1039. ... Reflexive Pronouns in Dialects 246-247 247 955-956.. *. PRONOUNS. Subjunctive in Dialects 1049-1051. Future and First. Changes in Verb-Stem in Dialects 998-1008. . . Relative Pronouns in Dialects .. 248 248 248 248 248-249 249 249-250 THE VERB AUGMENT.. . . . The Augment in Dialects 972-977. 250-251 . TENSE-SUFFIXES.. .. . ' . . Participles in Dialects . Personal Pronouns in Dialects 954. Tense-Suffixes in Dialects . . . Comparison of Adjectives in Dialects 947-948. 257-258 258-259 .. . 950-953. 1040-1041. TENSE-SYSTEMS. . Demonstrative Pronouns in Dialects . Present System (Eight Classes of Verbs) in Dialects 1009-1014. .. PERSONAL ENDINGS 968-971. Local Endings in Dialects 914-917. . ... . 259 259 259-260 260 260-261 261 1042-1043.. 964-967... .. 251-252 252 252-254 979-989. Possessive Pronouns in Dialects 957.. . 910-913. REDUPLICATION. . 243-244 245-246 24ft Adverbs THE ARTICLE. 242 242-243 918-933. 958.. . . . . . 1044-1048. Contract Verbs in Dialects 1015-1017. . . . MOODS.. . 1031-1037.. Certain Dialectic . PARTICIPLES 990-997. . . .. Reduplication in Dialects 978.. 962-963.. Mi-Form of Present System in Dialects 1018-1028. .. . .. . Optative in Dialects 1052-1054.. . . 254 254-256 256-257 . Epic Case-ending -<(n(t>) ....

.. .. Changes in Roots and Stems 1092. etc. Primitives and Denominatives FORMATION OF NOUNS 1093-1108.. . . . Roots 1077-1078. 317 1109-1129. . . Denominatives 317-320 320-323 FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS 1130-1131. . etc. Suffixes ' ..'. 1161-1170... 315 Formation of Simple Words 1075-1076.. Primitive Adjectives 1132-1147. INDEXES 337 . .. Formation of Adverbs . First Part of a 1171-1178.... .. Primitives . 324-327 327-328 FORMATION OF DENOMINATIVE VERBS 1153-1154. PAGE 265 314 PART 1074.. . . .. General List of Attic and Dialectic Verbs . 328-329 . . .CONTENTS Catalogue of Verbs SECTION' xiii 1073. 315 315-316 316-317 1079-1091.. 1179-1194.". v . Compound Last Part of a Compound Accent of Compounds Meaning of Compounds ... . . Simple IV and Compound Words FORMATION OF WORDS ... 329 Compound Words ' 1160... -<?w. . Desideratives. . ... Forms in -dw. Elements of a Compound . 1195-1200. Derivative Adjectives 324 1148-1152. . Intensives. . .... . .. 1155-1159. 330 330-332 332-333 333-335 335-336 ..

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into Aeolians. 2. Germanic. words. 236 Od. of the composition of the Homeric poems. and the Ionic. and the to all Greeks of whatever f : lonians 2. the closely relation being apparent from various similarities in roots. 369). Italic. and their country was called The Romans called them Graeci. all of one of the Indo-European which are descended from Italic languages Of these the related To the three groups of dialects 15 three divisions of the Greek race correspond the the Aeolic. 23. as Hellenes. ("leaves). . Celtic. (including Latin) are the most and inflections. and Slavonic peoples.INTRODUCTION THE GREEKS AND THEIR LANGUAGE 1. Aryan group some common. Their national name was Hellenes ("EXXqves}. 2. the Doric. Hellenes only of a small district in Thessaly and its inhabitants. whence our ( EXXa<?). once HaveAA^'es *at 'Axaioi (II. the great Indo-European or Aryan family of nations comprising the Indian. name Greeks. . Four times he uses the collective name Ilava^atot (II. Aryives ('Apyeioi). Persian. nor was there a general Homer uses the names Hellas and name. The Greeks in general he usually calls Achaeans ('A^atoi). Dorians.parent language. or Danaans (Aavaot). The Greeks. 530). the Dorians (Atw^tefr). the division and lonians was unknown . although these are only the names of certain tribes. 239 14. for the whole race. The ancient Greeks were a branch of 1. : B . 1. At the time 2. which was applied Hellas locality. The Greek Language is or to Greek. 404. 2. The Hellenic race was divided into three main divisions the Aeolians (AtoAefc). 1. of languages.

tea. the Aeolic has more Elis.) . Kara . in the dative plural in -rcri in the third use of d for T/. in Northern Greece. vlginti. the demonstrative TTJVOS for eKetvos. by the 28th. strictly retained the more primitive Greek form in many sounds and word-forms. year . feros. Attic effcoo-t. Attic Oijp. wild beast. Like the Doric. the . The Aeolic Dialect (*} At'oAi? or 7} AioAi/o/) was spoken in the Aeolian colonies of Asia Minor. and and by some late imitators.). the formation with in verbs in -w. with few exceptions. in the apocope of the prepositions irapd. as xw/3iu> and e\tu/3i^a for xwptVw and e\i!>puTa. in the retention of a for Attic 77. are : the first person plural in -/ACS for -/xev. (r. it has preserved (Cyrenaica). HoreiSav for . dvo. as and J-fiKart for Attic ei/cocrt Adavd for 'Adi'jvij . in the use as TrAorrios for 7rA. Lat.C. to each other than either has to the Ionic. as well as on the adjacent islands. vatsa. on Crete and Rhodes. Ad/xvos for <f>aTi for (frrjcri.cv for SiBovai . in Southern Italy (Magna Graecia).C.fxro>. 8w0-(i>. Lesbos. twenty . 2. Leading peculiarities common to all Doric dialects. 2.). 29th. and the ancient grammarians have various notices of the dialect. the infinitive in -jj. Lesbian Aeolic is chiefly represented fragments of Alcaeus and Sappho (about 600 in literature B. ferus (wild). Xv<rovp. in T for which the Attic often has o-. more primitive forms of the parent Greek language than the Attic. Attic o-v. tu. TOV. and Cyprus.. Sanscr. especially in the use of digamma. Lat. Arcadia. Boeotian Aeolic is represented by the lines of the Boeotian in Aristophanes' Acharnians (lines 860 ff. Attic CTO?. irXHrlov for ir^tjcriov. as Aixrw. Lat. says . The Doric Dialect (>/ Aw/n's or 77 Aoyn/o/) was spoken in Peloponnesus. 3. as /ZKCITI. in Northern Africa.ai for A.C. in a large part of Sicily.VTO. as 8i86fj.ou(rios (but Lesbian Aeolic has cr) . In many respects the Doric agrees with the Aeolic in the (avrbs avrov). that . vinfati. There are also a number of Aeolic inscriptions. SOKTW.2 INTRODUCTION 3 the dialects within each group differing in various respects from The Aeolic and Doric groups have more resemblance each other. in Thessaly. Sauscr. in Isthmus. Sanscr. as fvpurKOfj. 1. the reflexive O. as Ad0d for Xt'jdr) : .VTOV A&ro/xai . thou.ev for Attic -vcu.fi . declension of r for .) . <f)^p. in the Doric colonies of Asia Minor. and in many word-forms . 1. It thus oftener shows a closer resemblance to Sanscrit (the oldest language of India) and Latin . by the lyrical 30th idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B. Boeotia. 4. . Lat. Like the Aeolic. the future in -<rw and -<rov/xai. and by a few and very corrupt fragments of the poetess Corinna (about 490 B. near . vetus (old).

C. to w and eo to tu (</>iAw*. lived in Sicily) and of the mime-writer Sophron of .d for /3ovXd = Atuc f3ov\r) . iinrd) for LTTTTOV from ITTTTOO. 5. <ilso Epic and Lesbian forms. and Moschus except the 28th. number of the writings of the mathematician Archimedes (287 212) are in Sicilian Doric with an admixture of many ordinary forms. Apart from the Doric inscriptions and the notices of the ancient grammarians. to the time of Alexander the Great (Epicharmus. .C.C. A Syracuse (about 460 to 420) are in the Sicilian (Syracusan) Doric. the Cyreneans.. The writings. and the new. . The Doric dialect is also divided into eo> . Dorians (also by the Lesbians and Thessalians) to the fifth century by some even later.C. Blaesus. the Megarian lines in his Acharnians) . : . the Doric dialect is represented in literature by a number of We mention the most important. the Cretans. 3. \apirjs for ^apt'eis from xaptevrs. . uses the 6 and ov (arising from contraction or compensative spurious diphthongs as alpTj<r6ai = milder Doric lengthening) (also Attic) alpeurBaL. most of them fragmentary. as Laconian (6) u. the Heracleans. we also find forms of the stricter Doric in the older monuDorians. and probably also by the other Dorians of Southern Italy the milder Doric was spoken in general by the other Bui. as well as the Ionic and Attic.). but he has The idylls of Theocritus (about 270 B. . also by the Tarentines. 8iSu><. from the time of Alexander. and Scirat Most of the fragments of the Italian (or Sderias) are in the Tarentine Doric. lyric fragments of Alcman (about 630 B. from = milder Doric p. for SiSous from SiSovrs. and of Bion (ubout 280 B. while others exist The few fragments of burlesque tragedy known as only in Attic versions. from /xialpeea-dai /Ai<r$oWi (rdoovTi . Sophron.C. or contracts 4. while the milder either has open forms (reuvo.) are Laconian Doric. (c) it has . Pinuar (about 522 to about 442) and the other lyric poets (except Alcman) use the milder Doric with some Lesbian and many Epic forms. ments of Ihe milder Doric territory. stricter Doric (which is nearer the Aeolic and more removed from the Ionic) was spoken by the Lacedaemonians. 29th. The fragments of the Comic dramatist Epicharmus of Cos (about 550 to about 540. the Hilarotrar/edy. the Laconian parts in Aristophanes' Lysistrata. to about the fifth century (Alcman) the middle. as cVeuviw.KKop for na and to for ew and eo in verbs in -ew. (/uAeiyjtes).). three periods : the older. The principal differences between the stricter and the milder forms are the following the stricter Doric uses rj (a) and CD where the milder Doric. and 30th. (about 250 B. the The distinction is mostly one of locality. <iAeo/*s).) are written in Sicilian Doric (stricter form) but they have also many Epic and Lesbian forms. by Rhinthon (about 300 B. /3(aX. AVKWS for AI'KOVS from XVKOVS it often assimilates consonants. The following is to be noticed.LO-6ovvTi = Attic /u<r0ofm. thus showing that the distinction is also partly one of time.). As regards the two varieties of a stricter and a milder Doric.C.4 THE GREEKS AND THEIR LANGUAGE is 3 digamma retained by most of the B.

and shortening those grammatically long. wv for ovv K for TT in the interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs (as KOTC/SOS for TroVepos. Aristophanes' Lysistrata has a number of lines in in tbu Laconian Doric (81 ff. and allowing the digamma to influence or not to influence the metre.). . 1076 ff.. and most of the fragments of Arckytas of Tarentum (who lived about 400 B. 1 The Ionic Dialect (>} 'las or ?/ 'law*?)) was spoken in Ionia Asia Minor and in the Ionic colonies.. (a) The language of the Homeric poems must not be considered as quite identical with the Old Ionic spoken dialect of his time. . The text of the Laconian poet Timocreon. considered apart. : . and Ionic forms. a variety of forms often lengthening vowels grammatically short. : . for the same cause dropping consonants. is iu ordinary mild Doric. in Demosthenes' Oration on the Crown. 729 If.C. 5. and some of those of both of these philosophers were PythArchytas of Tarentum are genuine The Rhodian Doric is represented in the fragments of the lyric agoreans. Philolaits of Croton. properly speaking. in Euboea. popular decree in Thucydides.) are spurious they all show a curious Most of the fragments of mixture of Doric. doubling consonants or using a single consonant for a double. The spurious letters Acharnians. metri causa. The Old Ionic or Epic the language of Epic poetry. /ACT' a for //#' a). 100. 2. Byzantines.. the vowels sometimes differ. . 1297 if. aru The popular decree of the supposed to be in the Corinthian dialect. 79. 980 ff. Tragedy. . of the Tyrant Periander of Corinth in Diogenes Laertius I. . 1042 if. which differs from the Old Ionic notably in these respects the digamma is wholly lost contracted forms are much more frequent according to the inscriptions (although the older texts of New Ionic writers show even more open forms than Homer) . is probably spurious and has a mixture of stricter and milder forms. 77. but is somewhat a In Homer the Old Ionic shows mixture containing a number of Aeolisms. see 10. as rea-o-fpcs for the Old Ionic Tr<ra/xs. a contemporary of Socrates. Pythagorean philosophers in Italy . From the Old Ionic was gradually developed the New Ionic. a Megarian colony. only not included in the term Ionic and is always The term Ionic dialect includes the Old Ionic (?) New Ionic (>/ vewre/aa 'las). on the Cyclades. whereas For the Doric of the Byzantine inscriptions show only the milder forms. ' . is not in pure Laconiau the treaty between the Lacedaemonians and Argives in Thucydides. Lesbian. a Megarian speaks in his dialect.4 INTRODUCTION 5 (also the work of the philosopher Timaeus of Locri and a friend of Plato).. in and in Attica. a contemporary of Themistocles. KOV for irov) aspirated (UTT* ov for a</>' of. OKOO-OS for smooth mutes before the rough breathing are not OTTOO-OS. 99. Although the Attic it is the Ionic of Attica. 5. 5. the New Ionic is the Ionic as appears in the writings of Herodotus and Hippocrates. dp\aia 'las) and the dialect it is dialect is. 90... Qwfjia for Oavfia.

fl. the Attic dialect is made the basis of grammar and the other dialects are treated subordinately to it. as <f>i)<ri.C. Herodotus dVi'/coi'To. elsewhere.. and thus gave their idiom a more generally Hellenic character comprehensible to all Greeks. from diro and i : : or ?} 'Arri/oj) is a further a kind of middle place holds development between the broad and rather rough Doric. although The period of Old Attic ends the differences between these are not great. (?/ The Attic Dialect of 'Arfli's the New Ionic. vyyov for Doric dyov from uyco. about 357 B.C. and the physician Hippocrates of Cos (b.C.C. TiQelcri. and particularly of all poetry in hexameters.) are in Ionic. about 408 B. and p. Tri'Ads. and ?. there are a few fragments of Hecataeus of Miletus. 1. Tl'7rTOVTl. The mimes of Herondas (or Herodas.. who lived about 510 B. (from a) to t]. and New Attic. ffAff/ws for Doric K\apos . The Attic dialect underwent some changes in the course of time. TVTTTOV<TI.C. moreover. By using a after e. The poems of Hesiod (about 735 B. it changes T to o. 2. as Tn'A?/. Aeolic forms have been already mentioned. a harmonious variety of sound is produced. Doric are these 7ri'A?/s. although it is sometimes' Anacreon (b. about 478) wrote in New Ionic. It 1 to borrow occasionally from the Doric and Ionic. and the soft Ionic. T/Da</>a> .).. about 484 B. the' Ionic dialect is represented in literature by a number of The poems of Homer (about 800 B.v for BeC>v\ the Doric accusative plural in -as and -os (as /3ov\d<s for /3oi>Aas. did not hesitate (To<f>ia.C. with Ionic o-o</>t?. d. d. Aayos for Aayovs).C. for Doric <dri. 404 B. according to which it is divided into Old.)..C. d. for Doric Tn'Ad. The language of Hippocrates differs from that of Herodotus chiefly in the hence Hippocrates aspiration of a smooth mute before the rough breathing d</>lKOVTO. modified.in certain formations inflections. about the time of the Peloponnesian scriptions of this period War 420 (431 B. i. especially in the older Ionic poets. Owing to its literary importance. TwCVTCi 3. Middle. but he sometimes used Doric forms as the Aeolic and Doric genitive plural in -uV (as 6ea. TrAoi'crios . 6. The (-peri) in- show up to B. The Epic dialect was the language of all Epic poetry. Apart from the few Ionic inscriptions and the notices of the ancient grammarians. New Ionic prose begins about 225 B.. -rja-t (-ya-i) and wri for .) are also in the Old Ionic or Epic dialect. and for Doric ya.C. TrAoVTiOS. : for Doric T/D</>to. The Athenians. y.6 THE GREEKS AND THEIR LANGUAGE (b) 5 The etc.C. Compare Attic ^/ze/au with Doric u^e/xi and Ionic f)p*pfy A^/6 ?/ with Doric Aa#d.). as rrd. about 460 B.C. three principal differences between Ionic (both Old and New) and Ionic regularly changes original a.C. about 540. The leading New Ionic prose writers are the historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus (b.) with their admixture of writings. with some Dorisms. eorTj it often weakens a to e. in the sixth century B. This is best seen in the use of d and ij.

3. But TT for era. The Common 1 universal oxr). rap. yet the Tragedians (Aeschylus. so also -oun for -ois. . Antiphon.INTRODUCTION -ats in the dative plural (8pa^fiij(ri and Spa^fajtm for Spa^/zeus. . and the other writers of the New Comedy. . As it was now spoken not only by many non-Attic. . and finally of all educated while the other dialects survived only among the uneducated classes. became the language of the Macedonian Greeks . while the Comedians (as Aristophanes) and the other prose writers preferred the Attic It was the same with Attic pp for Ionic per.c. and older Attic prose. Important writers of the long period of the Common Dialect are the poet and scholar Callimachus (librarian of the Alexandrian library from about the B. The Middle Attic period lasts to the times of Philip of Macedon (reigned B. from about the time of Alexander (died in 323 B. contemporary of Julius Caesar and Augustus . Euripides) and the oldest Attic prose writers (as Gorgias. and the The orators Demosthenes and Aeschines may be counted in philosopher Plato. court. a Jewish historian Josephus (b. (rvv is used for vv (Xenophon has o-rv. the New Attic. The Attic tongue thus became the Dialect. TT. 359 336. . dating degrees some of its earlier purity. and is represented in literature by the orators Lysias and Isocrates.(us 7rpuTTo> for irpua-o-ui) was always Attic from the earliest period .C. Thucydides) preferred the Ionic o-cr. . in -as in Middle and New Attic (/2ocriAiys. is called the Common Dialect (rj KOLVI'J or ?} 'EAAevi/q) SIU'ACKTOS) and its writers are called ol KOLVOL or ol "EAA^ves. 2. but not so late. Greek language. although this occurred less in literature. . Plato oftener vv than o-w) the plural of nouns in -ei's ends in -T/S in Old Attic (also in Plato).uTi for ra/xiais) .D. whose other leading representatives in literature are Menander. fiacnXeis).). 37. as the most cultivated of all the Greek dialects and the idiom of the masterpieces of Greek literature.c.c. the Doric for lyric and bucolic poetry. about 100) the geographer Strabo (b. of literature. d. which latter was preferred by the oldest Attic prose and by the Tragedians (appi/v Attic = apvijv Ionic. Sophocles. It took up some non-Attic forms and expressions and dropped some of the specially Attic forms (as TT for 7. The old Ionic was however retained for Epic. dual number is wanting y is often written ei names in -775 of the third declension have the genitive -ov (ATjp. In the New Attic the Philemon.crL and Tap. 260 to about 240) the historian Polybius (about 240 B. and Tragedy).C. it naturally lost by This universal Greek idiom. A. in Rome) IHodnrus Siculus. Midway between the purer Attic writers and the writers of the Common Dialect stand the philosopher Aristotle and his pupil Thtopknuhu. .) the rhetorician Dionysius of Halicarnassus (lived since 30 B.o<r@fvov for Ary/xoo-^evovs the Ionic forms of the third person plural perfect and pluperfect middle and passive in -a-Teu and -a-To never occur .ia. but also by some non-Greek races. . the Attic language. 1. After the Macedonian conquest. the historian Xenophon.ia.

. The earlier form of this popular tongue began to be used in writing about the end of the twelfth century alongside of the ancient Greek employed by the learned. 2. 1. and their language 'EAATjvt/o/. about 120) . speak Greek). d.D. the historian Arrian (b. although related to it . the spirit of the older idiom was now dead. about 54 B. were also called Atticists. and the vocabulary received a large admixture of Latin The ancient language was no longer understood by the and Turkish words.) the historian Plutarch (b.9 THE GREEKS AND THEIR LANGUAGE .C. the rhetorician Litcian (b. 155 A. .. who tabulated and contrasted Attic and non-Attic forms. A The Macedonian period. about 120 A.D. from eAAryvi^co. 7 A. Dialect which appears in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament and in the New Testament. . was not a dialect of the Greek language. d. language.. about 170) historian the Dio Cassius (b. the language of the common people underwent a constant process of corruption and change. Although the ancient Greek continued to be the ideal of the Byzantine writers. Many grammatical forms were lost. their country 'EAAas. the Modern Greeks calling themselves "EAArjves. In this period of decadence there arose. Under the Alexandrian dialect we understand not the language of the learned under the Ptolemies (they spoke the Common Dialect). the following are the principal points in which differs from ancient literary Greek : the dual is lost (as already in the and Modern Common the dative occurs only in writing the third declension the comparative degree is generally expressed by tlio is little used except in books people by prefixing more to the positive. This term is applied to that form of the Common 8. and the superlative by prefixing the article Dialect and in Attic) . Jew or other foreigner who spoke Greek was called a Hellenist ('EAAT/j/icmys. d. about 50 d. of which little is known. new ones were developed. This idiom A naturally had some 9. .) . but the popular idiom of the common people of that 4. especially under the Caesars. about 200).D. Macedonian and an Alexandrian dialect are sometimes mentioned. themselves instead of "EAATpes. New . only in the Southern part of Macedonia was Greek spoken. people. about 100 A.D. a measure to the change of the popular Latin to Italian. Hebrew colouring. a movement in favour of purer Attic which was called Atticism. The most Gramprominent Atticists were Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Ltician. the name by which the Greeks of the Middle Ages designated The term Romaic is now rather obsolete.D. Throughout the long period of the Byzantine Empire and of the Turkish dominion. Apart from the great changes in pronunciation (see the footnotes to 38) very many minor Greek differences. who now spoke a new language which may be considered about a This they called Romaic ('Pw/zaiWry) from 'Pw/zaioi. marians like Phrynichus. Hellenistic.. Romans. comparable in Modern Greek. 3. thousand years old. about 24 A.

dialect throughout. Hippias of Klis) contributed largely. remain. except where they introduce Doric or poetic forms for parody. . ping foreign words and again introducing classic forms and idioms has been going for over fifty years and has greatly influenced the written and. differs largely from the everyday popular The movement in favour of purifying and refining the language by dropidiom.7r(ov. for example. For nection exists between the dialects and particular literary forms. p. Doric prose was developed in the fifth and fourth centuries among the Pythagorean philosophers. reached its highest development The Sophists (as Protagoras of A1><1> 1.8 INTRODUCTION . The Attic tragedians sometimes use Ionic and Doric forms in the dialogue . IToo-fiSui' for Iloo-eiSwi'). Then follow the great historians Thucydides and Xenophon. Isocrates. Herodotus. The cultured or literary language. as in the Romance languages the infinitive perfect are formed by periphrasis .) the optative mood is the the middle as an independent voice is absent. . the philosopher Plato. Lyric Alcaeus and Sappho use poetry was usually written in the Doric dialect For bucolic poetry (Theocritus. id forming compound tenses. perfect. While the essential features of Modern Greek must always the spoken language.o\Trav The Attic comedians use the Attic for /zoA. and Archytas of Tarentum. besides other Dorisms (as </>iAd for <^)i'Ar. by their studies and examples. on certain coni. it also had a large influence on all subsequent poetry. veaviov. . .. otherwise it is replaced by vd (=iva) and the subjunctive New Testament often has Iva. the Aeolic..c. Aeschines. also a for the gen. Gorgias of Leontini. in the choral parts they use the Doric a for ?/. who lived about 400 B. Dorian of Asia Minor. and others. but the passive remains lost verbs in -/u have been changed to verbs in -u the pronouns often show changed the negative ou is replaced by Stv (from ovdtv) the or completely new forms (the . plur. and -av for the gen. wrote in Ionic. with the subj. The Dialects and Literary Forms. the orators and numerous other prose Lysias. 2. than poetry. the process of purification will continue to lead to a greater resemblance to the ancient language. both of them Dorians. vocabulary contains numerous foreign elements. a contemporary of Socrates. to some extent. as it appears in books and newspapers. . 10. for the inf. of the first declension. and an author did not who was a The philosophers and historians of Ionia were the first to cultivate prose. Epic poetry the Old Ionic of Homer was the basis among all Greeks and in A times . Prose was developed much later necessarily write in his own dialect . of whom we may mention Philolaus of Croton. sing. We also have a number of the works of the mathematician Archimedes of Syracuse But it was in Athens that Greek prose (287 272) written in Doric. and pluused only in books and in to the comparative. Prodicus of Ceos.1. Bion. dyaOav for aya-Qdv. Demosthenes. writers. masc. toward moulding and refining the language. . 10 the future. Moschus) Doric was generally employed. Anacreon the New Ionic. vedvia for all . Ionic prose reaching its highest point in the works of Herodotus and Hippocrates.

FOKM.THE ALPHABET 11. The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters : .

by a. long in others. and v short in some words. hence a. The character ~^\. assumption of its original presence in explain their formation (see 108). if. e. o-iy/xa 'apparently more correct than o-iy/xa) was also called erav. ^t date from the period when ei had attained the sound t. </t. /. v are often indicated by a. v. . i. compound . . this : last identical *>. VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS Sigma has the form s at 12 cr . o. called doubtful vowels. f. hence. many words is necessary to 2. unless the length is indicated by the circumflex accent . and 680$). the long sounds 16. and are o are always short . The was never written. called Fan (fav) or Digamma 9> ~\ Vgamma. The Some editors have therefore introduced it into the text. although its VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 15. The names t. 3. NOTE. v. in 37). (double was still pronounced in many words at the time of the composition of the Homeric poems. v . i. about the fust For t there was also the name u (like yuv.e. v). It stood originally between e and 14. grammarians calling the The names tylXov (plain e) and ?> \^iX6v (plain v) were first two I and o. the meter of many lines depending on its presence. a. which were sounded alike in their time. The letters vau and koppa. elsewhere But some editors still use s at the end of the first part of a as Swrrrpoo-oSo?. tj. o-iy/^a) and iri. v for upsilon. and the character sampi are used as numerals koppa in the form 9 or S or q . In this book the long sounds are hereafter always marked (except l. o5 for omicron. the end of a word. t. The letter 9. used by grammarians of the Byzantine period to distinguish e from ai and v from oi. o>. 1. It stood between TT and p. e Vowels. The common character is sometimes indicated by d. 4. with the abbreviation of O-T. as SusnyjosoSos (from 8ixr-. called koppa (^6-inra). v. i. was part of the older alphabet and is The digammu equivalent to our W. tj and &> are always long . spirant y (i.e. TT/SOS. . from its form). Of these. was equivalent to Q and became wholly obsolete. i.10 12. In the classical period the 13.The letter /. and vau in the form $. evidently a combination of C ( = a-dv. The vowels are a. NOTE.C. is called sampi (cra/wri). and > for omega name later e? was used for epsilon. TTI. x<~. T. NOTE. u will be always understood as short (d. vv) century B. y in yet) sound existed (see 96). Short a.

a. NeiAo?. Medea . Thressa. 01. Eoiam'a. and sometimes dropped. diphthong are to be pronounced separately. Spurious Diphthongs. as trpo'ifvau (irpo-ievai). o. SyXovre from oV/Aocre.. Latin Equivalents. n. The proper diphthongs of the Ionic dialect. they are a. ry r^aywStci .. The vowels vowels. to. Boeotia Aaiynov. double-sound- ing) are formed by the union of an open vowel and a close one. . v. Maia. Diaeresis. except in vt formed of two close vowels. distinguished by the place of the breathing from the demonstrative pronoun i\6vi. ov. 'O/D</>i'S. called iota subscript. NOTE. ode. the spurious diphthongs were written as ordinary e and o. 'fpoid. separation} is When. . Phaedo . modern. 4. The diphthongs ct and on are called The spurious spurious whenever they do not arise from e + 1 and o + v. a'%. Adyou from Aoyoo. ot are represented by ai and oe. Thrdces . it was written on the line but in the was no longer heard. second century written (on the B. Illthyia 6p^Ks. dpyvpovs from dp-yvpeos. Mv/Seia. Kilns . as. and henceforth was sometimes Our iota subscript is qxiite line). in some names at and Aias. NOTE. iota written on the line. the i is written line .22 VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 17. The diphthongs (&i-<j)0oyyoi. >. When the first vowel is a capital. vt. and wv a long.D.. as in THI TPAFJ2IAIAI. y. iHAHI.C. Ei'Aei^uca. the t is written below ci. 2). Troia.ai with i on the line. y. 11 v. If two vowels which would regularly form a 20. Xveev (47. and ov from eo or oo or oe) or from compensative lengthening (40) as <iAei from t<iAee. NOTE. diphthongs may arise from contraction (et from ee. shout. Maia But . thongs were as follows : The Latin ov equivalents of the diph- at av ft fv I 01 oe vi a ii y e <p ae au e ov eu u yi 6 . t. e. Qprjo-va. to are termed open vowels . rj. Xitowi from Avovrcri.C. In a. As long was sounded. ei. it 22. ev. &>) with i. Orpheus . Xveiv from .- and is on the Iota Subscript. NOTE. Mitsa . the accent showing the diaeresis . and dates from about the twelfth century A. wSv/. p. of 19. with t subscript. y. 'ftify/. Xrjio/j. a. MoCo-a. the mark is sometimes omitted as aim/. . placed over the second the diaeresis is evident from the accent or breathing or an . n^eis from TI$CVTS. 21. NOTE.Aiax. Laurium . to yo forward. u are called close 18. Diphthongs. however. as this i . a mark of diaeresis (Sicu/jeo-is. The improper diphthongs are formed by the union hard vowel (a. are at. ijv. Before the fourth century B. av.

23 o58v/. on the line. NOTE. oJSv/. before the vowel. that the rough breathing was here often Compare the Latin forms enhydris for ei/ufyns. as. The consonants are divided into mutes. 7/>ayo>8os. commonly pp as Hvppos or Hvppos. we have at for ju KwpoSiu. yfo/s. (p'p =rrli). equivalent rough breathing (spiritus asper) before which it stands is said to be aspirated . Initial v or v always has the breathing in Attic. and 'double consonants. The smooth breathing (spiritus . BREATHINGS 23. TroA. . be written as ' Land ~1. have the t writ leu But when the diphthongs y. lenis) indicates that the vowel has no aspiration 24.s brought into the middle of a word by composition as. the breathing is dropped if it i. . to and the vowel is h. 'Po8o<? (Latin Rhodus}. ti'-fivui from tv-eivai or fo-cfvat. . ego . historic. See 38. In the middle of a word. and the Alexandrians introduced the Athenians. . with capitals. oikos. Except in pp. "AiSjys. the breathing is placed on the first vowel as. as ey<o. Apollo. polyhisto*' for pronounced. of a The consonant p takes the rough breathing at the beginning word as. either the rough breathing 'H/3avXj. . . 'fliSv/. Heracles. the "HiScM'. or more . NOTE. song. NOTE. 25. In diphthongs the breathing stands on the second vowel as. which was 26. E vpttnrr). orator . till it came to be employed as r) One half I was then used by some of the Italic Greeks. The signs of the breathings were formed from H. there is oe for <to .12 in ft BREATHIXGS few compounds of . NOTE. Evidence seems to show. 28. double p is written either p'p. ij&fiv. pijTwp (Latin rhetor). for the rough breathing These fragments soon came to the other half i for the smooth breathing. la-ropld. CONSONANTS 29. traijoedus in Ldius.vurTw/3. as. A^tos. breathing is placed over the vowel <f> . 77. Fyrrhus .9. oJros. semivmvels. once used to denote the rough breathing. c&moedia. however. later also by (37). 'A-TroXXwr. and in the later cursive hand (37) they dwindled to and 27. '. Eulwmerus for Ei5v//z/)os. It will be seen that with small letters. A vowel or diphthong at the beginning of a word lias The (') or the smooth breathing (').

p are liquids. 33. The rough mutes are also called aspirates. aynvpa (anwa). Sonants. Final Consonants. 35. v. as. anchor . v. //. that is.or a-S or fy/. i/-. of the older alphabet. The semivowels y. NOTE. y. 31. 34. p. e'Aey^os (elenchus). (hushed sounds) the other consonants ami the vowels . y ^ Those of the same order. f and y are 2. are called surds Surds.. The double consonants are Double Consonants. (3 c rough mutes. sphinx . 1.( = TTO-). . / and A. p.. ayyeAos (angelus). v. Palatals.is a spirant or sibilant. Those of the same 2. . are A. mutes. x> 0. Nasal y is called ay/za or ayypa by some grammarians. o-<<y. from the rough breathing. palatal mutes. lingual mutes. fj. class. TT K r 8 9. orders : These mutes are again divided into three smooth mutes. labial TT or or or 7r-mutes y 8 (3. </>. *-mutes r-mutes. = M* is composed of TT and a. \f)- Others lefb at the end. in word-formation. So. messenger . 32. 1. and ^. h. Linguals. See also 109 to 113. nasal y are nasals a. Mutes. composed ( Z represents a combination of 8 with soft s or with // . x> proof. and also <r. also spirants. 13 The mutes K are of three classes: /3 </>. r. In prosody and ^ have the force of two single consonants in making a preceding vowel long by position (116. Labials. are dropped. at the The only consonants permitted v. as are said to be cognate. K. which they contain. 7 is . are called sonants (soundiny letters). r TT. of K and aKO-). a-.S3 CONSONANTS 30. K. The smooth and rough mutes. or an d * s pronounced like n in was represented in Latin by n . nasal y. . Semivowels. //. f. Of these . middle mutes. IT The consonants may ft J* all be divided into labials (3 (}> palatals K linrjuals y x V 8 <r r A v p. as TT. 2). s to stand end of a Greek word are (. Nasal y stands before It sing or sink. p. are said to be co-ordinate.

relations in which the consonants stand to one another : shows the .HISTORICAL NOTE OX THE ALPHABET 36 The following table 36. Relations of Consonants.

X2 for rough breathing ? is found in a few of the oldest inscriptions. like o in bore. (3ij /3?j represented the bleating of sheep. 15 But and spurious ei (19). The ("inch-high" cursive or ancients used only the capitals. at first represented v by u. HOII02 for 6Vo>s. The vowel o> was long and open. E<J>2E<I>I20E for tyrfivBr]. 7}. v had acquired the sound of f.. pere (like ai in fair) . TPE2 for r/oeis. Romans . i. 4 e was pronounced somewhat like French/? in/facial. ?) . XPY2O2 for x/>wrds and x/Dwrous. K0\ YEN for KwAiW. it had acquired the sound of German il or French z u. the same sounds as the long a.(*ov. t. O for o. EHE2TATE for eVeo-rarei. The vowel v or v was originally equivalent to u in brute . o somewhat like o in annotate or poetic. i\ acquired the sound of I. TON 6EON for TOV 8c6v or rwv #wv. TOYTO for TO?TO and TOVTOV. After the fourth century A. which it still retains. 2 The In the ninth or tenth century A. v had qualitatively 38. short a somewhat like a i Long y in 1 i was sounded close.C. known as minuscules. and differed from them only in quantity. ov. . later by j/. like in machine . Long a was pronounced in partition.38 PRONUNCIATION The older Attic alphabet agreed in most points with the Ionic. w.T>. short l somewhat like very. PRONUNCIATION The short simple vowels d. The numerous abbreviations found in older books are no longer used. 1. and spurious ov $2 for ^ \ f or A . (19) . n. 3 like long French or <? e in reve. AEMOI for e'Soei/ rrj ftovX-ij Kal TW 8?//*w. ?. A for y . ev. but before the fourth century B.* 1 The short I in bit anil short S in let are open. EAPAMMATEYE for typa/z/xareve. and qualitatively different from i in machine and e in obey. The vowel ij was pronounced long and open . like a in father . TON A^IKNOMENON for TWV HPOX2ENO2 for 7r/>oevo<? and Trpo^i/ovs. the v had the n-sound. In the diphthongs av. Vowels. 4 Originally e and o were also nscd to express long close sounds probably After these long sounds of e and o had equivalent to e in obey. AIANO2KO for HOI for 01. introduce abbreviations and amalgamations of letters produced the running hand which finally assumed. The following examples will show how the Athenians wrote before the end of the Peloponnesian War: EAOX2EN TEI BO\EI KAI TOI it used E for . v. The vowels e and o were short 4 and close . it still used H for the . the form of our ordinary small letters. TO AEMO for TOV Sr. 3 . and o in prone. e. in the Middle Ages. HE for HE2 for s HEI for y. -r/v. <m>. called majuscules or uncials The tendency to round off the corners and to letters).

PRONUNCIATION Diphthongs. 6 But in the majority of cases and ov are spurious. * x (EXEI). and The (see footnote 4 below).D. e 1 Xe/ww (old Attic "VEinO). and the o somewhat like o in forget.sounds. but M^Seia. p. 4>eu5pos. O. this difference in pronunciation between genuine ei and ov on the one hand. Kilns . and o and w the e being pronounced in their time somewhat like e in met. 1 somewhat like ai in aisle. it began to be pronounced In Latin as it. as Kpoieos. By 400 B. must still have subsisted (spurious ei and ou being then written as e and o). time of the change in 403 B. The Romans represented at by ae. and ei probably like ei in veinJ' The diphthongs av and ev were pronounced a-v (a-u) and e-v (d-u). Still later was finally pronounced everywhere as f. fcudo. After the Alexandrian ]>eriod it tended to become short and by about the third century A. . 6 Evidently like Italian a-u and e-u in augusto. ancient 17. originally long close was formed from an Genuine which had assumed a vanishing t-sound. the t gradually prevailed more and more over the e and by the first century B. the regular Alexandrian grammarians no longer oi' . developed into the genuine diphthongs short e and o tended to become open. and henceforth written us ing i. 7 av av et was a dog's bark. oi was represented by oe. both genuine and spurious ei and ov were written alike and practically had the same sound ov being then pronounced as ou in youth. which was then pronounced as ou in youth. the -souml had prevailed pver the c-sound in the diphthong ov. r. making o-". Croesus . the long e and o (due to contraction or compensative. 1 Evidently like Italian a-i in mat. which by that time hail already changed considerably from See footnote 3. The diphthong oi was pronounced o-i. i. the spurious et and ov were written like ordinary e and o.C. it acquired the sound of long open e. genuine ou was formed in the same way from a long close o which had assumed a vanishing The genuine diphthongs et and ov are seen in words like it-sound. distinguished anything but a quantitative difference between e and 17. and in the ninth or tenth century it had acquired the sound of ?. and ov) must also have acquired the vanishlengthening.. & : somewhat like ou in bound and eu in feud . as its original sound. the spurious ov (19) as long close o. In the second century A.C. 2 somewhat like oi The genuine diphthongs ei and ov were pronounced e-t (o-n). except before vowels. Before the adoption of tinIonic alphabet.. heard distinctly. anciently by ai. In the fifth century B. At tin. ofrros (HOTT02). ft was pronounced ?. . as Mata. x.C. anciently by oi. In ft. 1 In Modern Greek av and ev are pronounced af and cf before *.C. and spurious ei and ov on the other.1C 2. <f>. 15. JUaia. 3 oi in Like Italian noi. the sound which it still retains. Medea). Genuine 4 and ou arose at a very early period. 38 In all the genuine diphthongs both vowels were but as one syllable. <TI . But by 400 B. Troia. making t.B.e. 3 Like Italian ci in lei. ffirovSj (ZnOTAE).* in foil 3 ) (/>'-/' and o-v The spurious diphthong ei (19) was pronounced as long close e. K. where it still had the e-sound (NetXot. as T/xu'd.C. Phacdrus .and u. originally The diphthong at was pronounced a-i.

the Attics letters felt an aspiration in Hence the Romans represented these <f> by th. Aos. Thus. German ch in ach. 'ffievvtvai for fffievifijvcu. C . but it could not have prevailed before 1 the fourth century B. in 7^. and when initial or doubled. See 21. y were pronounced a-i. and has in consequence been introduced into the Attic authors.i> and wv were probably pronounced and w. evangelion. the Attics wrote and pronounced v () for the thus. in the classical period. 3 Hence the Latin equivalents comoedia. /j. 5. at. 8 In Modern Greek like th in that. The diphthongs a. I. after it 4 had become silent. 77-1. in fact. A. 2 See footnote 2.D. In . In Modern Greek like v. >. v. m. 3. cfporia nounced 300 A. with the B. rhapsodus for tpdeiov. v.. andi. but before middle always like t in to. . as loses its F the same as before 'A^^afe from 'A^^dtr-Se and a and another consonant. The p was trilled more than English r.va for fj. 8 In Modern Greek yy and yic are pronounced as ng. 77. and w. evayytXiov. y. has the sound of our y in j/ct . . German c/t in ic/t. as dvdyKi). the same as b* k. tragoedia.and 8. like s in so . 12 While f and ^ were still written those letters. 5 c?. if. like/. vi. 8) and liquids. and TT. followed by the rough breathing 13 thus & . The rough mutes #. Similarly yv and uv are now proand of. and ph. ot. the voiced equivalent /j. nuire. principal force on the first vowel. vi was again written. ei. K. as den'. thavma. as fytTropos (cmboros). Modern Greek fis pronounced z. In tlie Hellenistic period. is were obliged to use to represent Latin/. 3 i ceased to be heard. anaiigi .C. which is. 12 KO. x before f. at. German ch in ac/t. the 7 is like French nasal n. were adopted when the t was still heard but odeum. ai/r6s is pronounced aftos . TT were practically in English.38 PRONUNCIATION 17 The diphthong vt had the value of ii-i. and av and . y. ch. 10 Z was composed of 11 a. 6 In Modern Greek IT after is pronounced b . it was felt to be aspirated. 9 In Modern Greek r after v is pronounced d . 13 as XS and *S.v1a. somewhat like ui in quit. ey before other letters. x an d < were pronounced. with the addition of v 2 (?t). 11 fftjv Hence <r5 ( before f = <r3) in word-formation often gives f. and and \p stood for pronounced dz.and TTcr. 77. The period of this change of v (u^ of these diphthongs to the spirant/ or v has not been determined . p 6 9 2 was sharp. Iv. \l/ . Gavpa. ti'nropid. elsewhere it has a peculiar guttural sound. 10 Hence f was often written for it in these latter positions as Z/j. Tpayydid. or more probably zd. Consonants. ov. t. of . for Kw/x^Sia. 8 Ordinary y was always lik eg in go? nasal y like n in sing or sink. In the second century the T was /?. mutes (ft. The consonants . t. The rare diphthongs ?. 1 like French ui in lui. p. p. 7 In Modern Greek 7 before e. pai/'yooy. Laius. v. K.vpi>a for Z/ui'/pvo. 15. In Modern Greek like The Greeks pronounced like elsewhere like th in thin. w-i. soft like English z. as r.C. From diphthong w : .

but the majority pronounce Greek with more or less 4. ri-0r)-fj. opiw. tKCTei-o-a v/3pi'w. a-.-o-(o. . w/ii^ov. etc. /iea. A. etd-o-a. (KU>A?>-). /io/w. bloc/touse. x as German ch : \l> -rj in ach as dz or z or zd . td-<ro/xai. o short as o in forget. tj. (So-).r)vi<a (/A^VI-. fc'crr?. aw (a-). present-stum Aow. ert-drj-v 6etKi'D-). with Latin accentuation.Ao-). v (M). .i (Of-\ put. uphill. </iw. w as o in most persons pronounce o> as o in tone) . fcrTr. eitt-yxai. iKeTtvov. reTiynr/-Ka. /i^vf-trw. impf. aor. Zeac?. approximation to the probable ancient pronunciation would be the = g in go). impf. TT. ta-Trjcri. <^)iA?y-(ra). short vowels are often These changes are the following a becomes 77 (d after e.co (^>iAe-). lao/xai (ia-). erfyi^-o-a. 8?yAo>-(ra. TCTT^S. hinder. except in the present system of verbs in <o. vfipifav. tKereuw. and formation of words. S^Aw-o-cu. Zov. fo-T7/s. f?o. still Perhaps a fair and practicable approach to the ancient pronunciation. (\w was e-Kto. K(oAl. T/ATTI^OV. av as ou in bound . se<. and Thus a short final vowel of a verb-stem A in many other formations. or />) c r becomes l 77 W V U O : .18 CHANGES OF VOWELS 39 was ai'-Tos. fj. . and v as u in cube) . &. "Ayw. />?. lore (but a. l. Spuw (fyxx-).-v. pass. v. 7/A7rra . I. 8?/Aow . . /*. upura. mark ojf. p. \ftpia-drjv. honor. 2). insult. So also in the temporal augment (453. perf. 8. as explained above (but many pronounce as a in late. (ks). K.#. impf. English and American Usage. 2). e/cwAtKra. r. Ti/. is usually lengthened in the tense-formation of all verbs. a.r/-crw. mid. implore. Spi-o-w. CHANGES OF VOWELS LENGTHENING 39. . v. eSpa-a-a. etc. at as ai in aisfe / as a in rem or as ei in /tez'^M / . pass. etc. perf. . etc. e^iAry-cra. Si-Sta-fjii impf. <iA. (3/. aor. etc. . following Pronounce (3. c8etKvv-i/. <f> as /. similar lengthening occurs in the singular indicative active of the present system of verbs in /xi (664. cm-Ka. m as ui in quit . a. 867). TfrffMij-p-ai^ aor.<> as . AVe may represent these sounds approximately in words like potf/took. cv and TJV as eu in feud . e/i/yvi-cra "lo-rrj-fju KwAvw . c as e in met . eld-drjv . (stem o~ra-). 6 as th in thin. . BfiKvv-fj.. 6e wroth against. t. aor. 77. y ( (ps). In the inflection lengthened. Ti/iaw (stem Ti/xa-). fTlfj-ij-Br/v . ov and <av as ou in youth . .<fx\K<a was u-TreAKw. In the" United States some scholars still follow this English method. In England most scholars pronounce Greek according to the English method. w. lyyov eAn'^oj. impf.1 (8etK-. 01 as oi in foil . fut. ci-<ra>. permit..

^oi/. -o--. e^rjva.'va> (</>av-) e/^tai/a for ejcuavcra. from which rtvw. c. there is interchange of ev and ou. Tt/zi. /wive stolen. from the stem rpe(fi-. . T/)O<^)-?/. 2). 3) (105. from root Tt/za<$>i\r)-fj. 4) Avovcri Auo-vcrt (90. Xvovr-ya. first aorist of liquid verbs (682. for c~fpav(ra. am (by nature). 43. . KAcTT-Tw.tatVo> (juav-') '. a is mostly or p. is. and o are often interchanged. was stolen. helping. Te-rpo<j>-a. of (f>ixo. for e(/>avcra. A short vowel for euphony. yepiov (yepovr-). lengthen stem to 77 and to in forming the nominative . nourishment.. 4) In these cases et and ou are spurious diphthongs. theft.vva . e-Tpd^rjv. (a) 41. expedition. /ictve sm<. Ti-<ra. . 7te?j?. 3) i(7Tai/T-s (90.. 3). and crTrouS-T/. See also 44. liarely t] In errreiJo'-to. Ke-/<Ao(/>-a. hasten. the short vowels have a. TI-CTIS. and w interchange as. . be thou . 4) Auotxri for AUOVT-O-I (90. perf. Stoocr-s (90. 4) co-reA-cra (682. 1.eA. nearly always to d) as. of one or often lengthened to make up for the omission. ap>yy-w. tipwy-os. from <a<. -OVT.vv-(ra \apLffs c'crretAa. 4) Auowa tKpiva ijfj. NOTE.-<ris. T/3<-w. . nourish. . In this way a becomes a i becomes r is /zeAds icrrds for //. as Ai/r>yv (prjTOp-}. NOTE. .. from the stem crreA-Ato. l-and 2 2. /zi(r$co-T>ys but Tre^u-Ka. 19 nature. rarely occurs . Interchange between an original open vowel and a close one as. 1081.av-s (90. crKeSavi/iyu and (TMMi . root T-. In the inflection and formation of words.a from root /ztcr$o-. -ya-. IrL-frOy/v from root <iAe- . crrdA-os. stem See 621. COMPENSATIVE LENGTHENING 40. was nourished. iirkpava. 3) $i's Oevr-s (90. more following consonants. and urOi.. e-crraA-Ka. retribution. INTERCHANGE OF VOWELS 42. send. 4) Sei/cvu? SetKvwr-s (90. (6) e and o of the Masculine and feminine stems in -v-. /cAcTr-. Tt/x^-^a. re'ri-o-yuat. (90. TTt-/ca. lengthened to ij In the t (after . ^apievT-s (90.43 CHANGES OF VOWELS s. 3) 8t8ous . from Trepat^w (Trepav-). from yu. rpLi'ip^ (rptrypes-). 3) fxpiv-a-a. s<ea/.(224. 2) (105. r/fj. nourislied. rl-o-w. from root yroduce . cVrt (e'er-). (-K \dir-yjv. </>r-.. Aas/e.

VOWELS 44. assembly. Rules of Contraction. Epic /Afrryopos. and Attic vcws .CHANGES OF VOWELS scatter . leave. See 210. : A and Attic ^SatriAews. e-TaK-rjv. forms. melted. root pay- See also 630 and 1080. Mei'eAdos. melt. blameless. rtdvi^ dead. So and Attic [jLereatpos o>. fled. TC-TTJK-CI. blame. as re^vews for Horn. Hiatus. 58). called hiatus. in the root. temple. An open vowel followed by a close one forms a diphthong with yevfi it.ti. and the short vowels treated as the original. and rfa becoming ca .. dyo/ad. went. broken. Tre-<f>evy-a. of with . left. of contraction : The following are the general principles 1. and s. flee. was melted.(see ep^opai). and ai'wyv/zos. When two vowels of different syllables meet. king. Ac-AotTr-a. rrJK-<a. 2. Attic McveAews. AeiTr-w. f-(f>vy-ov. aloft. diphthong. was broken. have <j>fvy-<D. Meeting of Vowels.K- />/3wy-a. root AITTroot <f>vy- have fled. STRONG AND WEAK ROOT. In such cases the long vowels or diphthongs are said to be the strong The weak form is the weak forms. name. can be avoided in prose by crasis (53 (59 63). /JacrtAed . le/t. 44 ovo/xa. shall ijXvd-ov (Epic) = = fX-tjXvO-a. root fXvd. fp-pdy-rjv.1. ftaa-iXija. EXCHANGE OF QUANTITY 45. or by adding a movable consonant (62 67). Epic ^Soo-iAT/os.(lol eu eu . root TO. as in Epic vaos. nameless. they are generally contracted into one long vowel or The meeting of two vowels between two different words. or 01 fv 1} v a (sometimes ov) (seldom to). In some formations and I inflections we find an interchange. y(Vf'i yepni ytpai ireidoi 7.o becoming ew. long open vowel sometimes exchanges quantity with -a short one following ao and ?. fnjy-vv/j. and a/Ai'/xa>v. eX-r/XovO-a (Ionic) ?}A$-ov. break. l-Awr-ov. CONTRACTION OF VOWELS 46. 266. have gone. by elision 47. am tAetMTo/xm (84). am go. T/W may become .

(48. In contracts of the first and second declensions. ocrra aTrAo'a. 2. but a following 5.S ing a becoming a . yevr. 1. i Special Rules of Contraction. ^/auo-ed. but p. TlfJL(JJ OCTTU) is A vowel before a diphthong beginning with the same vowel before fAvai fj. . ot. TrAa/cdeis. ' . The spurious diphthong rifj-dftv. S7yAov . STyAots . 3) Xvrjat Xvy - / d>lX. txTrAa But ill the singular of tlie first declension. Af-ecu. (f)iXei . UTrAo?). X/01 "*/ TVJC.48 2. 6). See 477. TI/XS TlUCl . . 5 In the second person singular of the passive and middle. Troieet 7rott TTOIOI 8>yAooi ^77Ao'ou SryAo? TTOifoi 8?yAou See also 48. as SryAo'y. similarly ju. 8t/\oi. 'Ep/ied?. CTVKO. ctTrATy ctTrAoai?. 3. See 322 f>99. as. . Tt/xae.i (f>LAOV (plAOV OCTTSli) TlfJUlOV 6. TrAaKoiis. contracts to rj as. yeveos. 7. two e-sounds. the followo-VKds. Ti/za rt/xa^re.. also oy in the subjunctive. or <a. ed. . TrAoos. When When w. ri/Aare yevea. 48. 7rAof>s. . NOTE. . v disappears. CHANGES OF VOWELS 21 Two like vowels (i. cake . result a or 77. 1. first 3. eat (for eo-cu) gives the ordinary Attic ei as well as the regular y . after any consonant uTrAai?. a vowel followed by a diphthong ?o/ beginning with the same vowel is contracted with the y?rs# vowel of the diphthong and a following i remains as iota subscript. uirXy d(TTea. e . Verbs in ow contract oei to ot. 294. <rvKy. Aveai <f)lA77S j % Ai5r. Avei or Avy. . become an o-sound meets an a-sound or an e-sound. an a-sound meets an e-sound. the is . O-UKCCU.V(ji absorbed. is contracted like simple as. the two But oe and eo give ov (19). Except in the case of e + ot. .aw/xi/ rt/xw/xev But ST^ Aoe. . See 192. 4. unite in the common yfpaa /Mvacl long two a-sounds.e. . or two o-sounds) But ee gives ei (19) and oo gives a. SrjXoeiv. every short vowel followed by a or by a long vowel or diphthong. 2. . . rlp-oiv . in order prevails. ye/od /Ai'a ^tAryre Tl/xryvTi 8r/Aoo> S^Aw crals (TWOS But <j!u'Aee. as. and the 4. oSiAoets. O-VKOLI dpyvpiav. S^Aouv. ^wXeiJTC Tt/A7yevTt ou(19). 'Ep/xvys. as.vaat fivanf. is absorbed (47. See 597. dpyvpaiv aTrAovi.rK j \"^ TlfJLU>fJ.. ai8(o i'jpu>a al8oa ?ypco <5>yAo?yTe SyAwT Tt/iw/iev Tt//.

as arvpat from crv-ipia occurs in cases like KI-I. Table of Contractions. 50. as at/aw from Ionic deipw. <ae up.t a + c to = = = = Ttp. NOTE. the third declension. + a = a yepaa = y/oa + ai =cu + q. But no contraction . as A close ix^s . . Kptvw from Kpl-ivo> for Kpiv-yta (96. 2) O + = ei + 77 +y = = 8?7 Aoiv= 877 Aorv (48. /iv-t. Rarely aei gives ai instead of a . Chios) An followed by gives I . 1) = K\y9pov to + a =? ev(f>vfa + + 01 i =to =i = tv(f>vTJ = v<f>va (48. as VT/I. NOTE. 3) (48. of iydvs. mouse. =<jt + c =a + et = p TlfJifi = c e e e c OF a oral a + 77 = a a + 77 = ^i & + L =ai a + i =<f. For exceptions in the contraction of verbs. a + o = co a + 01 = a + ou = w (<J = Ti/ iav (48. 5) (48.CHANGES OF VOWELS 5. weevil.us. as Xtos. l)^0v-i. 5). Chiun.aov + w =w + 01 =27 77 + =77 77 + l ^77 77 77+1 77 t ocrrew = = OOTOJ = Ai'y Ai>?7ai </>iAew Tl/i?/lS TI/J. 5) or a o o o c + at = fv<j>vca Tj (48. to a ship. ea becomes a after See 307. 49. for i'x$t'S. NOTE. d or 77 after In adjectives in 775 of the third declension. and 51. dat. c . dat. 2 For contraction confined to certain cases of nouns and adjectivee of 1047. 2) (48.1) to to O^AdrjTf 8180775 = O^AtoTf = 8i8<j>S .a> e = to pi<TTo<s Ti/xao/if v TlfJ. I . dat. i or v.O) =77 = Tl/XjJs (48. 6) = Ti/xaYe rl/JidrjTf Tt/xaeti/ J e e e + ei = ei + 77 =77 + 77 =77 + i =i + o = ov yeveos = + 01 =01 ^>iAeoi = </uAoi + ov ^ ou + v = ev 6 4. Similarly vi becomes v in for (rvp-yw (96. of /as. 481 666. Contraction See 45. 4) cS77Aoi a/'f5w' d7rAoa (48. liquid verbs . and 6. a a a a a 52. 7. fish of /u. and I i'x#u for vowel rarely contracts with a succeeding open one i%0ve in comedy. 1) = dfipta aipta (48. see that declension. 5) o + a = Kpl-lV(l)= KpfviD (50) to aifioa Or a (48. 5). 2) voe = i/ou = ^Aoi (48. . 5) Aceat= ort Auai = Aut oral c Ai77 + + + ai e ei = at = ov =01 or of = = a7rAa (48. see 479. from Xuos (Xi'os. is often neglected when the first vowel is long . 2 <x7rAoai = aTrAai (48.aoi[j.

VTOV. With Kat and Tot. Taya^a for Ta dyadd . *av for Kal ev. dSeA^ot for ot a<5eA<ot. TOVvo/aa. breathing . /c. vdos = aTrA^ (48. mixture) is the contraction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word. rrjiraptj for rfj tirapy. see 853. X arpo<s later for /cat eVc/305. dyaOd. rough breathing. TauTo for T& aurd . (For Synizesis. by absorption dvT/p for 6 dv-i/p. The final vowel or diphthong of the article before initial a. The coronis is dropped if the first word has the rough 55. e and et. The particle rot drops ot before a . In crasis. KOV for /cat fK . It is rare in Homer (see 851). with one at the beginning of the following word. A diphthong at the end of the first word drops is lost its last vowel before contraction takes place . it is darepa. With the article 58. dolfianov for TO I/UUTIOV.VTOV . The two words are then written as one. With the relatives 6' and a . O\<K for 6 1. rovvofia for TO 6Vo/ia . as av for a av. = Trfl6oL 2) V+l =V = (TVp(i) (50) = vovs = STjAoi cfyAoot = 877X01) 8r)Xoov = oV/Adto STjAto aTrAdto = ciTrAy Hardy the following : = l\8rs (49) v T c =v l\Bvf<s to + a = W a> to to + + + e t o = = = co co to T^pwt o~wos = = o~ws 77/3(0 CRASIS 53. as rapa for rot apa. NOTE. as KO. K^tra for Kat etra. except KCU e?. uScA^ot for ot dSeA^>oi. poetry. TO. Toui/ai'Ttov for TO fvavriov . Crasis (/cpoo-ts. for TO. by crasis. 98) as . T) comes before the changed to the cognate rough mute (30. avrjp for 6 dvrjp. hence 56. Thus TO. other. TO ovopx. . arepos for 6 efrepos. but rare in Crasis occur chiefly in the tragedy . 57. as ovyw for o eyw 3. TuvSpt for T< avSpi . 2 . av for a av. especially in comedy. in prose the orators use it most. Crasis generally follows the rules of contraction. for ct's. 2. 854. . as oinri for 01 c-n-L 2. with these : exceptions 1. assumes the form arepos . with the coronis (') over the contracted syllable. Crasis occurs mostly in poetry. If. ere/DOS. OUTTI for o cTrt. efrepa. rdyatfa. The diphthong of /cat is lost by absorption before all vowels and Thus diphthongs. 4. in more frequent : : Tavro? for TOU O.68 CHANGES OF VOWELS 77 23 <TV-lp(0 + O+l = Ol o + o =ov + ot =ot o + ov = ov O + to = to o + to = to o =77 cMrAoTj TTloi.V for Kal av. NOTE. following cases as avi'/p for 6 avr'/p .) 54.VTOV for TOV O. ravSpi for T(p dv&pl. NOTE. Thus KCUJTOS for KCU avros but xa? Yet we have Ktt for /cat ft and Kt? for Kal . 3. a smooth mute (TT.

and eyw oiSa. ELISION 59. pronouns. and generally the Attics use cTretSdV. 60. apostrophe. it is changed to the cognate rough mute .) or t-n-av (rarely Attic) .V for roi rapa for rot apa. the interjection w. a smooth mute (TT. 62. XGI for Kai 01 . 60). irpo. ov. rrt'. t or thus 8. some authors. trt/AT/o-a (see 554).) e-n-edv (Ion. If. by elision. In Herodotus elision is not as common as in Attic prose. at the end of nouns. especially in compounds. et av gives ordinary or av (newer Att. a short final vowel usually dropped. conjunctions. r) is brought before the rough breathing. SL aVb enetvo for Sia fvdvs. Ka#' rjpepav from Kara -fjfjLfpav. as wvflpwTre for w avOpwire. ovS-et's (oi>8t and efs).) or tTrv/i/ (Horn.i/ (Ion.) . except those ending in e. 97. Kai avrrj (57) . With 7ret or eTretSr. as irpov^d) for TT/JO-C^W. before ai/ TT/DO : in verbs TrpovTifj-rjo-a for fdv or ?. adjectives. ftiVTav for P&VTOI av 4. X<o for Kai o .VTIJ for With With eya> ot/iat. 61. vv\6' oXrjv from VVKTO oArjv. &XP l > (2) the conjunction 6Vt. first declension . from Trpo fpyov. 60). and adverbs . Trev^-^yMe/ios (TTCI/TC and ?}/x/3o. and verbs. e. words ending 63. 60). . and in eyw/xm -n-povpyov. fj*xpi. ^at for Kai at . helpful. and o-ot. CTTCI av gives sometimes Att. object. In the formation of compound words. as Thucydides. CHANGES OF VOWELS KOVTOS for Kai avros : 59 . 5. Si-eAiTrov (Sia and eAtTroi'). c<j>-(vpuTK(a is 'ATr-ayw (aTro and ayo>). (3) monosyllables. and older Att. ?. croiVrt for (rot . often neglect it. as a</>' o? from OTTO See 55. eywSa. 6. but no apostrophe here marks the elision. as Isocrates. less frequent full use of it . . : make while others. No elision takes place in (1) the prepositions TTC/DI. and the dative plural in (6) -art . (CJTL and evporKW. Aeyot/i av for Aeyot/xt aj'. Se(Sina and rjfJLepa. See also 99. NOTE.24 ov av . aAX' fvOvs for tJAAa opar' avrov for opare avrov. . It is most frequent with prepositions. (4) the dative singular in -t of the third declension. for /not an With With the enclitics /xot eSoKtt. t. TU. K. XO. x?) for Kai '. o) before a word beginning with a vowel. Elision is the omission of a final short vowel (&. (5) final -a of the nominative of the in -v. KOO-TI for Kai rrt . Elision is not a necessary rule cp-ov. 'ATT' e/iou for The elision is marked by an Ktvo. and mostly before m as fjLov8oKi for 7.

1. At the end of some other words. (a) When p.'TTT for TI'TTOTC. as K TroAews. but eAwre rov av<5pa . Trwriv fXeyev fKeiva. especially in verbs yXaKTo<ciyos for yaAaKTo-^xxyos. OVK oiSa. thus. 69. But the contracted imperfect in (for -ce) never takes v in Attic. elided in prose. Tr-n/o-opu for 7rT7]o-o//m (G19). sentence . added when the following word begins lit. In Herodotus v movable is seldom found. no longer. 2). becomes OVK before a vowel with the smooth breathing. as fXfXvi<ei(v\ he -ei third singular pluperfect active in -ei rarely takes v had loosed. often drops s before a consonant as OVTWS fXfgev. Of all the words which take v movable. fXvcrev avrov. irarpos for Trare/aos (243). Mr. he knew. also at the end of a verse in poetry. v movable are dragging The forms which take All words in -o-i : (a) (b) (c) (-i -i/'i). . All verbs of the third person singular ending in is. This is called v movable (v c<e AKWTIKOV. inserts K in p/K-eTi. to add v at the end of a 66. . drops s before a consonant : . ecrrai for Epic reTai. JjXOov for Epic 7yAv#oi'. before a consonant inscriptions show that v movable was often written this is often done in poetry to make position (116. by syncope or metathesis . 2. as yiyvo/xai for ytyevo/zcu (G19).. 2. with a vowel. Ourws. Trcurt eii<o<Tiv CTI. but a)(s) Aeyei. and ovx before a vowel with the rough breathing as ov Aeyw. eK-Aeyco. not. ?/8ei(v). AeAvKev f/j-f but . liviny on milk. only rri' may be 68. Ov. SYNCOPE 70. oYSoxrtv eyuot. Syncope occurs oftener in the Dialects (most often in Epic forms) as err Ac for (ireXe. certain forms of declension v is and conjugation. NOTE. NOTE. w//y then? . on the analogy of oi''x oin-os. T<. but etKocrt 65. not. also in 1. The . The movable . from. (KS). is brought before A or p. 67. The omission of a short vowel between two consonants is called syncope . but not necessary. after}. 'ECTTI. : Thus Aeyoucri ravra. NOTE. but but e^eXeyov. e. . 'E OIKOV .71 CHANGES OF VOWELS 25 MOVABLE CONSONANTS 64. 71. from TreAw than in Attic. NOTE. but SiSuxri ynoi . It is usual.

The transposition of a short vowel and a following liquid in a word is called metathesis. //. spirant a: but TT</>. ^^ic. thus occasionally giving double forms as. courage . Thus K/OCITOS and Ka/aros. Epenthesis. die). yesterday . pant aOXov. as avoids for dv-pos.ites (/?. 'Aral's. for (b) Ka. y. 73 it. initial the beginning of some words which begin with /. dropped before /3 in this case. for /A/JO-TOS /JAiTTw.fj. syncopated /i/3Air-. BaK^os. a short vowel is sometimes found .Xd)- Thus netrrjuPpid. x#s and f-\6t<s. due to euphonic assimilation. ff) are never doubled Thus 2a7r<w. some cases a vowel has been inserted between mute and a liquid. fj. /3poTos. honey (compare Latin me/). K.-ftdXov. strength. is At the beginning of a word. METATHESIS 74. Prothesis. when syncope brings v before p in the oblique cases of i'/p. v. fi/x>. ADDITION OF VOWELS 72. r . j/o. In yy. as in the last three examples CHANGES OF CONSONANTS DOUBLING OF CONSONANTS In the great majority of cases. Thus . *x 2. a 8 is euphonically inserted after the v . defense. mortal.(compare Latin manor.26 (74). K(-Kfj. formerly a. for epic perfect of ySAcoo-Kw. with e-Ka^ov. defend. djfrrpairij. doubling of consonants is 75. compare /3(-/3Xfj-Ka (from stem /3aA-) witli e-/3aA-ov. the first always nasal as ayyAo? . and aA/o). from stem /*op-. xx> anc^ && . . 8) are never doubled in Attic./3 XiaKa. and rjpjfpa) p. The rough mutes (<f>. Sappho. ear of corn . .of /xeAi. and rarely the Attic are the liquids A. Bacchus. The middle y is m. Compare or-c-poTr?. The only consonants found doubled in the mutes TT. 2). At two consonants or had crra^us prize. . a or between liquids lightning . The vowel (39). (c) Similarly man. take honey. 2). /? is CHANGES OF CONSONANTS inserted after . 3. (31.(39). . ^. from stem /*oA-. and a-trTa^vs. /*. /?Air-. from dvepos. midday. fzAio. cnrcupco. two In 73. (243. aucnraipdt and from a-c^Aov. from stem /jLtXir. p 1. Tf-dvij-Ka (from stem #av-) Avith then often lengthened. Odpo-os and fyjoo-os.f-fj. and rO are used for <<.rj-Ka (from stem xa/x-) is f-Oai-ov. and aA--w.

c/>) or a palatal becomes co-ordinate (30. 'AT#I'S. : TTT. The changes For the change of T before in the aspirated consonants are treated in i and other vowels to cr. In all of the above combinations. NOTE. as K-KaAo). K/X-I'T- TCOV. . 8. such a 108.i.. See 76. x) cr. But this refers only to crcr due to the union of a mute with y (96) . $ctAacrcra. EUPHONY OF CONSONANTS the final consonant of a stem meets a consonant. 8. and pew) . When TT elands for the later Attic o-o-. Kpeicrcrtov. in infleccollision generally gives rise to certain 84 and 86 97. MUTES BEFORE MUTES mute KT ./rom. fK-Otd). . 78. <f>6. The later Attic has pp for the earlier Attic $apcros. tion When and word-formation. as xopp-//. 83. Hence. Attic. CK-8i8(D/J. 98 104. not in "ATTIKOS and in some The older Attic prose (as Thucydides) and the other words. (76). 82. 4). Tre(J>paS-TO. imperfect of pdirTor. 80. Tragedians have crcr and ps the Comedians have TT arid pp. 0). only these combinations are allowed . . Thus ep-pcra-Tov. Initial p is doubled before the syllabic augment . Before a lingual mute (T. Certain euphonic changes. in composition. these are explained in 80 in the cr and / are treated in 105 107 and iu spirants special changes 79. per. it remains unchanged Also TT and r6 in a few words as 'ATTIKOS. y8 . The later Attic has TT for the earlier Attic cnr as TCITTW. a-0. see 85.i 81. NOTE.83 CHANGES OF CONSONANTS 76. Odppos for /copcrr/. 27 . 2) . OdXaTTa. /?. remains unchanged. yj) O-T. a lingual before another (K. a labial (TT. The cause of the doubling is the d-n-op-pfta (euro compounds loss of an initial cr or / before the p (see 108. the second mute is T. y. NOTE. for Tctcrcrw. 'E/c. but ev-poo?. for TfTpl/3-Tat AeAeKTcu for ypd/38r)V eTpi/3-@r)V ypa(f>-8r)V i. also in after a short vowel. the later prose (as Xenophon) and 77. lingual becomes (38.

as fKremains unchanged here as in 8i .ai ?]pyp. NOTE. as a. first mute drops out . v.i'j. the as Ke/co/xiKo. for (pf/3-vos (*Ep/3-os. .Aeyx-/iai) from eAey\w. TrAtK-o-w .5. . vapor. epepvos.[j.. For more examples. NOTE. K. edye . /ti/x/x or yy/x. see 231. 484. In cre/zvos. o-e for Doric TV.. yti p. as /ce-/c/z?/-Ka (KU/X-VW). TT and r6 in several words. (TTa^-//. A. as riOrja-t.K-p. for Ke/co/xio'-Ka. Before p a labial mute becomes a linual mute becomes o-. But seldom before . before the other liquids.... 'E/c spear-point. . roi. K\.unites with it to form ( mute forms ( = KCT) a single lingual mute is dropped. revere). dropped. p. T 85. for <re/3-vos (<r/?-o/zcu.os. AeAei7r-/i<u T(Tpi/3-fJ. crot. is If the assimilation gives rise to (for 7re7re/A/ji-/zai. MUTES BEFORE a 84.28 or 0.ai for yeypa<f>fi. which is not a mute (75.ai TreTrAey/^ai 7T7rAeK-/iat K/t 87. for rrj^pov Zireo-ov for Doric MUTES BEFORE 86.ai yeypa/j. station. T often becomes as especially before t . Exceptions are TT<. TreTretKa for TrcTret^-Ka. palatal = mute before a.a<. CHANGES OF CONSONANTS If in formations 84 any other combination of consonants would occur. Aeo> <f>\6 for Aey-crw tATTicri for e Tret'cro) rpii^w <Aoy-s . al^-fj. a .. 88. Thus 7rr/z/uai TTfTTffJiTr-p. or y . dark. solemn. . Erelos). for TeTpl(J. /3Xf\j/<a for /^AfTr-cro) Tpl/3-<T(a . one //. they stand unchanged .2) TrAe^w . and Aeolic to-day. The mutes remain unchanged becomes /x. Ar. and y-nasal.p. x> T > $ often stand before fi in the formation of nouns . 2). other vowels crv. aT-/x. But when and T/Z are brought together by metathesis Also (74). for original re TrAoixr-io? for TrAoi'T-ios. a palatal mute becomes y . . ft . See 485. ypa<j)-<rw apu> acrw d^^-crw aS-a-w opvuri ^a/3i<rt \apifT-a-i (321. labial \</ A TTO-) .fj. and rB (75. 'Aral's.ai) from Tre/iTrtu AryAey/iat (for cA^Aeyy-yMou. } Tidi]Tt' BEFORE VOWELS o-. revered. 89. NOTE.. . 3). 485. from eT TrAovros. as 'ATTIKOS. T-T/A>/-ica (refi-vat).

2) ( ( ) ) Avov-o-i 4. 7re/>ivs (stem ireiptvd-).before and a consonant or before } as trvcr-o'iTos. drying up. Before o-. see 224. cr in A/xii/5 (stem f\/j. XvOev-<ra Before o- in inflections.. v becomes for p. e to . in composition .i Trctcroyaat vravr-crt crTretcra) o"7Tv8-(ra) AeovT-crt rt^twri -OVT-. also in a few nouns in -cris belonging to late Greek. Before (also a labial ). Tr^ucr-yucu for 7re</>av-/Aeu. 95. and o-u- crv-crrrip. TraAiV-cr/ao? or TraAicr-crKios. the v is /zeAds for /ueAav-s ev-s (241. see For nominatives in -wv from stems in 224. \f). (a) ^Aao-t for fj. is preceding vowel ytyds Tracrt vO are always dro])ped and the compensatively lengthened as in 89. as </>utVtu. cruAAoyos crw-Aoyos regularly dropped and the preceding vowel compensatively lengthened. NOTE.eXav-fri. o to oi' (38). body of a cart. When v stands alone before -cri of the dative plural.. as ^ry^ai/o-ts. (588 Au^eio-a i>8. 1. but the preceding vowel is not lengthened . d to d.^ crv-fcvyvvfj.CLI In verbs in -vw the v of the stem .in the perfect and pluperfect -vo). 8ai/j. a- 93.95 CHANGES OF CONSONANTS v 90. . Before another liquid.vw 3. 29 BEFORE CONSONANTS mute (also y. as Ai/A7t for XI/JLCV-O-I.. (b) The cr before preposition crvv becomes <rvcr. v-p. 92. See also 737.. 3 for ytyavr-s for Trei'6-crofj. NOTE. i/ is changed to that crvppa. The v of ?rav and TraAii/ may stand before or change to cr. from ^-tjpatvio. The preposition iv remains unchanged before p and cr as fV-plTTTO).ivO-). before -/J. 2 . <r . eV-(TTp</>W. dropped. . Trpi^s (stem Tl/avf^-). VT. dry up. it is 91. AvovT-7/a. 4 and 5. middle of liquid verbs in (b) For v before a. see 737.. ' and a vowel. (a) The v is preserved before tape-worm.TTT<i) ev-AeiTrw liquid. irav-o-a (96.a. as Trdv-arixftos or Tracr-cro^os. 94.1. NOTE. 2) ( ) ) At'owa 7rao-a for . XvOevT-ya. for <rw-pa7rrw is . for . Af>ov-(ra TravT-ya. 3. is mostly changed to cr in the perfect middle (485) 4.o(ri for 8at/xov-o-t. before a palatal mute it becomes nasal ei'-TrAeKw e/xTrAe/caj for cnryxatoi crw-/ccuo> 2. NOTE. NOTE.

for Kptvta (Kplv-) for . iravT-ya. uA-yo/zai. saviour. // After the is AA(0 ((TTcA-). Ta.<r<r<a ray-j/w. 2. .(643) cA. craA7riyy-ya). Xvova-a. (K. dAAo?.30 CHANGES OF CONSONANTS 96 CHANGES BEFORE y 96. oxr (later Attic TT). Kptv-y<a trvp-yto (324) o^'pw (<rvp-) . great) p-'zfav (Ionic) or /j-eifov (comparative for /j. \VOVT.r-ya. Xvovr-ya. Kpr/r^aptfT. /cap. o/Aer. ?More. forming AA.. c/xxu'w (<f>av-) to the preceding for vowel for </>av-r/(t> ^ipj)i> (\ep-\ icorse. SfiJirf. After v or the y is thrown back as />.Kr)K- (354. (o-wre/3-).(321. . /zaA-j/ov..irt'<i> stem <j)pa8-yw. The followed the 1. SeiKyvyT-j/a. 5) gave rise to certain changes consonant of a stem. //AAov.pu. /cpay-i/w. 4). (643) (641) o-aATrtyy. ^a8/c/aay..stem.. fern. worse.. comparative of /xaA-a (363) Latin Zitts t 5.tva (/xeAai/-). Xa/3tcrcra \apif. stem <f>v\a. vrao-a The union of 8 (sometimes also for (\Tri8-y(o. . In the feminine of participles and adjectives (319. when it Palatals x) and occasionally T and 6 unite with y to form for (j)v\a. Xvovcra SCIKVVVTiravr3. 'IJK-ytav. . . Latin saZio (648) A. SeiKVui/cra. 4. dA-j/os. with which it is contracted (47. epfT-yio. 3) and the preceding vowel receives compensative lengthening. for (TTeA-7/to (648) aAAo/iai (aA-). <uAacr<rej ijOtrtw. y. Trava-a. y or yy) with y forms eATriS.(641) of /xryas..K-y<o. 1. for (rtarep-ya /itAds. rayrapa^tpcr- cpsa-a-M Kpv/cro-a Kpr^T-i/a. vr with y becomes v<r. 2) Tuotrw Tq. final spirant y (13. the v is then dropped (89.ey-y<j)V (354. // X^p-yto fern. 2) See also 638. fern.pa\-yd). fTT assimilated. of Aai'-ya a-wreipa. 50). 333). rather. \aipta (x ap-) fi\a.

from o-r/ae^w. as fdv for e-j/av ( = el av). two successive syllables of the same word cannot Hence begin with a rough mute. 57). The smooth mute has been made rough. watchman (for TfBpnrir os.i oi'x OUTOS OVK oiiros /cat oSros 99. i) the first rough mute is changed to its corresponding smooth one. it is changed to its corresponding rough mute (</>. CHANGES IN ASPIRATED LETTERS 98. four-horsed (from Terraces and tTTTros). When a smooth mute (TT. of the tense-stem (756). fj. < mute originally rough. NOTE. 764. its initial aspirate in the present. . "EXW (stem ex. <{>dOi from u. 533. similar loss of aspiration occurs in a/wr-x w (f r A in several other words. \v6rj-Ti for XvOr)-8i. or crasis (53. oXijv e(j>opd(i) fTr-opcua .wv for jJiddfTf rjfuav. In general. and KCUW and xAatw (650).dd(6' rifj. 97. both aspirates remain unchanged from fleAyw. or x> throw 102. Some stems.. notwithstanding p. (^avd^-ri for <f>ai>6r)-6i .vv-} Kp-y(0 OlKTlpW (olKTlp-) OlKTl/CM/W See also 648. Between two vowels y is dropped . K. In the after #>/- first aorist passive imperative.dicrT'tjfj. x> #) V(f> r/fj-iav for t>7ro ry/xwv ^OI/AGITIOJ/ for TO l^drtov VVKTO. 60).102 for CHANGES OF CONSONANTS (rev-) p-) 31 for dfivv-yo) TCV-T/W a/xwto (dfj. </jar?/-^t. whenever it is lost at the end by any These stems are supposed to have had the initial euphonic changes. 1. gone (from irpo 68ov) . vv\6* oXrjv Ko. an intervening 7rpo-o/Dos) . in <f>pov8os. as 101. NOTE. the ending -6t is changed to TL 3.for a-ex. They are . ire-<f)tXr)Ka for (f)-(f>i\r]Ka re-OvKa for 6f-6vKa 2. <f)povpos. 100. T) is brought before the rough breathing by elision (59. but 2 aor. In other cases. <rrpd<l>r]6i. In reduplications (536 . beginning with T and ending in the aspirate back to the T. The verbs Ti6%u (stem Of-) and Bixa (Ov-) change 9 of the stem to T in the first aorist passive. and make f-T-Orjv and f-rv-drjv. &) loses but recovers it in the future e'w. wpdiaBrjv from opOota .^vO^v from \f<i>. . NOTE. or in forming a compound (63).

SM5 / (Kvpos. o-S 106. as Xve-crat. mid. fut. 2) for Itftav-crap. 1 . vs or o-vs. Latin semi. 7//irrs. e. Latin socer .for 0i"<-. dat. for . of the tense-suffix t(f>7)vdfj. 1). #pti stem ra^. stem iy>ex. /37ru). pass.fj. 2. Latin sisto . pi. rw?i.f r @P f X~> 0pv7TT<o. originally o-eS-). 2 aor. transfer ON 105. (inf. perf. sir. yepaa--). stem rpv<f>. yepws contracted from ytpa-os for yepacr-os. e-Ave-(ro. . fut. Latin sed-co. as rpf<J)(o Tf-dd<f>-@ai (inf. brotlier-in-laiv.lor 0a<-. as for yevos. fut.va for t^av-cra. \vy or But />u-fbrms keep o. In stems of nouns in eo-.for Opi\-. remains at the beginning of the above stems. race (stem ycveo--). -o-ai Avet (46.i. Single inflection. 6pv\f/ofj.. if from e-0pe(f>-6j]i'. 103 0/ae^w. appears at the end . (Tv<f>r)v^ u. perf.TTTW . siPi/if. and -o-o . p]. a- a- between two vowels is dropped in certain forms of gen. Latin se?yo / e^o/Aat. Latin s^a. erd^rjv . o- 4. mid. mid. toward Alliens. When a- of a stem meets of an inflectional ending. of aspiration to a succeeding consonant. 6uri/. initial o- An Thus place. s*7 (root 5-. NOTE.riv (682. a-i-a-rrj-fMi. creep.or TI'<. The first aorist active era- See 596.. In the middle endings eAeAixro.32 CHANGES OF CONSONANTS rp<Jxo y nourish. dat. 3). mid. swiiie. rpv</>7/. as <j>aivw (<av-). stem $a7rru>. and middle of liquid verbs drops . pass. one o.) from BO. is In Trao-^w.). rpe^ta. gen. prize (stem See 246. e-Afe-o. re-0pv<^-0ai perf. Ave-ai. yevovs contracted from yeve-os for yeytcr-os. Arti'r. There are a few exceptions (686). 103. weaken. vs. 107. rpf<f>. 3) ' for Adrjvas-Sf./ firrd. race (yevfa--). as rtde-o-at. suffer. compar. superl. cAvov..for ^a^-. gen. (J>6 But . stem TV<. See also dpacraru and the stem #a7r.for delicacy Tv<f>(a. stem ra<. Latin i-o-Tjf/zi. aAs. Tedvp. I^atin seplem . 609. fllt - Opk^ofMU 6pv<j>-.and GMT. as yei/os. aor.ai. pass. .) from Opvirru. </>r. OTracr-<rai (730. XOTE. T^I^OS. 3. smoke. subst. trpdfojv . there 104.in the Catalogue. for iraO-a-KO). half.for fy>e<-. perf. becomes 3 .ai. seven. 5rt//. 2 aor. ^uo-crtuv for ^dx-J/wv. 2 aor. <r iridt-<TO.is dropped. Latin sai. yei/ecri for yeveo-tri (246). yepas. as has often been weakened to the rough breathing. \e\v-<Ta. Od\f/d>. c-6pv(j>-&i]v.rji'. . stem iraO-. stem Tpi\. re-Opd^-dai (inf. In some adverbs of place (284.

poetic 6's. Latin suits . old. her. yepwv. Trav TTO.ai. as. sail (for 7rAev-w. Latin vetus. for fcpyov. ts. e- p lost . yvvai yvvaiK oil 110. for e-/i8ov . For KCUW for Kaf-yu and /cAauo for K\a. 0-wyu. yepovr-os. Latin vlginti . TrAe-).1. his. fut. woman. an is initial / or a-. Latin scaevus. yepov for yepovr stem o-wyaaTyaAaKTyaAa/cr-os. Many forms are due to the omission of an original initial The / was dropped when or between two vowels. to Greek word are p.110 CHANGES OF CONSONANTS Some words lost 33 if. with Latin frango pew for o-oew. ypd-6<. Travr-ds. body. ciKoo-i. Thus for AIKOO-I. NOTE. -ypavs. from root a&. a- For before p dropped. as e.ar-os. /?ao-6Ae-cos for /8acriA^/-os. wine. garment. 1. 3. 7rai8-ds. and o/ before a succeeding vowel. ywatK-o's. i]Sv<i. vod . stem TrAcu-. Latin vestis . sweet. Ionic xX^is. ^/<. Compare pt'iyvvfj.. gen. OVK or ot>x . f. / f. TrXfva-ofj. Latin rfiww / ois. house. and ou changed these diphthongs to af. miYA. In the third declension stems ending in av. work. for o-/e. for /ero?. him. old man. e/. /3ovs.from /?ov-). TrAe/-. saw (root fi8-. Horn. for /eo-0/s. /^ao-iAvJos . = c-W cap. See also 834839. gen.f-y<a. Tra?. Others left stand at the end of a at the end in word- formation or in inflection are dropped. ON 108. ev. from ypav-). 8io<s. O-KCUOS. Latin wnum . Verbs in -ew of the Second Class (632) change cv of the stem to and then to e . for <r/os. s (. as TrAew. Latin ovis . (stem /3o. 4. 4'ros. Latin vis . yaAa. boy.I for iravr iratS yvvrj. ^). fo-QSjs. irais.for o-/aS> Latin suavis. A'ey. and then dropped /. strength. Latin vicus . divine. Latin se .f gen. ox ^acrtAevs. s/ieep. Latin dams. initial See 108. 2. epyov. for ypdf-os . oii/os. spring. old ivoman (stem -ypd. OIKOS. gen. y8o/-os. voc.for /?o/. ^tfl^. eTSov. all.for -/paf. Latin vid-eo). see 108. both a- and / . German werk . year. 4. Exceptions are the preposition K and the negative adverb for these there are also the forms and D . twenty. hence the pp after the augment. /3o-ds for See 263. Latin per/ /cAets. <rw[JLa. as epptov for FINAL CONSONANTS 109. Words beginning with break.. The only consonants permitted v. see G50.

Latin agrum Latin navem VUKTO/M. I'TT-TTOS. err A. [JLa-Kpos . . and 6 was then changed to s as 8os from 80$ for So-6i (see 702. NOTE. was often changed to v in many for original eSeiKvfyi. Division of Syllables. o-y8o-os. u-pi-0/zds . <r and a mute er/z . cr with a smooth or a rough mute and a liquid (cr/cA. the following rules generally obtain : 1. fp-pl-Trrov. . e-^^/jds Trpda--arfa. aA-Aos. Xfi-(f>0rj-va. pd-/?Sos. . vavs. tfAf'o-a. Even combinations of consonants which cannot begin a word belong to the following vowel . 1. e-<r\ov. 2a. have four syllables. eAikra/* SYLLABLES 114. o-crrpa-Koi'. f-a-TTf-pa. a-T/xos. 2. o-irAov. also TT-<. fStiKvuv. the one is before the penult called the antepenult. Hpa-y[j. a-\Oo-fjLat. XOTE. .a. e-cr<^a-^a . (nom. VOLVV dy/ads. av-Opto-Tros. <TKV). BUK-^OS. a-KT>. . A single consonant between two vowels belongs to the o-^ts. Latin noctem vavyn. almost last) . They are a 7r-mute or a K-mute followed by a corresponding r-mute a mute and a liquid pv . jrav-co has two. ship). aypov (nom. ySa-crt-Xeu? has three. Every vowel or diphthong forms. . the syllable next called the penult (paen-ultima. NOTE. ftd-Krpov. field). (nom. 7rpa-is. o~<j>p. In dividing a word into syllables at 115. Ae-yco. but a liquid is separated from a following consonant. e-r/cAr/-Ka. I showed. t. a distinct syllable. night).r-</>w. In the preposition changed to s after i was dropped. : following vowel .' final p. from Epic jrport. as if/v-xrj. a-tr/it-vos 3. Compound words formed without elision are divided according to their . present SeiKviyu aypofj. vt'. final r was In a few imperatives. a-/xvds .i. Such combinations of mutes as may stand at the beginning of a word belong to the following vowel. rdr-Tta . . Tk-dvr)-K<i. eu and TO have one. it was dropped. the imperative ending -61 dropped 112.. The last is to the last syllable is called the ultima. K-\.34 SYLLABLES irpos 111 111. d-K/xv/. vt-KTap. VVKTO. / loosed. aA-cros. <nr\. 2. 3). and doubled letters are separated. T-6. . with or without Thus a-irei-pi-d and v-yi-et-a consonants. HAa-TTTO). the end of a line. cases An original 113. crrp.

the syllable vowel is followed by J3X. A syllable is short when it has a short the syllables vowel followed by a simple consonant (but see 119). when the short seldom short..-KMV. . ftov-Xi'/. o. In Attic poetry a syllable with a short vowel followed 120. Similarly in separate words UTT' eKeiVou or d-7r cxccfov. both . 7r7rAos. But the vowel of the syllable pronounced long or short according to its nature . Sypds (all But when the mute and liquid are in different words or in different parts of a compound. those with TJ or o are short by nature (116). OT/AOS.ai. yA. followed by a vowel or a sirigle consonant.a ( ). both in the same word or in the same part of a compound. 0-rofj. 117. The only cases of uncertainty are But in these a. QUANTITY OF SYLLABLES 1. position . syllable is long by position when it has a short vowel followed by two consonants (but see 119) or by a double consonant. When a short vowel (a. 6i>s. as the first syllable of T&KVOV. AiWo. Ka. Trends. = = tasso. may . all 119. us ai'-a-yw or a-va-ya> from dva and ayw. NOTE. O. NOTE. i. 7rpay/xa (a). But when a short vowel is followed by yv* yp. that is. syllable is long by nature when it has a long vowel or a diphthong .. In this by position ( i<yov one or both of the consonants which make the syllable long ~ ~-. yaA?7v' 6-pw or yaA?y-v' 6-pa>. or or any diphthong are long by nature. as Trpdcro-w prasso. or 5. 118. But when the final vowel of a word lifts been elided. 35 component parts as e^-a-yw. e'A-AeiVw.). as Kpt-vta. 121. /?6rpi's. it may be treated as long or short . 8/z. .O-v<f>-ai-pM or Ka-@v-<j>ai-p<i). > cases the following points will usually ell the quantity. 2. . 116. -~ rb --). the compound may be divided like a simple word . e. QO-KOS.or . never short in the Old Comedy. AeAwa. the syllable is common. 8V. the syllable is long as IK veiav and ^K-^/XW. Short Syllable.~ be in the following word as crepes TOTTOS T& ( ). Common Syllable. as the 1 A A first syllable of o-reAAo/xev. r.. /3ai-va>. Long Syllable. as of tKOjUcra. by a mute and a liquid is generally short.. v) is followed by a mute and a liquid. irpa^is. fir-ep-^o-fJiaL or e-7rep-^o-//.121 SYLLABLES . was Obviously a syllable may be long both by nature and by as Trpacra-w. case. Those with The quantity of most syllables is apparent at a glance. ci^w. the syllable is is regularly long .

u'ork'er. and a stress accent took its place. 3. is The quantity v. In determining 124. K/Dtre (i). icork. while the English is simply a stress In the course of time the musical accent disappeared. 13:2. luugh'ter.give -do--. a). syllable of a word is to receive the accent. Kpivu from Kpt-ivw 2. while the English makes use of only one.ami -avr-cr. receives a stress by which it is uttered louder or stronger than the other In Greek the accented sellable was spoken in a higher />//. and the reduplication. as laugh. e/zt. laughable. and the descriptive terms dvs. the logical. in the inflectional parts of words In cases where the quantity is ACCENT 123.KOS succeeding syllable. SeiKvfls from The accent often -betrays the quantity of its vowel or of the vowel of a (d). musical pitch or tone being raised. (a). work'ing. or rdvos. In all formations -av-a-.d6e (a). and /3apv<s. and f)(0vtf$ (v). i. and the grammatical . /zoipa and ycfyvpa. ACCENT 122 vowel resulting from contraction is always long. or accent. laughably. flat. or compensative lengthening.by compensative lengthening (40). and -rv-cr.and -V-VT-O-give -iv. yiyds from yiyarr-s. essentially a musical one. The Greek accent syllables. as in Modern Greek and in other languages. of the Grammar. the Greek makes use of three different principles. TTT/XVS of a. /za^o? . \wpa. work'lwusc. NOTE.36 1. K/DuVis (d. tone (stretching of the voice) . Thus (d) . or contraction. which of accentuation puts the accent on the or on which the meaning of the word element root-syllable primitive depends. The logical principle the word more definitely . the augment. 135. OO. the rhythmical. Ke/xl from Ktpaa. work'able. work'man t work'manship. aK<av from deKon'. laughableness . Kiyza (>. explained in Part II. A from AeAiixa-vo-i (592). The Greek mode of pronouncing an accented syllable was In English an accented syllable merely entirely different from ours. oo/za^o?. sharp. The Greek also follows especially in verbs this logical principle to some extent. singing. fj. Idiigh'ing. its was thus accent. Hence the Greek words for accent Trpoo-woYd. i). which regularly accent the stem -syllable. Xivov (I) . the logical. . See 122. Selection of the Syllable to be accented. or else on a prefixed syllable which explains the meaning of 125. not evident from position. it must be determined from the Lexicon or from poetic usage. 1 .

12.8

ACCENT
2.

37

But the

principle,
syllables,
is

logical accent is always subject to the rhythmical which always limits the accent to one of the three last and generally restricts it to one of the last two, if the ultima
;

long ; as Aey-oyuat, but Xey-op^Oa e-Af>-cra, but but ypafji-fjidruii' /xa^-t/x,os, but p,a.yjip.ov.
;

e-

Xv-crdfjujv

;

ypdfj.-/j.a,

It permits the 126. The rhythmical principle prevails in Greek. accent to stand only on one of the last three syllables ; and if the ultima is long, only on one of the last two (for exception, see 137). The accent is thus very frequently shifted to a suffix or to an

inflectional syllable, without regard to the root-syllable, basis of the signification.
ITatSeuo),
TrouSev-o/Aevos,
;

which

is

the

TratSev-o/jtei/?^,

oat/xan', 8ai(j.6v(v

At'oi'cra, Xv-ovo-tjs,

Xvovcruv from

TratSei'-o^evcov, TraiS Xv-o\xra.<av.

127. 1. The grammatical principle of accentuation is used to a considerable degree. By it certain suffixes or inflectional syllables receive the accent, or words spelled alike are distinguished in meaning

by

difference of accent.
Fpa^wj) (root ypad)-),
ypa.(f>-->],

ypac^-i/cd?,

ypa<f>-is,

ypa<-evs,

ypa//.-/*?/,

y/oaTT-ros,

ypaTT-reos

;

Aeya> (root Aey-,
;

Aoy-), ACK-TIKOS, ACK-TOS, Aoy-aw,

Aoy-icds, dAoy-td,
0?Js,

Aoy-eiov, Aoy-evs
OrjT-OLV,
;

ap^w

(root

apx~)>

"/X" r}> ap^-iKO?,

up^-etov, ap^-aios, dvap)(-ia.
Or/T-wv^ 6t]-a-L ; yvvrj, ywaiK-os, yvvaiK-i, Xa/3-wv, 2 aor. part., root Aa^8yeypa/x-, (j.evos perf. mid. part., root ypa<j>- ; Av-^ei's, aor. pass, part., root Av-. IlaiSeucrat, aor. inf. act., TrcuSeuo-cu, 2 sing, imper. aor. mid., TruiSetVat

^^T-OS, Onr-i,

yvvaiK-oiv,

y VVO.LK-MV, y vvaii

;

3 sing. aor. opt.
persuasion
J)/MOS,

act., all

shoulder,

from and

TratSev-w, {each; TreiBw, persuade,
ci/xos,

and

7ret#w,

raw; XidofSoXos, throwing
TTOTC,
<

stones,

and

Ai^d/^oAos, stoned; TTOTC,

when? and

so?ne time.

2. But the grammatical principle also yields to the rule of the rhythmical principle that the accent is always confined to one of the three last syllables, and generally to one of the last two if the ultima is long.

crrevMv (for

and orevdj, narrow, but gen. pi. of o-reyo?, the same as the gen. pi. of (rrevds ; Ai$o/?dAos and so abstracts in -tot are paroxytone, as Ai$d/3oAos, both have gen. Ai$o/3dAov (/nAm, friendship, but the gen. pi. is </)tAtd)v, from <iAittojj'.
Tli UP,

TO crrevo?,
crrei/ewi'),

strait,

is

;

128.

There are three accents
the acute
'

:

(
v

),
), ),

as TOTTO?, 6&o<? as eya> r) av as S&pov, ravra.

the grave ( the circumflex ("

38

ACCENT
;

129

The mark of accent is placed over the vowel in the case 129. NOTE. If the of a diphthong over the second vowel, as /xoixru, ovrovs, OIKOS, oucov. accent is placed over the first of two vowels, they are to be pronounced as separately, the place of the accent making the diaeresis unnecessary
;

aujrvos (a-iipnos). T HA.is. "()/t;/3os,

With

capitals, the accent stands before the

vowel

;

as

When

the
as

i

vowel receives the accent;

"

subscript
AiSr)<s

is

= fySrjs,

written on the line, the first = WO/XT^V. The accent 'J2io/x>yr

The above examples also show also stands over the diaeresis, as Tr/aairrryg. that the acute and the grave follow the breathing, and the circumflex is
placed over
it
;

as &v, OTTWS, ^yov, e/xe

iy

fKtivov.

130. XOTE. The acute accent denotes that the vowel or diphthong was The grave, which originally pronounced altogether on a higher key.
belonged to
all

vowels uttered in ordinary tone,
at the

is

used only in place of the

end of a word (142), and rarely on the indefinite The circumflex, which is composed of the acute 2). pronoun TIS, ri (156, v and the grave (' = ~), denotes that the vowel or diphthong began on a Thus ireWe was pronounced somewhat higher key, but sank to the ordinary. like 7Ti$e, ouco? like OIKOS, TOVTO like TOVTO, Stapov. like ooopov, Trpay/j.a like

weakened acute

Trpda.'Yfj.a, vr/<ros

like veecros.

131. The origin of the marks of accent dates from the Alexandrian They were first introduced (and perhaps invented) by Aristoperiod. Originally every syllable was phanes of Byzantium, about 200 B.C.

marked, as

av6fyxt>7ros, 0o8w/>os, A?)/iocr$ev7)s, syllable uttered in the higher key.

ravpbs

;

later

only the

The acute can stand only on one word the grave only on the last the circumflex only on one of the last two and then only on a syllable long by nature.
132.

Place of the Accent.

of the last three syllables of a

;

;

;

133. According to the accent, a word is called if it has the acute on the ultima : ev, KaAos, jScurtXcvs paroxytone, if it has the acute on the penult : yevoi-s, (3<urddrv<i>v : proparort/tone, if it has the acute on the antepenult
oxytone,
;

;

perispomenon,

if it

properispomenon,

if it

has the circumflex on the ultima : KaAoP, <avw ; has the circumflex on the penult \PIJJJM, </>iA.oiy/.i'.
.

A
TOVOS,

word whose
grave- or

last syllable is
;

not accented

is

termed ban/tone

()8aym-

paroxytones, proparoxy tones, and of The term oxytone, oi'course, are, barytones. properispomena TOVOS, means sliarp-toned ; Trfpi-o~n-w/j*t>oi> means drawn around (i.e. from
flat-toned)
all

the higher key to the lower).

139

ACCENT
134. Recessive Accent.

39
its accent back as This belongs especially

A

word which throws

far as possible to verbs.

is

said to have recessive accent.

135.
is

1.

Accent of the Antepenult.
it

accented,

has the acute
is

;

but

it

When the antepenult can take no accent if the
Thus

last

syllable
,

\vu>p.e6a

long by nature or position. but avOpunrov, ;
Penult.

penult long by long by nature, and the circumflex if the ultima is short by nature an accented penult short by nature always has the acute. Thus avOpwirov, ravrr/s,

2.

Accent of the

An

accented

nature has the acute

if

the ultima

is

;

\va-eis, aw/Ad, jj,ovaa, irpa^L^, VYJCTOS, av\at;

(but 0a>pdg)

;

\6yos,

rare, fyv\a%, rda-cre, Tpcnretys.
3.

Accent of the Ultima.

An

accented ultima short by

If it is long nature takes the acute, as /ca\6<f, Xa/u,7ra9, \e\vic6s. it takes either the as or the XeXu/coi?, acute, circumflex, by nature,

aS Tl/JLWV, KO\OV,

Tl/Jia.

Final at and ot in inflectional endings and in adverbs compounded of TraAcu, long ago, are reckoned as short in determining the accent as avBpwTroi, T/3a7reou, ^wpoi, yAwo-crou, AcyeTai, AeAiyicu, Ti&eo-ai, except in the optative mood, as /SovXcvoi, TT/soTraAcu, very long ago;

136. NOTE.

;

/^ovAcTxrcu,

and in

ot/cot, at

home (thus distinguished from

OIKOI, houses).

In genitives in -ws and -euv from nominatives in -ts and -v? of the third declension (216, 2 ; 256), and in all cases of nouns and adjectives in -w? and -wv of the Attic second declension (207), the acute is allowed on the antepenult as TroAis, irdAfcos, rroAtwv, TTT)X V S, 7"yX aJS 'nJX ewv > So also in the Ionic genitive in -eo> of the first declension tAews, tAewv. (189), as Ka^8i)<r7;s, Ka/x/?ixrea> ; and in a few compound adjectives in -to?,
137. NOTE.
(a)
;
'

as Swe/ows,
(b)

unhappy in love, vt^6cptt$, high-horned. For the acute in words like oxrre, r)5e, oFSe, and

others, pee 153, 6.

The special rules of accent for the inflected parts of speed), 138. NOTE. with their exceptions, are given in the inflection part of the grammar. The while accent of many words must be learned by practice and observation for many others certain rules can be given (see Part IV., on the Formation.
;

of Words).

139.

Change and moving of Accent.
1

In inflection and
it

composition

the

accent

may

be changed or

may move

to

40
another
syllable,

ACCENT
but
it

140

always remains on one of the

three

last syllables.
1.
((/)

When

the final syllable is lengthened, a proparoxytone becomes paroxytone a

;

as 0dA.ao-o-a,
as

(b)

properispomenon becomes paroxytone

;

<5<o/xn<,

8u>pov

;

(c)

an oxytone of the
in the genitive

spomenon
2.

first and second declensions becomes and dative as rifj-i], ripjs, rifiy 0805,
;

perioSov,

;

shortened paroxytone with the penult long by nature becomes propei ispomenon as XCMTW, AetTre 7r/>ucr<rw, Trpwra-e. a polysyllabic paroxytone becomes proparoxytone as iraiScvto, (l>)
final syllable is
(a)

"When the
a

dissyllabic

;

;

;

irai&evf.
3. "When a syllable is prefixed to a word, the accent tends to move toward the beginning with verbs this occurs regularly with nouns and adjectives generally. Thus AetVco, e-X.earov, Ae-AotTra, uTro-AetTre
; ; ;

Aoyos, uAoyos, SiaAoyos, tvAoyos. 4. "\Vhen a syllable is added to a word, the accent tends to toward the end ; as Trai&ito, iraiSfvofJ-fOa, irai8cvO-i'j(rofj.at.
Tt/A/, a-Tt/tos, </>iAo-Tf/ios
;

move

1. contracted syllable 140. Accent of contracted Syllables. if either of the original syllables was accented. contracted penult or antepenult takes the accent according to the contracted ultima takes the acute if general rule (135, 1 and 2).

A

receives an accent

A

A

the word was originally oxytone, otherwise it is circumnexed. some exceptions in the declensions, see 203, 293.
Tf/t<'/ia<

For

from

Tifj.a.ofw.1

(f)i\.ovfiev

from

<f>i\(ofj.tv

TI/IW from

2.

If neither

syllable obtains from ciVAoos.

none

of the original syllables had an accent, the contracted as rtfw. from rfyiae, <t'Aei from </>i'Aee, eiVAovs
;

141. NOTJ-

The

retention of the acute on the contracted ultima of a
is due from/ +

word
from

originally oxytone
'

to the fact that the circumflex is derived
'
;

+

x

(130), not

hence <iAeu) gives

</>iAw,

while co-raws

gives COTWS.

142.

other words

Acute changed to Grave. An oxytone standing before in the same sentence weakens its acute to the
/caXo9
iced
rjv <ro<j>o<i

grave

;

as

aya6o<t Ka\ ayados

fjv (for
;

#0X09
;

/cat

uyaOos
rjv.

fjv)

;

erri

TOVTOIS

ySaovAeu?

147

ACCENT
143. NOTE.

41
syllable

But tho acute remains before an elided

(145),

Before before enclitics (153, 2), and in the interrogative rts, ri (387). The a punctuation mark which separates distinct ideas, the acute must stand. acute also remains on a word considered simply as a word as, TO /ary Aeyeis,
;

you say

the

word

fjbi'j

;

TO

a.vi'\p ovo/j-a,

the

word

dvvyp.

In crasis, the first word loses its 144. Accent with Crasis. But if the second word is accent ; that of the second word remains. a dissyllabic paroxytone with short ultima, the acute changes to a
circumflex (135, 2). fovvofw, fur TO 6'voyu.a
;

rayadd

for

TO,

dyaOd

lyiitSa

for
;

TaAAa

for TO,
KO.V

apa (but

TO evros ; d&irXa for TO. oVAa for KOI av because oV is a monosyllable).
;

dAAa

TOI'TTOS for

tyw oi8a rapa for TOI

;

The accent of an elided vowel is 145. Accent with Elision. thrown back as an acute on the preceding syllable but if the elided
;

word

is

a preposition or a conjunction,
,,

its

accent
ITT'

is lost.

SetV e'Ae^as for Seiva e'Ae^as
CTTT lycrav
ff>'^fi

avTW

for CTU
,,

aim o
t

eTrra Tycrav
(f>i]fJLi

Trap eyuou

Trapd

/JLOV

eya>
ITTTTOV

,,

eyw

aAA e^w
ou6 eyw
,,

aAAa

e'^w

d(f)

aTrb iTTTTov

ov8f iyw

146. Anastrophe. Oxytone prepositions of two syllables sometimes throw the accent back on the penult. This occurs
1.

When
When

the preposition follows
Trept

its

case; as TOI'TWV
;

7re/oi

for irepl

TOI'TWV.

In prose only

can be so used

in poetry all dissyllabic

prepositions
2.

The

suffer anastrophe, except dpi, dvd, dvri, Sid. the preposition alone is used for its compound (with rri). five prepositions thus used are pera for /j,eTe<m, CTTI for eirecrTi, irdpa

may

The for Trapeo-Tt, VTTO for V7rrri, evi for eveo-Tt (evi being poetic for ev). In poetry these prepositions poets also use oVa for dvd-a-Tijdt,, up ! may be also used for their other compounds of the indicative present
of
'

= Trdpeuri, eVt = eveuri. as eyw Trdpa Trdpf.Lp.1 Trdpa a preposition follows its verb, to which it properly belongs in This occurs in Homer ; as ^uywv viro composition, it suffers anastrophe.
elfj.1 }
',

=

3.

When

for

VfO^vyWff oAecrds
147.

O.TTO

for a7roArds.
1.

Words distinguished by the Accent.
and are distinguished
in

Many words

are

spelled alike,

meaning by the

difference of

accent (127). "Aywf, present participle of ayw, lead, and dywi/, contest; aAAa, neuter plural of dAAos, other, and dAAd, but ; f3io<>, life, and /Stos, bow ; /SouAevcrat, third singular aorist optative active, and flovXevcrai, aorist infinitive active, and /SovAevcrat, second singular aor. imperative middle of /Soi'Aevw, advise ; s, people, and 877/^05, fat ; SidAuTos, dissolved (dissolutus), and

42
dissoluble (dissolubilis)
;

ACCENT
e'AupeTos,
selected,

148
that can be taken out;

and e^aipcTo?,

f\0pd, hatred, and X#/*C feminine of t'xfyxk, hating ; TrtiOw, persuasion, and and 6 opos, whty ; orevcs, strait, and ir<t'0G>, / persuade ; rd opos, mountain, orevos, norrertr; tfwpos, tribute, and $o/>d, bearing ; and numerous others. 2. So also verbal compounds with active and passive meanings,
IlaTpoKToyos, parricide, and TrarpoKTOi/os, slain by a father ; \ido/36Xos, throwing stones, and At0oy8oAos, stoned ; AI^OTO/IOS, stone-cutter, and Aitfdroyuos,
cut on< o/ stow*.

adjective or participle always changes its accent.
3.

An

which becomes a proper name almost
;

bright,
s,

and

FAavKos, Glaucu,:

Sioycvrys,

Jove-born,

and

Diogenes; St^eyievos, having received, and Aea/zevos, Dexamenos.
:

rj

See the following particles in the Syntax 148. NOTE. apa and dpa and T) ; vi'v and poetic vi'v ; oftcow and OVKO?I' ; o>5 and ws.

;

PROCLITICS
149.

A

few

monosyllables

are

so

following

word that they have no accent of
(from
7rpoK\iv(i>,
:

closely attached to a their own. They are

called proclitics

lean forward),
ol, at.

and

are

the

following

The forms of the article o, The prepositions ei's or e's, The conjunctions ci (poetic The negative ou (OI'K, ov\).
150. Proclitics
:

>},

e'

or
at)

*, ev, as.

and

u>s.

accented.

The

proclitics

are

accented

in

the

following cases 1. Oi in the sense of no has the acute, 01"; so also at the end of a sentence, as irws yap ov ; for why not ? (Xen. Mem, 4, 2 37 ).
2.

A
tt,

proclitic is
the

oxytone when
T)

it

appears as an independent word
e/c.

;

as TO
3.

word

tl

;

<?K

irpo&o-ts, the preposition

A

proclitic before

an
is

enclitic takes the acute (153, 5).

4.

When

the article
it is

accented; so also
in all cases
5.

when demonstrative
thus, it

when

used for the relative os in Homer, it is some editors accent the article used pronominally for examples see the Syntax.
;

;

When
fi.Tj8'

ds means

tk and
6.

fa, not even thus.

has an accent; as K<U ws, even thus; ovS This use of J>s is mostly poetic.
as,

When
to

the conjunction os,
;

nouns
of

which they belong

as

0os

and the above prepositions follow the 5' <5s, as a god (Horn.) ; KOKWI/ f, vut

evils (Horn.).

153

ACCENT
ENCLITICS

43

151. Some monosyllables and dissyllables attach themselves so closely to the preceding word that they lose their own accent. These are called enclitics (from eytcXtva), lean upon}
152.
1.

The enclitics are the following The personal pronouns p.ov, /W, /ze
o-^wrt.

:

;

a-ov, o-oi, ere

;

o?, of, e;

in

poetry

2. The indefinite pronoun ris, TI in all its forms (except O.TTO) ; and the indefinite adverbs Trot-, Try, iroi, iroOev, TTOTC, TTW, TTWS. Tliese must not be confounded with the interrogatives TIS, TTOV, Try, Trot, TTO&V,

7TOT6,

TTOJ,

TTtiJS.

3.

The
ei

indicative present of

et/zt,

be,

and

of

<?//zi, say,

except the

forms
4.

and <y5.
particles ye, re, TOI, Trep
6"e,
;

the inseparable -<5e in 6'6e, rovSe, suffix -6e (-^e), as in Meya/oa<5e, the local (not am/) ; toward Megara, 'ABijva^e, toward Athens (284, 3); -0e in ei^e; and -^i in
roo-oo-Se, etc.

The

w,

yacvt.
5.

o"ou

;

Toi

These are poetic and dialectic: pronouns yLteu = /Ao{j; = <rot re and Tv = o~e eo, ev, and e'^ei' = oi' /ztv,
; ; ;

o-eo

and

o-ev
;

=
=
or

vtv, cr^>t
ei's
;

o~</>e,

<T<t><a, o~(f)(i}iv, <r(f>e<av, <r(f)fa<;,

o~<as, cr<^ea

verbs
vt'v

:

the Epic

and

eovri

e?s,

tJwu art
Qt']v,

;

Kfv,

6.

and ^a ( = apa) poetic Tro$i = Trou (but not TTO^I = For ij/j.<av, T^/ZIV, iJ/Ads, V/AWV, f/ztv, fyza?, see 369, 2.
;

particles

:

poetic,

vv and

(not vvv, now)

Epic K

TTOI?).

1. The enclitic loses its own accent, 153. Rules for Enclitics. except a dissyllabic enclitic following a paroxytone (see 4 below). 2. An oxytone or a perispomenon before an enclitic always retains its proper accent, the acute here never changing to a grave ; as KAoV

Tt

for

KfxAov rt, ovSfV

(^TI<TLV

for oi'Sev
1.

(frrjcriv,

KaAwv

Tivtov for

KaXwv

Ttvwv.
3.

For an exception, see 15G,

proparoxytone or a properispomenon before an enclitic it an acute on the ultima, and thus has two accents ; as av6p<air6s re, avBpta-iroi rives, </>?yvoi/ IJLOI, o-w/za TIVOS, ravra I<TTIV,
receives

A

from

ffyov Trore.
4. paroxytone before an enclitic receives no second accent, but here a dissyllabic enclitic does not lose its accent ; as vo/xos TIS, c^t'Aos [wv ; but vofj.01 rives, </>i'A.os eo-rtv, vo/xcuv Tivom

A A

5. 6.

proclitic before

an

enclitic takes

an acute
is

;

as

ei TIS,

ov

</>r;/u.

A

compound word, whose last part

an

enclitic, is

accented

oiSe. 4. Tlieaet. roi'o-Se . orru'os. mark from the context and the like. . When to from the one following anything 8. fn'j. several enclitics follow each other. 33 7 ) . AcuAa^ amy 155. separated by a punctuation irorf 6e.44 as if ACCENT the enclitic were a separate tjjTirt. TIS. if any one ever says . 154 word . TTIV OTC. 3. 156. . TTOTC fitv . do I say anything proper ? at the beginning of a clause after a punctuation (Soph. oirre. t/W. Oed. Rep. They This occurs in the following cases : keep their proper accent are then said to be when they express pronouns irarpi <rov . TO?T' or TOUTO. eiT. When tyw and /tot are written with the enclitic ye as syllable : single words. is accented when it stands at the beginning of a clause (which occurs very rarely) as TI <j>rjiu . when they follow an accented preposition. as vTrep cror. .' or dAAa. The enclitic TTOTC is accented . oi'/c. final 154. when . e/xoiye. TroAA* (<TTIV for TroAAa f<mi'. The indefinite TIS. Trapa. and after tlAA. . See also 155. at the beginning of a sentence. as in Dem. mark Plat. OXTTC. they are not enclitic (see the Syntax). . as <TO<J! 7. 1471). as euriv avdpu-oi . and when they are separated by punctuation from the words to which they belong. Enclitics accented. turtv for tro</>oi Be euriv. (rot. Tyr. NOTE. the accent recedes to the first eywye. wo-Trcp. etc. 237 . 1. . enclitic 7} The . dissyllabic enclitics after a paroxytone. one beginning of a sentence can see . as <f)/il eyw separates them from the words to which they belong. . \ai\difr re). 2. (a) The enclitic forms of ei/u are accented at the beginning of a sentence. ouxr7re/3. All enclitics are accented 8' when the preceding syllable is elided . . 5. For . as co-riv ISetv. . 'Eo-Tt becomes ecrri at the (b) : when it is equivalent to <feo-Ti. see 153. A properispomenon with . ofdsTe. e/xe are used (except trot flirov.i are accented when they stand at the and when a punctuation mark beginning of a sentence. G. Soph. as In these cases the larger forms e/xo?. also in TTOTC ^kv cviore Se. etc. TI. KCUTOI. rives Sc. eVi (re . as TIVOS in C Also in the combination TIWS 147. When the personal pronouns of the third person are direct reflexives. oiVw. etc. 9. Kai. me. oo-Tts. each one takes an acute as ft TIS TI (ioi <^ryo-i TTOTC. The enclitics whenever they are orthotone. /*!' . in the combinations ftrnv ot'. 2. . specially emphatic. (as in Plato. StvTivw. or ^ takes no second (but Kr)pv Accent from a dissyllabic enclitic as Kijprg Tiros. &TTIV S>v. e . ei. Tt in Plat. . also in philosophical language. 4. NOTE. personal T) are accented antithesis as <roi TO> frequently irpos fif). and tlie adverb cos. The enclitic forms of <f>r}p. as o8e.

157 PUNCTUATION 45 PUNCTUATION 157. its as O. is equivalent to the English colon and semicolon.TI is a comma. ( . yap /cat u. 2 ). and now The mark ( . but now usually omitted. 1. as 6' n and 6' re. which. . of interrogation is formed like the English semias rt Troteis / what are you doing 1 it was 1G The diastole or hypodiastole ( .Te. Anab. ) . The comma ( ) and the period the Greek colon is a point above the line ( . TO7>s & e t7rt ptv Toi'S TroAejtuo'u? O'VK i/yev* y^ft. and ore. ). the quotation marks and the parenthesis. . distinguishes and 6'. ) ) and are used as in English .reip7/KOTas Ka ^ ^i fjv. late (Xen. when. Clenrchus did not o-TpuTiwras Kat do-trow? ovras* r. a of exclamation place . because. blank space taking 4. like . ( ! Modern editors sometimes use the " " ( ).^7? march against the enemy : for he 'knew tliat the soldiers u-ere worn out and KAfapx? ^ fa4iny 2. certain compound pronouns from particles The diastole on. colon 3. mark ). 2.

are <ro<-.-. /Joi-.remaining in the nominative dual but in the plural it is shortened to yvw/id-. and Aa/owr-. tense. \afjLira8. Aey-. opinion.are the stems of the nouns rayxtds. clement to which the inflectional parts are attached to express person. Si-Sto-pi Stems may shorten or change a final vowel as yvw/*?/. /3o?s. TUO-CTW for ray-y-w (root ray-). <C/HU. . called Other parts of speech are not inflected. Thus. The stem of an inflected word is that 159. <cp-. Aey-. mood.PAET 158. parts and all prefixes and suffixes. final consonants of stems and roots are subject to the euphonic changes explained in 79 109. The root of a all word is the most primitive part which remains after Thus. pronouns. and number. Sax-v-w (root <a-) . Thus rapid. and in the singular it is . Vowels are subject to the changes explained in 39 74. they may be reduplicated. itrra-. Aoyo-. 70 be strengthened by the addition of consonants. of the verb Aeyw. By the addition of removing inflectional various letters or syllables these roots are developed into different In some cases the root and the stem are identical . adjectives. of the participle urras . Aeyu> (root Aey-). and voice. as . its II INFLECTION relation to other Inflection changes the form of a word in order to denote The inflection of words in the sentence. and Aa/z7rus. cro<o-. Both stems and roots very often assume different forms in formation and inflection. 1. Aoyos. Aeyw. TI-). article. participles. o-reA-A-u) for oreA-iy-u) (root o-reA-). as in TIO> stems. the original stem yvw/tu. case. Ai'#os. Stems and Roots. and the declension. (do-). 2. <ftd-a-K-w KOTT-T-W (root KOTT-). the roots of the words o-o<os. that of verbs is called conjugation. is nouns. and Aa/i7ras : of the adjective <ro<os ' . (r^Ot 3. as (root &IK-). Roots may 63. Ai#-.

the (jift. rj yvvr/. the island 1} Lemnos . . the thing. the dual. Thus TO aA^a. AT//AVOS. as 6 av?//a. apreAos. feminine according as they denote males or females . ?} Aegypt VT/CTOS. partly by the signification. 6. 162. the wind . denoting more than one and . 2. letters of the alphabet. . . partly by the grammatical gender being often different from the real article prefixed often indicates the gender . O-VKOV. The gender . Epieenes. god or goddess . Spvs. Thus ^ the Ihe land . 6 the southeast wind . most cities. 161. the feminine. 6 ave/^os. of many nouns can only be learned by observation where the signification or the termination does not but . r/ Tfyuj. s. plants. TO the TO little . dperij. the man. Thus o . 6 Hecatombaeon. o oAe/ios. The gender and practice many 1. tie woman. : and months. winds. the month .o's. viKrj. the term "justice. certainly indicate the gender. exceptions. Corinth. the month the river . the city. to which there are 163. 3. TO d^^pwTros. Numbers. oak. the following rules. 7} </>/'A. the honor. see the declensions. ?. fj /3ov<s. or females. 1} #eos. There are three numbers : the singular. sinning . the word T6 SIKCUOO-WTJ. The is determined.a. TO Trpuy/j-a. Many names of animals have only one grammatical . the river Peneus . diminutives even Neuter are names of the when they denote males TO " man " . AfyvTrros. of lands. the tine. Jig alpha ye/xWiov. $Setv. 6. boy or girl . the letter the old man (from 6 ye/awv) . and the the termination gender." Some nouns are either masculine or 164. but the plural is generally used instead of the dual. . 6 'EKaro/z^aiwv. the plural.165 NOUNS 47 NOUNS 160. island. virtue. hope. 6. f ATTI'S. For the gender according to the termination. 165. the war. will give some assistance Masculine are names of rivers. TO Aeyet. many fruits. TrdAis. There are three genders neuter. the word Aeyei . islands. IT^vetos. infinitives. male or female guard . TO btvpov. 6 p]v. denoting one object Genders. trees. fj TTCUS. yij. as o. ox or cow. : the masculine. Kopiv#os. Common Gender. all words conceived merely as names or words. most r) qualities tlie Feminine are names and conditions. denoting two. mclwy.

female. y dA. and participles. accusative. promiscuous). as Gases. -<ov -<ri (-ffffi. and the second or first O-declension (with stems in o) are often called the Vowel declension. female mouse five . but it also contains many stems ending in t. dative. The principal functions of the Latin ablative (by. and Fern. a man (as object) . -vs or -as . N. the he-hem: . Dnt. Masc. the the adjectives appi/r. the mouse. VOWEL DECLENSION. a man (as subject) gen. : . and 07yAvs. The 169. -oiv (-ouv) PLUR. A V. none IV -c G. these are termed epicene (eVtVoivo?. The third is often called the Consonant declension. Gen. and accusative are called oblique cases. DUAL. ov. >. In order to designate the real sex of sucli words. 6 OijXvs 166. dat ire. adjectives. or A-declension (with stems in d). . There are cases the nominative. -v Neuter. of a man . 6 aeros. Ccn. 170. -$ or Neuter. Three Declensions. corresponding cases in Latin. 2. nude. dat. CONSONANT DECLENSION. N. -fffffi) Dat Ace. 167. and a few in o and ot. . y a/jxros. -8 or Masc. Nom. in. with a man) are shared between the Greek genitive and dative. man. genitive. SING. There are three declensions of nouns. from. DECLENSIONS 168. V. The genitive. to or for a man .w7rj/. These resemble the first three declensions in Latin. and vocative. and Fern. and in the diphthongs av.NOUNS gender for both sexes 166 Such are the bear. none -s none -os -i none or -10 -v or -a none none Voc. ace. are added /A? male fox . D. Case-endings of Nouns. the fox. Are.v<s. apprjv apKros. 6 /*?. because its stems usually end in a consonant . voc. fj. the eagle. v. 1 The meaning of the cases is in general the same as the Thus nom. : r/ 1) apptjv uAw7r?/.

172. Exceptions to these rules are given under the separate declensions. often changed to rj or a in the always changed to a. -a. in the plural this ends in -a. All neuters have the same form for the nominative. endings (170). FIRST DECLENSION 173. also in the is no case-ending in the nominative singular. syllable as iu the nominative singular as long as the last syllable permits The (132). 174. An accented ultima has the acute of all numbers. A contracted ultima. 49 The two classes of endings agree in many points. and end in or -tj. The dual has two endings one : and vocative . 4. 1. and dative circumflex. Common. Points in points in 1. Accent. 3. 3. Whether the rule acute or circumflex determined by the in 135. and thus end in -a? or -175. 2. and the other for the genitive for the nominative. In the following table. takes the circumflex. The first a.174 FIRST DECLENSION These will be explained under the different declensions. But this a singular in the plural it is The masculines take -<? in the nomingenitive and dative dual. which and second declensions. if accented. accusative. otherwise it advances to the following syllable. The accent remains on the same 171. and vocative. dative singular ends in -i. same rule applies accent is to adjectives and is participles. inflection. final a. but in the genitive an accented long ultima takes the . written as iota subscript The genitive plural ends in -wv. The feminines have ative singular. or tj is joined to the caseThe terminations may thus be seen as they appear in . and dative. : The three declensions have the following is common The in the first 2. &. -a. declension includes masculine and feminine stems ending in . accusative.

50 FIRST DECLENSION SINGULAR 175 PLURAL DUAL .

-fjfjiepd. Tip/rjs Ti(XTJ Tpdirsja trKias CTKLii yXwo-<r[| 0-KlO. and SINGULAR Nom. /3a<rtAeid. /JcurtAeid. irtlpa. Ace. queen. Toe. <rtcid. FEMININES 180. <y\waaa. victory. ye^vpa. The o-o</)id. honour. Gen. Dat.183 FIRST DECLENSION 51 3.via. <(>0opa. p. tongue. Nouns in -a preceded by a vowel and those in -pa always betray the quantity by the accent . VIKIJ. table. but eiVoid. these having long a when oxytone or paroxy tone. otherwise short d as a-Tparia.. . Tin following are the declensions of %capd.V yXwo-o-av vtKt] CTKLa yXw<rora DUAL . majority of nouns in d have the recessive accent (134). kingdom. land shadow.

hunger . care. mistress. living. Wwd). d in the nominative. (c) Most of those ending in -pa preceded by v or by a diphthong as ye<f>i'pa. . Some proper names have a . irciva (also iretVif). /xept/xva. Leda. 2. Abstract in and from nouns -eta -oia (b) adjectives in -?/s and oos as dA^&io. MASCULINES 186.oc^ : of Ta/ua<?. Some have . TajiCd iroXtra iroi7]rd . TraGAa. The following are the declensions iTT/?. In Attic poetry we sometimes have abstracts in -ei'd temple. ttKav&x. Second and vocative singular. Treipa. eiVovs. or Attic Thus. betray short d in the nominative singular by the accent. queen (but /Jao-iAet'a. 180). lioness. wagon. see 315. accusative. female Also fj. /iof-o-a. rapids raaiou rap-io. and KO/XTI. Gen. as ASfid. . see ] 92. -}. contest. 184. as ^uAiyna.52 FIRST DECLENSION 2). 3. *i. ^. against the rule others. true) . \p. p). and -oia. >' //' Tttild- TToAlTU- SINGULAR Nom. rotate a.. as d\rjdtia. (. "tiAo/z/yAu. A>/6\is 4. daring . kindness (elVoos. and -i/s. fvdvva. steward. 185. so AtoTi/iu. /Jao-i'Aeta. i. a/xiAAa. have T. Biaira. 1. cessation. . Exceptions to 1 84. citizen. These are all in which & For exceptions. after e. after o-.fly. also several rare words. and Those belonging to the second Class. rr. "E/xr?/. iVota. evvoid. Ta^LiieLv TroXiTt]s iroXtrow iroXti-jj iroiT|ToO iroirp-jj iroXtTTjv iroiTj-Hjv Voc. Ataiva. irpvp-va. 184 Adjectives in -/JOGS have the feminine in -pod (286. preceded by thirst. Dat. kingdom}. harper. SforTroiva. = later Attic KO/S/JJ. dew. a/m^a. and ^0*77x779. St^u. /.via. class (184). HvSva . fldAaTTo. (d) Certain feminine adjectives in . accusative. see 185. and vocative singular They in the genitive and dative singular (i. $crutiny t^iSi/a.e. adder. rdA/xa. Atyiva. and dative singular (like o- AA. stern of a ship trident . For contracts ending .). thorn. and are and d : the following (a) Those in -rpia and -eta denoting women . gen. (a) Some have TJ in the genitive is d in the nominative. . in -a. oxr. Aoc. truth (dA7/0r/s. and yAuxro-o. (6) muse roo< . tfdAaaxra = later Also .

A. V. G. 53 rapid rafjiiaiv iroXtrd iroXtraiv iroiT]T<x iroiTjTalv PLURAL Norn. .191 FIRST DECLENSION DUAL N. D.

Hermes (in Hermes) : Stem fivd. jivdv p. statues of The following are the declensions of pvdd. Dat. weasel .54 192. pva.for E/3/xcd- Nom.for yaAedSINGULAR 'Epfid. SECOND DECLENSION 192 ya\er). ya\ij.for pvaa- yaAd. and 'Ep/jieds. Gen. 'Eppijs. mina . (fdd) (M^ddj) jivd jivds 1 (70X67$) (/"da) (/xvdd?) (iva (7 a ^ f'l?) (7aX^i7K) Ace.vd y aA *lv Voc. (jwdd) . the plural.

Aoyo> is from Aoyeo-i for Aoyo-i. from the old Ionic or Epic -o-io (I'TTTTOS. ace. hence in the dative. Dat.. D. messenger o \6yos.. 6Sds Ace. and vocative dual. In the genitive plural. gift : 6So- Stem ayyeAo- Aoyo- v?/cro- 8(apo- Nom.. G. -os -ov -ov -o> -wv -ots or N. The 198. word . brother. Gen. -a. hence I'TTTTO-O. occasionally even in prose. . -co -ori -a -OLV -ov -e -ovs -ov -01 Voc. and voc. are the declensions of o ayyeXos. 77 I/T/CTO?. . 196. not Sjo/awv). Epic I'TTTTOIO. is 197. a takes the place of o. Quantity. The following f) 0809. accusative. again. In the genitive singular. Neuter Fern. Dat. of neuters.. contract nouns (203) .. NOTE. The quantity is obvious from the table. vocative aSeA^e and nouns of the Attic second declension (207). and -01 DUAL Neuter -a. road . ro Bwpov. The accent follows the general rule (171). and hence there is no contraction as in the first declension (Swpwv. which. Ace. island . Masc. ITTTTOV). In the dative plural -ois is for original -otcri. Voc. -ou is from -o-o. c takes the place of o . o becomes w . Gen. which is old Attic and found In the accusative plural -ovs is for -o-vs (40).200 SECOND DECLENSION SINGULAR 55 PLURAL Masc. V. In the dative singular. Masc. Accent. and Fern. in the nom. and in the nominative. 199. A. Fern. Neuter Nom. o of the stem is dropped before the ending -tov. contracted from -o-to-i. . are exceptions aSeA^os. 200. In the vocative singular of nouns in -o?..

are declined thus SINGULAR .(48. ravpos. TrAw. 203. TrepiVAov. eXTTCO. and in the plural -ca. syllable Contracted compounds in -oo? retain the accent on the same as in contracted nominative singular . I(JMTIOV. 204. irepnr\6i>). vovs. cloak. and -oov and -eov The contraction follows the principles of 47. bull. as Tt/zd#ee. life. 201 man. The dual contracts -o> and OOTtto. 2). irepiir\<p. as TrAdu). O&TOVV.VOVV. and oareov. . Jig. erOxov. contracts to KO. mind. But proper names compounded with 0ds form the vocative regularly. Tre/aiVAoos.contracts to -d. death. 7r/3MrAdoi>. <5 friend. Accent. 201. Trora/ios. gen. The nouns : 1/009. law. basket.are contracted -009 and ->9 of the nominative becoming -01/9. CONTRACT NOUNS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION 202.SECOND DECLENSION So are declined o o fiios. as The nominative in -os is sometimes used for the vocative The vocative of 0os is always #eos. 6 o flaya-ros. etc. sailing around. rver.and -eo. -oo> to -w (not w) . NOTE. Xouns with stems in -oo. -n-epiirXovs. The accent of these contracted forms shows the : following irregularities 1. <t'Aos. . Kaveov. vd/tos. becoming -ovv. dat. 3. lone. 2.

r>)i> Tew. dawn . half a KTVS. Mtvws. o Aayws. . NOTR. . Doric MeveAews (original accent retained). rope . . ram . temple. o Tr/Dovews.XCOS vi VWV K<xXV vecis 209. for Horn. D. o raws. vetis KclXa> xdXwv KuXu>s KO. Accent. roy Mfi'to. (also Tragic) f Ados dyrypws. threshing-floor . 210. So TY/v aXii). whirhvind . Vw VCpV N. Some nouns drop v of the accusative singular in the new 211. ?'i from which they are derived by exchange of quantity (45) as vetus. TT/V Kew. (6) Most of those in -ews are explained by older form t] ews. and are sometimes found in other dialects. and DUAL N. 6 vews. T-TJV Kw. instead the &> appearing in although it all is the also This is called the Attic declension. So also adjectives of this form propitious. people . Attic. etc. TwSa/aeuis. The stem in of &> a few masculines and feminines of this of o. v&f Gen. as KoJs. TOV Aayw or Aayw. V. v6s vcu Gen. as "tAews. V. hall of a temple . V. Ace. : 208. . as "Aews. also some proper names. rov'A&o. and No (Inscription). G. but the accent of the genitive and dative is not certain. ACC. . Ados Some in -ws are due to contraction Aayws (also accented Horn. . MeveAuos. neuter fAewv (298). except rarely the doubtful which avwyaiov is the regular form). NOTE. (c) The forms in -ws are nearly always preferred by Attic writers. PLURAL KU.XC "N. 1} Tews. o /caAws. Horn. sister-in-law . fj Kews. 6 TU^>WS. The accent is irregular long w of the ultima does 207. temple . datcn (originally of the third declension). VUGS. in -dos or -T/OS.211 SECOND DECLENSION 57 ATTIC SECOND DECLENSION 206. . The following rope : SINGULAR are the declensions of 6 vew?. upper floor (for neuters occur. found in non-Attic writers. Dat. (a) The Attic second declension belongs to only a few nouns as 6 Aeuis. peacock . vov Dat. free from old aye. 6 "A^ws. See also 137. But adjectives of this form have neuters in -<av . . 6 dpvews. not prevent the acute from standing on the antepenult. a few rare names of plants and one or two others . rj yctAws. from In some of the M'ords of this declension the origin of the form is dy>y/)aos. NOTE. Ionic VT?OS Aews. r) a Aa>s. declension ends cases. and the accent always remains the same as in the nominative singular . MeveAews. 'H ews. hare . not certain. o /ea\a><?. A. rbv vew. Aayws) from Horn. Aaywos.

esculent acorn jSaAavos. rfeto KC/JKOS. asphalt Pda-avos. day* a<r/2oAos. foreign land Kaderos (ypap. many of which were originally adjectives. Certain names of things hollow: KapSoTros. house-door f3iip(3ap->s (yv)). but names of females.os. soot cnroSos. Of the other feminines. book ^3r/?Aos. AeaK/>o/30s. diameter (far AOO-T />o? (8uya/iis). kneading-trough o-opo-i. carriage-road 2. cluilk : apyiAos. bathing-tub dome. vaAo?.fj. /at7 . and citif* are feminine. this form never drops v in Attic. Gauntries. OKOTO?. ?. lime . islands. Also these s. thicket o-uyKAr/ros (J8ouAr/). legislative assembly 6. falloiv land (^tapd).ivo-i. pebble cr/xa/)ay8os. c/od 3. oven trench irpfyoos (vp6\ovs\ Tri'eAo?. emerald trees Certain names of products of /?i'/3Aos. f/laj* irAiV^os. c/it A^/Kt'^o?. plants. Certain names of minerals and earths yfyos. path ciTpaTriTos. oc/ire riravos.^')). transport-vessel basket s. rat. sanrf ^T}^>OS. GENDER OP Nouxs OF THE SECOND DECLENSION Most of those in -os and -us are 212.58 SECOND DECLENSION 212 The accusative masculine and feminine of adjectives of has always TTJV eia. dirt /ziAros. touchstone /?>y/jvAAos. 6eri/i /JwAos. path a/tatTos. <Mc/i <fMapia. staff axvAos. s. ^'ar ru</>po9. : Zyr yva^os. or X^P")* ^''J/ />//ws (y// or \Mpii\ desert tjirttpos (yi] (oiVri'a\ a<ow arAcios (Ovpa). Several words for way : arparros. planter v\o\os (yvj). vault o-ra/ivos. coffin /d/?uTos. masculine . writing-tablet cran S/wxros. ashes KOTrpos. and plants: vapSos. icay wall: ot//. book 4. Many (y>) adjectives used as nouns fegwn . road. 6nW. thoroughfare Tpiftos o). dialect StupATpos (ypap.-k Xi^vo<s.ij). winepress eicer trunk K(i/j.fj. batliing-tub X r/^-" s c ^'* 5. aconi papyrus. oil-Jla. trees. ao-^aAros. narrf pd/38o<i. the most important are here given. path KcXcvos. or X V")> "mainland a perpendicular ( vcos or veios SiaAcKTo? (yAaxrtra). papyrus. Jaw StAros. 68os. (ra7r<^i^)os. path (r). 1 .6s. sapphire ^a/x/xo?. Those in -oi' are neuter.

d(r<^vs. pyi/-es. cubit. IJ. The form of the nominative singular is not -os always sufficient stem . % month. we 216. rennet pivos. yolk KiWos. rj vavs (raw). owl . simply o AeKi$os. pvv). NOTE. as o /u> (acc. Trvy^ewv. yXav (yAauKos). it receives . and -vs. goat . varies in poetry The gender and many of the words of the second declension late Greek. are special rules Monosyllabic stems accent the case-ending in the genitive and of all dative numbers fj-t'/v. The case-endings or v~). >'/ 59 <TTpov66<s (Att. sparrow Ta/ucros. accusative as ry nouns in -w - oxytone in spite of the contraction 4. r) These have different mecinings according to the gender ware. mouse. cuyos). In general the accent follows the rules in : 171. rj /3ovs (ftovv). stems end in o or to. permit the acute on the genitive singular and plural (255. tufted lark THIRD DECLENSION /xry/3iv$os.21C KO/avSaAAo's. The genitive singular case-ending (170) are added to the stem. to ascertain the of the genitive singular. The third declension includes (i all words whose stems end in a consonant. 2. 6. 215. some particular of stone. see 217. ship. THIRD DECLENSION 214. also a few whose or in a diphthong (av. cavalry /iorse (. Add also : o. foj/a rush-mat : 7. have a? of monosyllabic neuters is perispomenon. string VT/O-OS. pulse-porridge 6 Kt'avos. 6. -09 becomes -tw? in some words. skin T?//?VVOS. fish . is The . disease (rrpovOos). pTJv-a. city.rjv-6<s. if the case-ending is long. KOpuSds). of We s/eeZ 213. ov. cow. 01) . 7} K/aro-raAAos. fire. The following 1. Accent. with genitives in -ecus. diamond 6 Ai#os. as 7ToAov of '. s<o?i o >] I'TTTTOS. 2) . crystal blue corn-flower t] \i6os. TroAis. . ice fj kind as XeKiOos. i^r/v-wv. fi/rjv-oiv. 6 K/nVraAAos. i] (gen. hut by dropping can generally determine the stem. hip. tufted lark vocros. 6 TTi/^fS. For exceptions to this special rule.IJ-CTI but Nouns in -is the r} antepenult in 3.'TTTTO?. o. i}x^> ec h> acc '/X oa > 7 /X^- The nominative s Trvp. the circumflex. in a close vowel ev. . j] island o. as TI> Also that of masculine and feminine monosyllables which in the nominative and v in the accusative . TToAtws. tj 6. l\6v<s. fj-rjv-f. \l/iado<s. irr^ews. Thus. ?) Ko/3v8os (Att. [tijv-i. p. . ox.

as 'Aya/ie/Ai'wv. except the dative plural in -curt (243). -ois . TtV-i. 6. The are also perispomena accusative and vocative singular of perispomena in -(V (gen. dvyarr^p. belly. 5) . /.i'jTrjp. c/7rf . tori's (oxytone). compounds of also AaKe6W/MDP. -os. (c) The genitive and dative plural n<m (412). and in gen. Thus. crraiVT-otv. lion. avi'ip. ur\vv. ^/wjr. NOTE. o-Tai'T-os.60 . /*?. see 385. O-TO. NOTE. WTWV. . accent the penult irai/T-a>v. KT//>OS. spring .--(a) Nine monosyllables are the genitive dual and plural: >/ fyis. voc. But as 6 /xvs. Aa-o?. and Homeric Bdi/p. aW (320). as /Jao-iAcrs. dtn'jp. Compound names -77$. 6 0u>s. yatrrijp (243) . 7r^>wv-i. : hfiiilland. ear . TiV-wv. ace. 217. and n Trpaiv from irpaj-iov. o o->ys. 6. i<r\v. Bvydnjp. l. Epic TO Kijp cases according to the last syllable from Ktap. weevil. one (409). ftov. a-ra-a-i. = o~n/r-ds. Tr/aali'-os. 'A^dAAwi'.vov Za/nrr/San'. vaG /2ovs. Attic for or<m. TTUS.fitfi. tiro?). WTOIV . heart . jackal ij Exceptions to 216. except those in -<f>piav. daughter. tavior. woman 219. S/Jl/>. 14). see 412. KiW. ]>aroxytone 1). ij yafrn'/p. 6 8/xws. is. -w is perispomenon . jtaroxytoiie in . KVeral others. TIV-OIV. oi-Se-o-i. man. 2. as O-TUS. Trat'Soii'. Thus. 7/xto. 2. 8y8oti/. and Epic -ov?. 0-175. as ^ (but compare 306. the interrogative pronoun For the indefinite TIS. THIRD DECLENSION epbrow. 217 all (320). ^p-os. But ore ap = o-n}/). torch. rfogr (283. 5. . oreaT-t. AaKcSat/xov . (241. dough. </>/xaT-o5 i)p-t '. o Tpw?. etc.VT-IDV. TI . \6. 7. of TTUS. S^iSwv. ZijfAf. 7} Trais. Tt's. irat'&or. For ovStt's. as TiV-os. mouse. AvKoifrpov -ovos or -OVTOS . 6. Monosyllabic participles accent the stem-syllable . /3ao-iAv . NOTE. blister. TO ous (gen.t'/w/. -a??. OX. </>/xa/>. 5). p. -f-os) VOC. (6) <^>ys. So also TI-O"I. Aai'. 'Aya. O-TOLVT-L. names in -tor. brother-in-law. fattier. (c) Compare 308. <f>pi)T-t. gen. oi'Sets and /xi/8eis. : . Stt/jTTT/Soi' . vavs. voc. . and . . fjii)Sfi<i. 7ra-o-i oi'Sev-tov. ice//.T-os. Rlave . COW. $ingular. moi/i . tallow. o-TeaT-os = <^>p. /AW. TI. and (6) Proper . dative: yi'itj. See also The vocative of nouns in -rs. Kijp-t . (a) These have the recessive accent (134) in the vocative Ilartyp. trwn'ip. TO <ws. as AvKo<f)p<ov. OTT^T-I. Trojan.wv . <f>pr)T-wv 6/3^^ from 0/ocu = Ionic or These also accent the case-ending in the genitive and (283. mother. the syncopated genitive and dative singular of iran'/p. stone . (d) Four contracted nouns are properispomena or paroxytone in all TO I//D from Zap. 218. 6 *cfe. strength. 6 Acts from Aaas. and except TO Afe.

torch. . from <ons 6\ts. For the accent of participles. The quantity is obvious from the table. . salt. A^^TT. 6 i//ap. (see 3 below). '. showing. ye/oacr-os. giant. . Demeter. 17 . yt'yavr-os aAs. see 308.^. -a--. adjectives and participles.K-o<s 17 yuacrr/. from Sou?. 220. FORMATION OF CASES 224. have long d in the accusatives . except those ending in -v. o-a^ecr-os. except a few in the nominative of and -i. For the masculine of these 241. yaAa/cT-os va. ovu^-os vulture. t] . prize. o yfty. In neuters the nominative singular is is the simple stem. 223. blister. 6 yty. /iatrTiy-os . milk. /zeAav (neuter of yueAds). nectar. vein. 245. (rw/iar-os . . vulture . see 2 and 3 below. torch. making the regular euphonic changes. scourge. For exceptions in formation. Tras. as /3ao-iAei>s. 3 . Nominative Singular. Final -r- of the stem dropped (109). see 238 . 17 ecr$?/s. <Ae^. light. form the nominative singular by adding . A contracted monosyllable is perispomenon if the open form was accented on the penult as TTCUS from Trai's <ws. starling . night. NOTE. . yw-os .ov (neuter of fvSaififav). honey. Kopa. /Saa-tAea. For the recessive accent in adjectives. black. o-a<^)-os. Aa/z7ra8-os o/)vis. ye/aws (244) vfKTap./). . (ra</>o{is (244) . craves (neuter of <ra<rys). from from Opui'. fv8ai/j. see 330. TiOev (neuter of rt^ei's). 2w/xa. vdirv-os . ^>A/?-os* o. . fni\iriyy-o<s ow. adjectives. ^apUv (neuter of Xa/Di'eis). 171 . (neuter of Aeyov (neuter of Aeywv). The quantity of the vowel of the ultima most other words must be learned by practice. 2).7rv. . of those in -a 3. >} VVKT-OS . 45 and 266). yracfful. \apievr-o s . ei'Sai/tov-os Af'o-fls). opvW-os yt'yds. aA-o? . as <aos p <w. Awav . -p-. ^a/atevT-os . But if the ultima was accented. . /xeAt. TidcvT-os having loosed. . whether 221. See 141. o o (raA7riy. s and naif. mustard. body. . 1. mat-work . Kopa. clear. 222. but nouns 2. 61 all cases. placing. yueAir-os yaAa. NOTE. Aeyovr-o? . all. saying. NOTE. veKTa/)-os . has recessive accent in syncopated or not (243. . and participles from the stem : 1. i '. 7} vi'. bird. as TO trvp. raven. in -ci's 1. TTUVT-OS ^a/jtets. /3acriAeds (see fire . yepas. Avo-avr-os graceful. it is oxytone . 239 2. The following are the general rules for the formation of the nominative singular of nouns. Set/vviVr-os. O-^T)T-OS Aa/ATras. . garment. -OVT- Masculine and feminine stems. SeiKvvv (neuter of SeiKvOs). 77 pty. . Quantity. fortunate. Monosyllabic nominatives have their vowel long . trumpet. /xeAav-os . ye/oa-os.224 THIRD DECLENSION .

city. see the paradigms. v<}. 1. <ra</>(r-os. T)/)(I>-OS . genitive -o-os. to form the hero. aA-a . Stems ending in a vowel or diphthong add except nouns in -w. . ypd-ds . Vowel stems add -u>- -v -a. placing. ayuv-os o aidijp.r)v-6s . -a. Masculines and feminines with stems ending in a consonant (except those mentioned in 3 below) add -a for the accusative. 1). is dropped. ox. orator. 4>A^. persuasion. wei^ovs. thief. . Baifiov-a p/T<ap. formed by adding But -o>5 is found 1. /JacriAe-ios /3o-6<i . . Satfjuav. f3atri\(d (262. -oVr-os. see 1 above. divinity. . singular is see the examples. vaus. THIRD DECLENSION AiWvT-os . for -a-os (from -ao-os) contracted to -<os. The genitive singular is 225. sheplierd. contest. p. 2). 5 4. 7ri0w. 2.. . and of participles in -ov. TrdAii/ TTT/XI^. oi-os woman. . for 226. ckar. ^. Tt#ei's. see 236. 6 aywr. see 246. Accusative Singular. Ilot/juyf. 246. \anird&-a *o/>a. TrTfxyv hero. but stems in -eu- drop v and have vavv >y/3ti> . 2. [J-yv. Sei'o^wvr-o?. but 1} TTCI^W. 6 #y/3. -OT-OS. Orjp-of pi'jTwp. 241. 6. cow.02 Autrus.. Final T in -orriroip. see 244. .'wKpare-os. i\du-os (263) . -os to the stem . . \(yovT-o<i Socrates. have 6 IIoAis. -ovs. -o--. . T//HJS. old man. The dative formed by adding -i to the stem. 3. (262. ij o?s. Genitive and Dative Singular. 1. see 236. fish. Aa>v. } TroAis. Masculine and feminine stems in -v-. -/>-. and For the contraction of -e-os (from -r-os) and -o-os to of vat's (263). . and stems in or -o. . . f3ovv . . 2) .form the to nominative singular by lengthening the last vowel. ytpovr-os For the neuter of adjectives &vo<f>wv. pt'jTOp-a. etJier. -oGs. (3ov$. cubit. 6. . 2). ^WK/XXTOVS (245. -OVT. pijrop-os <f>(ap. see 331 . . SKi'iW-os. TroAe-ws (255. to-O^r-a aAs. of certain nouns in -is and -i-s (255. 1). y/aavs. exceptions in formation. and o to w. 2. -oyu. 2) tra^iys. for other For the perfect participle in -ws. tra</>s-os. 3). ytpuv. Xenophon. Aa/iirds. 7//>a>-a or (250. KopaK-a . /a'ju/. 225 SciKvi's. for -os in the genitive singular of nouns in -evj : (262. in -s. oW/ioi'-os beast. ir(i6u (250. (ratal's (244) Ae-yaw. TI#CVT-OS . oZ<i sheep. see 1 above. . Aeovr-a r0>/s. if it is short : ?. TTCI^O-OS. . Sat/jnav. . aiBfp-os <f>tap-6<. 1. of OO-TV (255. saying. 2. for other exceptions in formation. 6 i'x#s. 6. /Jao-iAevs. 2o>KpaTr-os. 1} (3ov$. showing. o month. <f>\(fl-a .ev-os . and 249 . o- nominative "Hpu>s. from verbs in . wild -toKpar?/?. see 331 . for examples. 2). lion. gen. For the neuter of these adjectives and participles. gen. 1). . having loosed. paradigms. . For participles in -ovs.

(but Aewv (Acovr-). . see 351. 230. mute stems. d'cArris but the oxytone 1} eATri's. Nominatives in with stems in -cs- . But oxytones with liquid stems have the vocative the same as the nominative . 63 -T-. 6 cutov (GUWV-). rvpavvis (TvpavviS-). c 241. 7 . yo-ptv . THIRD DECLENSION Barytones in -ts and -vs. (244). the stem and making the regular euphonic changes. and barytones with stems not participles) have the vocative like the stem.ov-). -8-. For more examples. have the vocative like the stem. fTrrjXvs (eveATrto -). fTrrjXvv . 250. rules in 226 belong to the Ionic dialect and to poetry. 2. SOU/MOV. NOTE. as 2a>K/oaT?7S. epiv . 1. The genitive plural adds -wv to the stem. that of neuters by adding -a. strife. 249. -175 227. see 236. lion. shepherd . 4 262. Nominative and Genitive Plural. For For the contraction of -e-es and -e-a to examples.231 3. in -VT. } 2. watchman . For various exceptions in Attic. (V^AvS-). 254. 'H . stranger. . 4. have the vocative the same as the nominative . X"/315 (X a P ir-)> grace. except participles. giant.. The dative plural is formed by adding 231. 3. voc. Zu)/cpaTe(o-)-a. -o-i to (KO.K-). see 353. or -#-. bird. eveXiriv . 8ai/jL(av (8a. <f)v\a ((f>vXa. "Kpa\^ ('Apa/3-) Arab. with stems in consonant of the stem and add v.ifj. final 'H t] /3is (epi8-). NOTE. Those with stems in -18-. has eATri'8-a. see 236. see the paradigms. 247. 241. as TTOI/^V (TTOL^V-}. c . Vocative Singular. see the paradigms. rvpavvi ytyds (ytyavr-). Nouns with 228. . tyranny. The nominative plural of masculines and feminities is formed by adding -es to the stem . All others. except those in 3 below. Acov 229. For the contraction of -o(o-)es -ets and -77. hope. opvlv hopeful. age. and -o(o-)a to -ovs and -w in comparatives in -iwv and -wv. >/ o/svis 1 (opvld-). yiyar. Barytones with liquid stems have the vocative like the stem . reject the 6. For -to . SwKpar?. For examples. Dative Plural. see 255. . 251. see the paradigms. add -a and contract from -o(<r)a in the accusative of comparatives in -MOV or -wi/. 244. 1. For various exceptions. 3 Other exceptions to the 247. 1 . 5 . as voc.TI]- . 262.

90. DUAL N. 41 (b) . x > T ^. 5. XatXaira XaiXavJ/ o-dXiriyya Voc. For the accusative plural of stems in -eo-. D. v. Xai'Xair-is XaiXdirwv XaiXairas . Gen. For -ds. . Tpm')pf<ri . Consonant stems add -as for the accusa232. For the change in syncopated nouns. y. see 263. Masculines and Feminines.fi"i (3ov<i (fio\>-). V. < . A. see 224-232.and -i>-. V. 3 . XaXair G. see 243. 235. For the formation of cases.THIRD DECLENSION (90. *. flat. av. w or o a simple close vowel a diphthong ev. 1. see 40. (Tpirjpco--). Ace. 2 For -01* and -w in the accusative plural of comparatives in -iwv. 233. T/H>//J>. T| XcuXdvJ/ T| hurricane watchman trumpet Juiir dress Stem XtuXaT- SINGULAR Norn. pburt raw? (vav-). 84. see 307 . : : i or v ov. vawrt. /3cuT<.in the accusative plural of nouns in -cvs. of stems in -ov-. see 255. For the change of changes. XcuXcnros XatXairi rpi\<Js 4<rOf)Tos 4X01 ordXiriyyi Ace. 3 and 4. p " 4. 6. 91. Q A. <j>vXdKC XaiXdiroiv Tpl\OlV N. Dat. : Nouns with stems ending in a mute liquid : TT. XcuXavj/ <j>vXa| Gen. see plural. The endings -oxri and -nrt occur tive in the dialects. Accusative Plural. see 102. 232 and 4) . The paradigms of the third declension will be given in the following groups 1 . . -01-. aspiration in Opi.h. of 262. 01 MUTE STEMS For the euphonic 234. steins in -t. : /?. -av-. see 353.

T| 8pvls giant hope \eovr- lird opvtd- Stem \auiraS- SINGULAR .236 o y i 'Y a s THIRD DECLENSION 6 Xt'cov ij 65 T| Xajxirds IXirCs 6.

food . -S-. as Jjirap. -a instead of -v in poetry. irrtdp. %/t<. possession . and : irtpaa. The noun has two stems accusative. ScAcap. -6v.raT-os The stem ended. V. having loosed. well .Vj Kp<dV PLURAL N. -6-. (Kepaa) Kt'pd Tjiraruv irfpaTwv Kcpdrcov. and The masculine and neuter stem as AeAvKws. -S-. -ovs 237 8t86v. gen. mostly poetic. tallow . end . rb o-iifio. sign. (Kcpawv) Kcpwv Kepacrt Like <rtafjM are declined in <^tas / OTCUS. V. Also has <oos. Gen. </>pcdT-os. stem (contr. o-xwp. ovOap. A. O-T^T-OS.and AeAi'/cds. ovap. appear to have been originally vowel stems. irtpar. profit .OI. <rw|MX o-<ifiaTOS fjirap (238) ir^pas (239) Klpas (239) Kcpdros. Some neuter stems above. with stems in -T-. (Doric and Ionic) = Attic O-TS. day . (Kfpa. : Like Tjirap are declined Epic eTSap. Epic and poetic ircipap. Dat. udder . Kepdr- Stem ffUfMT- SINGULAR N. see 890. originally in -ap. dream. of the perfect forms nominatives in -ws and -ds . TO fyirap rJ> irc'pas Jorfy Ziwr i)iraT- end Ttpar- TO xcpas horn Ktpaff-. used also in Attic tragedy).6 THIRD DECLEXSION form nominatives in (see 329). so . <J. map. V. trreap = Attic -apT-.TC fjirarc irc'paTC D. TT/XIS V&IT-OS. ore'dT-os. Epic ?n*ap. virap. waking others.for the other cases . occur only in the nominative Two stems in -ar. active participle ends in -or. O-U|1O.for the nominative. ya\a/<T-os. 7/. Many in -i?. Barytones in -is and -vs (with stems in -T-. from <aos). Epic and poetic oveuip. AeAv/cdr-o? (see 329). Gen. A. Trpay/xar-os. 9. : and many neuters <njfta. dirt. and some and accusative. </>WT-OS (but <^a<7-. A. Homer 238. (Kfpa'i) ^iraros fjirari ir^paros ir^pari <ri|iaTi Kpai N. 237. in -ar- form the nominative singular in perhaps. <rraiT-ds yaAa. as irpayfia. water . gen. and 239.have nominatives in -up : vSup. //i^ / o-ro/na. as SiSovs. Neuters. -/*a. mouth . (TWpATOlV ircparoiv KCpdTOlV. poetic vision. (frptap = Attic <f>ptdp. o-/car-ds. or -6-) often have giving.ara fjirara irtpara Kpdra. Dat. bait . (fcepaos) Ktpcas Kcpdrt. gen. and vocative singular. 0-iofj.

wing of an army. and vocative singular. accusative. LIQUID STEMS 240. 246) used throughout except in the dative plural . 91. used throughout except in the nominaThe form KC/DWS is always used tive. see 224-232. For Kfpat we sometimes find See also the dialectic forms of these two words. 3 . 6 O\S salt For the euphonic a i-">V 6 TTOL)JLT|V T] 4 P1 V > 'l "H P^ S shepherd mind Stem dX- Nora. and Kepar-. 90. prodigy. see 41 (b). For the formation of cases. . changes.240 also re/aas (repaa- THIRD DECLENSION and rcpaT-). in speaking of the 'Wrongly Kepa. 67 : Ke/ms has two stems (with the genitive -a(o-)-os like ye/oas.

IloO-eiSwi/ (JloO^CtSwi'-). 2.. 8eA. -fp. see 219. syncopates all the oblique cases and then accents the first syllable. and u. T|-yp<Jvcs Ti-yt^ovajv ^JY < H><^ri 241 8apovS Saip. and singular has recessive accent. daughter. father. These also add /xeAav-os . The nouns nan'/p. Gen. 3.Trjp. also /^et? or /z-i)i-. irari'ip. SINGULAR Nom. 1 /re.<iV occur. 'AiroXXatv and IToo-etSwi' have the accusative 'ATroAAwvo. month. thus: AT/^TT^. O aAs is 'ATToAXw. fA. in the vocative and have recessive accent : For the recessive accent in these "ATroXXov./xT/Te/n) 8 before p currt'p-os.6vu>v 8at|io<ri (Hjpts Kpdrfjpes KpaTTjpcov KpaTfjpcri p^ropts pTjTOpwj pTJrop<ri Orjpwv 9r\p<ri Tpyn<5vas 1. crwTep. e of the stem it is dVe/o- before a vowel and inserts 'O u(rn//o. Ace. 3. 1} 1. /wAds. (xar/pot) (wartpi) ira-r^p irarprfs (/ Dat irarpi (iHrript) ^rpi (0iryar^pi) dvyarpf . and in certain others. star. belly. -s : and form the nominative in -is as 6 But in late Greek forms SeA^-os. 220. in other respects declined like is ace. . Demeter.vt]p. cv-ds . For the dative plural of 6 cum/p. preserver. A^rjre/j. words 242. fM^rijp. dolphin. K-ev-os (40) . dat. For a lew vocatives in -o? from stems in -ov. 4. but the vocative yaa-n'/p. take s piv-6s. shorten 'ATToAXwi' ('ATToXXwi'-). (A7/ji/T/>a) Avy/ij/T/xi. the only noun with a stem in A. (Ar/pyTepos) Ai//iT. lengthens the vowel in the nominative Trii/o-os. see 254. 6 KTCI'S. and 308. SaCfiovas -iv- Otjpas KpdrTJpas pVjropas .. Declension of irart'ip. raAds. 241. drops regular. one. is. but has the dative plural da-rpdn-t. 2. and accent the ending of those cases. and black.ijv-o'i. star. and To Trrp. Iloo-eiSov. V. In the other cases e is retained and accented. Stems in 6 8(\<f>is. to -pa-.68 THIRD DECLENSION PLURAL X. see 353. gen. For -co and -ovs from -o((r)-a and -o(<r)-c? in comparatives in -twv and -wv. Gen. w and ?. wretched^ raAai/-os comb. IIo<ri8aJi'a and Jloo-fiSw. dvydr^p. 243. see 243. . and O-Wr-l'jp ((TWT7//3-). 5. Ar/pyxr/p. drop e of the stem in the genitive and dative singular. (A?. In the dative plural -/>- is changed 'An'ip. singular. pfe. like piv 2. Syncopated Stems in mother. VOC. man.7y>o$. 6i<ya. ^T?//J. Dat.

4. two vowels thus brought together contract. Stems ending in -cr. (dvtpt) (dvepoiv) (dve'pes) avSpes dvSptov dvSpos dvSpi d. and TO yepas (jepaa-). Dat.Ti D. G. Many neuter stems in -eo--. N. &Vp For dialectic Voc. (ZwKpdrti) (~uKpdT(a) ScoKpa-rr) SUK parts . 245. -es. V. which change -?/s. 3. V. Dat. A. Kparecr-) Socrates. A'. 69 PI Te P Ov-yarep DUAL N. see 306. prize. (SajK-pdrcoy) SwKpd-rrjs Ytvovs ysvei (ytpaos) (ytp&i") -yepus ytp&i. 2a)Kpdrous 2toKpd. V. (yevea--). in -oar-. Gen. A. A. Stems ending in -a.246 Ace. G. which changes to -os in the : nominative singular.s Stems in -en-- of masculine proper names. and poetic forms of these words. D. irarepe irarepoiv PLURAL N. -e<r- to in the nominative singular.vSpa &vSpc dvSpoiv Gen. STEMS ENDING IN <r 244. Gen. occurring in Attic poetry.before all case-endings (105).drop this -a-. -?. 5. Adjective stems in -co-. Dat. Ace.embrace the following 1. Declension of TO yevo<. X. Ace. D. 2. r} at'Sws (at'Soo--). A. (yfrfos) (yfvf'i) -ye'vos -ye'pas N.with nominatives in few neuters in -ao--. irarepa irdrep THIRD DECLENSION" Voc. (dvtpos) (dvtpi) dvT|p Nom. A One 1. V. see 895. 246. (dv^puv) avSpdcri (dvtpas) (dv^pes) (dripa) dvSpas avSpes Voc. shame. irarcpes ji^Tspts [iT|Tpo)v (rrjTpd<ri irartpwv irarpdo-i Ou-yarpdo-i irarepas |rrjTpas Oxryartpas SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL Nom. race. G. Ace. Gen. Dat.

and repar-). V. see 896 : and 897. as from KAe-a (compare 307). gen. pi. (yt'fa. G. (ytpa-t) ytvolv (ytpdoiv) PLURAL N.and Kfpdr-). ref^o?. D. Rarely The genitive plural --u>v is the dual in -e is found uncontracted. KepSf-wv. *<Aed . dialectic forms (rare in Attic) of these and of certain others. end.?. as in 247. often have an accusative in -TJV. has gen. year.. shame.a//. have a double contraction in the dative. like nom. (alBoa) alSa). o-K7ras. Dat. ace. A. 77 ^w?. Pericles.occur in Attic poetry. -a to -a if an e precedes . sowgr. Trepas (irfpacr. and For peculiar Tcpas (repao-. and many Like 2(o/cpaT7/s are declined many names.) yivi\ (^paa) (yepduf) ytpa. -&> 3). (ybte) (ycrtou>) ytvti. (IIfpi\\fs) Uncontracted forms occur in Attic poetry. Like <u'8&><? i& regular. while Attic ea>5 is of the Attic second declension (2uG). prodigy. old age. Sfiras. less often a vocative in -77 : 248.70 THIRD DECLENSION DUAL 247 N. is but the accent of the accusative in declined the Ionic 17 except in the vocative. as yevee.?. /ueAos. brightness . dat (at'Sot) at'Sot. see 237 and 239. glory. : . (a) Neuters in -os contract icXeos (/cAeco--). NOTE. Like ypas are declined only slool . .?. It is declined like nouns in (250. covering. goblet. as TO o-eAas. Gen. . For Kpas (ntpaa-. w. Dat. A. noni. (c) Proper names in -775. 2. is thus declined Nom. glory. cr^Aas. -cos. voc. K/aeas.and iTfpaT-). the first declension ^(aKpdrrj or ^(DKpdrrjv 5evo7rei#fs or Eevo7rei'#7/. flesh. often found uncontracted even in prose as mx*-*?. dawn. Proper names in -/cXe?. Ile/at/eX?. (yevtuv) ytv&v -ytvta-i -ycpuv -yt'pao-i Like yevo? are declined TO others. -eo (at'So-o?) al8ov<t. : (Ilfpi/cX^iTs) npiKXr)s IIcpiKXct (IIfpiK\^fo (IlfptK^ti) (IIcp(K\^ca) Ace. compounds of /cXe'o? (/cXeeo--). V. Gen. no dual or plural. 'H aiSws (alSoo--). yr)/aas. liorn. (6) Uncontracted forms of stems in -co-. VOC. 249. IleptKXer. TOS.

3. Nom. -toes and -was to -cos. the accusative singular -coo. echo. 216. hero. 3)..254 THIRD DECLENSION 71 STEMS ENDING IN 250. Declension of o rjpws. Those in -co. -ovs (from 2. The masculines may contract the dative singular -cot to -^. 2a7r^Kp. Wxooj) (17X00) . vocative singular in -of probably belongs to an earlier form of the stem in -ot.form masculines Those in -o. in the dative to -of. gen. 1 . gen. 0&>9. the nominative and the accusative plural But monosyllables do not contract. -co-os. Feminines contract in the genitive to -ovs. rj rj^ta. and the grammarians and older inscriptions show a in nominative in -o>. tu OR o in -ws. These are few in number. as ATJTOJ.form feminines in -co. -o-os). o jackal (205). to -co. The the accusative to -co (with irregular acute accent. 251.

72 ace. . but oxytones and perispomena h.in the nominative. voc. -a. . Perispomena are all monosyllables.of the stem throughout. 3. and TO a<m>. cubit. accent to stand on the antepenult (216. pi. but these three are often written as >} oxytones. irsSXiv Voc. nightingale. 4. and 6 l\0v<i. etKora THIRD DECLENSION ami tco. xcte&av. Barytones have short -v. (t^Ov-). voc. dative singular and the nominative dual and plural are contracted the accusative plural is irregularly made to conform to the contracted The genitive singular and plural permit the nominative plural in -is. 2). 2. oo-^rs. and o i%8v<. several in -v?.fish. Nom.everywhere . Gen. The nominative singular of masculines and feminines ends . dijBol . and vocative singular. and CIKOVS . see 317. eucora? iicalloic. For adjectives in 1. 256. . and in those cases keep the same accent as in the nominative singular. STEMS IN 255. city. accusative. in -r? i AND v 1. in -I and -v. 6 TO a<rrv (turrv-\ city. 4) l\0vos ir<J\us irVjx"*' Dat Ace. and ij o<f>pv<s. 255 utjSwv. Declension of TroXt? (TTO\I-). and The genitive singular of these has -o>s for -09 the vocative singular. and -i-s (in oxytones and perispomena -v?) of neuters.ive long -v. -vs. 17 -v. hip. state. ace. 5. ir<5\is *rf |X w &OTU do-rtws Ix^"5 (255. Others in -f-s or -i~s retain -v. fish. change i and e of the stem to c in all cases except the nominative. accusative. . eyebrow. Those in -is.

Swa/us. and poetic o irpecr(3v<s. faction.262 2. KIS 258. weevil. The Ionic genitive in -cos of nouns in -vs occurs late contracted form of the gen. The only in poetry as ao-rewv.i. neuters with stems in -i are found declined throughout the Lexicon the following foreign words crtVowrt. The stems in -i. NOTE. (pi. tiger.and -v. drop genitive (266. ri'pcrewv. o-f-s eyxeAvs. KL-I. from l^Ov-vs The Ionic accusative plural writers forms in -v-as occur. tear SaKpv-a). TrdAcws perhaps from Epic 7rdA7j-os (compare 45 and 899. and contraction consequently occurs in the The genitive dative singular. follows t^flus in the singular. TrdAies. Spus. Ktwv. /ay. Kie. . and Ionic inflection retains i of 261. ^. strength. . 7rdXe(6)-es. irregularly conforms to the nominative plural. T Attic writers in foreign and dialectic words . 6 /zai/ris.. oa. pi. Stems in -CD-. dust. pepper. TrdAtv. This inflection is occasionally used by TroAtwv. TrdAt for TroAt-i. as /Mi'-as for /xvs. : singular -e-tus of stems in -t. TrdAts or 7rdAtas. wrath. See mustard. o-rao-is. NOTE. and rj Like l\0vs are declined ^s. Like old Trr/x^? are declined only 6 ?} man (283. but genitive plural of aa-rv (the only prose noun in -u) the regular Attic was probably 259. Trevrc/Di. : and others. and numerous others. belonging wholly to masculines in The v of the stem before a vowel of the case-ending. 'Avd^apa-i^. 'Ava^apo-ios So 6. in -is is from original -t-v? accusative . rj riypts. Tty/3i8os or Ti'y/nos. occurs acrrewi'. kind of shrub. Doric. stibium. Tiyxreis. The regular Aeolic. o ///Os.fj. The plural. 1). in Lite plural in -vs is from -v-j/s (40). tower. as TTT^WV for Trr/^ewv. pi. /ir'} vios I/3i? but (river). and in the nominative dual and plural. irry^ets. . in : No 260. singular has -eo>s -ei's. tne plural. so also the 2. STEMS ENDING IN A DIPHTHONG 262. crecreA. THIRD DECLENSION Like TrdAts rj 73 rj are declined. eyebrow. TrdAi. 2) . in Attic. the accusative singular and plural have . but The accusative genitives in -eos as TroAeos occur in Attic poetry. . eel. TI'/DCTIOS. NOTE. pi. business. TrdActs. 7roAi<T6. Ionic genitives in -os of stems in -v-. ?} 77y>ats. poetic TO Sdxpv. acrre(v)-a . see?'. KIOIV . mouse. rj sow. 77 /coVis. keeps r in all cases KI-O'S. 'O KIS.i. 28). as Trry^eos and ao-reos. . poicer. 1. . 257.of genitives in -ews were originally strengthened by the insertion of c. gum. Ionic TrdAis from 7roAi-vs (for TroAas). NOTE. TV/DCTCCTI. Ko/j. are doubtful in Attic. the stem throughout asTrdAr?. tftififu. 7rr7xe(v)-i. "I/nos Tiyxris. TrdAios. r/ 6 d</ovs. Ktcrt (KIS). i\@v<. making -e(i)-os (for -e(t/)-osJ and -eu-os The t or v of the stem then drops out in most cases (for -e(/)-os). Kies. NOTE.is perhaps due to exchange of quantity (45). TreAe/a's. 1. as /AJ/VIS.

4. Pao-Juvs OS Gen. 6.. y/)avs (ypav).vs (/3acriAv-). cow. ox or cow. The stem 01- belongs only to 7} o*s. and the vavs. 7) woman. ox. Ace. Declension of 6 /3oo-iA. Stems in -aw belong only to 3. and 6 three-quart measure. Voc. king.74 THIRD DECLENSION -eds (266. sheep. 7} 263. ship. /8ovs. originally o/is. and 77 Stems in -ov.belong only to 6. old " 7iyi/"" SINGULAR Norn. 2. and 77 o?s (01-). Dat. 26 - -d and 1) . the dative singular contracts y/aavs. nominative plural -? to -ts. i] vavs (vav-). . 7} /?ovs. 7} woman. old to -et.

also several poetic neuters used only in the nom. KVWV (KW-OS). vulture. Xiwv (x tol/-)> snow. 6. holloiv (a-qir-). comb. halcyon. 5. 2. -/?-.before vowels. Jire . of the knee .Xr)-i. vein. from old Ionic VT/OS by exchange of quantity (45). storm pw\f/ (fxair-). GENDER OF THE THIRD DECLENSION 267. starling.T-) : : -(or- as tptas (epwr-). : /3acri. revwv (TCVOVT-). /3\r)X wv (P ^ 7?X a)V ")) penny-royal . \0wv (\0ov-}. writer. >] ^6'5. /3acr<. earth. as y papers (ypafav-). (except those in -iv.r^v-). -/a. image. mr'nrf . . -*)-a. belly . 4. heart. The following rules apply to the uncontracted stem of substantives: 268. sore. Feminine are: .were changed to ypdj--. aAxvwv (dA/cuoi/-). drops /. monster. desire. j3a. . ala>v (attov-). as TCITT^S (TUTT^T-}. -TT-. ytJacriAeu . and in the dative plural elsewhere -rj/The regular Homeric inflection is then /ScwriAevs. rb bound. The stems ypa-v-. From the Homeric forms in -77-05. love. -rj-ds came the Attic forms in -e-ws^ by exchange of quantity (45).in the nominative and vocative singular.for -rjv. bov-is). 3. fate . To 268. KwA^^ (ri']\p (/cwAryTr-). T. ^ Ki]p (Krjp-). : ep-). rfor/. a 269. : 6. etlter. : as KO. /3ao"iA?y-es. T) ^T/V (X 7/ 1'-)? gander. r/tu>v shore. pi\}/ (/Jr-). /ten. Cnmmon To ace. TO ryTo/a. /i?. \^ap (^d/3-). cases it The gender may often be known from the stem. but in many must be learned by observation. KaXavpoi^ (AaiAaTT-). month. . Homer retains -ev. vews is 3. -<^>- : as yi'^ (yvTr-). and booty. cocA. (r/iov-). 17 (CIKOV-). 1} aAe/cTpucji' (dAeKTpvov-). : To 268. -ev~r)T- : 2. TO e'Awp. : </3?yi/ (</3ev-).(compare Latin ov-is).VWV (/<avov-).. Exceptions to 268.Xrj-a<s. /?o/the / then was dropped (compare Latin nav-is. TO A8co/3.Xa. TO TreAcu/a. -Sov-) I'S (KTV-). poppy. CIKWV are: 6. 7 mat-work. /JacriAiy-cov.criXr)-o<s. . 5 : Feminine are . 7. o.Ko>v (/x?yK<uj>-). -yoi/-. [MJv (yu.vpoir-\ shepherd's staff. 3 TO </>ws (^>COT-). mixing-bowl. (t<a. Masculine are stems in 1 . To ^65. yaa-rrjp (yatrTep-). ^>Ae^ (<^)A/3-). tendon. . tooth. r. vav-. bush. (1^6.(w//-). /Sou.269 before consonants THIRD DECLENSION 75 and -r\F.Avy-a. (3afrt. -e'-ds.(except those in -&p-) KpdTrjp (Kpdrrjp-). X 61'/3 ? hand. 2 : i/ eV^/ys (eV^T/TTo ^6^. ijoose . 6 TO TTup (irvp-). (except those in -T?. j/d/. The stem of oTs was originally o/i. /SacriAewTt. -VT-v- : as oSoi's (oSovr-). carpet. -Kvt^)- or (rKviTT-). before vowels Attic -e-d.

upper storey . spring. &w/. (lower) 7}) ntr. To 5 70. 6. aAs (poetic). : as vfKTap.THIRD DECLENSION (X/m/3-). nightingale. 7} o/avls (o To 570. ear o/ grain. ocrrv.a (yaXaxT-). (off-). testitlc . : 271. o?s. persuasion. i'j Homer in other poetry common 6 (poetic tutuy. e^is. water. Common are : <ri. jwize. atScis (aiSo-os. veicvs.(with nominative in -w or -us) are feminine . WTOS). 4 . <tj7fr. -cur- : 5. ur\if (iyx i>~)> strength. state. .s or s. Ttypis (gen. Greek . KO/JIS. Stems in 0<i>-d>. 2. 6 rtidrjp. Exceptions to 270. 272. o<^>is.I-). -t- and : -v- with nominative in -t and -v : as 7rre/t>i. ii'rd. mouse. 276. -at*: 3. 1- '. voice. riypi-os or TiypiS-os). in salt. but their gender cannot lie determined by any general rules. cluster of (irajws . ship. 6 dXs. 4. -<D. . feminine nouns Palatal stems l>elong to masculine and 275. as ai/p. reA/zfe cp/xfs ((pfj. corpse. as 7} iruOta (irtido-os. 2. -os (T)/?-).lv-). Neuter are stems in 1 . fyn/vi'S. /zfs. axe. 6.'. footstool. To 270. 4. vSwp (i-3aT-). /oot . <cfs. the sea. only 7. -5-. /A. TO ovs (gen. -to- with nominative in : as yevo?. ai'Sors). XcAtowi' (xAi3ov-). pepper. -0-.(with nominative in -CDS) are masculine as 6 dus. prop. in late /. nectar. irdOovs). raxvr^'s ^Ta\vrijr-). ami two or three others. ro<:. The pender of some words varies in poetry and o (poetic 7/) . Feminine are stems in 1. Kai'Srs. US rars (vai>-). 270. : Masculine are : o 8cX^>fs (S(X(f>lv-\ dolphin . These stand by themselves TO yaA. -ar-d/j- as crw/na (trw/xar-). } > cubit. ff^x vs t<nne 6. TO O-T^S (O-TJIT-).lT~)> honey. feast. tap as y/5as. Steins in -o. -i- and -i- with nominative in -is and -vs : as 7) 770X15 (TTOA. viper . -tv-. 1 : M<!sculin<'. the defective 6$ tcorrf . night. 6. o-raywi/ (o-rayov-). weevil. 7} vv (WKT-). Sov- : as pis (plv-\ ncse. Ki*p(3is) . KV/J/&IS. are 01 or at sei-peitt . . -T7/T- : ns I/us (t/> ^-)> l s^l/*. drop. ether. Median garment. 3. KO/JVS (KopvO-). Inc-tabhs (but sing. . Gender of Palatal Stems. 7} irf \fKvs. 7) Sai's (8air-). shame. age. ftorfy. TM ///. : 273. -yoK-. 7} TTCUS. 274. dough. 5 : 6 TTOVJ (7To8-). child . ix^vs. KernyAi^ (caT7?Ai</>-). 270 ** /or tlie hands. helm. 7) x^/115 (x a P lT~)> favor> T ^ f**^ (fJ f ^. 17 jackal. opx^. a /SoT/us. speed.

ncc. ace. 'OAi'^Trta. change of formation). names. 'AOvjvat. 281. List of Important Irregular Nouns. 19. /ieAe (vocative). only in inscriptions). sickle . Jeans. and voc. Mi^VOV 'l(i. Atovvs 'lavvrjs. 6 xp^s> 0aA-/}s. declensions.?. lamb (the noiri. ^piicrds. M^va. fire.. 'laxr-r^. 1} dpyjv. eyxaTa. dpv-i. &IQVVV . T6 ovap. memory . . nor are forms already mentioned under the declensions. forms belonging the nominative singular can be formed to the other stem are called metaplastic (/AtTaTrAao-^os.. <>. rav or Tav (vocative). passover. not given. See in 283 TO vwrov. many '/ ' 2. dat. dat. )] Thus TO See also Trrp o.vvijv . : 278. Speiravov. Some words have double forms for the 280. o o-Ta$yu. and are declined according to two different stems which generally belong to different. irvpd of the second declension. dat. and voc-. but may be declined in some or in all cases according to different stems . Adam. 'ASa/x. T& crraSiov. TO. Double Forms. but TO. rb t'yov. as 6 O-ITOS. gen. Sci'Spos. (TTU/J-). ?} X 6 3 O TttJ)S. . Thus 17 Stya and TO thirst . 17 Spedvrj and TO Sltf/OS. KOtVWVOS. 6 Seer/id?. have only one number as /iviy/u. trade-winds . Bacchus. the dative adds t MTJV^. 6 Au^i/os. corn. . gen. OlBi-rrovs. (from Aiovikros). Olympic games . 'lavvij. . A names whose stem ends in a long vowel. rb O-KOTOS (G-KOTCO--) See also o o-^s. Indeclinable nouns have only one form for all cases and numbers.. from their meaning. Aoyos. ol eTT/o-tai.. regularly declined like like TO yevos. as 6 O-KOTO? (O-KOTO-). TO. gold . as aA$a. voc. ace. gen. peculiar declension exists for a few shortened or foreign proper The nominative adds s the . 6 OVClpOS. O VtOS. as TO Trc-ur^a. 5. 'I-^crov. sing. Atovu. Xpews. entrails . See /zaA^s (genitive). TO SevSpov and TO tree ami others. This list contains such Double forms are cases of irregular declension as occur in Attic. TO. Thus : subscript if the stem-vowel admits of it. 1. dpv-os.os. 282. nominative singular. dat. Atliens. gen. Such are the letters of the alphabet. Jannes. voc. TO 6'^eAos. 'lavvy. M^/fas (from M^voSwpos) in Thuc. Defective nouns lack certain cases. ftyjra the certain foreign words and cardinal numbers from TTCVTC to C'KCITOV : . but sometimes it is neuter. 'I^croiis. 283. Heteroelites are nouns which have one form for the nominative singular. a-tra. 1. If from only one of the two stems. accusative v . 'I^o-ovv. and is declined 279. Metaplasties.283 THIRD DECLENSION 77 IKREGULAR DECLENSION in different 277. Joseph.. darkness. Heterogeneous nouns are those which are of different genders numbers . TO Some. ace. rb vn-ap.

17. 16. "A/xi. plural oftener TO. o?. 8. rarely singular. apv-es. also gen. Xo-i'. 2. fj-dp-rv-vi. pi. KVV-WV. 13. 14. oWois o/ivis. . gen. ace. /ueXe. fitXe. yvvcui. Zr}v-a. regular. 18. 7. voc. dpv-wv. TO ydvv. dat. Oi5t7ro6tti'. etc. but indeclinable in the expression also TO 1 2. .oi'tipar-os. > or In Tragedy 22. witness. 21. OtSiVovs or Ot'Swrov. (189). 0aX?^T-a. 11. KVV-OS. ace.) only in vrrb /zdX?/?. & . sing. Secr/za rb 8o/jv. ace. lamp. also yeXwi/ in poetry.. y WCUK-CS. Oi'oYjro&i or OtStVovi'. Xaa-v or \a-v . reg. poetic . fjjd\tjs (gen. T. yvvaiK-os. . KVV-O. stone (contracted Xa-os or Xdov.T-<av. TO VWTOV. 4. y vvaiK-wv. 7. later also 0fp. apv-as. only nom. TO fuyoi'. tj 283 a/xvos. Kparaf. ace. faci. apv-a. KOIVWVOS.. dream. yvvcu-Kt. puprvp-os. . KV-O-I. opvf<av. justice. ovfipa. Ot'SiVoSos or OI^ITTOV. 24. Also poetic forms 6/>vrs. ovfipar-a. and ace. . T) . ovtipar. KW-OS. ace. Ai-os. Zrjv-i. KVV-C.73 THIRD DECLENSION For the nom. OifiiVoSt 20. Xat(o-)(ri. OoXew OaXou and 0aX7^r-os. poetic word for Xi'#os gen. dual Xa-e pL Xawv. . Xaas). 28. 5. Sopo-s. yeXwT-os. dat Kpdrl and Kap^t . TO >ca/)d. dat from Horn. 6 Xvx^os. the other cases from stem KVV- . CA/XO--). opvts. OiSiTrdSd. Poetic gen. of the second declension. eyes. and ace. "A/xs. 6. rot vyd . OtfiwrdSd. GaX^v. poetic word nom. Oi'SiVovs. y waiK-as. pi.i<i. 9. yvvatK- oiv . pi. o/jveis or . 77 &nee. laughter. 6. 7. see 235 and 909. but dat. KiW. 0/ii8-os. Ai-^ Ai-a. Kpara gen. my dear sir or madam. pi. spear. etc. 6 oW/ids. etc. Poetic also Zy. 6 Xas. 6. opvlv. dat. 6. 17 0aXy. Ares. . Zetw. 19. 23. 6 yeXcos. . ovctpar-t dream. voc. partaker. ovtipov. KOIVOWW. ydvaT-os. but also Kotvtuves and icoivoWs in Xenophon. 6. masc. dpv-d<ri. yi'vai . *A/>ews (poet "A/xos). secretly. KOIVWVOV. weipa-a-i o oi/etpos. *A/D7/ etc. oo-vtav. yvi'fy tcife. rarely 6 vwros. KVOV . plural Ta \v\ya. 3. 10. TCI vwra sing. sing. yvveu/c-e. icvv-t. yoVaT-i. o/3vei9. "A/Dj/s or "Aprjv. fidprvs. Oediptts. etc. only in the vocative. than 01 8r/ioi. etc. TO : oi'a/). ace. Sopar-os. under the arm. o ^vyos. Zers (from Ayevs). 0aX^T-i. T7wtk. Aa^. the rest from the stem .v-os. do^. Zcu.. 8op-i and Bopfi. 15. Ot3tV^). yoi. /ftter. ywauc-a. GaX^s (from 6aXed?). or oWouri. TW oWe. bird. Sopar-i. voc. etc. o.

only l/ - nom. . Trpea-fteis. TO irvp. 6 pea. 26. TO o</>Aos. peacock. corn. son. ambassador. IIvuK-t. Attic TaJis. Also IHUS (stem vtv-. t'teo?. etc. and ace. IIuKV-a also IIvvK-os. advantage. and >} '/ * 39. ) XP~ a > For dialectic forms of some of the above. pi. also vos. pi. Trpfa-fBeis. pi. these forms also without i. o (TTa. etc. 6 <rfj-(ri. In the plural plural irpeo-peLS is from irpe(T/3v s (properly adj. oZd man. o O-ITOS. iiieo't. 79 ov>s is contracted from a form ovas (Horn.Ofj. poetic in the singular. appearance (opposed to ovap. x*v>-os. poetic (and Ionic) x/30 -^ XP~*> a dative x/3 ^ occurs in the expression ev x/><?. cre-wv. ^ n poetry forms from X 61 3 hand. Ta o-iTa. watch-fires. real 38.. dual viee (but viei is correct). THIRD DECLENSION WT-OS. ear. generally of the third declension. o-c-es (later CT^T-CS). ace. gen. cr-a9 (later o-^T-as). old man. Other forms belong to poetry and to Homer. awaking ace.(Senna's. TO ot>s. only i) nom. only in inscriptions). near. sing. TU<W of a giant (also TU<WJ/). > ' 1/ / / '* / ' .6s. of the first declension. name whirlwind. . sing. Tav or TaV.oi or Ta (TTadfj.). race-course. 32. 28. ace. 35. in the TO vTrap. fire. state. 6 irpe(rf3vTr)$. but -^epoiv. dream). TO. dose to the skin. or 34. etc. COT-I. veos. ot (TTa. There are several endings which are added to the stems of to denote relations of place. wets. o-c-os (later O-^T-OS). arr-wv.. . vieoiv pi. TO o-Ta8tov. X fi p- r 40. is used in prose and poetry in all numbers. . > the form TO XP* 0<5 (XP ee<T ~) ^ s dialectic and poetic. as vvs. the nom. t. Ilvv/ca. stade. 6 vios. X P~ X fP~ ^ n a ^ cases as X 6 3 '^ X 6 3" 4 X l >0 X e ^P' e ( (r ) ar '" TO x/3 ^?. 37. see 909. pi. X/OWT-OS. dat. 6 X/3 ^ 5 skin.Op. my rfear sir. . 33. rfi. voc. wewv. The . viov. sing. ambassador. pi. XP*" an(^ XP f ^ v . UVKV-OS. alike pi. irvp-6<s. . nom. LOCAL ENDINGS some nouns and pronouns 284. iui without vtets . moth. 30. 31. 41. IT Pnyx. nvv.a. . ve?. of the Attic second declension 6 but also dat. Ta&ari. .. i oftener Trptv/Seo-L. sing. station. pi. irpf(r/3e(av. etc. ovar-os). 6 Taws. only in the vocative w Tav w Tav (also written <5 Vat/ and <5 Tav). Trpa-/3vv. 29.284 25. irvpois. 36. irvp-l o-r/s. etc. TJ5<^)0)s. of the gen.. with ace. dat. gen. ot o-rdSioi or Ta o-TaSia. Trvp-d. vov. TO. Trpecr/3v first declension. and IIvKi/-6. of the Attic second declension. of the second declension. 7r/36cr/?ws.&VI. w-trt . WT-U. 27.

friendly e%0p6<>.80 1. at 1. oiKo-Otv. <iAuov (not ^>tAi<m'). from elsewhere. -dcri and -770-1. ADJECTIVES -0i '28* denoting where. 3. as OIKOI at home . wise. e^dpov. hostile. the fjates. 1. home. Bvpda-t. denoting whither. oyooov. The ancient is The oldest Attic had datives in -4>i(v). <fuXi <}>(Xiov . 288. 0780?. But adjectives in -009 have -or) in the feminine. A preceding as "A07yvde (for 'A^r/vcwr-Se). pi^o-dtv. with the ending -i in the singular and -o-i found in a few words commonly classed as adverbs. as aAAo-o-t. 4.' cro<J>dv cror|>6v <|>(Xiov <j>i\iov Voc. 'A0rjvr)<ri. at the Isthmus . </>i'Aiat (not </)iAiat). -o-e denoting whither. toward Mcyara. locative case. The nominative singular ends if -o? is . fern. . -Otv denoting whence. crmcded. 'Icrdp-ol. Gen. at Atlwns . except those in -poos. the feminine follows the 2. feminine ends in -d <f>t\id. from the root (/$i'a). Nom. . with o irregularly for d of the stem. as o- Myapa-&. Accent. preceded by a vowel or p as (f>i\iov. as aAAo-0ev. irdvro-o-f. follow the accent of the masculine. joined with -8e Eleusis. For the Epic case-ending see 914. elsewhere. but dpOpoos. -8f (enclitic). as a\\o-0i. -77 or -d. -ov. is added to the accusative to . forms -c (32) 285. apdpoov. . Dat. first. Declension of ero^os. friendly. The <j>i\io<. Thus </>i'Au>s. ADJECTIVES FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS ADJECTIVES OF THREE ENDINGS 286. The nominative and genitive plural of the feminine 287. <fri\ia but . from the very spot. 2. from aiTo-far. in another direction . The masculine and neuter follow the second declension. Ace. o-ocf>6s a-ofyt] <ro$6v cro({>oC <ro4><>> <{>iXios |>iX(a <{>iXids cjnXiov <)>iX(ov 4>L\i. %0pd. in every direction (with o inserted after the stem). Sixo. This is by far the most numerous class. 2. which have -pod as 078009. to Athens. tipdpcd. in the plural... (OIKO-I). in -09. 'Ehtwivd-Se. ciyhth. and <i'\to9.'uj <ro^)oj o-o<|)(j> cro(|>"p <}>iX(ov <|>iXtu> (ro <Hi <ro4>i|v cro(|>V] <}>iX^ <|>iX{dv <)>iXid <rc>4>ov croi|>.

D. G. <ro4>u 4>iXid . A. V. N.294 ADJECTIVES <ro<|>w o-ocjxi 81 4>iX(o> DUAL.

Dat. G. Dat. Ace. V. N. V. N.n- N. A. Ace. Gen. D. Gen. . V.

with the same irregularity of accent (207). like masc. The neuter plural eWAeoj for e/cTrAca occurs a few times. (evi/oov) etVow. sailing well . (Bpoos) & n(i -/^vov? are declined like evvoos. (\6os) x^?5 (vdos) vovs. aXo-ycr. G. V. neut. perhaps. (euvdov) cuVov.. They follow the second declension throughout. and -ov for the neuter. plural ends in -a. (evvoov) cvvovv (etVdw) evvw. Similarly. Dat. . well-disposed. and tAews. thus: masc. V.fj. (TrAdos) TrAovs. ocKa. (evvooiv) evvoiv (euvoot) ctVot. and fern. (ewoos) ewovs.and is. iXcuv 'i'Xcws Voc. . The neuter irrational. 298. and fern. . dXfyoiv iX<pv PLURAL N. (evi'dovs) evvovs . evvovs. (T5vdw) ei-vo). evTrAovs. gracious. 297. (U'TtTrvovs. A. ADJECTIVES OP Two ENDINGS : 296. (evvdois) ciVois. plur. etc.. few adjectives are of the Attic second declension and end They follow the declension of vews. dXo-ya iXcw iXta Dat Ace. Compounds of s. (evj/owv) euvwv. Many adjectives in -os have only two endings -os for the masculine and feminine. 4X0^05 &Xo-yov t'Xcws ifXcoi iXewv oiXd^yov dXd-yw AXo-yov aXo-ye 'i'Xcu Ace. speaking another tongue minae. (aTrXooi) dirXoi (ct7rX6cu) dirXai (airX6a) (a. Nom. and ace. nom. Dat. Gen. iiolding half a \ous . in -u>s A and -wv.Tr\6ois) dirXd (oTrXiwc) (air\6ois) dirXwv dirXois (cbrXowv) (air\6a. V. dXo-yov t'Xtwv N. NOTE. .is) dirXwv enrXais dirXwv dirXois (air\6ovs) dirXovs (dirX6dj) dirXds (ct7rX6a) dirXd 295. Gen. u-orth ten dAAd^/aovs. aXo-yous aXo-ya. blowing against . Gen.299 ADJECTIVES 83 N. Ace. D. (TJTOOS) TTVOUS.vovs. ?y^i'xovs. VXeios iXea 299. evvoa uncontracted. incorrect.TT\6uv) (a. Declension of aAoyos. .

-a. and those in Trapo/zoios. . Sidfopov. ITAtws. : . num. yeve$Aios. Tra/ja^-oTa/iios. sing.ovap^-iKo<i t -vy. volunteer. /xa^i/zos. adjectives belonging wholly to the third declension masculine and feminine. ace. '&AovTo?. and fern. adjectives have two endings : Aot'Sopos. . has a feminine form in d jrAttos. num. -of . o-wv. and taffj is declined thus The original a feminine nom. Compound ->/. . 304. 302. ]i<u. and -i/xos seldom have a special feminine form : Amypios. ycvvdbov. irapOevfios. NOTE. Of two endings most compound adjectives as aAoyos. : 303. (a) ftdpftapoSy The following simple ijfjLtpos. e'aipTos. (6) Some in -tos and -tos . as yewaSds. TJO-I'XOS. acceptable. from o-vi'TcAiys . pi. eKiyAos. o-wof supplies tlie missing forms of o-w. needy. are Of three endings are most simple adjectives. o-cu*. few adjectives of the THIRD DECLENSION ADJECTIVES OF 306. Contraction. and some others. era. 5).84 ADJECTIVES : 300 300. as irapa- Also aTatos. Contraction follows the general rules (47 and is contracted to -Z after e as cv&jys. -TrAao-ios. fjuovap\os. -of. as SiTrAao-ios. TrAeu. also occurs. rarely occurs. filled up. verbals in -TOS when they ->y. and -e<? for the neuter or -tav for the masculine and feminine and -ov (stems in -eo--) for the neuter (steins in -ov-). <rws. 307. dAoyov Sidfapos. The regular Attic crwos. AaAos. neut <ra form o-u-os is seen in the comparative o-autTfpos. -tStos. . -a. -a. -n/pto?. vvKTt/x>s. 48. 301. avaTrAtwv. /iov<retos. full. <no<i. -ry. . from from (6) (TVVTC A-tKos. -a. K ij38r) Aos. as aidpios. . In adjectives in -r/s. neut. OS. -v/. -of. A number of adjectives may be declined indifferently with two or with three endings. . -ov . -oi'. noble. fj. and f. e-n/Tiyios. (a) Compounds ti>8aifjuav The following compounds have three endings in -ucos derived from compounds as erSai/jiov-iKos. NOTE. masc. NOTE. -a. different. especially in poetry. -ov. Two ENDINGS Most have -/<? for the . TrAetov and ara?Acu from dYairAewj (m. . Those in nyz</>t'(Btos. //ia< ca?i be express possibility taken aut. -ov . -ov . (c) -oi'. gen. ADJECTIVES OF ONE ENDING 305.). A -or) first declension ending in -as or -?/s occur only as masculines. eriyto?. -ov.

healthy. Acc. ace. (tvSeea) evSfS. rpLtjp-r]^ triply-fitted. and evSaifjiwv. comely. -IJ/>T)S. see 351 353. V (&\r. A. One adjective ends in -r/v and -ev : apprjv. plural rpit]poi. have recessive accent except those in mind . vavs). ej'tATriSos. gen. gen. evxa/HTO?. Voc. Adjectives compounded of nouns and some prefix usually follow the declension of the noun as er-eAms. -ov <f>pr) v. cases. except compounds . ace. The (compare 255. (ev<f>va) ei'<va or ev^vrj (48. dual and "AArjfles. 1. Gen. 310. er-eATri. apa-ev). accusative plural in -eis conforms irregularly to the nominative plural For special peculiarities in the declension of comparatives 2). of warlike mind. as vyi?ys. . full). hopeful. fve\7riv (226. see 351 311. gen. Dat. -es are oxytone (except Compound paroxytones in ->/s have tinas </uAaAT/#?. 308. NOTE. male.v and r/Dtr/pcov. .\t\6r\ cvSa(|xovas v8aijxova For the declension 353. ace. -wAT/s. ace. -ea contracts to d or 77 . of comparatives in -wv (stem -ov-). 3).^A') dXtjOovs c. appev (older apa-rjv.<Jvoiv PLURAL N. (sc. u-\pi5. adjective / Tpn'jp'rjs . N. a\T]0tis (dXTj^ej) dXriOtis (&\ij6tuv) (dXrj^ea) i\T]0ij v8a(xovS v8a(iova aXi\9u>v oXfiO^ori tv8ai|i<5vwv tv8aip.ovos Acc.s. I':it. trireme. v-\upi. eveATri . in all Simple adjectives in -r/s. ace. appev-os. 1. 5). (vyiea) vyia or vyirj.^^os) (d\7. TrA^/pes.\T]0et cvSa(|i. is proparoxytone. recessive accent s.512 ADJECTIVES 85 after t or i>. This rule applies also to nouns. Adjectives in compounds of The 309. 312.oo-L (a\r)6ta) a. -wv. in -a>8r)s. -(f>p<i>v. -ov. also in contract forms . Gen. G. as a noun. true. 2. ^lAaA^wv. as Satypuv.6te) (dXriOtoiv) oXi^ci aXiiOotv v8a|xovt v8aiji. truth-loving. used has the recessive accent in the gen. Accent. graceful. ev<inys. licuppy. in -wv. TrXrjprjs. indeed ! from aAr/^r/s. Satypov. Declension of aXr/Bijs. D. V. (dX. <rwe.

Many end in an unchanged noun. unktioim. 'ApyoAt?. except that the neuter plural is contracted 313. aKa/iuir-os . hoof. 2. as a-n-oAis. having one tooth. A number occasionally found as neuter. rj/udijp } axev-os . iieidy <uyas. tvwmo'-os. The masculine dual forms may be used for the feminine. SiTroSos. vtoKpar-of Tpifttav. The following . blessed. tTnJAi-S-o? rpifitov-os >}Ai. 180). Compounds gen. age. and atrrv (256. ' Compounds of in}x i s 6i-iros. are inflected like the masculine oY-jn/xi ^ Tti Bi-injx vt f 1 > M V and : neuter of yAi'/cis (317). The masculine and neuter of these adjectives follow the The feminine follows the first declension and has -a in the nominative singular (like d\ij0eia or y\&crcra. have only -is for the masculine and feminine or for the feminine only. untiring. fv-fiorpvs. /xaKup-o$ . has the neuter. The masculine and neuter are oxytone. feminines in /ta>rvx-os . gen. gen. uK-a/xus-. fatherless. /ia*ap. gen. without a as d. i'ip. 1 of TroAis liave the genitive -iSos . -v-.86 ev\afnv (226.idi]p-os UTTTTIJI'. the feminine being like the masculine. cubits. as d-Trdrop. Compounds of TTOI'S have the neuter in -TTOVV . many gen.roAi8os. with one -ts. . fJMV-oSov. half-beast. Argolis. fJ. eityt -fu/TU>/j. Argolic woman. apTra. stranger.ends The masculine and neuter are declined like jrirxy? in -os (not -OK). and the feminine . .vu>\f/. vxf>t . <uyaS-os : . 1). of the ayvws. although the oblique cases are 314. Very few simple adjectives end in -ts and -i. aTraropos. . -oSovs. unwinged. like which they are inflected . 3). fj-ovoSovros. are examples of their forms veofcpas. gen. . mixed. aTrrv/j'-os poor. a-7rcu8-o?. rapacious. 316. -1805. . short-sighted. either to their meaning or to their form. Steins in in -vt. gen. owing ending. FIRST 315. -v. fugitive. XOTK. . same TjAiK-os . -eta. aa o-Trais. 7rev?/T-o? ax r? v> nee dy. . two feet long. e 313 Compounds and Top. well-fed. Of The others these only iyx><is. except that the genitive siugular ends and the neuter plural remains uncontracted. a/)7ray-os fitavv. 1. AND THIRD DECLENSIONS third declension. a-jroAi. a-Trurop. ADJECTIVES OP ONE ENDING of adjectives of the third declension have only one These have no neuter. cv-ftorpv. rp6<f>t. -firjrop of 7raT}/> and ^rrjp change these words to -irar<ap. childless. The nominative of stems in -v. ADJECTIVES rich in grapes. as evwn-is. 2. dyi/wr-os CITY)\IS. T/ao^)tos. /AUWTT-OS . fair-faced. gen. skilled. TTCVJJ?. Si-Trow. -tos.

(compare TTTJ^D?.v x a P^ V irdvTa iraaav irav Voc. -VT-. Dat. (-yXwrfey) yXvKtis -y^vKeiai ^XvK^a yXwc'iuv -yX^Keo-i. Gen.was formed by adding -id. There is one stem in -avr.to the masculine stem in in -eia. participles in -on/ (329. NOTE. 7n?X u" The feminine stem original -yd. eicovo-a.32tt ADJECTIVES Except T//UO-U?. 3. yAi'/ce-i/a. and $}Avs. irav. Declension of SINGULAR N"om. and CLKWV (from aetcwv). yAv/ceta. y^VK/wv yXuKeVi -yXvKcis -yXvimwv yXuKtiaus Y^. D. both declined like 320. graceful. half. Acc. 319. G. i^iVaa. Dat. x a P '"s x a P^ VTO5 l xaP ' l CTCra xapLc'acrT]s x a P^ tVTl x a p'* VTa XaP l^ o oTl ' x a P'. t. SINGULAR N 'in. 317. and Tra?. a/eov<ra. Gen.ptt<r<ra. Gen. eicov. N. unwilling. The stem GKOVT- eicwv. Q^Xv. Stems in The masculine -evr- form the nominative proparoxytono.for -ev.. axov. . paroxytone the neuter the feminine is accents the same syllable as the masculine -ev. 2. Tracra. Thus yAv/cv-. is . V.VK ^S y^ VK ^a 318. V. yXvKef-ya. Stems in -ecrcra. 87 rf/ua-v. willing. (y\VK&) ^Xvicel -yXvicvv yXvKii'a YXvKtiav Voc. in -et?. Declension of %apiei<. properispomenon.or -ef. stem ''"^X 6 ^'? 'MJX*'S 108 and 260).V \apuvTos x a P^<VTl >tr LS ndaa ird(Ti]S irdor^j irdv iravrds iravT^ iravTos iravrf \a. Acc. A. yAvK-ia. sweet. 1). all. Dat.which forms forms 7ra<?.. . ^XVKHV PLURAL N. Acc. all. <y\vfcv<. female. I.

1. xaP l^VTWV x ap' <r(rai x a P l*"<r '' v x a P^ VTa xa P ^VTWV t irvrcs irdvrwv ird<ri iro-ai irdxroiv irvra irdvrwv irdcri ird<rais x a P' VTa irdvras irdo-ds irdvra (40) 1. see 217 (c). For the accent of irdvrtav -7/eis and TTOCTI. reprjv. and repeiva. raXaiva. V. Ace. vowels. contracts to rt/x^s. but in the compounds it is sometimes short. For apprjv. 2). 321 \aplvrt jrdvrc ird<rd ird<raiv irdvrc xa P v^<ro aiv " xaP^VTOlv PLURAL irdvroiv N. A. gen. valuable. /jteA-troCv. Gen. /xeXirdeis. p^Xavi Tt'ptVl fUXava (UXav fitXaiva pt'Xav Voc. marf o/ honey.88 ADJECTIVES DUAL N. Aegirussa (a city). NOTE. Ai'ytpoiWa. Only ivretclied /ie\a<?. 322. (84). See 48. ^Xaiva. 3. see black. and Travr. \a. Adjectives in Tf/ivjvTos. |uXdvoiv p^Xalvd fitXaivaiv fit'Xav* Ttpcivd rcptvoiv (xcXdvoiv rcpcivaiv . ' airav. Elaeussa (an But TO <fuavt]tvTa. CKWV (CKOVT-) forms its nominative singular masculine like a participle. remains uncontracted. /ieAtroev. 324. in -oeis and -oe<r(ra) Similarly names of localities (originally adjectives as 'A/tatfous. /icAiToiWos. \apltvrt G. Declension of /uAa?. /xeAiTowro-a. \. -ov- and -tv-. ^4ma^MS island). . as . Tt/^7/<r<r/s. rfp'/vTos /xeAirofo-o-a. rtpeiva DUAL N. appev. 323. Tlfj-ija-cra. the dative plural xa/atWt is also from this stem. pe'Xav Tt'peiva Tt'pevos fit'Xavi Gen. D. Tip. Tt(ju')e<r<ra. repev. Tt/xrjtis.pieT-<Ti XapitT-ya (96. Long a in irav is irregular . 1) The feminine Trcura is for iravr-ya (96. pt'Xavos Dat Ace. 2. raXav. A. The forms \ aP^evt **&*> an(i 7r 1 are f r X a/H' l/TJ *fovr-. (a city) . |UXav G. 'EAeuof-cro-a. yiitXiTovi'Tos.T]cv.by adding -ya. The forms xap'f'S and 7ras are for \api-f VT-<S and Travr-s 321. -deis are contracted in Attic.(109). Thus geu. Dat. becomes /xcAirous. black . tender. SINGULAR Nora. 'A^/a^oui'Tos. Stems in raXa?. rlp-rjv. . tender. The feminine \apU<r<ra is formed from a stem xa/oier. and . fieXi- TOWTOTT/S. D. 311. V. and repijv.

326 ADJECTIVES 89 .

with iota subscript. except aorist passive participles. and the antepenult of All other participles of this form are oxytone in the the feminine. present. 331. -ov. being . future. -ov: of verbs of the ciples 1. -rj. stem irpdo. which is paroxytone . -ov. -o>. ADJECTIVES 327 the stem iroAAo- The vocative p. -VT-. and second-aorist parti- common form : of inflection (607). -Go-a.n>. -r\. \v6/j. irpq.is peri- spomenon. cucrvs (otiKwvr-). masculine. which differ in accent from those from written irpyos. irpdv-. uv (OVT-). and for the while the stem irpdv. nominative singular.90 327. p. Zo-ras loosing. -ds. active present -euro. passive participles. shewing. Accent Participles in -os. ->/. irpj/is. : -ws. Declension of \wav (\vovr-). -<ts. The genitive plural of feminines from masculine stems in -vr. ciples. Participles with stems in -VT-. -do-a. Active present. StSous (Stoovr-). -rj.evov XeXu- 329. TryxUis for irpdavs occurs late.i- 2. -oiva. NOTE. the they are accented like <t'Au>s. with the two aorists passive. in all other respects Of participles with stems in -IT-. /*t- common form . \vofjLevrj. 256. (urravr-). etc. m/x^'and yAvKi's. have recessive accent. except the perfect middle. end in .. All other participles. and neuter. In Ionic In Trpaos the found declined throughout TroAAos. -utd. also irpaa for irpdea. have stems in is a list of their nominative forms : The following -wv.(compare genitive and accusative plural masculine is used for all other forms and 260) OOTV. -6v. Active aorist of the form. -av : and second-aorist of the 4. and the Ionic has except the accusative plural. irp^ov. and are declined like <70<o<? as \v6fjxvo^. all aorist 5. -ois.form. -ov Active present and second-aorist of the form of inflection (609). -fv : Active present and second-aorist of the Active present and second-aorist of the pi- form .tyd\t occurs in Aesch. 330. -ov.is used for the masculine and neuter singular and dual. and first-aorist of the common form accent the penult of the nominative singular. giving. 317. 6. -os : Active perfect participles. is : . The forms from irpdo-. Sept. futttrr. are usually PARTICIPLES 328. -ouo-o. irpiji' . Pindar has Trpdis. setting. and properispomena in the feminine. . All middle and passive parti-09. 822. -iV pt. 3. irpdr. Participles in <.

331 ADJECTIVES 91 Bi8(a/j. Ace. Dat. SeiKvvp.1. Mmy/u. and first-aorist passive participles of (present active participles of XVM. (Awavr-). having been loosed (first-aorist active. having loosed. ci/it) . and (Av#VT-). N. Gen. AeAi'Kois (AeAvKor-). V. . having loosed.i. first-perfect active.

v. 2 aor. XcXvKoVa part. pass.niAi. Ace. Dilt Ace. SetKi'i'VT-i/a (see 96.see 224 : The feminine stems iu -owrd-. part. Gen. of Avw) and 332. The perfect in -ws (with stem to-ravT-ya. Like 8i8ois is declined &>vs (act. For the formation of the cases of the in -or-) has the feminine -via. Participles in -A. Dat. and 2 aor. D. pres. Dat.a-as XcXvKoVuv XtXvKocri XtXuKVUOV ocri 8vra XcXvKoVas (act. : and <^iAcu>i'. G. were formed by adding -ya to the stem in -ewrd-. 6v are contracted. V. Like -f-o-d- fctKi'v? is declined Sis (2 aor. A. Ace. part.92 ADJECTIVES DUAL 332 N. Xv&vrfs XvSc'vrwv Xv9io-ai Xv6ewr<uv XvOt'vTa 8<IKVVVTS SflKVVVTtOV SeiKvOcra'. -<w. SciKvwrt SCIKVVVTOIV SciKv^o~aiv 8IKVVVT SCIKVVVTOIV N.uicrav Tifiwvrt Ttpivra . ii era TipMVTOt Ti)M*VTi (rlftAovri) Tip. Gen. of Si'Sw/ni). A. </>iAb>f. Gen./*i). masculine and neater. 333. NOTE. 6vn ov'crav XeXvKv^ds XXuKX)la XeXv'Ko-ros XeXvKoros XeXxjKos 4vra Svri XcXvK^ra XcXvKviav DUAL N. Like Av^et's are declined TI&I'? and ^i's (act. act. Like Awrds and to-ra? is declined o-ras (act. XvVT Xu0tiVd Xv6(o-aiv XV&VTC XvO^vroiv ri. &v 6vros VTI cicra 6'v XcXvKws XtXvKOTOS XtXvKori 6VTOS Dat Ace. of ACITTW). part of <euVw). of t<m. fut. 6vrt XcXvKoVc XcXvKoVoiv XcXvKvCd XcXvKvCaiv XfXuxoVf XcXvicoVoiv ovcraiv OVTOLV PLURAL N. 232. G. and -VT- 334 honouring. V. Like \\xav are declined AJnowv (act. Gen. -do-a-. D. y. VT VTOIV oi crd . vm oVrwv OVKTl oio-ai 6vra 6vriav XcXvKoVcs XeXvKvtai XcXvKdVa XtXvKOTOJV ovo-wv ovtrais oi. 2 aor. part. /SovAcvorr-ya. of &VM). 2 aor. V. \. (rt^idorrt) rip. part. loving. \. Ti^fT-ya. participles of riOr^m). are declined thus N. 2). and <am's (2 aor. SUKVVVTCI SIKVVO-WV St^KVCcrais SCIKVVVTUV 8tiKvCo-l X6io-i XvO^vras Xv0o-ais XvOcferds SlKVVO*l XvO^vro SciKvvvras StiKvvvra SINGULAR N. .

u>VTOiv (rlfj-aovroif) Ti(iwVTOiV (rt/uaowaii') PLURAL X. D.dovTa') TtjicovTa . V. G.) Tijiwvra TijicivTcsv " ' \ Tijwavrwv "** Ttjxwvras TIJIWO-WV - ' \ "' (Tina6vTdiv) /-' \ ~* Acc. (rifjidovTe) Ti(xo>VT (rf/moi. Gen.u><rai (rlfjidovTa.336 ADJECTIVES DUAL 93 N. A.a6vrwv) f Ti|AwvTts (nyudowrcu) (Ttyuaowwj') / Ttp. (rt/xdoi'Tas) (ri^aoiycrcis) Ti(jiw<rds (rlfi. V. T^Q f (rtyudovres) (Ttfj.<rd) Ti[uocrd Tl(xii(raiv (rifudoi're) (n/oia.oj'ToiJ') Ti|xwvre Tip.

V. unlumored. 339.to -o>. -t/io. (rulings -tos. and makes 341.before -repos and -retro?. poor. \C1TTO-T tpO<> a-ffivo-Ttpos -a. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES COMPARISON BY -repot. <if/f(/. irpoOvfios. G. see 288.remains if the penult is long by nature or position. //. duaTfpos U^IWTUTOS t . bitter (veo-). courage. liijht AtTTTOS (AtJTTO-). dp^iK<aTaro<i ftdvutost war- /ia^t/XWT/K)S. These -//!)<. but -o. . The majority of adjectives form the comparative by adding -repot (stem -repo-) to the masculine stem. KCI/OTUTOS. (TTCl'OTttTOS. -or KOI></> >-Taros. hence aio. often have Kefure/x>s. empty. 340. fJM\lfJLWraTO<i. and always after a mute and a liquid. D. IIvr. a-\o\aiTpo<i . eager. danger . and the superlative by adding -rarot (stem -rare-). dp^iK<aTtpo<i. . honor.. Adjectives in -09 with a short penult lengthen -o. o-^oAtttT and rarely <rxoAaioT/>o. NOTE. -?. TraAttiTaros or TraAaioraTos. : -aAato.5 (jrer^T-). hence ari/ios. A. Kof^o? (KOI-</>O-). and KiVSvi/os. The penult is long in compounds of rip/. 80). trtt (jj. in -uios y(paiT(fto<i drop o of the stem and rarely y<pau>re/M>. capable of yoi-erniuy. leisurely. and o-rtvos. 7rp (adv ).4 ADJECTIVES DfAI. and OT<fOT/X>S. irpoBvp. (iriKivSvvortpos. JlM awjust Kovtfw-rcpos.uTaTO'i ITie penult is short in the tTriKivSi'voraTos. -tros ap^i/co. loorthy. ytpuiTaros. Trertr-TttTos. aTi/iOTe/>o. beyond. of the stem ircvr-Te/io.. irtxpo-Ttpos new t/n'*e VW-T^OS <ro< I-CW-TUTOS o? o"o<>o- r-). -raro? 337. 337 N. TraAatVt/xjs or 7raAaw)T</x>s. -ov A7TTO-TaTOS tre/ii'(>-TaTOS inpo-). 338. shortens the >. narroio. further. aTt/ioTaros danyerout. Trcrecr-TaTo? (f<r Trtrcr-Tt/ws. crt/xi'o? ((rc/xro-). irtpairtpos. 4<rrwT 4<rTti<rd ICTWTI <TTWTOIV ioTwroiv iorwcraiv .(\av-). o-^oAaio?. -IKOS. . IVUC/VOTW& irpo6vfU)Tfpo<i. and rarely o'xoAatoTaro?. mind. like. K 1-05. black /xe Aai'-Tpos For the declension.

-ea-Ttpos 346. A few adjectives in -f<? and -^09 form the comparative by dropping these endings and adding -Z&>z> and -to-ro? to the 7*00^. . ^apiecrTaTo<s 2). cx/DTrayio-re/Dos. and do-//vatTaTa and . OM7?i middle. ivell-disposed. /cAeTTTicrTaTos.TO's (a neuter of the positive. also have this form of comparison . . In prose only these adjectives are thus compared : rjSv<s. sweet swift base hostile t'jSlwv. Attic TT^WOS. 18109.l(T\ttav. AaA-io-re/oos. occurs rarely in Comedy). from envy (oftener dffrdovwTepos and d<$ova>TaTos) CTriVeSos. irpovpyov advantageous. epptafj-evos. . u/aTrayio-Taros. Bdcra-wv (for 6d\-y(DV. TrXryo-iai(adv. gen. . add -ecrre/Dos and -fo-Taros to the o"w<^/oot'-eo'Tpos. ?ySio-Tos 's. </'/. (adv. has ype/aa (adv. /cAen-tcrre/jos. quiet eqiial } . TrapaTrAvyo-ios. l>VOrTa. early o^tos. 2) . terror 350. calumnious. 95 and -cura-ros : Mros. guiei. wear. a. AaA-to-raros /iovo</>ayos. lias r}/3/io-Tpos.. eating alone. -to-re/oos -MTTCITOS AaXos. bounteous. lewd. d/c/odT-ecrrepos. prudent. xapiea-Tepos. Zaie raros . graceful. -ets add -repos and -TCXTOS to the stem in (for -er/ as \apiei<s.). reject o of the stem and add -eo-repos and -eo-raros u/cpdr-eo-TaTos . 77X770-105 poetic). Adjectives in -wv. insolent. 102). ear% . f\6ia-To<. .350 ADJECTIVES 342. cui/oeo-TC/)os .). d<^T/AiKo-Tepos. strong . not to the stem. /xecrcuVaTos (tSiairepo? and iStatraros late) . serene.fveo-Ta. COMPARISON BY -t<wi^. Compounds of X"/315 ac ^ -w-repos and -w-Taro? to the stem 7rixa/>tT-wTaTOS. TrAr/crtov TrAryo-icuVepos. . -ov (stem stem as o^w^/awv (a-ux^pov-). . quietly.Kpdro's. partly -to as d</>ryAt. and 349. thievish. plain. v/3pia-Tov. Tliese drop o of the stem and add -cu'repos . rapacious. ^0-7^05. These reject o and add talkative. eTrixapiT-wrepos. d^Ti -t'o-TotTos. o"w<^pov-eo"TaTos. WOUO"T/DOS. . KaKtjyopos. Adjectives in . vjSpia-TOTa. dainty. pleasing. ros. : "A. evo'ios. to the stem TUTOS a/D7ra^. . 348. rarely 2.add partly -eo-rcpos and -eo-Taros. as eTri'xapis (TTi\apiT-). -ov-) 347. Adjectives in (321. more 344.TOS = WOl'o~TaTOS. : adv.Ta. as -775. free . 1. unmixed. But vj3purT->j<s. Adyi/os. Adjectives in s. 343. atV^'o-ros i\0ttv. op6pio<s. 345. 321. These s. Trpwibs. -ou. /xecr-airepos. has Trpovpyiairepo's. /i&e . x a 3tT" T / 3OS > XpiT-TaTos. makes v/SpLo-TOTepos. s. da-fj. elderly. Contract adjectives in -oo? drop final o of the stem and add = and -eo-raros as (ewoos) ei>Vovs.

the short fornis are form 7/St'oj^ serving also as an accusative. l^Yat. 4. related a. excellence} Kpfura-wv (from K/KT-I/WV) and K/aarwrTos express . 351 neuter -lov. \dp<i>v (for \tp-ytav. KoX4s. these fi)rms. T|8tovs f|8tows f|Sfova TjStw TjStova TjSiu Irregular comparatives recessively accented like t'jSiwv. used indifferently in Attic. KOXtft. >"/'/ KaKttJV KO. T|8uJvoiv Dat.8fovi ( N. in -<av (354) are declined and from 353.lK-p<is. 5. ocauly) KaXXurros jiy-urros ^r-< ma// p.TjStv ('en. inferior) and are equivalent to the I. power) rare \aHav (for Awtwr) and A<Jkrro express desirability.). jimcerful. 3. 96. y3e Arurro-s . virtue. t]8l(a : for jfiiova and ^Sr'ovs for ySfoves are r}8r'w a different stem in thus r}8ro(tr)a contracted to (compare alSa><s. Ace. NOTE. at in deterior. and are used mostly with reference to the future. /JeAno-ros.d\\-oi. /ero-ui' (for -ijK-ytav.KtCTTOS <j<r<rwv or JJTTWV ^Kwrra (adv. 352. deterrimus. Itrnuliful KoXXtwv (TO . D. the power or SHjKriority (Epic Kpari's. T|8tovas fjStovs Voc. Epic X^P' 1!^ weaker.p-Tt'i. 1) p-iKporjpos See also 6X1701 below. . 96. fitness. TjStova f 8tw Yoc. A. excellence (a/>i(rros.96 351. The long and the /8to(<r)s to jfiiows . /JeAriwi'. good djiuvuv dplOTOS xpcio-a-wv or Kptirruv \UJUlV Kp XuiOTOS Of worth to . fjSfovc Nom. NOTE. strength. rgStovs rjSiova f|8t TjSiovwv T|8to<ri . 1). a^urro? express utility. refers rather to intrinsic or moral a/xciVwr.T)8fovs Gen. (i((iv (for nty-yur. Lat. IRREGULAR COMPARISON 354. and are opposed to '. 249) and The forms -<xr-. tupcrior. Dnt. : <vya0o$. have recessive accent and are declined thus : Nom. 2. Of these forms. The following adjectives are irregularly compared 1. Latin inferior. V. TO /cparos. is opposed to v. TjSlov ' TjStovos f. <J8lov ijSiov Ace. Comparatives in ADJECTIVES -lo>v. G.

later. pijwv (<t>i\rfpos 9. neuter some- times irXciv 8. 356. positive . pain) dX-ysivoraros 355. (idXio-ra <|>iXos (355) dX-yetvos. last vcrrepos. nearer 7ro/o/3WTpos. Participles always compared in this way. plain. most plain .XXov 8^Aos. ordinary prose only the following (irpo.xv-. : former lower TT/OWTOS first (from Trpo-aros).KTTa S?}Aos. advantageous) quietly) irpovpyiairtpos. farther off more ad- far off) (irpovpyov. /j-aXXov dyaTrwv. Horn. latter .a. Comparison by jxaXXov and jidXwrra. (e\dff<rd>v eXax-ywv (96. extreme e'yyi'raTos. less. stem e\a. ^dAwrra dyaTrwv. little. eXdxa) fjo-o-ov 7. more quiet vcrraros. Sometimes /MctAAov is to be rendered by in a higher degree.a. Sfjfo/r9t lowest latter. painful aXyitov (rb &\yos. Thus S^Aos. . last (for furthest. KorwraTos. or fjfTov. Sometimes the parative arid superlative are formed by joining /xaAAov (magis) and This occurs mostly in cases where the regular (maxime) to the positive.dX. loving. ayaTrwv. more plain. mode of comparison would be difficult to form. and /idAwrra by in the highest degree or in a very high degree. vanta/jeous . fj. dovmward) .XXov (fnXos (355) 10.) The following belong [1IU>V ami 6X1705 : IXdo-o-wv for or IXctTTwv 1). much irXeiwv or irXc'wv (97). Positive wanting.356 6.d. Some comparatives and superlatives lack the In their stem is usually seen in an adverb or preposition. fj. near) eyyure/so?. ADJECTIVES dXt-yos. minus irXeioros iroXvs. nearest (' out) s. paSios. (i}pf/j. (KCITM. ijp/JL(crTepo<i. 97 0X1^101-05 to both /uKpo few 6XeLl>v (on inscr. easij 4>iXos. dear poetic) 4>iXraTOS <j>iXaiTaros (rare) <f>iXaiT6pos (rare) p. later vcrraTos. before) :.

A nea? has . . rani's truly i dA. Trpxrw or TTO/XTW = Attic iroppa). . more -Ttpu> 362. /idAurra. /xdAa. 4). much (from TroAus) /^ya or yueyeiAa. f/racefully \apif<rTfpov <r(a<j>pov(<rrpov prudently \apifa~TaTa o-w^povlcrTaTa jxwitive 361. above. pi. Sometimes the comparative is formed in the same way as the as KaAAtovws (/caAAtwi'). The adverb is accented like the genitive plural. more.#7/s /neyas /xeydAws. Tnore beautifully. few others are dialectic or late. cra<f>ea-Tep(a<s (a-a</>TT/3Os). from. s. are from a stem 17*-. So dvwrepw. from Siafapw as (Sia<f>fp6iTtav). JJOTTOV or ij-rrov (for t'jK-yov. cw. well. is contracted if the latter is contracted. prudently crwe^pwv <rio</>/w>v<ov. far ayto. most. very. Formation of Adverbs. and I/KUTTO. has a/teiror. few. adjectives by adding -ws to the stem. . 1). and s. dvc^raTU). crox^/joi'w? ((T(a<^ptav). differently. the neuter accusative is used as the superlative. The accusative neuter singular or plural of adjectives is often used an adverb as TroAu or TroAAo. from Teray/xevos (TTay/xi/wv) Sia</>epofTa>s. prep. eyyv's. as TTay/m'u>s. Adverbs in and -TttTw as . /ea<. (<ro<os). . From ajro. <o-w. icisely is).98 ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON 357 ADVERBS AND THEIR COMPARISON Adverbs are regularly formed from 357. 358. .. has /xuAAor (for fiaX-yov. 96. and aTrwreiTw. fartJiest KTW. much. greatly <ru)<t>p5v(a i. c'yyirraTU) or eyyvrara. gen. farther. 359. sweetly is croffxarfpov ffilov \apif VTIOS (^a/juts). <t'Au>s. see Part IV. off. Occasionally adverbs are regularly formed from participles . The neuter accusative singular 360. Comparison of Adverbs. Kr. greatly (from /xeyas). . enrAoos Tra? cnrAwv Trdvrtav . dearly from adjective <i'Aos <ro<os irufly simply wholly siriftly . apttrra . regularly. come us-wrepw. . within. used as the comparative of the adverb. rather. which has here the same form as in the genitive plural. 96. -to usually form the comparative and superlative in outride. For various other endings of adverbs. (Word-formation). 363. below. cyytT/xo or eyyire/wv.

herself. of him. Dat. avro. D. But sometimes equivalent to a or an. A. The personal pronouns it. N. T G. The definite article o (stem o- and TO-) is declined thus SINGULAR DUAL TO" PLURAL Nom. NOTE. are : 706. 366. as a personal pronoun of the third person for him. but not in the nominative. The feminine dual forms rd and Talv rarely occur 365. avrr). PRONOUNS PERSONAL AND INTENSIVE PRONOUNS 367. crv. in the oblique cases. Dat. There is ro> no indefinite is the indefinite TIS (385. Gen.368 THE ARTICLE 99 THE ARTICLE 364. as dvt'jp TIS. thou. TOVS Td . TOIV ol at TO>V TOV TTJS Tij TOV T< TW TOUV TU TOIV Gen. 386) article in Greek. her. ov. himself. itself. of Auro9. V. TWV TOIS T& TWV TOIS Tp TOV Tats T<XS TTJV TO Ace. . and TOIV are used instead. Nom. Ace. I. or a man. is also it. a certain man. of her. NOTE. 6 T| Nom. used them.

2. it means the tame. v/awv. NOTE. TUVTO (also THVTOV). <r</)o>-. 373. of 7////. sometimes used as a singular . suus). In the oblique cases. avrros. e. but compound form. when not emphatic. 2. The stems 7//x<. them. fie. 371. ot^ etc. mt/xt'lf. vfias. 1). which . <rov. ij/xus. as 6 avros dvi'/p. They are e^avTov. : cpavrfis. treavrov. poi. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 374. eavrtjf. are enclitic (see 152. No 7^/xds and and with even v/ids seem vftiv to occur in Attic poetry. <rot. AI'TOS has three uses (see the Syntax). REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS The forms pav.VTIJ. o-c/>-. As an intensive pronoun. TO aiVo. eavrov. In the the plural third the two pronouns are declined separately. 1. the fame man. of. 370. her. for rarely used as a singular . for and the Doric ace. TaiVa for Ta aiVa. For the rare cases of of retaining /f"'. person plural has also the .for of the personal pronouns are T. 1. fyth'. The Tragedians have Ionic cr</>iV (enclitic) masc. NOTE.s/7/. oi>. Preceded by the article. NOTE. >} ai'rv/.100 369. Especially frequent is this with the forms of the article beginning with T and ending in a vowel TaiVou for TOV but aiVo?. accent. T//XWI'. For the use of the personal pronoun of the third person. singular and sometimes plural. vplv. of hrwlf.. l>elong to OVTOS. The relloxive ])ronouns are formed by the union of the Item* of the personal pronouns and avros. as o aiVos. and fern. genders.(Latin se. see the The forms i/ttwr. We sometimes find examples of when these pronouns are emphatic. r}fts. areavrij^.. NOTE. TaiTip for Tp aiTip. 3.from original rff. original <y<or from original tr/. vw. 1) as aim/. <r<f>uTi. r/zon'. 1. it.tv are sometimes accented in poetry short I and d in the dat and ace. means self (Latin ipse) . fyxus. the man himself. 2. <- for /. nog). it. 369 also its oi'. vlv (enclitic) for all o-<as. : . Epic <r<e (enclitic) masc. this (380). <r. (Latin is me\ from tuus). NOTE.(Latin r/xt. etc. 'Eyw and <rv (for original TV) is from a shorter stem TV-. ere. it 372. of him. it is the ordinary personal pronoun of the third person. and feni. of thyself.wlf. as aurbs 6 dvt'jp. Syntax. }ttti'. also see the Syntax. fip. TavT?/ for ry avry Tai'-ra and Tarry must not be confounded with Tairra and TO.(Latin : /xete. Crasis with the article and auros often occurs (58.

RECIPROCAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS SINGULAR. 101 .

raii/St.AiKorTo(v) 383.AiKa/T7. Other Demonstratives are TOCTOO-. thus : . TJ8 rov8 TaVTTIV TOVTO IUTAL N. 1. rwraiTj/. 382. roivSc TOVTU Toiv8 roivSc TOVTO) TOVTW TOVTOIV TOVTOIV TOVTOIV PLURAL Num. Declension of oe and ovros. ai'TT).102 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 379 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 379.AR Norn. lxt'. this (here) (his. yonder) Of these o6. {KIIVOS. is declined like the article. D. Tov<r8 raurSc Tdo-8t Toio-8 TeL8 TOVTOIS TavTais TOVTOVS TavTas TUVTO ruvratv. Separate feminine dual forms ruSe. : T<$. The forms in -ouros are declined like O?>TOS. 381. *. -8< (enclitic). Tcxroirro(') ) TOUMX. Tr.vr\. TT)\iKoi'8f ) J TT/AtAcofTov. are very rare. rairrd. fccivo. TT. (Ttpa. this : sixcri. TOVTO. <o. NOTE. 88< Hjo-8 OVTOS avVr) TOVTO TOv8 T<j>8f TOVTOV TO .iKi'xrS( t rrjXiKi'/Sf. that ofrros. thf one or the. NOTK. G. itTtpoi'. A. and av if the article had a or is 77. Trj\. fftt. with -Be appended to each Orros has the article in the first syllable which has ou if the article o- had an sound (o. . TOlOl'rtf / v ) TOIOITO. which is formed from the article and the demonstrative ending form. TOiaiTT^ TOtOlTTo( (l') ^ *Mr/i (in ) quality) *' . 2. . that (there. : tTtpos.. 1. ov). ot8 aiS Tu8c OVTOI adrai TaOra TOVTOIS ToirS Ace. the Ionic form KIVOS used alongside of 380.'TO) TOVTOV TaVTTJS TttVTJ] TOVTOV TOVTO) Dat Ace. The principal demonstrative pronouns are 8S. 'E^ceii/os is ( declined like ai'ros (367) in poetry. other (of two) > " / \ roo-oirros.

INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 385. INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Too-cum/. TlW TIVOIV G. 393). the neuter singular has two forms one with. TJ> rl riva rive Tl DUAL N. A. 2). ri. TOV Tivd rlvi. NOTE. and different forms the particle UTTjI. The demonstratives are sometimes emphasised by adding to the as -f. Nom. (143). TC<TOI'TOV. 191 ) TrXeiova. 1. TIVOIV PLUR. D. TOoY. TOV SING. it is always on the last syllable. u>8f. when Declension of TI'<? and VE rt? : I XTK R ROGATI INDEFINITE rls TIVOS. Tocroi'To(i'). just in this way. Tocrai'T^s. TOVTCOVt.9 TCva Tivd TlVtt Tivds TtVtt 2. rls TIVOS. and one without -v. such TiyXi/cos never occurs in Attic prose. TOIOS KCU TOIOS. is ? 1. TOI'Tf. from OO-TIS. The acute accent of TIS. TOOthe (Plat. 384. 386. rl rl Gen. gen. Norn. some any one. Dat. so and such (in quality). 4. ZK TOCTOV. rl The accented indefinite forms TIS and never changes to the grave TI rarely occur. TOVTOVC. ri. e/3yaoH'Tou. TU> nvl. as ocrojire/a av irXeiovs TOIOS occur in Attic prose only in a few stock phrases . 1781. . . there is also a form (never enclitic and not to be confounded with UTTO. it the interrogative pronoun rt? considered as enclitic takes the accent. . the greater the number that work. with -8e appended to each form. For the indefinite neuter plural rivd. before which a short vowel is dropped . Dat. TIV0. as they are enclitic (156. Ace. 387. so much . one. Ace. The principal indefinite pronoun ri9. The principal interrogative pronoun what ? always with the acute on the first is rt?. Vect. which 2. 32) . So also in ovrwst. thus. who ? syllable. ra-yaOa evpf'jcrovari. 68f. 2. TaVTl. more gain mil C Sympos. TCHOS. Gen. since so long a time they find (Xen. 103 etc.387 TOCTOUTO?. The forms in ~8e are declined like the simpler forms TOO-O?. . TOCTOS xal TOO-OS. Too-ovTovi. : TOCTOVTOV. The simple forms TOO-OS and Ti/XtKb?.

Dat. rb otiva. Ace. and in Tragedy. of what sort ? irotov. TOV Tuj 8ivos 8{lVl TWV TOVS Tbv rf|v rb Suva 8ivas RELATIVE PRONOUNS 390.. The relative pronoun is o?.. TroTfpd. . c&v Jv als V ov i <jv ols otis Ace. Gen. : SINGULAR (All Genders) PLURAL (Masculine) Sctva o! Norn. void. whatever. aAAo. irocrov JTOO-OS. o'l SINGULAR DUAL 6 Nom. seldom indeclinable. who. NOTE. whoever. The indefinite 6. 8 as a 391. 7T7/AtK. only. Feminine dual forms u and aiv seem not to occur. olv u otv w olv Gen. PLURAL Norn. such a one. of the relative os and the indefinite 7-49. } : 388 of some how much 1 number or quantity xoios. TTortpd. each being composed declined separately. J. indefinite relative 5<rri<. iroiov votos. iroTcpov (rare). declined like auras AT/. irwrov. s. see 959 and the Syntax.. so and so. D. m/AiK-ov how old ? or how large ? size rAtK7. of some age or of some which of the two ? one of the two s. is Attic It is and used in familiar speech and always takes the article. such a one (see 389). TTortpov . iroia. which. see 789 article used as a relative in For os used in its originally demonstrative meaning in and the Syntax. The is . r). iroor. f}n<. 393. certain expressions. other. and is usually declined thus 389. Other Interrogatives and Indefinites are iroo-o?. i ^ TJ)S TT| rb TOV TO) 8civs Stfvwv Gen. o. Dat. or are 392. doubtful.. of some sort . NOTE. m/Aucop. Herodotus. & G. Ace.104 RELATIVE PRONOUNS 388. For the r-forms of the Homer. A. ori. s. Dat. 8s <j at & wv ols ov Ijt ov N. iroa-i).

For the accent. however much size ofos. ofoj. as.1. Siroffos. STWV oToruri. 105 SINGULAR iJTis Nom. and INDEFINITE rlj. TO- 8<ros.!^.1. oTrotos. D. A. 395. such. quails oOToj. troOroj. on. interrogative. quan- irwk. indefinite. WVTIVWV. of whicJiever age or s. 8rois oCorivas aernvas &nva. of s. OTOIS. DEMONSTRATIVE 65e. &TTO. that. this. who. NOTE. CORRELATION OF PRONOUNS 396. aliquantus (TO<JOS). The shorter forms OTOU. Ace. Other Relatives are exros.396 RELATIVE PRONOUNS . WTIVC oIvTivoiv WTIV olvrivoiv &TIVC olvnvoiv PLURAL Nom. STOIS oloTuri. 8rov (uTivi. 6. 2). The following : table shows the correspondence in form and relative meaning of the pronouns INTERROGATIVE T[J . Dat. OTT^AI'/COS. OTTOO-OS. tforts. of which sort of which age or size . but nearly always in Attic The longer equivalents of these short forms are poetry and inscriptions. founded with drra which belongs to rts (386. STW 8vriva fjvnva 8 TI DUAL N. so much. of some sort (rotoj). demonstrative. Gen. : as much as . Gen. OTCOV. sort. what ir6(ros TOJ. which ? any one oC. ol'rivss OJVTIVWV. Dat. tails.r. whicJiever of tlie two. because. 8 TI oSrivos. ^.t. of some quanor tity number.5s. much. -roatxyot. tantus roi6cr5e. OTW. which sort . which (as who ? ? . see 153. Sorts ofrrivos. this (here) . TI is thus written to distinguish it from the conjunction. of ? what sort 1 7roi6y. that liow ? much ? how many tus irotos . as many) ? so many. 1.' IN IM. OTTOIOS. Acc. are seldom used in Attic prose. "0 TI or o. The plural arra must not be conhardly ever found in Attic poetry. TOI- quantus of which as. 8ra> STOV fjo-nvos JJTIVI WTIVI. G. (such) quails .. 8rwv a?Tivs WVTIVWV alorrwri firiva. firra 394.

makes them more emphatic Similarly TIS added to the . of what country. 1. how how large t old mjX/KOJ. . rfttoaTros. QcrruTdtriroTO vv. The correlative os. are used in prose. 1. no one (for prose ovSeis.ro8a7ros. or so large large] as vbrtpot . so BKLVTIYK.-. ovSa/xy in no way.ij. CKTTIS 8?y. oi'Sa/iws and /t7/8a/iws. 412). and the in- definite relative o. The particles ovv. of (as old which age or (as old) as. o-/j TTOT' ovv are sometimes added to indefinite relatives to make them more indefinite as OO-TIS ouv. Negative adverbs are ov8a/iov and p. also written as single words. ?rpos. of every kind. whence t andet rof . TrarroSaTros. and several others. of or size some age oirijXkoj.. of which sort exactly. S'l'i TTOT. OO-TIS of i' . 777X1*05. size. IKTEKROHATIVB rov . not at all.. Certain correlative adverbs are formed from the same stems as the correlative pronouns. 383. CORRELATIVE ADVERBS 401. fjir)oafj. and 2. any one soever. ofo? irep. -n)\iKOffSe. OTTOCTOS.- F K . whatsoever. whither f quo? . NOTE. CHOS. and poetic oiVis. 2. one or other (of two) the owbrfpot. where f ubil vMtf . of your country.ov. KEL. TroSaTros. whichever of (he two 397. 400. 399. of which OVTI and //TI. uAAoof another country. S?/ TTOT. TOIOS.106 INTERROGATIVE RELATIVE PRONOUNS INDEFINITE t 397 DEMONSTRATI VK (rjjXiVos). nowhere. oTrotos. vestras.. neither of the two There are also the negative pronouns ovofTfpos . /AT/TIS. and oT meaning more indefinite as OTTOIOS TIS. of what sort. which oftlic Tbrtpos or twof one of two (rare) Korepfa. see 398..r]8a/j. foreii/n. INDEFINITE DEMONSTRATIVE RELATIVE INDEF. 2. IN ^\/KOJ. from what country ? cujils ? has the series o/ our country. of what kind soever. OTTI? 8y TTOT' (XTTwrS/y. TTjXiA-oDros. i/i ?io manner. as OO-TKTOUV. The enclitic Trtp added to relatives. For the forms in parentheses roaos. their otros. <5>/. makes 3. nostras. . whosoever..

405 RELATIVE PRONOUNS INDEFINITE irort. then. OTrire. ~l . umquam. ali- turn earn soever quando. RELATIVE ore. 107 INDEF. quando ? time. at some when. ' . u'hen- irbre INTERROGATIVE when 1 . DEMONSTRATIVE r6re. REL.

108 NUMERALS 400 NUMERALS 406. aud the numeral adverbs as far as they occur : . The following are the numerals with their signs.

412 NUMERALS 109 .

So also with the ordinals as Svolv Stovra ITTJ. and 1} OOTTI'S. 450 pft'. . was the 1 I. cVos 8co>v 7TjT7jKO(rrbs av7//>. 14. extreme poverty.461. Old Attic Notation. the small letters are 2. as a for 1000. The numerals in -101 are also used in the singular with collective 416. ^iw//. etc. Anal. for 90 the obsolete q' (9. the same ~"^' (sampi. The units 1 to 9 are denoted by the letters a to 6'. or eucoo-i or etKoo-t Tren-e. Mvptot means 10. 4. as Tre/xTrrbs KCU eiKoo-ros For twenty-first there is also cfs or eixotrrbs >cai ire/iTrros. 2 II. 1253. 7840. 48 years (Thuc. 1868 vv. irrjv^a. 413. also in the singular /iiyn'os . are frequently expressed by subtraction and the participle of feu.vpl& 10 (Xen. ovOtv. van. the late Greek had ovdet's. twenty-Jive. 3 III following : . 88. For (JujOtv. The cardinals 18 and 19. 8. the second century B. not a when av or a preposition interposed.i is perispomenon in Attic. . Hundreds from 100 to 800 are denoted by p' to a/ for 900 the character is used. lad: Thus T}S fuas &oixrat Tr<rapa. irtvT-i'jKOVTa. as <f> for Book XXI. . 28 and 29. Spaxntov 1. ^tXiwf.000.679. countless. 62). 3) igns begin again. Notation. ovoWs. the obsolete g~' (for /. The numeral signs given above were in use since 417. 102). 7) . Tens from 10 to 80 are denoted by t' to TT' . or fiijS' NUMERALS When oi'Sei's 413 efs and /^8is are written ovoe is and /zr/oe cis. 1. TfTpaKoa-id. 14. the negative is more emphatic. 39 S/UJ9S (ThllC. 1. especially with (lit. /*/&'. 40. K<L\ the 200 ]ieam/-armed troops cavalry or tlie 200 Jb0W (Thuc. 2. *<&. as "2 for Book XVIII. 415. 30.400 heavy-armed The is genitive o! \t\ia. 'bs Stovrt T/KaK<xrr<p 414 For KOI TTfvrc.000. 2). 21. the combination of 20. 7 ). in the twenty-ninth year (Thuc. Kaxoff. cavalry. . For thousands from 1000 to 100. . Thus rijv SiaKwriav itrirov. The older Attic system of notation. rast. of the ordinary alphalxit of twenty-four letters are used to denote the books of the Iliad. as nvpios xpdvos. etc. . as Trevrt KCU CIKOO-I.110 often occur. troops 3. 418. found in inscriptions of the classical period.from no one. 38 and 39. means innumerable. as oi'6" e tvo<i.) But pvpioi (with change of accent) extreme. etc. t] ITTJTOS. man. countless time. vi /cat CIKOO-TW.KOVTa. 1) being inserted for 6. *>u'. 1.C. five and twenty. 102 K' 27. when otherwise paroxytone. . nouns. n^deis. S.. koppa. the forty-ninth CTCI.. but with the stroke below the letter. twenty-fi/th. The capitals used for the books of the Odyssey. understood Examples: 00-17. with units. there are three forms for cardinals twenty and fire. . The ordinals from twenty-first to twenty-ninth. may be expressed in two ways .. pvpid Trevid. thirty-first to thirty-ninth. oorris p. Kat ttKooTos (evbs KOI C/KOOTOV. 2) is used. 2. ovSei'. av cis. etc. sfiield). /-tr/Sei's. 14. 10.

-|-. half a plethrum (irXeOpov). i^iSdpetKov. 500. etc. ^ . 5.. VARIOUS NUMERAL WORDS 421. F. always with the article . F F = TrevraKis) 500. 50.000 . 50. T//XIO-VS. -O.. #. one following series ? with its corresponding indefinite oir<'xrro<s. . etc. ^ 3. 200 HH./ AAI. TocravTaxis. as TptTrjfj. Fractions are expressed by TO /xe/oos or >} 419. FX. three. 1^ 7rtTTupTos. as TO TTC/ATTTOV p. 40 AAAA. as ITT/T/UTOS. The numbers 50. 70. etc. 1^.V (-. 7 Til ( = 5 and 2). . etc. etc. M IIII. 1000 X (xr'Aun). One airf a third.7rTos. One anrf a 7ia// may be expressed by i/^uoAios. 422.e. 2000 XX. 6000. be expressed by compounds part . (10. i. two and a half. 12 AI (10 and 1). Compare the German vierthalb. . 5000. one and a quarter. ?}/xt- 1. Fractions. number from which the two and yet half of the dritthalb. two by two . W. Jive 520. 2i with the ordinal of that . ij/j.000 were denoted by placing A (10). FAA. -|. KcurTaKis. NOTE.epos or 77 Tre/xTTT?/ TWV TrevTe at 8vo fioipai or TO. Half. o-vvrptit or ura (KOTOI.. ( J) minae. When the denominator ^is omitted. Other adverbs in very often.000) within a large timctteti. Distributives are formed by cardinals compounded with o-vv. T (initial letter of TreVre).KIS are : TroAAotKis. else 423. XXFHHF. etc.. seldom. two together.rt.ep^. FA.e.) talents compound half ia . 2^ . etc. ocraKts.wj36\Lov. can also 7re/x. 6\'o yu. etc. Other ordinals are : many .. . Trevra/cis Se/ca.fprj or ai 8t'o fjioipai. etc. 30 AAA. etc.6pi. 5. H (100). 5000.. etc. pj. ^/MOTCIO.000 M (Mvpiot). v'. etc. as often as. 3J. as TO. 1 . 8vo fj.ov. 4.. one-quarter. ( thus: I&. with fj-opiov. Oi'tener the subtracted as rpirov fj/JUTdkavTov.t. e is) rpfl<s. etc. i. one-Jifth. 2750. three by . of Tpiros. -IJ/AUTV. 100 H (HeKarov. ( 1 15 AI #0 AA. TTa/)Tos. One rm'Z a half. 420. may be expressed by eVi. one out of many. is taken irevre ypifivaia. TfTapros. i. can also be expressed by -ov or (Latin semi-}. . One-third. nuiy be resolved into halves (1^ = = 4.) and expressed by the compounds ?//>u. compounded with an a substantive which then ends in -LQV as rj/iiTrXeOpov. compounded with T/HTOS. 10 A (AeKa).as above in 1 as rpia ^. or as they are expressed by dvd or Kara or ei's with the accusative trvvSvo. each time. 2^-. 60. old spelling for eicaToV)../xtTttAavTa. so often. which one of a TroAAocrros.423 NUMERALS J 111 4 = 5 and 1).. of ry/xt. it is always one more than the numerator . Trefjumj/Jiopiov. . TI etc. (6d/3t/cos). half a daric obol (o/3oAos). half 2. . oAiyaKts. many times . TtrapTr/fMopLov. etc. 60. third rfraprov ^tTaAavToi/. X (1000). and relative TTOCTTOS.

112

VERBS
424. Multiplicatives in --Aors (from
-TrAoos, Latin -plex)
three-fold,
;

424
as aT

timpU, SurAoGs, double, two-fold, TpirrAois,
etc.

TTO \\air \ov<s,

manifold,

TptTrAeurios, three times as

Also in -TrAcurios expressing how many times ; as oWAourios, twice as much, much, jroAAaTrcurios, many timea as much, etc.
as /novaxy, in one part, single ; St'xa or ; in parts; rpi\a or rpi\y, in three parts ; Ttrpaxa or rerpaxy,
-

425. Adverbs of division
Sixy,
t'w

tico

four parts ; iroAAaxy, """*TaX!?> e * c

426. Abstract numeral nouns in Ws, the numfar one, unity ; 6W$, the
7T/ijra$ (late irtiTeis),
i

-As;

as

>)

/novas (gen. /xovaSos) or

^as,

7rTas or

two, dyad ; rpias, rerpus, or oy8oas, eVveas, 6Kas, /3So//,as, o/cras
; ;

nun^r

30 TrcrupaKoi'Tas, 40 7rei'T)/KOVTas, l eKaroiras, 100 k> 100 pvp<-<*s, 10,000. Also in -is, gen. -vo rpiTTi's feen. rpiTTi'os), 3 ; TerpaK-n's, 4 17 fivpioa-rv^, 10,000. Trevn/Koo-Tvs, 50 ; tKaroo-TV ?, 100 X'^- IOO T ^ S 1000
^eK-ts,
;

etc.

;

etKas,

20

;

Tpiaxas,
:

50

;

X^

5

;

1

"

;

)

;

TpiTTis in Athens meant one third of a
used of military
affairs.

^>i'Ary,

tribe ;

Trevn/Koo-Ti's, etc., are

427. Numeral Adjectives expressing Age.
-<T7js, -erf?

These are compounds of (from TO CTOS, year) with occasional special feminine forms in -ens
;

(gen. -criSos, ace. -eYiv)

special feminine

form

as TpiaKovTafTijs contr. TpittKovroi'-nys, TpidKovrafTts, contr. TpidKovroirris, thirty years old.

(except irpwros)

428. Numeral adjectives in -atos, -afa, -aiov formed from ordinals and denoting o the second day, Sevrepatos on the third day, Also TTOO-TGUOS, oi tc/i< day ? s, etc.
;

429. Other words of a numeral character
CKarcpos, either (of two)
up.</>w,

are

CKUO-TOS, each

gen.

and

flat a/x^oiv (I^atin

dfJ.<f>oT(pot.,

dfJufwTepai, a/x</K)Tepa several

ambo) (more usual)
jras,

,

\

.

j

aW,

erej-?/

(320)

VERBS
430. Voices.

The Greek verb has

three voices: the active,

middle, and passive.
431. The middle voice generally denotes an action performed by the subject on himself or for himself. The middle and ]>ns-i\r differ inform only in the future and aorist. 432. Verbs which have no active voice, but have middle (or middle and passive) forms with active signification are called deponent verbs.

441

VERBS

113

Deponents are called middle deponents if the aorist has middle form, and passive deponents if the aorist has passive form.
433.

Moods.
The
first

There are

five

moods

:

the

indicative,

sub-

junctive, optative,

imperative, and

infinitive.

434.

four

moods

the infinitive.

subjunctive, optative, imperative, dependent moods, iu distinction from the indicative.

The

are called finite moods, in distinction from and infinitive are called

435.

Participles

and Verbal Adjectives.
participles
;

middle, and passive
-reo?.

and

There are active, verbal adjectives in -ro9 and
has
seven
tenses

436.

Tenses.

The

indicative

rnood

:

the

present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, aorist, future, and futureThe future-perfect is found only in the passive voice, but perfect. it sometimes has active or middle meaning. The subjunctive and

The optative imperative have the present, aorist, and perfect. and infinitive have the present, future, aorist, perfect, and futureperfect.

Participles have all the tenses except the imperfect

and

pluperfect.

437.

Primary and Secondary Tenses.
are divided

The tenses
or principal

of the
tenses,

indicative

into:

(1)

primary
i.e.,

expressing present or future time,

the present, perfect, future,

and future-perfect
438.

;

(2)
i.e.,

expressing past time,
second-Siorist,

secondary or historical or past tenses, the imperfect, pluperfect, and aorist.

Second Aorists and Second Perfects.
and

Tenses called

These

second-perfect (and -pluperfect) occur in many verbs. almost always have the same meaning as the ordinary (or first)

aorist and perfect (and pluperfect), and differ from the latter only in form. Very few verbs have both forms of the same tense, and when such double forms occur, they usually differ in meaning.

439. NOTE. As no Greek verb in regular use has paradigms given include parts of three different verbs. 440.

all these tenses, the

Numbers.

There are three numbers

:

the singular, dual,

and

plural.

The indicative, subjunctive, and optative have Persons. The imperative has two three persons: first, second, and third. and third. the second persons
441.
:

I

114
442.

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJUGATION
NOTE.

-:42

The

first

A

rare special form of the

first

person plural is used for the first person dual. person dual of the middle is given in 579.

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJUGATION
443.

Verb-stem or Theme.

stem, called the verb-stem or theme,

Every verb has one fundamental from which the various tense-

stems are formed.
Thus, in the verb
future

7rAtw (;rAK-o-<o),

irXtKta, weave, the verb-stem is TrAe*-, seen in the in the aorist rAea (e-ir\(K-a-a) ; in the perfect middle

etem

7T-7rAy-/xai, in the aorist passive i-Tr\e\-6r]i> ; similarly rpfir<a, turn, verbtptir-, seen in rpi\f/ia (rpfTT-a-w), cTpdfra. (f-rpeTT-cra), f-Tpe<J>-dr)v ; so

TcAt'co (TtAt-), finish,

rA-<rw,

e-T( A-<ra, Te-reAe-Ka, etc.

444. NOTE.
leave,

all the tense?, it

The verb-stem is frequently not seen in its pure form in Thus, in the verb AeiVco, being modified in various ways. the verb-stem AIJT- appears only in the second-aorist system 2-Anr-ov,
; ;

in the second-perfect active Ae-Aoi7r-a, it is Aotrr- ; and in all (\iir-6fj.rjv in <aiV<o, show, the verb-stem <av- appears in the other tenses it is AITTfuture <ai'-u>, <fniv-ovpat, in the perfect ire-^>ay-/ca (ire-^av-Ka), and in the aorists passive i-(j>av-6i)v and (-^dv-^v ; while it is modified in the second in KOTTTW, cut, the verb-stem KOTT- appears in all the perfect ir(-<f>r)v-a ; in pjo.vda.vw, learn, the verb-stem p.a.6- appears in tenses except the present ; all the tenses (as second-aorist (-fiaB-ov), while in the present it is changed

to pavQav- ; in favyta, flee, the verb-stem </>vy- has been changed to <f>evyin all the tenses except in the second-aorist (-<t>vy-ov. Other changes in the

theme

will be noticed in

611

621.

445. NOTE.

When a verb
</>>'-,

forms

its

tenses from

more than one stem,

as

Aru>

(AiTr-,

Atr-), ^ti'-yw ($17-,
is

fairy-"),

<cuV<o

(</>av-,
(

stem, as AMT-, $17-,

called the single stem

=

<av-y-), the shorter verb-stem or theme).

i. The verb-etem second aorist e-Aa/3-ov TI-, honour, present rt-o> ; or else it may be a root with some derivative irAcK-, \reave, present wAtK-w, suffix appended, as root TI-, lengthened to rlfia-, present Tf/xa-to. 2. A primitive verb is one which forms its tenses from a root a de; nominative verb is one which forms its tenses from a longer theme. As a general rule, verbs in -pi (490), and verbs in HO of two syllables in the

446. Primitive

and Denominative Verbs.
;

may

be a root, as Aa/J-,

take,

present indicative active, as irAtKw, ireave (or three syllables in the middle, as &t \OJJMI, receive), are primitive ; others are denominative.

447. Vowel, Mute, and Liquid Verbs. Verb-stems ending in a vowel are termed vowel-stems, ns <iA-o>, rt/xu-w, Al5-to. Those ending in a consonant are called consonant stems, as irX.tK-<a, y/>a<-w, <f>aiv<a
(<av-).

450

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJUGATION

115

Verbs with vowel-stems are called vowel-verbs or pure verbs, as ri/xa-w, Verbs with steins ending in a mute are called mute verbs, as Ail-eo, XP^' W Verbs TrAeK-w, ay-w, AeiVw (Xnr-, AeiTr-), rpi(3< (rpl/3-, T/31/3-), -ypd^w. ending in a liquid are termed liquid verbs, as oreAAo) (crreA-), ve/x-w, </>cuVo)
-

(<^>av-),

Sep-w.

448.

Tense-Stems.

1.

From

the

verb-stem

are

various tense-stems

the final vowel

of certain tense-suffixes, of the verb-stem also undergoing a change.

by the addition

formed the sometimes
;

e -, present Avw, Atfo-ficu Thus, the verb-stem AS- forms the present stem Xv/ future stem Xv<j-/ first-aorist stem Ai'cra-, first-aorist e -, future Atcrw, Aoo-0-yu.cu e-Xvcra, e-Awa-/XTjv; first-perfect stem Xe-XvKa-, perfect active Ae-AvKa (modified to Ae-Av/ce- for the pluperfect e-Ae-Ai'/o;, 593), perfect-middle stem
;

Xf-Xv-, perfect middle Ae-Ai'-/wu, pluperfect e-Xf-Xv-/j.tjv (still further modified to Ae-Avcr/- for the future-perfect Xe-Xvcro-fj,ai) first-passive stem XvOt- for
;

the first-aorist passive e-Xvdrj-v (still further modified to Xvdrjo-ft- for the future passive XvOSjo-o-fj-ai). 2. The tense-stem is usually formed by omitting the augment (if any) and cutting off the ending (if any) ; but not the reduplication nor the augment When the indicative singular ends in -oi, -ets, -, cut these standing for it.
off

and add the thematic vowel -^-; this will give the tense-stem. For a full list of the tense-suffixes, see 569.
449.
1. Each tense-stem is the basis of a tenseTense-systems. Each tense-system includes one or more tenses. The follow:

system. ing are the nine tense-systems
SYSTEMS.
I

TENSES.

Present,

including present and

imperfect.

ii.

Future,
First-aorist,

future active and middle.
first-aorist active and middle. second-aorist active and middle.
,,

in.
IV.
v.

Second-aorist,
First-perfect,

first-perfect

vi.
vii.

Second-perfect,

second-perfect

and -pluperfect active. and -pluperfect active.
wt\& future-perfect.

Perfect-middle,
First-passive,

perfect

tm& pluperfect middle

viii.

Second-passive, The tense-stems of the perfects are modified to form the pluperfect stems that of the perfect-middle is modified to form the future-perfect stem the stems of the passive are modified to form the future passive stems. The tense-stems are fully explained in 569 and 622 761.
2.
;
;

ix.

first-aorist and future passive. second-aorist and future passive.

450.
variable

Thematic Vowel.
vowel.

1.

Certain
-%-.

tense-stems

This

is

written

Thus, the present

end in stem

a
of

Af'w is Xv%-, the future

stem

is Xva-%-.

116

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJUGATION
-"/,-,

451

2. The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel thus a sign of that mood Aeyco-^r, Aey?/-re. The thematic vowel is fully explained in 570.
:

which

is

(-le-)

The optative has the mood-suffix -i- or 451. Mood-suffix. before the personal endings: At'oi-/zt, AVOJ.S, aor. X&rtu-/u,
full

-irj-

fut.

A&rot/u.

For a
452.

explanation of the moo<l-suffix, see 572, 573, and 608.
to the tense-stems to exAreir, Ai5e-o-#ai.

These are appended press person, number, and mood.

Endings.
Af-e-T,

Avo-p.fi',

Arcro-^cu, AiVe-Tai, (Ave-ev)

For a

full

treatment of the endiftgs, see 574

606.

453.
1.

Augment.
syllabic

This

is

The

augment

is

either syllabic or temporal. the vowel e prefixed to the

stem of

the historical tenses of the indicative of verbs beginning with a consonant.

A /-in,
2.

e-Auov,

e-Aiwa,
;

-AeArKTj,

e-Xv@yv

;

AeiVoj,

e-AtiTroi',

e-Awroi',

-A<Aoi7r;, c-Act</>0//c

<fxu'r<u, e-ffraivov,

-<j>tivrjv, etc.

The temporal augment

is

a lengthening of the initial vowel,

if

short, of the

stem of the beginning with a vowel.
"Ayd), v/yov, 'IjX&iJv
o>/xfor, tapura.
;

historical tenses of the indicative of verbs
iKerevov, iKerewra

tATTt'^w, i}X.iriov; tKerei'w,

;

O/MOJ,

tenses, the

In the dependent moods and in the participles of the historical augment is dropped. Thus, aor. indie, act. e-Aitra, sul>j. Avo-w, opt. Af^rai/xi, impcr. Aixrov, inf.
3.

Aftrat, jirt.

AfHrds

;

oi/ntru,

aor. indie, act. of optfo,

lias

opitrw,

optvaifju,

opurov, opurat, upi<r<is. For a full treatment of the augment, see

523

534, 550, 554

568.

1. Reduplication consists of a repetition of 454. Reduplication. the initial consonant with e, to form the stem of the perfect of verbs beginning with a single consonant (except p) or with a mute and a If the verb begins with two consonants (except a mute and a liquid. liquid), or with a double consonant (, ^), or with p, the syllabic augment takes the place of the reduplication. If the verb begins with a short vowel, the temporal augment takes the place of the reduplication.
,

A rd),
-<rraA/*ai
2.

A-Ai'Ka,
plirTia,

At-Aryzai
;

yi-ypmJM, yt-ypap.fjuu
;

/

AtVa>, A<-Aoi7ra, ; T* w c-^/TijKa, -f>/T7//icu
>

\t-Xfi/i/j.ai
;

;

ypd^no,

o-reAAco,

p/>t</>a, fp-pl/ipMi

;

dyyeAAw,

V/yyeA/ca, 7;yyA/xai.

it

reduplication of the perfect, and the augment representing are retained in all the moods and in the participles.

The

456

PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE CONJUGATION
Af-Xvt<a, Xf-XvKio,
Xe-XvKoifJit.,
;

117

Ae-Avcro,
e-crTaA/cw9,

Xe-Xv/j.evos

e-crraAKa,

Xe-XvKevai, Ae-AuKws, Xe-Xvpai, Xf-Xvo-dai, e-crraAKw, e-crTaA/cot/xi, f-o-raXKfvai,
e-orraAo-o,
e-o-Ta.Xfj.fVos
;

e-a-raXuai,

l-a-raXOai,

?yyyAKa,
?yyyeAo-o,

3.

In the pluperfect the reduplication
e
;

is

preceded by the syllabic
e-Xf-Xr/j,r/v.

augment
perfect
is

as

Xe-XvKa, e-Xe-Xvia), Ae-Aiyzat,

But

if

the

formed with the augment, the perfect and pluperfect are
alike, as
:

augmented
For a

e-o-TaA/ca, e-crraAK^, j/yyeA/zai, I'jyyeXujjv.

full

treatment of the reduplication, see 535-553, 554-568.

1. The principal parts of a Greek verb are Most verbs person singular indicative of every tense-stem it has. If a verb have six tense-stems, many have less, and no verb has all nine. has no future active, the future middle is given. The following are the

455. Principal Parts.
first

the

principal parts of Xvo>,
7TT(0.

AetTrcu,

Ta<r<ro>,

7r/3acrcrw,

ypaffxi),

<au><u,

crreAAw,

Ai>a> (Au-, Ai-), loose, XV<TW, eArcra,
(AiTT-, AeiTr-), leave,

XtXvKa, AeAv/tat, eXvdrjv. Aeu^a), AeAoiTra, AeAt/x^ai, eXei^Orjv, 2

aor.

(ray-), arrange, raa>, era^a,
(irpa.y-\
Trf.irpdyfj.ai,

Tra^a,

do,

-rrpd^o),

fTrpa^a,

TreTrpd^a,

reray/zai, frd 2 perf.

tirpa'xd^v.
(ypa.(f>-),

Tpd(f><D
eypd<f)rjv.

write, ypa^eo, eypaif^a, yey/oa^a, yeypapfjiat, 2 aor. pass.

<&aiv(a
f(f>dvdt]V,

(<^>av-), show, <ava>, 2 aor. pass. e<f>dvrjv.

l<^>ryva,

7re<^ayKa, 2 perf. 7T</>^va,

ir(<j)a(rfji,a.i,

(o-reA-),

se?td,

crreAw, eWeiAa, ecrraAKa, tcrraA/iai, 2 aor. pass.
f<

t,

e<TK(t)\f/a,

2.

The

following
fi.lfj.eofji.ai.

The principal parts of deponent verbs are similarly given. are the principal parts of (3ovXofj-ai, ytyvoynat, ar#avo/xcu,
/3ovXr'](roiJ.a.i, /SffSovX^fJuit,

Boi'Ao/icu (/3ovX-), wish,

e/3ovXi'idrjv.

Tiyvofiai (yev-), become, yevr/cro/zcu, yeyevr^/xai, 2 aor. eyevo/xryv. AltrOdvofJiai (<d<r6-\ perceive, a'urdi'ju-oiJ.ai, ya-OrjfJMi, 2 aor. y(r66fJ.r)V.
Mi/ifo/zai
fj.ffj.ifi.rifj.at..

coutr.

/xt/xoiyzai

(jjilfie-),

imitate,

^.lfj.i'jcrop.a.1.,

ffj.lfj.rj(rdfj/^v )

Forms of Inflection. The tense-stems are inflected 456. either according to the common form of inflection or according to the Some tenses belong to the one pi-form (called also the simple form). form and some to the other but the present and second-aorist systems
;

Two

follow the

common form when

their tense-stems

end in the thematic-

118

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN

-co

457

vowel -%-, otherwise they follow the /zi-form. 6U9. forms of inflection is given in 607
457.

A

synopsis of the

two

Verbs in

-

and Verbs

in

-ju.

system of the common form of inflection are termed verbs in -w ; and those with the present system of the /Ai-form are called "verbs in " " But the names " verbs in -o> and " verbs in -/xi have reference -/."
only to the present system, and have no bearing on the other systems. 458.
indicative
infinitive

Verbs with the present "
"

Meaning
of
the.

the active of all the

1. In the synopsis of Avw in 460, of the Tenses. moods (except the subjunctive and optative), and the The future-perfect middle and passive are tianslated.

and cannot be conveniently rendered in All the subjunctives and optatives are also left untranslated, as but the following their meaning can only be learned from the Syntax
participle are rare forms,

and

English.

;

examples will give some idea of their uses. "Iva Au&yicv or Subjunctive. Atiwfuv or aor. Atfo-w/zev, let us loosr. 'Eav AVW/ACV or Avcrw/nev, if ice shall \{'<r<f*ev, in order that we may loose.
loose.

Optative.

Ei$

Atfoi/^ii

or Awrai/ii,
loose.

that

I may

loose.

"Iva Xvoifit or

Et Afcoi/iev (or A&raiyitci') auroV, Aeyoi EITTC on Adot/xi, A&rai/xi, (or Aai) a.v, if we loosed him, he would say. Afxroi/it, he said that I was loosing, had loosed, would loose. The difference between the present and aorist in the dependent moods is
A&rai/xi, in order that I

may

explained in the Syntax.
2. For irregularities of meaning in certain tenses of AeiVw, leave, <aiVu>, show, see 797 and the Catalogue of Verbs.

and

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN

-o>

459. The paradigms of verbs in -w embrace the following 1. Synopsis and conjugation of all the tenses of Avo (Av-), loose
2.

:

(460).

Synopsis of all the tenses of ActVo) (Aur-, AITT-), leave (462) ; and conjugation of the second -aorist and second-perfect systems (463). 3. Synopsis of all the tenses of </>au'w (<ai/-), show (464) ; and conjugation of the future, first-aorist, and second-passive systems (465). 4. The principal parts of the mute verbs TrAe/c-w, weave, dAAacro-w
(oAAay-), exchamjf, cAty^-co, convict, rptfjta (rplft-, rpi/3-\ rul>. ypd<f>-<i>, write, ;rt#a> (JTI#-, irtid-), persuade ; of the liquid verbs </>uiVto (<aj'-), shoir, and fTTtAAw (crrcA-), tend ; and of the pure verb TA-w, finish (489). Also the conjugation of the perfect-middle system of these verbs (485).
5.

Synopsis of

all

the tenses of the contract verbs
07/pa-w, hunt (483)
;

Ti/za-ot,

honour,

<f>t\(-(a,

low, STJ\<I-M, show,

and

with the conjugation of the present

system of ri/xaw,

</>iA'w,

and d^Aou;

(477).

s 1 ij HP JIJ IP <p HP 3~S 5 XXXX ^ o > * S I b w w > ff <X> b e l N ^f ^ TJ S 3 J- HP '5 HJ HP <P -0 i 3 o w i HP 3 H .460 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -eu 119 * 11 111 ***9i x ^^ g -g J fe IP HP IP xx x X XX b if bo ^ .

2. -&> 461 ACTIVE VOICE OF IMPERFECT Ai5o> PRESK\T IXDIC. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN 1. Xfois . S.120 461.

XeXvKarc XfXvKao-i ^XcXvKccrav 3. XfXvKCOS. 3. S. 3. 2. 1. X$<rt]Tov 3. Xco-aip-i (471) 2. XfXvKTJTt XeXvKtucri OPT. X^<rias (467) Xvcrtu XeXvKOis XcXvKOl D. S. \e\iJKere Xv<rdvT(av or "\\jcr druffav INF. PLUPERFECT (469) IND. 2. XvicraLfjLv 2. 3. 2. S. 1. 3. 2. 3. SUBJ. 1. Xtfo-art 3. 2. XtSo-OJfiCV 2. X-Ocrais. S. S. 1. Xtio-aitv. IXcXt)KCl(v) D. XOa-cu XtXvKt'vai PART. Xccrdcra. Xvcrai. 1. \e\tJKTOV P. 2. IXtio-arov XcXvKarov XeXvKa/rov IXcXvKcrov cXXvKTT]V P. Xvarav XeXvKOS . XeXvKvia. IMP. XccrcuTt Xf'creiav XtXvKOlTC XcXvKoicv 3. 1. 2. Xocras. Xv<rov [XAwce (475) Xvo-drw Xtiaarov XCicraTtov D.461 1 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -w AORIST *Xv<ra 121 1 PERFECT Xt'XuKO. 2. XX^Kw XfXvKflS XsXtlKT] (471) D. X^o-airov Xvc XcXvKoirov XtXvKO^TTJV 3. XcXvKT]TOV XeXvK(t>|icv P. 3.

OPT. P. 3. Xvw 3. Xvr0< Xvovrai Xio-ovrat SUBJ. 1. P. 3. 2.TO D. 3. Xi^Tai D. 2. X0r9ov XW X6o-e or P. Xo6(ivos. XdourOov \voUrbi\v X^croicrOov X(ro{<r8r]V P. 3. 1. 2. S. Xtoivro Xio-oivro IMP. X$t|<r0ov 3. 3. 1. 2. 2. 2. X% Xfopai X6 Xirrai D. 1. Xvrforflwv XiV<r0(iMrai> (466) Xccri(r0ai. 3. 2. S. 2.122 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN 2. X$T. . XCOI. S. FUTURE Xvcroficu Xccrti Xt'crtrai 2. S. Xcoio Xvcroio XviO-OLTO 3. 2. 1.f5w PRESSXT IXD. 1. Xiufiai 2. 3. XvcVOw D. -CD 461 MIDDLE VOICE OF IMPERFECT A. PAUT. 3. X6r0ov Xif<r0ov XvojicBa 3. 2.

461 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -o> 125 .

XXOr6ji9a Xu0r|crdfj. Xv9w 3. -to 461 PASSIVE VOICE OF A&o AORIST 1 FUTURE PERFECT IXD. XcXv<ro{}iT]v 2. D. 2. 2. 3. 2. 1. XeXtcrtTai D. XvOtura. 3. 3. Xv9fiTi or Xv9c(TjT XiXtcroivTo Xv9civ or Xv9(t](rav Xv9t)Ti Xv9^roivro IMP. Xv0vTuv or INF. XcXtfo-oficu 2. XiXvo-oio XvOVjcroio XcXca-oiTo Xv0^ Xv9<irov or XwflfftjTov (468) or Xv9ei^TT)v Xv9T)cro<r6T)v D. XtX^CTT].aL XtXxKTfl BUMhn 3. 3. Xu0f)vai Xv0i's. 2. XwOfjrov P. 3. 3. 3. 1. 1. XjXoo-oio-01 3. 2. TJ. S. S. D. S. 8. Xv0T)TWV P. 2. XcXv<ro(|ic9a 2. 2. XcXi<roMr9ov P.124 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN 3. PART. 3. OPT. FUTURE (474) Xv9r|crop. 2. 1. -or T|.t0a 2. -OV . 1. XXi<rr9ov iXvOTJnjv P. S. 1. XX&rr9 XiXccrovrai tXv'0T]crav Xv6rj<rt<r6t Xvfl^o-ovroi St'BJ.

XMT). leave . SYNOPSIS OF \dirw (Xewr-.462 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -w 125 462.

SECOND-AORIST AND SECOND-PERFECT SYSTEMS OF g AORIST ACTIVE IN r>.126 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -o> 463 463. g AORIST MIDDLE 2 PERFECT .

464 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -a> 127 SYSTEM COND- r .

3. frav <}>avfi 3.ai 4>a. 2. 4>avoiT]s or 4>avois 4>avoio 4>avoiro Or <j)T|Vl. S. 3. 3. 4>aviTt <|>avovvTai SCBJ. P.v 4>avoL<r6r|v 4>avoi. <}>aviTov <JavurOov ^avctrov <favov|xcv P. FCTCRE AND FlRST-AORIST (LIQUID FORMS). 1. 4>avovv 4>f)vav * The uncontracU-d forms of the future inflected like </>tAe'u and </iAc'o/zui (477). 3. P. D. S. 2.c6a P. 2. <|>T)vdvTwv or INF. 2. S. 2.128 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -o> 465 465. 3. 2.vt].'fj. and (464) are . 4>avctv 4>avio-6ai <^avov|xcvos. 4>ai 4>i PABT. S. 3. D. <f>T)VO)|lV OPT. ^Hxvoi<r0f 3. 1. ^avt*v. AND SECOND-PASSIVE SYSTEMS OP <fta. ^fjvov <j>T]VCLTW D. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4>avoirov <JHXVOTHV 4>avoip. 1 AORIST ACTIVE IXD. 1. 2. 3. 1. 4>avo"uv 4>avoiVTO 4>T)vauv or IMP. 4>avoiT]v or <|>avoi|u 2.iv<a FVTCRS ACTIVS (contracted*) FUTVRK MlDDLS (coTitracted*) <fxxvovp. 4>avou<ra. ^KXVCI 4>avtiTai D. 1.

<j>T|vi]cr0ov <}>avfjTov P.vos. <j>aveCt] <j>av^<roto D. 1. 4>T]Va. IMP. 2. 2. 1. (J>T|VCO|ACU 3. -0V -t. 1. S. ccfyrjvdjMjv <4>dvt]s 3. 4)T|vacr0ov 4<}>dvr]Tov <j>aVTJTT]V P. <{>^vao-0 3. "<}>Tivdfi. 8. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN MIDDLE f AORIST PASSIVE -<o 129 FUTURE PASSIVE 4>avr|erT). <j>avrJTwv |Kivr]T P. cfn'jVTJTCU D. -OV . 1. <j>Vjvai<r0ov 3.LfJLT]V 2. <f>T|VM|x<0a 2. 2. S. ^vwyrai 4>avw<ri OPT. 3. (f>T|VT]0-0 <j>aV7]T 3. <j>T]vdo-0(o <}>aVTJT D. 4>T|vaio 3. 4>7]vacr0ai. 1. 4>r|vaip. 2. <|>ai c<f>TJvaro <j)dvT] 4>avT(<rtTai 4>av'T|crcr0ov 4>avi]crfcr0ov 4>avT)crd(j. PART.e0a D.f0a 2. 1. 2. -TJ.or0wv or ^aWvTwv or INF. 2. 4>avT)crop. 4>r|vd. (|>TJva<r0ov 3. <j>TJvavTo <j>dvi](rav SUBJ. <j>fjvat 3.465 1 AORIST IND. j>avV]o-oi<r0ov or or Or (j>aVLT]T or <|>avTJ<roivTo P. 3.0a <j)dvT)T 3. <|>VjvT]o-0ov 3. 8.

The perfect subjunctive and optative active is usually expressed by periphrasis of the perfect active participle and <5 and eti/v (subjunctive and The regular forms. BovAet from /Soi'Aoyuai. yell! perfect active occurs only in a few verbs whose as Za-raOi. as AeAuxws dpi periphrasis 470. let him. -eir^v. tm/t. have no forma in -. When a verb lacks the future-perfect passive. (imperative of See i/it. In -et/zev. For a few verbs whose perfect middle forms these moods without periphrasis. . see 597. think and ctyet from o^o/iat. the Attic generally prefers the Aeolic forms in -etas. The imperative have present meaning. be). active participle 473. -eurav as eAeAv/ceiv. In the first-aorist optative active. perfects 1. late Greek the pluperfect ended in . -elev are much oftener used than the longer forms in -CIT/TOV. The imperative forms ending in late Greek. For . and reOvi'igw. -enyTT/v. 474.130 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -a) 466 NOTES ON THE CONJUGATION OP VERBS IN 466. future. see. out from ofo/xat.fvo<i c? for KfKrrjcrai. -]7 476. In the dual and plural of the aorist passive optative. like AtAvKw and AeAvKoi/xi. -cire. 6e) as AeAv/cws co-o/zcu. etc. -civ. 724. See 593. corw. 2. -eiTijv. are looted. -ei'rj/zcv. -CITOV. cAeAv/ctts. -CIIJTC. The perfect imperative of all voices can be expressed by a periphrasis of the perfect participle and wrfli. stand! reOvarw. optative of ci/xt. -cirt. 714. 713. -eif. 468. -eirja-av (573). -ft. I shall stand. The future perfect active is formed by periphrasis with the perfect and ro/u (fut of ei/ii. see phrastically 712. KKi~tjfj. perfect and pluperfect indicative are occasionally formed by of the perfect active participle and efyu and tfv . as AcAvKws <5 and AeAvKws efyv. present. 724. (fiv) for 471. and in the second person singular indicative of the and future-perfect. / sluill have The forms TT>/(O. as tytvtrfjifvoi f<re<rQf. -eis. be) . see urnjfiL and 6vy<TK<a in the Catalogue. KCK/xiytre. the shorter forms in -eirov. are very uncommon.die. See 714. made by 475. I dinll be dead. -ciav (689). -ftfiev. also 1037. fut of o/>uu>. 472. The perfect subjunctive and optative middle is formed periby the perfect middle participle and o> and ctijv. this form can be periphrasis of the perfect -passive (middle) participle and Icro/xat . you will have been deceived (749). etc. -THXTO. exceptional .V -&> and -o-0oxrav belong to 467. The AeAi'Ket (eAeAi'/crj). 469.

(ri/xduxrt) (jnXtocri 8T|Xwori PRESENT OPTATIVE S. </>iAw (<iAe-). (Tifjidu) 2. (see 478) [STjXoifu Tl(XWS 4>lXoLS 8r|Xoi] 2.tV (drj\6r)TOv) <{>lXf]TOV 3. 4>lXoiT]S (577x00/77$) 3.ft>) 3. 8i]Xei)Tov P. -ew. 1. and -ow are contracted contraction follows the principles explained in 47 ri/xaw (rt/xa-). and 48.w[xev Ti(ia. 3. 2. or (577X00(171') TIJAWIIV Tt(lU)T]S 2.) D. The in the present and -<xu>. P. 2. (ri/udot/tri) ) i) <|>lXlT6 <f>iXov<ri (577X6offft) Tijiwcri 8t]Xoii<ri PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE S. (rl/xdei) St]Xoi D. (rlfidoirov) 3. 1. (ri/xdero)') Ti|xo. (rifi.T SrjXovrov 2. are inflected thus: ACTIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE S. TIJXWTOV TlfJUl)TT]V <J)lXoiTOV (8r]\oolTTii>) 8rjXoiTov Tt(Ju5fJ. (n/tdew) (S^Xo'etj) (5ijX6et) SrjXots 3. 2. 1. honor.doft. show. 2. (rt/idoi) D. P. Sr]Xois (STjMr.fv) TijxaTOV Tip. (577X00^77) 8t]XoLT) .477 CONTRACT VERBS 131 CONTRACT VERBS 477. (rr/xdere) 3. The present and imperfect of and Sr/Aow (SJ/AO-). love. 1. (Ti/xdou) 3. Tijiarov rifxarov Tl|X(0|J. (ri/idr/re) Tl}Jia. 1.T Tl(JLU)(TL <f>lXf|T 8r|XcoT (5i)\6uffi) 3. 2.V 4>lXoi(JLV 2. TlfiO)T rl|ia>ev (8f]\&OlTf) 8t]XoiT or 8l]XoLT)V 3. Verbs in imperfect.TOV 8T)XoOrov <j)lXlTOV (dr)\6eTov) (dr)\6o/j. 1. (rljiuieTOJ') 1. 4>iXouv or (<f)i\toi^v) or S.

(nftAOlTfTtfv) 1. Tijiuvrai f<j>i.V (tf>i\fftv) <}>iXftv PRESEXT PARTICIPLE (<f>t\(wi>) (see 334) (SijXiwj') 4>iXwv StjXwv S. (TUdd^Tw) (uTjXofTW) (Stj\ufrov) OT|XOVTW 8r]XovTov D. (rt/iaoiijT*) TIJIWIJTC ((/itXeotijTf) <|>iXor|T i|>iXo(T]O'av] 3.fv) [ 2. (TI/. P. 2. <J>iXi (577X677. (friftaov) tTifiuv (e'0/Xeoi') 4<j>iXovv (fS^Xooi') 48t|Xovv 3. 2.c6a 3.uaofyjifi') CONTRACT VERBS [TllMinTOv] TI(M{)T|TTJV] [rijii^T||JiV 477 [OTjXoiTjTOV ((fn\(otriTOI') [<|>lXofT)TOV (SllXoOtTfTOv) ( (^tXeOlTfTTJi') ((f>i\fOirifj. rj^tdf i) Tifiqt 4>iXfj.9a (^>t\t'rai) (0<Xeco'doi') <f>iXciTai <(>iXct(r6ov (OT/Xikrcu) 8r]Xovrai 8t]Xov<r6ov Si^XovcrOov D. 1.TC } (<pi\^fTov) <J>iXirov <J>iXeiTa>v 3.\^ei) 2. (tTifiaf) trt\iA ((<(>i\ft) e4>iXti D. (irlftAtTt) friparc frtp-wv (0tX^rre) (e<f>i\tov) cc^iXcirc 3. (Tt/xa^rw*) (^tXeeTWv) (<fi\^frf) (SrjXoeTUV) (SijXoere) (Sl/XcjI'TWI') OTjXovTwv SrjXovrc P.V krlyjirtp fri|u*)icv (i(fn\(fTijv) i((pL\('ofj.wp. (rtjMrrat) Ti^drai Ti|uur6ov Ti|Mur6ov Tip. OtyXift) 3.\tjfj. (f'rtAulcroi') 3.<f>i. P.tOa) P. (TtjuaoiTjacn') Tiuwnoiiv] (^tXeoiTjireu') (S^Xoo^crcw) 8r]Xo(rjorav] PRESEXT IMPERATIVE S. (Tt. 2. 2. (ri/idorrat. (^ri.uao > ) t^tXovv ('5r\oo^) PASSIVE AND MIDDLE <i>iXoOuGiip PRESEXT INDICATIVE S. (irifuiiniv) 1. (ri/iardoi> ) (077XofcrCof) 3. 2.(6a) <|>iXci<r6ov (5r]\JTdov) (5r/\oJfj.ev) 2.O) rtjid TlltCtTW (0iXee) (rf>tXf^Tw) <j>Xi <pLXlTCl) (5iJXoe) 8V|Xov 3. (rt^ulrre) <j>iXiT Q>lXoVVT<l)V TIULWVTWV or (0iX6jl'TWc) OT|XOVVTWV or or or or or PRESENT IXFIXITIVE TIJJLO. (rlfjLa6fi(Oa) 4>iXovp. (rtjitcirror) Tiudrov TIIMXTWV TIUO. (TtiUlOiWrOI') 3. (Tt/wlTj.dofj. (rlndtoOoo) (<t>i\tr6ov) (<fn.132 D.fv) frijtaTov (^^>iXeeroi') i^iXciTOV ^tXtii-rjv <{>iXov[j. (T^wLouai) Tiuwijuxi (rfwXco/tctt) (<fn\(ri. 1.\{'tvTcu) (^iXovvrai (^TjXaocraO . 1. (Tlfj. 2.

uip.ai) (fi'n^vy) (SrjXoijrctt) ST|Xa>p. (rlfjidriffOov) (Sr)\6r)<r0ov) Tip. (Tifj.dovTo) ri|iwvTO ((<pi\f'ovro) (t'STjXAovTo) iBrjXovvTO .e0 a) tTip.ai 2.drj) 3.dr0ov TLp. 2.riv) Ti|iwp. (fTifudeffdov) Ti(id<r0ov Tl}xdcr0T]v <j>iXel<r0ov (e"8i]\6e<r0ov) i8r]Xov<r0ov f8T)Xov<r0T|v ^8r]XoiJp. P.e6a 3.e6a <J>iXi)cr0 2.riv) eTip.u> (e<f>i.cop.\eoi/j. ((Tifidov) 3.e0a) <j)iXoip. (Tlfj. (eTlfia^ffOrjv) 1.iip.a.evos (0tXe6/ucpos) <f>iXovp. 2.r)v) 2. 1. P. (fTifultff0e) 4Ti(id<r0 ^4>iXi<r0e <j>iAovvro (48rj\6eff0f) ^8i]Xov(r0 3.doi<r0ov) <}>iXoi<r0ov 1. 1.aoifj.T|V 2. (rtadoio) Tip. (Tifj. (Tifj.T]v (<fM.e0a) <(>iXwp.evos (SrjXoofievos) 8r]Xovp.e0a 8t]Xoicr0e (tf>L\foi(T0e) (<(>1\(OI.cur0 (tpi\er)cr0e) PRESENT OPTATIVE S.abu.aL 1*1(1.drjff0ov) D.awu. (in/j-deTo) (e<f>i\ov) <f>iXou c<j>iXciTO ((8-r)\6ov) ^Sr]Xov irl\t.a(T0a)) ((j>i\fecr0w) ((f>i\feff0ov) D. 2. (TI/XCIOITO) Tifwpro Ti(iw(T0ov (0tXeoiro) (<f>i\eoiff0ov) <j>iXoiTo (STjXootro) (dri\6oi<r0ov) 8r]Xoiro St]Xoicr0ov D.ooifj.e0a) (StjXo^ffdov) P.e0a) 2. (Ti/j.T|v trl\i.e0a 2.u>p. (rlftdriTai) Mi 8r|Xo 8t]Xa>Tai 8t]Xa>cr0ov TijiaTat Tip.ai) TLp. (Tifj. 1.doiff0e) TiptwjieSa Ti|M><r0 TlpHttVTO (<f>i\eoifj. 2.\fjfj. (fTlfj.ai) (<j>i\eT)) 4>LXu>p.de/r0ov) Ti|ido-0ov 2.d(ff0f) Ti(id<r0 (<f>i\eeff0e) <(>iXl<r0 (dr)\6eff0t) 8t]Xoiier0 or (rlfj. (ri/wiou) Tijiw TifittcrOw (<f>i\f'ov) $i\ov (juXeCtrOw <j>iXi<r0ov (5ijX6on) (5r]\offf0u) (5rj\6e<r0ov) SrjXov 8T]Xovw0a> 8i]Xoi)o-0ov 3.Tjv) St]Xoip.fl>a) (iTlfj.aJfj. 2. (Tifj.0a <j>tXoi<r0e (dir)\ooifj. P.f0a) 8r]XoLp.e0a (<pi\fT]cr0ov) (<f>i\ew/j. (Tifj.TO (e^iXe'ero) (t<f>i\teffOov) (e"5jX6eTo) D.ai 4> l (8r)\owfj. (Tifj.drjff0e) Tip. (Tifj.aoifj. (fTlfj.evos /JfPBflFCr S.X6otcrt9e) 3.c0a) (^<f>i\eeff0e) &j>iX<r0Tjv (^Sri\oeff0riv) <|>iXovp. (Tifj. (Ttfj.uip. 1.VTO) (5?.wo (<f>i\oio) <j>iXoio (STjXooto) SrjXoio 3. (I(f>i\fea0riv) (e<(H\fbfj.2Wfj.4 (<pi\fufj.477 CONTRACT VERBS PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE 133 S.<0a (edri\0('>/j. (r(yUOO'To) ^iXoll/TO (SljXoOtJ/To) 8l]XoiVTO PRESENT IMPERATIVE S.af(Td(j}- or or or <f>i\ei- or or Tlfj/iffOuffav ((fnXeeaOuffav) (dr)\ofo~0uirav) driXoticrOuffai ffav) ff0uffav PRESENT INFINITIVE Ti|xd<r0ai (<f>i\eeo-0ai) <}>iXi<r0ai (5')jX6<n9ai) 8r]Xov(r0ai PRESENT PARTICIPLE ) Tip.d<r0ov (<pi\er)Tai) ((f>i\et]cr0ov) <}>iXfJTai <j>iXi)(r0ov <}>iXfjo-0ov D.riv) <}>iXoi|XT|V (Srfh.

piywv (and part. rip* Sulj. Aovw being dropped (see this verb in the active does not take v (never (<f>i\tiv). the v in.OVTO. Ionic and ^iyoGv). shiver.i Indie. Aovti . it But &W. 4>iXii St]\w Opt. TrAei. The contracted form of the movable . 483. Aoi'eis. is usually contracted everywhere which contracts like 481. oytaw. Ki-aw. errAeis etc. /atyys. rare in Xenophon. /Jtyv (and piyol). ys. sail. opt. : . thus third ^>iAe person or singular imperfect <i'A c/>tAcj'.. inf. scrape. Thus : TrAew. Aovia or Aow. w. the personal ending of the first person singular -pi) and the so-called Attic optative (modal sign -177-. 482. impf. rtftd Infin.134 CONTRACT VERBS NOTES ON THE CONTRACT VERBS 478 478. I'. /"l/T. Indie. as Aov. but contr. J>iXn SVjXov 0r|pa. in -aw contract to irfivvua.I. in -ew admit only the contraction into ei. plyu. rAiowrt. Dissyllabic verbs the other irh. irXftTf. much more frequent in the singular than the regular forms. opt. but other forms of the pres. ^-aw. se. tSpwrri (ISpovvn). eTrAeof. 'ISpou. thus : to distinguish from Sew. /mid. contracts often to w and w as well as to ou and ot. present and imperfect are generally from Aow. ending of the first person The Attic optative is singular regularly -v and of the third plural -<rav). sweat. has iSpoxrt. to/xuy (with iSpoi). /nywiTts (also gen. rub. irXeiv. and The present and imperfect are in heavy-faced type : ACTIVE PRKS.fop. hunt.ev. has Aouw. oracles. <iAw. y 480. pi. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OF ri/xaw. Iinpcr. plyfyv. TrAeis. 6i)pdta. The present optative of contract verbs has two forms the regular form (modal sign -t-. Thus : aw. rj instead of to d : Si^uw. ptyoiWwi'). t 479. xpd-ta.ev. Opt Tlfffarotfu . smear. wash. \ovp. The following live. part.llt. 8>/Adw. but it is seldom used ill the dual and plural. Aowrflui. X. part. leaving forms uncontracted. inf. Tt/x^rw 5r)\dxrw di)\i*><roifu (hjpdffu Oijpdffoi/ju. give thirst. rifiav 4>iXiv ST]\OVV 9r|pdv Indie. Aoi'/itj/os. TtfMy 4>iXow <f>i\r)<ru <$>i\t'}croi/j. 'Piyow. hunger.

rer^^o-o Infin. r. Infin.riffaifj. Ti|iw|ivos 4>lXoVlp.a. Orjpdffai ri/xijcrds Part. Indie. 0rjpdffaifu Imper.483 Infin.frot TTf<f>L\1)ffO Tf0rjpdff0at Part. Infin. rIfj. ) 5rj\d}ffofj. Indie.t . Tlu. Indie.r}v AOR.WfXT]V Imper. Indie. .rjK^vai TfTifj.rjKtos \Te0JipaKe] Tf0r]pdKft>ai. Infin. (as pass.co(j.a. Part. [rerfynjK-e] TeTl/j. TTl[J. Opt.rjv rlfj.{l>OS &> 6f5ri\ti>/jLti>os & reffTjpciffo etrjv Imper. Subj.rj<ro/j.i ri|j. 0T)pdcru Tiu. rerfyi^Ka Te6r)p5.ai. Opt. Opt.riffd/j. Subj.TJ/J. TeTl/J.VOS IMPF. Indie.Tjffoifj. TIJIW Ti|xdo-0(u <|>l\OV 5T]Xou 8r]XoiJo-6ai 0T|p6i<r0ai 0T]pco(j.ijfffff0ai OijpdfffffOai Part. PLUPF.i Imper.1]V Part. rlfj.r)V Orjpdffw/nai 0ripaffaL/j. 135 Orjpdffuv AOR. Tlfi. Ti|ia>p. Subj. Infin.TjffWfj.ac (as pass.r]v <j>L\rjffai Opt.T)ffaifj. TUp. CONTRACT VERBS Part. Indie. 0Tjpaffai Part. PERF. Imper.<. Indie.evos 01]pai|J. !rI|uG)vt]v Iiulic.r)ff6ftfvos drlfi.ai T~ifj.7jffOai Terlfj. PLUPF. Indie.i)KOlfU TedrjpdKOifj. rerlfj. PERF. & MIDDLE PRES. Subj.rjfj. ) Opt.KO. Iniin.

TrXfK-ta. show. but before endings beginning with When the the stem remains pure. The meeting of consonants of the stem with /*. \ Same as the Middle. Intin. 4). or as <r.136 CONTRACT VERBS PASSIVE 484 PRES. TtTlfi^ffOfMl Tt/XT/T^OS The forms 8ijpa. Indie. for the pluperfect (739. IMPF. Indie. 2. or 6 of the endings gives rise to certain euphonic changes (486) in the perfect and pluperfect middle. Part. rul>. 484. T. <r. are.-. 1 Opt.dfiva. The following is the inflection of the perfect and pluperfect middle and passive of rptftta (rpift-.ai are late. perf. as in rereXe-o-at (105. FVT. finish. for the perfect.ai. ri^^onai Tl(jiT)(h)ffolfii)r Opt. trraA. Subj. For the principal parts of these verbs. Infin.is added to a vowel stem. and <rrAA(o (crreA. dXAcio-a-w (aXAay-). weave.-). 0ripa0tlt PXRP. the third person plural of these tenses is formed by using the perfect middle participle with W. reXe-a). irtiOot (irciO-. o- with 3. were. in rer(\e-<r-p. 1 Imper. PLVPF. Some p. to the stem before endings beginning TfTc\e-o--rai . \ Same as the Middle. 1. PERP.ai and TfOijpdfj. rlfi. rplft-). and T^O-OV. exchange. . vowel-verbs add T.T)6ii<ie0da. stem ends in a consonant or when o. 740). Tift. see 489. Fur. A OR. PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT MIDDLE AND PASSIVE OF VERBS WITH CONSONANT STEMS.6iio-ofj. -mO-). - 0i)p<t0i)Ti Sij\w6fji>ai. 485. t\ey\-<i>.r]0clt 6i)pa. convict. persuade. <atVa> (<a").i Ti/iTjtfijo'i/tei'OJ Part.

D. 3. TCTpI|i|J^VOl fjo-av . PLUPERFECT INDIC. 3. 2. 2. 1. ctt|v n <V IMPER. TTpt<t>0ai PART. clo-C fltrt SUBJ. 3. Terpf<)>0wv or u>v or fjXXdxOwv or INFIN. Ttrplfyo TCTpt(j>0W D. 4rrrpt(|>0t]v P. rirpl^ai T^rpiirrai 3. S. 1.485 CONTRACT VERBS PERFECT 137 INDIC. ^TTpt(lfl0a 3. 2. T^rpl4>0ov Tcrpt<|>0a>v T^rpl<})0 P. S. 2. 3. TTpI(j>00V P. T)XXa-y(ieVos <a OPT. 2. 1. 3. S. 3.

W^TTCWCll Ter&<r|iat TTtX<TCll W<j>ewrp. 3. 488] 3. 1. IMITI:. before <r of the ending. S.vffQ. <.ai [7T<pO. 1. 3. 488] lo-raXro kttr&^tvro IrcT^XtcrBov 4ir^<j>avro D. . 2. ireirwr|Uvos PLUPERFECT INDIC. . 3.138 CONTRACT VERBS PERFECT 486 IlfDIC. ir^irto-o ircircicr6u> rcrtXco-o [irtyavffo. y. 1. 2.. 2.c0a ir4>d<r[i0a 3. 3. ir^irur(iai 2. iriri<rflai TtreX^erOat ir<j)dv0ai ^(rrdXOai. irrrrt<rfie0a T<rcX^<rp. For the euphonic changes caused by a mute (. irirwr|t^vos ttrjv TercXco-jitvos u cttiv Tr(|>acrjivos w t^v crTaX(ivos . 2. 1. 3.C<7"v CTTCCDCLVvC ((TTClXvC K. . S.t<r9ov Tr^avrai ir6j>av0ov IcrraXTai D. 4ir<iTwro iir^ircujTO tir^ircwrflov 4rr^Xt<ro [tir4<t>a. irim<r0ov ir^ircurflov KaraXOov P. NOTE 1.v0ov f(rraX0ov P. 2. D. S. ee 80 . 486. see 86 before r or 8 of the ending. 3. irrirci(rplvoi tltri TCTXrp. x r > ^> ^) before /x of the ending. PART. 2. iririo"0ov ireircbrOcov Tfr^Xcaflov ir^avOov ir{>dv0(i>v <rraX0ov c<rrdX0(ov TcrcX^(T0wv TfrtXccrOt P. 4ir^4>.vok tla-C tla-L tla-l St'BJ. C^rCTrCKTvC CTCTA. see 84. w rfr OPT.r.l J 488J <TT(iXo"Clt trfiMMjrai TT&. /S. irfirturO* irtirffcrflwv ir^4>av0 or TcrfXttrflwv or ir|>dv0wv or IXFIN.VO'0.rrai rtT&.

Trid-\ Treicra). firXaKrjv. 2 perf. ^aivw appeared. TeAe-w. The other tenses of verbs in like verbs in -w. 2 aor. e/3i]v (ftaiw. rTaA-/>iai r 488. Most of the second-aorists and second-perfects of the / in -w . CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN For 4 final v of the -fit 139 see 737. convict. I have Tre<f>a. (TriOov. se?id. anticipate). -/u are regular.. rub. TTeAe-o--/Aai. 2 aor. and also in the optative of verbs in -v have no presents in 491. see 88. ryAAa^a. reAecrw. NOTE. change of v-fj. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN F - from verbs in -<o in the inflection of the second-aorist active and middle there are also and present. eWaA/xat. (Treicra.from JX'P. as /xcu for TreTrefj. NOTE. Tpl/3-). 489. poetic). exchange. except in all subjunctives. 7re<av-(ro. f^avrjv.fi. -w. 2 aor. TreTrAoxa 2 Ionic). for the usual see 487. and 7re(av-<ro seem not to occur. as in o-reA-Aw. aAAa^w. 490.a i. e^va. ereAeo-a. know). ((rreA-). several second-perfects of the /xi-form.fi--/J< from /ZTT-/A and yy-fJ. finish.Aey-/zcu for fXyXcyx-fi-ai. stem occasionally assimilated to /z of the ending. rereAeKa. pass. e^dvB-rjv. ir\fio. TrtTrAe^a or fTr\e^6tjv. pass. o-reAw. eVAe^a. Tr'^ayKa. fj 'AAAcwroxo (dAAay-). ((f>av-). The principal parts of the verbs in 485 are as follows (rpt/3-. as fyvwv (second-pi. to Q--/A. (</>#avo>. 2 aor. For (6). Terpfr/xx. ^Aey^a. and eA?. eA^Aey/xat. and y/z. The forms Tre^av-crai. ifptftijv. pars. : Tpl/iw r/Jt^w. cK-cu. 492. rjAAei^^r^. <f>avu>. the endings are added directly to the tense-stem without the thematic rowel. In these tenses. Verbs in -/u differ . pass.shortened to fi. eAey^w. and inflected . 3. For fJ. .(rfiai. but belong to verbs fffrdijv aorist of yiyviixTKu. I appeared. i/Aey^^Tjr. weave. 2 . see 737. show. perf. trpi<$>6i]v. 3. 2 aor. imperfect. cr/u^a. (2 perf. pass. TreTrei/ca. go) t (second-perfect of dvyo-Kh). ^AAayrjv. eo-TiAa. see 94. ^AAa^a. 2 perf. eT\f-(r-Orji'. e of the stem changed to a. IcrraAKa. 2 perf. Trefajva. fetplftjiai.Tr-fj.ai. die). i. I^-.492 2. X\ayfj. 42 726. (2 aor.

A complete enumeration of all the /Ai-forms is given in 764-790. 1. present-stem See 652. The present stem is formed by adding -vv. 2.i). tSvv. . . So-. I entered (from . 6180-. Verbs in -v^/ni. (TrpidfjLijv (irpia-. vpevvvp. present ri&qfU urra. Verbs in like verbs in -vv'/xi -o>. and -vw. which are chiefly poetic. show . . pwvvvo-pevvv-. o-/3-. In the synopsis and inflection.. urTijfii (o-ra-). NOTE. te- . Inflection of the present and second-aorist systems of riOrj^i Si&tapi (So-). lacks the second-aorist (495). ora-. present-stem riBf. -/u : 493 are divided into two ) classes Verbs in in o). I entered (a second-aorist active of the is given in its place. IX. verb in -pi has all the /it-forms. 495. 497. /i<>-. Of MTTT//U lacks the second-aorist middle .. add -^a. those given in the TiOrjfjLt . present-stem SeiKvv-. present Kepa-.for crwrra-. (#-). give. I bought (a second-aorist middle of the /it-form from a stem Trpia. which is wanting. as Sa/iVTj/u from Sa/x-. of the second-aorist middle 498.1. e'Tr/na^T/v.with no present).for OiOf-.to vowel stems. but also the optative 494. are irregular and defective in the second-aorist active and all others in -viyzt. and of the second-aorist active iSvv. e-. is given in the As SfiKvvfJii place of the second-aorist middle of tor^/xi. and and 496. place. Kepavvv-. for If-. 8fiKvffj. and verbs stems The present stem usually formed by the in -ayu (from so-called present reduplication with Verb-stein #-.to consonant stems. -7//it (from stems in a or is i. lack the second-aorist. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN Verbs in fit. /u-form from Svw). Verbs from (rptvvi'fj. Verb-stem BeiK-. These form no second-aorists (except in -vvju.to the verb-stem to form the present-stem .140 493. No paradigms. bought. no present)..t (&IK-). set. form not only the subjunctive.

498 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN ACTIVE -/u 141 .

142 .

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -/u 143 .498 P.

S.IVTO 8i8oicr0 8tiKvvioicr0 TiOcivro SiSotvro SiSocro SciKVVOlVTO IMPEU. 2. 8i8o<r0ov 8IKVVCT00>V P. 2. Ti06r0wv or toTa<r9wv or 8i8do-0a)v or 8iKvvcr0ajv or INFIX. I<rrd|XTjv i(TTa<ro cSiSocro W0To icrraro ?<rra<r0ov t8i8dcr0T|v D. 8HKVUCTO Urrd<r0w Ttt)r0ov t<rra<r0ov D. Lcrrdjwvos 8l8dfJLVOS 8lKVVflVOS IMPERFECT IXDIC. SiSoC|ic0a Ti0i<ri) i<rraur0 IOTO. 0ov tirpiu) I0TO I0r0ov Trpiacr0ov D. 2. 3. HI irp^rat Swrai . 3. to-ra<r0ai 8iSocr0ai PART. 2. 2. (497) (495) t'Sou 2. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN tcrrawrflov -/u BtiKvvowrOov SciKvvoCcr0T]v 498 8t8oiCT00V SlSo(<T0T]V P. 2. 2. 2. S. 3. 1. *8o<r9ov p. 3. 8oO-0 (Ocvro frrpiavro ISoVTO (507) Sl'BJ. S. 2. urTeur0 iVravro ISiSovro SECOXD-AORIST MIDDLE IXDIC. 3. P. 2. 1. 3. 3. 3. 3.144 D. S. 1. 3. 3.

CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -JM 146 . 3. 2.499 D.

Trap-cSwKa/iev. and f^/ui. fcrrwfwv JarrJTi &rr<i<rv . Jordvcu PART.fu IMPER. 501. -va>. as WrJKafjicv. . The indicative singular of the second-perfect of tVnj/u is supplied by the first-perfect eo-njKa which is not often found in other forms. . persons. the longer ones. fBiSovv. i]v. the pluperfect. formed in -KO. SfiKvvfiv.) -Qoiro. but not in the first and second persons singular. Setnvvtav. The moods and generally in the dual and supposititious forms of the indicative singular 2. 2. In the dual and plural of the optative active. Compare 504. <rr<ra. send (696). was always used in the singular of the first-aorist. and in the second-aorist (in comp. plural ZdrjKav. eSiSov are formed as if from contract verbs so also the imperative forms riOti and St'Sov. These forms are TI&HTO. eStoKare.. 3. are iOyv. : . 8i5ovs. The optative middle present and second-aorist often have forms which show a transition to the conjugation in -<o. P. C<TTS. Three verbs in -/AI. 1.H6 INDIC. eoWa. a<-^Ka/*v. -Bourse. rr<Js or <rr<is SECOND-PL UPERFECT INDIC. tridei. 5-oro. eSto/cav. Seixn'tts. eecond-aorists are used in the other plural of the indicative. 1. part. etc. impf. indicative active . irregularly : in the third . irepiThe forms of the 6T)Ka.TTjv. Dual. infin. lack This is supplied by the This first-aorist (OtjKa. iSaiv. ijjca.ii\rt io-rarf or lorafrqa-av icrravTwv or ^TTdraxraj' INFIX. and rarely the middle rjKdfJLrjv for eiprjv. 4<rrai(ifv or krra. the indicative singular of the second-aorist active. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN SUBJ. TI'#J//U. Sei/cvuet. Ti#or#e. the shorter forms are much more common than 503. -OoipeOa. imper. 600 OPTATIVE. Ti0ot/0a. NOTES ox THE CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN -pi 500.TOV cordnjv fcrraiwv JloraTC The perfect means stand . and we often find it sometimes also in other a<-r}Kav St'Sw/xi.li]\i*v fcrra|MV Ic~raT 4<rrd<rv o-raiT< fcrraicv or i<rra. The imperfect forms rrtflets. 504. SfiKvix. 502. fStLKwov. -u/xt frequently have forms from a present in but not as StiKvvu. Verbs in in the middle . and the present indicative TI&IS. Plur. a^>-7/Kare.

see 771. see 516.i (8eiK-). and e7rurTa//m. ccfr-Ui for e^-zWat . set. forms etc.). generally drop cr of the eSvvw or iJSvfw and in the imperfect indicative and contract more common than eSvvacro and ^Trto-racro. ^iw. and 8vvy for 8vvacra. 1. 2. and fTTicrTy for eirio-racrai . lo-ra-r?. : Other examples of the dropping of <r in -O-GU and -o-o in ywi-forms are dialectic or late. but subj. See 596 and 695. .?^. ending I/TTIO-TCO -o-o i^vva/j. and second-perfect systems are in heavy- 508. .ai } can. For similar forms of i^/zi. and For the irregular contraction in the io-T]ys. place. and 8(iKvvfj. from e7r/na-(o-)o. So we find Svvy. cr of the ending -o-o is dropped after a short vowel as tdov from $e-(cr)o. show. 507. SYNOPSIS OF ALL THE TENSES OF riO^i (o-ra-). of the present. terry. knoiv. Compare 500. opt. ov from e-(o-)o. rem//u The /it-forms oYSw/u (So-). as (rvv-OoiTo. TiBov for riOecro i'o-rw for iWao-o . 6YSov for 8i8ocro.508 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN - 147 -Ooivro (also accented recessively. Trpocr-OoicrOe). (fa-). In the second-aorist middle indicative of the /xc-form. optative. t-irp'na But after a long vowel cr of the ending -cro is retained. For the peculiarity of accent in the subjunctive. liricrTy. poetic and j infinitiye of cTr/Dtayu. (from to-ra-ys. imper. second-aorist. see 1047.i . 3. etc. y from as el-cro from tiy/zt ^-(o-)at. 505. faced type. 520. 506. eto from ei-(o-)o. ACTIVE PRESENT .

iriWftTiv Indie.1 I'crrao-Oai Part.1)V - FVTVRE Stiff onai (511) Opt. Indie. Part. 8fc 1 PERFECT Indie. ov (501. Indie. 7 i PLI'PERF. stood ti PERFECT Indie.ai. sto?ui -S(Sop. Infin. 7. 2) - Subj. Imper.148 S AURIST CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN Indie.cvos SciKVVfJLCVOS IHP ERF. Opt Infin. ffrriffo/jLai ffT1)<TOi/J. Ti0tfivos i<rrap. - - Part. -KOcpai (trans. 9i]v <TT(HT]V <rrfj6i 8ofT)v Imper. Intin. Indie. 6& Ottvai Sds errfjvai Sovvai Sovs Part. Opt. 1) -fit 508 1) ferny.) Attic) Opt. Opt. I0rrov (501. (trans. l'<rra<ro -8(8o(ro 81800-60. Imper. -5(aabfj. HoraTov (721) ea-r^w.fvos (td(i>Kd/j. s/taZZ stand (473) frr. Infin. T^KOL reBr/KU 1 (509) i. Infin. MIDDLE PRESBXT Indie. Ti9uifuii Ti0cf|itjv Opt. Part.r)v / AORIST Indie. ffT^KOlfU SfSuKOlfU Intin. ) t<rrap. Sw Opt. stand dtSuKa.ai (511) 8tKW(Jiai( trans. - f PLUPRRP. /*/'. Indie. Part. I in per. not Attic) Sllbj. Subj.) Subj. 8orov (501. .

fvos 8ei^d/j. eSe'^v 6(S[io. 0ov 0<r0ai Part. PERFECT .i -&>dfxi]v (511) Subj. Infin.ai Opt. 0piv -Sou -8ocr9cu Imper. -8u>p. Part.fvo! 2 AORIST Indie. Servos PASSIVE PRESENT IMPERF. CONJUGATION OF VERBS IX ffrfjcrai -pi 5etcu 149 ffrrjcrdfj.610 Imper.

516.-<rdf. ira. accents the subjunctive and optative were no contraction (see the paradigm 498).r)v only in composition. (Sioofjiijv occur 511. TrcuSevoixra. 6t6o-u>. ovatro. etc.vf. For the 514. mid. iraLOfvov (not iraiSevov)'. cn-to-raio. and as passives. XvOfura.ro. -8w<ro/^iai. Kard-Af'crat (imper.tv <avw. not as verbs. see 514-521. 513. But the simple forma SiBopai. Xvdiv . SiSw from from ^e-a>-/zai. accent of contract forms. aor. TraiSeucrai (opt.ifj. as long in the optative mood.ai from XvOf-1-fj. occxir ACCENT OF THE VERB GENERAL RULE 512. Trave. 7rai8fVf. Kara-A^o).ijvt . ll'in'iti <>.irpidfj. NOTE. can. NOTE.i benefit). cTrwrra/iai. Au$et's. as drro-8i8ofjMi.). obtained. act. aya/zai. Verbs generally throw the accent as far back as the last Final -at and -01 count syllable permits (recessive accent 134). Thus A. -f8i86u. tVurTeuTo. drro-Xvov .LOfvop. Tra. iiuper.fv TiOw from TI#-U>. Kci/^iai (784) is used. TraiSfi'OL . the feminine and neuter accenting the same syllable as the nominative singular masculine as long as the last syllable permits. .t and those in 516 below) are accented as contracted forms. &i&oifj. ovaio.dfijj.T-fX. etc.) . (except those in -vrfj. tcr\ov. . cr^w. and the eecondftorist wK>//iji/ (from Thus ovi'vrjfj. Kara-o-^w/xev. Kard-Xvcrov.fv . Kpt/za/zai.rjv. dftfiijv from df-i-fj. eTrurrai'/z^v. <fra. and -f&6fj. Kara-o^co. Kara-Awe. OtirrOf from Of-i. iraiScvo-ai (SLOT. Participles are accented as adjectives. iraiofvo-ai (aor. understand. see 140. Ka.fv. Xv0f<a .) . SvvrjTat. 611 Attic) docs not occur in Attic inscriptions. NOTE.v6fJ. have the same peculiarity. Kard-<r\oLTo. TrcuSeiW.ev rt.*)v. a. the perfect passive.150 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN and is -/u rare.v0w from <f>avfiT)v.tv from 6wfj. bonyht.LOfvo~ov. inf.fv. For exceptions to the general rule.vov. hang. and of the present and second-aorist active and middle of verbs in -/*. The subjunctive and optative of both passive aorists. ira. 6va. Xvdftrfv^ XvO(ifj. 'F. Ka. . 7rauu>. as if there t : Svi'tafMi.iuAv . NOTE.rjv. (7ra. Kara-o-^oi/xi. t 515. Thus.i8evofj. &vvy.- mid. admire. iravrrov.rro-\vtav a7ro-A/l5oixra. from TiOf-1-fj. etc. 8i86-i-fj. Awa^uu. elsewhere they are considered as short in determining accent (136).aL. moreover very For The middle forms -St'So/xai.rjv.).

The infinitive of the first-aorist active and of the second-aorist middle. ridevai. /3e/3 middle and passive. NOTE.. 3. But not their ciTr-etTre. 6(<s. Also StSoi's. Inf.-ir\eai . Xa/3eiv 2. Ultima accented. part. la-Tavat. say. AITTOV iK-XafBtav.) declension with the masculine in . /SotfXeweu d7r6-XO<rai 0ai//ota<rai <njfj. irpiaurdai. in the second-aorist infinitive active in and in the second-person singular imperative of the second-aorist middle. 8i8otr. go.. AMTWV. These forms accent the penult. /3ou\t5w diro-\(5w &iro-\6<rai djro-XCerat iratfw iraixrai iroCcrat . e-evpe. terras (pres. 518. /3oi>\etf<reu ir\^at . Act. .-Tr\tl-ai .IVTO. XvQev <avets.vfj. (3ovXfv<rat. et'r-iSe. pres. when- ever possible. AeAv/cws. XvOeifiev. Imper. Xafiov. e/cAtTretv.fv. but TraiSetVas (first-aorist). imperatives see.a(3f (512). XvOetre. come. IcrraiTO. 520.520 CONJUGATION OF VERBS IN SPECIAL RULES -/u 151 517. cvpe. . : compounds 'EA#e. I<TTO. 1.. (TTrjvat. 519. of inflection. I8e. 4. The infinitive and . Compounds of the imperatives and the accent cannot 5. Tideifjiev. Act. The ultima has the circumflex -civ. find. XvBfirrjv.1. ejcAtfrov. AeAv/cevcu. Sovvat. NOTE. Ti#etev tcrrato. icrrato-^c. Xvdeifv. 8t8oifj. take. 2. rivet's. All infinitives in -vat. is accented like a present. as e-eA$e. participle of the perfect /3e/3ov\ev<r6ai. The forms in -at of the first-aorist are distinguished. The ultima has the active acute in the masculine and neuter of the second-aorist participle. These five second-aorist active eiVe.vfj. retreat In optatives of the /^i-form beyond the modal sign -6-. 8i8ot(v XvdeiTov. Xnre<rdai. 8i86vai. Avcrcu. Aa/3e.vfj. Mid. Trpo-X. Tt^etre.-w\^Ku ff. . Penult accented. 6a. Xaftecrdai. XvOrjvai. AtTretv. Av$et's. .dfa Oa. . yevevdai. SeiKvvs. dfiva.rj<rai. ei/xc.. eK-Aa/3dv . es. Xnrov. and -s of all participles of the third (except the first-aorist active). TifJ. by the accent. IT\{KU 3rd Slug. /3<w\e0<rai 2nd Sing. Opt. twi/. <av>jvai. The infinitive of eTr/oia^Tji/ (498). 1.A(ra. Sds. of 3. bought..i . crvfj. .

circumflexed dvo-Oov. 2. . irap-6i\ov was. The augment. 4. and pluperfect. to the imperfect. for the imperfect and aorist . Trpo-ov. also when the augment falls on a long vowel or diphthong which iro there.0ov. The augment 2.152 521. imper. irpo-8ov. 'Airo-8os. i. The augment denotes past time and belongs 1 to the secondary tenses of the indicative . dt^-iyfiai like lypan. It appears only iu the indicative. impf. aorist. but impf. as cv-dov. 1. 1. AUGMENT 523. shut up. 621 The accent cannot retreat beyond the augment Thus ijv. The imperative sell. The accent cannot retreat beyond the last syllable of the part before the simple verb. like i/v. jnd off. as eipyat. like ?x oi ' hud* irapirap-(-<r\ov like f<r\ov. give out together .. rarely in . or reduplication. set on. as a7ro-8ov. The tense-suffix 3. give 3. iuiper. kiri-dts. in -ou of the second-aorist middle of the /u-form has the recessive accent if compounded with a disyllabic preposition . Otherwise it is GENERAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB 522. air-eipye.e. trw-K-8os. and mood-suffix. in comp. dir-eipyov. is never omitted in Attic prose choral passages of tragedy. put down. never in the other moods or in the participle. AUGMENT Compounds. AUGMENT vowel e prefixed to . The syllabic augment consists iu the verbs beginning with a consonant. is is The augment in the indicative either syllabic or temporal. ftpyf. it sometimes omitted in the the dialogue. went. The reduplication. Thus remains unchanged by it. SYLLABIC 524. Kard-dov. The elements by which made from the verb-stem are : the various forms of the verb are 1. ctpyov. up . The endings. obtained . put in. 2. dir-cipyia. dir-ii\6ov like *}A.

i. NOTE. yoW. i)Xiriljov. NOTE.ai. also v . a generally becomes ?/ as d#Aew. Sometimes avau/w. ijvpWijv oiKea). especially in later Greek as . increase. t-Xvov. Poetic cua>. .-/xeAAov. letter after the e-Xvcra. Initial Initial 77. (p. insult. e-ypa<ov. sing. /war. e-y pa<f)6/j. also eiKacra. mark wpitjov.r)v. is found augmented more often than without augment But : eiKa^cu. disgust. makes (pop. r/3pi 1 at . eA7riw.eXXov and t. t. often augment with rj for e. liken. In Attic three verbs. (^Or)v. o. NOTE. f[j. >.r)v augment. yrovv. f-Xenrov. o>. is found unaugmented. ftovXop-ai. . find. ep-pi</>$?7V. r/vpov. d e i becomes YJ. . for the imperfect and The rough breathing remains unchanged. v. . intetid. dwell.r)V . fjyov. 529. rjv.Tfjv . ov remain unchanged. wish.r]v. 530.T/fv and i]-Svvdfj. wpicra. leave. f-SvvtjOrjv and rj-Svvijd^v . makes O. e-XiTr6/j. especially But oio/j-ai. . e-XeXi'[J. f-Xv6fj. iKeTfvo).531 AUGMENT the pluperfect e is 153 the reduplication. . loose. NOTE.r)v . NOTE. has arjSifav. w. ep-pi^r/v. 8vva/j. ei/ca^o). aSo>. opi^o). 528. be able. aorist. yKafoy. But dv-dXio-KO) and av-dAoa> have indifferently a or 77. e-y pdfojv iVw. t is generally left unaugmented. 525. aiTcw. TEMPORAL AUGMENT 526. vfipifo. e-povXofjLtjv and iy-/?ovA6/xryv. yna^oi'. ryATTicra i]. Initial 01 is dry. contend. in prefixed to Verbs beginning with p double this Avco. throw.LOV and the late verb d?. f-ftovXi'/Or/v and r r)-f3ov\r)6't]V l-8vvdfj. The temporal augment consists in lengthening the initial vowel of verbs beginning with a vowel. ayw. sometimes found without augment. f-Xfnr6fji. ask. rjdXovv. f-Xv<rdp. rjv. . yKcura. y. think. y. f-XeXvKt]. hope. cause aversion. o . . fp-plirrov . y y^acra au av(o. 527. e-AeAoiV?/. ep-pi<a .rjv . ixe off. liken.rjv '. Initial 531.8t^w. implore. fvpi(TK<a. lead. . NOTE. ivrite. . . . e-Xnrov. iKfrfvor. in later Attic.

flpya^6fj. f-fi8o-v. . make water. tlpirov. taxra. followed by . cru eip-n-v- cfKOfirji' eo-Tiao). permit.REDUPLICATION 532. av-eo>yov. (6) dropped. (v&<a and KaOtvSw. especially in Initial In classic Greek. . > se/wi. (. are sometimes found without augment. roll (cf. is for t-fiBov. creep. CCA. (i. w. Reduplication is a sign of completed action and belongs It is retained in all it is to the perfect. . 'Opd<a. ai/-w^a. aor. CtXlWDV. . tjladdfii. and future-perfect. elddrjv accustom. 532 later Attic. of opaw. and ftpirov for syllabic 534. <l)6f(a. etcuv for e-eao-v. ftadovv. fur (-ffXurcrov. see. (a) The following beginning with a vowel take This contracts with initial e to et as eaw. augment ayvvp. eiAxvera. or epTrvfto. . entertain.rjv. tiveo/zat. Most of these verbs originally began with / or o-. '. of oupew. Latin serpo). cuwra. NOTE. fur/*. ci. v-ll. push. ipydofj. keep festival. which was afterwards Thus eAiWw is for /cAunrw. dv-fq>\8i)v. i}Aii/A(t)r. find. and ei'Aurcrov : .t. e-iSov (cf. f<avi)@r)v etSoi' for follow. eiA<vor eAKi'u. and di'-otyw or dv-oiyvvp. break. <ooA. ('nro/jujv . sleep. ifaprao-u. the In verbs beginning with a single consonant (except p). fi\ov for e-eAo-v. . flpya- aArKo/iat. 2 aor. eiW.KOV. Latin vidi) tpTTta.. also when e or et. : Eoprd^ti). Also some Ionic and poetic forms and verbs (971). aa. creep.for ^o. saw. NOTE. 2 aor. REDUPLICATION 535. etrov for . (also ai captured. fvpuncw. pluperfect. NOTE. the moods and in the participles. 6wj/. f(apT(i(TOrjv . dual and pi. etavovfjirjv. open. tdyTjy . x ov ci$tovy (Wura. aor. work.ai. e-JAwro-oi' tiSov. vFor compounds of <bpairw.saw. ffafrdrfv . reduplication consists in prefixing the initial consonant e. eiortwv. tiAfcurfat' . tovprjcra. tovpovv.. is for crcpirta (cf. u is sometimes left unaugmented.(45). represented by 536. draw. has Attic tiaprafoi'. aw.i. see 566. the syllabic 533. Latin volvo). have both the and the temporal augment (u>p(av. erfAo) e/37ru) or with temporal augment) but imperf.

SreAAw. a-w.fj. stem). e-^ryrryKtt.fj. yeypa<^a.fj. e-frKfracr/JLat.ai. e'-i/'tvoyAevos. ZTJTCI>. ^^eipa). PITTTW.ai. e-(f)0apKa. collect.540 loose. tyev8<a. (c) shear. (^>) ep-pl<f>w<s. speak. ep-pi(f>0ai. Ae- Tr//. destroy. e-^eixr/u. /ove. etc. e-a-raAKOi/xt l. 155 e-Ae-Aiyzr/v. ep-. . Ae-At'/coi/xi Ae-AvKcus. e-^vp^fj. Te-6vKa <f>iXe(a. NOTE. Iii the following cases. 6 instead of the reduplication : w (Aa. ei'-Aiy/z/mi (poetic Ae-At/ya/xai). e-o-raA/zevos. e-crraAK^. et-prycro/xut. Iwo-fuu . has ye-yAvxacr/Mai and aTT-e- . eidina. re-Tl/j. c-crraA/Aryv . tp-pt/x/zevos.ai. c-Ke/cptv^. REDUPLICATION I). have said. e.ai. ye-ypa. rAvKcuva). ei-prjfjiaL.rjKa. . has Si-aAey/^cu Mei'po/xat (pe-.ai edifo.rjv. $uw. the reduplication is represented by the syllabic (a) augment e. e-^curvat. 6rea^. -CTTaAKW. i/-). edya . BAacrrai'w. But (c?) Kptvia. grave.ai.riv' ep-piifso.fj.ai.at. it becomes smooth in 7re-<iA?/Ka . (fJ-ep-). Tf-rlp-rjcrdaL Te-Tt/ur/Kto.'/ceva^a>. eia. e-(TKi'aKW5. discuss. obtain (Aa/3-). T-Ti/x?7/xcu. p-pl(f>evai. fp-pl<f>a.i. Aia-Aeyo/zat. Aeyw.pKva. prepare. e-Te-Tfya/KT/. in composition -et-Ao^a. eWurfj-ai. crrrjKa. accustom. e. (i0e-w. e-crKeuuKTy. fi-prjKa. Kf-KpiKa. ypd<fna. -o-TaAevat. cheat.(-). f"a. Ae-Av<ro/zcu .ao>. e-Ae-AvK?}. 538. ep-plfj. honour. Verbs beginning with two consonants (except a mute and a sewrf. 539. etc. .fj. Svpew. c-<f>6a.. .r}v. NOTE. which is doubled after e. e'-crraAo-o . -et-Aey/xat or rarely -Ae-Aey/zcu. e-crraAKa. 2 perf. Te-TlfJLfjKevai. . ep-pifj. ^o/ce. and in composition also -eTriage sti'ee<.vo<s. etc.fj. : If the initial consonant is rough. sprout. p. augment and with Thus this is contracted to . f-^vp^(rdai. in 526 also take the syllabic et. p-pi<prj. f-(TKvaKa.i 537. e-<f>dapfj. e-vprjfj. has Ae-Aey/xai. e-oraA^at e-crraA/cws. has ye-y\v/j. A-Av<j$ou Ae-AvKa>. Af-Av/ceycu. receive part (Epic). etc. NOTE. Ae-Ai'cro . The verbs mentioned initial e.t'jKoifj. write. liquid). sacrifice. ( . . l-tyrr/pai. e-r)TTt'][J. but Aeyw.Ka. e-<f>8dpKr]. Ac-Av/icu. e-^vprjfj. yMai. Ae-AvKa. e-^rr/Kry. ay-viyxt. cut. L-Xr)(f)a. . 540. re-Tifj. -o-raA/u. Verbs beginning with thrmv. The following have by lot. . Verbs beginning with a double consonant seeA. . it is fated. fi-fj-aprai. has ^t-^Aao-Tij/ca oftener than -/3AarAv<^aj. pus/i. the reduplication withdraw. permit. decide. e-^eiV/xTyv.

o-KU> (JJ. ai/>e'w. <a*e. ypi)Ka. ypiJKr). remember. C-^KTJ. (Ionic and poetic. stand. e- ptiTT(a (pl<f>-). But <aT7/Ka. 542. am accustomed. makes To-TTy/xi. with augment on the second syllable. form the reduplication by prefixing the first two letters of the stem to the temporal augment. uj/-eyy/Aai. -<rraA/ca. 7/yyAc(os. fp-pl(f>a. has (e-). am /tie. plup. The root i-(adoL. plupf. wfjLlXrjKfvai. (w dv-ewya. or o. gpt'jfj. and eoixa (from root IK-). i-A7j^>a. Certain verbs beginning with a. yp. ij ^e'8w. possess. announce. 'Av-dAio-Kw or av-dAow. 543. Kfce. dV-f<ixa and 2 'Ay-oiyio. of (older Attic) for (-(<m]Ka. . . NOTE. yp'jKrj. associate with. Mt/in. makes has op?. So "IT//U makes perfect ed. j 7/yyeA*ca. shear. e. &eep festival. ATTIC REDUPLICATION 548. 7}yyA/ii'os. throw. Pluperfect.156 REDUPLICATION 641 541. and Krao/xai (KT<I-).rjv AI/xw.Ka. 7yyyeAK77. 7/yyeA/wu. take. NOTE. iyX a > etc. deceive. remind. although quite common in other dialects. makes WK7. have the reduplication against the rule fA-pnytat. : or Aa/z/3uru> (Aa^8-). 7yyyeA^ai . wp. NOTE. . IK- makes e-oixa. e<. The root 0. ew/ad/ca perf.v-6. f'urri'iKij 547. 'AyyAAu>. (o-ra-). ypjttai. NOTE. : 'Opaw. ar-7yAo>/iai. se<. This is called the Attic reduplication. acquire. e.1. perf. ep-pt<f>T] .KTi (for -"lo-n^i e-rT7/Ka). i-f>pt'ifi. am 'Eo/jrafw. makes dv-vyAwxa (with Atoxa). (sometimes eopdKa). and e(rn/K7/ . NOTE. These two verbs have the temporal as well as the syllabic augment. When the reduplication is represented by 546.t\i)Ka. 2 plup. 7/y- yeAc77 tti). If the verb begins with a vowel. also e-KT7//zcu). ayyeAAw.VOL-). un-Attic a. ayw. makes fwpraKa. ]y- iJyytA/cej'ai. Zca<. <ai. rarely Attic prose. ycX(ro . expend.makes 2 perf. fltadrj. the the by pluperfect has no further change augment. f-^vprjfia. vyyyeA^v . the reduplication represented by the temporal augment. se. 7yyyAKa. 545. . ypr/o-o etc.r)V . fcj. f- perfect (in composition) for -KOU is 544. or i-<rr7. announce. followed by a single consonant. e-o-TTj/ca.

o/j. oA-e-). eynew. ayo>. plough. (f>ep<j) (</)/o-. oyu-o-). eA^-). in inscriptions). REDUPLICATED AORISTS a reduplicated form in the second -aorist. The pluperfect of verbs with Attic reduplication 550. vomit. . Tri'/x-TrA^/xi (?rAa-). the following are Attic collect. dpow. (ccr#-. convict. drive.vv{J. Pluperfect. the latter being also But all these forms probably existed in Attic. ea<. poetic. destroy. appears certain in those beginning with o. ap-?ypo/xai yei/jw (eye/3-). see 626. NOTE. mean- (ey-tjyepKa).-(a/j. strengthen the reduplication A peculiar form is ov-ivrjfjn (ova-).i . 552. This should take the augment. ev-r/vey/jLat Also a number of poetic and dialectic verbs and forms (976). for oVoj'7/yu. according to the ancient grammarians. give . aKovd). evey/c. lead. I'jK-rjKo^. 764 (6) . (dAt<^)-}. For verbs know. . The form dy^o^a is perhaps from dy-i'/yoxa (which occurs 549. eyperf. e8-). as wfiop. dK-t'jKoa (but 2 perf. Some verbs have : . 2 perf. anoint.oKa t am aioake (549) usually e Aa?Vo). . burn. with reduplicated presents. : 157 dyei/jw (dye/3-).i. rouse. 8i'-So>/u (So-). 551. benefit. as eAAKOVW has plup. NOTE. In prose the following verbs have reduplicated aorists 553. the second y being dropped. oi-. irprjfju (TT/JU-). dy-i'jyfpKa. In eyp-n'iyopa. roitse. . ing) of*. cause to yo. fut. 2 perf. oA-wAa (pres.i/oxa. (Ip-ypeiKa). vcK-. e'yp-^yo'/or/. as /3if3d(a (J3i/3a8-).for -ev6ear. the p of the stem is also reduplicated. fill.ai -.oK-rj. f3ifido~w. v-?. Ti-#77/u (Of-). eA-w Aa/ca. e'Av^-. A number of verbs have a reduplicated form 658. 2 perf. dAoAAii^tt (oA-. and TTI/Zwith /x yi-yvwcr/cw (yvo-). aTr-wAoA?/. 2 perf. Those beginning with e are found unaugmented in the pluperfect.553 REDUPLICATION Of these verbs. eS-rySoKa. oA-wAe/ca. 2 fyp-ijyopa. . REDUPLICATED PRESENTS in the present. (O/A-. dy-t'jyepfjiai prop. am awake. dTT-evr)v6)(t}. fp-i]pfio-/J. 658. put . uy-iyo^a fordy-ryyo^a(549). 652 (reT/xxiVoi). 2 perf. swear. hear. several in. e/i-r///CKa. . of eycipw (eye/a-). the initial consonant being repeated with t. poetic 997. In some cases the reduplication belongs to the verb-stem . tjXvOrj. Forms enclosed in parenthesis are not found in classic writers and and dp?#)o//cu are found only in Ionic prose.

throw around..ijv. frit. inf. 554 indicative *Ayo)..i. . irfpi-tpaXXov. mid. with temporal probably syncopated from t'ji'-fvfKa.ivw. part. set ujrright. ty-ypd<f>ti>. ay-ay w/xat. eiVety. tjTrurri'iOijv . KadrjfJMi. K(iidiKa (late) : fKaBt^ov. opt. a^trjv or '. opt dy-dyoi/xi. NOTE. throw throw out. iir-av-opOoto.\l/a. eiTrov for fe-ftirov first aorist riira.. }y-ayov.i. 2 aor.root (present <f>fpw. with temporal augment in the inf. tion. dy-aywv. yv-ryKa.durdu. ffvv-effKftiaKa. etc. fv-o\\cta. in. erjro/xti'os. imper. 4fjL-J3dXXu.<J>t(vvi'fJLi. to.ni'. clothe. Trpo-pd\\u. imper. throw away. 2 aor. . mi^Mtruot or . eV-. lead w.(for {tiTrco.a-pa. <rvv-4\fl-a. but the <ther forms from the stem O-CTT. The : following compounds augment the preposition as well i'iv-et\ofi^v. is ciV.r)i' for cre-ertTro/^v. O-TTOI/^I'.. tvfK. tKaOt'ifjLijv Ka. lead. impf. . these ' The following verbs take the augment being no longer regarded as compounds : before the preposi- A(j. . Q-TTOV. (Ka. -tTTundfLttL.Or']fj. - -. sleep. OTTW/WU.r)V and 556. 2 aor. Verbs compounded with a preposition take the augment and rjdu plication after the preposition. KaQura./xai. }i'-<i>xX. dw-^aXXop. iv-typa. . aor. for ijv-fi'fKov. 2 {subj. Tho used). throw before. iv-4fia. cross. <liro-/3dXX(i>. pi up. inscribe. ffw-efftcevdicq 555. aor. Airo-ptpXijKa. or behavt ill (in drunken- . fir-rjv-top6(Dfjuii irap-oiv(<a. i^TrurTa.fj. part. ffv\-Xtyw. . understand. ffv-ffKtvdfa. present Aeyw etVwv}. I'lv-e-a-^ofj. \u. i)y-dyo'/i>/>'. originally /CTT. subj. bear). cnretrda. .}. maltreat. ft KaOifo. dy-ayeiv . with temp. NOTE. prepare o-w-eoTretfewo. Si.\ov. CKa(Jfofjir)v (K(iOl(ra or . Before the K becomes and V take their and <rvv syllabic augment proper form if they have been changed. subj.rjv . f-<rirop. . endure. r/y-eyKoi'. sit. set. collect. cir-rjv-wpdovv. perf. karats. ay-aye. is for /<- Other reduplicated second aorists are dialectic and poetic (977). fKat KadevSd). send aivay. "Kir-opai (stem originallv CTCTT-). ijfjufiUfra. AUGMENT AND REDUPLICATION IN COMPOUND VERBS 554. sit. as the simple verb . Prepositions ending in a vowel (except Trept and irpo) drop the final vowel before the syllabic augment but Trpo is often united with the augment by crasis. Si-tpaivov. tiTroi/Ai. augment.Oefoua.. yu. Yfv- xA^a. a<j>ir]p.REDUPLICATION aor. dy-dyw.i. augment. . KQ.

muster. SfSfijrrjKa. etc. prelude (irpo- . waie 01 /MOV. NOTE. dTr-eoiyTijo-a. arbitration).7r-exw. The following augment and reduplicate at the beginning . 557. purify (KaOapos. prelude). : These also augment the preposition as well as the stem a/i^-yvoeu). t']fji<f)-e-a ^T'rj(ra. distress (cmd. m . NOTE.1.TTf]yopo<s). as if the last part were -cr/3^Tew (but the >'lfji<f>-f-(r/3i')Tovv. have no simple it 560.and SeStr. 'A-n-o-Xavw. 561.-. 6e wore tfuin enough . KO. work with. (e/i-TroAr). o^rrycra. V7T- (lv and consider. threat) . Tre-Trap-wvijKa. (ev-avrtos. . swear falsely. f-Trap-uivijOrfv. f-Trap-<avovv.at (late) .-TTo\d(a. 2 aor.ia(i) (eyK(t>fj. necessity) (a-7ro/oos.vT--/3dAow or r/vri-^SoAow. as SIT/TOJV. These are called indirect compounds (1177.. or r}vT-e- SoAcra 558. is treated as if were a compound it has double augment in the perfect and pluperfect. beseech (from dvrt and /2aAAw). reduplicate regularly as. i')fj. (uTTOTTTOS). KOLT-rjyopfo) (Ka. accuse. has ?. T]vdyKaor. Tre-Trap-(^vrjfj. 2). '. for d//.. and e^-era^w. a/x<^7-/3^Tco. praise.^icr-fti'jT'rja-a. t'lpyovv . difficult) . NOTE. deceive (dTrdrr). and also in compounds 48vffnfy(hqv (late). ojj- posite) 7r/3O-oi/jiia^o/xai. (7T/Dt-cr-(ros. doubt (from dfj.iov).<j>i and yvo-\ ijytt<-e-yvoow and ?}pi-yvoovv.REDUPLICATION which 159 ness). arbitrate (from Statra. Auurdu>. see the Catalogue of Verbs. cStdKovovv. merchandise) fv-avTioofj. Denominative verbs (1153) derived from nouns or adjectives prepositions. Observe that the following are . but there are later and <loubtful (poetic) earlier forms with augment Bur). rifj. c. deceit) ew. and Adyos). . : /orce (dvay/oy. earn. . NOTE. . Aid/co^eco. d). of /Jumo). steadfast) raise a/o/it fp. ly- KfKlOfJiULKIL Vt-o/)Ke(o (7TtopKos). KfKddap/j. f-Trap-^vr/cra.<f)-e-yv6ricra. traffic . servant). 559. pure).at. Sf8iw)(a .riA^.a. . are often found) dvTi-/3o\ew. distress) . speak aV-e r/yopovv VTT-OTTTCVW . pursue . They accordingly augment and ryvayKGicra . SeSidKovjjKa.T- aTTo-Aoyco/zcu (oVd in defence. w. compounded with ((rvvepyos). SUSped. (rvv- fy-Kb)/j. minister (from SIUKOVOS. aftofe measure) oppose . NOTE. forms. augments and reduplicates regularly. ?io< compounds . enjoy. : /i-7re8da>. take the augment and reduplication after the preposition. is very irregular. dispute (from d/*<is and fftrjv. establish (e'^-TreSos. forms t'jfjL^Lcr-f^tJTovv. W7TT6VOV 562. etc. threaten (d.

Sr-Tvxw. trangress law (fmin irapdvofj. wut/c a 'frtj/. Compounds of 6W-. I'jr-avrnaOrjv. but the compounds always augment the . NOTE. Thus only 6"w-ap(rreu>. Other indirect compounds augment and reduplicate at the beginning. SIKOS. again. See these verbs in the Catalogue. sometimes So also 68oi-7ropw. augment and reduplicate before the adverb : e-6W-Ti'xow. 7w>M assembly (from tKK\r)crid. disheartened (a-ftyxos. be displeased (which occurs only late. 566. i-fUT-e<apiov out augment. r^v^^r^iai. has irap-ev6fj. iv -7rpi-tr-<reiwa once in Plato). . -tjy-yvrfKa etc. makes t'ly-yvwv or ey-eyi'toy. The tense-suffixes are the thematic vowel and certain other letters added to the theme to form the tense-stems. 568. KaA<u>). Si-ijyyiijfjLai. : > 564. Compounds of ev.ovv and irap-rjvonovy (as if from 'AvTt-8iKew. T/V-TI'XOW. again. as KaT-^yyiW. travel. do </oorf. ija-iro \rjKa . cv-rjpyeTovv or cu-epyerow. if it begins with a short vowel. ha^ double augment r/vr-e-Si'/covi'. augments either i-(-K\i)criaov or ijK-KXrjcria^ov. 563 }p. Se-Swr-ru^^Ka. e/ctfATjTos. pledge. 7rapprjo-ia<yiai. TENSE-SUFFIXES. augment the adverb if the stem begins with a consonant or with T. KYlapa-vofj. or cy-yeyrjjKa. C&TVYCM (from c&Ttmfa). MOOD-SUFFIX Thus. 567. 'EK/cAr^ria^w.ai (but 7rpo-o</uao-u'p.e0a with- 563. 'Ey-yvciw. i/y-yii^fra. MOOD-SUFFIX TENSE-SUFFIXES 569. build (from (!>KO- house-builder). i}-^D- 1TO\l-6pKT)fJMl ^OSoiroiew. has perf. otherwise the stem is augmented. slutt d-6vp. is from and yvibv). f-irappi]<riabe vo\i-opK(<a. But they are very often found without augment. am 565.fia. Tras and pc-). irf-TrpooifJLia<r(j. part. NOTE. or w . from Swrand 8fo--a7rio-T(o (mentioned only upeo-ros). .160 TENSE-SUFFIXES. NOTE.-7roA(oi'.. besiege (TroAis and cipyw. 8i<<r-jjpe(TTrjKa by the grammarians. speak freely (irappr)9*5. rfv-rv^rjKa. Sixr-rjpta-Tovv. well. mid. 6e a defendant (from avriirapd and dro/xos). from 8\xr-dirurTos). ipKoSoiJiovv. be very disobedient. which.eh>. is from dvri and SIK-TJ). THEMATIC VOWEL. are the following : They . betroth (from fyyvrj which. or v-eyvv/<ra. JjfjL-iriSovv . ol toSo-irf-iroujfJLfvos. unlucky (from SUO--TI>X?/S). ill. ei'-o^eo (from eu and fX 00)) feas ^i T)v-to\ovv. a in). 7/io --8tKT^ra. fv-pyT((a (from cu-fpyerv/s). : But the stem is augmented .o<i). ( privative /tiOl'l' and ^r/xos). THEMATIC VOWEL. irapa-vd'OfiriKa. be lucky.

KOTT-TC-TC . t-o-Ta-re. 1. yr)pa-crK%-. XeXva-%-. e-Av-o-v. a-reX-Xe-rai . crKiS-va-. cr is inserted before the thematic vowel .(for -Ae-Av-Kei(v). (TKiS-vrj-fjiL . Svva-.ev : Xv-Oyo-'ft-. (f>a-fiev .-s.-p. TENSE-SUFFIXES. Av-de-. -Orjo-%-). Xe^-de.ev . for the formation in -0%-. . <a-. -e- 9. in the future-perfect. : from -K-a-.ev eiy>-r/c^-. M . -et-. The tense-stems active To these tense-stems as they appear with the verbs. -K-/ see 593). t (96.rjv. e-Av-cra-yaev . Xe-Xf. 3. Ae-AetTT-. e-Xe^-6r]-fj. and of the futures and future-perfect of all verbs.- AtTr-^-. vo-fj. Second-Passive System (for the future-passive see -770-%-). Koi/'a-. . Ae-Au-yuat. f$vvovp. elsewhere it is e. Future System : Ai>cr^-.rj-6rj(r^f-. f-Sv-v . e-Ae-AoiV- Perfect-Middle System .ev . x. 1041 for the imperf. 8.. . e-Koifsa-vro. first- -o-^-. First-Aorist System : -<-.ai . 3.-o-KO-fJi. Ko\{/e-crde. Av- Tlfj. or -e-. First-Perfect System : K a. It is written In the futures and -%. e-Ae-AotTT-^-?. This is o before p. thus. and aor.in the future active and middle of liquid 570. -KT.ev . for the rare plupf. XvO^o-%-. -y%-. -v%-. see 1042 . -Ae-Ai'-/ce-o-av.or none. the endings are appended. -a-%. T%-. -(I)(TK%-. for the dropping out of cr before -%.ev contr. 5. Ae-AotV-a-^ev -Ae-Aoi7r-e-Te. Xv-(rofj. 8eiK-vv-fJ. Ae-Ac-tro-^at ye-ypa^: First. 4). Tt/Avy-^yfre-Tat. o-ra-. formation in -CTK^-.ip.ev . 1028 .-. see 1036. a/j-apT-dve-re . evp-i(TKe-Te 2. crreX-A^. a. the pluperfect -?. Xu-o-/xev.apT-o. 10. Second-Perfect System 593). -de. or none. 8eiK-vv-. -av%-. <j>6de -. imperfect. yrjpa. e-Xv-Orj-v 0'i'jcro-fj.p. and v and in the optative. 1022 . in -^-. thematic vowel. -a. Ae-Av-xa-. Second-Aorist System -Ai7r-o-v. and second-aorist and middle of verbs in -w. THEMATIC VOWEL of the present.v-fj. Ae-Au-o-^-. Svva-fjiai. see 673. . -/<i- 8v-. aoi\ For the Doric see fut.for (rreX-y/ <#a-v^-. KOTT-T^-. end in a variable vowel. : - 161 -%-. : none (for the future-perfect -o$-). Ai5-cra-.v/ (3v-ve/ -. -%. see Ae-AoiTT-a-. e-ora-. e-Xe-Xeit^-de (for ye-ypa<f>-o-%-\ ye-ypd^e-a-Oe.(for the future passive . -va-. MOOD-SUFFIX For the Present System or none. e-o-ny-v. tense-suffix -o-e^-.. Ae-Au-Ka-/ii/ 6. Xv%-. -Ae-Av-Ki. see 1040.o^%. 7.570 1. e-Ac-e-Te. \wr%-. called the thematic vowel.( KOTT-CT^-). /3v-veo-[j. : 4. Ai)-/-. Xnr%-. -v<-%-. THEMATIC VOWEL. e-Xv-e-<r@e .(for the pluperfect from -Ke-e-. A-O-VTGU. e-Xe-X. ei(v). .eda. Ae-Av-.Pass ive System . -w. . for the Horn.(for Aey-^e-).

Af'-To>. AeAi'/oi-re . etc.(v. For examples of the optative. For -co. For -<o. : Perfects Xe^vKat-fiev.ev. lAwre-s. and the third person plural -crav . etc. AeAvcre-rat. <iAew.appears In the active singular of contract verbs in -aw. -ew. etc. AITTC-TW. contracted with the personal endings -(o")cu. XvQfoe-Tai. The simpler sign -i. . : in the following cases -IT/. See the inflections of ri/iaw. used only before active personal endings person singular has the personal ending -v. AVO-UKTI. -775.. For e and rj For a of the aorist 597.v from <iAeo-iT/-v. -Ave-s. (/ii-Form) Ti6<a-/Jiev : from Ti@e-ia-fj. see 588. Futures Atxro'/zev.. Ti6rj-re from TiOe-ijre. {575). as <iAo/7. 2. At-e-Tcu. etc.-. Second-aorist : lAuro-v. . AeAoiTroxri. Tlie mood-suffix and '-I/A'/C.is used in the dual and plural. Xvova-t for Xvo-vcri from XVO-VTI (40. as TI&ITTV from But the dual and plural prefer the simpler Tt6-tTj-v. becomes -u.before the In the third person plural the mood. ATJW-/ACU. AiTreii/ probably <i>av7y<ro- from Xiirc-fv : . AiVe. Imperfect e\vo-v. Xveiv from Xve-ev . etc.ev from Oe-at-fifv. 571.162 TENSE-SUFFIXES. seldom in the plural. of all verbs has the long thematic vowel -*/. much less often in the singular.suffix -ipersonal ending. etc. 573. NOTE. \ve-(rBat Ai'o-/zevos. THEMATIC VOWEL. -y of the subjunctive active singular. .-. as \vou-v (but Avot-re). AI'TI-TC. Second-aorist: \iir<a-[j. Future-perfect: XeXv<ro-[j. <av7yo-e-Tcu. . Auoxri for Avw-vcri from Af'to-vn . see 589. but <f>iXolcv 2. Bi]-Te from 6e-rj-Tc. but (friXolfu from <iAeo-t-/u. Ai>0vyo-o-/xou. . -oa>. (/xi-Form) 0<t>fj.ai. . In the future active singular of liquid verbs alongside of the simple sign t as <f>avoiijv from </>ayeo-tTi-v or <f>avolfj.or -i??. -ei of the indicative present active.before the personal ending -v. the mood-suffix being here added directly to the tense-stem without the thematic vowel .i from (Jxiveo-i-fu. OPTATIVE MOOD-SUFFIX optative has the mood-suffix -t.fv. Xvcre-re. etc. <iAoiTT(rav from <f>iXeo-ir)-a-av. AeAoiVw-yiev. Affy-Tai. . 1. . MOOD-SUFFIX Present : 571 \{<o-fj. The \v6eie-v (but \vOet-fiev). 673. Sofyv from Bo-irj-v.ev. 572. etc. The subjunctive : Present Xtw-fj-tv. etc. Xiiro-fievos. -ITT- The mood-suffix In this is case the first from <f>iXfo-ic-v. . . see 688. see 596 and perfect tense-stems dropped before -"/. A($O-/MU. 1. -eis. 2. X6(-re. AiVri-Tf. : . yxai. Avo-ry-re. etc. 588) . etc. (688). etc. First-aorist \iw(a-fj. etc. In the active of /it-forms. 3. see 668. etc. eXve.

163 . Indicative. -TOV -TOV -|Xv -T (-/ties) 3. 2.ev. -o-i (-0o) -Tl DUAL. the simple mood-suffix -i- is used.ev from Tide-i-pfv and verbs in -w. from irpoSo also in second aorist active \->')\vt>a . also perhaps in <ys. 3. The ending -o-t of the second person singular is preserved 576. mood-suffix as Ti6ei/j. and of the verbal PERSONAL ENDINGS 575. as 8fiKvvoifj. the personal endings of the finite moods . thou sayest. also in e8rj8oi<oirj from eSv/SoKa. is . 3. and in Doric. These are : endings of the adjectives. as Xvd^l^v from 5. <j>ave-i->j-v. following : The personal endings of the indicative are the ACTIVE MIDDLE Primary Tenses Secondary Tenses Primary Tenses SING. 1.i form the from from 4.l. -T -v.eyo-/zes for . The ending -TL of the third person remains in O--TI. 1. The older ending -/ics for -p. ENDINGS 574. as 8i8(DTi for Attic 3. (Txot^v. infinitive. In several second -perfects (723). But the dual and plural prefer the simple -i(f>avLre (f>avfir)v . from (fxive-i-Tf. 6.v$s (589). PLUE. as XvOeirjv from XvOf-ty-v. -vi~/u optative (as also the subjunctive) like verbs in 8flKVVO-L-fJ. of x w iMVoe. as A. only in Epic cr-<rt'. 2. NOTE.577 ENDINGS -i-. Xvd(-i-/Ji. thou art. as Trpo-eX-qXvdoiri. -o-av -O-0 -VTI (-0) -vTai -O"0 (-0) -VTO The passive has the personal endings of the middle. 1. In the aorists passive . and in the subjunctive A. but the aorist passive has the endings of the active. In other cases. Si'Sw-o-i. the of the participles. -jit Secondary Tenses -V 2. 2. but -crxoijtu in composition.ev remains in Doric .

XfXv-<rOf. thou also in some Homeric and in a 578 (r&a or ySei-tr^a. ends in <rav. The older -v for -<rav seldom occurs in Attic poetry . the 3 plur. NOTE. A : Philori. the subjunctive. as TTf-n-Xf^-dov (for irfTrXfK-Oov). -v for -/u is found very rarely . from Tidjjp. as \v6ij-a-av. otherwise -y in it has -/AI. 2. tlwu wentst . thou toast. In the imperfect and second-aorist of the /xt-form .aprot. for Observations on the Endings (587 -eis. -TI. 583. Occasionally -TTJV is found for -TOV in the second person dual indicative of secondary tenses both in Attic poetry and prose . tAe'ytroi'. as fXfXvKdrav. The subjunctive has the personal endings of the primary tenses.164 know. -ro -<rO<i (-6oj) Siny. and twice in Athenaeus 398 2. act.-v for afj. -cri. has -v only after the mood-suffix -ITJ-.dproi-/j. the following ACTIVE : The personal endings of the imperative are MIDDLE (AND PASSIVE) Sing. Subjunctive and Optative. frag. fTr-fTfXfo-aTov. -TOV Plur. as Xv6-/j. 1. -<r0(-6c) -<r6<i>v -Oi -TW -TWV -VTWV or -ruffav (-Ocov) or -ffffuxrav . In the pluperfect . -TI Dual. see 589. as ei'xerryv. EL 950 . rare ending -fifOov for the first person dual occurs three titnes in poetry XcAcJJMtcdoP from AeiVw in Soph. -ft of the singular. <f>iXoii)-o-av. 2. tyavrj-a-av.fOov from opfidtD in Soph. fcrraX-df.fo-0a. as fKpv<f>6f-v for e*/n'<0/-<rav. 2.Ti]v 1. see the 598). -Of. and is -t?/-. -trav whenever the mood-suffix as Xvot-pt. of the For changes in the endings -o>. 6). few dialectic 578. 23. irtpi8ta-fj. from oiSwfJLi in Horn. NOTE. for -v person singular . as fTidf-<rav and (df-<rav 3. -/u. but the 1 sing. In poetry first we often find -/j. 579. tyr-Oa. faXoujv . . fXtyfTTji'. 1. opt. as Tp*<f>oi-v for Tpf<f)oi-fj.fdov a. II. f7r-fTfXf(ra. frag. The ending (Eur. midst. appear in the perfect and pluperfect after consonants . 1079 . -dijv. The optative has the personal endings of the secondary tenses. 584 Imperative. Drop. The secondary ending used : In the aorists.t<rda. The more primitive endings -6ov. but XfXv-<rdov. 3. 6pp. NOTE.u 4. -VTO etc. 485 . The first person plural is used for the first person dual. forms. ENDINGS fyi-crOa. -j/s. Dunl. for fl\frov.uhfj. for -/z$a.. -<rav is 581. -o-9ov (-6ov) -<r6ov (-Oo>v) Plur. 580. as Xvdfiif- For -to. 895).i ap. !</-<r#a.t from afiaprdvo) (Cratin. opt. In the optative whenever the mood-suffix is -/-. -vrt. tftou kneicest . 582.

-s for -<rt . Avwcrt is for Atfw-VTi through Avoi-s A/'ot for Af'ot-n. but some regard the original form to have been AUW-/AI. -et. and finally -dcrt (compare At'oinrt from AUO-VTI. 6Ti0i)-v. For the long see GG4. the ending -rt dropped and lengthened to ei the thematic vowel lengthened Aooi-o-t is from original and Doric \VO-VTL through Af'o-vo-t. is probably for AUU-/U and A/TTW for has forms like e^eAco/u and TV\(a(Jki} Ai"'7/i-Tt. t appearing as subscript f(. Avo-vo-t). (113). At'crovcrt for Xvo-o-fu. 585. final stem-vowel (17. 589. . as Ter/at'^-^w for TfTpij3-8u. -as. 2. -cri becoming -s and the thematic vowel Avet is probably from Aue-rt. from rpifiw.591 ENDINGS . tcrTourt from tcrru-d-vrt. are used in the perfect after consonants . the additional Ailw-vo-t (85) . 165 but the aorist The passive lias the personal endings of the middle passive has the personal endings of the active. OBSERVATIONS ON THE PERSONAL ENDINGS 587. etc. Aveis is probably from \vc-o-i. 2. <?Ai7ro-v.orist Indicative: e\vo-v. Present and Second-aorist Subjunctive and Optative: Ai'w AITTCO-/^. Imperfect and Second-c. 591. see the Observations on the Endings (587598). Compare the Latin deii-m and letje. v dropping out. Present Active Indicative. -VTI becoming -wrt. -rj ably for 1. 588. 6t8odcrt from 8tSo-d-vn. and final a of the verb-stem contracts with -d<ri as Tiutdori from nOe-d-VTi. The more primitive endings -0o>.VTI becomes -dvo-t (40). -Oe. Avcreis. perhaps through intermediate forms Af'?/i-<ri and . and for the irregular -ov and -at of the and middle. -0<av. f>) in the singular of the ^t-forms. cAi7ro-/i. -?7$. . 590. Avo-ei. TtOi)-<ri for Similarly in the third plural of the second-perfect of the /xt-form : tcrrao-t from ecrra-d-vrt. triOi)-/*. The personal endings and the tense-suffixes underwent various But the terminations -w. Similarly the future At*o-a>. The third person plural inserts d before -VTL. w. . and crrr/-v are forcAvo-/*. . then -U. The first person singular has . and others believe the first person in -w to be of different origin from that in -/u . NOTE. -Oov. the ending being dropped and the thematic vowel lengthened. becoming -<rt (85). 586. changes which are indicated below. the ending dropped (Homer AlJns and Xvy are probably from Af'T^-cri and Avr^-rt. (Common Form): Avw is probXVO-/M. -<9wo-av. -ri : Tt'ftj-s is for original TI $77-0-1. aorist imperative active For changes in -Bi. are not yet definitely explained. and the thematic vowel compensatively lengthened (40). fcrrij-fj.ba-m with Oto-v and e'Aeyo-v. First-aorist Active IndicaiiVJ. (jit-Form) original TiOrj-ri.r Ai"ot-(ri.

2. In the singular -a. AeAoiTre. AtA&ry from AeAfcrec^vyvw from c'^Tjra- Liquid future and aorist from <f>avef-(<r)ai. thus #e-s. 3). 594. except in the optative. Imperative. -et(v) Herodotus has the AcArKi(i') from eAeAiWa. -as. . AiVy from Afo-c-(o-)at. -. ITJ/U. i\6ov from eAi''e-(cr)o. The ending . irregularly in -ov The second singular of the first-aorist active and middle is formed and -at. as <dVv/-#i . Pluperfect Active. . . 595. to w. -775. -ets. In the pluperfect active. For the omission -(ML of -Oi in the present and pecond-aorist /.it is changed to -TI (100. Second Person Singular Middle and Passive. and 596. as AeAi'/ca. final a of the 593. and the third a of its tense-suffix to . third person singular has. AAD-OTO. eAeAvsingular ended in -(LV. changed to 702. as AeAiMrai. -(') are contracted to -77. the regular secondary endings are KctToi'. e-^. I Ai'tre. e. XvOSprr) : from <J>avrj \vBr]o-(-(o-)ai.are then added. -s. in i-Oi from (ifii (775). In the second-aorist active of Ti'0r//ju. and in some dialectic forms. t'AeAi'Ke-Tryv. tense-stem is changed to e. -61 is retained in the second-aorist . 2) thus XvOrj-n for \v6rj-0i. see 702. as eAeAi'/cetv. in <rn}-0i and from tVr^/it (508) in a few second-aorists of the /it-form from verbs in w (767) also in icr-6i from et/u or otSa (772. 1. o. 2. eAeArK(r). TI'#-O-O. NOTE. AeAoiTru. -ct In the dual and plural. or v to For the lengthening of the stem-vowel a and e. etc. Perfect Active Indicative. -s. . added as eAeAi'Ke-rov. or v. active of verbs in ei. from <'AiVra-(o-)o. The second person singular retains -s for -o-i. . So-0. see 671. in the second-aorist active of the /u-form. ov. a-^e-d (112 . . Ti'#e-<ro. In late Greek ei was used for e and the uncontracted forms in -co.166 ENDINGS 592 lost all trace of its personal ending. oYSto/zi. passive. In all other cases. with lengthening of the stem-vowel a. v. eAeAv/ceas. i]. the endings -crai and -<ro remain unchanged in the perfect and pluperfect indicative and imperative of all verbs.?. in <f)d-6i or <fa-6i from ^>r. Afmu. person singular weakens The first person singular has lost 592. . v. eAeAiWi. the endings -o-at and -<ro drop tract with a preceding vowel. AITT for \nre-0i. o- tAeAiMTo. its AcAvKfXcrt is from \f\vKa-vri through AeAv*ca-i'<ri (40). they then con- Thus Afy from t'AiVoj (<r)at. 786). and X (0 > "^ 6 ^ 3 <TTa-6i . Ti'0e-<rai. o. 1. . -eas. and in the present and imperfect indicative and present imperative of verbs in -/xi . -eas. and -a.lost its personal ending and weakens a of its tenseThe third person plural suffix to f. suffix -Be. as eAi-o-a. eAcAt'K?. Aff-(o-)t. AeAi-xe. as eAeAvKT/. The personal ending. etc. 8o-s and o-^e-s for 6c-6./zi (779). In the middle passive. The ending -61 is always dropped after the After the tensethematic vowel thus Avc for \ve-6i. eAeAi'xeis. these terminations being of uncertain origin as Awrov.

-to 1.ai. <t><-h. 597. as rifj-av and 8r)Xoi<v. the scholiasts Attic and Ionic for -77 in all the other from oto/icu. the being lost in the contraction (48.(o-)o = e^tAeov. crrelX-ai. f<f>iXov from Ace. </><. the tense-stem. singular indicative of the present. Second-aorist : eAnrov (TrpLiD from presents = : <iAcy. The infinitive of the present. The first-aorist active infinitive ends in -at which takes the place of a of the tense-stem j as Aw-cu. 7r/aia-(cr)o. the thematic vowel (in this case always Thus TrAe/cetv from irXeKe-ev. evidently not older than the fourth century spell every -ei B. see 596. see. ^Aoi from 877Ao77-(o-)ai == 877Aoi7. AITTCU/ probably from Ai7re-ev. The present and second -aorist active active of all verbs. Wov from from Ai7re-(cr)o $e-(cr)o. .. as dyadei for ayafly. Tt/xa) from Tt/xae-(<r)o = ri/xaov. For o. . as Ai'Tj or Avei. imperfect. as ri/uw-o from ri/jiaoi-(o-)o. the -o of -(cr)o always remaining. Trpty as if from 7rpie7i-(cr)ai (6(>6. . wish. out 6/jao). of have. Imperative : Xvov from Ai)e-(cr)o.ar)-(<r)ai = Tlp. dialects including the Common. from At7rf-(<r)o. XvOijcry or Xv&joret. i 2. \f\fxry or AeAvcrei. future. Subjunctive : Xvy from Xw^-(tr)at. Second-aorist eSou from c8o-(cr)o of pi-form : Contract .dy. 2. .y from <iAee-((r)cu = Contract imperfects : CTI/AW from erf/xaefrom 877X017 SyXoi 8?yAo-(cr)ai = eri/zaov. and aorists middle.C. 1047). INFINITIVE ENDINGS 599. 3. 1). 695. Boi'Aei from fBovXo/j. while -et is only a different spelling for -y and is contraction of -e-(o-)ai 1. AAoi7re-vat.retained in -<rcu and -<ro in the present. 8oj from So7/-((r)cu ri/a^ from rl[j. future. when the tendency arose to y as ei. are from -ae-ev = -aeiv and -oe-ev = -otiv. eSTjAou from e87iAoe-(<r)o (o-)o = ZSyXoov. . AeAoiTra-. and of formed by adding -arOai to . NOTE. $77 from 6eri-(<r)ai. is the futures and future-perfect passive. TrAc^-cu. Trptw from 7r/3ia-(cr)o r $ou from ^e-(<r)o. of verbs in and the future from Awre-ev.599 (o-)o ENDINGS . is often called by The spelling eipfOrjv for ypt6r)v. Aro-y or Of these -77 is the natural Av(T6. <iAj7 from (tAeT7-(cr)ai = (^lAey. The perfect active infinitive has -vat which is added to the perfect-stem which changes a to e before it .. AeAv/ct-vru . Common Form. no forms in -77. etc. etc. Avo-ai-o from Aiicrai-(cr)o. think. as AtAvKa-. Contract presents in -av and -ovv. 697. 801! from 8o-(o-)o. Optative: Aoot-o from Ailot-(o-)o. and o^ei fut. NOTE. and second -aorist of verbs in -fit. AWT? from Afxr?7-(<r)ai fo'jvy from <f>rivr)-(<r)ai Xiiry from Ai7T77-(cr)ai . Xva-fiv -) contracting with -fv to -etv. form the infinitive by adding -ev to the tense-stem. -y and -et . 167 . The second person and future-perfect has two forms. rlpa from Tt/tae-(a-)cu Tipdy. AITTOI. 598. 4.

Trra-). as AiW All others add s to the stem in the nomina(AVOVT-). SeiKJ/v-o-tfeu. . Mi-for/77. TfOvd-vai . Tide-ecu.drops out and the preceding vowel receives compensative AVO-VT- lengthening . yvw-vcu. Afxro-iTAfxra-i'T- Awwv A&rus pr. \v6f-vT<f>ijra-vT- pr. eivai (from for original PARTICIPIAL form their AND VERBAL ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 602. Ar0}/<re-<r#ai . 8D-veu. ^ati'w. 2 aor. NOTE. TreirXf \-dai. 1 a. The stem of the perfect active participle dropping a of the tense-stem and adding -OT-. In the second-aorist active. SiSo-trdcu. pr. p. terra-ecu. \iirwv (\ITTOVT-). So-J-evai.of the common form ends in -wv . present and second-aorist and secondperfect of the ^t-form and both aorists passive form the infinitive by adding -vat to the tense-stem.to their tense-stems. AetVw./xi) TrAeKW. p. &iB6-vai. The present and Ttde-o-dou. see 329 335. 2 2 a. SeiKVv-vai (rrrj-vai (crra-). conmiddle of all verbs perfect sonant stems here taking the more primitive ending -0eu. The 600. rrttA-#at from oreAAa). a. Tre^av-^ai from <aiVa> (^>av-). from So-cr^ou. pr. ijo--^ai from 7^/xai (?}o--). indie. <?/?>/i'.168 ENDINGS i 600 for <rdat. formed by . i<rra-(r#cu.AAa^-^ai from AcAvdAAao-(7w : (ciAAay-). pr. eA^Aey^-dai'froin eAey^w. Ardij-vai. original -ffvaL. go). st'f. pr. (TTa-VT- 2 a. 2. 8r/Aoo-vr- nom. eo-ra-vai. d-ITt(TTa-'T- dew 1 a. Souvai. nominative of stems in -ovr. TfTpi<f>-Oai from Tpfftta. a. tive singular. . irrd-vOai crdai. of /JcuVw. The active tenses (except the perfect) and both aorists passive The participial stems by adding -vr. and in both aorists passive. upon which -VT. AiTrwy 2 2 a. <ai'>/<rc-o-0 1. ie-o-#cu (from tT//u) <rdai. e-arOat (from tt. Art-<rdai . 601. </>ai'7/-vai. the final stem-vowel is long. <f>avf-vT- <ai'ci's pr. f- Several /xi- forms Lave the earlier t>//xi) ending -i>cu for Thus #etvcu. is 603. 1 a. 2 n. fut. second-aorist middle of the /Ai-form and the add -<rOai directly to the tense-stem. For the formation and declension of the feminines and neuters. So-VT- Tt/ZCtW. i. as Av&t's (Avdevr-s). 6i- (from TfTlp-ri-^Baij Trcro/xai. /3^-vai (/?-.

3. blamenble. see 336. from 8e\ofiai but some have passive and active meaning. </ia< way 6e rfo. others only active.ov (/xaxf-o"o/^at fut.evo-) (XeXv-/JLfi'o-) Xv6rjcr6fj. The stems or -reo. blamed. Final and ^ of the theme become TT and K (80). 1. 333.a. inflection.^t. -wo-a. know). remain). p. and . sometimes as it appears in the second-aorist passive. ordered. For the declension and the irregular feminine in -via. e/SX'/idyv f3\rj-To s l Many verbal adjectives have as their basis a present or future form . Airro?. from deponent verbs usually have passive meaning as SCKTOS. derived received. /zevw.ai. or else it denotes possibility. loosed . stem tS-.to the verb-stem as of the verbal adjectives ar made by adding -TOit appears in the first-aorist passive. -os or -tos.-Tf. r/o) . AeAoiTrws nom. as <f>ep-To<. If the verb has no aorist passive. as /W/ATTTOS. (<e/>w) I-TCOV (T-rc from eTfU. see 329.vtTOS. of /Jia. fiyht) p. 3) T/H7T-TOS "jV (102) OpeTT-TO<S ra/c-Tos Ta/c-reos K/31-T6OS Kpt-TOS ra-Tos o^TttA-Tos ra-reos crraA-reos /3Xrj-Teo<s .to the tense-stem. aKotwros. or Uaminy (from .t.evo<s to-ru/xevos Tria piaynevos (Av^rycro-yuevo-) (Al7TO-/xeVO-) Al7TOyU. TOKTOS. sec 288. (Af'o-yuevo-) (Xvcra-/j. as KpviTTos. /ieve-rcos (/^evf-w. hidden. iV-reo? (wr-jtwv from ot'8a.ENDINGS XeXvKa AeAoiTra 169 iva TTf(f>r)v-oT- XfXvK-orAeAoiTT-or- nom. .\-ofi. All middle and passive participles (except the aorists passive) their stems by adding -ftevo. the verbal adjectives are formed directly from the verb-stem.VOS For the 605. audible. fut of /wi'w. form 604. < Ti/w^-reos Ti/ZTy-TOS ed-Tos TeAecr-reos ed-ros TeAecr-rds 8o-reos 80-1 (100. The verbal in -TOS either has the force of a perfect passive participle. For perfect active participles of the /ii-ibriu in -ws. Tr/adxros. Those visibk. stem t-. y3aAAo) 2. as o/adros.

as Avowi from X. -ov. some have only the former meaning. are of . The endings -p. tii-irolirros. as A-ftarot. . solvendus . untrodden. third plural of the active of past tenses ends in -v . Nearly all compounds of K\vrfa and irXeirdf. (Many have a special feminine form in poetry. Xi/rdi. Those derived from transitive compounds seldom have active (from pi<a).i and -<rt (for -TI) are everywhere omitted -<is. dicendiis . as &ya-K\vrfa. 4. that must be given. fftv-Oeros. O&K dvtKTol. and to all subjunctives. (Occasional exceptions in form or accent in poetry. bound with gold. to all futures . picked out . \VTOV.) as ^-euperos. 2. that must be said. -red. irav-ddKpvros. that must be loosed. famous. The -v. at the same time may express possibility . TWO FORMS OF INFLECTION Inflection belongs to the present The Common Form of and imperfect and second-aorist active and middle when the tense-stem ends in the thematic vowel. rarely in prose. verbals (a) Those compounded with a preposition. the thematic vowel o unites with the ending -vrt and forms -oixrt. \pvffoparoxytone 8tTot. as e t\nro-v. in the optative. as /JVTOS. intolerable odours (Thuc. put together.. and equivalent to the Latin gerundive in -ndus . Simple verbals in -ros are of three endings ami oxytone as as (tXi/rdj 'Iinroddfj. is 606. not to be done or doing nothing or having done nothing. In the third plural indicative present active. dandus. -i (588). well-made . as Kara-yiXaffrot. inaccessible . . -a-. -%. The singular of the present and future active indicative ends in -o>. sounding (from </>0eyyo/icu). . SYNOPSIS OF THE 607. But those derived from verbs and compounded with an 3) very often have active Finally. a-jrpdKTos. : 2. . 742). to be laughed at. 7. except -/xi 3.170 ENDINGS 606 Those derived from intransitive os. -reov (paroxytone). The verbal in -TOS. Exceptions occur only in poetry . as transitive VTT-OTTTOS. as Trav-aAwros. dissolved.or . that may be picked out . TeXe-/cXrjj).VO-VTI. expresses necessity. 3ia-Xuros. and passive two endings and proparoxytoue as e-ai/>eTos. 1. not every verbal in -TOS has the meaning of a perfect passive participle and (1169. possibility. are of three endings and oxytone -6v. . So-reos. NOTE. (c) All others are of two endings and 2. . 1.al -ov. ft. adjective or with a privative meaning.eia (E. many of these are of two endings and proparoxytone Several are oxytone and of two endings as 6fffj. and denoting possibility. suspected or suspecting. as Af>oi-/ju (583). . ridiculous. Aureos. are oxytone. meaning. Compound in meaning. 87). (b) Those compounded with a preposition. SiaBut as the passive sense easily passes over to that of \in-6s. verbs are sometimes equivalent to present active participles. flowing. as ACKTCO?. that may be dissolved. all-catching. most lamentable. to the first-aorist active and middle to the perfect active with the tense-suffix -*ca. illustrious. \vr-fi.

rt^eit-v. 8e8oT-OS ("fi02\ -vat.(-te-). . The third plural of the active of past tenses and of the passive aorista ends in -o-av as Ti0-o-av. the ending of the as AIOI-/U. Active participles with stems in -OVT.i. . The first person singular of the present indicative active retains the end-tri ing -/it. infinitive active has -eiv (for -e-fv) first-aorist . <?}v-ai. as (friXoirj-v (from <rav. The infinitive of the active. opt.v. (from </>tAeoi-/u). /3i}-di. Tt^t>j-o"a 609. 2) as Aue-(o-)at. t(rraVri from tora-a-VTi. to the pluperfect active. e@ov (for efle-cro). <^-/AI. 4. Av^-vat. f<j>dvr]-<ra. But subjunctives are excepted. to the perfect and pluperfect middle. The .. A*oio for Avot-(o-)o. eXeXvKf-crav. 608. -i/at. . AeAv/ce-vai AeAoTre-vat Aucr-at. Atkrai-/>u. as in Sos . </>tAot/xi person singular is -/At and of the third plural is -v Avote-v.have the nominative singular masculine in -tov . riBrj-o-i. 7. 3. a is inserted as Ti#e-dcri from before the ending -VTI. . as ACcrov. Qe-fvai. rt^eto (for Thus Ti$-vai. has -erai. first When the optative mood-suffix is -t. -<rat Tt#e-cro AeAv-erat. 2 aor. Avcretv. 8i86-vai. ACOVT-OS (602). The middle endings . (J>T]-O-I. NOTE. .609 ENDINGS 171 The second person 4. XvOele-v. 5. . . as enlij. suffix is -177. . and -cro regularly retain a-. Aroi-/u When the moodAf>o-ate-v. fXvfa)-<Tav. but the perfect active has Thus Xveiv for Af>e-cv. </>av7/-'at. as in TI'&I. nor rtdrj (for Tt^e-r^-o-at). 5. Ti#e-t-<ro). the third has for original -TI . and in others it is dropped. The middle endings -<rat and -cro drop cr and contract with the final vowel of the stem (59G. In several second -aorists -Oi becomes -9 (594). i'o-n. 6. . The |xi-Form of Inflection (called also the smp/<? form) belongs to the present and imperfect and second -aorist active and middle when the tense-stem does not end in the thematic vowel to the second-perfect active of the /u-form (499) . and of both aorists passive has the ending optative. and the has -at. as Ti6rj-[i. act. indie. : . Aw-(<r)a<. We-a-av. Rarely the 2 aor. But there is no contraction in the optative . eAi>-(cr)o. eAC'crw. ecrTa-vai (600). with which it unites. But not in the subjunctive nor as Tt#e-crai. The imperative ending -Qi is dropped . SiSov. </uAotev (from <iAeooie-i/).the first person singular has -v and the third plural has -crav . as Xve. eo-racri from ecrra-a-VTi. eAeAv-cro.have the nominative singular masculine in -ovs as 5i6Ws. usually in the second-aorist See 695. Xareiv . and to both aorists passive. . . forming -do-t So also in the perfect active TiOe-a-vri. Xva-y . \vy eXfov eAu<Ta-(rr)o. 6. 2. (671). 7. as (fra-di. 1. 601). Active participles with stems in -OVT. Sft/cvv-dcrt. <avei-v. In the third person plural indicative present active. The imperative ending -#t is retained in a few cases (594) c<TTa-Oi. as 6fivai (for Of-ftvai. #et-v. as Xlxav. singular of the first aorist active ends irregularly in -ov. AiVote-i'.

oAw from oAr(o. with themes ending in a vowel TTOU-W. fitvta remain. bite. some add 613.Ao-w. Verbs. The verbs whose Classes. perceive. 8>. as TrXe/c-w. O&r&fprOfKU. These verbs are given in 656. the First Class. a short theme-vowel is lengthened in some tenses. Sow. ZSaKov. SfiKvvfj. oAwAa. In some verbs of the Fifth Class. Liquid Verbs.vta (An/?-). seem. These verbs are enumerated in 625. Ti'0>//Ai . A/trw. t'ln-Bo/njv . AeiVto (AtTT-). 3. TraiSev-w. S/3-o>. oAAf>/u (oA--). ^ei'-S-w. but 2 aor. the vowel of the theme is long in the present. i. \afj. aor. oAwAexa. and for the dialects in 990 997. irfi6<a (TTI#-). <atVw (<av-). -ypa<f)-(a. as Av-w. 2 perf. Of these < to form only the present-stem (thus ending in -<%-\ others to form only certain tenses. the most to form all their tense-stems except the present. It is necessary to distinguish the present stem from the verb-stem or theme.rjv. 8f8ijyfj.172 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 610 FORMATION OF THE TENSE-SYSTEMS AND INFLECTION OF THE FINITE MOODS VERB-STEM AND PRESENT STEM 610. 2. but 2 aor. But in many verbs. 2. there are irregularities in the theme. tliemes take this additional e are given under the Eight . fut. Thus (jJUi>--\ SoK(-n) (8oK-. as o-reAAw (<rrA-). The various tense-stems are formed from the theme by adding Certain regular changes in the theme are explained under the formation of the tense-systems. Ti/ia-u>. second-aorist. Vowel Verbs. wAeo-a. 1. aurOdvonai (aiV0-e-). ncfuvijKa. but wavers in quantity in the other tenses. /m'-w. According to the final letter of the theme all verbs are divided into three kinds. 1. sU-in SOKC^-). oAAv/xi (oA-). AaKVb> (8aK-. and second-] >erfect. unrr-w. 611. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. as in the Second Class. but AeAi'Ka. X/M~-<I>. with themes ending vffM-o). eAv$r. Aey-w. Addition of Many verbs add to the theme. Kptvta (x/oii'-). . with themes ending in a mute . ta\6fj. &JK-). t8rn\9ifvt but 2 aor.<r07jIJMI. Au-).v. 8>/o/Aat.1 (StiK-). e&oa .at. In some verbs of 612. Mute ($)> o't'&o/" (&>)> yiyvMO'KG) (yvo-). mid. in a liquid . . These are noticed below in 612621. ap\-w. So A&o (Av-. Awra . IRREGULARITIES AND CHANGES IN THE VERB-STEM certain tense-suffixes.(3a. pres. rptft-w. AeAf'/xai.

as (3(/3Xr]-Ka. . 2. KfKpi-Ka. (Trera-). knoio (551). /3Aa-). of course. These verbs are all given in 730. as yt-yvwo-Kw (yvo-). rule in 39. Short final theme-vowel retained. in the first-perfect. 655.621 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS o. 618. 6. In the second-acrrist. prose fSapOov. as TreTrrayuai for Tre-Trera-yuat from 7reTai'vfy*i In the second-aorisf.(-#77-). from Trer-o/xat. Inthe/wiure. Many vowel-verbs add <r to the theme in the perfect-middle system. 2. KfKpi-fj. Metathesis. The reduplication of the perfect stein is. S^crw. 173 614. four in K/orvco (Kplv-}. as TrtVro) for Trt-Trer-w from stem TTCT-. few verbs of the First Class add Several verbs add o to the theme. regular. see 629. ereAecra. fall. 616. ereAecr^v i'ixOeo-0-rjv . a^^Ojwat 60 displeased. 2. bind. finish. lead (533). In the amid passive. contr. (r/<Ae-). 628. as TereAe-o--/>icu. number. TeAeco. except the present and imperfect. eVertAe-cr-//. poetic ZSpaOov. Thus TeAecra) (d\8-e-). is 621. Syncope. (Kpt-Orpf. In the sacond-aorist passive (rarely). : yeAdw. die. 3. In the perfect.i. as ovcAvy-cro/Atti from o-/ceAAw (<rKA-. In the jrresent.a. Addition of a and a to the theme. reAc.ai. dry up. eyeAacra. /3e/^Ar/-/zat from /3aAAa> (/3a\-. In the perfect. . 3. are given in 707. changed. The theme is sometimes syncopated. as 8a. Change of root-vowel. TereAecrywai. rereAeKa. These verbs. -Sometimes the theme undergoes metathesis. theme Several verbs drop v of the 617. as ITTTO/H^V for e-Trer-o/A^v xjiffdd out. eyeAdcr^v Sew. as i/y-ayoi/ from ay-w. 1. sleep. and first-passive systems. In the second-aorist (rarely). 620. 4. In the present. perfect-middle. as ereAe-o'-^v. laugh. yeAttcroyucu. 1.pOa. see Contrary to the general A 615. 4. In some cases the vowel of the root . fly. 5. as $vr/o-Kw (Bav-. reAw. Addition of <r. /3Aa-). 619. but These verbs are all given under 679 and (dialectic) 992.vtD (SapO-).?/!' also in the first-passive system before the suffix -$e. many vowel-verbs irregularly retain a short final vowel of the stem in all or some of the tenses. sec -e/iz-w in the Catalogue. 1. throw. Some themes are reduplicated. Omission of v of the theme. as e/SXt'i-d-rjv from /?uAAw (j3a\-. Reduplication of the theme. In the present. In the future. judge. Ova-). as Tmya-o/xcu 1'or Trerv/o-o/xai. e'Srycra. d)(_0f(rofj.

FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS Chnnge of 622 first-perfect c to a : This occurs in monosyllabic liquid themes in the (704). 3. v.6ov. as T/atTr-w. 694) and in some poetic forms (996).K-'rjv rpwytu (rpay-). This often . First or Thematic-vowel Class. rtrpa/ji-fjiai. (693. f-pay-ov o/zou. frt']\-6rjv.a. I. but 2 aor.174 1. pef-. in the second-aorist system of several mute turn. ^Xvd-ov (Epic) = J)X. <p(vofj. pass. 7. . rkrpo^xj. Strong and Weak Root-vowels : 31). flow. but 2 aor. corrupt. leave. pass. 633). show. . middle and second-passive systems of several mute stems (728.ivta (<f>av-). 758) . rraA. c. /Sewr- but 2 aor. but 2 aor. (rpc<f>-). c\rjXovd-a (Ionic) eArjAu^a. Fifth or A -Class. : . the eighth class stands by itself and includes a few verbs whose tense-stems are formed from different themes. cut. Thus AtV-a> Xnr-ov root (Awr-). AeAei/A-pu. traifi-ov. = ?</>vy-ov rpM^ofJMi. Eighth or Mixed Class. sterna . 1. Fourth or Iota-Class (y-Class). . : 3. Trefavy-a. e\fi<f>-6r)v. TT?/K-a. Second or Strong-vowel Class. rraA-Ka. is used only in the secondu or ov. perfect-middle (726). eAei'-o-o/xai. T/XVO) (re/a-). flee. is used in the other systems. pf(a (pe-. . There are seven ways in which the present stem is formed from the verb-stem.i. 720). sciui. Aei'^w. AeAoiTr-a. a. eAv^-. shall go. r>/^a. 5. (Tap>6fiT)v Change of trpair-ov. 8i-e(pdop-a (715. occurs in the second-perfect out. eerraA-Tji'. 720> . TfTpwy-fJuti. TTfffnjv-a Kpdfo (xpay-). fra. 77 or u> (with few exceptions. r 6. PRESENT SYSTEM (Present and Imperfect Active and Middle. the strong form. aorist and second-passive systems . gnaiv. ffrBtipin (<$>6(p-). 2. cppfv-cra. went rr/KO) (rax-). and liquid 2. have gone.) 622. in ci or 01. Change of a to rj or a as <j>a. frpaTr-ofjLrjv . cTpdir-rjv . in I. the weak form of the theme. 8. but 2 aor. melt. system (715.-/Aai. as T/ae^to to o This occurs in the second-perfect system . favyo) (<pvy-). Third or T-Class or Verbs in -TTTW. pev-). cry KfKpay-a In verbs of the Second Class (630. . According to these different ways of forming the present stem we distinguish the first seven classes of verbs. 758). Sixth or Inchoative Class or Verbs in Seventh or Verb-stem Class. 4. but 2 aor. and passive systems (750. as iy>r-<o. eppvyv. T?/^W. 4. . fut. nourish. as Also in the perfectcrreAAu) (<rrA-).

fj. The following verbs of the First Class add (yf]d-f-) all their tense-stems : e to the theme to form except the present. want (see Sew. To this class belong 1. poetic a<i)w. dvvia (Attic di/imo). the theme-vowel is long in the present. (632) and Examples verbs. Tpi/3( uvit) ft'i'. seen in future Sdw. the present stem thus ending in -%-. 8f-. 2. TTTU-) (pvtt) (u)t)-. duplications : The following have present re- yi'yi/o/xcu sync.d-w.-e-) 8o/<a> (SoK-e-) y^^o> Kvptw poetic (KV/S-C-) Also some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms. = TIKTCO for Tl-TK-W (TK-) TL-rpd-ta late for rerpaivta (r/oa-) for fju-fj. present stem 8oKf%-.v-) Trvfyw (rrvty-. second-aorist. /3ovXev-w. See 998. ?rviy-) The present and imperfect . I (Xv-. VC/A-W. The present stem vowel -%. Some themes insert e before the thematic 627. TljJ. Addition of vowel and form a longer theme. poetic KAi5w. as 8oKto.for Auw 2. : is formed by adding the thematic 624. for yi-yev-o-/u. 625.cu (yev-) ur^w sync. -ito and v in Attic in poetry either v or and -iko usually have But always pfOvu). Xv-) OXifio) (6Xi(3-. <rur\(D e^w sync. seem. for (ri-o-c^-w. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. TTT-O-) . <pv-) (rpi/5-.rjvi-w. fj.27 FORMATION OF TENSE. In the following verbs 1. poetic for /xev-o> 1. of verbs in v. Many mute Examples .VW (/uu-. 8r/Xo-d). : Av-w. of the First Class. 626. for Tri-Trer-o) (TTCT-. Trav-<a. These presents are : ya^eo) (yayu.SYSTEMS 175 EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS FIRST OR THEMATIC-VOWEL CLASS 623. dpvb) (Attic a/avrw). Tv<p. Aey-w. bind) .fi'-to. apx- 3. theme 80*-. A few liquid verbs as Mev-w. OXt/3-) /J. oY'O) (8v-. All vowel verbs except those mentioned in Class in Class VII. and second- perfect (/3ovX-f-) (yei'-c-) Sew (8e-e-). 8v-) (/v-j TTTVCO (TTTV-. II. <f>tXe-(t> } 2. rpl/3-) TU<PO> (TU<P-. : nAe/c-w. but wavers in quantity in the other tenses. Present Reduplication. Epic ravwa).to the verb-stem.

i. the strong form ev became e/ before a 2). all the systems.systems . (/2pi">X-a-). TfryKa. in 1. To this class belong : ( .ai out. SECOND OR STRONG-VOWEL CLASS 630. </Ji>o/zai. (ol\-c-). see 990.-f-) which add For the poetic and dialectic verbs Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs. leace. flee. 629. melt. (Tt]a.ua (TTUI-C-) Trep8op. Thus Ti'i\Oifv. The following of the First Class add e to form one or more tense-stems : (vep. see 656. KtvQtit (KvO-) poetic (TTtlfjd) Also some poetic and dialectic verbs (999). The short theme-vowel a. / was then dropped. vowel (108. The short themevowel a.) otSa (18-) TTfidw (irid-) ir(vOo[j.V. TrapS-e-) TTf. roar. In six verbs. rpi'X-o-. oi\-n>-Ka or O*X-W-K (Ionic and poetic). 631. present stem <^>cuy^-). confined mostly to poetry. T7/co. e to the theme for one or more tenses.is added to form the present stem. /fte/Jpuxa (Epic and late prose). : -ny/co) (TCIK-. adds o to the stem for adds o in the perfect. i.ai (TTV&-) poetic poetic (TI>X-> TVK-) poetic eoixa ('K-) tp(iir(a((piir-) Ionic and poetic. appears only in the second-aorist. 632. (irer-. \ti\f<>>. and occasionally in other tenses (633). v. v. given in 991. (0-) H AflTTO) (AtTT-) <TTi'xio (o"rix-) Ionic and Av/^(Aa6>-. Addition of o. pa?s. Tre^euya. but 2 t-TaK-i/v Aenrw . is lengthened to 77. A few verbs. as rpf'xwo-w. -/ ( -. as /3pux-a-opxu These verbs are 2 perf. (itada (']&-. e-^uy-of. 3. Tpuxw ( Tpvx-\ wear Oi\ofj. e-Xnr-ov </>ei'ya> (/vy-. AeAotTra. and the present stem ends The weak stem in v is retained in a few forms. AeAei/jtyuai. 628. aor. TTT-C-) Also several poetic and dialectic verbs. et. ev and -%. present stem AetTr^-). (AiTr-. .alsoCl.176 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS oiopxxi {oi-f-) 628 cpo/uu (ep-e-) /zaxo/zcu Tra. but 2 aor. e\ei<f>6r)v. present stem . GI'X-O- .ai (TrepS-. TTJK^-).ro fiat. For verbs of the Fifth Class which lengthen a short vowel in some systems. add a to the theme for the present or other tense . but 2 aor. be gone. Addition Of a.

(ircK-T^-). 633. In verbs of the Second Class the lengthened stem is The weak stem appears strony stem. KO.[j-. TuTTTw (TVTT-) has the stem TVTTT-C. liijhten. mute (TT.o. as eXnrov and eAiTro/xr/i/ from AeiVa) (AeiTr-. run irXtw (irXv-).%-}. fj/\cnrT~/e-. do-Tpair-. e\vOi]v. pass. fppvrjv and pm']<rop. present Thus 2. . sail Trvew (TTVV-). KOTTT/ f -.for some tenses.Ai<a from dAet<o> (dAet<-. vb. pco (strong These verbs are df(D veto stern pev-. /?. e-/5 635. pass. KaXvTTT^-. The verbs of this class are KfJLTTTd) K-AeTTTO) : pflTTd} (pl^'i pt<f>-) (KOTT-) (i<pv<p-. flow swim ^ew (x v~)i pour called the See also poetic o-erw in the Catalogue. 'PforTco (pi<p-. pef-. 2 pass. perfect-middle. The present stem is formed by adding -T%. in the perfects fppvrjKa. Obviously the verb-stem cannot be known from the present on account of the euphonic changes caused by r (80). root. pfJ'-. 2 aor. : eppvrjv. T^'TTTC-) caXvfi-) paTTTto (pa<f>-) Also several dialectic and poetic verbs (1000). AITT-). (yv-). (pto) and eori/Jr^ai (arc^3<i>) with t. T -TTTW . peiHTOjiai. tcpv/3-) ' (TK7TTO/Xai ((TK7T-) (TKV/TTTW ((TK1JTT-) (TKCOTTTto (cT/CWTT-) (ra^>. pl<p-) has also a present form /HTTT<I> with ITeKre'to (TTCK-).to the verbTo this class belong only themes which end in a labial <f>). but must be found in a second-aorist.i from pfut (pe-. NOTE. KO7T-. eppvrfKa. stem. the short stem is called the weak stem. 636. cover. (6v-). Also in a few poetic and dialectic verbs and forms (999).for the present stem added (plTTTf. or in some other word from the same KOTTTto.Xvf3-. da-rpaTTT^-. in the second-aorist and second-passive systems. Q \ __o/ lightning) e-/3 injure. e- N .a. dAi<-) . f)\ pr. eppevaa. weak stem stem p%-). > THIRD OR I -CLASS OR VERBS IN 634. St. e-KOTr-ijv r-i'j. CUt. also adds f.added to the stem and in the perfect. cut.for Oa(f>-) for 6pv(f>-) (rpv(j>- KVTTTW (KI"</>-) AetTTTO) (Aa<^-) TVTTTW (TVTT-. ptv-) with the Attic reduplication. comb.636 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS : 177 pv-. (KaXv(3-yj. if the verb has one. and first-passive systems of \f(a (x v~i X e-^~ X eu~)> *c'Xt"ca K ^v/zat. breathe pew (pv-). f) f-jA. dip. as dA-?. TW. hut) 2 aor. St.

e-/iay-yv rapa^- (rapa^-rj. (K. 037 (y-CLASs) to the theme. is from the stem TTCK-. //. the palatal unites with y forming crcr or later Attic TT (96. = rapd^-yta. confusion) three palatals undergo the same changes before mutes. 643. NOTE. 642. x)> 1). The present stem is formed by adding the suffix -y%and making the regular euphonic changes caused by y. stuff. 2. lingual themes with futures in -o-w . fut. number of others are <rTa^u>. see G46. Hence the verb-stem can only be known from a second tense formed with the palatal. knead. with . Palatal themes. or TTTTW. the future ending in -a>. Tapd(T(r<j) i guard. or have any irregular formation. pass. These occur in Attic (chiefly in poetry): aAaAau>. and several vowel themes.ay-y<a. the Lingual themes. A In themes ending in a palatal 638.and raS-. oAoAt'^w. ypvfra. especially all which have second tenses. <TTi'afu>. raA7riya. guard. sound the trumpet. or from some other word from the same root. present stem ends in -o-<r%. oi/xwfw. Latin clango). compress. cau. NOTE.a late present is TreTrrw. Tre^w and all other forms are from the stem TTCTT. For presents in 8 unites -<ra-<a y forming (9G. are in the Catalogue. <raA7rifu) (<raA7riyy-). many liquid themes with futures in -w (from -e-erw. nr<ru .17ti FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS FOURTH OR IOTA CLASS 637. but all the important ones. KAayto. 641. <r<aw only poetic and Epic (1002). O-TI^W. Also poetic jrAafu) (TrAayy-).) 640. NOTE. many To this class belong many palatal themes with futures in -w. cook. scream. while the fut. see 647. xpa-tja. 3. = O-^XITTW. disturb.K-y<D. The the palatal are : (dAAay-) ir\-i]<rvta also of Class II. The = <f>v\a. In themes ending in 8. Palatal themes which form presents in -crcrw and second-tenses with 639. complete list of the verbs of this class is not given . <mjpi^w. NOTE. y. verb-stem <f>vXaK/*ay-. i (</>i'Aa. = fj. -w : jcAafu) Nao-a-w. For presents in -w with stems in Sand or -TTU from lingual stems.(-TT$-). has the stem very. 3).se to wander. aor. -eta) . y. 1. The present stem ends in -$-. /. Some verbs with presents in -feu have stems in y. A These with themes in yy have presents in (KAayy-. <vAa/c-os) 2 aor.

If the theme ends in v or p. as Ko/ziS-r/.o8-) (^8/jar-. the y is thrown back as i to the vowel of the theme with. 7re-<pao'-oi') perf. carry. 647. Liquid Themes. or in some other word from the same root. wash. But many verbs in -u> with stems in 8 have no original root in 8. . (Horn. ^)i<7/ (dp. /xeAir-os) Also several poetic and dialectic verbs (1002).ai for Tre-^paS-fj-ai and e-($>pa.CIO IX-ifra FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS hope. lated to -fivje-. (/3ovX-(-}. = KOfj. but were formed by analogy . pr. 2wto. luus the stem o-yS.(96. from BOLV/J. -lv%-. -~<-p%. ya/tew yiyvo/xat (fp-(-).. <j>pa.1. am obliged. f--e-(f)pa8-ov on.vv-y<j) = (ya/M-e-). seen unchanged only in a poetic second-aorist. a carrying} . Oavpafra KOfj. //eAw (/xeA-e-).). f^pdfra dpfj. ///.8- (Ko/xtS-ry. as 2.vfj. which it is contracted.a--fj. /3'iXXu) =/3aA-?/w (y3aA-). e-rrw-era. as The theme is seen in the perfect middle and in the aorist Tre-(f>paa--fj. also in the late present viirrta and in Homeric o-cu-. e = 6X71-18-7/00.vp. e ATT is-. ((per-. rty(t>. -vv%-.and dialectic verbs (1002).. 4). cut. (-TTW) : The following verbs with poetic -. owe. (eA. Traty-).fi. judge KaOaipta = KaOap-yw = rei'-i/to 1... ()^Aa (e'&A-e-). 2 aor. gen. Several verbs in -fro have stems in 8 and y ap-n-dfr) Also several poetic TTCU^W (TraiS-.a. fut. etc. lingual stems form presents in late Tretcrcrto /3pd(T(r(o. epeT- gen. IWAo/*ai impf. (oiKTt/3-). is formed on the analogy . the y is assimi648.in the present.for the other tenses. save. (trreA-). has the stem vi/3. Epic and late ap?ray-) . so?/. it and the present stem ends in -XX%. as VMTTO/JUU. (dpTraS-. (ve/ji-e-).ai 644.a&-yw. ward off 649. passive. 5).a. NOTE. NOTE.<r-6i]v for f-cfrpaS-Oi/v (80). as 6a. (only pr.). epo/zai Oep-ofi.ifra } verb-stem eXiriS.O. K0fju8<f>pa. Ntoo. Tf-Bavfj.a8-. and the present stem ends in -aiv%-. as Horn. -vp%. and Sep-w. elsewhere as crw-vrco. 179 hope. . Some liquid verbs belong to the Fifth Class.vv-). vffi<i> (prose only (/zei/-e-). NOTE. belong to the Sixth Class. /^eAAw (/xeAA--). throw send s/iow slicar o-reAAto =o-TeA-7/to = Kplv-yta cr (Kplv-).T.7ri's. (Ka6ap-\ cleanse TCVstretch vpw = a.<a = @avfj. f-}. as reyM-vw. 645. NOTE. mid. : 646.(96. e ATTI'S-OS. 'O^et'Ao) (o/>A-). -aip%-. If the theme ends in A. . and several poetic verbs belong to the First Several of Class. f3pa8-) pe<r<r<i> (/3Xt.for fifXi fjitXi. NOTE. The stem in 6 . cvp-i<rK<i>. find. wonder. a-Tfv-ta. wonder is 6a.i8-yu> = <f>pa8-ini>.dfrt> (#av/zaS-). -eip%-.

<xr</y>ai'ro/zai for -o. see -v%-. TTO-. = TTt- (TI-. Themes as t in -av-. ica$-). 650. see 1002. Two themes in -av- drop v. and is thus distinguished from o0AAa> (o but Homer generally has the Lesbian o<eAAu> for o<eiAto. as re/i-vw. = KO/-J/W are KO/-. A They are: <-. often The futures KOW and For the Kai'<<r<o and KAaro-o/zm. omitting the thematic vowel. present stem KO/-J/^-. the present is of this form also occur (1002. (xat'-. poetic KAdo>. /. few verbs of this class form some tense651.180 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 650 increase. stems by adding e. /cAcu-e-) > oTw / >$ > \ (oo-. K(pSa-) TfTpuivto for TtTpa-v-yw (rtrpav-. By adding (Sax-. Class.for -o. 656) //. Addition of t. By adding -w%. cut. The present stem syllable is addition of a containing formed from the theme by the This occurs in various v. stems in v and p. 4).) = oi'Sew also of Sixth Class) (oiS--) adding Class. present stem (3aiv%($a. rpa-) III. FIFTH OR 652.for -v-y%-. Several presents In Attic prose. w . present 656) TTlTVb) (7TT-) poet. (Si'-. By adding -w%(aurO-f-) . dialectic verbs of this class. see T('W) vw refjivta (rtp. u(-(-) Also a few poetic and dialectic verbs (990). a transition to the Iota or Fourth Thus /JcuVw (/3a-). go.-) (<f>6a-) irtvto (TTI-. present stem aur&av%-. tw 7F". smell.vt/%-. Sapdd (poet.w%.ivM for /3a-v-y(o (f3a-) KepSaivo) for K(p8a-v-yw (Kfp&av-.to the present stem. stem ways. a transition to the Iota or Fourth present stem wr^p-avyofiai (wr(f>p-(-). perceive. and y is thrown back to the a. as aio-Odvo/jMi (ala-6-). BIJK-.

By adding -va-. and second-perfect.vOa. present stem fivvf. adds o to the theme for all systems as <3/z-o-cra. lose. present stem e/ Fill. 0-KfSdvvvfj. All the others are confined almost entirely to poetry. Thus (TKtBvTfffjn (o-Ki8-i/a-). In the Thus Xafj. poetic 8up6d to the 2. . By adding -*<%-. 6'AAii/xi for oA-vi)/xt (oA-. They are enumerated in 766.vvfj. destroy. present stem oAAv-).apT-e-) (a5--). present stem show.i (o/x-). (pad-. second- aorist. but except the present and future making <'/A-O. KWfCD (KV-) poet. touch. t/zoiyzat. take.aprdi'<t) (dfj. Addition of e. IX. as iWw (pv-).1 (wrap-. up.fut. "Ofj. . These add e theme to form one or more tense-stems.avda. \>.FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS V.vu stem p. (cTKeSa-. present stem crKfSavvv-). alcrOdvo/iai (atcr$-e-) dfj. end in as -VVJJLL (or -vv/xai) (493. NOTE. there 653. swmr.a. . rfrtve.i. and form the second Seinvv-). By adding -w-. present ya. sneeze.v%-).ai poetic 656) rvy\dv(o Oiyydvto (Qiy-*) poetic 656) 656) 656) r. The following verbs of this class add c to 654.are 1. o/xw/x-o-Ka. Besides the verbs of the Fifth Class given above. present stem TTTaprv-). the theme to form all their tense-stems. poetic and rare prose for 0-KeSdvvi'fj. Trvv6dvofj. except the present. class of verbs in They fj. TTTdpvvp.1 all . present stem Aa/tt^ai/%-). NOTE. 2) Scuevvfti (8iK-. Biyydvw (6iy-. some poetic and dialectic verbs and forms of this class (1005). learn. 181 stem. By adding -%. after a wwe/ -v-. VII. O-TO/31'fy/l ((TTOp-(-) 655.i.v%-}. By adding -w%- (for - for eAa-vu-w (eAa-).%-. or v or y nasal./3dvw (Aa/?-.and inserting a nasal. [jLa. present stem Oiy- (aS-) Ionic and 656) Aav$ai'ta> (Aa/3-. scatter. scatter.

or -I<TK%which in some verbs is reduplicated in the present. evp-Lcrtca) (fvp-).crfc%-. TTTdp-). 'p7/tro>. (yvo-). to the theme. i. tTr-avpio-Kb) (urp-) poetic dfJL- also of Cl. V. Aayxvw are Second Class. 658. (C17' SIXTH OR INCHOATIVE CLASS OR VERBS IN 657. Trrjy-) and p/yvvfu (pay-. p?/y-. AT/#-). 6e captured. 7TV#-). BpO-) TI-T/3WO-KW (rpo-) tAacTKo/zai (tAa-) (yi/o-) KvuTKO/JLai. NOTE. as fut -TepwrKw. TV X~> Te7 'X")' (TTTU. TTVvOaVOfJMl (iTvO-. TVy\<ivto ( . l)e 'AAto-Kopxi (dA-o-). but not in the present they thus Sd/cvto (8a/c-. aAo-) for uAl'K-CTKU) These are for : aAj'CTKO) (aAvK-) poetic -. NOTE. = -d/x/3Aow in composition (u/x^A-o-). have the long stem-vowel everywhere except in the second-passive system . vowel iu some of the tense-systems.?//?-). to the also They belong Aav0dvu> (Aa#-.) for TraO-(TKdt (irad-. (aA-. EvptWa> (evp-) adds e to the theme for all tense-stems f i except the present and second-aorist (eup-t-). elsefifyvv/it where *t-. as yi-yvw- .yv(i>-<rtc(i} know. These are: 8i-8pd(TKW (Spa-) fjii-fj. miscarry. present stem evpt. pwy-) tfv 7~\ ifff/vvfu (Tray-. aV- dAo-) 659. Consonant Stems. (KV-) II. Final o of the theme becomes u> theme before -<TK^-. Ova-) - (irepa-. Vowel Stems. has /uy.P-. but very few have au inchoative meaning. in want. present stem their resemblance to the Latin inchoative verbs in This class of verbs has been called inchoative or inceptive on account of -sco. 660. Thus yt. add o to the d/i/^Aur<(D for all systems except the present . A.vi'](TK<i).) (dv-dA-. y//z/3A-w-<ra. Trpa-) 71) poetic dpWTKd) (Bop-. (Aay-. find. and . is from <rre/>-. The present stem is formed by adding -<TK%. irtvO-. as dA-ci-<ro/iai. : 2 perf.183 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 656 Some verbs of the Fifth Class lengthen a short stcin656. VIII. ei'pwrKO) (ei'p-c-) AUO-KW for (Aa/c-) poetic also of Cl.in the second-perfect and second-passive systems. 8rjK-). has all other stems a present from as the theme -ii-'^ crrepyo-to orepc-. NOTE. I. older older (Oav-. A>/X-)> Aa/z/JdVw (Aa/2-. r r yi yv(ocrK%- .

/Wos. ri-Of-o-Be. and tdp(a are poetic and 4>/3w (<e/o-.(Latin ver-bum. rj'p'rjKa. 8pap. Ti-6(-T(. poetic oTTWTra. as Si-S/au-o-Kw (Spa-}./tai /c-//3^-/iat. . ea< . oi-.at. TTO-).n.(poetic CTTOS . fXoip. say. (e/3X and the imperfect are usually borrowed from e?/zi fut. 2 aor. latum. t' ourw aor. 18. IXtjXvOa eSo/iat 2 aor. saw. Ti-@e-fj. . Here belong all verbs in -pi except those in in 764-766. The verb-stem. given in 1006. eV^ aor. ypeOr^v . fjXQov perf.i. They aya-fiai (aya-). = word) . see opa<a below.i reduplicated. evK-. The dialectic and poetic verbs and forms of this class are SEVENTH OR VERB-STEM CLASS 662. tiopdKa.ev. i^vey/ca . 2 perf. e . aipi'jcru>.ai. . no present pert'. tv-i/i/ox** perf. 2 perf.i. Trev^-). etc. perf. is the present stem. sometimes (f>rj/j. -67rfe-fcir. TLfvto drink r . tnli. e/3. "Epxo/^ai participle. EITTOV (CITT-. (TTL-. firadov. SM/fr . and e^eyK-). 1 aor. > = = etjOr. pt- is for //ae-. Treicro/iai for TrtvO-a-o-p-at .va-\ remind. fXe. Lat. mid. CTTIOV. shall go (7 7 5).is for Pep. aor. the other moods. perf. TTfTTovBa .i. etira. fut. perf. in prose. eXelv. pass.ji. . 2 perf. verb. . eipry/xat . . for The stem etTr. Thus (<a-). yprjfj. . Ti-de-VTat 6Y-8w-/xi (So-). { Attic fut. (p. (ecr^-. o^-o/zat . IA. by reduplication and syncope . and (dialectic) in 1064. -rjSea-drjv 2 aor. are enumerated EIGHTH OR MIXED CLASS 663. . perf. <a-re . NOTE. -- final a sometimes becomes a or rj.lpeia (alpe-. 'O/jaw (opa-. ri-Oe-^v. the e'Aev^-. eppi]0r)v . perf. perf. OTT-. 'Eo-#io> ISr/Sea-ftat . . and the English go. Several essentially different stems belong to the same Compare the Latin fero. sf or t5/x/xat . fut. Ti-$r. ci'-evex. mid. fut. <$>a-p. 2 aor.}. \0-\ go. very rare in prose (777) } . <ay-). pass.663 <TKO> FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS (y i/o-) . is etp. 2 aor. 8-.ai. 183 run away.-/u (Of-). fXvO-. TreTrwKa fut.is eiprjKa. fut. A. eJSov {i8w. EiSov. irt'o/tat . T/)X W ( TP (stem Spa/x-e-) late.-). . (e/oew) e/ow . fut. etc. mid.ovp. fut. . e'^ayov. /ero /^. fSpapov 6fy>ew. &(f>8r)v IIcto-x w (TTW^-. aor. take. eo^/SoKa . ep-. pass.for /tS-). pass.at . second aorist. 8pafji-e-) 2 aor. 8i-8o-[iev -vvfj.aL. Seo'/sa/zT/Ka . 661. ft'>l>t~i. . fXiov}. 6ear. ?5oi/xi. 2 aor. pe-\ spoke.i. aor. $peop. X' f ^P X' l^^. went. word) . elXov {(Xw.

L made as of verbs in -/ni. The subjunctive has the long thematic vowel 666. and endings to the stem in -%-. -. if from contract verbs. see 596. terry from Mrra-7.t (So-). faLivys. -oxrt.. to-rys from icrra-ys (1047). the imperfect is inflected by adding the secondary personal For the present singular in -w. Indicative. rt^y from Ti#-j/((r)ai. fat. NOTE. see 588. etc. and for the third plural of -%-.of the personal endings -o-ou and -<ro dropped. 1. ICTTW.Si8(Dfj.. Subjunctive.. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS w/jia-). mid. and -<ro retained. from -a-vrt. 8t6\2 from 8t8o-w. see 588. <f>aivy y (fxtivtofifv. for o. -ys. 2. . see 500. see 596. STTT//XI (ora-). c. or o) of the tense-stem is contracted with the long thematic vowel -%.s. (Common Form). -y 665. 2. (Mt-Jbn). 1 . perf. 2. wrTTyrai from wrra-^Tat (1047. The final vowel (a. 1047). -y. wrry from to-ra-y. <f>aivy for ^aao/rat. </>euVa>/>wu. For -<rai -o. For several active forms of verbs in -/J. for the second person singular -y for -i]-<rai.takes the place For the active singular -w. see 597. etc.and the primary personal endings. riOta from nBf-w. mid. inHected by adding the primary personal endings to the present stem in -%-. 8iBwfiat from 8t8o-w/xai.from -o-i.184 (<ive-. The present indicative adds the primary endings the imperfect indicative adds the secondary endings. uK>//iai e<iv?pra/A)7v is late. 8t8o? from 8i5o-7/(er)ai. etc. see 503. Verbs in viyxi form the subjunctive (and optative) like verbs in -w. See also the paradigm of \w. StSwrat from . (Mi-Form). v to v).(<r)ai. (Common Form). &aivu>.in -trou and -<ro singular middle. but final a irregularly contracts with t) and jj to ?/ and y (the Ionic has subjunctives in -ew for -aw. subj. see 589 . 664 aor. etc. <f>aimj-(<r)at. For the two forms and - of the second person For the irregular dropping of a. 2 aor. INFLECTION* The present indicative is 664. wioycro/zai . 2 . for o. -c/. <f>aiv<i>. -a-o-i 1. with -a-av in the third plural. Ionic has open forms like cTrio-Te-tovTat fo'r Attic tirio-TtavTai from cTrurTa. o to w. 8t8ws from SiSo-y?. The long thematic vowel -%. -%. For forms of verbs in -iyzi from presents in -vw. See also the paradigm of Ai-w. . St&p from . 1. ri^w/Mai. The final vowel of the tense-stem : is lengthened in the singular of tlie indicative active (& and e to 77. see 506. . see 596. enyna/o/v (498) . the third plural in -oiwi. TiTfy/xi (Ot-\ subj. 2. -o-t from -ri. .in See also the paradigms in 498. subj. n^y? from TiQe-ys etc. pass.

^ from Ti6f-i-/j. o to ov.. Kpf[j. . 670.fj. see 616.a-/j.oifj. The optative has the secondary personal endings . or ri$eiV from rtdfio from riBe-i-o = ride-i-a-o (596. but the first person singular has the ending -/u for -v whenever the mood-suffix is -i-. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS . The imperative endings are added to the tense671. rt/xa-o-i-o = Tl/j-a-o-i-aro (478. hawj. . opt. . 669. . Ti6f-trj-v . rlfj-a-o-irj-v TtyMOjyur^v 0-i-fj. The optative has the mood-suffix 668. see 504 and 771. Tt^e-ie-v 8i8otr/v from Ti^e-ir^-yuev. . Optative.Form. 3. .a-oi-(jLi. rlp. SeiKvvfjii (Set*-. NOTE. AVOID from Avo-i-o = Avo-i-o-o Xvoifjirjv SeiKvf'/u. v to i~. or ri6cit][j. shiver. For the irregular accent in the subjunctive (and optative) of Svva-ft. see 516. 2. For a of the personal . 667.1 8i]Xoir)V from 8^Ao-o-y-v. The final vowel of the tense-stem contracts with the mood-irj- suffix (p : o-/.ev from ndf-itj-crav.rjv TI/ZWO from Tt/za-oi-o. verbs in -w. NOTE.r)v from 8t8o-i?^-v. e-i gives ei . Ai5oi from from Xvo-i-uev. . precedes the mood-suffix.a-ot-s . stem Seixvu-). 2). etc. . IfrTair/v from to-ra-irj-v. See 498. S^Ao-o-i-ytxi See SijX. In the /xi-form. see 515. Af'oiev from Xvo-te-v from Xvo-i-/j. 573. The third person plural has -o-av after the mood-suffix -irj-. subj. etc. Imperative. (friXe-o-irj-v from 8^Ao-oi-/xt.ai. In the common form.ai. SCIKVVOIS from SCIKVVO-I-S. For the accent of the /xi-forms. : . Xvoifj-ev .!.rjv. 185 SCIKVVW. can. and i8/odw. <^>iA-o-i-/xi </>tAoir/v from <iAe-o. ao-t gives while o. 2) Ttdeifj. the thematic vowel. admire. stem.a-fj. see For the optative middle of TI^/XI and itry/xt occasionally formed as in 481. from Tlfj.r)v. fTria-Ta-aai. 461 and 477 XVO-L. For the For the accent of the /u.fv Tideiijcrav .671 8i8o-r)Tai. verbs in -i/v/u form the optative (and subjunctive) like verbs in -w. Ti^a-o-t-/at rtynws from ri/xa-oi-s. firurra. 1.ai. Ti6f-i-fj. Common Form. -i-(-ie-) or added to the tense-stem. is then lengthened e to et. and aya-/zat. oo-i.aTifupijv from Tlfj. Presents) TI/XCO/U from Tlp.of the personal ending -o-o is dropped (596).according to 572. For the optative of /jtydw.forms. it being -i-(-ie-) or -07. Tideifj-ev from . Ip.at. understand. Mi-. here always o. AUDI? from Auo-t-s.-v. see 515. and <xya-/uai. and eo-t give ot . from 8eiKVvo-i-fjLi. NOTE.ai. 596. 3. (through aoi) Avoifii from Auo-i-/*i. Kpefj. 8eiKvvrj. -Oi is always omitted. <iAoi/u from ^)tA-oi-yu. pres. sweat. . irregular accent in the optative (and subjunctive) of 8vva. (Contract SfiKvyoifj. a-t gives at . Xvotre from Af'o-i-re.a-oir]-v.t. -61 is also : omitted (672).a-oi-fj. ndfir/v from . the common form of inflection. and the preceding stem-vowel a to ?/. etc.-fj. Tl(j. etc.

from o?8a. . Common Form. (80-).is added to the strong form of the theme. <f>aive-Tov. permit. </o (775) <a-#i The ending -o-o or <a-#t from <^. 1./^t. rlp. ea-o. . Tt/zvy-crw.i]-<Top. <f>aiv6-vTu>v or ^aive-Taxrai' MTTTJ. v to v but & preceded by e. etc. The only presents which retain -#t are icr-0i from ei/xi. <CUV-TW. Awrots. . FUTURE SYSTEM and Middle. 2. d-froyu.. jft've. Thus a and e are lengthened to ?/. Aw-ercu. A/tf/e ^er/?s. etc. 8eiKvv-(ro. o to w. Vowel verbs. : A&reis. Awroi. <f>atvf-T(. The -<r%- future . i. etc. 8. see 772 and 786) l-Qi from ct/ui. honour. and some dialectic forms. II. dvid-o-o/iat 8pd-crofia. a-io. do. 2). : optative Avo-oijiu. common Awrei. In verbs of the Second Class.(for -e-<r%-) to the theme. .) the tense-suffix (Future. x) and labial mutes (T.L Tri'f-. distress. put. say (779). etc.according to 39. The inflection is like that of the to the theme present of the A/xr<o. rl&t. 8i'8ov. AWTOI/A^V. AVCTO/ACU. see 596.ai. 8i8o-Ta> . \va-y or Avcrei. . Active 673. ^atve-rwv. ATUCTOITO. O .at aria-w. : 672. tcrrd-TO). etc.186 ending -ero FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS dropped in the 672 common form. NOTE. Avov for Ave-o = Af't-<ro (596. irvfv-<rofj. . fe (also . etc. y. Sr/Ao-to. -a-%. 8pd-(a. by adding -e%. 2). Aue-tr^w. l to i.ai (<rro-). rid(-<ro. Si'8o-<ro. or p becomes d. breathe. (TT. Ti#e-Tio . &?JOM>. Dental mutes 0) drop out before <r. Mi-form. (d(-). ^>) coalesce with o- to form or <. td-trw. ^8. 8pd-<rta. drops <r in a few poetic forms (506. Awroio. Vowel stems regularly lengthen a short final vowel before the tense-suffix -0-%. ^cuve. and retained in the /xt-form. TTVV-). dVid-<ra>. fora-o-o. Palatal mutes (K. e#. etc. stem is made by adding in liquid verbs. form.

rffj-d. . Tev-c-crw. : 1. K/OIVW.. .ai (jpf{j/o/j. /3Aa7TTW (/3Xaf3-\ injure. rcv-e-w. -*E^o> (cre^-.thereupon <r Liquid stems insert The tense-suffix thus appears drops out and contraction takes place. -tjKpoaa-d^v. arrange. NOTE. persuade. NOTE. aXio-a-ofj-ai.. . as e'0eAo> 674. as -e$. Tapd<a. drink.i'0) (xplv-). bore. retained by some verbs throughout (615). ) Sepia. Tau). NOTE. Kpii'o) Te/j.Xovfj. as yAdf-a>. XfLTT-). iw's/i. Aei^w. Kpt. trpijcra. So also Ter/aaij/w (rpa-). laugh. KJ'/JO-W. 2 JOMri fllt TTT-C-). crreAw. . opcrw. the present fut TTiofj. XP aa*t y' also \pdo/j. (102) KOTTTti) (KOTT-). cr</)aAal. x^ w (X v'i X e^"> X ev ") Ilero/aat (TTCT-C-. TT/VW (TTI-). Tffj. 6e captured. <r*p. yeA<<rofj. eye \a-tra. write. oep-e-vw.a<. NOTE. fla yi Kpiv-e-a-w. Aey-w. corre- 678. 675. crreAou/xat (TCV-). syncopated Trr/ya-o/iai. /tave. 3.-f-a'ta. Tpe<j)-(D. K^U (Kvp-\ and Spvvut (op-). revw. (otp-). (TfXf-a-a. crreAAo) (crreA-).ai Aci^o/xui ypd\f/o[j. lengthens a to r. short final theme-vowel 679. sejirf. iyfXd-(r-6i]V . AeiTTto (AiTr-. (TC/J.vovp. sponding aorists (686).679 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS . LVe oracles.a. meet. TAe-w. nourish. leave.. fut. finish. TTfiO-). r#i<o (fad-) = poetic eS-w. 676.a. : \pi]<ro). Liquid verbs. (TTreicrco. ni. e'&Arj-o-w . say. etc. hear. 6pe\f/<a. disturb. stretch. etc. reju-e-w. TTCIO-W. cr<^>aA-e-aj. 187 weave. judge. TTAe-Ka. A is . cr<f>a. TA-o-w. ypd\fw. Kpw--(o. deceive. .aL TffJ. (TTreiitro/xat (40) (irid-. fut.i crreA-e-cra). 8ep-f-(a. . . ^pvyo-o/xat. Tacrcrco Aeo>. retain or /ceAcrw. rdofj. (ray-). <^>aA-).ai. before -a-%. The poetic verbs KeAAw (*ceA-). etc. o-^-).ai rapacnra) (rapa^-). has the future TreTJyo-o/xai or make fia or o-^'/fw. /?irf. Short theme-vowel retained.a.ovfJ. 'AKpodofiai.1. These have Other similar futures belong to Homer. ea<. rpi]o-ia. rapdo[j. 628.ai.at. use. rouse. <r</>aA--<ra>. f\p^cra. has aKpodo-ofj-ai.1 : The following verbs have the future with the forms of fSofiai. //.holds < (e'fleA-e-). dAtcr/co/iou (dA-o-). (TTeA--a>. 677. The rule of lengthening a short final stem-vowel before good also in the case of consonant stems which are changed into vowel-stems by the addition of (613) or o (614. ypa</>-w.(from -eo-^-). cut. 659).-). X* w > Xfop. -<r^. NOTE.

oAew. vowel of the theme but lengthen it in one or more tense-systems. KaAew. cuVra>. -"OAAfi/*i (oA-e-). destroy. drop 680. and reAe-oj. as alvfw. drive. as Se-w.~)(ofJMi (jj. (@v-) \IXD (AC-) ridrjut (de-) (3vvf<a (/3v-) 8vta (8v-) (-) pc- In the dialects the quantity is sometimes different from that of the Attic For the few Epic verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel in one or more tenses. TeAccra*. and dial. but keep it short in one or more tense-stems . mid. eSedrjv. Attic KaAw .d<rw (KpffjMw). but These are perf. Attic future. has fut. and dialectic verbs and forms.vta (/AI-) iroOt-ta TTOVC-O) epv-w (Epic) <j>6dr(a ((f>da-~) irfvio (TTI-. eAxv-) ^Ad-w K'Ad- r/ae-uj ) fpa-fj. (d/x^)i-). yvWijv. c/o<Ae. 680 in the TTf \f-<r-fMii. Attic Kpf/uZ. has fut. (all ay a-fiat al&f-o/tai aK-c-o/xai dpu-a> eS-. Attic Kp(fj. or have double future forms. KaAecrw. praise. Attic o Ka^tfo/zai (--). fiyht. aor. call. TTO-) following lengthen the final vowel of the theme in the future. (Aa-. O/A-O-). as Kptfidtnrvfu (/c/x/xa 'EAaww cAuu. These are the following S?/o-o>. but SeStKa. has fut.-. perf. SeSe/zat.188 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS TeA-o--0j/v. bind. (frrOt. oAeo-w.ai (poet. (8i]o-a.-e-. of the future stem and then contract. Also dftfaivvvfju. before : alvf-ta a^OofJ. The verbs KaAe-to.1 (dx$-e-) 3.a^-f-). see 992. also several poetic Here belong 2. : The alpt-ta 8i'8w/zt (80-) (J3a-) &vi'ap. fut. yeAd-a) \avvia (Aa-) 8o-) ^e-w uAc-a> eAxw (^AK-. and extinguish). finish. 3.) dpo-co (6) from (r/Je-vvi'/jii.i have this future . TfAew.i (but except the first perfect ea-jSrj-Ka Also oAAiyu (oA-e-). eAdcrw. 1. form. Thus KaAew.a. Sftyvfu (op. Aw. fJM^totuUj Attic fj. has fut. yvrjuat. one with the lengthening and one without it .a\-e-) fj. All verbs in -dvvf<fj. All verbs in -d-vvv/u and -t-vvvfj.n\ovfjMi. pass. i<. Maxo/itti (jj.a. pres. na\<rofjLai. . catalogue) (a) : These verbs are the following ttrdiw eSe-. poet. fut. 2. eAdw). Attic KaOfSovpai. yveo-a. yvfKa. KaAe-o) fJia. TtAew. making the futures have the same a- form as the present. aor.i (Suva-) y3atVw e^w 6vw li^fiL (trex-? "X ") iorrjfii (ora-) TIVW (^^w root (TI-) (</>5-) e/o-. fut. Attic rAw. also retain the short final The following -a-%.

ioiijv . vo/ueis.ai. (vofj-i-crto). -ew. Attic CTTOpW. (Trai'^w (TrAu-. -eo/xcu. vop-tfiTf. /cAouw (i<Xav-\ weep. Bi/?aw : (/3i/3a8-}. or < and III. But O"xtw form pJi. vopiciTov. then -t-eo) and -i-eo/xat (vo/xtS-).Aorist 682. is made by adding the tense-suffix -eraIn verbs of the Second Class -era. vff-.avcrofj. Trve/-. CTTOpfq'<i).ijv 8pd-ua. two (o^iS-). TrAe/-. 4. vevcrovfj. has o-xt-crw.) (First.of the future in the Doric future. 189 spread out. . permit. usually drops usually pifiio.i (<TTO/X-). voyuiet.at. a/j. although they are found in other dialects. are dialectic. contracts (3i(3d(a.ifi. ((f>vy-.ai. vofj. or vop.at swim. Doric future. vo/xio-w is late . . <frevy-).ev. A few verbs form the stem of the future middle This is called the Doric future in -cre%-. vo//. think. vofjufirai. The Attic has these forms alongside of the regular Attic forms. cause to go. and (TTopevvvfj. -curto. /aW. Tlfj. eia-o-dfj. contracted to -iw and -iov[wi. 681) . and perhaps 7rcu'a>.is here also added to the strong form of the theme. of and The regular future syllables. fJ. FIRST-AORIST SYSTEM Active and Middle. Vowel and mute verbs. eid-o-a.-o-dfj. 5.i-eu>). vofj. but ought to be eliminated while the forms in -ecrto. sport. 7Tcro?/xai <f>evovfj. forms like vo/xwrew do not occur. contracting -creo/zou to -crovfj. except in vew. vofj. fut. The verbs with Doric futures are the following TTITTTW.ai Traifri) (TratS-.ai. The forms KaAecrw. The changes (if any) in the theme are here the same as in the future system (673.ai late) TrAevo-oiyxcu or 7rAercro//ai or Trvevo-ov/j. -eo-o/zcu. : KXa\xrovfj.d-0). and oArw are found here and there in the texts of Attic writers.<f>iw . TrAe-). (TTID-. The above future formations are termed Attic.aL or KX. 1. eAacrw. e'Tt/xTj-crtt/iT/y td-(a. breath.ai.Lovfj. 681. (Spaa-a.ijv f8pa.at.i-eo- Attic vofj. vofj.iovfj. vfv-). Traty-). not in parenthesis.i-a-fo-fj.682 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS (dfj. and iraiofj. opt.<f>i<a). (7T6T-). J3i/3dcrn>. sail. TTVC-). . Thus vo/zico Attic vo/uw. (crTO/D(i>). have this contracted future form.ai). rcAeo-co. veto (vv-.<f>io-(t> Attic dfj. do. Verbs in -rw o/ more than tico syllables after inserting e before the thematic vowel are (as regularly drop a. err/x^-o-a. o. because the Doric forms futures in -crew (-crw) and -o-eo/xat (-crov/xai). 1 and 2). -aw. honour. etc. The future stem to the theme. iraiovfj. flee.iovo-L vofj-nj middle (vofj.of the future and then Other verbs in -a^w seldom 6.

hy Attic reEwrov (root feir-). aor. v to v (40). 4>ep(i>. and iljfu.190 o. finish. (KOTT-). apiafjML. and Liquid verbs. has also a first-aorist enra duplication and syncope). say. apaifir)v. ffjiiava. weave. has aorist indicative iypa and ^cfy/7/v (a augmented to ^). (Opeifsa.of the tense-suffix -era-. . etrrciAa/iTjv (fttav-). 2 aor. (iri6-. and theme. X e -^' X l '~)> l^ " 7 has the first-aorist ex Epic ex ua corresponding to the futures x* w a (676). has also the first-aorist ryveyxa. (without Xew (xu-. (. raise. For vowel verbs which retain a short final vowel of the For the irregular nrst-aorists in -*ca. dpov. . Ttpaurm fit (irfpav-). fJKa from Ti6r}fjLi. updpevos. SiSwfu. e-crreA-o-a. extpSdva . (from -/-/7r-a). KtpB-e-). Kdp-rfv (from the theme tfex-. eo-T>/-<ra. : e to i. see 679. Tuoxrw (ray-). leap. t<f>iXr)-(ra. -T)v: The following in -aivw lengthen -av. eKplva off. f-fuav-o-a. NOTE. crreAAw in'i. fri^. -di'- instead of yAuKaiVw (yi'Kav-). breathe. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS love. ifl-). make thin.for v-ev(e)K-a-. These drop a. f-TTtpav-cra. NOTE. stem i}vey/<a. disturb. (dfjivv-). t<f>i\->)-<rdfj. apds. irXtx-M. Ary-a). show. c6'?. ward 683. ^Kcyxov. sweeten. 2. I'M (fiv-). ns dAa/jtevos. TTVCV-)..Ao-<>. upacrdai. remain. r)\dfj. fAea eYaa. fi\dirT<a (/i?Aa/3-). fKfpa-a-a. (102) KOTTTW c^. gain. (rdpaga. 684. 6ar. apatfii. apai. cdi)Ka. deceive. eSw/ca. said.Au>-<ru/z>/>' (K(pa-). Tpe<f>-(i>. arrange. 1 aor.rjv elsewhere the stem is dA-. NOTE. makes aor.. mid. nourish. see 501. (r) '? for > : . e7rAea. (40) say.n-1'i eWeiAa. 7r'u> (TTi'i'-. .to . KoiAaiVw (/coiAav-). 685. mix. (<r</>aA-). trvej'-. AipM (dp-). eyAt'Kdva l(r\vaiv<a ur\vava xtpoaivta (Kipfiav-. l to i. and hfis d elsewhere apM. rapd<r(rta (rapax-). tirvtv-va.i]v 683 8. lengthen the theme-vowel in compensation & to rj (after i or p to d). ypd-(J>-<ji. Seild. TTffJLTT-d). icrite. (la-^vav-). injure. 7T/A^a. ypa\j/a. "AAAo/zai (aA-). persuade. pollute. indie.TTtpdva. KptvtD (xplv-\ jwlge.

Af'o-jys. The tense-stem is formed by adding . fatten. The optative adds the mood-suffix at.. -eiev Af'cra-i-/xi. . or Xv<rd-(r6<a<rav (frrjvov. etc. 1 stem). Ai3o-a-Toxrai/ mid. see 678). Xvo-y. subj. Aucrai/u from it is fj. make ripe. Awa-a-^w. eAi>cra-(<r)o. Common Form. -atev . Xv(rat/j. 191 AiTratVw (AtTrav-).. 463). and the third singular weakens -a of the tense-suffix to -e . Tense-stem AiVa-. Ai'crcu. etc. TreTraiVco (TreTrav-). INFLECTION The secondary personal endings are added . A^'crai-eie. <f>r]vd-o-8io. 687.691 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS . Subjunctive. Xvcrrj. etc. .ai. The Attic generally prefers the so-called Aeolic forms in -etas.to the verb-stem (in verbs of the Second Class. -at. . Avcrat. the endings -ov and -at (of uncertain origin) taking the place of a of the tense-stem. Indicative. see 596.. . a-t to optative of the common form. be angry. Optative. etc. to the regular ones in -ats. wpydi/a . Aiicra-.ev. SECOND-AORIST SYSTEM (Second-Aorist Active and Middle. cKiyxra. Accratro. opt. Xvcrov. first the Tense-stem eAwra) from Xvo-a-. stem with which It is inflected like present Avcrats. KV/DW. iAtxrdtu^v. Aucrayxev. Xixrd-vTfav or Tense-stem Awa-.) 691.%. 689. etc. A&ra-Tov. Avo-w. Xvo-aio. to the weak The indicative is inflected like the imperfect (GO 4. but person singular active omits -v. NOTE. stem . Af'tra-Twi'. etc. IV.cv. as Awraias Accrete. etc.ixrafj. and opvvfu retain <r in the Other firstexeAo-a. eXiirJ-va hollow out. 686. e'Aikre. first-aorist : aorists from The poetic verbs KeAAw. (f>ri\>d-T(i). for <r of the personal ending -<ro dropped. only in Tragedy.for a Tense-stem Xi<(j-(afj. vowel -%.rjv. -i- to the tense- contracted. Xfoa-vde. eXvcra. . and is inflected like the present subjunctive of the common form. Avera-re. Aro-atav. </}vai. XVCTYJTOV. Imperative. X&njrcu. eX. eAvo-as. etc. liquid themes with cr retained belong to Homer (1019). CKOtAdva opyatvw (opyav-). 461. The imperative endings are added to the tense690. but the second person singular active and middle is irregular. The subjunctive substitutes the long thematic 688. of the tense-suffix. a>/3<ra(for similar futures. AiJcra-ra). imper.

The dialects have many other second-aorists of the common form (1029). NOTE. 7/yov.vjv . rpair-) rpwyu (rpay-) rvyxdvu (TVX-) bir . The inflection of the indicative is like that of the imperfect of the /u- .a. and poetic).yv. second-aorists.i<fxveop. v). (e) Some aorists derivative verbs in -aw and . eySaAov. aorists (a) (6) (c) 693. &rrvyov roar. erpcnrov (Epic and lyric).apT-\ err. . ^\i-Form. middle) of the The common form following verbs form in Attic : the second-aorist active (and &yu (dy-.Kpdfa (upay-) irtronai (irer-. as T/JCTT-W. TTO-). ay-ay-) (alpe-. 694. ZXafiov. turn. f<r6lu) (dir- \diru (\iir-) tx u (oeX'i X~) navddvw 6\\\<fj.aO-) T/KTW (re/c-) t<payot> (<(>ay-. drink. opdu) flirof (fir-. cut.au tdpanov (SpafJ. Only primitive verbs can form . By change of the root-vowel e to a . (ap. ACITT-). fly. erep-ov. (d) By metathesis (poetic forms) . Of the above.i. eXa/36p. 692. and are ] either poetic or late.t (vwo<TX-) tj) u (/3a\-) w (Oav-) ta (<f>vy-) \o-. is the only vowel verb which forms in prose a second-aorist. /xo\-)] ylyvofta. fTpa. see. liate.fta. (Xa/3-). [6\iff0dvu (6\iffO-)] (6\-) (6<pe\-) rpiiru (rpfir-.vo) (rep. w. ere/xo/xv/v iKveo/xcu come.vta . 695. By syncope us Trer-o/xat. ire<r-) trrdpvvfj. <TV-) \ayxdvu (Xa%-) irvv6dt>0fj. T/37rov. (a/xapr-) flSov (IS-. impf.. By reduplication as cty-o>. some have only the some only the middle.irop.avpiffKU (air- tpofiai (ep-) Epic ff (\a-)] (/J. ZTTIOV.1 (yer-) II (Oop-)] u u (iraO-) (rri0-)] (irff>8-. The second-aorists of those given in [ do not occur in Attic prose. made long throughout the indicative active (?. The stem-vowel is The tense-stem is here identical with the theme. i\-) Siou/ju (&>-) (cettu'w (catt-) aiptu tytlpta (eyep-. iJpMprov rep. as poetic StpK-op-ai. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS throw. late secondcrrvye-a> (Ionic from the root as /xi'Kei-o/zai.ai (TTV(>-) \afj. eyp-) (aiaO-) a\\ofJMi (a\-) atcr tidy ofj.fidv(a (\aft-) dfjiirt \avOdvia (\ai)-) [Xd<r/cw (Of-) [d* . Second-aorists of the common form are found in prose only in mute verbs irtv<a (irt-. 692 (AtTr-. tVero/xT/i/. lead.-. NOTE.i)v Xap.192 BaAA<o tXiirov. pf-) iironiai (ffeir-. ap. impf. ddtcva (3aK-) (IK-) dapffdvu (SapS-) [xaivu (icav-)] wapS-) active. (Epic). -o form poetic or ffivKov Z-SpaK-ov. The few verbs of the First Class which have secondform them in various ways. ryy-ay-ov. . impf.ai (irrap-) vw ur\-. NOTE. e-TTT-d/zr/v. .-). BT-) trivu (TTI-) Trtwru (irfT-. . dread. fftaXofJiijv take. .aprdv(a (IK-). [Kiyxdvu (KIX-)] rpt. (Xnrop. (Epic). (fia\-). AetVw leave.

8vw. benefit}. tdov for 0e-(o-)o. (/xt-form) ridrffu. eyvw.. efro. present ovivrjfj. 2 forms) etc. etc. fdefj-yv. 696. O-TTJS. f/3r)v. eSo/iTp.6*7.1. eAiTrov. ef/lfy. For the irregular accent of the optative of benefit). see f. 3 aor. . 3. 771. subj. subj. etc. retain The second-aorists of TiOrj/jiL (Oe-\ Si'Sto/u : (So-). %iu (e-). So-(cr)o.y]v and <jivij/j. eyvwv. etc. StSw/xi. etc. pres. AITTOI/A^V. Si'ys. subj. rr?7. efcro. benefit. etc. yiyvoxr/<a> (yvo-).ijv (ova-. Oys from Of-y.. . ItrrnfU) f<rrr)v. form from stems in v. 2 aor. ovmj/Mt. TiOrjfii. NOTE. rTr//zv. : 'icrTrjfjLi. and ^/ca. . see 573. know. is wanting and is The subjunctives of the of and middle of the common form and the those the second-aorist active /At-form are formed and present of the common and /it-forms respectively. as ISilv.. AI'TTW. </iw. ACITTCO. .i. For the irregular 698. AtVw/xat. 2 aor. opt. AtVoio. eSorov. Subjunctive. 701. and in the infinitive (601). aor. AtVots. deirjv from Of-irj-v . AeiVw. 2 aor. cYSto/xi. The second-aorists are supplied by the first-aorists WijKa. i'rom o-ra-w. form no optative in Attic but Homer has a few isolated forms. "ItTTry/u (crra)-. et/z^v (augmented). subj.irpia. ovivt^i-i (ova-). ScjJv from So-j7s. eAtTrov. (Try. etc. as S^TJ and tK-SG/xev (for 8v-ir) and e/c-Sv-i-/v) from Svv. etc. etc. second-aorists of the /u-form are enumerated in 767 and (dialectic) There are no second-aorists of the /xi-form from verbs in -V/J. Second-aorists of the fit700. eSorov. f-de-rov.. Tidrj/jLi.of the ending after a short vowel and then contracts (664. o-Tairjv from ora-iTj-v . #0. 4'Soi> from put. O-TW. . send. also peculiar in the imperative (594 . 702. accent of the subjunctive of firpidfj. For the accent of the /u-fornis. 2 aor.-} and uiio^uTp (ova-. 2 aor. (Lvrjfj. eSco/ca. etc. 498). eW^re. AiV^s. (So-). AtTrrj. NOTE.^ (irpLa. etc. 5. (Common Form). 3). subj. (666. mid. (Trpia-) see 515. o-ra-r^s. 8v<a (Sv-). 699.v. eo-rrp. So) from So-w. 702. opt. eo-TT^o-av . etc. The imperative second- . TiOtj/JLi etc. see 504 . 2 aor. 1. l-8o-/xev.702 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 193 -o-o form. . 2 aor. . WV^TO. 2 aor. (0e-). mid. Optative. For cryoiriv from eo-^ov. opt. wvtjcro.iiroifj.[j. 2 aor. 697. X. 6u> from Of-w. The optatives of the common form and the /xt- form are formed and : inflected like those of the present.L in Attic. eSoro. fOcrov. (-). mid. . occasionally formed as in verbs in -co. The 1063. etc. see 516. except that the second-aorist middle drops o. eSvv. f/3ri<.. Sotryv from So. 2 . rT?/s. . For the accent of the /it-forms. o-ra-y. eyvws.. mid. (/it2 aor.rjv. 2 etc. . 2 aor. inflected like e-#-/>iev. see 515. opt. and1//u For optative middle of the second-aorists of 516. 2 aor. Si'Scoyni set. 2 aor. 1047) . Imperative. 2 aor. lo-rr/i'. /3cuVo> (/?a-). NOTE. and typi the short stem-vowel in the indicative active The singular active indicative ei-fj-ev (augmented).

The final stem-vowel is made long throughout the except before -vnov. (a) Of verbs with stems in v. rrreAAto (o-rcA. Ai7T-Tfc>. Other perfects in -yKa (for -v-Ka) occur only in late writers .) (First-Perfect 704. active. . <f>aiv(o (<av-) is perhaps the only one which forms the regular perfect in -Ka. And ecr^ov. 1). Verbs with lingual stems (T. 4. final vowel of the theme. : Bnt the imperative -TW. in the middle -a-o drops o. 8(-<rO(a. middle irpiw for 7r/)ia-(<r)o. (o~ra-). also has -s for -Oi. 8o-T. (rrrf-Te. corn* oJotiw. The stem of the first-perfect active is formed by adding -xa. ftyj-Oi (/?a-). kill. . the ending -Oi is retained (but see 594).p-\ TTflOd) (irtO-). of tx* * haw. 112) in the second singular #-s. 703.U-). yvw-TC. etc. St'Sw/u (So-). and wpo<T-KfKfp8ayKa from KepSaivta (ntpSav-). FIRST-PERFECT SYSTEM and Pluperfect Active. Karci-/?d. xAe-). SO-TW. /??y- TO>. are doubtful. NOTE. 6) drop the lingual before -Ka-. 0itj<Tii> (Oav-. . AtVe. So-o-$w. SeSw-Ka KCKo/xt-Ka Ko/xifw (Ko/ziS-). \nr(-VT(DV or Xnr-T(ocrav. /8Aa-). 3. stand by. Kddaipw (KaOa./ti (-) retain the short vowel and have -s for -di (594. 2 aor. $ou for 6t-(<f)o. e-s. to TTaA-Ka f<f>6ap-Ka KCKa(9a/o-/ca TTCTTfl-Ka. e-vrwi'. -TC. 8v-0t. composition) for In poetry we sometimes have -o-rd and -^8a (always in orJ0i and (3fjOi as Trapd-a-rd. NOTE.-).r-KTayKa from KTtii'd) (KTCV-). (A. . as fuaiixa (/xiav-). \Lirf-cr6ta. Vowel verbs regularly lengthen the 2. some liquid themes. SiSwpi (So-).after a short vowel. o-ra-vrcov or <m/-Taxrav . 5. . Sou for So-((r)o. 6va-\ KaAeto (KaAe-. AcAv-Ka Tfrffj-rj-Ka ctu-fca <f>0(ip<o (<f>0ap-). </)(At-W. /2}-Tf. Tre^ayKa. ^nj-6i 8\>-VT(av . Tfdvrj-Ka (620) /i/itayKa. 2. TTf>lXr)-Ka ridi/fu (6e-\ T(6rj-Ka irfTrvcv-Ka (3fft\rj-Ka (620) &7Ao-w. 1. oi'jy-<r$(o.194 FORMATION OF TEXSE-SYSTEMS 703 aorist of the common form is made and inflected like that of the present of the common form. (3<i-vrwv : yvu>-#i. \nrov.i (#e-). V. SeSvyAw-Ka /?aAAw (fta\-. O-TV/-TW. ami o. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form in et or eu. Sv-re. Monosyllabic liquid themes change e to a (621. etc. The first-perfect or perfect in -Ka belongs to vowel themes. active second -aorist of Ti6iyj. etc.to the reduplicated theme. and to many lingual themes. S. cr\f-<s. pollute. #e-Te. etc. 'A. but ovr)-cro. (Mi-Form). SO-I'TWV . KexXrj-Ka (620) 705. gain. AiTre-Tf. Trreto (TTVV-). . yvo-vruii' Trpi-d<r6ta. 0e-T<o. SU-TW. 8o-s. 3. etc. . yvw-ro). ^-VTWV .

and T#VT/U>. fKpiOrjv. TTCTT \vfiat. regularly ayyeAAw (ayyeA-). TTTO-). retvw (rev-). -/xt AeAvKa. Indicative.i (crfBe-). (crKeA-. fear. which follows the periphrastic form./J. . before -KO. erddiji'. TCT-. <TK\f-). toil. KfK\ij-Ka KK/JU)-Ka 7re7TT(o-/ca Kyua-).711 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 195 . AcAi'^a-Tov. aipta (dp-). (T6/M-. /?Aa-). dry up. K/cAiyuai. K\fv<a. Si-. eKXiOr/v . as v'tfjua (ve/x-e-). Ka\f(a (KO. Cut. INFLECTION -fj. incline.} 6va-\ die. see 593. raise. wash) also drop v in the perfect-middle and first passive systems: ^TrXv6f]V.or <a. extinguish.ai. -TI of the third singular is lost and a of the suffix is weakened to . liquid verbs have no perfect. etc.L The primary personal endings are added but 710. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme-vowel Eight Classes. 6va-). shall le dead.r)-KO. undergoes metathesis (620). but except ew/^/ca from cr/3fvvrfj. NOTE. as Ovya-Kd) (Bav-. the stem adds (613). see 473. see 613 and the 706. and others. For verbs which add e to the theme. is lost. (b) Some liquid stems in A and p form the perfect in -KO. NOTE. reraKa. a perfect with present meaning. ryyyeA/ca. For the periphrastic forms of the perfect and pluperfect active indicative. shall stand. the exceptional forms rryw.in the Catalogue. NOTE. KfKpi-Ka. AeAvKa-s. For a few poetic forms with this peculiarity. 707. ecr/cA^-Ka TfTfJ. 708. (6av. KaAew. NOTE. judge. Of these /?aAAw. distribute. fall. 40). (c) 83 In others (including or it . AeAvKa-/iei'. vevf/j-rj-Ka. stretch.a. AeAvxe. Kpivw (Kpiv-). AeSoixa.-. -KUO-I of the third plural is for -Ka-vo-i from . K\e-\ Ka/xva) (KO. Ke^AiKa. as Kpivio (Kpw-). /ceKpi/xcu. For the pluperfect. 711. see 679 and (dialectic) 992 . Prose : verbs whose stems undergo metathesis /3e/3Xr)-Ka ^t^vr|-K. drop v of the stem in perfect active making KexpiKa. These (with TrAwco. and reyuvw have the corresponding perfect- middle and aorist-passive. 709. remains for -crt. T60vrj-Ka (d) all in /*). die. -s -K-a-vrt (592. see the Syntax. Many or it drops v (617). TfTa/j. call. fjpKa..XC-. from root corresponds to the Epic present 8ei8<a. in the perfect in Attic are /3aAAw 6vTJcrK<j) (/3aA-. K\iv6r]v and Kpivdy]v. or use the second-perfect. throw. see KTCIVW and the Homer has the regular forms Epic root (f>ev. judge. also For the for mode of expressing the future perfect active. T/ZC-).

etc. etc. (AiTT-). shoic. Epic present SeiSw aKvyxoa. hear (stem O. The stem-vowel 3). y. is only an apparent exception. Imperative. (iw6a. But this . The root f. is AeArxois. tppwya. become. K(Kpa. For f8rj8oKOLrj. corrupt. anoint. leave. etc. from root Si-. as AeAvxcus 5. (oS-). ytyov-a oA-wA-a. for o-J-tO. 5. strong form of the theme. . write. <jxi-y(o (<uy). break. 717. as Trapa-TreTTTWKeTw (Archimedes). Verbs of the Second Class have the 01 for ei but take the (621. are found in Attic writers. changed to o (621. VI. oAAi"'/xi (dA-). by changing a of the suffix to -%. 'Piiyrtyu (pay). and was originally aKrjKof-a.) 715. 713.K-a dA-yAt<-a Trf<J>r}v-a. etc. smell. The stem of the second-perfect system e is is formed by to adding 1.y-a Trr.for d/<o/-). see 573. rra>. etc.. subj.6- broken. .to the reduplicated theme. Some verbs with themes in a palatal or labial mute aspirate the final mute in the : second-perfect TT and /3 become <. 4) 7 . efys. 2). Compare 713.196 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 712 The regular perfect subjunctive active is formed 712. stituting the thematic The regular vowel (here . of aKo?'<t>. 2 perf. (apx). e7. Compare also 724. as AeAvKws Ivdi (so also the middle 747). Subjunctive. an exception is S(8ia. Optative. The perfect imperative active may be expressed by the perfect active participle and urdi. Second-perfects belong only to mute and liquid themes . SECOND-PERFECT SYSTEM (Second-Perfect and Pluperfect Active. they have weak form. very rare and none of the few which occur. <cuva> (<av). ajypear <f>6eipta ((f>6(p-). perfect optative active is formed by subo) for a of the suffix . AAvK<o. VX' a rr/Kta (TCIK-). NOTE. perish 716.as AAv/ca. flee. and often & */ or d (621.(Latin SUCKCO) gives the 2 perf. Si-fffrdop-a. destroy. fear. has the 2 perf. NOTE. after the Attic reduplication. -a. Second-Perfects mth Aspiration. First -perfect imperatives of the regular form are 714. ys. rule. as AeAi>Koi/u. (ypa<-). AeAv'/o/s. and K and y become \. (xpay).KOV. 2. cry out. But this form is very uncommon the usual form is the perfect active participle with <L. > . form is rare the usual form the perfect active participle with tiyv as AeAuKws e/'. yiyvo/iai (yev). melt. ending 718. yey/aa^-a oS-wS-a late AeAoi7r-a irifavy-a. Compare 712. uAei</>u> (dAt</>-). am accustomed am (for t-a-foO-a).

sweep. av-ew^a and ai'-ewya. So 6vjj<rta (6av.) o/ovcro-a) (^aA-) (KV&-.or Aeyw (Aey-)./3-) Some eypi'jyopa./3di'(a jSAeTTW (/3AC7T-) SetKvvfj. of the indicative.afj. eT#ya-<rav. die. besides those already mentioned in 715 Where there is no present from the theme. (/rwi.1 Tri'jyvvfj. Without aspiration (including those with themes in Aa/jlTTO) (Aa. reBva-re. the perfect itself is given. (J3Xa/3-). the tenee-stem is here the reduplicated theme to which the personal endings are added.i (op-.<-a /3ej3Xa<f>-a TOUTO-W (ray). poet. Dialectic verbs are omitted. the other verbs with second-perfects. have done. Tedva-<ri.) -fo(pp ie-) (raipw (cra/j-) /jiatvw (JJ-OLV-) otISa (18-) (o~a7r-) oTTWTra (poet. av-oty-w or ov-otyviyu. yuard. 197 Tfra\-a 7T7ro/u. Tedva. and lack the singular set. IK-) OTT-. poet. of the second -perfects differ in meaning from the present.7T-) 6. Two : verbs have two second-perfects. The second-perfects of the /u-form are enumerated in 768 and (Homeric) pert'.see 548. o-eo-rypa. coZfeci Tpi/3< (rp1.) Tp(f)(D Trepoofj. from (raipio. They are inflected accord- ing to the "la-TijfjLi //. from eyetpw. ayviyxi (y-) (irAay-) Aacr/cto (AaK-. from ea-Ta-d-o-i . (KrjpvK-) fjia-crw ayw (ay-) dAAacrcro) (aAAay-) /Atyviyu KOTTTCO (KOTT-) X. <f>ep<i)) 7rAe/<w (?rAe/c-) (Aa/3-) Aa<^>-) AaTTTW (Aa/5. some have the force of presents. perfects of the /zi-form . eWa-o-ai'. NOTE.721 send. as awake. The following is a list of 720.ev. 2 plupf. rTa-TC. With aspiration. 2 stem rra-. injure. tK-. opdta) (TCK-) 6pvvfj. For those which have Attic reduplication. Treirpa^a. 1064. 7re<^t'Aa^-a 719.t 6va-\ 3 pi. (<rra-). ope7&. List of Verbs with Second-Perfects. hare fared (well or ill). </>vAa(nr<D (</>i'Aa^). poet. eo-Tuo-i eara-rov. arrange. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS (TTC/XTT-). 2 plupf.1 (8eiK-) -. 719.a.1 (Tray-) 2. one with aspiration. &rra-pcv.1-form. am Several verbs have second721.-fj. Second-Perfects of the pi. . do. 1. rouse. and one without 7rpdcra-(i} (irpay-').yU. . and irfTrpaya.Form. 2 perf.

commonly ytypac^ws w. yey/3u</>as. . eorra-y.. AeAoiTrws 2. 5). Subjunctive. gape. AeAcuTras. The second-perfect imperative active is confined 724.-6t. etc. J"T?y. TTU>. poetic .) and Ttdva-rta (this also Attic) from OvycrKia (8av-. AeAoiTra. yeypafa. NOTE. 5) try irpo-eXyXvOoii]. ecrrvys. Optative. (666.-\ subj. inflected as in the first-perfect (704.) and Pluperfect Middle and Passive. . Future-Perfect 726. become. eWa-u. VII. of rTy/xi (<rra.-\ die . : : ycy/>a</>w. 725. AeAoiTrws w. eora-ys. yeyove-Tia (Archimedes) from 8e&i-6i (Aristophanes) from 8e8ia. passive) 1. AeAoiVoi/xi. (Perfect PERFECT-MIDDLE SYSTEM Passive. Indicative : y(ypa<j>a. The Second-Pluperfect of the common form like the first-pluperfect (see 593). CO-TW. almost exclusively to perfects with present meaning. etc. : . They are IO--&L from o?<5a (i'S-). TTa-Tto. TTCTTOI^OI?. is made and inflected 2 perf. others. 2 . TTa-Oy-l'. know. sec 499 and 721. . yeypa<oi/xi. 6va. also several ytyi'o/iai. of Tre/xTT-w. These are formed and 722. suffix instead of : . Subjunctive Optative coy i'. commonly yy/3a</>ws f fyv. The few second-perfects of the pi-form. 2 perf. KfKpa\-di and KfKpdye-re from Kpdia (Kpay-\ yell. etc. 1047) opt. . 1. and most of these imperatives are of the /xt-form. . Indicative. 710-714). AeAotTre. etc. ftar. (Horn. these three in Aristophanes Tt. For the second-pluperfect of the /xt-fonn. 2 plupf. as AeAoiTrws urQi. /cc^?yi'c-Tc from ^ao-/cw (\av-). Treirayoirj Doric for probably regular Tmr^yoiy] one first-perfect fSrjSoKoiij and one secondaorist (r\oii]v are so formed (573. 2. The second-perfect imperative active may also be expressed by the second-perfect active participle and urOi. form the subjunctive and optative like presents of the /xt-form. Imperative. send. is The stem of the perfect and pluperfect middle (and the reduplicated theme. eo-Tairjv (poetic) from from 1 Several second-perfects of the common form use the moodi (573. "Eorarov. 7r7ro/ji^)-Ty. etc. etc. AeAoiVw.0va.198 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS INFLECTION 722 1. ecrra-di. 723.

are syncopated in the Kpdvvvfi. l(rird-fr-drjv crci-co. and 102). see 613 and the Eight Classes or o. Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form of the theme. : 729. Insertion of a. See the corresponding second-aorists passive in 760. o- are the following (a Attic. see 628. nourish. Metathesis of the theme. mix. 4 . NOTE. AeAet//. perfect middle : Two verbs. For vowel verbs which retain a short final theme vowel. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS The : 199 perfect middle and the first-perfect active agree in these points (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. AUW (A/D-).IW (KOfj. yeypa/j.passive systems. riOpa. crre6-<r-/iou. NOTE.L crreAAw Kpivw retvw (crreA-). Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. 1. <77ra-to. (a) All those mentioned in 679.ey-fj. The verbs which take this additional number of the forms with a. . But except dpow e have the perfect-middle Aavvw. TrAe/c-w. Tpi/3d> (rpl(3-). .-/xai TTplfJ.i8-). the perfect and pluperfect middle before all endings not beginning with In the first-passive system. and aorist. although all used in prose are included). ({JaX. For the euphonic changes caused by consonants of the stem concurring with consonants of the personal endings.fj. fKpddfjv . NOTE. pass. Tfrdpay-fj.ai (xpiv-). see 707. tTTfXf-<r-fj. (rev-). these verbs have o. AeA.-. SeSpa-fJiai KO[J.1. For themes which undergo metathesis. expand.a.730 2. see 548. KfKpafjLai with aor.ai. . CTT/)^>-W.v-yu. rpeTr-w. 94. and Also one or two 1.for 0pe(f>. . finish.a. 728. 90. poetic verbs. TeAedraw. /3Aa-). TeVa-/xcu ^y/tat /3aAAw ^^A7/-/iat 727. Many vowel verbs add o. see 679.-fJt. Treravi/iyu (Trera-).i<r-/Aai i Spd-(D. suffix Oe. For themes which add e.ai /ce/co//.r)v. r7ra-cr-/xcu. turn.before the tense<r. which occur in prose. Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the stem to a.cu rapctcrcrco (rapa^-).ai ireTr\. .to the stem of 730.are not found in 2. ay-a>. TTeA-<r-yu. see 708. 3. <0wo. For perfects middle with Attic reduplication.-fj.^p. For themes which drop final v. ypd(f)-u. see 80 84 86 88 . (40) Aei7ra> (Awr-). shake. mute verbs. turn.ai. and \f <a. tTf\f-(r-6i]v. TeAe-w. .i (Kepa-). <$>6tipia (<f>6fp-~). Three rpe<j>. TreTTTa/zat (TreTreracr/zat late). change e of the theme to a fa-rpafj. as far as they .

'xpd. w/ai-crai. o~w^w.fjL-fj. Compare TTCO-O-W (TTCTT-). !cr7ra-<r-Tai. .i.tda. of the ending 7re7reyLi-/xat. KeKAeiMr-/*ai. <r6c. 8pd(a. as KOTTTW stem ends in p.vtj<TK(a. . /cAyw or xAeia). 7rt7refj. These are 733. dpvw.i ^>pai'w (<pua-) Trvew (TTVV-) irpiw /jat-<o (poetic) X" w \pa-ta x/ 1 (fa)~) ve-w. wpurfJLrjv. 2. See also 739. </>0yai (tyOfyK-crai). pour. write. e<0ey-/zcu.va-^ ttH'vi'fj. and T of the ending and dropping out before other f<nra-<T-fj.ai (461. accomplish. etc. TreTreTr-rat.-fj.a.ai. some have the additional two systems . See also 484. <r in only one of the cr. w/awr-rai. Vowel Stems. . When the final palatal of the stem is preceded by y-nasal and yy would come before p. and eA^Aey/tat (eAey^-). as TTffnrta (7re/i7r-). veto. 7re7re/^-/xai. of the ending.ip.ofj. Vowel stems which add a. These follow in their inflection TreTrAey/nai (TrAeK-). KfKofj. a\&ofj.ai. cnrev8(a (crTrevS-). . w/netc. 2 and 739. the ffnra-crOf. to the /ii-form. ecrTra-crai.ai for eoTrev8-/xai eoTrewr-rai. nra-cr-yMeVos KeAei'>-a>. See also 105. See also 739. 7re7re/n-/iei/os. <r 2). 736. These follow TreTrejoyzai in their inflection (485) (40). t'/vixT-fiai. one y is dropped. SwofMU. determine. cooA. Indicative. /x inflected like \e\vp. Kfpdvvvfj-i. plupf. see 461. . e<f)OcyKTai. but i"i 735. The perfect has the primary middle endings.. of the ending would give rise to fj.Tr-<rai).1. dAew.are inflected inserted before as OTra-to). . - fj.<f>-6(. Tre7Tffj. 485. But ypd<f>-w. 1). is dropped before sonants . eAauvw. bound. etc. one a: with and one without i. (KOTT-).-fJMi.ir and one p. letters draw. These follow in their inflection 734. 4 and 739. AAayfiat (aAAay-).ai (485). like re-re A-O--JUCU (485). and the TT reappears before other conTreTre/XTT-rai. Teiyn/A/zcu . Lingual Themes. ycypa. etc. command. \ \ ' CT(j)-) (TrAa-) (irpa-) TrAeu) (n"Av-) Tiv<a (TI-) v-to / \ Aei'-w iLifj-vycrKdi (jj. Palatal Stems. NOTE. when the /*/*//. y ijvvv-Ta. So </>0eyyo/iai (</>#eyy-). but 7T(irf\f/ai (irT7r-<rat). speak. Opavd). ((nrei-<rai. perfect has the secondary middle endings. topur-fiai. as 6pita (opiS-). TreTre/i^ai (irfTT([j. etc. XP^W INFLECTION The perfect middle system is inflected according 732.200 (6) FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS Also the following Kvat-<a : 731 aKov-w 7raAcu-(o 7TGll>G) / cret-w O"W(tU ((TWO-. cut. while others have double forms. 7ieap 6pav-<a K\ij-(a or KAet-to ^'-w 731. Of the following verbs (730. avvr-w. the assimilation to p. the pluFor example. being . c<nrfur-fj. Labial Stems.

NOTE. The Ionic also has the endings -drai and -a. 53 b . 77?/>tf Person Plural. (cnrep-'). later ww-/xcu.I (with v dropped) from -vv-/j. the cr in 7r7rtcr-/u is due to the euphonic change before /j. fXfXfify-aro. as re-re Ae-<r-/z yen fieri. addition of e When a liquid stem becomes a vowel stem by the (613) or by metathesis (620) or by dropping v (617).ai and TfTpd^v-fjuii late for Tf-Tpd^var-fj-ai from rpaxyvdi (rpa^vv-"). ^yyeA-/*tu. KeKd8a. and -VTO. metathesis (620) are inflected It is evident that the perfect-middle systems of reAew. 4 and 739. Plat. The endings -VTCU and -VTO can only Hence in consonant stems the third person plural of these tenses is formed by periphrasis of the So also in stems which perfect middle participle with eto-i and Tycrav. The passages 4.-fj. do not occur. 4. which such forms occur in 31 5. Rep. purify.741 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 201 eo-raA/xai (Ka. Attic writers are: Thuc. So K/cAi-/iai from KAivw (*cAiv-). AetVco. 741. 1. and -V-/JLO. but the similarity of inflection arises from The cr in TTeAe-<r-/>ieu does not belong originally to the different causes. v to cr before /x. make rough. misuse. TfTp3. 6 . as For these the 7re<ai/-crai.at as ery/>a^-/zcu late for Attic e'/ypa(r-/xcu from r//3ouvco (jypav-). Thus rao-cro) (ray-). 85 . 3. 'O^Cyco (dw-). twice. sow. icrOi were probably used. Xen. imperative 7re<av-<ro. ecr7ra/>/xcu.ai.ai.xvfj.-fj. TTCI'&O and are inflected nearly alike. p follow the inflection of as ayyeAAco (dyyeA-). The forms of the second person singular with v-arai and -v-cro. rera^-arai. 738.i from ^SaAAw (^8aA-. AeAl5/*ao--/>xi. (nreipta See also 739. while the cr in 7re<acr-/>tcu is due to the change of of the lingual . 4 . rouse.au from -v-p. f3Xa-). KaOaipw (485) . -p. announce. 2. the . throw. NOTE. tyi'iyep-fj-ai. and others. AeAei^-arai. eyeipco (eyep-). add cr. 7. Those in v-).ro for -vrat 740. Liquid stems which become vowel stems by dropping v (617) or by like XcXv-uai. (fraivca stem. eVera^-aTo. Pe/3\rj-[jia.p-~). v are inflected like 7re<acr/>iai (485) . fKf\(apiB-aro. \<apita(\<i)pi8-\ Kf^dipiS-arai. Anab. Liquid Stems.p-fj. 7.Oa.ai . 5. has in classic Greek -<H>^vfj. in . ftrarf. as AiyuuVo/icu See also 737. The following comparison -<rcu will make this clear. f/a-Ba. 13. Other forms in . sharpen. periphrastic forms Tre^acr/xevos e?. 3. are late 4. but is inserted . (fry . a preceding palatal or labial is here aspirated. Those in A and 737. e7re<av-cro.-p. 7T7ret -trai TTAe-cr-Tai -<rOov 7T7racr-Tai be pronounced with a preceding vowel. 739.

as fip-fjo-Ow.efj. etc. fj.va-). /?Aa-).i (Kf-KTa-).ffj. For a similar -(pfj. fj.vwfj. 744. of the perfect optative middle middle participle with phrasis Compare the perfect middle subjunctive (742). KfKpi-vTai.ai.vrjfj. KeKTWfj. perfect KfKTri/j. common and doubtful fj. fj. be etc. (KTGI-).) J perf. KTTW. The is formed by efys. etc. fj. or less (KaAe-. KfKTIJ-O-l-O.efj.vrjfj. caW. . see Auw.evo<s w.vrjfj. o'pt.va-'). fj. KfK-njfjMjv. . /. 742 (/3ovA--).efj.rjv. as KfKTrjfj. KTOIO/MCU (KTCI-). 743. opt. KfKTyo.v. KfKTrj-O-L-TO. KeKTv/rcu.ffj. as /3oi'Ao/z. AcAiY/. KfK\rjTo. and 8aivi>fj. has opt. called. oia-j3f(3Xrj(r6f (Andoc. Ke/cr^/xat. are of the common form with the thematic vowel. remind.ai. mostly in remember. opt. Kpivw (Kpiv-).rjv subjunctive of KfKTrjfjMt and fj.aL <5 KfK\rjuaL (from KaAew). AeAvyu. see 737.va-(a-uai contr.rjv. also rare and doubtful KeK-n^ur/v. KfKTgTo. KCKTI/-I-O.ffj. perietc.e-fj. NOTE. They are : KTaofiai.vy(TK(a (fJ.efj.evos <3. fj.efj. 7. possess. Imperative.ai.efj. subj. follows AeAvyttcu . KtKTWO. judge. those in the Catalogue.aL (jj. throw. 3.aL. etc.vijfj.202 inflection is FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS regular and .eda.vyo-Kd> (fj.ve-w-fj.v<^o. seem not to occur. etc. nor the second person singular in -v-o-o and Tre^ai'-o-o.i. Homer also has several similar forms . r/s. /2aAA<i> (/3a\-.r/v. . etc.ffj. (? fj. perf. etc.ai contr.ai.1JV.evo's y. }.eu wish. /2aAAa> (fia\-. fj.at. throw.to the tense-stem. fj. Several verbs form the perfect optative middle without periphrasis by adding -i-^rfv or -O-I-/XT/V to the tense-stem.vwro. also the perfect optative middle (744). . KAe-). periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and &. The perfect subjunctive middle is 742. KeK\rjfj. see 745. etc. remember. /ze/xi/?/o-#e. fj. /3Aa-).. For similar optatives of KKTT//WU. contr. fJffioi'Xrj-vTai. made by Compare AAv/Ai/os ys. have See the The regular forms of the dual and the third person plural Syntax. etc. XfXvfj.v<j>fj. . Hdt. . KCKTJ. 24). They are : 745.va-). etc.e-fj.ifj. perfect fj. subj. KaAew KfK^yo. let it have been said . KKTU)TO. 8ta-ftf(3\r]fj. 747.vrjfj.vtafj.. ireireipaa-Ow. NOTE.vrjfj.ai. and of The periphrastic forms with (from Sia-/3aAAo>). KCKT^-I-^V.fvos (3. oeooo-Qw. Two verbs form the perfect middle subjunctive by add- ing -%.ffj.efj. (from KeKTTj-O-t-fJ. The perfect imperative middle and passive may expressed by periphrasis of the perfect middle participle and r0i. perf.fda fj. efrjv.ffj. The third person singular of any verb may occur with real let it perfect meaning . The second person singular and plural occurs perfects with present meaning . </>^t'vw. Subjunctive. let a trial have been (or be) made. 47). acquire. been given. in 2. perfect AeAiyieyos t>. for these. f3eft \rj-vrai. am 746. . see 743.vrjTO. fj.evoj ey?. are often found . Ke-KTa-w-fj. fj. fj. The forms in -yp-rjv are of the /xi-form of inflection . KfK\rjfj. as fieuvrpro. etc.vfjo. Optative. oia-/3efi\rifj. NOTE.ffj.ifj. AeAu/jiei'os et^. etc. KKT^-t-<ro.

Future-Perfect. TrXf\-drjv 1 e'a-w. (Xv-dr/v 1 (T. 581 . 259). 2. (d) Final v of the theme is dropped in a few verbs. as e^ew/xevos ea-0/j. Compare 714. The inflection is that is of the future middle. of FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS ei'/ii. 7X~^ 7? V/ . J s/i^ KC-KO7T-. 12. (a) Few verbs have the regular form of this tense. <f> (80) and x TrAe/c-to. 2. . Compare 474. The stem of the 748. see 473 and 1037. future-perfect passive formed by adding -<r%. FIRST-PASSIVE SYSTEM and First-Future 1. 19. scream. Other forms than the indicative are very rare Sta-TreTroAep/o-o/zevov (Thnc. First-Aorist passive is Passive.to the stem of the perfect-middle. I shall cry out .ou. For the few verbs which form a regular future-perfect active of the regular form. a labial mute (TT. VIII.ai. This tense is seldom other than passive in meaning. /3) (K. 8e8e-.-0-o/xac y/3a<w. 79 (6) This tense can be expressed by the perfect middle participle and : . NOTE. ecro/zcu (c) . Passive. I s/iaW /tare ceased. 203 . as Tre^aoytevos icrOi. A final short vowel of the theme is always made long. KfKO\^OfJ. The meaning / s/iaW remember. 8. (Horn. becomes 6) becomes < (80) o- . TT<Xy-. Before -&-. 25 /ze/Avijo-ecr&u Isoc. () Metathesis of the theme. The theme of the first-aorist passive agrees with the theme in the perfect middle in the following points Vowel verbs lengthen the final theme-vowel. TaOXTto. Avw (Ai -).ai. yey/3a<.to the theme. of the future-perfect here depends on that of the perfect. SeSr. 1. 749.) (First-Aorist 750. /ceK/ad^o/xcu. . : 3. 9 is the only example of the participle in classic Greek 7. (/) Generally in the addition of <r (see 730 and 731). elp^p. (ft) (6) Monosyllabic liquid stems change e of the theme to a. Id-Or/v ay-co. (c) Verbs of the Second Class have the strong form. /xe/xw/cro/xai. KO7TTO). The stem of the first -aorist made by adding -6e. a palatal . Od. But observe KfKT^<TOfj. a lingual remain unchanged. 21. 8ew. KeKAaycy/. y) becomes x (80) . I shall have been deceived.750 (imper.evov OTTW reray/zevoi eWtov. bind. be) .ai. 7re7rawo/xat. I shall possess .

see 679. XvOi)-Tf. The inflection follows the /xi-form.to the stem of the first-aorist Thus \vw. \v-9t)-<T%-. Subjunctive. XvOfojv from Xvde-irj-v. Optative. and its inflection is 757. although See 621 and perfects middle are farTpafj. and Tf6pafj. (Av). TfTpafjLfj. XvOrj-rov. NOTE. the ^ of the theme is changed to T (100. 754. 2Ty>e<-fa>. the third person plural ends in fXv-6rj-fj. except before the personal ending -VTWV. KaXv(j)Ori<TOfJ. and 6. Avdrj-Ti.ai . fTpf<j>6i]v (Ionic fTpd<t>dr]v). The stems of the first.ai.fj. 756. Tpt/3<a (rpi/3-). 100.fv. . fXfifft-Orjv Kpivw reivw (/cpiv-). fTa-Orjv ffiXi'i-Oyv fypd<f>-Or)V f3dXX<a (J3aX-. For -6t. passive. 731.ai. 3). sacrifice. Xv-0-tj-o-o-fja. Indicative. The subjunctive adds -*%- to the tense-stem and contracts. fXv-Orj-Tf. roxrav. Xv6<a from Xv@f-a>..ai. opt. 755. NOTE. -Of- is - lengthened instead of to -Orj-. The optative adds -.or -i- according to 573. ypd<f>-(i). The tense-suffix Imperative. see INFLECTION OP THE FIRST-AORIST PASSIVE 753. 2 and 594.future formed passive by adding -tr%.i (Of-') and in trv-6j]v 751. for 728. XvOrj-Tii).fj. 4 etc. XvBeti)<i from Ai'0e-a/-s. first-future passive thus ends in -Orf-o-o-fiai. /3Aa-). Xvdys from Av^e-ys. etc. In tre-drjv for fOf-Oijv from Ti'0r)/j. see 707. the active secondary personal endings being added . and rpe(f>-(a have <Trpt<f>dr)v (Ionic and Doric their fu-Tpa. For vowel themes which add <r before 730. 751 AeiVw (AiTT-). The suffix -Of- is lengthened -crav. fTpt<f)-OrjV (rev-). and fdp<f>6r]v. to -Orj-. For vowel-verbs which retain a short final theine-vowel For the few liquid themes which drop v.ffrOiji'). see 708. eXvOrjv (\v-0e-). -0e-. 'EXvdrjv. XvOf-VTtav or XvO/j- Passive. The here -#77-. KaAwrTto (xaAi'/?-). T/seTr-w.t. subj. 752. edv-drjv from #uw (0t'-). First -Future is like that of the future middle.204 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS -Orjv TTfiOta (TTI$-). 'KXvOrjv. and contracts. For themes which undergo metathesis. see Av^ry-rwv.

rot. Kpv/3-) TrArycrcrw (TrAay-) ptTTTW (j)l<f>-) Tpf/3<i <f>aiv<j) (<f>a o~Tpi<rK<j> (crrtp-e-) o~Tp((f)<i) (crrpe^)-) Aey-w. pass. occurs only in . (a) 760. theme becomes a (621)." /cAivw (KAiv-) KpVTTTO) (KpV(f>-. does not change e to a . monosyllabic 758. throw. : (vrAi/y-. Seconcl-Aorist Passive is TrAeKw (TrAeK-).ai O.a.ai. write. NOTE. NOTE. eypd<-iyi/ eppi(f>-r)v dAAdoxru) (aAAay-). r]XXdy-r)v eo-dir-i^v piTTTd) (f)6fipu> (pi<-). tTrXaK-rjv ypdtfxi) (ypa<f>-~). strike. (rTepryo"o/xai.io-^ryo-0/u. = f. SECOND-PASSIVE SYSTEM and Second-Future Passive. -eVerbs of the by adding passive An e of a Second Class have here the weak form of the theme. LETT-).av-) o~iJ7T<a (craTT-) trc^dAAa) (cr^aA-) TTVtyW (TTVty-) pea> (pev-. eTvirrjv.t Tr/K<o (raK-) \f/v)(<a (^\-) Tn'iyvv/j.iyvv/j.a(B-). passive : The following Attic verbs form only the second-aorist dyvvfj.VVT-W. TrAay-).y-?yv . strike. does not change e to a eAey?ji/. send. Xft. ] Aey-w. pv-) (T/CaTTTO) (o~Ka<f)-) TVTTTW (rtTTT-) o~T\Xd) (crreA-) <f>6eipo) (<f>dep-~) KOTTTW (ft) (KOTT-) The following : Attic verbs have both the first and the second-aorist passive dAAdo-crw (dAAay-) I'. has 7rAr.t (dy-) fiaivta (jj.760 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 205 irfio~6ija-ofj. rdo-o-w (ray-).1 (/Aty-) <f>payvv/j.1 (Tray-) (c) The second-aorist passive of TVTTTW.i dp-^Oi^o-OfJiai dyyeAAco (dyyeA-). 759.au Ko/u. 2 fut. change.o~rfpi]v (poetic). reivto (TV-). show. e/cAaTr-Tyv ^aivcu (^>av-). /3Ad/?-ryv o-reAAw (crreA-).) (Seconcl-Aorist The stem of the second-aorist formed to the theme. Ta. e<f)6dp-r)V f(f>dv-r)v steal. corrupt. d T< dpX" w AeiTTW > (AiTT-). deprive. injure. gather fj. Kar-eTrAdyryv.ydfoop. but in composition e^-eTrAdyryi/ and Srepicr/cw (crrep-) crrc/Dew.(f>6->jo-Ofj. \. weave. IX. (<f>dep-). gather.

8Xlf3w. poet. TI'TTTW. trrdA-Ti-tfi. Svva-fjuii. o-raA-ry-rw.. ENUMERATION OF PRESENTS IN / -/xi 764. poetry and in late prose. for tpdio. NOTE. understand (KCI-.Tr-t'f-<rofJ. (<^>a-). (170--). XP e~\ ^ t5 ne^e&snry (790) <t/xt ij/jiai go sit aya-/xai.1. Those of the Seventh Class are the following : (a) flfj-i Simple stem in (*-). /XOlVo). while the others use one in prose and the other in poetry or in late Greek. except that -61 of the imperative remains unchanged. The inflection of the second-aorist passive is the same as that of the first-aorist passive. except the following ayWfJ. (i-). orraA-^-v. : are found only in poetry. TTaA-77-<raV. dAei^XO. be (772) (775) (782) (784) \prf (\/>a-. fcVYirtpU.i aAAacrcrco (dAAay-).Attic forms are here omitted. a few use either indifferently . be able tjfii (a-).d(T(r<a. the present. <ra.a-fj. and is inflected like the future middle. Indicative. K-\ lie hang (intrans. INFLECTION OF THE SECOND-AORIST PASSIVE 761. . /?a7TTW. and some are found only in composition. These belong to the Seventh and the Fifth Classes of Non. ^TeAAco (crrcA-). ecrTotA-?}. Imperative. oraAeuiv from <rraA-t77-j'. o-raAr/s from crraAe-ys. But most of the second-futures passive are late. Kpffj. e<7TaA-V/-T7V. in all the moods . etc. erraA-7y-Tov. etc. 763.a. ZraA-e-%-. from crraA-e-cu.-. f<TT(iX-r)-HfV. (CTUTT-). Second-futures passive corresponding to the second-aorists passive occur in all the verbs mentioned in 760. Optative. Ktl/30). ecrraA-T^-s. KAtTTTW. (KOTT-). or fj. rTClA-77-Te.(o-raAc-t-). admire cow. say (789) ri(TTa-/zai. here -. Subjunctive. 762. Second -Future Passive The stem - of the second-future passive is formed by adding f -o-/ to the stem of the second-aorist -77-0-0- The second-future passive thus ends in passive.aL.206 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 761 Of those verbs which have both passive aorists. (rraAcu SraA-e-iri. etc.) say (779) love epa-fjwu. verbs (662 and 652). paJTTw. flpfX<i>.

the inserted p. t-So-rov. fo-firjv.i. SECOND-AORISTS OF THE 767.1. 1. is e/x-Tri/ATr/ary/xi iri-p. -wv-\ form the present in -VV^L (-vvvfu-). wipe (p-y-\ mix open 7rryy-vr/xt (^ray-. Kpfp. NOTE.(f)L-e-vvvfj. The In All of the above verbs are also Class.767 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS (b) 207 SiSrjfjit. e-vvv/ju. dialectic verbs are given in 1062. benefit 8l8(i)fj. From verbs in -/u. c. = All the above verbs are in the Catalogue. 2.fill (firXt'ip.i and but not when 4v recurs. hang (trans).stands for Iv.ai. (e-). see TrArycro-co 7rva/3-vvyu. (d) Consonant themes.Trprjfj. crKeSa-vviyzi. ecr/3r)v. strengthen. ntpd-vvvpi. dAovs}. ay-vi'/Ai. Kreivd). (498) From -). eK-7rAryy-vv-cr$ai.iy-vi/j.1.i.6py-vvfj.-Tr\ri(j. rare for Seo>. pv)y-). a-fievvvp-i (cr/3e-).i and 7rt-/z. dAwvat. clothe.p-vv[jia. They are the following (a) Themes in a. (498) rWrjfJii ($-).yv i(TTi]/u (crra-). break p. TyAwv {aAtu. etc. send (770) set burn (crra-).i jrifj. (498) fl-rov. but o-/3e-vvvfj. Reduplicated stem in tlie present. s<ood (498) 7r/na-. put (498) For those of the Fifth in the Catalogue. mix. swear off ?/oA. 766. often drops out when e/x.L (o/a-e-). Those which add -va. ovivrjfii Tri/j. (6) spread .i give (498) (irXa-). In Attic they have only the present and imperfect of the /xi-form . which add -w to the theme (after a vowel.!. 7rr/y-).i. went out oVi'viy/u (ova). (dXiav or jro. inserted after the in the compounds e/A-TTi/iTrArj/u and reduplication . sneeze 8eiK-vi'/it. Themes in w-vj/tyii. jri'prATy/ii (TrXa-). gird. etc. wrfts MI (aA-). 1 .i wholly to poetry. (ova-}'. Those of the Fifth Class. Kope-vvv[j.i. extinguish. earn fipyta. ifyytu (e-). o. /i-7rt7rAr//u. scatter. enclose (frpdy-vvfj.rjv. (ivr/^ryv -u>.to the theme . as e/*-7ri7ry>7j/u . see 766.irXr)iJ. as i/-e7ri/x7rAao-av. spread out.L (80-). satiate (c) <r/3f-vvv/Jit. fix inf. as are confined almost o-Ki'8-V7y-/u.i has the 2 aor. destroy ofj. shut in . s/iot? dA-Ai'/ii (oA-e-). bind (80-).i). break tppdcro'io. (in prose dfj. fill (irpa-). benefit. rid^fjn (0e-). (a. 8iSwfj. Themes in .e 6/j.. . extinguish. -oty-vi'/u = -ot'yto.. See 1062. 1. crrpoij-vvu/u. e. s^rzie oneself. eTrpid/j.-7rp^/>it (vrpa-) the nasal /x. rouse pryy-vi/xt (pay-. (irXa-} . fl-era: vvvfjii. kill op-vvfAi. 6e captured. (770) CO-TTJV. f-df-rov. 2.-vvp. pd>-vvvfj. give. 765. pt<.d-vvvp.i. etc. and are inflected like SciKvvfii. bought (498) Epic) send. aAoiTyl/.

) part. 2 perf. in 499. am (all <$as}. entered {Si'w (opt. . was killed TTfTOfj. yrjpds (Horn. yi'cocraj> subj.) . 6va-\ die. {-8/5W. TeOva-evai. rXfjvai. opt. etfrdijv {</>^w. iniper. live. yeyavia (Epic). and efj. only. part. /StoWi. KTa/zerai.). poetic.fj.(3e(3avla (Horn. inf. frAijv (rrer-. iniper. /^e/Joxra. redvap. <f>6y)vai. f3f/3au><i.).rjv. first-perf. redvairfv . . 6vy<ria (Oav-. of the /u-form ycyvofJMi (yev-. 2 perf. inf.(vai and redvdp.a. yi'wrwv. /2e- (3dvat (poet. These occur in Attic Greek "(T-njfu (O-TO. K-8?/xv Honi. etc. 2 aor. 2 aor. (3e(3u>s (poet. xrds} poetic fKTafjt.-}. tyvtav . en-fiefiCxri (Plat. TTTCIS} {rXd). -8pavat. KTCI^CV (Horn. reOvdrw (Horn. reOvao-i opt. Tf. mid. -Spas}(8u-). a7ro-o-KeAAa> (0-KtA-. yeyova.) part.. no present. Theoc. There are also a number of other second-aorists of the /Ai-form in the dialects (1063). .) .). know. KTtivo) (xrei'-. yvoi's (like Sovs)}. .ev (Horn. T\rjtfi. TTTC-.)..v which is opt. regular. other forms of the 2 aor. /2ioi's yiyvwovcw (y^o-). TeOvaTov. regular. KTayu. first-perf. : 2 perf. become. have gone. inf. all poetic. f3e/3a<rav (Horn.) . yo-). yvwvai j part. 768 {/3iuJ. inflected /3aiv(o (fta-). itand fast. yeyddre and ycyoacrt (Horn. <^>6w (<^>i'-). imperative o^es form). 2 perf.ev Epic) . -e8pav.).) . yi/w (like eyvw.v) . (8vv. c/Stcov pres. dry j. yeyaws : (Epic and late). yeyoxra (Attic poetry) . yvovraiv run. yrjpdo-KW (yepa-). produce. common drink. . ^i7/. am dead.ev^ reOvare. . TTTO-). late. <f>6dv<a ((f>6a-). tras produced. diro-o-KXrjvai (Aristoph. redvdvai (reBvavai from (Horn. part. and Att prose) . inf. {eyv<a<s. grow old. yi/u>T. yrjpavai poet. inf. 2 aor. anticipate. (poet. yeyws and plupf. 2 aor. 8vr) and I/era.). also prose). -(Spas. <f>vr)v. ea-ra-Tov. fut.). 8vvat. yvuOt. yvoirjv (like 6V?. eyviuTMV. o-KAe-). subj. . fiupqv irregular (not /3ioi?.). imperative iriOt. -e8pd. SECOND-PERFECTS OF THE /xi-Foim 768. 498}. poetic (all other 2 aor. KTa-). inf.Qi inf.) . (Horn. TTTTpai. -Spai'ijv (-8pa6i late).root. yvwrov.. yviorut. tyvwrov. are Trie of the (JTI-). eta Su^i. (3e8d[i. forms regular). redvijKa. enter.). /3e/2dcr6 go.Bva. KTew/xai . lyvw/uer.). <f>vr) {<f>v<a (opt. 3 dual fK-yeydrijv (Horn. also in prose eTrra/xryv {Trracr rXa. yeydptv (Horn.ev. 2 aor. rAds}. ^y. 8vs. <f>@air]i'. lyvwrc. plupf. part. {subj. .ei'os}. set. imper. in comp. KTas. c(f>vv. 8w) . /3e/3rjKa. -f8pa. regular. /Sieimo)}.1 {KTOCT&U. Te6vdfj. and late). (Horn. f3e/3dd(Ti etc.FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS /8iow (/?to-). rXrycro/Aat poet. poetic ITTTJJI/ {TTTW late. -8i8pd<rKu> Suo) (8pa-}. poetic KTu>'.

V (771. r)p. regular {subj. <$e8rav. eotKot/xt . eSeftieiv. eoiKevcu . COIKCOS. SeiSia. part. sit . seem. as 8ei8oiKa . fled. "rifu (e-). IK- know. Epic impf. second-perfect -^pyj know .fv. inflected in 786. say . eSei'Sio-av.it|s. (prose).770 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS re^eo? (Horn. Siov. et'8-). poet. plupf. the (/cet-). . 8e8ifj. and (x/ a "> X/36")' ^ behoves. imper. SeSiOt. SeSt^. subj.for FiS. opt. SeSia. . 8e8i<a<s 8e8iacri imper. /ceKpax^i Others are poetic and confined mostly to Homer (1064). etc. S. and late .L (a-).fcw (771. 1) (PASSIVE) MIDDLE IMPERF. be like. fear. SeoYwcri . second-perf. ^uou 0180. dpi (r-). 2 pf. for FIK. /cei/xai send . eTfu (I-}. 8fi8ia<s. .). ACTIVE PRES. IND. appear.root. Se8i$i also SeSivta poet.). (170--). 209 2 plupf.] tS. pres. late poets . no present SetSw ScSie. one ought. These verbs are say . know.* (Kpay-\ cry out. [Homer has forms beginning with 8fi8i(j. SWSie. (18-. feared. SctSire part. eSe&'eis.). : Irj/jLt (e-).ev .ev = Attic SeSire. Sie. SeSiei/cu . third Epic 6V for Sfi. go . 770. ?T]|ti MIDDLE SECONBAORIST (501.. and rare in Plato). appear. e^Krj and ^'/cetv}. poet. tfikrov and eiKrrjv (poet.root. Keypaya as present (imper. also etKws plupf. /u-forms are eoty/^ev (poet. usually re^i^ws. Plat. first-pert'. Set-. second-perfect COIKO. f8ei8ifj. lie . for ft-PoiK-a.root. inf. i for 06K-(o-)-<xtri (poet. IEREGULAR VERBS OF THE /w-FORM 769. inf. part. 4) 2) 2. 1. cinder . plupf. ot/cw . I fear . second-perfect oi8a. opt. TcOvyvia) pi. The dialectic forms are in 1065-1072. 2 perf. rare.. 6W<5i$i.. 2) fcw (771. SeSoiKa. send. "be .

wfrjs 3. -ctrc or wi<r0e -l<rfl (771. . FUTURE PASS. PERFECT MID. 771.210 P. t^ PART. --Ka. ACT. AND MID. PERFECT ACTIVE. 3) or ICIVTO ctvro (771. ACT. 1) only indie. -ts. -t-f/JMi.-. or INFIN. -uvrai 6) OPT. the perfect -efxa. the perfect middle -ef/wu.or yi-ye. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS U|1CV 771 2. 1. -do 1ITO ttio-6ov UlT] -rfr. 1. 3) -tI<T00V D. . 2. tyre 3. -4r<Js. ffclJV . AND PASS. but whether this is for an The secondoriginal o-i-o-e. etc. fci (771. ttiT -tl]TOV or itCi\Tt -ti-f\n\v P. -flvai (771. aorist -eirov. But the first-aorist ^ica has the temporal augment.is not known . 3) IMPER. only in composition. . 3) 3) -T1T -tlcv 3. The subjunctive iw is for te-w. -Wos in composition. FiRST-AoR. -v. 5) ufe. uicv or (771. only in composition.-lra. iftficv or -i(j. 2. 2) 8. 3. JjKa. -<t|iai. plupf. AORIST PASS. -T|Kd(iT)v (501. ?er 3. in prose T}KO mostly in composition. contracting with the stem -.ev or -L(JL0a -el'^fitv 2. 2. NOTE. -<5 for --w. FUT. The present stem i- is for i-e-. -A9r\v in composition. YciTov or -ftrov or IttrjTOV 3. 2. AND MID. S. -ftica. ti<ra. (jo-w. wire or . -KHjo-opLtu in composition. -f-fO-qv. VERBAL ADJECTIVES. -cfyiTjv. ir6ov -ecrSiov lrv -?vrwv or i{'a-0ojv P. itir\v 2. cco-o tiro ICTOV -?TOV D. and the aorist the syllabic augment passive -fWijv are for -t-frov. fjo-opcu regular in prose only in composition. 1. it was not fi-ff. tiro (771. S. 1.

Trpo-eur^e. from the present ITJ/AI and et/xi. ^<T<r0ov ?<rovrai tVoiro 4<ro(r0t)v ?<roivro A Imperfect dual forms tfrov and ^Tiyv are very rare and doubtful in Attic. eit]v INDIC. Trpo-OLvro) . see 772. {Voficu ?<r.773 2. except that the optative has -?o and the other two -ero. 1. also the imt'eis and ?. Trp6-oi(r6e. go. 2. 555). Of all the forms which appear only in composition. has These show a transition to the common form of inflection Tidr)fj. The perfect and aorist are borrowed from ytyi/o/xat : ytyova and 773. t|x es-se). 5. Trpo-oivro (also accented Trpo-oiro. ^ rr<Jv tlrov or l'r]TOV ?OTTOV PART. The imperfect of d^-l^/xi is sometimes v'i<f>ir)v (with the preposition Trpo-oi(T0e. be). 1. see 778. 772. et/u (eV-. 2. OPT. &v. ?<ri ?<rrau %o-(T0 o-oio-0ov i'croLO-0e PARTICIPLE tcrdfitvos 3. 3. the second-aorist Ran. Observe that the second-aorist middle indicative and optative and the pluperfect middle are the same throughout. 2. NOTE. 3. wfxev or OP IT)T l't]<rav <itrre 3. IMPERFECT IMPER.. and compounds of S>. The present optative forms d^>-ioire and d</>-t'oiev occur for d^-tetTjre and d<-iiev and irpo-oiTO. 1. PRESENT SUBJ. augmented. sometimes occur for Trpo-eiro. -eirjv. 'Eo-ri retains the original ending -n. Compare 504. clvai (from eifj. crvv-corc'ov. (TTOV ^TOV or ii]Tr]v 6v (331) P. 133). Compare 500. 2. ffyv. -efvcu. late form i)s occurs for rjcrOa. o?<ra. 4. are formed as if from contract verbs. INFIN.i. irpo-tlvTO. perfect forms . E? is from Eurt Old Ionic fcr-cri through t-cri. 1[ w S or fjv tl ctTjS U D. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 211 The present forms iis (also found accented -tets) and lei. . For similar forms from -3>. Ei/Kt is from o--/it (Lesbian Aeolic l/t-/ui). Latin INDIC.i similar forms in the middle. FUTURE OPTATIVE to-dfieOa if<r<r0ov to-oi(iT]v t'o-oio INFINITIVE croLfjL0a i'crecrGaL . be. S.'.i. For similar forms infinitive active fivai appears once as simple (Aristoph. 6. INDICATIVE . clo-t (0(Tt or ?<TT(l)V VERBAL ADJECTIVE. clvcu V'<r0t.

INDIC. -jrap-elvai may come from 7rof/>ci/xi. be. aTT-w. 2. ur-di is from r-0t (43). But irap-w. 3. The infinitive fivai is from r-vcu. see 156. The subjunctive w. The imperfect 7. 4. d<f>- d<j>-ivai (from f JI/AI). 1). 3 (6). Hence active of "177/11 (!-) are -5. The optative tirjv is from icr-irj-v. from original r/cr-a through Old Ionic r}-a.ai . irap5. The forms of the present indicative. the third person singular ICTTCU is syncopated from ecrerai. (paroxytone). The imperative through Ionic l-w. el/jit or Trap-frj/jn. The participle a>v retains its accent in compounds . fio SUBJ. except *. 3. 8. enclitic (152. composition. jro . Accent. from r-<o . IT<$S. the present indicative accents the aTr-ei/xi and air-u may come from ei/xi. -eirjv. 2. Cd> OPT. pass 775. (from ct/zi) are easily distinguished from a<-w. ITOV ITOV ttjrov ttjrov LOITOV I'rov PART. U&v. loixra. 3). The present form ft may belong also to ei/it. and the infinitive etvat retain The corresponding moods of the second-aorist their accent in composition. go. 2. as irap-^v. 3. 6. is an augmented form. Wos. go (775) and icrdi to oiSa. as irap-<av. Trapowrrys. Wv P. aTr-eteri may Hence mean they are absent or he goes away (778. . etc. toiTi toicv & 1<5VTWV f|o-av or ijeo-av trwv VERBAL ADJECTIVES. The future OTO/MU is from Old Ionic eo--cro//.FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS is 774 The subjunctive <L is from IO--VTI through Doric e-vri and e-vo-t. Trap-ovros. because it is an augmented form. The participle u>v is from r-wv through Ionic f-tov. Trap-eirjv. l elo-i ttjs feus I'oi or f|iv or gti or i I lirw D. INFIK. aTr-etvai etrjv. 1. Latin i-re). The imperfect retains its accent in composition. I'OIJJLI t(lt or lotT]v I6i Uvoi 2. 774. gen. IMPERFECT IMPEU. 1. ovo-a. know (788). (331) fifWV t(lV frc tourv 2. the optative tir)v. PRESENT INDIC. ecrri preposition. aTT-et'riv. with the rough breathing. or e?/u. . (1-. are For In 3. Trap-6v. while 77 y is from i/cr-v. am present. over. -efvat. 3.

<J>^s or <jx0i 4>t]crl a "l <j>dru D. 3. 'EAew-o/xai.I and a<^)-ievai. <f>r)fj. NOTE. see the Catalogue. The accent in compounds iovcrrj<i. 1. The indicative present of ei]u. INFIN. PRESENT INDIO.r)v belongs to "e^iai = /le/xcu (not from "77/0. ep^o^ou is used in (or aorist) than with future meaning. retains its as Trap-ia>v. SUBJ. and quantity the compounds of both are thus . but only in the indicative. Hence compounds whenever possible as irdp-cifM. The imperfect forms ?Ja. Trap-iov.i has future meaning. tj>afj. NOTE. I shall going (in poetry and late prose occasionally also as a present). and rjeire. The infinitive if vat is distinguished by the smooth breathing (and short t) from -tevai so in O. the forms yew. The other moods and the participle are perhaps oftener used with present For the present. as in and d</>-tw. gen. j/et(v). The future euro/xat is Old Ionic . 22. the subj. 3. etc. 2. In the plural we have late forms yti/J-fv rjea-av belong to the newer Attic. 3. y (without v movable). The compounds of ei/u always accent the Accent. 2. irpoa--i<a the quantity is . 1. like Trdp-eifjLL. i$s. but the Homeric eia-dfjirjv or ei(rd(j. opt. even when not marked. which is accented like a second-aorist. always from et/u. easily distinguished.Tov ^fJTov 4>do-a. participle iwv. <(>Tifi IMPERFECT IMPEB. is marked. I am Attic prose. <}>aT<Jv }>T)TOV 4>drov <j>dT>v PART. <j>ar^ <j>acr <}>aiT]T (<}>aiT) <j><io-i <j>a^crav or (j>afev . 11). yeicrOa. Trap-iovcra. 3. go. occurs only once in Attic prose (Lys. ?/s. as dir-ita and jrpw-lw.1). say. 4>aiT]v 4>aCrjs 4> INDIC. 778. or I. etc. rjvav belong to the older and middle Attic . irdp-idi. S.. Trpocr-ifvai I and irptxr-ltvai. etc. ?<f>tiv 4>w <^ns 4>fj 2. etc. 4>dv (Attic ^do-Kw P. the regular future of fp^o^ai. But when the rough breathing of -icvcu disappears in composition. and irdp-eurt may come from et/u or et/u (774. irdp-et. preposition . Latin fa-ri). differs from the subjunctive -fw. 779. ?<j>aTov 4>a. breathing. Trap-LovTOs.TT-UVO. <j>avai <}>a6C OPT. they cannot be distinguished unless the quantity. 1.779 FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS 213 776. The subjunctive fo>. irap. NOTE. 3).V <{>o|Xv <J>fyr <JjaiT][jLv or c|>at|uv 2. 777. <}>ds.t (</>a-. -tys. in accent.

^o-Oov f|<r0ci>v fjo-Oc TJO-0W Tjo-fleu fjo-0v or tfffOwffai' PART. etc. pass. <f>V|<rio. .O-IJ. fKaOrja'o.i.. except in the indicative. . may have also aorist signification. a-vfj. have been seated. say no. The participle <as. KO. The present o"V[j. am of the opinion. PASS. 4>TJ<roi|u rare and late. ( Aristot.ijv. <r before all endings except in the K(idrifj. <j>ar&$. ?<j>T]0-a. opt. Imper. is enclitic (153. KaOijcro. admit.i. 780. (f>airjv. also (/HXO-KOJ is more common. 0ar6s poet. . IMP. Kauw/isii. Ka. fKadi')iJ. KaOrffro. etc. For the imperative Kadija-o. and late prose. IND. K SUBJ. 1. tragic. '.-ffrrjcri. affirm. etc. PRESENT INDIC. In the last sense. it <f>rj[ii may have three meanings. Kadrjrai '. rarely in Herodotus). I deny} .Tjv.ai. <j>fj<rai. The stem 170-. indicative. It may simply mean. . or it may mean / assert. OIT.QOV occurs in comedy. 782. dnr-e<pd. INFIX. NOTE. Ka. 3).at and KaOrpr-To (also Ka6ij-To).6riif VERBAL ADJECTIVES.^cu/zei'. KaO^ro Or KaOr^o-TO etc. NOTE. forms Tycr-rat. (but crv/z-<//?. imperfect. I^-TO. and future are dialectic. Ka6t'j<r6<j) etc. IMPF.drops 783. w^arai late. KaBotTO . crv/u. the editions differ in regard to the accent) crv/A-<ys.6oio. sit (in Attic Ka6r/fj. except <r/s.i. grant. FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS <^j<r. is PERF. INF. (wanting) OPT. also occurs once or twice in Attic poetry.. <acra. may mean say yes.?BES. 780 <f>^<rtiv. aor. dvTi-<f)r]fj.6oiiJ. say . .-(f>ir)fj. No examples of the present optative dual are found late . dvri-foj'S. NOTE. For it <f>d<TKwv is used. sit (Epic. or KaOi'ifi^v. I tf><o. 4>t|crds. is Ionic or nor does <cuTe occur. be it said. The missing sometimes perfect. I have sat. etc. (wanting) fjo-o IMPER. ir<j>d(r8a>. ). . '. (jixcvos Kad-rifiai. FIRST. ^jmat (f)cr-). Middle forms of the present. etc. (rvjj. fjpcu fjrai fjo-flov IMPERFECT fJIxcOa f)<r0 4ipiv fja'o fjorflov ?j<TTai yjtrOov fjvrai fjo'TO fjo-Otjv SUBJ.AORIST. subj. 4>^0"o>v. Kaf)rj<rOa. it 781. prose and comedy).21 4 FUTURE. etc. like Latin aio (ov <?//u. 2. In composition yet etc. The meaning of ij/wit. fKaOrjTO '. The imperfect f(ftrjv. J>^trai(ii. PART. is the form KO. <j>dv.-<f>oi.

18.at. SECOND-PERFECT INDIC. 1. seat or sit. offjSciv olSa oi.. t<r0t SUBJ. t'w. The present and imperfect regularly serve pluperfect passive of INDIC. Ktia-erai. Testaments. 215 sii .o-0a {i8'i]<r0a or fj8is orfjSci oC8e IVrca fj8ti(v) I'OTOV l'(TTOV l8fJTOV PART. or topu. Ke'oiTO KCITCU K610-00V KLCT0a) tKeiTO D. Besides the subjunctive and optative forms given above. 3. ' 786. IMPER. /cara-Ketcro } but infin. ol&a This is (t'S-).Ta-Kficr0ai. VERBAL ADJ. . etc. am and imperative. Kl'p. KtCcrjj. regular. INFIN. 2. 785. clSvia. the future Ka&jcroyiicu and New 784. have laid myself. has the recessive accent . a perfect with present meaning from the stem compare fTSov. regular. iSiT}v iS(iT|s elStiT) INFIN. ice-}. -Kf-rjTai (Aristotle). is Kadf^ofj-ai. 1. in prose by frequent in the Old sit.786 tenses are supplied FORMATION OF TENSE-SYSTEMS by eo/xcu. Ka@io[j. The compounds have the recessive accent in the indicative and imperative. S. and IK-KCOITO (Dem. am aware. saw. have been laid. cfrropai. 2. etc. KCTTWV tlStos. KaOifo. Kl|XVOS Kl|X0(X 2. Keiftai (KGL-. 3. Ki<r0ov Kicr0ajv PART. KturOai INDIC. 1. there occur also Kara-Kf^vrai (Lucian). The compound in the indicative criV-oiSa.. as the perfect and riOtj^ii. conscious. lie. OPT. SECOND-PLUP. PRESENT SUBJ. as Kara-Keiyuat. NOTE. know. as (rvv-ur6i. ?KIVTO FUTURE. (510). KCIO-00V P. t(T|X(V dSw|lCV elSfjre el8iTinv or i8eiT)T clScifxcv icrrt or t<TT I'ardcrt or clSeire or ^j8T clSwtri tl86iT]crav or clScicv KOTTUV or or FUT. Ka. IMPERFECT IMPER. clSco elSfis clS'fj OPT. eiS^vai f^St] INDIC.).0a KcurOe KtiVTai 8ia-KT](r0 Kur0 irpoor-K^oivro KcCcrOtov Kara-Kcwyrat . Kl|UU K6LO-CU KWTO KT]Tai.

Many active verbs have no future active. ingriit. ^ Subj. said he.L PBESEXT. xpy (from xti i/) > OP*. German The form our-Qa is from ol8-6a icr-fitv from Ionic tcissen. say. a?rox/t)/o-oixri. FUT. FUTTTRE. Here 6's and ?y are old demonstratives (392). - 2. rarely in Attic) ourda<s for oT(rda occurs in comedy and in Herodas. vy/u. This verb is used only parenthetically. Thoae . it behooves (Lat. PKESENT. Indie.omeoi&arov only late times in Ionic and late Greek. if suffices. 788. ySeurav (late). IMPERFECT. ySerrjv are not found. parts of be. XP^ (from xw T} v ) an(^ ^ ess ^te augment.LH6 IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING 787 787. y&fi (without v movable) belong to the newer Attic (compare The dual yo-rov and ycrr^v occur almost only similar forms of et/n. /n^w. Here belong many verbs of the Fifth and Sixth Classes besides some of the other classes. The stem is iS. like Latin inquam. aTTt IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING 791. . from )(p^ COTOU. rjpl (a-. ?cr^i ei/xt. i8-/j. 789. . Latin a-io). oiSare. Active Verbs with Future Middle. xprjvai (from xp*l f^at). English to wit. I. IMPERF. The following is a list of all the important ones. suy 8' T/V says he.i. 8' o?.compare Latin vid-eo. A compound diro-xprj. tcr-re from eido-i iS-re . said I . This is originally an indeclinable noun with a verb it is impersonal and formed its tenses by combining with fip. 4). airoxp^i pi- d-n-exprj. cyw. T/Seire. jj 8' ^. rri understood. NOTE. has these forms : PRESENT. The perfect also has oi$a<s. The pluperfect also has y8efj. The forms dual forms ySeror. also ySeis. the future middle being used instead with active meaning. with inserted from iS-6i is identical in form with the imperative of be (773. As 790. AOR. (compare for uraa-i (Doric UTUVTI) from iS-cr-a-vri eiK-o--a-vTi from loi/ca.fv . : fi&eLo-Oa and yfys (less correct forms) . Xpewv (from xp) ov). iy -fja-i. plural y8ct/*v. 1. Xprj(TTa. . aTrox/MyVei. X/n) eiT/) . ot&io-i (. neut. . IMPBRPECT.tv <r . .XP ") (fr m Part. 768) . opus cst}. 776). said she. otSafjLfv. and ij8fTf are rare and poetic. NOTE.for /i8. xprf (xP a -> XP ~)> there is need. The pluperfect forms y8ftv. in Attic poetry 2 sing.

shall be eager.).ai. 7rpov6vfj. . datravdu.Tiv .i irvtw t diravrdta ")" dTroXai^a. lodge.ai. foresee.ai.ai. wish dfofna. reply.ai. Of the above some have also the aorist middle. oppose consider * by an oligarchy Trorcto/aai (poet.. Middle and Passive Deponents. am irpovoeofjai.8u 1" f/3odw ) d/coi/w dXaXdfw t d/j. think on 4irLffTafj. Middle 792.ei\{/dfj. ofo/uat. ^Aa/z^i'. spend of one's men . has only </>avTuo-$r/o-o/>icu. am eager.eofj. am pleased am beaten loathe be d/itXXdo/xcu. 0tXoTt]u^oyiuu. contend avTi6o/Mi (poet.1. fpau. irpayfjiaTeijo/niai. and imp. is 3. 7rpo0vfj. take counsel. Passive deponents are deponent verbs whose aorists have active or middle meaning.oKpaT^o/j. be busy . 2. axOofMi. marked with a * have also the active future. p. be in doubt . irpovoto/nai. appear am ambitious 4. think of ^Tri/xeXo/uat. be at loss. * q.ai. am deny vexed twofopai. ylyvo/j-ai.ai. but the middle is preferred those marked with a f sometimes have the active future form in late Greek. has only ^o-dtj- (f)avTa. poet. SepKofiai (poet.. airopton. or &ya/j.ai. as aAAo/xcu.ai.^fji(f)0fj.v(rdrro/j. : These also use the aorist passive dnel^o/jMi.rj@riv.ai. admire * alSeofjai.aprdvu * 7eXdw yrjpd(ffK)u * ^uea> * el/j.ai.ai. be warmed. fftuirdb} swim f3\7Tto) * crTrouSajw ffVpLTTO} VUto} * X^fa YWp^W l.at. spend ..eofj.ai. feel shame dXdo/tat. <f>i\o<ppovtoiu. have an ^v6v/j.i. provide revere POV\O/JUU. 04 pu. see drjfj.ai. aristocratic * * government dpvto/j.a. converse * diavoeo/j. -t)pAa6^v 6.dfa \ayxdvu opdu OTOTV^U iraifa TTTjSdw irtvW pew po(f>^o} TuOdfa * <f>0dvu * SapOdvo) didpdffKO} SlWKb) Oiyydvk) OptpffKu KdfJLVb} XdWw vt<j).a.). middle and aorist passive indifferently av\io/j. but passive form . or post-classical Several use both the aorist dvvafi. twivotofjiai.vv/j.ai. lvavTioop. am pleased. live.ai. 7)Trdo/j.ai. poet. * yTjpDu ytyvuffKU ypijfca ipvyydvu effBiia * * * iro64(a KCVKVOJ * 6av/j.ai. wander ayafj. 6. speak in defence. lament. diroXoytofiai. treat affect ion"/ el ij. v\aj3eofj. leap. need understand take care <pavrd^ofj. love. deponents are deponent verbs whose aorists have active or middle meaning and middle form .at. care for Trtvoeo/j.ai. d/owXXdo/uai.ai. r)fj. * Sia\eyofj. appear. KoivoXoyto/mai..a. roar .ofJi.elj3i>>. as . change . The following a Those marked with a form.fofj.1 * /cXdfw * /cXcuw o:5a TT^TTTW TrXe'w * T'IKTU ^r\rjv f f oifuL^di eTraivea) Kpdfa f KVTTT... list of the most important passive deponents. become. 7rpoOv/j. <pi\oTi/jo/j.U) oXoXt/fw 6fj. 8ia\^yofj. star 7rpoBvfj.ai. dpv^o/j-ai.ei(p0r}v less frequent than r)fj. . Sairavdofiai. diroptw.1. be out of one's ). warm.792 IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING 217 . pres. as Trpo6vfj. like <rofj. have a * ijdofj. but this is less frequent.i. democratic government /iterate Xoyuai.at. think am able 6\tyapxto/j. governed fly eager mind ApiffTOKpar^o/j-ai. oppose airovotonai. leaped.eo]u.ai. : : : in active or middle meaning d/j.ai. WpofMt.i. These prefer the aorist middle to the aorist passive /3/>i~xdo/mt. aldtofj.ai. blame .ai. The future passive form here has also active meaning was eager.r)6r)o~ofj. only poetic.aL. ijdofja.ai. regret fj. reflect 6vvafj. oXo^o/io/xai.ai. have both the future passive and future middle Observe that ijSofj. ffffio/j. tpa/j.

deceive tiri-rdffffd}. portant. a. was struck.a. carry These use the perfect middle in middle or passive meaning. dyvotu. and Future Passive. S^xoM* 4 . /Sidfo/uat. tend. Only these three occur in Homer: ^Xrifj.Ta. accuse. at ) u ^e > wvto/JMi.pdffd/j. Present and Imperfect. protract 794. buy. uvtofjMt. ireipdo/Mi. have. etpyu. IKTO.x a ''* Iiat > contrive .i. speak in riddles. ^w. reckon .ai and Trcipa8ricTOfj. foretell vu. Xu/j. try. do . force . and be ill-treated . otirdficvos (ovrdw). nfa. contend. This rarely occurs in the present and imperfect or future passive. irappi]ffidfofjMi. '. ffK^irro/jMi.ff0fyrofjia. serve w. alvlffffo/Mi. .Ktofj. 1. deprive <TT/)e/3X6w.ali'o/jiai. 1. shall love has . d-ywnfo/ucu. say fj. stretch out. inroTOTTfOfjuii. reproach iraidaytojyeu. Btafo/mt. Xeyw. use . love tdta. was killed.-(J>povt<t>. Future Middle with Passive Meaning. ireipdu pa. set up a pretext . agree confuse mistake dyuvlfofjuii.t)v . /xi. dir-api>riOriffofMi from ' Ayuvifofjuu. permit Iy6u. not toperceive.ai. contend to for against tx<>>. 795. diro-Xoytofjuu. imitate . receive . / . guard rpf(pw. Swp^o/jMt. injure Q-airardu. contend. /do/xcu. Aorist Passive. future In many verbs the 793.prvptw. chiefly poet. alvlffffouai. Deponents With Passive Meaning. ofioXoytu. dispute &px<>>. besiege over fier-trtfu. irapdcro/j. shut out 2. tpfpta. suspect. /crao/Mi Xw/3d<tytai. ijytonai. force .ai.. 2.. rule diddtTKw. . ill-treat buy and be bought . Perfect and Pluperfect. rripew. speak in riddles . <piX(b). virorowtw.1. Middle Passives. force and am forced . fuptofjuu. The following are all the important cases. set Ka. ill-treat . send away irpdyau. Oedo/Mu. lament . contend and be contended about . heal . order. rrytofjuu. uWo/xcu.). lead . Of these fpau has tirfi. lead . be (act as) a citizen . present . bear witness (Hdt. often in the perfect and pluperfect and aorist passive.. hinder screw up.a. Second-Aorist Middle with Passive Meaning. but use the latter with passive meaning: dyuvlfo/juu. pXdirru. middle has the meaning of the future passive as Tlp-rja-ofiai = I shall be honoured. tpyua Oya opai from tpydo/JLai. XoylfafiLcu. imitate . pray . x/>do^ai. Xtafidoncu. KrdofjMi. ill-treat. 2 aor. ' . dSiKfu. 793 warm more frequent than the future passive. . speak freely . alrtdofjuu. educate troXffieu. . speak in defence . on a business .r)v (/3dXXw). heal . begin. see . fpydfofjLai. accuse . These seldom or never use the future passive form or have tv-fSpetu. iroXiTetfo/uai. buy. These have the aorist middle and aorist passive. The future sometimes or always have reflexive or middle meaning. tfftpriv treipdu. ^yydfcytett. hold vw. possess . pass. wrong wage war dfji<t>icr^r)Tw. wounded. work. teach Trpo-ayopei'iu. lie in wait it only in late '. work . ill-treat . behold .HJJV (KTSIVU). nourit-// Tptjiw. 6Xo<f>6* pofjMi. The following are all the most imTlfj.rjdrja-op. irpo<pafflfofj. aorists Middle passives are active verbs whose passive 796. aMfo/ueu.cu. whip rack (pvXdaffw.i.218 IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING oneself. . Greek. /Sid^o^cu. Deponents are sometimes used with passive meaning. guard inhabit These also have the future passive form. rub rain bear crrepfu. do ri/xciw. shall try. xMM 3. honour despise irapa-Ttivw.

wanting .aL. . 2 eyprjyopa. and aTr-(8vv (e^-e8vv) are used of one's eyeipto. 9. fjiavta. awake. set for myself. remain ( = leave one's self). a-njfrofjiai 2 aor. mid. . firi'i\6rjv .at. /r myself (in Homer sometimes = u-os Z/i5 behind. perish. 219 disgrace. mid. eyetpo/xat (intrans. 8e8vi<a 4'Sw. while fv8vofjia. Suo/xai and Svvw. stood (set myself) eVr^/ca. a?n (i. freeze eirdyrjv 2 pf. am . am inferior. persuade. 8v(a. eSva-a. gone down. i(TTrifj. wAecra. TreTTT/ya. fj. left. m/<o. oX\i<fj. rejoice. dAwAexa. (rr^(ro[j.ai.v^paiv^. ccrr^cra. raging. etc. r/vf^pdvOr/v. have ^Ev8l5a) and eve8vo-a.) op/maw Op/Jllfa <rKe$dvvv/j.) aor.) Tropei/w TTJ/CW /cctT-aXXdovw eixppaivd) KvXlvdu \elirw 5ta-X(5w \Virtto) 6pyifa ffrfiru rp^iru <j>a. the second-aorist and second-perfect are intransitive. went down. 2 pf. /j. . yuaivoyucu.i. turn. 8vorw. fasten. fix. am ruined. am . set. ayviy-iat. 3. rouse.). Swro/xcu 2 aor. felt ashamed . <rws<. be ashamed. am inferior) pass. also am Je/i! behind or tp^vo. e'dya. stod (have placed myself). . Srmucu. eo-T^o-a/Ai^v to-ra/xai. Mixture of Transitive and Intransitive Meanings.). eia-T-r'jKr].avovp. was turned or turned (myself) . verbs the future and first-aorist of the active form are transitive in meaning . 6r)v. u>pyicr0T/v. and own tv-e8vv. move. 2 aor. 2 aor. Treireia-fiai. break (intrans. awoke . anger. shall stand. ftV^uvgladden. opyilja. am . f(TTfjv. oAwAa.i. was placed. AetVo/Acu. dived. mfffOfJMt. TTCIO-W. break (trans. dAov/ be perconvinced . .). rejoiced . irr/yvvfit. AeiVw. d. am broken. or entered. .aivw Koifj. (Trrjga.ffj. fayrfv . mid. am fastened. 2. . . f-f8vara are used of putting on or taking oif another's clothes . tiAopii' 8. In some only the secondperfect 1. lose. 4. 8e8vKa.d<a irflOu cr^iciXX a\lfa Ivflyii) dTT-a\\d<r<r<i) ecrridu fieBtiffKb} Trepaibu o^fw In some 797. ^ypofjL^v. eTreicra. 7. leave (trans. place myself. became angry. enter. standing .). o-T/oe<w.ai. TTfTnrjy fiat. is intransitive. sink (trans.. oAw. Trvyyvv/zai. -eda . AeiVo/iat. au-ake. place. fjuiivia. Treidd). believe. awake pf. 2 pf.i dvidw tfTTd) <nrelpw <TTp{<f)<j) dicurdu Kara-K\tvu> /j.i pass under. shall irfi(rOr)v.). but 2 aor.797 is IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING Thus aur\vv<a.aL) clothes. rajre. Kivijdr)v.Tro-8v<i) or eK-8v(a and d. Kivew. (trans. regular . madden. usually of middle form. TreTrcixa.va> dv-dyu Kar-dyu dOpotfa alffj(6nt euwx^w 0ii/t6w Klvtto) dpeyw (poet.rjva. /law left or have failed or Aei^o). AeAotTra. ea-Tddr/v. obey. The following dydpu dypialvo) are all the middle passives of any importance Sia-Kptvu : Si-a\\dcrffu <rvv-a\\d<r<T(j) euco/^w vc/jifffdu (poet. destroy. (. diro-8vofJLai (lK-8vo/j. eAiTropjv. suaded 2 TreiOo fj. was moved or moved myself . oAAv/xat. TrcurO^(rofj. TrtTToi^a. ayvvfjLi. put on .t.Tr-f8vcra. O-T^O-W. 2 pf. was The same distinctions in the compounda am fe/< 5. am pf.

IRREGULARITIES OF MEANING do. fit. eV/Jfcr&jv o-/3ej>vtyxai. a-eo-T/Tru. trans. tppwya. poet.220 10. Various other peculiarities of meaning of the tenses are noticed in the Syntax. tpdiru. <^atVo/xai. 6pupov trans. . burn am 800. Trcirpaya. e</>w. to go. appeared. ^>avoi/xat. shall cause caused to go . rot. irtyvKa. 2 aor. shall bring.at (intrans. and intr. break. extinguish. 2 aor. go 2 aor. <r/3evvv[J. tnjTro/icu. aor. . For the 798. appear. begot. <f>ava>. Poetic intransitive second-perfects are fipdpa. produce. fppijga. 13.ai (yev-). Ira/c^v. declare.ai.) .cro/xai and <fMj. 0o. cause to hope) . put out. NOTE. am extinguish >il. p^yvvfj. fut. toXtra. be extinguished. rotted. am pf.cra. 1 rqKo/xat (intrans. poet. out. fit. aor. NOTE. Tre-Tr/jd^a. tear. poet.cu. melt. 799. 7rpd(nru>. see the Catalogue. . have shown myself. melt. 2 pf. fell . trans. and intr. fjpiKov. 12.). ^xzi'vo/acu. s/iow. brought forth . <uco.ai. ^pekw. 2o-/3ra. (dalw.) . came into being . Tre^rjva. <^>avr. forms of these verbs. rrjKdt (trana). 7rt<acr/jwu. troubled (ic/idw. burn. fcfyqva. tfpapov trans. fn'jyvvfj. OTJTTO). poet. <uo//. went out. fifou. and intr. <f>va-(j). ill). 2 poet. S^Sija. come NOTE. 5.vovfj. give concern). rotten. dpaplffKu (dp-). <atVw. 4yftvdfj. 798 have done. e</>?. tfpiirov. ca-(3tjKa. am born. In late Greek dv-efpya (from &v-otyu) was used as equivalent to dv-e<j>y/j.tiv.). am by nature. s/iow. Tc-n/Ka.1 (trans. irf^ayKa. ydi>o/j. melted . 16. 2 aor. hope (f\vu. break. Jiave been opened. am broken. (ppdyrjv . throw down. 2 am melted. cause to rot. 14. full l^>i. 11.). bring forth.. : am produced. stand open. was produced. KfKi)5a. . appeared into being . fit (apaplvKw. poet. f^rj<ra. f<J>dvr]v. fare (well or . 6pvv/u. I(f>dv6r)v . e'crair^v.i/ap/v. Observe these poetic forms /3af xw. 1 pf.i. f<r/3rjv. trans. rouse.

while in Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic it is represented by et as Attic. I. as tiroAvlu for tvaivtu. and in Doric. evyeveis . etiyevris but Eleian Aeolic (evyevee-) = Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic vareip. Aeol. > 6ij/ .PART (A summary of the leading features of Introduction. pdiTrjp for fjnrJTijp. fyoj for C^os. Sayuios for S^/tos. tfaSos for 6fos. [jioylofj.a for Cvo/u. see 844 For variations due to difference in contraction or compensative lengthening. for v rarely . as Lesb. dXXora = Dor. for fiXXore. as Lesb. . and 845. dirt fordv6' t 'OSfotrevs . . .. Doric ira. <ri5/jm for o-(pjces. i for . T^>TOS for rplros . t for c 802.es for fj. also stricter Doric ua and to for eu and eo in verbs in -4u. Aeol. Aeolic and Doric regularly have d v6ca for VLK-I]. i . irt(ff}ffvpes for rfoffapcs. . firepoj = Lesb. For Attic 17.. ^Se^Kovra for as Lesb. Aeol. and Dor. la-rid for earia.. Dor. vira for virb .ev. it remains in Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic. Aeol. a i in a few words . x<&> Kl * f r x^^ Keos ty l especially in derivatives in -eos Boeot. Ft/can. . Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic. Doric 6vv/j. : . ]. &\\OKO. Aeol. . etc. Aeol. for tHKOffi.oytofj. Lesb.) III THE DIALECTS all the dialects is given in the PHONOLOGY VARIATION OF VOWELS RELATION OF AEOLIC AND DORIC TO ATTIC 801.ri]p (irarep-}. "ZeKV&v for for f for KOVTO. as Lesb. Aeol. dStiva for dStivrj . 1. &Tepos for erepos . as Xadd for 2. seldom in Dor. and 840. Aeol. II. dpytpiov for dpytpeov . a for o in a few words . as Lesb. Boeot. w for a occasionally .a. . Aeol. Aeol. Dor. o in some words e. But when 17 is due to lengthening of original e. for in several words as Lesb. . 0t6s for 0e6s Dor. The following interchanges of vowels also occur a for c in some words as yd for 7^ "Apra/M* for "Apre/uj . as Lesb. v for o often in Aeol. K/S<?TOS for /rpdroj. as Lesb. Dor. irartip.

English also to and tw for eo and ew in verbs in -^w (as in stricter rfu/fce and French ditc) : . for for TpuJKovra. atcr^pa . 'Ep/ieids. o for or v very rarely .ia. 804. > . as Lesb.1. for Kfy/cu/m Lesb. For Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic and Laconian Doric rarely have ot Lesb. (late) Later considered long or short for v or v . ^8ao-iX^i' for iepeiov. rvvTOfir] for TvirrofJMi for ot or u> * f r w i' 1 Tpo. / 4.o<s . "We seldom have KTtivti). instead of vi in the fern. 2). see 1057. 806. >. . 6(Wi\ei (901. d. for TpiaKovTa tfj. evvoia (883. as Koikes for Kijves. Atwvtoi^fftos for Atoi'Po'ioj (cp. Hoffeid&v. NaixrtKad. as aXrjOfirj.ripv for "Ofirjpoi. Tfropts for rtffffapet.. for (6) In many other words .IVU for . as TLOV^JO. /Aovcrds for /lovcravs. KTO. Itjcrofiaiy . 3) . vy/iafloeis 3. vedvtds. o-io.222 DIALECTS 803 o for a often in Aeol. act. as ipdva for i for genuine ei as iinr6TT) for Ivirorai (882. Aeol. rO Sffjau for T(j5 SrjfjUfi . rj/j. = HoolSav Att.O. for Trpatrcrca.eprj. S/vTf occurs with cure. These peculiarities belong to Boeotian Aeolic 17 for ot in nouns and verbs .a. . of perf. <^ia. . 803. cvvoirj for dXt'jOeia. for fjMipp. Arcad. and Dor. . . UotroiSdv = Lacon. 6voipos = 6Wtpos. seldom in Dor. mains when due to contraction or compensative lengthening : as yiyds for ytyavrs.^ KprfTrjp for It also re- KpaTrjp v^us for vavs. Treipr/a'Ofj. cfo. part.fitov. . The diphthong ei takes the place of e. But a remains in $ea.crop. 6vu for &vu. takes the place of a (a) In abstracts in -eid and -oid (older Attic -ctd and -oid) from adjectives in -775 and -oos . TraAata. tiro\tiuov for RELATION OP OLD IONIC (Epic) TO ATTIC 805. t) takes the place of e -eios : (a) In the endings and -elov. j Ionic dialect regularly has ^ for Attic TraAai^. Lesb. ijfjtepay Sot^t'ij.Tos for irp&ros as in Doric f r ^PX et fiprivri. Aivcids. eu for ei as Lesb. U/wJtbv for Mtvveios. (b) (c) In the oblique cases of nouns in -cvs . Arcadian shows -roi for -rat in verbs.. KOV/J. 2). tacroyaat. 1. dwpa. for (cOyua. . (also Epic) al for et. . Aeol. Doric) . as floXijToi for povXifrcu. .i 6i!>pr) ai/iao~a). For Dor. fold for avis. Lesbian Aeolic sometimes has w for genuine ov as &pavos for otipavos. d/>x* ou as "0/j. as x/avcretos for (o) In adjectives in -cos (6) In the pronouns e/xeio.a. dvtryo"0). s. Boeotian also had iov for v . irpijcrcrii) e/u^va. Kbpicupa. 2. In ?}i5s. as -yvw/tyo-i for yvw/wus (883. as Dor. Dor. Doric Kviraipos for /cuTretpos. . The Old rjp. ?}i)yei tos. veqvilfa P-oipy ai<r\pfi for for cro<j)ia. . wphavis for . TVS &\\vs for rot's fiXXots.va. as Kvurcrr) for Kvwro-a. for TI/X?. as Mivinyibs. . XdOpy Xddpy. 2? for ai in the dative plural of the first declension 6). as /Jcto-tA^-os. r)VKop. irpvTavis. . irfipa.

. : and in the oblique cases of xefyj. Sei'Sia and reduplications eiAr/Aov^a. erdpri. also ^rai/oos. vovcros for oAo/xevos. etc. rpdirw. Kovpos. /card . as fitpeOpov for pdpadpov. as oi'Ao/Aei'os. del 809. see 1045. 68oiir6pioi>. . 812. e rarely for a . Short (a) found for ct -i/s . . 814. for 85ta and SeSoiKo. Short o (a) (6) is found for w like topev. In the feminine of several adjectives in In as paOtr] for . for T{/J. for TcAew. 807. rpwxdu. ai for o in viral for VIT& (809). 2). 813. rpliros. irolrj and Troiijets. VTrefp for vTre/3. for ei in JVceXos with erKeXoj. NEW IONIC TO ATTIC 1. aiFei) alongside of Attic for x*/*^ irapd. O (974). Karat (in comp. CTTTCOS. (b) In apytri and apytra alongside of dpyriri and d/xy^ra (from ' for dx:ax'7M e t''?> fc/>6j for 17/36$. \df3rjTov. ei/pi^xwpos.ev. For Attic d regularly 77 as in Old Ionic (805. SeiSeKTO and . a rarely for e . and in ISvlrjffi (from e^5ws). for 5vo. ^eiVos for evos. dpyijs). d/c^xe/^'''? yetvyai. as rdfivu. 01 for o in dXo/d and ri\otrjfffi>. X ept> . 1). xpoiri. xpoiTvTrir].816 DIALECTS (c) 223 . for etdrjre. A Was as for A^ce/dy. . 'E/5/t^o for 'Ep/j. and in these o for OK in /36Xo/nat often used for /3otf\o/ucu t i . K^UV for /ceiwv etc. rptwu. \d^erov. also fX-r'/Xovda and SeiSoiKO. et for e in subjunctives (as 6dw. etdofj. 810. /xoVos. ayKoli>ri<rii> ) <f>oivios. irvolij. 2. w/c^a for tima (6) (925). a0e?a. /xouvos. For TJ or For e instead of do. for d\-/j6eia. 808. a for at in rapos. Trvew. eOvota. as etpwraw for epwraw. These interchanges are uncommon w rarely for o as Svu. de\\6iros. cr . e?5w/uev. rpoxdw. For 843. yelveai. 6-rju).VU. <t>olvios. (d) In several augments for eoiKiua . The diphthong ov often takes the place of o before A. for f<rrla. 811. x^s. Some grammarians give also 17 for a in some feminines of the first declension as olT). ). as ZO-TI'T. Original at sometimes occurs for a as alet (from x a/Jia ^ TTo-pai. 1046.ei>. For c we have t\ in 5nr\-/i<rtos and TroXXaTrXTjVios for SiTrXdinos and TroXXcurXdcrios. . p. In the present and imperfect of some verbs in -ew : as reXetw. . probably old locatives viral for vir6 is formed by analogy with irapai. compounds of TTOI/S : dpritros. irpvp-vrj. v. see 847.da. irptifj. rarely for e . voVos. Kopos. eralpri. Sometimes in subjunctive forms In evpvxopos for e is for tu/j. The diphthong <f>\oios. RELATION OP 815. Short (a) e sometimes occurs for In the subjunctive forms like 77 etdere. (e) In some other words with eVexa (TTTftos for . see eu instead of ou in contractions.va (compare 883.

a/er6s. x a ^ K7? to " f r olicfios. threshold.|o^wit in irraffffta. for ir6rt. Laconian . for as twerov for tirtffov (from. rvirrovrt for rvirrovtri . of the first declension. Ow/jAfflos. as ir6i. A (b) In the endings eu>s and -eiov . voGcroj. as ir-i<rrtos = Attic <j>t<rrios. See also the cases like ytpeos (897. to for oy in &v. see 884.iros. as S^KOfMi for S^xoA""- and in the Ionic to . as ofc^fos. 6 otfpot fy>os). VOKO. a for o in appudtw.. SKO.a. yvpvdddofjuii for <r in the future and first-aorist of verbs in -fw . TO/. QeffffaXtrjris. DIALECTS For ri 816 1.Ka. ?5e|a.. for for & in HorciSdv (also Hoffeiddv) for IIocrfiStDi'. w for d in 5w/cos and jraiuvlfa. a for e in rdjuru. otiirore. XTJ^O/WM.) of dclKvvfu. for yepovaid third person singular and plural. rt for trtirru}. Att. yd>v. e'ivfKev. for eu in 19 fa. as ddvvarid for ddvvaffld. ffrparrjtij for (a) In nouns in -eid ./ for vticvs. for for w in <J>0i77m.. tpyw. r for <T very often. as Yoi/vara. elpvu. 3) kingdom. in some proparoxytones in -e os. as e : ^irrnjSeos. OCifj. revaepaKovra. Off\v/j. V^KI. the dat. vovcrfa. in trisyllabic forms of y&vv and d6pv. as Aapetos. in Ti5. rpufnartfu). oOvo^a. as x u P 1 and ^uura ^ an{i ^Xw^xo for from . irXtuv . ( (=6 VARIATIONS OF CONSONANTS IN DORIC 818. 2 and 3).. as irXoirrtoj for irXovvios in the SiaKOffioi in abstracts in -rla. eipur^u. irort. and bptovres (1011. ffreti>6s. -o/ca ( = ore). etc. especially before . -ea. rttrfftpts. These consonant interchanges sometimes occur in Doric K for T in the temporal adverbs in . KeivSs. queen. Soijpacri. 1). yepovrla. as ffepidSu for Oeplfa. ov for o in ^oiWs.224 8.. a. ( for et in TireXos. . in all forms (except pres. fdyados. efvaTos. and imperf. ai for a in ai. ffrpareld .. eiXicrcrw. roiyapuv. ri oCpos (= rd fipos). and their derivatives. 6 cw56j. u i\ for in Xo. as dia. ?<rw. 'Iffriairjris alel. nlpywrcu /> d for rarely . <r^ . <rdXX 0dXX. as rip for T/S. otiKow. For 77 instead of ai in 816. as <ri6s for ^e6s. d/Mpurfiartu. icpifffftav. x a^ K ^ov - few names are exceptions. ouvo/M&fu. 5. and in all its compounds . as diSurn for SlduffL. neffa/j-pplrj. : e for t in l<rrii} and a for 17 T. rpdirw (but ntyu. New Ionic has 771' for ci (compare 805. as ^afft\ijiij for pa<n\eid. rpufia. pi. as f3a<ri\eia. in the feminine of adjectives in -i/j. iyaafa for Atfflfor (r in Laconian .rloi for -Tto?.a. = its derivatives. K for x rarely . (Uuv. e/vafcAcrtoi. 817. Trpocri/ceXos. trpe^a). Tlie original T (changed in the Lesbian and Arcadian Aeolic in the Doric : in adjectives in t) is retained in the numerals in -Karloi ( = -Kfoioi). -v. These interchanges also occur e for a in fpffijv. &re. &\\ore. as 8eu. otiwoica. <rof. in some other words and forms. 35 for f in Laconian . as (iaOfa . hut -eta remains. l-wOa. <r o-iy. ^twos. see 884. forearm (988). d\^0fia. fX?. in &. iffvvu. w ft in ffufidfia. instead of d in the first declension. for e in for etpo/juii. as <55eX6s for (?/3eX6j.

fwvTjTos for etf-pijTos. </io. oCro/3 for oCros. for ef/cocrt . /3 for 5. &55r)i> (also dSijj'. .f3poTos.cu for 5exofJ.irToiJ. equipped. as Ft/can HeXa/yyos for IleXao^s .a short vowel .u. as /3eX0fs for SeXcpts . for ep-pa. fffffOfj. be and r^Xea-a. a) is inserted in: n\o-). . of which sort . in several 5 as forms from d5eof 5e'os . /3av7?/c6s for $77/> for Grip T for /c for yvv-ri. as in /36XXS. orreo and 6Vreii (also 5 is found K is found doubled in TTfXtKKrjo-ev from TreXeKciw. and n and /3Xu?<rKW <pdlffi-fj.ei5iis for .oX-. . immortal. (/u. p for <r (Eleian). A smooth mute is found for a rough mute in afrm for a5(?is. as Lesbian irffj.fros. fearless (5&>s. for <r in the third person plural (Boeotian). for x> as atftf"?" for avx 7?" . Lat. as in 6'rTt cr<r for <r. For cases of doubling due to apocope. fond of smiles . ns in firey-ai ?7recrt = Attic crcr. as roip for roty. . 823. K for TT (Thessalian). biriroTe and birbrf. yvvaiKos . because.which became reXe-). stitch. as e-pa. &TTI 65-Tt. Consonants are often found doubled where the Attic has a single consonant. 822. cr as XXa/3e for -Xa/3e. augment or in composition from pdirru. acuo). from CTTOS 824. is doubled as evveov for %-veov. as 7 for : in dypfa for atp^w IwTd^ov for iirrrjfffrov ^ for cr. /oo< / olKaaav and 8iKa. IN AEOLIC 819. The Boeotian has TT for <T(T as the later Attic as OdXarra. . tcrffo/j. Boeotian and New Attic for er in Boeotian and Eleian. for -man-destroying. back .ev p. Double Consonants.or ax. single after the 825. evdelv. go. fj. TT is found doubled in the relatives beginning with 6-. . as Boeotian j3avd.125 v for . make.f<r<rdw and vf/j-fffdu. vffj.ovcra. <Aow wi^ cease . . coiilrit't'.Tos 55 for f (Boeotian). angry . as 5 for f (Boeotian./j. So often X. 225 . as Kopvo^ for irdpvoifs .\u-Ka from . should be written with one the stem began originally with 5F .fipoTos. TOCTCTOS and rocros. This rarely occurs in Pindar and in Attic poetry.cn and ecro^tai Trexrert lor Trofft from iroi's. DIALECTS as j3e"vTiffTos. ^TAecrcra . 821. .re from 5i/cdfw rarely swam . In the case of the stem (stem ^Trecr-). for 0?jp is all( l i n TfrvKeiit and rervKfo'dai from Tti/^w. T is found doubled in oni (also OTI). finppoTov fi'om d/j-apTavw. ot^x' 4>i7/i > We tind crij/wepo^ for T-r)/j. X before r and was used by some of the Dorians dppijv (also New Attic) />j Rough breathing for <r in Laconian in the middle for words as pp for . as irapicrSuv for irapifav fd/3aTos for 6idj3a. sharpened from root a*. These consonant interchanges are sometimes found in Aeolic TT : . of TtX^w (from obsolete stem TeXeo-. In Homer p sometimes remains after . . the first cr often belongs to . tiTAXd for ^oi/XiJ. /JL and X.Ta for X. .a. wTetX^. irdd for Tracra.fj. took . in d55ees. Sei'Sw and ?55o-e. j< .tv &-peKTov for &p-peKTov. : for 6. . in OUKI for Aeolic. whenever . fj. fear). to satiety). /ie?o orev) from 3(TTis <f>i\o-fj. Boeotian Trerrapa for Tf<rcrapa. (f> /3 for 7.a. undone. &/u. as 6epi55u for Qepifa as AeiyftTTTTOs for Zetfi7r7ros f for <r<r. The doubling usually due to assimilation as iroo-ffl 55e<ra from ISFeiaa.ffo-a.spun .ri fofjitv. so great . x in 5fKOfj.epov.we for irevre. as i'5/uev for from Kopvcr<rw (Kopvd-).e-fj. IN OLD IONIC 820. . tf>i\o/j. see 856. mor-ior) a euphonic (71.. bnt compounds is and augmented from woti-ei. to-day.irTOfj. as ex^vBi f r ^X w<r ' f f r &. again. . ^/aa^es for ^a^es. KfKopv6fj. for /SeXrtoTOj.77. well. finished .ei5rjs. Between for (cf. as for T.(Lat.1 from stem etrso also fTfXfffffa aor. . NOTE. as ^ciTr^oi for Zair^ot XX TTTT for /x/i in 6TnraTa TT for T.cn. firoLff for eiroit](re. for <5<r. as in TeXecrcrcu 6/j.t learnedst . doubled in forms from from . unchanged before ^. '. A feared. in & TTI (also o ri). . as oTrTroros and OTTOIOS. A r-mnte or a /c-mute often remains 65fj. ciTroXXijtas and dTro-XTjfets. cr5 for f. Eleian). Q . /*. e\delv. dKax/J-fvos.

uvTfa from 6 avr6t. without. Insertion of 6 occurs in the 827. rpixa (these two also in Homer). and rirpa-xo.\t-rat. A 7^ in and ylvtlxricw for Attic ylyvoncu and 7t7voxr/cw. 1. XlT(l)V. ACT/.i (inf. sink . are probably old by -forms of Sixa. vui>vfj. 826 miss .<j>a<rii) Homeric second-perfect forms typriyjpOtiffi and Homeric SLx&a. In Homer TrriXe/uos and irr6Xu occur alongside of iroXe/tos and TrdXis and are jrroXts even occurs in Aeschylus and Euripides..fpov BREATHINGS For the rough breathing we sometimes find the smooth in Homer as In this case the iJAioj for ^Xioj.. 828.-vvvv6ij from dva-nWw. . perf. KWJ. of fy>os. br-tftrfyi8Kt from vir-rjfjujw. loud-thundering . sound heavily.a%a.ro. etc.tv (Horn. tvrtvOtv. nor TT . o\os for SXoj. nameless. . behind. roar.. KOO-OJ. aor. fMirttiv (Hes. 5e-5oi/7r6roj \iap5s. Insertion of n occurs in Homeric d/j. 2. most fairly. (aiV6s and Tj/dpa). is dropped in fibXifios (Horn. but never iV for o-yj'. In Homeric words pi. noise. Wvvra. and pi-5oviros or epi-ySoviros. 829. as xotoj. throat. like fyx^ff-Tra\o^. . but biroSavb^. also for dirdXayu. dTrdXa/woj from and from i0tfs..e/jAiroi. revive.os t all 826. for as. In some Homeric words an initial consonant has been dropped or else the double forms are due to different stems.) for <pdpvyy-os from <f>dpvyj-. for d^ao-id. dfj. for /xe0' . speechlessness. seize. boiv. 5<wjr77<re and f-ySovirrja-av. IN NEW IONIC 832.and belongs to the original stem. disperse. gen. T for in ai/m. without device . : 831. . fa for (da. and rtrpaxQaIyp-tjyop6a. DIALECTS /i^u/JXerat for fit-/j. soft. xXiopis and /MKpfo. . Sovireu. These variations of consonants appear in K for x in S^KO/UU. as oi)36s for 656$. oC.226 err. lead. 1. from /uAw. hence SSw for T)8v*. Transfer of aspiration in {vQavra. trickle . tvQfvrev. probably old by-lorms . far from. and /^/-i/JXtro. Insertion of v occurs in: vdnwuvos. Homeric.) from tyelpw. cause to be seated. 2. dffifftti'. <r/c^5acre and eK45a<rOfi>. /rire. Exceptions are rare as rd ^?rl Odrtpa. .os. all Homeric. t<popos. care for. &na$a for &/j. ofy>os for aspirated vowel is sometimes lengthened Loss of the aspirate occurs in the case of crasis in Apicrroj from 6 dptaros. part. for ffff in 5tf6$. juer' & av6rj/j. The Lesbian Aeolic lacked the rough breathing 833. has 'Ax'Xei/s and '05uerei>i alongside of 'AxtXXei/s and '05w<7ei/j. KtOuv for Attic ivravda. drop. New Ionic : in all forms from the pronominal stem TO. A consonant in the middle of a word <f>dpvy-os /u6Xi/35os. 6pf<r- and 6pfff-<f>iv. arouse. gen. . wake.) and /j. . KiSvaffOai for VKiSvaaOai. warm. breathe ayain. and 3pos. the a of tyxw. ftXffo and dXro from fiXXo/uai. . 830. . mountain. irorl or wporl^irpfa 6iri6tv mid Homer often iviffOtv. straight . owe/. Tpi6s ytvofiai. rpixOa. avrrmepov for fi. They are: ala and yala = yf) doviros. small . concern . spear-brandishing. dat. y for smooth mute remains before the rough breathing as dir' o5 for d<f> dv-iffrdvai for d^-iOTdVeu (d?r6 and Jffrdi'ai). afterward. ISpvvOijv ISpOu. tKToOtv for i-KroaOev.. K for TT .) from /j-dpirro}. for So also ffpiKpys (also Old Attic) e^3w and Xet'/3w.) for (Horn.

Lat. 3. it Homeric poems. doroy. sweet. el/na. say. Hap. This is apparent from the metre. ITTJS. Ilium. f/ceXos. one who knoiys . . ty. fjX'h' resounding noise . vetus . socer . shape. please. pleased (avddvu) fiax't '. in numbers. l<fri. dew. wish . accustomed. ol. 2. In some words a prothetic vowel e is prefixed to the digamma. press . In Homer. her. clothing. 5. Zaoev. 11. ^w ww . twenty. elXvu. etc. C?KW. suus .1\ios. efreXoy. ftirr) for ^Fla-r). ?o. etdw\ov. . wrap up. ZSva. tov. 5eiX6s.. Irt-r). lo-x^t cr2/ see. viola. : break. Lat. [d/^c] apv-bs. okoj. fjvo\f/. 00 rt /xdXa ofy (for . %a. saw. . free from care . tpvofuu. town. as initial vowel (873. Hrvvfu.. Lat. from the root Si-. by position TW . ttdva for ^-/e$ca. Lat. 416). 839. . 10. I/ws. strive. %p<rr). host. 19). otvoy. clothe . as. Lat. verbum . tdnoffi . am like . liaunt. 1) caa for e/aa. appearance. 574).-/36Xoy. 835. . vesper. loi/ca. Digamma remained in Aeolic and Doric long . IXSouat. know. fluctuating many cases initial not cause position -lengthening. '6ir\oi(nv tvi otivolaiv ( 11. vestio . work . Lat. &t>ai. In Aeolic and Doric. olSa. back of the head . /uot aldv (w is w 272). dSov. Lat. tSelv ot/ca see see Lat. . by inscriptions &yvv/j. Lat. ^Kaa-roy.Xos. be captured. aXwvai. l/nyrt. 1. willing . ?(cay. lord. wind .i. a short vowel originally had F after 5 . fiXiy. The following words had initial digamma in Homer some of them are verified 834. w cry mi & > ^tiv. neglected in Homer and does This shows that its existence was extremely digamma and uncertain at the time. citizen. e/car7-/36Xos. father-in-law. and Srjv before the 5 in these words is there- 836. violet. Lat. hasten . Lat. draw. ZOeipa. e/cT. 5. ISpeirj. by the will or grace (of a god) . bright .339 DIALECTS 227 1.11. vis. NOTE. as tdeiffas ftiv = edFewas /SoXeriji' ( ( w. each . rule. lamb. year. (Ouv. eC. * Lat. tirl 5Tipbi> 5t oF-nv. crooked . NOTE. vicus . six. spring. ( ww In \_/w. (fXrquat. 11. eZ]uct. Although digamma is not found written in the was certainly pronounced in many words. Avacrffa. see p5w Hpy<>). olSa. 5^oy. NOTE. suavis . tvirepos. 22.ai. aMpvirav from ava-Ftpvcrav = afitaxot. queen. garment . 8u7. knowledge. /c?. ZOvos. which then disappears as in &XTO/XCU for I'/eXro/MU. eo-tfTjy. hair. and Sypjv. ^X F : ff . at evening. eldov. ?Xt. working. fruitless. go. ^rwo-toj. elirov. $6fi>. fly. Ivlov. house. e<tpffi). i-ffFaoev We = find change of original .. NOTE. see HVVV/JLI said. Iris. iicvpos. . I. slender. II.-/3eXr>7y. &cw. 415). etwffa. ver . H. The words 5ei<ra. &&TV. which would otherwise have too numerous cases also from the frequent cases of position-lengthening (863) of hiatus (46) which are explained by an initial digamma from the frequent treatment of a long final vowel or diphthong in thesis as long before an apparently and from the syllabic augment before a vowel. tffrwp. strength. his tppb). Lat. f to v in cases like these etaSe? for shouting together. viginti . willow see idew Iff os. work. skill. from a copulative and : av-Ftpeffav dF-Ffpvffav. tpvu. tpyu. froj. like . hope . avddvu. of him. 838. faretpw. shield. Lat. e/cd-e/ryoy. volvo . -ww ww &pa 5eiXw w. efrceXoy. favor . yield . for iFeiKoai. 817).9. These began originally with <rF ij8i5y. fore very often treated as long otfre TL fit 5&>s II. wy. shut in . fjOos. i'e/uat. etSos. et5os. vinum . tXlffffw. e? Xw. word. IKCI-TOS. e/caT7. dpaios. bridal gift. . am accustomed. suesco . Hpyov. = Lat. vestis. far. #7roy. . &T0os. coil. tpyov. detv6s. ehoffi. pydo/j. tt8u\or. far-darting . clansman. . equal . . avaffffu. wine.

Sometimes assimilation of consonants took the place of compensative lengthening. as rdXats and /uAats for rdXds and /uAds (from raXacs and /xeXovs) (b) in Trotcra for TraVa (from wavrffa) (c) in the masc. contractions. Epicharmus. 842. as Boeotian fj. k^rdo or k^rew. Aeolic. tptpyv for ^pety . 1004). in the ace. It 0\l/ufj. Ionic. gen. It is found in Boeotian and Doric inscriptions. tvvos from 6/fos. Theocritus. Exchange CONTRACTION 844. lengthens o to u^ow). 33) Kotfpas. EXCHANGE OF QUANTITY of quantity is very frequent in Ionic. of the third decl.. (b) <TTe<pdvois <rrf<t>a. . (c) in the third person pi. the Ionic has the compensative lengthening where the Attic has not : . NOTE. . Hesiod. 01. as Ppodov for FpoSov = v between vowels.). as in verbs Kpivvu for Kptvu (from Kpiv-yu. as ?ifj. . . gen. gen. \&yw It contracts e + e to T. The Cretans (partly also the Thessalians and Arcadians) preserve nOvs. 843. Tyrtaeus.) for Attic flpos. 2. So TOS rpoiras for rpowds (Alcm. The Lesbian Acolic has few . as for (from fiovffa) . 6x&ais for o^ds. 841..w<ra for /ttoOcra (from povcra. original vs . The other Aeolic dialects generally lengthen o to w . This shortening of -ds and -oi/s to -as and -os is used by the poets (as Alcman. o5pos from SpFos (inscr. 'ATpeiSew or fl-i'X^&w = Att. Some of the Dorians have short final -as and -os where in Attic compensative lengthening produces -ds and -ous. the milder to and ou II. 4. 1026). irvXduv J/C^T>/S. 1. Dor/c. I.wo-a and ^oO<ro. ticpivva. . reX&rais for reX^a-ds in the ace. participle.t = Att. Yloffddwv). ot instead of = irXijflotffa 3. 854) So dw becomes ew as irv\rj. : (a) in participles. . lloati^dv from HoffciSduv (Att.. . 2. IIo<r5<iw' = Att. COMPENSATIVE LENGTHENING 840. . sing. TTV\UV . The Lesbian Aeolic lengthens a to at instead of d (a) in the nom. f6/tws = milder Doric and Attic vo^ous (from vo/xovs) p.) for Attic ^vos. and o + o to w . rarely Pindar). pi. nOeis.ei> = milder Doric elf^ev = Attic el-vai (from ea-vai) . xa^""a" HfpifJ-vdv from original x a^ fw ^ uv l**f*p99HFas fats from t(\es. and can be traced metrically in the poets. IIo<7ei5cDj'. for Attic ir&ffa. as "Apeua (Boeotian) for 'Apefa from a form = poSof 'Apei/s sometimes it is assimilated to a "Aprjs preceding consonant. and fern.VS 5kd$ (d) (from 5u<a. In forms like ^et^os from $tvF<K (inscr. as rais Skats for ras TO. In Lesbian Aeolic it sometimes becomes /3 before p. The stricter Doric lengthens e and o to i\ and w. III. I. Aeolic. NOTE. . 'ArpttSdo or always forms one syllable by synizesis (853. ird<ras in Hesiod (the accent remains the same as in -ds) Cretan inscr.vovs (from ffrttpavovs) . IIo<roVw' for original and Horn. for tKplva (from fKpiv-va. pi. for ft-ovaa. as forais and Tcrrato-a for icrrds and lardffa. re pi. rovs. . It often contracts ao and aw to a (as in Doric) Kpovidd from original KpoviSdo. . as in Attic. as fyois v\}/Q>v (from for tr\ri9ovffa (from ir\ijOovrira). . do becoming ew which 'ArptiS^. as Kptiirroiffi for KpvirTovffi (from Kpinrro-vTi). TOS vfyos for TOI)S vo^ous TWS MKOS for \ikous and irap0tvos for irapBtvovs in Theoc. as irdwa. : .228 after DIALECTS 840 it disappeared in Ionic. rotfs. gen. as tffffos from Fi<rFos.i>s). so also fioiffa.

077 become y seest. : Kat + ev gives KTJV-. as NoveiSdv for notmSawp as 'ArpeiSa from the gen. ov in the milder a + o and d + w . ay arc always contracted in verbs : ae and 077 become y. = 1 from 2. and ei in the milder as ayiJTai from = Att. as rovvavrlov (TO o + a gives w. ayffrai (Att. Herodotus also has o^xSwKocTct. Z/j6s. Examples from r6 of crasis in Aeolic arc: &vrjp = Att. Old Ionic (Homer). as eVdd Iroin ^?rafao=Att. It contracts o + o to w as in Lesbian I'TTTW for I'TTTTOU from ITTTTOO but e + e gives regular as Socetrai from Soce'erai.fv for fp. than Att. r&fjLov Aeolic. ..). ) from ye\d-ovrL nnd yf\a-ov(r)ffa (Att. o + o and o + e as niffB&vri for give w in the stricter Doric. as %el\evs from x e e s (Theoc. see thou. . The Doric has these contractions : at. as yeXdvri and yeXacra (Theoc. as rifSpej 6 + at gives v>-. aei and as &py from 6pae Att. <f>ii>vdevTa. occurring mostly with the . ye\wffi and but often the regular Attic contraction. DIALECTS . (Theoc. . iptvs. give d (a) in noun-formations. yvw/adv from yvu/j. ) for : . as y^Xos for 6 ahr6Xoj 850. ay/ipaos and dy^/aws. ^ . aei. sing. as evtuwv from evticaov '. /fy/i-id (<cai oi/c/d). ouf (6 e'f). but in the milder Doric o + e gives ov. e + e gives TJ in the stricter Doric. 1 aor. NOTE. Tcvjj. w for 077 in certain forms of (/>6s. mid. etc. New Ionic (Herodotus). 845. cprjs from 6pdeis But de gives d.) . or inc . .(d) in yeXwffa) the 2 sing. Aa^oj . as r&ya\/j. 2. 3.duv (Att. which are explained under the . 1. oiXa^o? from 6 . of the first declension 'ArpeiSao. eo and oo give ev 1. e5 and 46. as in dydwKovra for dydo-riKO ^uxrdj for /SoTjVdj. as ^/ueO from /J.a for r6 d7aX/u. gen.ov from 4pjo 2. NOTE. 6py from ay. not ov as Otpevs for Otpovs from dtpe-os.. inflections. . for i'epos. A ISw/cpdr^s.). peculiar 'contraction is a + o to av. as Zai'^dretj (inscr. ^ujj/. . ^TT^W. (subj. Old Ionic (Homer). . ew usually remains open. . of Otpos p/ceDcri for veiKovffi from veiKtovcri. = Att. Contraction is generally avoided except in certain forms of declension and conjugation. Spa. as x^Tav (KO! ordi'). Unusual contractions in Homer are i + e = i in ipyl. etc. 848. yvu/muv) (c) occasionally in verbs in -aw. difvfjLev from d^ioofjitv.I + ogives rare in KW-. KO. Iloo-etSuJc) (b) in . The Boeotian Aeolic also makes little use of contraction. in Theoc. Crasis is Homer. 229 from \oyoo aF3ws = Att. and flodu and votu. Contraction is very often omitted and is quite optional. Pindar often has open forms. In these. fUffOovffi from fua-Oo-ovri. and /ca/ + ot gives *cy. Examples . as KT)I. as in Ionic. it follows the rules of the Attic dialect except that e + o and e + ov give tv. TTOJT/CO for TTOVTIOV from TTocrtoo. 1776^01) aipTJa-ffai from dip&ffOai 4.to. CRASIS 849. aipeiedai. the open and the contracted forms being used alongside of each other to the needs of the meter as TTCUS and Trdi'j. 2. iepe^s and o + ?) = w. . Ipeus.). as <f>wvavTa opdy (or 6pdei) = Att. /j. /)or/c. . 847. retfx'J according and rdxea. \d<r<rti)s for \d<rffovs from Aaovo-es . av^p from 6 dvyp. e + o and e + ou (generally left open) are contracted to ev by some Dorians. 5. cu'SoCj from a?3o-os. : (Att. d^j'aia'aaKe from dyvo^aj. . opq.6v in Doric are: w (stricter Doric) = Att. . 6p$s. 851. <j>i\fvi>ri from 4>i\toi>Ti (Theoc.a o + av gives wv. 1. as OHTOS for (vavrlov) 6 ai)r6s rol + a gives TW-. 846. . Doric. It seldom contracts e + o to as (SAeus from /3Aeos.for fe hawk.851 for \uyov ev. . Where contraction takes place.

tfKeov. TTOTI TO. New Ionic (Herodotus). Final e of adverbs in -fe is rarely elided in Epic poetry final e of the third singular first-aorist optative active in -eie is often elided in Homer. the prepositions &. etc. 1. tirtl ovStv. (D apiyvure. irbr T&V. as 7r6Xeo>j. T&pxaiov. Tap Zrjvi for Trapa Zrjvi for once ifT'/SdAXew for jro-/3dXX' (11. Final o in genitives in -eio (as tpfio) is rarely elided in Homer. Synizesis between two words is more frequent in dramatic poetry than in Homer. M . -ffffcu. xpwty. /HTJ fiXXoi. times elided in the Epic and Comic poets.bs for 6 t/j. pr. In poetry a short final vowel .iJ. KaxeWi.ffa for ava-Kptfidaaffa. ). T<!nr6 (6 or rd + a-) &v6puire. ruXyOte. d/x-/3dXXw for d'a-/3dXXw.-Kra. 858) can be elided poetry. f'fj. fUffov. .T-Oa.oL (/cai + a. . and in the first-aorist active.evos for irapa-O^evot. a. 854.K Kopvffa. <roi or rot. of a word after a final long vowel or Thus /UTJ 'yu for ty&. is sometimes elided in Homer . also wiT<5s. 83). yt6. K&T. in poetry. ^. Ka^.66s.230 article or Kal wpttrroj DIALECTS from 6 dpioroj. This is the dropping of an initial /M) c diphthong. and avrov. ACOTT weoiov. In poetry two successive vowels belonging to the same word or to two different words are sometimes joined in pronunciation. is lost. cutting off). the rough breathing . ("neo. Ka. as also o in the verbal endings -eo and -ao. So Doric TTOT TOV. so also ot in OL/J. 80). Besides those in ordinary Attic. SYNIZESIS 853. (i . - - d/3-/3aXe for xar-^SaXf. &v re M^X 1?*' f r va Tf f^X^t dp-cmis for dva-ffrds. although the contraction or crasis is not indicated by the writing. o~eo. ffewvrou (from Ho. /).-/uet|dj for /caTa-/xtas. Synizesis in one . /caX6s Ka. This is termed synizesis and occurs only for the sake of the meter. as 5rj ZfiSofwv. In Attic poetry it occurs mostly in the endings -ews. Elision is much more common and . wurot. for irorl TOV. Thus Geos may make one syllable. APOCOPE is sometimes cut off before an initial We thus find dp for dpa. and TUVTO from 6 avr&s. etf as /3Aea.va-\6ov<rav. and a following vowel as ovfj. . -rat. It is confined mostly to cases in which the first word is 5^. Final t of the dative singular and plural is often elided in Homer. eov. Kap pdov irap-0t/j.T-tKTa. These forms occur both irdp for &va. Torepa (rd + e-) <SXXot.ve.velv for dy-Kpffj.d. .oi.ffa. consonant (diroKoinJ. 1) ov. especially after or 1) (d^atpecns. eird ov may make two. is someFinal ot of the enclitic pronouns fj. KO. the r of KO. 855. is ei). 15. Ka. Thus oGr' &p <t>ptvas .euvrov. Homer occasionally elides a in the possessive pronoun era . tf. tyu elf*'.OL (before ws) in Attic Many words and forms which may take v movable (64. 1 and 2 consonants it disappears. Kay ybvv. APHAERESIS 857. . 717)65). Kaxeivos.6*. taking off). ir-ij-xeuv. It is not frequent in other poetry.V. word ecu. KO. In 852. KO. Ka. diro-7re/t^ irtoiov. -trot. but before two in 90. worL ( = Att.S dtivajjuv.T is assimilated to a following consonant. .or e-) fwuroO. rarely a in the Epic particle pa. eo.ir-ve^ei.. Kafrros and uvrfa for 6 aurdj. Ka. T) ovStis. etc.^ (> + a-) . ew. (Od. /card. Kara-Oavelv. eat. 19. irc(pd .ve for KO.TT <f>d\apa. ey. Final at of the verbal endings -pai. 852 for xal avrbt. -euv . Siva. 2.ya. ELISION free in poetry than in prose. these peculiar cases also occur: wv/ip and uvOpwiros (6 d-) ovrepos and roCrepov (6 or ro + e-) . especially in ea.fi. tirei. d\-\Vovffav for a. Doric w6r for Of these &v is subject to the euphonic changes as separate words and in composition. . a/it irediov for dva 856. see reflex. frequent in Epic poetry.

&fj. often (also TroXXdja Epic. fe\irofjiai. : An ASSIMILATION OF VOWELS to an o-sound 861. are (JL^XP * an(l ^X/" s n late Greek. ?X5o/xat./M ( = b/juv) may also take v movable (950). IX5w/). C/J. OMKOS from 0ao/cos (Attic OCLKOS). In Homer an unwritten digamma may be the cause of position-lengthening irpis olKOv for 7rp6s FOIKOV (11. Tpaireiofj. (as Trpoffdfv. 2. elpyu. 859.864 1) '<f>di>i)v DIALECTS for ?) 231 Herri. In a few cases T? is inserted ev-y-yevris. These words also have s movable TroXXdm. .eff<rijyij(s)] d//$ts. see 1009 (b) . ) from r^pir-w. and &xpi. 3. seldom before i . 836). These 1. Metathesis of ap and pa occurs frequently in Epic poetry metri caitsa. . (also Homeric) pronouns d/x/tu ( = T]/MV). efyw. but KaravriKpt and diravTiKpt are better Attic without s. /SdpStcrros from 5/>ar6s for PpaSvs. et\8up. Hat] for I<rr) . 147) x6 '/ ^ ""a^^v Iptiffae' for irdXtv Fcpfa&ff' . and dat. until. The Epic pronoun <r<pi and the Aeolic apart.ev (subj.<pi) avriKp-bs. 9.aprdvw. etXw flwov. xpadlri and Kapdirj.oiios for 6/xo?oy. an e-sound following a to a. just opposite. lir^ravo^ (from TOJ). straightway. for the change of METATHESIS 862. In the gen. straight mi (Horn. dra/)7r6j for dr/wirta. ndprepos and Kpdrepos. Sapros from 5^/>w. tirei 'Sditptiffe. In Homer the editors now usually insert the Aphaeresis seems to occur e and thus make MOVABLE CONSONANTS 858. (II.Xios. e is inserted in Jjei> for ty (from efyti) and in rjeXios for r. firpaOov from vtpO-<a. t is always inserted as &/JLOUV and iroSouv for and TroSoiy.fo-r]yij(s). etdouai. Lesbian tfuppoTov and regular ifllja. is sometimes may drop v. 5. quietly. but also veb-Sapros . Homer t0vs = straight . T^rparos and T^rapros . as ZeSva. ADDITION OF VOWELS 860. By metathesis pVfw. towards. tffKw.oiv See also in the Catalogue of Verbs (vviifju. Lyric. trpuoves from Trpaoves : For a similar change in verbs in (Attic irptiv). but fi)0i/s 8. Kdpriaros for Kpdrtffros. prothetic e is often found before e or . QUANTITY as 863. perennial. wholly (rarely faira in poetry) e&6ti (Wti Ionic). often irvKiv6s for TrvKv6s. between [Epic /j. ttp<rr) A for cases of addition of vowels in Homer require mention. rarely Tragic) and drpffj-as drp^a. fpa-rj . ftpu. In the Epic language an a followed by an o-sound is sometimes changed <f>6ws for 0doj. is derived from fy>5w. particle K vti ( now.pr-ov from d/j. In Epic poetry a short vowel standing before a word beginning with . -aw. irifu. only dvriKpv).<t>v<is. in . synizesis (853). The poetic in Epic poetry. . %dva. irdpoiOev) Attic &v) may take v movable. straight towards. (iOvs Ionic). The Epic particle v-uv. mostly poetic thirds. second-aorists ZSpaKov from Styx-opai. In poetry many adverbs in -Oev The v may be added in the Epic adverb vbo<pi(v}. and in the Epic suffix -<pi (914). about (Epic also d/j. final 864. 4. Thus Kdpros and frpdros. see 1009 (b). irov '<m for vov only in poetry. telKovi for fiKOfft. eiffKW for {Xwofiai. tydvyv. /j. efyu. unawares (rarely poetic &<pvus) yu^xp' 1 ] : . work. ' . 5 . dual. Homer sometimes has 6/j.

11. fV \tifiQ>v\. Troffffiv (pidriffOffOai (.. <5i'fi5p3s Horn. | aid 5e /xaXa/co 20. /if. 867. comverbs in -Cw have u in Attic. .. wviu Horn. Thcog. 5. Od. DIALECTS 865 seldom remains short as ot 5i ZAeta? fvcuov ( ww ww w. When the same syllable of word is thus either long or short. In position-length. . 11. In the later Epic poets and in the xpwrtwv. In poetry a vowel long by nature is rarely treated as short on account of ^/w w from <poivi%. . . i\6os KtKa\vfj. II. Med. arsis : 868. even before Such a vowel may be in arsis or it may stand is Thus II. or at different times. 824) w ^ w. in 2. 3. 2. Ail <#Xoj II. poets (as Pindar) neglect position-length oftener than Homer. 20. 'these two words always so measured by the poets). | : -w^) S> . 5. 2. position .5 (-ww'-^. ^^ Epigrammatists this is more frequent. 5. Terp&KVK\oi ( the ictus. 10.fj. pbgct^pMrM for /tax^/ufos. usually trj/M in Horn. 1. 870. it is sometimes difficult to decide whether the vowel was originally short or long. . 338). 671). 463) ww aMv rt pvffat ( ( -ww. 249) | | | (^w n. ww 866. In Epic poetry ww ww 869. 754). . 1. 1. ( . . irar^pt 5^ (w 20. 133). <polviKos (Horn. In TTomer a short by the caesura . a short syllable is often treated as long when it stands in as *Apej "Apes fiporoKoiyt ( ^>. | 20.fj. 2. most Attic. paratives in -tuv Attic. . 2. ( -. . II. . 430). Only Tlieognis and Xenophanes sometimes neglect The choral position-length in the cases of a short vowel before a mute and p or X. 24. TeVero IloXi^e^ea -v^w -. 978). ir6\\' freo. .1.w. -few Epic and Doric. w. 92). In some words the quantity of the vowel is different in different dialects. iroXXa X7<r<S/x<or 1. account of the meter riBrifjifvos for riO^fievos. Similarly &. 31). This occurs sometimes in the middle of a word. o/fty>6s Aristoph. as oi' re K. 242). | | | w^ | | In old it Tragedy Comedy a may count short final vowel before initial p always counts as long as short or long. 9. ffdKf'i t\a<r' (ww -ww. CTJ/JU. the old Elegiac. Mr. and Lesbian Lyric poets. 865. 9. In Homer a short vowel before a mute and a liquid usually makes as eflSowi /SporQt ( II. . vevpfy (w 4.232 f or ffK . on as i^nr^rijXoj for v\j/iirtT&\os. 5. tvffrpffea. as <fx>iv\. .. 15. I. 23. But Homer often neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute and p or X as Mo-pa Kparai^ ( w ^ II. In Homer a is often lengthened to 17.K6Tffav from xpfafos (Enr. 319). II. are often used as a. viro5etri (w w . ( . II. ww <-. | w ww | w. the meter.ft'os for SiVd/ifvos. 358) . i> in Horn. 11.ifw and /jHjvtw Attic. t" . H.4va ( ww ww.. 15. 83) w^ rfjs 5' dpa KXeuot'<n?f ( 0. Od. 318).-.dpv<TToi> fx ov w v^ ww | || .. or in different kinds of poetry. . .w w 73) .i8ris. II. . Iambic. //. even when the syllable has not Jl. oi/Xo/uevos for ^X^evoj. T and standing in the first syllable of a word and having the on account of the meter as dOdvaros and d^ci/xaTos ictus. as &\ffo /xe/ndu. 259) . 11. final syllable i?5' ending ol' ( in a | consonant is often | made long 539). 156) . (vy | sometimes treated as long. In Homor a short final vowel an initial vowel of a following word. 2. | 255). ovvdfj. 10. . c to ei or r/. uii JITwo (-ww Od. 871. 867). Hcsiod sometimes neglects position when a short vowel stands before a mute and v as friKTt wvtovffav (w w. 21. w. o to ov or w. This is evidently caused hy the ^Kanavdply exigency of the meter for in such cases the word beginning with f or <ric has the first syllable short and the second long. 56) . Uplafddrjs for Ilpia. . before an initial liquid of a following word. II. . and Anacreon agree with Homer. v^w . 792). 83) &yt rpds (^ 2.

as eypeaOai but this is probably incorrect. 55) . perfect middle infinitives and participles are reces. OVTWS for oCrws. The Doric -es for ets and -ev for -etv in the verb are considered long as regards as Afi. &<riris for affiris. 379) . Ocd. the final vowel may remain long in thesis. aKa. So also when the following word had an initial digamma as iracri //. in Doric. accented as in Attic.evo$.xffii. The MSS. INFLECTION 880. 4. accent of the active indie. for Fi)5v ( | | . see 146. a. 77. 1. aCroy for auros.TW. \eyoifv.iov (-ww. 6. NOTE. 235) .). . Pyth.v6v ardp TOI t. Soph. The Lesbian Aeolic has the wrAXd l -' as ZeOj from Z^i>j for Attic Zeyy from Zfo. The Dorians tended to throw the accent to the ultima.) = XoO. as fy>os Od. 2.. The second-aorist middle imperative in -oi/(from -eo) is recessively accented <rtv-6eo and tvffeo the dialects. seldom in post-Homeric poetry and in the Attic Xa/xaieDpcu (^^> . 873. and of the aor. 342). d\d\i)ffdai (dXdo/uat).\rjfj.v.irva. Adru for AT. 8. cro^oj for cro06s. 510). For anastrophe in poetsy. 17) yv/j. mid. 9.t\yes = afitXyeis. of the tenses were paroxytone in Doric: 4\eyov. as ?Xeu (Hes.) = ffvv-Oov and tv-6ov.Ka. 11.aar' for Ffifiar' <pi\ov Kal TJ5i. 877. 13. rp&x vs f r r P&X s i Hyuv for ^>t6. This occurs occ. The pass. f3ov\ri. Oil.'ively accented in so eX^Xd/xevos (Acti'ipo. But prepositions and conjunctions are 876. t\df}oi>.evos. pi. it remains long.'-sionally in Epic poetry . Find. 20. 9.p6ai. 275) .80 DIALECTS 233 872. olos (^w. (w w. iravrCis for Trdcrws. In poetry a long vowel or diphthong standing before another vowel of the same word is sometimes treated as short. | ' ' l' | | (^^ \ | . 303) . w . 16.Ko. 878. 5. fft. (-w... frequently with iroiw (w ). Tlie dialectic and poetic enclitics are given in 152. irkTa-fios for Trora/aas. In Epic poetry a long final vowel or dipthong standing in thesis before a word beginning with a vowel is nearly always treated as short as dfcrg e<f>' i>^rj\T) d' eyit ov \Vffu (This -. 875. It is rare . 107). ot6s re (w-|w. roiavrai (\s . ryv sometimes occurs in the dramatic chorus. \tlirtv = XetTrctv. \vffaitv.77. wv^ w. H<f>6op6a. (a. 11. 1. Pind.i for <pda. t\6cra. in 879.7rAos for fi/iireXoj. recessively accented. The Aeolic and New Ionic lack the dual number. li. 22. x w M e o u 'Ax'X^os w^ w. irMeo (Her.(vo^ (crewo). If the following word had digamma. t<f>i\d9fi>. Aristoph.'x^yOa. ACCENT 874. XeD/cos for Xeu/c6j. iaffvfj. 2. as /36XXd for for wretX^. /. of Homer often show the second aor.'xlfa}) d\a. So monosyllables with a long vowel or diphthong are perispomena. as roiaOra drama. 395) (-^w -. Nub. irarptouv ( w . . (_^ w j __ _ Wj | | | . Numbers. But when the long vowel or diphthong stands in arsis. recessive accent in all words . 1. 2.i. Hence \ve have such forms as ct/u. and opt. as avTiOttt 'OSvtrrfi ( ww ww w). dKax^Mfos. Ncm. 1495). II. 29). Some Homer .) = irvtiov (Horn. third pers. 14) .

the Aeolic poets also have The Doric has -cus. IHXXara rarely as 2. This -av used by the dramatists in the chorus and in lyric parts. 'ArpeiSd. sing. -co) (from -do). : genitive singular of masculines in Homer has three forms (a) -do. 1. throughout the singular. than 3.234 DIALECTS 881 NOUNS FIRST DECLENSION 881. inscr. '<av (Attic form) after vowels . ace. sometimes recessively accented. 4. For the shortening of -as in the ace. . ^cid. Compare Latin poeta with TTOIT/TV/S. sing. Homer also has 77 for d in abstracts in -td evTT\oir). -av (usually one syllable) . and -oid . fern. The genitive singular of masculines has d from original (also Epic. of gates. as xv&rr/ for sing. (a) The genitive plural in Homer has also three forms -dw. of adjectives. of (6) (c) of goddessw. For in the sing. K\uri(uav. Aeolic and Doric. masc. of some masculines has -d for -775 . of tents. (6) The (c) -o> (contr. Kvtcra. voc. Proper names in -Xdos = Att. 3. Atveids. croc^nys. vrfjufrr] is vvfufra. Exceptions are $td. Bo/iedo. Mei/Aav. irapuwv. ). as /zr/Tiera. as in the voc. iKirdo. sing. The dative plural has -awri(v) in Aeolic. yvw/zp. . The Boeotian has sing. KTiVrd (Lesb. 'Ep/xeids. Old Ionic (TO^I'TJ. and only two or three in 4.. dat. *cwpa (Theoc. 883. and nom. 5. -cus (the article always TCUS). dat. as KpoviSd.). of warriors. pi. For d Homer has rj cro^ty. BO/XTJV. as yvoyiaV. as TrvAewv. Long d . Auyei'ds.). as lirtroTa for horseman. and dat. Bope?. spearman . The accusative plural has -ous in Lesbian Aeolic. nom. pi. 8. dtnruTTatav. The perispomenon also in the is It is genitive plural has -oV from original -d<av. 5. pi. it has original do in the gen.) . Pindar often -auri. as 'Ar/oei&w. (Epic).) . of masculines. yixlsfir/y (dat. 4. inscriptions. 1. but no examples are found in the Aeolic poets ITTTTOTTIS. O-O<I'TJV Bope?/s. and nom. of cheeks. counsellor. is found occasionally in Pindar. for Att. Also in some other words. 882. is retained throughout the singular. as 'Arpei&ao. : 5. MevAa. Short a in nom. Pindar has -d ofteuer Boeotian) -do . ace. as'Ep/neuo. as irpeiytn-dVs. as iirwbTa (Horn. NOTE. KvAi^i'ds. pi. pronounced as one syllable . The nom. -do. tKerew. Bopew. Sk2 (Sappho). of 3. as yvw/xd. see 842. . gen. The as d\rj6firj. 1. aAAav. very rarely in Aeolic (irpto-piffra.). yvw/zds. 3. Jle\\^vrj. MevAd. 'ArpciSav. the original and most common form as Oedtav. 'Arpci'Sp. . as iroXtrdo. 2. as veavidV. as yvwfj. of sailors. vavrewv. to -as. from -do) after vowels . alxfJ-r/Td for CU'X/UT/T?^.i] (dat.. . yyw/idv 'ArpeiSds. as KAMTIWV. . tents. as KvAi'xvcus for The Cretic has the original -a-vs. Naixrt/cad. 2. These forms in -d are called Aeolic. -Xews of the second declension have -Xds in Doric and follow the first as Me^Ads. sing. see 883. t\ for a anil ai in the dat.

gen. 'E/D/xe-w. the stricter Doric has <rTf<f>dvovs. 1. "Ofj. -d in Attic . fp^opevoio. in -wo belongs to Old Ionic. Long 77 takes the place of d throughout the singular in words which have nom. barytone adjectives.. The Aeolic poets sometimes Pindar has --ov and -oto. otKitwv. 1. and was anciently considered Thessalian. as O-TC^XXVOIS for The milder Doric has -ovs "as in Attic. 7. 2. as KOLKOICTI rots). 6. -oto. etc.] : 5. After a vowel -coo becomes -w. Old Ionic (Homer). Doric -ov . gen. of the Attic second declension follow the ordinary declension . but usually -ois. as dAr/#eid. as Eepe but this is probably incorrect. exceptions are ' in -os. 2. and 884. "0/j. as Seo-Trdr^s. sing. 886. Some MSS. in Aeolic poetry -owri(i') -OMT6 always The Doric sometimes has in poetry. AoiTryo-i. as X"V??> X 1^/37? 5 Those which have -d in the nom. Some Thessalian inscriptions have -ot (from -oio). -)(MpTf]v. -tav in all cases. evvoir). . 'E/D/^s and 'E/3/Aeids. -ov. and doubtful. SECOND DECLENSION 885. -f].poi>. Words as vdds = Att. to goddesses. d\r)der)s dXrjOeir]. accusative singular of masculines has -ea for for fifp^rjv.. master. as .887 6. to rocks. y New 3. /xvecu. and pronouns. Trer/ays. -T\V in some words. 119) and d/crcus (II. [^a-X avrewv from c -ewv TovTfav those which have before (but drop [jievatv. hardly any contracted forms occur o-vKff]. The gen. The gen. . as ^Aeooi/ for ^Ae-ewv. Boeotian -os or -os Pindar has -ois examples of -os in Pindar are very rare Aeolic has -ws.rjpoi.T)pv for 2ari. 887. /*veds. 4. Aeolic and Doric. . but d\rjdftav. -vs for -o . /xvewv. as TV dd/jiv. TWS AUKOS for TOUS AVKOVS. AewviSeaj. as -yf) and youa. ri/Atwv . participles. the nom. and dat. rOj dXXtfs for Toty dXXou. which have the same form as the masculine oAtywv. otKiry. in Attic retain -d in XW/3J7. Contracted nouns are rare . AewvioV/s. avr^) . as Adyws for Adyovs. Ionic (HerodotUS}. as rt/xry. . 'Ar/oeiS^cri . The genitive plural has -ewi/ TWV and 5v . The 4. ' . have nominatives like dhrjOetrf. 3. The dative plural has as yvwyu^crt. the milder The and dative plural has -ois (the article in Aeolic. as Z<XTI}/>OI from 2ari5/>oto = Att. Except y^. Bo/oo/s. The genitive singular of masculines has -ew. 12. The accusative plural has -ois in Lesbian Aeolic. avrya-t. (rvKfTjv. 284). The as have 2. DIALECTS The : 235 (a) -r?o-i(v) or -ys dative plural in Homer has as Oefja-i. . The genitive singular has -oio or -ov . Late Boeotian inscriptions show v for -tf and -ot. 5. (b) -cus only in 0eais (Od. NOTE. : : one e. . -oio-t genitive singular has -to. but have rj in the gen. 1. 1. -ycrt [Some give . as Adyov = stricter Doric Ady w.

iroifjAv.. names. and rovTfwv for the masc.) &va\Kts. -oo is evidently a preferable reading to -ov. vijts. 113).. for -oiv . yews. Kws. like cu'Sws (249). bundle. Accusative Singular. 1) . DIALECTS 888 The intermediate form -oo is seen in dAo^ov. less often -ots o5. p-rfpov. . 22. . Nem. see 6 below). 373. 4. yaAdws. vengeance. cowardly. 325). The accusative singular has the ending 890. 1. For o6Ws. Homer and Herodotus have >/ws of the third dec! and declined 5. (also Eur. in //. we have Sov. Wi/Xi*. yaAtos. 314. Ionic poets also have 1.. (1'ind. gleaming eyed. dawn. battle-din. as -ots.w w middle syllable lengthened In these and in some other cases. -a somewhat oftener in the dialects than in Attic. 1. 1) lines of the Iliad (1. (Theoc. 78. "A$ws. unskilled. 70 2. as MeveAews. 2. NOTE. station. VT/OS. 1 . dau-n. from Contract forms are very rare as vovs once for vdos. 6. with fpiv . . . (oo = 2. m/<//v/. strife. <pv\6irt8a in Horn. with brazen shield. K&pvOo. has lir^Xvda in Her. has tpida often in Horn. In tbe above-mentioned (887. we must scan . | . Kdws. 2. Pyth. For us. fair-faced. 156) Xfi5a(nrii. yXavKunrcv (Od.. 96). . The Attic second declension is confined only to Aews and to proper Others also dp^te/jews for dp\tfpfv<. dvd\KtSa and &va\Kiv Kvirpii has Kisrpida and Ktirpiv in Horn. with one sandal. y\avKAiri8a (Horn. 6Vis. xaXf'i<''''''5a (Pind. . 1. //. instead of CLVTWV and TOVTUV . novoxp-i)irl5a.. 325. 'A/</>i/>ecos follow ordinary declension . 4. The Attic second declension is very little used. 8.). stranyer. eiMiri3a (Od. in Horn. Contract forms do not occur. The dative plural ends in -ori(v). /caAos For Attic ecus. vryds. | 888. shoulder. Mvrt. . Bocch. 4. editions of Herodotus incorrectly have cu'TeW and avrtioi' pi.with the In the Odyssey 10. has ve^XvSa in Her. 1. tooth. For Attic Aews. 4. dpyvpfoio. with tv&irit. Some MSS. has 6iriSa and 6iriv in Horn. . II. 70 and So would do just as well for the meter. . Dial. etc. which must be scanned whereas if we read AMXoo. 77 /cd/>is. ^dXoiru. 7. Pyth. Oil. .236 as 6folo. o-ois as w/xoav 3. New The Ionic (Herodotus). vrfiv (Callim. Adyoicrt. and vti)\w in Lucian. etc. with the short syllable lengthened in arsis. and rovTfotv are feminine. 73) . usually K&pvBo. . . Aaywos. 11. The genitive to/zos. the genitives Ilerewo and ilcyeAewo from He-Tews and HeveAetos of the Attic second declension it has also been traced in a few other places . Aayds. (rraO/j-ouv and dative dual have -ouv from (rra^/ids. elsewhere f>6\oirii> y\avKuirit. Herodotus has rjws as in Homer. helm. see 801. and neut. Find. for Attic Aayws. white shield. The dative plural ends in -010-1. . . xbpvv twice in Horn. 3. 18. 18) tirrjXvs. 2. 1186) . 1. Homer has 'A$ows. newcomer. 36 we have Al6\ov. ?p. KaAos. as otwvowri. (ywd. 9.airit. 118. an inexplicable form. 5. 294 xd\Ka. \evKdffirt8a. /caAws. novoKptfirlt. Herodotus has oSwv.). Homer has Ados. vyi'da (Horn. THIRD DECLENSION For Aeolic and Doric a for 889. So Kw/tui..

7rocr-<rt TroS-av). Ka\iriSa (Find. of adjectives in -T. 21. A'dtw^ti' (inscr. 3. Horn. it is long dvSpdcri. as In some inscriptions we have -acro-t(v) and (Epicharra. Av. Except voc. poetry also -c<T(ri(v) and (from 2. 1109. So TroSouv The nom./) has the full and the syncopated forms in non-Attic poetry. 607 Isolated examples are IxBfa (Theoc. hemp. 720). They also have other syncopated forms not copated forms are often used. Doric.v\iSa twice in Eur. Eur. Stems in -co--. and ai'Speo-vi. 894.d and Ado8dfj. Tp/i. 45). : . 1378 5pm lias fywlfla several times (Her. sometimes in cr-stems -e-ecro-t. often as . 41 3.d. 6. 487). KavvdptSa (Her. 74) A. Aids). 3.. as mttS&v = irai'Stav . 01. . . 24. Ovydrijp. The other cases of -eo-i 5. . -avr-os is -av in Homer Aiav (Att. as y\a. 109' 16 several times (Her. El.a. pi. 6. 5. -o-cri(v) sometimes after 7ro8-eo-o-t and Tra-o-t(v). Hell. Avfp-t. Sei/arjvoui' twice. 7ro8-eo-<riv. -ois . it has v for a in nouns in and 891. The genitive and dative dual have -ouv in Homer. ^ep-<riv. in Time.Toi<s. Syncopated Stems in -fp-. 4.. . in dvfp-os. |3oOj. 896. 237 . sing. Hel. 5. Ayr#> as dvep-os and dv8p6$. as TrpdcrcrocT-ao-cri and \prjfj. Dative PlUral. vedviSa (Aesch.S often has -i]v in Lesbian. Dramatists long only in lyric parts. 61. voc. The vocative of proper names in -as. HovXv8a/j. 706) 2 UpoffuiriTida. jLtv^crTr/p-ccrcrt and and eirr-<rtv 4. -i>s . times in Horn. KdXjris.w for x\tyU?&a. 1. and . in Her. Aesch. maiden.p. dyr/p or dvijp in the . . ).896 DIALECTS . 9). or in all In Herodotus we have cuTi'/z6v-(cr)o-i -<ri -o-t MSS. 4. 131 . Prom. Pindar has -eoxrt oftener than being regular. once). 5 Knr. contraction. in as 'Ap/caS-to-cri. 892. dual occurs several eight times (Hes. 3. Ovyarpwv. /36<x (Anthology) from -is As the Lesbian Aeolic accents recessively. . dvep-a (avep. . as a plural . the poets used the syn895. J : 1. nom. . The Aeolic and Doric omit . 4. Bvyarpa. . Xci/xs has x<*P' 9. fj-drrip}. Homer has -eo-<ri(v) -cri(v) vowels. Ovyarpas Herodotus uses only the Attic prose forms. The genitive plural of monosyllabic stems is perispomenon in but except rivu>v from TIS. . as Auls. Ki'v-ecrcrt and TTOO--CTI or TTO-O-I(V) from and Kv-crt(v). the dative plural has -eo-<ri.os once in Alcaeus The ace. 2. seldom -ecri(v). LTttrryp. l^'iT^p (Dor. In the poets unsynyaa-Ti'jp. inscriptions. copated and imsyncopated forms The a ot dvt'/p is short in Attic in Horn. 7ro8-(ri. as dAorre (//. has dat. ordinary TravT-eo-o-t often. -cri(v) In Aeolic . II. Ovyarpes. . 1. Frag. 88. Frag. yaa-Tptiiv. 40) Kdwafiis. Aristoph. are probably incorrect. is from AtfXt'j veavn. But contractions also occur in the Doric f3f\evs from /2eA. ^wZ. 107 (?) Xen. pfv-ecro-i In Doric the dative plural has -eo-o-i(v) and the ordinary -cri(v). found in Attic prose iraTpwv. Arjp/TT. pitclier. The Tragedians sometimes have -ecrcri metri causa. 893. . 725). 1. #itf.

he has ?}ws declined like aiScos (249). In Herodotus nouns with stems in icpeas. (in change a of the stem to e in the gen. iroAi-r. Pptrf-a and pi. For Wpoj Horn. K^paffi and Kepdfffffi r^paj. <^>wr-6j. possession (Horn.usually 897. 1. has three forms The nom.S. from -ei often in Find. and pi.: Tragedy and late prose). 5. also several also -ts for doubtful datives in -ci and -ei.. Stems in -ao-. In compounds in -KA. of the Attic second declension. occurs. is With e . Thus TroAis. but he has gen..?. Horn. as 37rcu and rarely the gen. has wetpap. K/JCWS. (^(fea (<^>doj also in Tragedy).TT pyvti. Uncontracted forms occur only in Pindar. dropped as Seyaio-roKAojs. . pi. the a of the stem changed to as These in image -ao-- /3praj. has ace. These are declined as in Attic. and Kvtyas. yepe-a. .). rfpdtffffi. often -e-i and -e-ts are contracted to sometimes -t-os becomes -cvs as rd\f'i = rd^ei. also Her. 7roAt-to^. voc. and (Odyssey) and ofi5f-i. 898. the dative plural has -t-co-o-t. 7roAi-os. Doric Kp7?s = Kp&is. K^pai. 4. xtpe-os. usually has open forms .T-. -ens from -e-os is seldom found in Pindar and Theocritus the dat. TroAt-eo-Q-i. Stems in -co. r^paa. sing. as /c^pas. 3. so KpJd rarely in Attic poetry. pi. Kpta-cnv. pi. 'lovv . 8Vao--o-iv. -KAeos. /3/^re-oj. yv/pa-os. The Epic has the same forms as the Aeolic and Doric . as yepd. . 'HpaKAr/-i. The Attic poets seldom have open forms. In Homer ntpas. KT^paj. *Aea for K\eea. darkness. 7roAi-es. dat. the exception of y^pas and yepe-os. fleece. threshold (Epic). Nouns with stems in -cur. 'Hpa/cAv^-os. In Herodotus a Ktpa. in all forms. a doubtful dative plural in -c-o-i. from Trpjyve-es.TO.. In Homer KAeoS.).and -O. T^par-os with re'pe-os and pi. pi. in Horn.or -o-. Zi</A<. -ao-- remain uncontracted. Compounds in . yrjpas. Theoc. -a. as 'ITTTTOKAC-OS. Tre/paros (238). etc. . (Xen. KU. Stems in -L-. 'Hpa/cAvy-a.s one c is 4. . Krtpta. : . Kvt<t*f. For <ws. 1. /c^pe-a. Ktpe-uv . oDSaj. KUO. Herodotus has only open forms. yr/pa-i' (except K/aeas. The dat pi. i+i in the dative becomes t. Otpevs from Ofpe-os. otfSe-os. as Kpewv or Kpuwv. funeral gifts. -/cAe^ -/<Aea.. 8cTrd . 7roAi-as. becomes e and no contraction takes place. dat.) Kvitfc'i (Anthol. . /ame. /cwe-<n. sing. 2. dat. gen. pi.238 as Sva-fifvijv (Sappho). Kcpdttiv. In Aeolic and Doric the i of the stem is retained 899. KWC-O. ftptrei. and other poets. The gen. and . has <f>dos (<f>aeff-) or ^>6wj. as Ayrovv. (7roAi-i) n-oAt. in Homer as SeTra-eo-o-i. In Herodotus proper names have the accusative in -ovv. are declined thus 'Hpa/cAe?. ictpe-i'. Kvt<f>a-os /cW^oi/j (Aristoph. 1\ from -ea seldom in Find. 2. remain uncontracted in Homer but the contracted dat. pi. has -d instead of -aa or 2. TroAt. KTfptuv. <J>dei.). for ews. as K/JCWV). -ei and 3. Ge/juo-roKAees. oCdei. DIALECTS Compounds of -KAojs drop one e 897 everywhere in Homer -eis. rtpar-a with rtpe-a. the accusative plural -t-as. /cped. repaniiv. dawn. Doric. and ace. Ke"pas and r^pas have no forms with T in Ionic.

neut.-. So also are declined most names in In Homer as voc. gen. FpaOj the gen. 79).v. Pindar has" mostly New Ionic forms. dat -TToAi-ecrcri is (eVaA^e-o-iv. Stems in and yp*i6 NaOj : -at. sing. as TroAts. as II^Ae-os.. sing. -v-os. For v <ipx-i>fpfvs Herodotus as /2acrt- we have y ftaa-iXvj-'i. 4. 7rdAi-v. also e as ace. 1. has iyOva. Homer sometimes contracts that dat. Adjectives of this declension are few in number. iroAi-o?. and ace. 1. 22. fJL-^Tl (TroAei. vavv. 7^7. -eta.'.. ^X " - 901. dxdpir-a (Her. 7. -is (gen.-os. The New Ionic agrees with the Aeolic and Doric.902 DIALECTS is . vr)it-<ri. ZSpis. l\6i'-<rt. 7T?y X 6 1 ' in -vs. . as 900. 'Ax'XX^a). /3aa-iX^-(a But e often remains in proper names. as tx^S rarely l\6va<. i/a-a. voc. The New Ionic has the gen. 629 we 5. 3.K. dat. Qfn. . TrdAi. via. 19). ^ew New j/e-u))/. as gen.). ace. -ov-. TroAi-wv. ve/ci)-crcriv. 'doij'. &x a P l * has dat. " ' > ~ ' " . 6M-oj.). and mostly dialectic . TroA^-i. voc. in Attic -t5-os) . /ATJVI-OS . -v in the dialects. (ypalris. pi. as acrre-os.X-(DV. . -IKTCTI(V). TToAl-toV. fj. is 2. dat. : Doric lias va. ace. usually contract the ace. c& have 7r6\is. TroA?. vSX (Ale. 7ToAl-S.?. TroXtj. as " 6 618 Those TT^XVS. TToAl-CTl. &x a P l (Her. knowing. pi.) and TrdActs (ace. vdfffin (Ale. TroAi-wi'. exclusively -1. Sardis. 239 Thus . TrdAis . open or contracted. as 6Ms. seldom the Epic. rarely with contraction. pi.). always has ace. pi. 37). thus : TroAis. For adjectives in -us. 7roAi-os. as 7n5Xe-os occur in Attic poetry. Lesbian Aeolic has vetOs. TToAtS Or TToAl-aS. vd-6s. TroAi-v. -ev-. lion. 7T^x "5. found in some editions are doubtful. the Doric seldom. besides having -is -i-vs) (from 4. 5T^X***s 7r ^X v v > 7r 'lX e f i TT. The Boeotian and Thessalian Aeolic has et for Epic 17 as /SacrtXei-os. fSpiej. 'Ax^XXe-a (Att. Homer has yp-qvs and ypyfo. Theoc. follows the declension of ccfs (257). as Op-rjvvi otherwise Homer has open forms. has --os for Attic -e-ws. pi. . 4. The The voc. instead of when is dropped . Homer has the . v^-as. see 925. pi. paix^ and (f-e(r(7i. 7rdAi-as. In Soph. The Aeolic has no contraction. ace. the dative is SdpStes. va-oj (Ale. vf-<5s. /3acrtA^-os. IlryAei. ypyv 2. 3). TTocrfi doubtful) doubtful). pi..ai. IIoAis peculiarly declined in Homer aKoiVis (TrdAets and has some forms from a stem TTToAei. for Attic -e-ws. (7roAi-i) TroAi. Genitives in -e-os. Stems in -u-.Xyj-a J /^ao-tAry-es. doubtful). vaes. 7roAi-as. TroAt-ecrcri (TToXf-a-i is probably incorrect for TroAi <ri). has -v-ecrcri(v). 6.-eo-criv. O. and 7roA^-s. The dat. the ace. . the genitive in -t-or appears here alongside of -td-i. evpfa and adfa. TroXrj-as. TroAei (dat. as t'x^vas and ix^^s The gen. tdpt. Il^AeiSs.vTt. in -vi. -av-. and ncc. for l\dvv (255).vs. in -e-os (for Attic --u>s) and has only uncontracted forms. 7roAi-v II. is --os . 41). Lesbian has -n. Poetic Xfs. as J3ao-t\r)-os (Ale. ace. -eas in the accusative plural (-eis dat. 3. 1. Herodotus has only open forms. vd-t. f3aa-i. 1. and -v-o~i(v) as ve/. e-a . 7roAi-es. /3cwiX^-oj j'also rj as Ifprj-'i. ~dp5ls . v-rj-'t. the gen. Idpiv. 3. TroAi-os. 7roAi-es and often 7roA?. gen. and the ace. ypatav). pi. 902. In Homer Aevs. dat. in the accusative plural . Ionic has vyd. as gen. are supplied by ypaia. sin</. 18). Stems in has apx-^pfws (2.-. vc-es. jil. pi. Doric generally has e in inscriptions. 2.

Ear. 1 > . . (?) 7^X0^ (yeXtav also in the dramatists) iSpus. delight (Epic and poet. evening. Horn. woof or wc/Z . . Fr.) T? apira . 'At/Ti<t>dTi}s. pi. Other isolated cases are: voc.. pi. dat. 3.) . /3tSs. Ionic x/ "^^ XP-*i XP~^ XP~ a has gen. 425). pi. ace. oak-wood. dat.).. xoe'i. in the 909. TO. AvTi<f>a. dat. pi. . ace. render TO 8u) for du>/j. ace. yt\t?. 5. "AtSrjs. 19. pvird (Horn. foolish (Horn. llep<re^>oveta for others.H'TI. the ace. three-quart measure. finger..) . dcS/HXTriS-etrcri ace. TO. . side. or-eo-((r)i and 6-fffffi. and prose) 6 pviros. (Theog. Hes. a service (Horn. . BoOs: Homer has ' ' - - 6t also Aristophanes.v-<f>t(i>) 914.) . TO ^5os. dat. : Find. 0ea>i6j.). dat. '0 Acpevos. dee/tot TO. gen. . only in Jjpa (\&up or tXdup. etc. oWs (ofr Od. dialects. pi. The contracted forms occur in Aristophanes. dytcaXiS-effcri strength. x^~ a contr. . gen.. 6W. vt)-fa. 05et from C5os = C8w/). Hes.) TO T^Kfjuap = Att. Horn. tx<2 (as if from (X' a ) 2. possessions (Horn. " also Ai'S-os (Horn. "Aid-i (Horn. etc. Irregular than in Attic declension prose. Her. desire (Horn. Soph. vt-effffi. body (Epic and poet. defense (Horn. oT-oj and oi-6j. Horn. stable. ace. vij-uv and vaO-<pi(v) 914. *Ai'5-a (Aristoph. M(^w-a Sa/jTrTJSwf. dat. aec. The following list contains the' most important irregular nouns But double forms and those already mentioned ure not given. sing. ace. barley. /u)c-a OijprjTrjp. love .. liound (Horn..) 'Ai'Suvth Also nom. TO. .). and metaplastic dffffid TO. pi. pi. pi. Other metaplastics in 909. vfi-tffffi. sing. ace. pwi>. (Horn.) for apvay/i. oY-os. 903 1*77-6$. ' . 6 Spv/u. . evening hours (Horn.). for 'AOijvd. df-wi* and ol-Civ. house (Horn. Hesiod has ace. dat. the ace. dirt. Tartarus. . Some of the Dorians have |3u>$. 1. . vafuv-i. 1a.T?i-a. as A. . . Hes.) . 9. has fyv. rrXtvpd (Ion. 2. dat.240 Ionic forms dat. fetter. ijX^ Thcoc. ace.. moon.) .. ri> itptvos (Hes. 3) .0i)vaia. Defectives. > 907. (Hes. and a few others. : Homer dXxTj.) 908. also as pi. vrj-a.5o'-oj. Aesch. or ace. pi. dat. (Theoc. . In Boeotian dat. KTedT-T<ri. fyu>5. ace. 1.) TO fjrop. Mtvw-os. xas. n. dat. 3. etc. "AiSov. pi. TO Kpi for KpWri. (Soph.). 4. . SeV/Mtra (Horn. pursuit.a. I8p$. Ibpu Mtvws (206). Oijp-frrop-as VIT/J. 77 ir\evpd.) . battle.). Double Forms. Sa/)7T7.3 from a stem x otv ~ gen x^' WJ con ^ r X&s.. (Attic). 7<\w. 'A'iSuvij-i (Horn. dat. DIALECTS and also gen. . "Al'dris (Horn. pi. TO Jipa. gen. has in Hippocrates and late writers fornr. ttirnnl. the dat.. dot.) 7Awj. elbow. XoDs. plunder . ^a-jrepa. 'Ai'Sdo and 'A'tSew. and ictXtvOa T. slave.). These are the most important: 6 ddKTvXa. laughter . and a dat.. pL x *" '') ace. ace. 'effwepos.). 905. pi. Heteroclites. iroSov.. 906. pov-<r<ri. etc. ace. rb AXicap.pa. dXK-i dvdpdrd flop.. 6 Tdprapoj.. Offffid iraiAos. sweat. jjov-ffi and ftoea-ffi(v). both rare. lau. following words have one metaplastic form in d^/cdX??. sing. heart (Horn. 6 Setr/ujs. spo/c-a from KP^KIJ. TO. IRREGULAR DECLENSION dialects 903. iTrai'Xa TO. These have only the nom. The Metaplastics. and poet.) . . tpov from nom. x/"^ J (XP WT ') skin. fiovv and once ft&v (Doric). vrj-as. ace. y(\ui>..6s. Aesch. lymph. Aesch. KAeuflos. pi.) . Other defectives are in 909.pra..) . (Horn. Homer has 6Ts. Dat. tX^p. or i?Xe^. Ots in Herodotus is it's. 904. xoa. . masc. rt> S^uas. Horn. . x^ tts contr. and 1. va.) (Soph.). way. is much more frequent in poetry and the Sd/cri/Xos.) 6 Xi^os ictXevOot.. dop-aj /WKT?. has dat. T^Kfiap. . Soph. ffeXtjvaid ior a-fX-fivrj. ace. ' The Epic and poetic language often uses prolonged forms \\fp<fe<pbvr). Honi. has 7Aws. Heterogeneous Nouns. hunter. or SO/JTTTT'SOPT-OS.) Spvpd (poet. wealth. ri \vxva (poet. Inttle (Horn. fyoj ace. dat. 67s. /amp.) <j>:pfiv. pl^jSoDj and /36-oy. (Horn.

yovv-uv. Cer. yovv-i. -ov. linen. Kpiveffi in Aristoph. ace. Horn. 8tHIT-OS. Kdpt] Ko. /cetpd (Horn. whip.p-rja. fat. K\q. Epic also yovv-fa. has Attic forms. TrXTjflei' and irXtfOei . gen. 6pvlx-oi. etc. Ka. V^X y) charioteer. Horn. TO d^vdpov. (Od. ri 24. sing. Attic /c\ei5-6s. 28 . lord or master. ofia-cri and u-ffi i once. 156) from a stem /cpdrea-.). ace. 911. Doric &j (Theoc. 17. etc. For Attic forms see 283. 22. Oldnrbdew. rd yon. Setoi/j.T-os.T.pria. dovpa. also pi. TO ir\Tj6os. Hoin. boivcls. 34. ace. dat. Hym. headlong (II. 25. Her. regular . Horn. pi. Aei/j (Aristoph. 18) Horn. 11. 24). Horn. .p3. usually Xei'own. yovva-ffi. Horn.d<TT?y-os. see 283. /rXof. 4. tree. poetic (also old Attic) for 6 /u. DIALECTS Aftheopian. 6 /ieis. a Boeotian nom. "Aprj-a. X&WT-OS. 16. sing. 27. 13. 28. Ionic and poetic yovvar-os. always XITT' with i\altf. and dat. pi. nom. . gen. Ionic K\rf(s. /capTjar-oj.dpTvs. . ndffTi. ace. 6pvl%-i. 92) is considered by some an ace. Ionic and poetic Sotipar-os.s. /c/sdr-os . and ace. Xi/3-6s and Xi/3-a in Aesch. Au and Zyv-l. yovvar-i. dat. TO o5s. pi. also gen. but it seems to be used adverbially. 21) gen. Ach. old man. gen. 18. month. Se'ous. 9. pi. Kaprj. irpoffuiraTa and irpoffdirafft. Horn. Kpda. dat. . dat. Yripvovrjs. justice. . KOLVO. 21.909 2. IlaTpoKX^-o. ybvar-os. he has Td ix eo chariot. etc. ace. has only dat. ~K. voc.. 25) 23. devSpefft . > 8x os chariot.T-i. i) AcXet's.T-a. 33. 12. stem. stem. and Hes. . masc.T-i.). dovpe.. pi. dat. 8. 6 31. ace. Find. lion. Xi/8-. i) 6pvl$. &VO.^. Her. Kap-rjT-i. pi. KpdT-wv Add to these &rl /rdp. . gen. Her. gen. pi. Horn. 20. ox^w. ace. AZ0t'oir-as and Al6ioiri)-a. witness (283. ace. lily. yotiv-effffi. dat. Her. *A/>?7-os and" Ape-oy. XtT-. . Horn. ace. 10. 12. do6pa. 14. libation. "Ap7?-i and 'Apet. 6 KVKe&v. 6pvli> and 6pvWa. 6.V-OS. by others a neut. 7. Sovp-i. Horn. etc. (Attic) Horn.and ^vtox^-eJ. key. Horn. olive-oil: thus XiV t'Xaiui. ace. ear (see 283. mixed drink. AM&. . . Aw. not in Homer . also TIVLOXTJ-O. 12). pi. 8f/tud-os. yofoar-a.). Doric gen. Doric /cXdts. XZV-a. Hes. TO devdpos. etc. sing. and dat. . KiiprjT-os. irp^r/Jtaj (Her. ace. Zetfs : the poets have Auk and ZT/V-OS. 6. Of/nivr-os. times 16. etc. <?^MS. etc. dat. yovvar-uv. pi. A. pi. R . 6 \twv. fj. etc. rj Koivuv-bs.d<rri. /cf/cetD and KVKCIU. partaker. pi. Ionic and poetic oevopeov . "ApTis. ZyicaTa. r^ptwij-a and Yrjpvovea. 6 Xfij. ^ /x. tyKa<ri (Horn. 32. irper/3^-ej (as if from stem 30. Ionic. /j. These forms in poetic word. ?te.T-a. TO dfos. masc. Poetic 8. otfctT-os. multitude. Her. Kplvov. 6. oil (Hippocrates). Hes.. 56/>ar-os. besides the regular forms. Horn. 5op-6s.K-6s. etc. Epic also 5ovp-6s. voc. 15. dat. KpdT-i \ pi. irptfffivs. SevSpei (Hippocrates). etc. fern. fear. richly with olive-oil. Pindar has Af for Att .ld(o<t>. KapT)vwv. Sopi. Pindar Koivdv. dat. . fj.a. Sotipwv. datpa-tri.dffTtv. KpdTe<r-<f>iv (11. . -on. TO Sopv. always /MpTvpos of the 2nd decl. face.. 392).KT-OS.) 29. &va (but poet. Oidiirovs (see 283. etc. Horn. .. etc. see 283. IlaT/wcXeis. in Horn. 6. dotipaffc. Kplvea . TO. XtT-. Kpda. 6x fff '0 { ndT/xwcXoj lias in Horn. 5. spear. gen. 6 241 &va. . Perhaps XiV is for Xnr-. 6 r> Ai'a and Zyv-a. OlSiiroSao. Ytipvovrj-'i. 26. 10. nom. : nom. Kpa-a-i Kpda. 3. .T-t. 19. \iira. T6 irpoffUTrov. . some15. bird (see 283. Kaprjva. yovv-a. SovpdT-uv. dovpa. TO Kpivov. stone (Horn. also nom. for it he has ^ TT\r)Ofa (Epic niul late) declined like IX^M. K\7]iSa ri Kapd. &va in addressing a god). 911).Ta. irpe<rj3ev-) ace.

The Epic language has the case-ending -<i before consonants and words of all the declensions.i}6ev. to Thebes . o!Vco0i. 2. to the light.T cy>r-<t. once in Horn. UN? . to our in ovde dopovSe. fern. 2 with violence. so (card upTJOtv. In other poetry forms -Oi is unknown . Irregularly gen. ^ xP> AwA see 283.a Horn. to Aegypt <f>&ucrdt. aneiv. . evvfj-<f>iv. is 40.Tf<r-<f>L. from the deck-beams (deck). cave (Epic) . trbXivde. 1.. vlas. in euro Kpa.242 35. In Epic 38. In the second declension . i home of) Hades . 1. pi. For -Oev in the pronouns. veoffev. 14). 3. irapa vav-(f>i. see 283. Occasionally in Homer the form in -6ev is governed by a preposition as a genitive . -Otv. irri/x-fo. I'Jf'aj. see 237. "ISyOfv.) . rb x/* w *) or T Xpf J (XP" oy )> <&W> see 283. . irtiroiOtos. ui&s . fold . -de is AtyinrTovdf. in Ionic Xpwr-6s and xpuir-a. 912. 36. in the morning. ace. xpo-i. rarely as a gen. before Ilium. Ovpafe. air iKpicxfiiv. to the city . /3iYj-<f>i. Tragedy). ffirrj-i. as KerfxtXrj-fav. often flos . vltt . rjvopti]-<f>i from 2. from ^os (Soph. DIALECTS gen. to the door (32). 915. from Ida (Horn. dat. 41. In the third declension nearly always plural mountains . Qfddev. -Se (284) are more frequently used in Homer at Corinth (Horn. r6 <rir^os or criretos. Find. from the couch. as as K\iffir)6ei>. 37. vK. from Aesyme . dual vie . 6 > 39. In the e first declension it is always singular. (mx-6s. dat. as KO.) . <m'x-> <rrtx-as.v'w. The than in prose. of Ilium. ffrtX't feni. poetry these forms occur : vl6s. doum 3. XP^ J sA. from Ihchut (Horn. xp^. by the ships . vioiffi. rwo (poetic). "AXS6ff-Se.lffvfj. gen. 2. vlea vldffi . via. governed by a following wpo in Homer. vttos. Otherwise rrvx"^ (not in Horn. tp&fr EPIC CASE-ENDING <i(v) 914. - declined \po-bs. to flight. gen. uietj. from the head . delighting in the chariot. to his jro\e/x6'5e. added to genitive or dative both singular and plural. stem. The ending .). trireiuv. 913.). rj/jjertpovSe. 1. as IAto-0i. little used as Kopiv660i. house. also rarely LOCAL ENDINGS 910. . from heaven . ovpavbOev. trirfoffi or <nr^e<r0-(. r)w6ei> (Att. it. oxo--^>iv dyaAXo/ztvos. o-iretoi-s. trusting to his prowess. the head. from heaven (Horn. dypoOev.)..). 42. . the (909. son . Voc. from a god (Horn. Trri'x-a also Eur. sing. twOfv). I\t6-0i irpb. vl6v. to Attic prose also occur. 910 ace. from the country (Eur. oiKovSe. /doubled and Peculiar forms are <f>uya.-8f. The ending at home (Horn. rd 0aos. 40. from the head. local endings -Qi. to (the xi/iff to earth . 911. vtt .A. etc. as 9i)/3do-5e.). see 950. 37. ace. vlov. dowmcard (Hes. 6 uioj. 39.). In Herodotus only of the 2nd decl. The ending -dev is more frequent . house. TTTVX-. to battle the most frequent in Homer homeward.). and serving -as a -<f>iv before vowels. i>fcj. stem. as dirii ovpavodev.

-c-os) remain uncontracted in the accusative plural masculine and feminine has -e-as . tV-aAid. 922. r} TrjAiKoirros (Soph. unquenchable !921. NOTE. in the sea (Tragedy). but Pindar always -eta. For the Doric and Aeolic genitive plural in -a?. 815). 925. compar. pronouns . as (i/cea for wKeta. 1. often have -os for the feminine in poetry as rj o^Aos (Eur. living. #. sometimes have a feminine form in -77 or -a . -fiy. croov. Of crws. flooded inth winter snow. -cs (gen. . -wv (298) are uncommon (also in . very timid. for). 919. as Ivppeios for tvppttos. -1775. Contract adjectives in -eos and -oos remain open in the dialects. Att. Very is adverbial rare with adjectives and iriQ-qaa-s. The Ionic has -77 for d in the feminine . NOTE. Adjectives in -vs have the feminine in -ect. The contracted forms remain open in Homer and Herodotus. {ws. In Homer contract forms are seldom found . The Cyr. 3*). 1. 243 0e6-<f>iv. -o>s. person. ace. as jrepi-ei' Homer sometimes Compare 1. as /caraTrpyivet. in Homer and For irXfij. ageless. 2.of the stem . in Comedy only in choral parts.). with original cra-os). as x etAt(Wovs. etc. Tre/aiSeeis. -ov. 1} K\VTOS (Horn. This formation fj-<f>i on the right rarely it 2. as a-Oavdrrj (Horn. -ov.).i<r\pr) for alo-xpd (805.). Attic forms like d(c\ea and tvSftii from dfcXeea and tvdeta are found in Herodotus but they should probably be written d/cXe'a and ^cSea. Horn. in Herodotus. . 8e!-i6-(/>i.). he has also nom.. . For YAews. . 2. o>os.v. a-o-/3eo-T?i. croij. 924. 923. ^u/cXetaj for euK\t(as. with one e of the stem dropped as in 'H/HiKXea. 1. a noun expressing a is /3/7?-0t . dialects. Herodotus. With 1. Compounds in -os. Open forms are generally found in Tragedy. full. Adjectives in -775. Her. (Horn. Homer rarely contracts -ee. etc.:925 DIALECTS 916. With safe. TrAetTj. out of doors. -flav rarely -ea or -er. TrAtos. 3. sing. as 06pr)-<f>ii>. only in 917. Homer generally has -eia. see 881. -77 or -a. -av. The = 2. in poetry. of crws (from o-awrc/aos 1. (II. TrAetov Herodotus TrXfov (also rare in Eur. -075. -TrAews. trusting to his strength.). Adjectives in -os. and o-dos. NOTE. Adjectives in gracious. contracts also 924. foov. The Doric has -ea. 1. jSa&'ris for ySa^etr/?. -er/s. /3aOfav for /3a0etav. 2. 6. to -ct and -e-es to -eis . as M ADJECTIVES 918. 920. Homer has TrAeios. . have only this form. But Homer has Sia feminine of Sibs. divine. With ayvJ/Dcos. 32 Xen. especially in Homer . ^wv. Homer has fAaos Attic poetry). evi?7 for evid.). 3. . Homer has dyr/paos.. a.

dat. ic6\*oi> 4. of mighty fa tfier .). small (compare tKdffffw an<l f\dx-i<rros) several in -S&reipa. 6fj\vs The accusative The Epic rid ivpta. woXw and TrouX^ (also fern. . pi. Homer has these forms ?roXX<5s. ace. . voc.. TroXeis. Other dialectic peculiarities in participles are mentioned under the verb. irpi)6. ?roXf-j or iroXetj. in Homer and Hesiod. pi. dfipifjio-irdrpri. "26. is thus declined . 927. rarely feminine in poetry as ijSh (Od. Qptyaura for Bptyaxra. (not in 4. blessed (/idKap) . iro\c<nv and TroXXots. 86). 723). man-ennobling .) Herodotus has uncontracted forms. 933. also icbrrva. Herodotus has iroXXds. gen. fiwri-avfipa. for 6<?a (Scut.speaking (^ov-fir/is). Hel.O-us. fat (iriwv) irptfffla and Trp^ffjiapa. gen. ) have some defective adjectives appearing in one or more cases. . (Theoc. 3. f7?os. Ant. The poets (esp. XiTrowra for AiTroro-a. In Aeolic the participles have -oura for -oo-a (840. 3. Aesch. ripi-yfrfia. has the pi. . Lesbian Aeolic has /iAcuj and rdXeuj (840. 1332). fre-qucnt (^aya^ej. -oi-o-a. The Attic poets occasionally have Epic forms Horn. /caXXi-7iWtK-i (dat. iro\v. ace. revered. and .). Homer has a number of feminine adjectives which have no corresponding masculine forms ev-Trar^peia. for i)8vi> in Theoc. eduv. it or mostly as 1. much-nourishing . dpydi'Ta. Those in -i)ciy Adjectives in -eis. (Doric -deis) . . npaoj does not occur Herodotus has irpiifa..). 3. 0d\a. The form in (Homer. rap^ej) sweet. match for men . Homer has also some feminines corresponding irregularly to masculines iriupa. -at? and -awra as irveoura. Iph. gen. For -6s Homer has -u>s after a long syllable as xi/ruieis. and others. famous for fair women 1. honoured Oovpts. especially in Homer. singular masculine rarely has -ea for -vv in evpta irbvrov and Hesiod has a neuter plural 6$(ia (Horn. 929. I). as Ka. KoXXi-7iWiK-a (ace. 348). tfo or ij&v. has a of noble father dvri-dvtipa. Ag. for -as 1. iroXt'o. faithful. . and rap<f>fia. iroXX6^ and 932. DIALECTS -i* is 926 . .i. iro\\6v. pi. XXav. cheerful (irp6<f>puif) . Homer.). or Tro\t-crffi(v) or iro\4-ffi(v) gen. croioded. 2. ace.K-ot (gen. heavy with brass (XXKO(irptffpvs) : . fem. In Homer fyi-ijpos. iroXXwi'. rich. irpdO . ^apijj) . iro(v)\v-/3&Tfipa. 2. 1264). . wo\\6v declined (but iro\\ov does not occur) also iroXi'/s or iroi'Xi'j (neut. ^0$ or 176* (neutt-r adverb)'. reAecrais for TeA. Tragedy). also in Pindar 2. thick with horse-hair . 1) . iro\twv (Eur. arrow-showering . the endings -6eis and -ifctj are also used as feminities. 930.) and atita. iroXe-aj.i. and -6ej are sometimes contracted as Tt/n}t (Horn. nourishing heroes. lo-x^aipa. ^5u-^iro (Hes. impetuous (inasc. as neut. 0d\ea. of good things. iro\\6v (Soph. IIoXi/j : throughout like . . ace. ToXe'-eerffi(j') 931. 0oOpos) rrp6<f>pa<rffa. dat. Pindar also has iroXXis and iro\i'/s. nvSi-dveipa. With names of places. .. (Aesch. Adxa. rl^avra. corresponding neut.).) in Fiud. 928.) pi. 12. 7roX^-oj. . pi. -oura also in Theocritus. epi-ripes. so also /xcu-cupa (Find. iro\v and iroi'Xi') gen. Pindar has Trpdfa.244 2. and a comparative trpy'toTtpos. TroXX??. liriro Sdaeia. voXeffiv (Eur. but lacking the nominative singular. 369). irTtpovvra. vo\\-/i.) in in. -ev are frequent in poetry. All these Soio-a for Sowra. pi. Horn. TroXe-wv. x a ^ KO ~P<*P fta. . Taur. adjective ^0j = )caX6s or dyaOh. : irorvia. for Trveowra. -effca. early-born (-fipt-yevfy) plural only Oapfial. For AiAdj and rdXds. (ro<^>6s : . (Find. Similarly Theocritus. He*.\\i-yi'va.. (Sappho).).

. in 6\ouraros 6S^ 442) and in irpwriffTov diruTnfjv (Hymn ffom.). long. straight. OIKTHTTOS (Horn. } veaTos (Epic also yeiaros). ift/s.) and iraxiuv (Aratus). has raxwToj.). in prose. For djuop^-ecrraTos vyi-r]p6s. v^os. slow. sup. icy&crros (Horn.). manly. Tract's.) . : belonging to the 1.).) WKUS.).. from aidoios.dvTa.). dexter.) . living in positive meaning the mountains. god). 1348). (later superlative ending -aroj. and dpei6Tepo$ (Theogn. -yXwctfs. Her. -ti-raros after a long vowel . XOTE. These occur: flaMs. irdffcruv <t>i\i(j)v <f>t\os. (Horn. </>/\icrros (Soph.) . from S. dear. > .). 2. short. Aesch. 8vffiroT/j. serious.) and ftpaaauv (Horn.. 4. /cdprtcrros for Kpdno-Tos. <&Ki(rroj (Horn.. dyaftk : a comparative d/Ltetvirepos for poetic. wild (belonging to the country).dff<ruv (poetic since Horn. These poetic (chiefly Homeric) adjectives have comparative form. {ktyxpmt (Horn. novissimus (Horn. used as 157). 3. Horn. Hes. 2. 937. we find -earepos ^crrepos (also ffirovdai-orepos) and ffirovSai-fffTaros and -eo-Taros from cr7roi)5cuos. dialects by means (Od. Soph. Adjectives in -os occasionally have -ti-repos and Homer. and Theoc.) Kvdluv (Eur. superl. In Herodotus adjectives in -eos and -T/i'os have -6-repos and -6-raros like the as e7rtr^5eos (Attic eTrn-iySeios). Tares. compar..). thick. in 936. 446).) . middle. Comparison by -twv and -MTTOS is more frequent in poetry than In Epic and Doric poetry -iwv has short -I.. 42 (with aidoi-braros). for For Odvffuv Her. Tragedy and even iu prose.) Qtpiare <^ptoTos (Epic) in 944. : in Her.) for ^xflioros. /SAraTos (Aesch. fiaOluv (Tyrt. positive KporiJj . dvopijio-repos. Mimnermus com par. pitiable. fern.). ^praroy (Horn. 941. 5. Observe . /SpaSi's. fj. deep. The ending -os is 2. (Horn. . ^pdxrTos (Find. feminine. sup. august. sweet. Theoc. 942. as in v^aroj. these peculiar forms: &x a P l *> graceless.944 DIALECTS 245 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES endings 934. corresponding Attic adjectives in -eios eTriTT/Seo-repos. 105. nctf. mis-shapen. Horn. NOTE. and in &rxttToy (prose). Aief<r)craTos (poet.). 1. Find. 940. Metros.uTepos (Eur.^P^TaT0 ^ (also Soph. d/iop<os. excellent from wholesome . Sefi-repos.). ^x. gods (0e<5y. sup. 6ivpos. Horn. ^Xf-yx^ es pl-> infamous. Aesch. (poetic). of the 935. -/XvKiuv (Horn. (ftativbrtpos and (f>a. Theoc. The suprcmus extremus. fipadiwv (Hes. and after a mute and a liquid in Attic poetry wretched. . /xa/cioros (poetic since Horn. but aypb-repos.) . papviror/j-wraros.).. 93o. ^^prepos (poetic since in w also and voc.ITOVOS. and other poets). /3pd5t(rros (Aristoph. /xa/cpoy.Tos (Horn.. Phoen. 17. Aristoph. .) and jSdpStffTos . shining. iryiT/p-eVraros (also vynrjp-oTaros) from in Pindar d^ov-eer-repos (01. without toil.) /3pax^s. Trag. /Wtfioros (Horn.) Ki"5p6y. last. and Doric Kptffcruv for cpe iff a <av. <5p^<r-repoj. 01. dvoprfio.) : com par. most ill-fated (Eur. ^6 < in place. aiSoi-fffTdTos. /SArepos (Horn. ffirovSai. Trdxtfroj (Horn. used also of the Roman consul).. rigid. dxapt'o-repos (Horn. 68).. as <5i'fiipu>repos and 6i'fi~pu>- TO. lias Taxt'repos. and perhaps Oewrepos.) of/crp6s. serviceable. Xc6iwi> ami Xwfrepos for \ipwv (a jmsitive Xwios in Theogn. 943. also 6dffffov . Irregular Comparison. II. Horn. Fr. Find.. dpetuv . more unlucky . Theoc. ^TrtTTjSeo-TttTOS di^pTjibs (Attic dvSpeios). Most adjectives are compared also in the -re/ao? and -raros. 1345). -repos and -raroj. . Phoen.TOS (Od. 0T)\v-Tepos. occurs also in poetic fara-ros. JUTJKKTTOS and Dor. Wvvrara (Horn. quick. j 939. ) $aeic6s. glorious.

has these defective compar. chiefest (Horn.. /c^pSoj. . also Horn. iriirwv. 945. njXoO or rfjKe. last. very long before. the noun (/foffiXetfs. Her. and /3a<rtXei/raTOj.). pt<av in Her. most kingly (Horn.) 7. (tyaoros (poet. dyxov. d-yx 1 or &yxv> near. p-rjtrepos (Epic). height. oirXdrepos and OTrXiraToj. youthful (Horn. THE ARTICLE for TOV Lesb. dXfyos superl. tctpdiffros (Horn. of these do not seem to rip. For 01 Doric rot.) more /j. occurs in. In the first three examples.). irl(>Tfpos and irtiraros. second. &\lfav in Horn.TO*. forms: dat. and Dor. farthest part. . Kovp&repos. not in Horn. Eq. and superlatives are from irapot-repoj. behind. KIJUV. TrXeas. d.) .<raov. . p^raros and /bjioros (Horn. For 17 Aeolic and Doric d (Lesbian a. x^prja. compar. most more dog-like or youth. arama) A strengthened superlative is irpwrioros. . For 948. 6. . weapon (?). &yx iffTO * (poetic). the stems of adverbs or prepositions : vdpoidev. irX^es and ace. . 946. These comparatives Defective Comparison. beyond. w\e6vus). supreme (Her. ADVERBS 947. more (most) impudent. well. Her. 1. piyiffros (Horn. and Dor. tKaffrtpu (Horn. For ftrraroj. rav.).) .. tiraffffurepos (Horn. irepairepos (Find. 1. far. forthwith. TOUOV Horn. Horn. (Horn.yx^TfP^ (Her. and superl. w^pp. Horn. first of all. of Sevrtpos. more kingly. rpri and rys. peiffTos in Bion.) and vif/lrepos (Theoc. . rav. rat. Kforepos. inmost (Horn. Lesb. sing. e&. plyiwv. higJier (Find.). txaffrdru (Horn. v\//iuv. x^"7 a or X^P fia Her. as irXAw to ir\fvv. /o occur in Attic prose but in poetry and late prose they have Trewairepos and ireTrat(Find. . . Find. -n/Xordrw (Horn. dreadful. pyrepos 4.). dvuraros. 949. and with the same meaning Sfisraros. Aeol. pi. 6 for o) for TT/S Aeol. upward.246 2. Taros.). king. . pi. xtpfiorepos (Horn. youtiiful (Horn. compar.) Here belongs also poetic a-i/yiuiToj. often' contracts eo to ev.) and dffffortpu (Horn. DIALECTS Ka/t6y : 945- Xfipbrepos sing. iroXvs : . Attic a strengthened comic comparative irporepairfpoy.) O^oj. postremus (Horn.. also for TOIS and Horn. T (Boeot ral and TV/) for TT/V AeoL and Dor. rai? poetic Toio-t(v) and Taio-t(v) . &yxi. 2. : and 5. 5. Homer often has ^0. x^"? s neut.).. H<f>ap. the compar. pr/repos (Theogn.). a superl. Some poetic comparatives and superlatives are derived from nouns /3a<riXfi/j.). . KtjvraTos (Horn. > - tffffuv for fj<r<rw'. nearer. pvxfa. : . .). paurros (Theoc. "E(cay (in Attic prose only positive).). 01 for at Dor.). irXeofos to TrXeOvoj Horn.). ras (also in Tragic chorus) for T~Q Aeol. *cacwrepoj (Horn. more gainful.) .). d<pdpTtpos (Horn. superl. Homer also has vffrdnos. Kixav) may be considered the positive.). one in front &vw. 3. dog.) and dyxordru (Horn.) . Theoc. Aeolic. and stricter Doric TW Homer has TOIO and Dor. 1165. ai for TWV AeoL and Dor. Her. . before. Koupos. ace. near. last. 2. . gain. (adv. (Horn.. x fPf ^ uv (Horn.).. and Wow. pT-yos. : . ..) and several other rare cases. Her. and "xtpifi. pi. 6irlffTO.ffOei>. Theoc. Aristoph. rarely Tor8(o-)cri . Kovpos. uas compar. . 6iri. and Boeot. also has nom.). pq.5ios : Ionic prftdios compar. icepSiwv.). compar.). Lesb. tiir\ov. cold. iffffov (poetic. /3a<nXei>repoj.vxolTaros. /i^yas /iucpis : compar.

in ( ) 950. 3. pi. T^.) for ^oO . G. d/tt/n- nnd fyiju. 204). Vs atOev 2. see 370. (Ale. ^UP and d.e (Sapph. Jifv N. Old and New Ionic. (tv ai)r<p = si&i ipst. A.fu. 247 AeoL rot?. For enclitics. rfv (for trot) .) for 'Itivya (Corinna) .) for trot .] f|(Xiov 'HK'^ V (i)fj. 1.D. cr<p<a\ ff<t>uiv) (<7<f><i>) (ff^xIitV.cn <ro. TJ|icis (iJ/x/afj) vjxtis (tf^es) \)|ia)v (O^. d/u^j. /teO. 01 p. Lesb. or fem. <r^) neut. No For o's (959).) = (Sapph.) for <re . 953. (D. ^/xeC. . . or AeoL Horn. fffe. 'E^civ Ttf and ^/x/w(s) TVJ'')? ^-yii ^/cxe'os. SINGULAU N. before vowels. in Pindar and Tragedy) Of these Pindar has tyuv. dual forms in Dor. ^ and for ffv . See also the relative 4. Theoc.953 for TOVS Boeot. 'Eyci? is used For dialectic forms used in Tragedy. . &fj. ^uio and afjitv. bfj.] 951. eov. &nfj. /to( .elwi>) (r<|>av (aQeiuv) r<j>cri. .) = Of these Pindar has : AfJ. not in Horn. (also pi. NOTE. rol Se.) for vi!>. (^y<&0 i[Ltv.) for <roC . roi. A<r<f>i (Sapph.) for tpov . reovs (Cor. o-ntuv.) <r<t>l<ri . (Boeotian) ffv . oi)/i^j (Cor. A.) for cov .) for ^/ttv .A") Tjfxt'as (<SjU/ue) vp. 5 and 6. cr<f>i(v) (^MA") vjtiv (f/u. e/j. TV. fot (Sapph. (Cor. see 152. Forms with Toi is enclitic.fs. see the Syntax. vlv as masc. T^OJ.). G. (J-eu o"v (rVvrj) cre'o. 'fOfv. D. (i><D'iV) j/wi'.ta$ (f/tt/u. Hes. 952. d>yu 5 (Ale.e6^v.^y. In the following table forms not enclosed belong to Herodotus as well as to Homer.) for oC . A very few rare forms found only on inscriptions or in the grammarians are omitted. lv for o?.. rlv (Cor. PRONOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS NOTE. rlos Doric vfj^.lv. . ^oOj (Cor. <rv crtQev) (e'o) v ((fjieio. vwe (Cor. cr<f>wv) PLURAL N. and has TIW(J) .. . and rto.0> M^. rev.). TWS.fj. the Tragedians sometimes have TOI /ACV. v/j. and ^twy for o-y . Tarent. Aeolic. apt. For the article as a demonstrative. Doric. tyijiu dW" r)fj. .). rrja-i. vfj-f^wv (Ale. l-y** tfJLe'o.e) <rq>cas [<r<^ea ((r</)as.f. Tarent. fj. ^ju. reov. ovfiluv (Cor. (Ale. <rol. rlv. vui. (N. tutOev (Sapph.(uv.as. 0/u/ues (Sapj)h. er0w) A. vc6) (ff<j>wi. reOs.. (<r<#) i4 i^ *.) for (Sapph. DIALECTS AeoL.) . sing. (fffiut. Sapph.) . f^ev (Ale. Ti5 (encl. (Lesbian}: tywv and ?>w. 2. i(J. Fr.) &fj. fifJ-fu. i'/u. ol Se.ovs. vw'i. stricter Dor. roC (reiV) <r^ ol (foi). A.t0ei>) (ffeio. (>. reoOj. v&'Cv pi. (elo.are Lesbian Aeolic. Tu and f/itMf &<T<f>t Theoc. tptOfv.fj. A. 6. Herodotus has Towrt and 3. TW and rol'iv. toTo) D. .e(wj') [cr^e?? not in Hotn. fj.fv.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 957. and OLVTCLVTOV.. 887) for or. INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 958. (rjs He . and Lesbian is TTOO-CTOS. for this 3. -bv. 'Os : Horn. (Theoc. 959. . avr&s avrov. "O8e follows the dialectic peculiarities of the article throughout. Lesb. Aeol. S^repos Dor. The pronoun TI'S Tttuv for Tivtav. 2. Homer has the two pronouns separated . . and sometimes uses the r-forms of the article for the relative . etc. to be confounded with ao-o-a). For examples. etc. the milder KCIVOS. 1. for ijs. TI'VI. besides the ordinary forms. 'E/i6s : Lesbian Aeolic /uos. times used for is Alcman has 0-^6$ and ff<(>t6s = 5s. of you both.for ir. as airroiffcv aurotfs (Epicharm. rey for these forms also for the enclitic TOV. Herodotus has intwvrov. and rtourtv for ruriv (Sapph. The Doric has POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 955. Tfouri for TMTI has in Ionic reo and TCU for TIVOS. KOV. the Lesbian Aeolic has K^VOS The Dorians have Keivos is Ionic and poetic. see the Syntax.os. 3. Doric. 1.os and d/i/u^repos (Boeotian a^os) times written d/iis). Lesbian Aeolic has.248 DIALECTS 954 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 954. ijfj. 132) all used for all three persons.). 1. The vocative are someof ^u<$s >6s. IIoo-os in Epic. o/"a both. 8fJ. <r6j 1.) Lesb. 4. rrjvo also roo-o-r/vos = TOCTOUTOS For TOCTOS the Epic.fj. 1. etc. Horn.). RELATIVE PRONOUNS Homer sometimes has o for os. <r^repos and crc/ws (once in Find. (Boeotian rtos) . 3. T^OJ and . Aeol. For the stricter Doric has Keivos. . NOTE. T?/va. 97). etc. avTOffavras. oou (oo. as e/i a. Add to the above Homeric vutrtpos and <r0wtrepos. someAfj. Lesb.frepos and a/i6s (also in Tragedy. etc. T(f. ^T/u^repot : Doric and Horn. Homeric refa. avrbs atrr6v = also avroffavrov. Aeol. (inscr. this also occurs in Tragedy.). Krjvos. pronoun also -nyi'os. 3s and e6s (also Pindar). For aTTa the Ionic has aoxra (not 2.in interrogative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs ] as KOCTOS. -77. euvrov. 2. Lvrov (Epicharm.fj. . 'H/^repoj Doric a^Ttpos (a/t6s inscr. ffeiavrov. 'E6s rarely occurs for <r<pTfpos. Doric. "Os. . 2. KOIOS.) . 956. and Horn. . TI'O> for TI'VI. and <r6s (r6s also in Tragedy). ff<f>6s. KOTC/OOS. Herodotus has K. afrravras. ufitrepos and f/uos (also Pindar) Lesb.bria>. : . Aeol. and Lesbian Aeolic have ToVcros. Z^eVepos and <r^>6s 5s in poetry. 26s: Doric : -re6s . t avr6v. KOTC.

). are late.) = irbOi (poet. as OTTTTOTCpOS. .f]. 2. often in Homer.tjBev. so Zong' . 80i (poet. oTeouri aTTa. r66i (poet. pi.8is Homer has only oi'Sev. OTCO) ace. 2. as 6/cocros. as O. Of . : 963. Poetic KfWi.(832) . Lesbian has OTTI and OTTIVO. The cardinals have these peculiar forms in the dialects is 7. side of jj. stricter Doric i*s. OTTTTOIOS. "Oo-ris. 4. OTTTTOO-OS. He has 2. 5. ov8afj. as ev w. Homer has i'a. 2.) = Certain correlative adverbs are poetic or dialectic wot .ait <i/ios or ap>s = ovSafid in New Ionic TIS). Svowri (SuoTv is probably incorrect). tav along(Hes. 81 ov . 1. : . etc. . until. . and in certain conjunctional expressions. Dor. S. oO . ry (poet. dat. for p.QS and ra/noj) = 6re and r6re. Herodotus has OK. TOV. ao-o-a for ace. also 8<f>pa. (poet. In Herodotus 8ro is either indeclinable or it forma Gen. Herodotus uses oVeu. etc.) = 8-irov rodev (poet. o TTI with o TI gen. also dat. fJ. 4. also 8oo and Sotoi. For the other cases he uses the article a". sing. Sro. plural of ovSa's and /xr/Set's (from ovSf and an old pronoun The ovSafJiot. TcWos and TOLOS Homer TTo0i has once 1. see 832. : OTIS with . = ?cos and r6<f>pa = rewj. ax/31 T(J>. gen. pi. etc. OTTTTOTC. OKOIOS. 3. . and tvdevre in Her. and and retos with Attic r^ws. masc./J. Boui declined regularly. 3. DIALECTS Herodotus uses os. 6o-<rdrtoy (//. poet. see 405. as (how) little. OTTTTCUS. dat.La. 961. . fj.S. O-Q- and aoxra. OL. For fvOavra. onva with ovTiva .) Epic ^MOJ and r^/toj (Dor.) rijviKa. "Oo-o? and OTTOO-O? have in Doric and Lesbian Aeolic. O/COTC.) = TTOV . Soiat. 5. wy frequent in poetry = OVTUS. raviKa (Theoc.t. 1. es o (eu>s ov. CORKELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADVERBS 962. oi/rws 2. OTtOMTi. tliere . 960. fitTys.).TT &v. S>wv. 6'rewv. thence.) 3. Homer often has TTTT in the indefinite relative pronouns and adverbs . orev. NUMERALS 964. OKOV. Homer has these peculiar forms . ovSevt. 758). u-hile. as long as. TWS (Epic and Att.. OTTCO. oVew. 145) for as Lesbian to. 55) has Sovixos. Homer has Svo and 8v<t> both indeclinable . Theocritus (4. lfj. In Doric and Aeolic the r-forms of the article are occasionally found as relative. pi. For &ros occur in poetry with TOCTOVTOS and TotoOros. (TO. For 05 demonstrative. OTCWV . with OUTIVOS .. Homer has irftve and 6w6<T for wot and STTOL he has yx i with 5. ov8ei<s. oYivas with owTivas. except after an elided preposition. fj-iav . see the Syntax. /A?. 8viv and dat. TTJS. trys. both meaning which way or where. . 17.ta. .for OTT. is uj~ . orrfv. OOTIS . 6tr66i (poet. Homer also has ti'ws and elos with Attic ?ws. .964 2.) T-gde .

Herodotus has numbers sometimes drop -<r in poetry Like . also wfvraxa and iirraxa.. Tearo-fpf<reifcrros . Homer eya-ros and eivaros. Homer e'/iJSo/ios and f/386Tera^ros and TT/3aros (also Pindar) .rJKovTa and 80. and IKOVTO. 965. rpixov. TT/3aKaTtot. Homer and Herodotus T/uryKovra for rpiaKovra. or reropa with Terraces. dat.. Her. the temporal augment are often omitted tl\ov and (\ov. Tptr/Koa-ioi for Sidxoo-iot and Herodotus 8tr^Kocriot. irtvraxov. in and rpiff<r6s. eivaKoo-iot for ei/aKoo-ioi. Those in -am not expressing . and 51-xOa. poetry for Svo and rpt-irX^rtos. Homer has 74. etc. . also the Attic forms. etc. In Homer both the syllabic and and -o-Ko/irjv 7/ye and a. Herodotus has Te&crfpecrKaiSeKa. 1. countless). O'IV/KOOTOS for SIUKOCTTOS. etVax/s. whence the ordinal Tre/wr-ros. Herodotus ctVa/cio-^^Aioi for for fj-vpioc (/zvpios. Tptd/cdj is in two-fold. Homer SwSfKaros and St'oiSe/caros. . TfTpourt. Herodotus TetrcrepaKovra for recrcrapaKovra . Homer . also as neuter. Omission Of the Augment. etc. 20. oySajKovTa. 2000.. Homer evtv^/covra with ( 200. 40. and Herodotus lias Si^oD. 300. 30. JfKero (1040. Horn. VERBS THE AUGMENT 968. Herodotus has 8vu>8cKa and 8vo /ecu Se/ca. L. . 6<r<rd/ in Horn. SvoKaiSeKa (this also in other poets).. 8i<5s. Homer St^/cocrtot. Numeral Adverbs. Tpi-7r\d<rios. Her. etc. Doric 70. Tfa-<repa. (859). rpifoj) sometimes occur For 3i-ir\&noj. dialectic forms : Homer T/H'TOS and . Lesbian X^A I(HJ Boeotian xi'Aiot. 8tx<* an(l T P^X a Homer lias also rpurXj) Ai(r<r6s and TerpajrX^. in -O-KOV t/3e/3i'iKciv 1. . TpiTjKotrTos for TpidKocrro?. 967. three-fold (Her. Her. has Hes. The Doric has reTTopts for TrevTe. SuJSe/ca. Homer has ei/coo-i and eetKoari.250 4. Aeolic ire/Mire 12. Doric has etKari (FixaTi.Ki. stricter and milder Homer evvea^iAot for cvaKicrx Doric XtyJUbt and ^etAioi. SvwSe/caros . . and Her. Homer oySoos and oySo'aros /MUTOS .ytv. Aeolic repros . rpeis. Her. Herodotus has Teo-xrapes. Homer eei/coo-ros and ei/coo-ros KaiSeKaros and rerapro's Kal Se/caro? Her. 1041) are generally unaugmented. also 90. Iterative forms and ^c/Jr. Pindar lias Swo'eKa and 8vw5. definite 2. as (3fjv and /2r/v. DIALECTS 965 Homer has the Aeolic wdrvpts with T(ra-fpf<. 966. The cardinals have these Doric 7r/3aTos for Tr/awros . SvwSfKa. Doric ft8ofj. T/stTaros. etc. Tpl-xOa. as TO<ro-d*.T/Dt?y/co(7ioi.

1.fv. the dialects. add Ionic and poetic forms from dv8avw. for 2. Herodotus regularly omits the temporal augment representing the For (OIKO. Thus l/>x ara an d ' (or its equivalent. av-oiav. he has ol/ca and tuOa. in all verbs in eaco. REDUPLICATION 972. &yoi>. See these verbs in the Catalogue. as ava/?e/3r/Ke. reduplication. . Homer ere-cri'/xat) dei-doiica. The verbs which take the syllabic augment 534. 1041). learned .fj. d\VKTci<a. e^o/xai and i(ja. ei/)W. eiuffi). epydo/zcu.-r}t>. av-. ovpi(j. evvvp. dpp(a8eu>. -a-KOfj-Trfv (1040. in the poetic verbs and forms ouvcyia^o). For t(-\-r)<f>a and ef-XTj/otyuai (from Xa/u^avw) Herodotus has XeXd^/ca and OTTO- 974. -fj. dpTeop.. from deiKvvfj. 971) also have the reduplication represented by these verbs in the Catalogue. 1. etTrov. eiAw. dwOa. H-ffcreva) 2. . KaraAeAeiTTTo. and dXtra^o/nai. ep8u. shut. and 973. 01. as ^-XXiVcrero. are ^t-forms. eoxrow. avatcriynda). Initial a- &PXO/J. 3 (b). seldom in the dialogue parts. also in rrr/Kee. and. avSdu. soiled. UTTTW. v in 2-vveov. also in other non. and plupf.fif3ofj. feared (tor t-dFeiffa 836).%drjv. usually omit the syllabic augment . See 976. dfj.at. 969.1. The reduplication is irregularly lengthened in Homeric and Sel-dia from Sddu. Troieecr/cov. wveovTo.I. wpeov (opoua). . apxo/J. join. which e. Verbs beginning with a vowel (not e). from pvir6u.976 2. l-peas. . a^Sdcra. e in before a vowel (533. See also in the Catalogue tpxa. : in certain Ionic verbs and (6) He regularly omits the temporal augment forms. Sometimes p remains single after the augment .a.1. as 4-pdirTofj. epyw (Att.av. (8eyfj. as dyiyeo).. Homer sometimes doubles swam . d^ypevos. as alpta. etc. et/oyw) . which have a syllabic augment as (533) or a double augment (534). the augment) is rarely omitted in from Zpyw. DIALECTS 251 Similarly in the post-Homeric Epic poets . eAifi'co. It is absent occasionally in the pluperfect. sho*t>. After the syllabic augment only in i--/j. oBvpea-Kfro. . (a) Herodotus omits the augment in the iterative forms in -CTKOV lyric poets.in Doric and Aeolic and en.remain . 970. greet. c Ionic iKTTjyuat for K^KTIJ/MI. also has fynope (for wf-yuope) from fj-eipofMi. drive. <reiw. A7rw. epSw beginning with (c) at-. 1. The reduplication Homer. as is commonly supposed. ei-. XdfBf<TKOV. (refit}. take the syllabic augment 971. drive. a in \. augments to a. fear. and dft-Sey/jiou. obtain. Attic Reduplication. tdoOea. 975. In addition to the verbs with Attic . prayed . aip6-qv. and as ayecr/cov.Attic The augment is sometimes omitted in the lyric parts of Attic Tragedy. s. fi&ov. oivoxoew. 5 in %-ddeiffa. eto$a in the pluperfect of verbs with Attic cu-. 3. Homeric 5^xa r '.. reduplication in the verbs mentioned in 968.a0e. at/wye. To the Attic verbs in 533 and 534 beginning with a vowel. Reduplication with p occurs in Homeric pe-pviru^vo^. Hvvv/ju not perf. shake (t-<rcrciovTO. and tffffv/jLai (for from fftvu.O. Initial at- as #70.

V. \afj. epOxu. 5. </>e/Do-yu. root re/x-. 1.f<. see 1028. d. for 2. <ftfi8ofj. -o-6tyv.K-a\-in) (d\-\ eyei'pw. a. 1043. root irop.^dvw (Xo/S-). 8i8oi-<r0a rarely in the optative. for -/^/'. the dialects and poetry have a number of peculiar forms.. ?x ovcrt u/3o-/x. 977.252 DIALECTS 977 reduplication in 548.v -TO. and -crdrjv in the Tfv\e-rov. for <^a-^ev. ou>. root Of these fviirru. /H'O>. is sometimes retained by Homer in the . I5w (r#iw). aK-a^-/zi'os (a*-). The Doric . Homer sometimes has -TOV and third person dual of past tenses : -or^ov for -TTJV 8<apTi')<re-cr6ov. d\-a. rv\w-iii.Trr6-fji. epeiSm. It XcAvK&rt. See in the Catalogue dyetpta. \av6dvu (\a6-\ \dffKU (Xax-). repirw./J. 982. ^8aAoi-o-^a. For the doubling of a in the future and first-aorist in Homer. For the Homeric h'rst-aorist tense-suffix -a%. TiO(-[jLes -- </>a-/xe -n in //t-forms. irwOdvofJMi (wvd-). has -/*? for -pfv. I0ard 2. and <ppdfa (<f>pad-). Aa^-o-i). A number of verbs have Second -aorists.VU. o/f.v eAeAi''has -/idv. persuade . as Tt'0/-o-0a. 4. see 1042. : as 7T-<j>pa. also in the subjunctive.es for (j>(po/j. The ending -a-da.) as f<fxp6-/j. as TiOrjri for Attic riOrprt . aAuo/iut. from uAt^w (clAc*-). -<rda.\K-ov (syncopated). see 1018.1. PERSONAL ENDINGS 979. as u. reduplicated second-aorists in Epic poetry ire-iriO-ov. see 1040. from TTfiOta. irX^ffffu (ir\riy-. aAiKTu>. -TT/V AeAv/ca-vTi for t . as l^o-rri VTL is retained in the third person plural retains . 983. from (frpdfa.. it 1.at (<f>id-). ireiffw (iri6-}. 1. t 980. see 1022. In poetry -fjLfvOa often occurs for -fJLeOa . 1041. opvi'p.in Ionic. X (l) i V/* l t|) j root o5i>. dpapio-KW. xdfw (x a ^"> /ca ^')> /t a */x*' (X /*")- These dir-a<j>-lffK(i} (d<f>-). rei^xw. jce'Xo/xcu. for -<r%-.T8a. fviirru (tvijr-). cupeu>.in a few cases.(irfirapfiv). as indicative. as K\aioi-ar6a. root ray-. It also occurs in a few Lesbian Aeolic and Doric forms. wdXXw (jraX-).for -<ra. root 5a-. verbs (all in the Catalogue) are dic-ax-lfa (dx-). KO. The endings -p. ' e/)iV((). dpeyto. 3. \ayx<iv(j) (Xa^-). For the present and second-aorist tense-suffix -B%-. root ai'$-. Aro~a-i'Tt for Awawri. 1. reduplicate peculiarly : -tivtir-a-v-ov (or (v-tvlir-ov) and -qpOK-aK-ov. chide.tj-(rda 2.t and -crt (third person singular) are often retained as KTCIV(I>-IJLI. For the Doric future tense-suffix -<re%-. dX^w (dXe*c-). TENSE SUFFIXES 978. Reduplicated opaw (OTT-). (jApirr 6pvvfu (6p~).u. f' . 2. draw. riBf-vn for (Boeotian Aeolic inscriptions have -v#i for -VTL. Aa/fy-o-i by Homer in the subjunctive (written by some fdeXrj-cri.?. For the iterative imperfect and aorist tense-suffix -<TK%.Trea~T(iXKa-fj. KtvOu (Kv0-\ K\VU. say .fv. pdX. 0A0-o-i. 981.S-ov.

988

DIALECTS
984. The ending
-di occurs oftener in

253
in Attic
;

Homer than

as StSo>-$t

Pindar always has imperative 81801 for for 8i8ov, ffj.TTtTr\.r)-0i for e/zTTtVA?;. 8i8ov. The endings -raxrav and -cr^wo-ar do not occur in Homer, and are
late.

985. Homer often has -v for -<rav ; as f/3a-v for ((3r)-crav, e<a-v for This someec^-o-av, (f)i\i]df-v for f<f>i\rjdr]-(rav, rpdfa-v for er/ja^-o-av. times occurs in other poetry.
986. The Lesbian sometimes has -?;s The Doric (Theocritus) sometimes has -es
for -eis, as <f>cpr]s for <epets. for -eis, as ayu.eAyes (Theoc.) for

987.

1.

When
and

-a-at

and

-cro

drop

<r,

the Lesbian has the open forms
;

;

as Keicre-at

e</>atVe-o

(Sappho),

^r/Ka-o (Theoc.)

seldom

-e-at

becomes

-y, as eo-y (Ale.). 2. The Doric

The 2 sing, in -e-o always contracts -e-at to -y, as oty. ~ The 2 sing. aor. mid. open, as <$X f (Epich.). contracts -a-o to -a, as eVa^d (Theoc.) for ITT^W from irrjyvvfu. as 3. (a) In Homer -e-at, -y-at, -e-o, -a-o, usually remain open Sometimes -c-o becomes -ev, as /^aA 7rv#?7-at, /3aAAe-o, wSixra-o. In epeio (II. 11, 610) and cnrelo (II. 10, 285), -e-o is lengthened to -eeo-.
of verbs in

w remains

;

Homer
(b)

has

-ei

from

-e-at

Homer even
and
fie/xvy

only in o^et, thou wilt see. has in the perfect middle /3f/3Xr)-at for /Je/JA^-o-at
p-ffj-vrj-a-ai.
o-

;

/ie/Avr;-at

with

In /it-tbrms Homer sometimes drops (c) where the Attic retains it as efjidpva-o for
;

e/xa/Di/a-o-o,

of the endings -o-at and -o-o St^-at for ot^-trai,
-e-o

fj.dpva-o for p.dpva-(ro.
4. In Herodotus -e-at, -e-o, and -a-o remain open ; but for times find -ev, especially in the imperative, as irrOev.

we some(a

988.
ceding
2.
TT,

1.

For -vrat and -vro the Ionic often has -a-rat and -a-ro

pre-

/?, K,

y being here

aspirated).
;

() Homer

has -aro always in the optative

as yevot-aro for yeVoi-VTo,

aTroAot'-aro for aTroAot-vro.
(6) He always has -arat and -aro in the perfect and pluperfect middle of consonant stems, and generally of vowel stems (including Ketyuat anil as Terpd<f>-a.Ta.i from T^TTOU, ep^-arat and ep\-aro from e/ayw, 7^/zai) ;

/3e[3\t')-a.To

from ayetycxo ; Ke\o\ta-aTO from ^oAow, /3e^8A7y-arat and from /JaAAcu, f<f>6i-a.TO from <^^tva>, /ce-arat and /cet'-arat with Ket-vrai from /cet/zat, e-arat and et'-arat from ^juai. See 989. 3. (a) Herodotus has -arat and -aro in all optatives in -oi-aro and -at-aro for -ot-vro and -at-vro as ayot-aro, ^ovAot-aro, yeixrai'-aro, for ayot-iTo,
dyriyfp-aTO
;

J3oi'\oi-vro,
(6)

yewat-vro.
;

77

In the perfect and pluperfect middle, pure verbs here shortening to e as Ke\(api8-arai (^wpi8-\ f(TKfvd8-aro (o-/ceiia8-), TCT pty-arat (Tptf$<i>\ eVera^-axo (ray-), aTr-iK-arai and dTr-tK.-a.ro without aspiration of

and

et

K

;

?}ye-arat

lor

?yy>/-i'Tai,

^yye-aro for -ijyrj-VTO, wppe-aTO

for

234
j3e/3X.e-a.Tai

DIALECTS
and
/3((3\-a.ro for
ftf/BXrj-vrai

989

and

fftefiXrj-VTO,

Kt-arai for

In the present and imperfect of the /it-form, final a of the stem becoming e as TtQt-a.Tai and en^e-a-ro for riOc-VTai and eV/^e-vro, to-re-arai and to-re-arc for tWa-vTai and bntt-VTO, oWe-arai and e'Swe-aro for Sui/a-vrai and cSwa-vro, Kar-e-arai and Kar-e-aro for Kadrj-vrat and
(c)

liere

;

Ka$7-KTO.

989. NOTE.

1.

Homer

inserts 5 before -orat
eXTyXd-S-aroi

S-aro from duaxifa, paivu, sprinkle. 2. In Trre^x-aTtu

jwm

;

and from eXaiVw,

-a.ro in

three cases

:

d*c-i;x^-

rfrirc

;

and

eppd-5-a.ro

from

(r^rtry/ttai)

the vowel

is

lengthened, and in

tpijptd-a.ro

the vowel

is

shortened metri causa.

TENSE-SYSTEMS, MOODS, INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES IRREGULARITIES AND CHANGES IN THE VERB-STEM
990. Addition of e. The following poetic and Ionic verbs add e to the theme to form one or more tense-stems : &\6-ofiai, ytyuvtw, Sovirfo, tlpo^ai, fi\tw, liravptu,
KeXaSe'w, K&O/JMI, Kfvrtw, Ki/)5w, icrvirtta, Kvptu, Xd<r(cw,
ffrvytu),
/j.4do/j.ai, fJ.6fa,
;

ropfta,

xpaifffuii)
;

;

dyUjrXa/c/<r/cw,
^>iXe'w.

d.Tra<piffKw,

root Sa-

irarto/j.a.1, plytu, also poetic forms of

SiSdffKta, irelBd), tpel8o/j.ai

991. Addition of a. These (chiefly {ipOx-a-opai, present and other systems
:

poetic) verbs add a to the theme for the yo-d-u, STjpi-d-o/Juu, XIXM-^-W fJ.rjK-d-ofj.ai,

/iT/Tl-d-W, /JiVK-d-OfJMl.

992. Short final theme-vowel retained. The following Epic verbs retain a short final theme-vowel in all or some of the systems d/cTjSew, 4pv<a, Kortw, Xot'w, vtLKfu, and roots da- and de-.
:

993. Syncope.
roots
rffj.-

For syncopated poetic forms, see TrAw,
For poetic forms with metathesis,
(

TreXdfw, /*Aw,

;ce'Xo/xoi,

and

<ptv-.

994.

Metathesis.

see

dfiaprdvu,
54/j.u,

dapOdvu,

dfpKO/j.a.1, vfpoofj.a.1,

rtpiru, dpdffvu

rapdffffw)

;

/3Xw<r/cw,

oapA^u,

firopov (irop-).

995. Omission of
<pfv-

v of the theme. or <pa- in the Catalogue.

See poetic forms of

icrfivu,

and of the root

996. Change of
change
e to a, see in

Besides the second-aorists in 694 and 760 which root-vowel. the Catalogue rtpirw, 5ipKOfj.ai, irtpffw, and Trrtfffffw.
(764,
b),

997. Reduplication of the theme. Resides the presents of the /ju-form and the ordinary verbs of the First and Sixth Classes (626, 658), add poetic
vffKw, dp-aplffKU, Ki-K\r)ffK<a, ri

PRESENT SYSTEM
FIRST OR THEMATIC- VOWEL CLASS

998. Theme-vowel of variable quantity. Homer hab aAvw, dprvw, ^ Other Svw, 6vu) (also Find., Theoc.), and Ovw, tS/iOw, KWKUW, Xvta and Ai>w.
cases of -vta for Attic -via are extremely rare.

1007

DIALECTS
SECOND OR STRONG- VOWEL CLASS

255

999. To the

list

in

631 add

:

root

Oa-rr-

=

Tfj.v<a,

epeiKw

(epiK-),

(pevyo/j.at

(e/ofy-),

or ra<- (reOrjTra), T/ir/yw (r/uay-) epevOta (epvO-), all Epic or
-TTTW

Ionic.

THIRD OR
1000. To the
(poet.).

T- CLASS
:

OR VERBS IN

list

in

635 add

yvapr-Tw

(poet.), tvlir-ria (Epic),

pdpTr-Tw

FOURTH OR IOTA CLASS
1001. All verbs of
this class

(y-

CLASS)

peculiar or dialectic (poetic) form the present irregularly.

which have second tenses or have any forms are given in the Catalogue ; also all which
See d/Bpordfa dAa7raw, ai5Saw, ari'w,
f^vfo
(fi-vy-,

1002.

1.

Palatal Themes.

(/Baa-ray-,

ySacrraS-),

(TrAayy-),
(OK-, OTT-),
2.
i,

dt^i'crcra)

(d<j)vy-- 1
o-(f>v^tt)

d<vS-)

;

o-^eTept^w, TrAa^w d/j-vcnrw, Trpotcrcroyuai, vtVcrw, 6'cnroyu,ai
vvcrTa^aj,
cri"pt^w,

OTOTV^W,

(cr<pvy-), T/DI'^W, <^eu^w, <f>i]p,iw.

Linglidl Themes.
vi'cr<TO/u,ai,

See See

t/xao-crw,

KO/DWXTO>,

Aa^n'crcrw,

Aewcrw,

Atcr-

a^acrcraj.
et'Aco,

3.

Liquid Themes.

root

<^>ev-

or <a-,

o^eAAw and

dyu,etpco.

All important dialectic (poetic) liquid verbs and poetic forms of others are in the Catalogue. 4. Vowel Themes. See in the Catalogue KCUO> and /cAatw ; also Souw
(Sa-),

twrn,

SaiofJMi (8a-\ divide,

ij.aiofj.at,

(fj.a-,

/ACV-, /xacr-), reac/i

a/<er,

vaia>

(va-), inhabit,

vaw

(i/aiw),

^ow,

OTTIIICJ (OTTIN) <aA;e <o urife.
;

-0-810 for -o> as lue&r&e (Sappho) == etKa^w, In Doric most verbs in -w have stems in y as KoyMt^w, carry, fut. KO/ZWTW = Doric /co//,/w, Aor. eKo/xwra = Dor. (Kofju^a. 1004. The Aeolic assimilates i/ to v and /> (except after a) as Kptwu for Kptvo), <j>6eppo> for <{>&fip(a, o~vpp<a for <rf'pw, but (ftaivw (not

1003. The Aeolic often has

o-vpio-8(D (Theoc.)

= a-vpi^(a.

;

;

FIFTH OR X- CLASS
1005. To the
vd),

list

in

652 add

6uv<a,

Ktv6dv<j>

= Kevdw,

paivta, \av8dv(a,

aA^avw, dAiratvo), epi8a.ii><a, epvyand the /^u- verbs in 1062, 1.
-

SIXTH OR INCHOATIVE CLASS OR VERBS IN

1006. To the
d[j.TrXaKio~Kt>),
-<f>ioo-Ko>,

list

in

658 add

/3do-Kw, /ctxAryo-Kw, TTI-TTI'O-KW, 7ri-<ai'crKw,

dTro.(J)io~K(i),

vAao-KU).

These

dp-ap-itTKO), ICTKCO, Tt-TUTJCO/MU, 8ia-</>averK(> or as well as dialectic forms of tliose in 658 are given

in the Catalogue.

SEVENTH OR VERB-STEM CLASS
1007. The Epic verbs of
this class are

enumerated in 1062,

2.

256

DIALECTS
EIGHTH OB MIXED CLAS&

1006

1008. See the Catalogue
in 663.

for poetic

and

dialectic

forms of the rerbs

CONTRACT VERBS
Attic.
1. Verbs in -aw. 1009. In Homer. (a) These often contract as in Sometimes they remain open, as vcueraowi ; sometimes a is here

lengthened to
(6)

a, as Tretvaovro, oi\l/dtav.
:

Very frequently verbs in -aw show a peculiar assimilation ae and u>/ giving a double a-sound, and ao, aw, and aov giving a double o-sound. One of the two assimilated vowels is then usually lengthened (to a or w),
seldom both,
opata
:

for
,,

opdu
opdovTft
opdoLfj.1

i?/3woi/u

for rifidoi/u
,,
,, ,,

opdps
dpdq,

for opdys
,,
,,

6/>6wvr
opjijifju

opjwaa
op&wffi

opdovffa
opdovfft

opdei

,,
,,

opdav
opdaffffat

opdav
opdfffOai
/ju>df<r6ai

opotfre

opdotrf
fj.fvoiva.w

7e\u>o'Tes

7e\doi'Tej

,, ,,

(ifvoivtau) ,,

opdas

,,

opdas
:

fivdoffOai

The
eAacis,
(c)

Attic future has the same peculiar forms

eAow

for

eAaw, tAefys for

e\da

for eAaet,
is

from eAavvw (eAuw).

vowel is lengthened when the meter requires it. If the not long by nature or position, the assimilation does not take = fj.vaop.eros) thus never o/jow/tev. place (except in /ivwoyuiej/os (d) Verbs in -aw sometimes have imperfects in -to- for -ao- ; as avraw,

The

first

second vowel

',

encounter, yvreov.
(e)

The
in
(b)

part, of \pdofiMi is \pu!>p.fw<i.

The forms
editors

some
2.

now

above are now generally considered spurious, and give the ordinary uncontracted forms ; as -yeAaoi/res,

opdoixrt, etc.

Verbs in -ew.
ei,

Verbs in -ew generally remain open.
;

Sometimes

and

ft become
<^>tAi,
-e-eo

eo

<f>iX.cvvTf<i

= ^tAeovTfs,

and rarely eou become ev
vfiKewri

= veiKfoixri.

as rap/So.

= ra/a/See,

<j>i\ti

=

Sometimes

-e-eai

and

(from

as fivBeai or fjwdfiai
aioe-f-o.

and -e-e-o-o) drop one e, or may contract to -eiai and -to; from nvOe-f-at,, u.Tro-aip(o for a7ro-at/3--o, aiocio for Verbs in -w sometimes have the older form in -ei'w; as vtuctua
-c-e-o-ai

for veiK(i>, ereAetcTo for eTfAeero, reAeiw for reAew. 3. Verbs in -ow. These sometimes have forms

in

-ow- and -wo- like
vTrvwovres for are doubtful.

verbs in -aw

iVvoovres Otherwise they always contract as in Attic.

as dpooxri for dpoovo-i from d/>ow, plough ; from VTTVOW, sleep; but some of the forms
;

1010. NOTE.
1052,
2.

For Homeric infinitives in -Tj-^exai from verbs in -aw and For /u-forms of verbs in -dia and -^w in Homer, see 1015, 2.

-tu, see

1011. In Herodotus. 1. Verbs in -aw. (a) These change aw, ao, aou otherwise a with a following o, eoi>, and keep these e-forms open vowel contracts so opew (opaw), opas, 6pa, 6peofj.(v, oparc, opeoixri. Exceptions are *Aaw, \f/do>, o-//aw, <aw, /?tao/xai, tao/xat, which have all the
to ew,
;

;

1015

DIALECTS

257

pres.

But the 2 pers. sing. impf. mid. indie., and contract forms as in Attic. eVr/xw (erlfj-dov), o/ow (opdov). imperative contract -aov as in Attic
:

as evoptarj, Tt/zom>. XP a<a an(^ optative always has -w'^v, (afj.-tjv xpeopai, x/Tai, xpeofievos, Xpuo/zcu contract to 77, not to ei as in Attic
;
:

The

expu.ro, e\peovTO.
(6)

ao and aov) become ev
(c)

MSS
2.

the present -aw is preceded by a vowel, eo and eov (for Attic as aiTievvrcu (aiTtdovTcu), f3oevvre<s (fiodovres). ; The Attic future of eXavvw (eAdw) shows only contracted forms in the as in Attic bu|; these should perhaps be written eAwv, lAokri, etc.
:

When

;

e\ewv, eXeowi,
Fier&s t

etc. [see

-ew.

below 1011, 2 (c)]. (a) These remain uncontracted
/caAeeis,
/caAeet,
KaX.eofj.ai,

;

-eeat

and -eo become
etc.,

-eat

and

-eo

:

KaAew,
Set

/caAeWcu,

but KaAo;,

But
-fOL/J.1.

and

Seiy are

found only contracted.
is

The

optative has

(b)

Only

five

verbs in which -ew
voeco,
TTOICCO),

preceded

Orjeofj-ai,

contract eo

by a vowel (dyvoew, and eou to u thus
;

(c)

The above
:

rules

Attic future
3.
is

o~rj paved),

apply also to the future of liquid verbs and to the a7ro/?aAeets (from o-ijfj.aivo), aTro/^dAAw), Kop.ieei,
;

Kofj.ievfj.e6a (fut.

of

KO[J.ita).

Verbs in

-oto.

These contract as in Attic
;

but when the present

-oco

preceded by a vowel, oo and oov become ev

as dieiy/,ev, dievo-i.

1012. NOTE.
strict

Some grammarians do not
for

consider the above rules quite so

and consistent

Herodotus.
;

y

to

1. 1013. In Doric. The Doric contracts a + e or t] to 17 a + i or vtKw, VIK-TJS (viKaeis), y a + o or CD to a (except in final syllables)
; ;

viKafj.es (vlKaofj.ev\ VIKTJTC (vi/cdere), vlKavri (vtKaowi), oprjv (opav). 2. It contracts ee to tj and oe or oo to <o in the stricter, to et

and ov in

the milder form
[j-icrduiTe

;

as

(/>iAeere

and fjacrOovre, and ew open or they become or ev and <o in the milder
;

= <{>L\fJTe (strict) = <iAe?Te (mild), pia-Ooere = = fj.io~6u>vTL and /j.io~6ovvTi,. It leaves eo fj.Lo~66ovo~i
to

and tw or

o>

in the stricter form, or to ov
(stricter

:

(/>tAeo>,

<iAw, ^>iAtw
^tAeuvTi,

Doric)

</>iAw (milder)

i

<f>iX.eo[j.e s,

(j>i\iofj.es,

(f>i\.eovTi, <f>i\.iovTi (stricter)

= (^lAeovrt,

</uAw/xes (stricter)

= <^>iAeo/>ies,
(mild).

= </>6Aw,

<iAoiWi

to

1014. In Aeolic. Verbs in -dw, -ew, -dw are usually inflected according the /LU - form ; as </>i'A^)u,t, opr]fj.t (oped) = opdd)), Ordinary SoKifi&fM,

uncontracted forms also occur.

PRESENT SYSTEM OF THE
1015.
1.

/xi-FORM
-o-i

In

Homer
u'uri,

the third person plural adds
:

(from -VTI) with

lengthening of the preceding vowel
idurc, </ii/ are,

rt^eio-t, SiSova-i, prjyvva-L.

But except
-eo>

and

they go.

2.

In

Homer

the forms

made

as if

from contract verbs in

and

-oo>

S

258

DIALECTS

1016

He has TiBrj-a-Oa for TI#IS, riOrpri and ridci, are more numerous. and 8i8our6a, 81801 and 8i'8o>cri, feis or uts, oprt and i'ei or let

;

also

imperative Kadicrra. 1016. 1. In Herodotus the second and third persons singular and the Thus third person plural are formed as if from verbs in -eto, -aw, -ow.
Tidrjp.1,
8i'8w/zi,
ffto-i.

Ti$is, riOfi, ttdturi
StSois,
81801,

;

i(TTr)fj.i,

io-rps, lora, Itrratri,
ridr]fj,i

imperative icrrd

;

81801x71.

Like

2. 3.

The forms riOrja-i, t'or^o-i, The imperfect of TtOr)p.i is eridfa, fTiOtas, eridee. The third person plural of Setfcviyu is 8eiKvwri
etc.

conjugated Sfy/u ; feis, 8i8oxrt, and imper. ?O-TT; are doubtful.
;

is

fet,

so also dTroAAvcri,
-t'w.
;

o-vp-prjyvvo-i,

Less

common and
a.

doubtful are forms from

1017. The Doric naturally has
,

(from d) for

77

throughout

as fcrrd/u,

etc. for

TTr;/ii, Q-T^O-W, etc.

FIRST-AORIST SYSTEMS
1018. Homer often doubles
o-

after a short

vowel

;
-

as reAcoj, reAeo-o-w,

avvw, avt<ro a), yeAaw, eyeAao'O'a. 1019. Besides K<AAw, Kvpw, SpvvfHj with fut. aor. forms in -o-w and -o-a, see (in the Catalogue) poetic (Epic) forms of ac//3u>, a.pa.pi<rKd>, tAa>, Sepop.au,
(oA-e-), oAO"o~a, 6'Aeo'O'a,

1020. Verbs in -aw lengthen a to a in Doric, and always
thus Doric
rlp-ano,

to

rj

in Ionic

;

Ti/xdo-w,

er^/>td<ra,

Ionic /iet8iaw, yueiSi^o-w.

Except eaw

which always has d, and Krao/zai which usually has ?/ even in Doric. 1021. In Doric most verbs in -w have the fut. and first aor. in (from -w) and -a as )(w/3i'w, ^wpt^w, f\wpia.
;

-w

dp(i<s,

Tims d/a^w, in Doric has the tense -suffix -crc^. apfi, dpfiTOV, dpcv[J.(<;, dpfire, dpfvvri, mid. d dpeiTai, etc., contracted form apew, dp^etis, etc. 1023. These futures without cr from vowel -verbs occur in Homer
fifOfJMi

1022. The future

:

or

/3fiofj.ai,
;

shall live

(cf.

/?i'-os, Zt/e)
Zi'e,

;

S?yw, sliall find
;

(cf.

2 aor. pass.

-8d-i]v, learned)

xew or

/cet'w, s/irtW

(also pres.)

;

fg-avvta, achieve, epva), draw,

from /cet/^iai vtofiai usually s/mW jro and ravvw, stretch, also occur as

futures.

1024. So always 1025. For the

The Lesbian Aeolic leaves the liquid future open, as fp.-p.cv<a. Herodotus, and often Homer. For the Attic future formed in -dw for -aw in Homer, see 1009 (b). Attic future in Herodotus, see 1011 (c). .
cr

1026. The Lesbian Aeolic assimilates
liquid in the first-aorist
ff(fj.fj.a.To
;

of the suffix -o-a- to a preceding

as dTreoreAAa for aTreo-retAa, CKptvva for (Kplva,

for eVet/xaro.

Homer

has

w<AAa
or

from wf/>eAAw,

increase.

1027. These

first-aorists

without

occur in

Homer

:

xva

with Attic

1038

DIALECTS
from yew, pour ;
i]^-tva.p.-qv

259

and r/Aeayu^v from aAeuo/uat or a from KCUW (*cav-), &MTO ; ecro-cua from <rei'a> (o-v-), Hesiod (Op. 767) has Sareao-tfcu drive; Searo, seemed (only Od 6, 242). from Sareofjiai, divide.
avoid
;

e/o;a for Att. (Kavcra

1028. Homer has a few first-aorists with the tense-suffix -v%- for -era-, fov and fe from ?KW, come ; imper. a^ere and from ayw, /ear^, also inf. a^e/Aev ; imper. owre and oarere (<f>p<a, bring], also inf. ore/xev and owre/zei/ou ; e/3?yo-To and imper. j3i'](reo from fiaiva), go ; imper. o'po-eo and. o/xreu, rise, from opvv^L, rouse; fSvo-fro, set (8vw) Ae^eo, Zay thyself (Aey w) ; aetcreo mid. imper. from dci'Sw, swjgr ; TreAaoxreTov, approach
these occur
:

ar#
;

(TTeAof^cu).

SECOND-AORIST SYSTEM
second-aorists with metathesis, see 994 with reduplication, see 997.

1029. For

;

with syncope, see 993

;

1030. In the
tKTav, killed, see 1063.

yat-form,

and Homeric

the stem-vowel remains exceptionally short in poetic For second-aorists of the /J.L- form, o5ra, wounded.

PERFECT AND PERFECT-MIDDLE SYSTEMS
1031. Homer forms the first-perfect active in -KO, only from vowelthemes ; and these often have second-perfect forms in -a, especially in the Thus Tre<f>vKOicri and irefyvacri. from <f>vo), produce; xe/c/oj-ws participle. = Att. Kc/c//,r^Kcus from Ka/j,-vo>, am tired, K/copry-uls from Kope-vvv/ju, satiate.
second-perfect
is never aspirated in Homer in the KCKO<-WS from KOTT-TW, cut. 1033. The pluperfect active has -ea, -eas, -ee, -ea-re in Herodotus as

1032.

A

smooth or middle mute
:

Ke/<o7r-ws

= Attic

;

(w6ea, 7re7ro/A^), trwr/SeaTe. only in ySee).

Homer

has

-ca,

-eas or

-rjs,

-et

or -ei-v

(-ee

1034. In Theocritus we occasionally
in
-to,
-el's,

-ft

;

find the perfect active indicative as SeSoucw for SfSoiKa, 7re</>rKi for TretftvKf.

1035. Dialectic second -perfects are quite numerous, especially in Homer ; as eoATTa, hope, from eATrw, cause to hope, 8e8oirrra from Boinrew, resound, fopya from />eto, work.
bleat.

A pluperfect with -^- is e/zc/A^K-o-v from /Ae/oj/ca, pres. yM^Kao/zat, Other apparently similar forms, as eyeywve, are imperfects but see <uco. 1037. The future perfects active K-^a/o->y(rw (also K^a/)/a-o/xai) from W (X a ^')> 2/ ie ^> occur in Xcu'/xo (x a P~)> rejoice, and Ke-KaS-rycrw from X"C
1036.
;

Homer.

PASSIVE SYSTEMS
1038.
I8pv-v-6r)v

Two

vowel stems add v before 6 in the

first-aorist

=

passive

:

Attic iSpvOtjv from iSpvio, erect;

aLfj.-Trvv-v-6r)v,

revived,

from

KU. and accent the These forms are mostly Epic.aorist passive from occurs (paivu <f>dve-ffKe rarely in Homer. . duvvdOcre. from Kpfvw. dfivvdffov . yield. throw. tot(j)ica. -OofMatj and of the second-aorist fcr\fOov from e\io. breathe. hid'. bewail. subj. several occur also in Attic poetry.dov. Aye-crKov from ayw. KIU (fieT-eidadoi>). . <f>0lv<a <p\(yw (<p\ey^9w). <j>\4yu. opt. (ioffxt-crKovTo from (loffxu. fju>r)<rd-ffKeTo from /J. lx w . SIUKU ttpyu (tpya&ov). in Homer also -C-O-KOV. has also eKXiv-Orjv and eK\i-Oi]v from K\fi>< He has <f>adv6i]v from </>aiVo> (<aev-). from Kpvirru. ward off. There are also several other isolated forms in poetry. verbs in -u) have -eecrxov. The suffix -<TK%. For aytipu v). but as some of them have aorist signification (cf. turn. diuxdOw. DIALECTS 1039 Homer aul tKpii>-6i)v ( shine = <ttiV(o). Homer.<r\tOoiiu. the others are all imperfects . all (rjycpiOo/Mii).-&KOV as the meter requires . subj. iroiet-ffKero from TTOI^W 5i8o-ffKov from Sidwfu First. iroite-fficov. imper.(i> from vlK&u. remain . Second. aor. only Sav/tro/xai from f8d-rjv. diro-rp^\f/a-<rKe from Tptiru. burn. gird.260 W-).to the Before the suffix -Oft. speak. from avddu. elicdOu. part. yoda-ffKf riQe-ffKov from riOrjfu from yodu. d/jivvw. <iX'w (dXicdOu). or destroy. : FORMATION IN 1042.C). ax^ TU ^ inf- ff\*9teiv t trxtddv. elicdOoiftt. ). Homer nearly always. learned. ci/xOi'w (invvdOu). take. t%u (tffx e 9o). With the exception of several presents in t A number -Ota and probably f<f>rjv). Two imperfects have -a-ffKov for -cffKov Kpinrra-ffKe yrd-ffKf from iffTrjfu (ffra-). elKaffov. and from ITERATIVE IMPERFECTS AND AORISTS IN 1040.the variable present or second-aorist tense-stem. second-aorists nearly so. vowel may become a (once v).hold.a. eticu. some of these as second-aorists. 1039. > . <f>0ivu. but participle accordingly. <rx^ u > op*. part. perish. confined to They occur only imperfects and aorists in the indicative . QXeytOw . feed. and Herodotus 1041. perish 1043.O. see in the Catalogue deipw (rifpfd ou. imper. ffXfOuv .Lforgo. <p9ivi!>d<a. lead. the forms of the above and the others. rarely in prose. ftKw (ftKaOov). Of the second future passive he has. The first future-passive is absent from Homer. Siwicddeiv . pursue. verbs in -aw have -a-<TKov or -O. many scholars regard infinitive and Thus: diuKw. (x f ffKOV from x w have .is added to the tense-stem . inf. -Q%- of verbs form poetic tense-stems by adding -Oft. conquer. Imperfects : nfre-ffKov from fdvw. forms these iteratives only from verbs in -w.^ or ists : avft-fiaa-aKev fuvvv-o-KfTo from favvviu. flee . Homer first-aorists are -<TK%- and Herodotus have iterative denoting a customary or repeated action. Herodotus always omits the augment. The second . remind.Aorists: Xd/3e-<r/ce from \afjLJ3dvu. subj. viKd-ffKo/j. tff\t6ov. and ftirra-ffKov from ptirrw. separate. . clxdOwv . <f>vyf-ffKe from favyu.

Brj-o-fj-ev or Oe[-o-fj. In Homer the subjunctive often has the short thematic vowel -%for -%-. Sr/Arycr--Tai. 17. '1-o-fj. Homer has -IT/. is doubtful. of 8a/j.. but no examples seem so-called Aeolic optative forms in -eias. which may thus be confounded with the future indicative epvcra--o-/j. $$s). yvw-^s (for yvo-?i?. 1) 2 aor. o-nj-rjs (for ore-^s. 2. Trpo(T-deu). crrokri). ^w/xev). /ju-form (1045. pass. 77 K -/^J7> f^ava-CTTMfj. Thus alpeOfw. few similar middle ^u-forms occur as aTTO-^w/xai).fj. 733). yvws).ev for opvcrcr-ta-p.-vana. .ij-rj .-rjv. /Seta (from e/3rjv) . from f8a.et--T (for 8a. Qij-ys (for $e-$v. 1047. ei>-e-ai from these i'>-?i-ai. /3u>).^-e-Te or Sa/z-^-ys and 8afj. ^ai'y. yv<a-ta (for yvo-co. Homer has -ceo. (3\->j--TaL from (3dXX(a. and o to w . -eie. -etav belong to to occur in Lesbian.ei>.Trei-o-fj. . has TpaTT-ij-0-fj. Soj-co-(ri (for 6o-ct)-(ri.ev. In the subjunctive of the second-aorist passive. Similar examples occur in the Elegiac poets. 1. eyeip-o-/j. for e^ai^-Tj-cu. Att. and ey contract to and y stems in a change this vowel to e. The second-aorist subjunctive of the /xi-form remains mostly : In this case the final stem. plural and in the dual. especially in the first-aorist. the thematic vowel is then short -/ or /?ei-o> (for /2a-w. but 17 from a or cf. lengthened. O-T?.ev . In these cases also et should probably be as everywhere replaced by 77. Homer has some forms like his peculiar subjunctives of the second-aorist active of the as Sayu^-to or Sa^ei-io (for 6ayu. 1. otherwise never in the and very rarely in the singular.ev. 2 aor. 0?/-w or #ei-a> (for $t-<o. 1047.ev or Tpa. 1045.fv. <aveoKri .ev (for ^e-to-^ev. 1050. subdue] 8afj. Otherwise Homer leaves the subjunctive aorist passive open. ^aJcri). In Herodotus the subjunctive of both aorists passive and of the second -aorists of the /xt-form remain open.e-w.also in stems in -a- . uncontracted : yvw). 1048.in (rratrjcrav (II.--TOI' (for (rra-T^-TOV. 3. TapTr^v. and sometimes in Pindar. Sa/x-w. a and e to 77 (or ei).eda. Subjunctive /tteywew/uetfa in Herodotus 7. 1046. ei and T.p.vtS3p. 8w) . of repTTd). delight. The all the dialects.vowel is very generally Oewfj-ev. as in Attic. except that er. as o-rewyaev (crra-) . pass. 8a/j. i'e/xecr//o--e-T. Brj-y or Oei-y. O-T^TOV). 47 for (jxfj. . BfJTai.-r)-T.cu (for <x7ro-^-w-/>iat. . SafJL-rj-Tf) . O-T?. 4. OPTATIVE -dual or plural 1049. (TTi/j-y. crry-to-crt or crTet'-w-crt (for crra-w-crt. 8(!>-y or Sw-y-cri (for So-y. but vlK-tjdys. 0u>). The MSS vary in some forms between 2. f(f>d\j/-e-ai : cases do not occur in the singular active nor in the third person plural.1050 DIALECTS 26 i SUBJUNCTIVE 1044. A a7ro-$ei'oyu. in the first and second persons Thus /^-w f -. c is probably correct for all forms.S). . .

do-ptvai. the = present participle has -an. All others in -/u and those of the w-conjugation (also those from verbs in -aipi. in the for fat-vat. The Lesbian has -fj&vat in monosyllabic stums with short Aeolic. The second-aorist active often lias -e-tiv for -eiv .evai.fvai . vowel in the ^. Lys.-fj. avT\rjv (Ale. (but dtSou-vat. ^evyvv-^tv fei^vv-/Mfi>. and and -fJ. also -wi> in contract verbs in -6w.tvai.ei> -pev where the Attic has -vai.evai for el-vat. In . future. as if from a stem or in 2. . but -vat to the lengthened stein after a long vowel -pevai (not -ft-tv) is used. peculiarities: for -as.262 DIALECTS Svta.fvai fXOfiv.evat The endings . in a of the ^u-form as ffT-f}-fj.).i and -fixv to the unchanged but as 0(-fj. .-fj. 1051 1051. dt-pev (Theoc. 145). 3. f\6f-fj. as TArais for . -rjv. 22. Solera for Boixra. -oura. Opffaura for 0p*<f>a<ra. -dw. iffTO. -e.tv .) final . 6. as yt\ais. Kra-fj-evai. The ending -vai never occurs after a short vowel (tt-vai sliould probably be always written l-nevai). 143). Other presents in -fu have -fj. the a remains short before -/tevcu So-fj-fvai. d6-nei> stem.-fj. as onoiwOri-ufvai. INFINITIVE 1052.fvai.fi>ai. Besides the ordinary ending -(v. .) for ffTrj-vat. The Doric generally has (from vriyvvfu). Homer often has and -fj. blow .fv in the present.fv. and -vai. Of verbs in -ow we have only the pres. ye\av (from y{\at-fu 1055.).vij-fj. ("wt-detiffriv (Sappho) = firi-de vaav. . ytXaura. as in Attic. as Te9i>d-fj. and <f>dti'(a. . in the second-aorist active of stems . -TTI/M. inf. in the aorist passive ffTij-vat from 5a-.) =* (Aristoph. 5. 23. Op. In Homer. evyvu-(j. 1053. Treivao).fvai. as inrvtLv Pindar once in yaptiev for yyptietv The perfect active has -eiv and -i\v as yey&K-ftv (Pind. as emj-yttevoi.-fj. dfivvfLV cu de-/z. fj. . The ending -/MV nearly always follows a short vowel (except in ffvyvu-ftev above). dov-vat If the second-aorist active ends in -av. ytyovf-vat. 16.ev. Saivv/j-i. 1054.-TJ/M. In Doric.ev is always accented. aetdev (Theoc. see- also m/yviytt.ti>ai TeOva-fifv. KaAew.i'cu. The as dcrav (from Krtivw. PARTICIPLES 1. fjLtvai. dedvKr/v (Theoc. 425 TiOri-fj. ffTe<(>dvwv = ava-nvqadji-vat so in the perfect. yvu-(j. A.t-conjugation as tfj. de-p. Observe that the syllable preceding -fitvat or -fj. as Bavteiv for Oavelv. reAeo-ds. preceded by 77.ev. as (Pind. II.tv.evai. dp6fj. and -oiv . Te8vt)Ke-vat.vvf-fJ.fv.evat and -/if" with preceding short vowel as iffTa. . -uv = ffTa(f>avovv. dpo-fifvai. also find -i\v and -ev for -eiv milder Doric. ffTa-/j.evai. tpirayTJ-fifv for dnirayrj-vat We . . as ayyv (Sappho) = ayetv. as TedvaKt]v (Sappho) = 6fj. -awro. For Homeric optatives from the Catalogue . as aj-ftcvai. fat-vat. dp-vvf-fjifv. and second-aorist active of verbs in eA$cas dfJ. learn. jrveoicra for irveoixra. ) = avT\etv from avT\eu.fj. ) Verbs in -w have -fiv. StSb-fjLev (Find. -eu. aeiv as Verbs in -aw and -o often have -/j-fj. . The Lesbian Aeolic has these -cUra.fvai. -ufu or -ot/xi = Att. Sari-fitvat and darj-vat .) for SfSvKf-vat.vd<r6r)v (Theoc. (?) in Hes. -/j. As most verbs in -aw. KT6. -oucra . 24.) for Std6-vat. -jut dyiv-).fvai. -bit)) have -av. as aeLBtjv (Alcm. KaXt'j-fifvaL (only ayiveu) has aylvc-fievai. . -eta. 83 and 247 The second-aorist of stems in e and o adds -^vo.evat and -u. TTfi. 4.iy-fj-fj. II. . -/zeveu . SiSuv (Theoc. -I. occur in a few presents from verbs and ay-vat from S. -cus. II. -&w follow the /xt-form (as <pi\i]-ni = <f>t\eu). perfect infinitive active of the jut-form has -/j. Of-^tv. kill).) for 8td6-vat.i$co. . 2. \iTroura for AiTrovo^a.

root yev-. aTrcu'paw. yoaa>. -eta for as vtvoriKuv for vtvoTjK&s. Tnjyvi>fj. 1063.\u>i>. rerptyws. participle often has -WT-OS for -OT-O? in as KCK^IT/WS. Second -Perfects Of the pi -Form. part.ai.efjLd. 1061. ye\wv for <f>t. fj. tf>i\rj-/j.ai (/xa-. For all the above.ai. -rj-fj.t-form . Kpi'iij. Homer rarely has ^. <f>ep(a. yavvfiai. 1057. . dpapvia.L.at and apaofj-ai. e/3^o/nai. ENUMERATION OF DIALECTIC cuvu/xcu. retains d 1060. KC \ofiai.vijfj. irLTvr)jj. 1058. KAaw. rA(i')O>. 766). fern.dpva/j.fj. For present or imperfect /AI.evo<s for -e-/xevos in the participle of the 1059. aa. KcAijy-wTS . tA?/yu. xAi'w. aprjpa (dpapicrKto. see opaw. /caiviy/. Homer has /ce/cXijyoi'Tas Pindar lias from K\dfw. t. iripQto. dvi'w.tvos. bleat. (revta. speak. Homer has a number of peculiar forms of the second-perfect Herodotus has eo-rews for KTTWS ftmyKws in . Aeyw and root : Arw.ai ravvw). Those of the Seventh Class are 8if-/xat. /j. as eoraKeta for ecrrrjKvia. 8c\ofj. TT^TTTW. TraAAw. KTIW. O. <pi\fv = 0i\e'w) v\f/Civ from . Saivi'fju. trKiSi'iifJii or KiSvijut. dpapicrmo. eyei'/Ho. T$dAi>ta. <^>o/>w.aio/j.i. KtprqfU.. Terpiywres. <f>i\tiffa. KlvvfJii.Kvia. eSw. Sifyfju. p. ^SaAAw. /3i/fyxxrKW. -ovros for -wj and xXa5ovras. (see /-u-FORMS 1062. indie. as well as peculiar /tu-forms of ordinary Attic /lu-presents . .1 (JUIK-). fern. 7TT7/O-O-W. Kiy^avw. Besides peculiar forms of those mentioned in 7fi8..vvfj.tyvvp. <f>i\ouv .. see the Catalogue for Homeric second-perfects of the /xi-form of aytoya. Trepv'7/yut. fi(i'-\ TTftOtt). Tlvv/xat (see 2.i Attic ye\du) for yf\wv. The second . . O*C7'a>.e/^Kcos from fj. Those of the Fifth Class are a^vvfiai.}.L. see the Catalogue for second -aorists of the /itform of the following verbs aAAo/zai. bloom) participle of the /zi-form. indie.!.1. Jit) .IJJJ.forms from verbs in -a>. -wa in the perfect fern.ai. see the Catalogue. TOOt rAu-.s) had -w. opvvfjn. X*^- 1064.ai. KfK\rjy(a<.ijKao/j. Presents of the p-i-Form. *reK/x?. opfyvvfJLi y Ta. AeAdKa from AacrKw. pvofj. Ttvfa>) 8a/tvr. ^lAew fpvofj. XeXrjKa masc. late urro/tat./ii. Herodotus is doubtful. t\j/w[j.-ojTos and KCK'/^-OTOS . Second-AoristS of the pi-Form. <f>i\ovffa.(^aAAw. 8fa. 7reAi{w. Tretvaw KaAew. (f3a-). 4. (f>6ll>to). //.ai.a.10G4 DIALECTS 263 (from Attic i^6w. fj. ovofjuii. In Homer the feminine of the second-perfect where it has otherwise been lengthened to participle sometimes so dprjpios.perfect Homer .i. . = Att. TfBrjXa . 3. (764.i.i lOob.aL. AeAciKv ia . Tri'Ava/iai. The Doric had as Ti6t']-[j. rj . Epic ftiftujfj. fyi*oir = </>i\eu. <TTeu/j. ovrdia. Tlie Aeolic iretj>ptKovTas (for ire<j>piKt>ra. ye\Zffa. 7ri'0>. Besides a few peculiar forms of those mentioned in 767.

HMTt..evai^ f(/jL)fjiev. ei) . fern. 3 sing. <a/ziv or (fxifj. 2. fjiTf(a 1. 4. ^>a/xev. 1067. 2. eys. 1069. lets . part. f(f>r)(r6a or <//V$u or ^>v). c/>acr$ai (also (with active meaning) imperative </!>ao. eivai . Aeolic: Lesbian e/x/xt from eo--/u for ei/xi r-0-o (Sappho). Hesiod has (?) Herodotus has r/i'a. di'-e-o-w and (?) 2. </>ao-ttv or ^xurav. eo>. opt. and seldom ea = fy. t/xei/at). fjfji'i 1. i/ev. with eoi . subj. Aesch.fv for y/J-fv Aorist eicra/XTji' or Future eia-op-ai. 3 . wrav. and Tot infin.Ti. iy<ri and ty . fov<ra. fj. Homeric middle forms Infinitive <f><ifj. leiv first and usually 070-1. le^eei/cu et. e<^)d or </>a = ^>/ . tti'-e-<ra. impf. aV-ewvTcu for oV-eii/Tai (eis) for ?. rjfiai. infin. 7/icrai'. e</)7/v <^>77/u. ^yib-av for Attic ya. <cwr#oj. iet impt'. pi. ea-fj. mid. &r-<ro (middle (/xer-ei/xi form). ovcra. j. Tw. <a/vos (also Her. <f>u. let?/ L/JLI eWa (Sappho). and <g(<ri) . In Herodotus Sty/u . Doric xJure for (ftdfjii.. ?)[*$ for ^//xev.ai.cu and and eys. . for e<rfj..tv. (<f>dro also Find. and if/xet' have only -. eiViv. cfro. tcra-fi. of /zeT-t'r. follows TI$?/MI. Imperfect ?}/xti/ 3 sing. part. ecro-eiTai (Doric). or </>v^v.fjbi. ewv. 3 sing. -. tyrOa and trprQa. . ir)<r0a. 7/i'e. subj. </>avri . -ryibv . o. forms with aor. otherwise Attic forms . eurOa for e?. twv. eVro.. ewj/. rrwv . . ^-a.^.fT-i-fj. CT/V. opt. . ((r)o-Tai. <^?/?. e</>av or ^ai'. . for iJvTai and etarcu and etaro. 1066. . eov. subj. . 7yi'e. 7. 'Av-irjfjii has fut. has imper. r}/xi for ecro-t' for e? form for ct/u) ti/xes and ei'/zev and fi/j-ev part. }s for 7)V. very doubtful. 2. The eis perf.e. Imperfect 1 ryv sing. la and civ-v/tbv for the Attic forms 3 pi. part. ifievai and t/xev (ifififvai incorrect for .ro.). 1. ^>aro or (fxiro. eouo-a. (Jets). inf.) and rT.264 DIALECTS 1065 IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE /u-FORM 1065.usually as aor. fvri for infin. las = ?yfr$a. CI'/MCV (Jxri leurt (not encl. I/KCI and tr/KO. 2 sing. rar era. ie sing. etc.1. 1068.)fj.fv. Homer has (f>y<r6a for </>ys ^>i}s. the perf. The imperfect has Attic forms . etftavro or (fxivro and : . rjcrav Future r-o-oy. t(/j. impf. 3 sing. i]^i'. eov (rarely Attic forms).ai .evo<s ei. Homer has . yofj. part. and ry Herodotus has eis (eis) for e?. also the iterative form tWoi/. ( In Homer generally IT//MI with short . .. for eurar. and rarely Tragic chorus) part. etc. et/xev for O-/iev and . Homer has T^VTO. inf. once in Xen. pass. Imperfect 1 '. rarely earat and earo (once Herodotus always has /car-earai and Kar-fa. Future (T(rovfj. yei. etc.. .(v poetic. (rare) . (f>daro/j. 3. opt. 7/ecrav. . once i/-eot.f-fj. . c?s for et (O/).) . Homer has eWt and ri. 208). and once lois. <ov. eare = : ^re. aor. r(o-)eat 3 pi. (f>do-@( Find. eivro. (yet doubtful) for Attic forms . e-ov 2 sing./u is is irregular. and /xcT-iw) rrco. fut. subj. eV-ycrav. imper. ?-a. 1 pi. eo-o-cirai. etc. . impf. 3 pi. dual rTt/j/ for yTrjv. Doric (stricter <ri . imperfect also COTKOV (iterative form). eWt. Find.

KiflCtl. Future i'6%/Va>. . . 265 1070. for Kei/Tai Hym.y6. Pluperfect ySea. etSere for ciSr/re.v. for -w/zei'). ib-do-i) o?8as. honour. KT/TCU /cara-Keiat for Kara-Kewrai. In the aorists be long or short. the mere absence of an ordinary regular form from the classic prose writers or from the dialogue parts of comedy may be merely accidental.fj. is the comic poets. uarat pr. delight in . part. 65 subj. otSa. otherwise eiSvia. mislead. With ot'Sa the Doric has a present tcrd/xt.Xw (ayaA. QiSda-i (some prefer ei'Sew. mid. that is. Herodotus has otSa. -ififare.ev . Keovrat. iSiua in I8vir)cri TrpaTriSerrtri. io-re. ify-tei/ ei'Sw and ei'Stw. (iterative form) for CKCITO . learned. aVdro?.y<Tu>. and late). mid. Poetic infinitive XP*j v XP^ vat - Herodotus has CATALOGUE OF VERBS 1073. In the following list. ^4cfe. late. injure. Boeotian Aeolic imperative ITTW for ['O-TCO (Aristoph. and futureThe Roman number indicates the class to perfect passive) are usually omitted.. for 1071. Future etcro/xat and . The same may also be said of some forms found only in composition in Attic prose. i']ei8rj (yStj doubtful) Pluperfect y8ea for y&r] .evcu and i8/j. However.*\.e. KfecrOai. pass. icr^is. 1. . in poetry.ro. which the verb belongs but the First Class is not indicated. Verbal uaros. foav for ycrav or ySftrav. etc.f3poTov from afJMpTdv<o. present and imperfect middle and passive.ev for et'Sw/Acv. or in the dialects. et'8. for KCIVTCU for CKCIVTO subj. x. A (da-).-). &. t'8/xev (otSa/xev four times). dyaio/xat. erred aor. and many such forms were doubtless good Attic.. aacra/Arjv. KCIVTO.s jJSee. imperfect active. /cearcu and Kearo for and subj. Kea. (IV) dvdX. . 254 Kcarot. dddrov. miss. net. and late prose &. only d/3poT(io[j.?). aorist middle. for tiSevai fem.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS Homer has .Defective. 1072. Homer has oiSas once for or#a . found out (Hippocr. 3. Herodotus has . are doubtful) . adaros. KTa6 and eKefTo. 4. aor. [d/3/ooTaco]. Keecrdtt) /ecu/Tat (Kemu. For more detailed citation of passages in which the various forms occur. the forms printed in heavy-faced type belong to Other forms are found only Attic prose. i/See.\\op. pluperfects. i/yuX. . or in late writers. a<ra . act. aao-a or ado-a or prcs.yaX<a mostly pass. Irregular and . Merc. the first a may aor. lyyaX/xat (. dao-#r. Aor. ofSe. KCMXTO.ev. 860). /ceiarai. Forms which are inferred from other forms (i. .ei' (II. no Epic. . 2. (IV) . icra. y8ecrav. eifir/cra. eto'oyu. contr. future passive. to the ordinary spoken language. i8yu. wrdri. subj. adorn. see aya/jiai. ei'Suxri inf. see Veitch's Greek Verbs. glory in. Compare epic i1fj. y8rj(rOa with ?yiSr. . ^/DT/.

dyr/ye/jKa. dr//xcvai impf. aere and -o-a-. aivtfafUU. ayepw . imper.ai. dyvupn (/ay-). . ^yytXica. rjvrjcra) . pass. 516. subj. ao-a/xv Ionic and poetic for atp. 668. . mid. alv&r &o. aecra or aeo-a. forms with -a%. = p. . 4 aor. WYIV. late vb. verbal ayyeA. dyujiai. 4tyMfy. ^-a-ypuxvw. impf. (V) . tenses regular. and impf. (Find. ^cYdo-Onv and 1\y<ura. (epic and lyric respect.form t]ytpf. d-yvo&o. part dij/xevos. ep. d^vat. arrrai. first 1028). ayr). 2 with ep. poetic aiSo/Aat alScVofiai and rarely al8r6T|aor. envy fut. pass. inf. opt. . p. . d-ypiavw . in prose mostly in composition . fjvfo-o. 27). (like TiOfuri. ijvtiixai . Homer (498). middle m. > . see aya/iai. also pr. . (ttSe-). xvi. deo) Homeric for (d-). ^8w. aor. regular. (dyep-). 2 sing.. feel . dyptacvofJML rare and Lite >}yptdv6r)v In place of this verb the Attics usually prefer pass. shame. also has dyuio/Acu rarely and dydop.Tos. arjari. dydcro/Aat. Contracted Epic. . rest . deicri. d|o|iai also 1 aor. announce. opt. praise. 2 ]). ?dYa and Hdt. 6e 7rf . ^lyy^!" (late and on inscriptions) . 357). 516} epic .. . pass. ae<rav (Ap. pardon a criminal . . aiSecrros. 3. dyycXw. part. Epic verb. drrro. be sated . 1075 itrrafiai . dypofj^vos dyepo^v Epic by. ai!a>. {vcKa atvrjp.\Li\v verbal dyao-nJs. .266 &-ya. not to know. <<rros. SITU/ / (8<a rare) . inf. 3 sing. . make wild. make wild. pr. only aor. pf. aei'Sw deur<a and aewro/Aai (C/rf. 884)}. (VII) dyao/zai.i. Doric. 3 pi. doubtful dgiptv or oAoicMU. Epic verb. 2 a. mid. become wild. fdyyjv and ay^v .a. dei/30) once contr. ep. aor.}iai CATALOGUE OF VERBS (dya-). like opt. ^yyi\a. Epic ayvouw. comp. . be collected. dx^o-ofxai f. Attic (Horn. become wild. dyr^yeparo part. late -ijypidva transitive . dei's (VII) f. drj or aei {aor. in prose usually in comp. and impf. -/*<*' late. . aKTt'os. plupf. in r]^a rare. pf. and lyr. dYvofyro|u has passive meaning. but fut.Oop. (IV) d-ypiou. 1015). . fut. 2. . Op. ayy^9T|(ro(xai . ep. aor. mid.-). Kavaeus from Ka/-/a^ai?. fj<ra . pass. . rjeura. KaT-/acus) . (IV) collect. aor. a. p. . pr. rjyytXfjiai. fl8<rd|iT]v poetic. etc. go-piai fjaflTiv vb. admire {pr. (uypiav-). erjya caypai late . = . . d-ya|iTiv. has ^JYa-yov oropat. verbal tcar-aicTos.instead of . part and arjTov. f\y%a. . &yw f. Kar-dYvvju and Kar-a-yvvw 4|w ?aa (533) and rare epic 7^a (Hes. etc. . Horn. > ^X^i "X'*1- and ]>erf. a. TJ-y^P* pf. in prose fjSto-fiat <ro(iai tjS6r0i]v as mid. aor. blow. mid. (IV) = dyco.L (1042). dyy&Xco (dyyeA. only pres. alvr<Js. choke . Hes. aor. ^\a an<i rarely ay^o)(a. epic. in. UKTOS (Plut). iljvflhiv . &-yaio. t dylvew. ^yHLal See by-form ayivew. jjyepOrjv. Ionic. Horn. dSr/Kw?. d&jcreii/ d'o-ofiai and inscr. = hang one's self. . from Ionic and poetic (de-). break. Rhodius 4. dep. only I'lycpeBovrai and t'jyepfBovTO. (ep. d-ypvoofiai. 693. /. lead .

e-a\u. Ionic and poetic for . raised . breathe out. {inf. . . and the act. aor. .. aKoucrTt'os. p. - raise the war cry. part. also arj/j.Ayi5i'a .KT|Koa (7 1 6). . aKovcro^iai and late etKcn'crw . . flvi<4. rjKeardrjr late. pf. /tear . ^Ka^ov. See the aor. pres. fut. future apoiyzcu (short a). . and 7. aKea-ofiai sharpened. o. Epic. late <xAyvv#ry(ro/*ai. epic redupl. (p. . f. Hdt. p. a. . in Attic poets cuw. fjpKa (aep-) (/ . vb. aivv[n]v. mid. /zeai . dib-crco (diK-). By-forms AaTrd^w and Ao7rd<rcrw. pass. . and aim) .Trd\6r)v. dpr^ov. Hoin. (V) ?'MS/I. aio-^flvw (ato-^w-). . 7/A>/0r/v . Honi. fut. p. be grieved. dpaip^Ka .i { Compare . f. aibv. ( ////) (dp-). part. aiov r-ryra . r}Ka^oyu. only t'/epfdovro (late epic). . aK-a^-t^w (d^-). Epic verb. also ax-viywu and a^o/x. eXwv} atpu Aeros.op. late. dAyrrov/xai fut. inf. nearly exclusively epic. duo. dAy w<3 as pass. late. late aKa^^croJ. O. ^Kov<ra 2 plpf. /i/<.ai . {jpijica.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . inipf.io-xwop. plpf. f. dKa^J/fievos or Epic. -fiKovo-Oiiv . grieve. aKOVO-rds.ai. ^fpSfjv . dpOrj(ro|xai . ta&e . following. Mostly poetic. blow. CUVIKTOS. ai<r6T. (K//) eA-). (O. p. d/otiSXe. and less often ai<rxw0^o-o(iai ^oyyjijiM late . dA<x7raa a. and aor. d^ei'toi/. Epic by-form ?}ep$o/zai (1042). awpro (for 7/opro) .T/v. parts. speak in riddlts jiai pass. I 29). p. fjpa {apw. 2 aor.T<5s. f.KOIJU) Poetic. aor. . Xoi|ii. d/o/($e(ra and late dKi'j8rj<ra.K-).ivd-\ perceive. . part.ai. tragic. a. ycrxv[J. pf. aet'pw (aep-) . p. dAaA^ei/os}. eTr-awrros Hdt. (IV) aipco) (alpe-. no present. meaning dAdAr. Kpas} . aiperds.i.jr grieved. r}pd/x^i/ belong to apvvfjLat win. part. aKa^rjcra . only Ijetpa V) The alo-0dvop. Ionic and poetic (in Homer dio>. impf.[JLfvo<i Honi. blow. aK^Sryo-w late .KT]K({T] a. neglect . ^K<rd(Jir]v . Hdt. 2 aor. fi'pT)p. afflict. (/ 1^) .ai. 6ei?. a redupl. ew. dAaAd^o/zcu fjXdXaga . d\d\rj(rdat. same meaning.ni]V . (dAaTray-). aivvfiai.a.1 Epic. aor. -f|KTjK<JTj or d. 3 sing. d\'dx>//*a. (IV) aXo. 6e lifted.i. alo-xvw fj<r\vva y<r\vyi<a late aio-\wovpiai.Ke'op. atp^j<r .for d/co/-). 3 pi.) (IV) dtw. al<rxwT'os. the (also pf. disgrace a. wander: (?) dA^o-crat . vex . - . dKd\i](rdai. ^Kovcr/Aat late . dKa^^a-w a^/Ai. and rarely alVOofxai (a. apov.7jv. . (d/cou. clXov {?X.Xo'aTai. $o-<ro>. am pained. 267 alvC|op. 7r-cucrco late. 2 pf. pass. alpcrt'os. . pass.at. rare in prose and almost always (IV) . cfpa> . take. hear. Chiefly poetic. pt^fj. .au . only impf. flvi-y- flvfy^v pass. vb. 7. late dAaTrd^to Xen. apaip. See or d/o. . (dAy vv-).ai. contr. esp. alo-O^o-opxti. . Ionic and poetic deipu . imper.Koucr6T]a-op. flp^jo-ojwu rare . aor. dAyw&jv. mostly poetic and late prose . vb.ai impf. Anab. aeipa/z./tat dAaAd^w (dAaAay-). alv<rro(xai (alviK-) aivl alvtrropai. TJ<rflT)(iai. tjp&n v . with pres. tXciv. mid. perf. dAa7rdw destroy. TjpfjLaL ^p0T)v.

(IV) . 17] ^Xra and d\T|Xe(xai. [fut. be healed. Horn. f. . dAfo). (/^. dAci<-). epic 2 aor. (dA-. aor. Attic late . etc. (//) &XXo|iai (dA-). aAwto) . poetic a. Fr. d\vKTaov (only Hdt. and rare -ijXtifj. ijXfvdfjirjv. f. d\L4)0T|o-ofjLai mid. fd\ijv. dAei'o/uat. 656 perhaps for e'-aAvo>/xat in Hesychius from dAixrKw}. pf.apT-). dA<rw. see . 45 aXciirrfos. a\6op. cliange ^XXdx8r|V and ^XXdyrjv. aXw. (Horn. expend. Horn. siri . . lyAirov. (VI) ) dAv^w . 70) . late aor. 2 aor. dXT|Xi^|Acu. &XXd^o> . 9. dAaAi>KT>y/xai 10. to Moeris. distressed (Ionic).<i i u dXXax6T|o-opiai oXXa-yVjo-oixai conip.) p. 4X ace. aor. Hdt. see ciAw. lyAmy/ztfos. d)iapT^<ro|Mii and late d/z k) . . 8. dA/xei/os (1063). dAK-). epic mid. and impt'. dXXdo-oru fyXXa-yiiai and ciXXdrrw (dAAay-). 2 aor. aAaAKov. dAflouVw. Poetic verb. vb. late fut. . leap . ai>-aAi'(TKto. dAivSew. (VI) dX.at. epic and late prose also avert. 4dXo>Ka 6e captured. Epic. . ?yAei<a . be excited. T|Xi4>6i]v. p. aor. dXctyu fjXei\|/a d\T|Xi4>a. sinning. acquire . ward off . 94). 10.. aor. used as passive to atpo &Xa>v or fjXwv JoXw. whence late fut. or fjXuKa . late 7/Aecr/xat late i]Xfcrd^v Rare by-form dAry$o>. also dAwKafw and a ( d\<f>dvd) (dA</>-). dX'u> (dAe-. . pres. (dAvK-).\Ka.). . vb. from aor.268 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . part. 695. aor. . dAe/c-. inid. .rjv rare and doubtful in Attic. aor. akiTtpra . Aeschylus. dAlgo|iai. p. (//) dXch|/opai. dAo-). late and rare . epic. insatiate. pres. vb. (IV) dAuKTew (Hippocr. t^XiTOfjLrjv .ai. 7y A$ov. grind. epic sync. 2). .ai and (Dinarch. dA^/fai inf. avoid. aor. dAevw. fut. ^XXaa and . dXVjXco-pai dAeoreov late. in Hippocr. (trans. dAeiTrros late. aor. e-T/Ai/ca late . 7yAca late j aor. lyAe^jycra epic. . p. impf. Pres. active rare in prose epic dAe?ycr(o. nourish. pf. ^Xc^ifjLTjv .. Ionic. ryAv^a . In Hippocr. moie roW. dA&yVw late. aXovpai ^XdjiTiv . . and Xen. K) aAi'w. press together.iTatvofj. . -<jXX-x. See dAerw below. avoid .op. (II. ryAewa. find.at (dAir-.fi. epic perf. 2 aor. dA?yVo/icu . dAiVSw. dAewrw. 30). dAco/tou. iJjASavov . vb. thrive. aor. late l\\ifo\v . (up. ^-aAv-o--w/Aai Soph. grow. be anxious . See dXwrds. av-aAros. lyAevd/zryf {subj. also dASvyo-Kw. . fjX. aAo-o. 1073 dA8au'o> (dA6W-). V|Xiv8Tj|i^vos dAtv5o/j. f|Xci\|/d|iT]v vb. dXXaKT^ov. . Aj. a'Atrav-) and epic (also late) dAirpaiVw. dXws. pf. p. be restless. 7/A^ryo-a late. Compare Ki>AiV5(i>. Epic. Homeric. fut dA&ycropu. poetic (Aescli. aXtu. err . ^-?yAicra dAivSo/xai. (/I*') dXci4><i> (dAi<-. G99)j . dAaA/oycno. avoid Poetic.) epic 2 aor. anoint . . . . pres. aAro.) (Ar. (Ar. dXoii]v dX<uvai aXovs (498. . epic 2 aor.O(a.

(dfj. rare in Attic prose and comedy d(j. uvdAwxa. (K) o. .ai.ep-) and dp. . deprive . 8.pa-a . vb. dvdXw<rw 45) dv^Xovv dvi]Xcixra avTJXwKa dv7jX<op. a ijfiftpOTOV . T^eiTrrai (Galen. Horn. T]p.ai dv^XwOtjv The forms avaAuxra. scratch Poetic and Ionic. d[JLTr-ia-\(a. T)p. . ^iicuf/a . rare in Attic. dvdAwyu. augments rj/jLcfxcr- or ifptfaur-. 7rt and Kara.aK-). KaT-tjvdAw/xai. ijfK^LafrfJLai. dfj. and Hdt. Staor. dpi(f>i-vvv|ii and late dfj. or (less often) vb. .f3XvfJ.fJ. ^|xvvd[i. in the sense to ansiver. be exchanged. KaT-T)vdAai^r/v are late.7r AaKicr/cw (dfj. and aor.fip(a. r//XTrAaKov . a. doubt . rifj. 3 sing. . see ex w ' dfj.4>i<u Attic .$iyv6ovv . but they are late .tn|/dfjn]v . late. see and KT/TCU. .(3Xvv-).ww dp. clothe/ fut. (/ V) dfj.ai. the mid. f|(jiapTT|8T|v t tllipXioKo. is poetic with aor. djj. djivvrfos.^v late prose. 2.c(\|/o|iai . or itjvdavov (but some claim dvSavov and some .f3Xeofj.f3X-) (Hippocr. . dv-a[tdpn]TOS. mid. d^vopiai . 134).f3Xvvd) (d/j. miscarry . dvdXwTt'os. dfJ. change. blunt dfj. t^/u^OKO. djivvcj (daw-).vtr(T(a and dyMv^^r/o-o/xai).wovp. d|icf3op. t")fj.for /r-). pt. dfj. mid. the rare forms (in composition) are found in MSS .X<odt)v dvdXwTos. aor. 2.f3XvfrKM dfj.f3XtcTKdv(a late but djU/^AajcrKW d/j. KaT-i\vdX(acra. fut. . . see . 1 aor.<f>i-vvviD epic. uAo-. dp. 1. See dAiV/co/xat.4>v v T cra l > 557. ward . 5 15 ) 14 B). is a different verb. Poetic.TrX. dispute. epic forms.WM Mostly late. mid.vva . . for Horn. ayu. make a return. dfj. M. . 269 - 2 aor.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . / V) a/j. d/*<^tcrw aor. miss. blunt. 557. p. d|Kf>i--yvoa>.v<a rjfjiv^a rjfJLvxQtjv and a P- (//) r\\i. a. i^v^vd/j.ei7TTOS (Sappho pass. ^fiepO^v.f3Xv6(jj. (Soph. ijfjufriacra.fi XvvOrjv. mid.7rvvro. impf. 237). (/^) (dvav-) refuse. mid. r//x/2Awcra (dfj.cu myself.ai for d/x^>t-/ecr-).(piyvorjOei<. impf. f||x<j>i'yv<$ovv dfj. -iip. ( //) a. pass. impf. pf. in Attic prose . . pf. off from (late myself. TJJAVVO. i]|i4>(e<ra i]p. ward off. p. tjfj. d/j. 210) a.ai late.(f)icrdfj. rifj-dprrjcra late r vb. An. d|i4>io-ofiai. (one prose example dTr-rj/JLei^drj.(f>i-ea-6ei<s late .ep8ta. .f3X. ^vatvd/i^v not Att.p. fj|xaprov ep. err . pass. .|iapTT|Ttov. see aw. Xen.fj.6vai. Horn. . (//) u. (VI) av8dv<i> (dS-).T]v . dfj. excliange. 659) and dv-dXdw. and late 2 aor.ftX. please (present also in Attic poetry) . Fr. dv^jXio-Kov and (Thuc. and late prose (Eur. spend. and d)j. ire|-a. ( V) to also e-a|ApXdco. . See the simple form evviyu (I. and late). rjfj. ( VI) By-forms : e- ap.ai. cg-r||ipXci>o-a. d[j. (/.ei(f>dr)v late . Poetic.<f>idcrw.vrrw (d/z. defend . pf.pXio|iai./3Xti)8r]v late. (d/j.rjv impf. aor. . dfj. .7rvvf. d|xttya> ..7rvvfr6r)v.f3X(acr(a late . di'a. 2 aor. with forms compounded with A late by-form is d/A</>tda>.<f>i-e. 555. rare -tjfj. d/>i</)tecrd/x7yi' poetic and i']fj.v^-). rifj. e-a/x/iAaWi . oj (aA-. .<{>e<rfi. .

t . TJVVKO. Theocr. f(Od. pass. a7rtny>r/cr<o. Poetic and epic. (late late. rjvtoyov (1036) or with prea. sprung. 5. r/vwye}. Attic also . has double augment (557) ^vr--p<JXow (Aristoph. 617). present not found impf. av-t\o> f. 2. dvu>x a . eaSov Hclt. Poetic and Ionic. I}VTIdvTi-/36\r)cra) . pf. &<r-|icvos. 2 pf. dv-ty-yov (534). 10) 92).270 CATALOGUE OF VERBS claim idvSarov for Hdt. dv(o\df and dvw-yere . dvvfj. . 243).. set upright . 17. meaning in Od. as Greek occasionally the simple. dvwyco . . 166). fut dv-oiw aor. dw<TT<$s. . aor. '11. . dvvTu. tT-av oo06o> regularly has the . rjvoiyov (doubtful in Xen. and dv-ofy. augment (556) eir-r\v-p-. (1023). Horn. command {1 pi. pt. Compare -evrjvoQe. Written also O. accomplish TJvvo-fiai . dv-oiyvvw late. 7. 266. dvv<rw vb. opt. di'taytroi and dvw\0o). take away. dvTi-8iKTJ<rw . UTTOI'/DUS and aT . late rjvoi^a. Poetic avta (also and impf. Hdt. 1073 d8-i'/cr(a pf. dual avwyero^. Doric ayiyu. double in late tir T]v-uip6a><ra. 1G8) could be dv-ewyov with synizesis. pass. d8ov or eaSa epic. 2 plupf. ^vr--8KT)<ra.L . fvaSov (for if-fabov) Horn.) and dv-tyyvvov late . opened. rjvwa. fry-vvju in II.aL a. p. J]v-op6ii>Ktiv (Liban. f. only impf. p. 27 . pres. di/wycuv. late ijvo[\0yjv. (doubtful in Xen. or (?) dywyew dvtayov {3 sing. dv-yyov (II. dwrat late impf. . ir-7]v-wp0w|xai. vb.1. El. pres. avvta (Sext. But the double compound . Epist. Ionic and poetic. dv&pYiiai. Hdt. epic 2 perf. Allied epic forms are fut. late fut. dv(i>\0i and rarely dvioye. open (see the simple oiy-viyu and oiyw poetic). (V) and dv ^\o|um see t\u. impf. aviyxes (Theocr. dvwyei. dvyyuai. . . fut. p. uvu>-y a rare in Attic. with pres. . pf. Adj. ?}VITO (Od. . springs. TJvwyei and dvwyet}. besides triple the classical forms. dvtwx&nv. 3 sing.i'. late dvoiyt'frofJMi . inf. avtoyo. as fTT-ar-ii)p6(aOrjv. 2 . dvva>. Theocr.) . meaning aTr-^i'pwv.a. as plpf. . there are also found forms with augment : dv-op06u). dr-avpata. ai/wy/xev pubj. dvri-po\ii<rw. impf. 111). see aww. in later writers usually = stand open for which the Attics use .VV(T)W with the aspirate. -owa dvw(a aor. occur . dva>yoi/j. 14. . as dv-wpOuo-a late plpf. part. avoia.are doubtful. and Horn. = aor. dv-twga. r^vr-t-^6\r]a-a (epic a. avo>). pleased. dv^ofiai .). meet. meaning. late i"jvoiyfj. with aor. imper. augments regularly in classic writers . uywye/zei'}. dv-ijvvTos (Soph. dv^a 2 pf. forms from (?) dvcoyw. etc. 2 aor. 959). 2 a. SiKu. 2 ftit. also late. UV-J/VIXTTO? 16. dvvta) ijvvo-Brjv . late r}i/oiy.. and means hare pf. dvoi\6i']crop. dvvros Emp. UVITO (Theocr. In late writers. with imperfect meaning 7/vwyea {3 sing. dvoiKrfov. f|VT--8h>\>v Forms with ryvri-S. floXovv). fut. be defendant. stand open. X^w. has double augment (563) .

a. late in simple . aor. dir- diro-X^XavKa p. epic act. touch . and dpiiorroi (upfj. poetic. (in Homer dprvw). dpapio-Kb) join. (?) dpw. rjpcra. dpiclcru . dpc'o-Kw Attic only pres. mid. regular (a/D-). p. iJu ). ijpiraKa . oppressed. iipdxO^v. . fjpirao-p. ripBr^v . but in Attic prose only in comp.' p. 777).ai'. middle . late . w> begin. fjp|J. p. ?yp/feo-/>iai vb. see XPVkindle. trans. late in comp. air-x6iioro(xai ^ ee the simple e\6o> and f\6ofj.. p. is fjpxa.a. late ciTro-AeAaiyACU . 7rpoo--a/oTeos (Hippocr. but part. dT vb. (VI) the simple form not in Attic prose. dp^oo-6T|(ro|j. Epic. middle fjpx^v . . aor. (p-). Attic dpvrw. &p fjp^a dpx^o'o/xai Aristotle. [fat. vb. dpci. (dprvv-). dird<f>oiTo air-x8-avojiai and - d'ir-Tix0H<Tl v dnSfpo-c. dpoco. a. tjpapov trans. (Plut. ap/zevos (1063) . 14. snatch. fjxj/a Tjppai fj<J>0i]v. poetic TJpTra^a . and dparrw (cxpay-). dir-iix0'lHL<u 2 a.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS (a7r-a<-). rare 1 aor. command. pf. dptcrlos.at Ionic . . dpt'/pefjiai fit. tjpf(r6r)v late . (VI) late o.). . .TT-i\6o^a. 2 pf. fut. tragic. (///) . and . prepare .oo-|J. a. i]pofj. plough . ^po0t]v. Ionic) . draw water . p. . please j (//) dpco-w rjp<ra . part. . inf. vb.ai.y/j. Hdt. dpKe<T@i'icrop. d<#r/o-o/tai Horn. dpTT<Js. .ofj.riv. oVo-Aavo-ros late. . Eur. Poetic. as act. see Apia. diro-Xavo-ofiai and late cnro-Aca-crto . 2 aor. also See Epic derived from eVo/xcu and iairrw . dp^oo-w fjpiioo-a (rvv-dpfjLoa Find. dpov^ai. in dpd|w r{pa|a -r/pay/xai late.evos. . a. . . dep. late IjpTra. Eccl. 2 .ai (IV) . prepare fut. . dirrds. regular. (V) ^w (dpiraS-. suffice. d/37raKTos Hes. middle. win. dpirdo-o) and oftener dpird<ro|xai. late begin . . See the following dprvw. &pgo|i.p(io<rr&>s. also in Plato. apiray-}. diro-Xovw. late -fjpirdyijv aor. rare u7ra<?/cru> . 3 sing. dpi'/peKa late . a. .ai p. m. f. a. assist. tir-apvor^os. p. Epic or late apwa^ia fjpircura. See pdarcro). dpocra) late i'/poa-a Poetic. in Xen. p. . dprvvfo* . (/ V) a.. 271 raid. . be joined. fitted (also in Aesch. T)pirdo-9T)v. drrd^cra.) . dpTxro/xcu late .ai vb. rjprvva . epic perfect passive participle. Ionic dprjpa. &t|/ -). aprjfj.o8-).) . sometimes used as passive vb. . . dpdpa.v see d-!r-avpd<a. t'Xavera . no simple form . water . Hdt. and once in comp. ijpKfa-O-rjv late . rjpo-a . deceive. opt. r\pp6<rQt\v. epic aor. ctirr^os. aptrui] . fit . . fut. and intrans. . a/a/ceros late. . ed^Orj (II. p. 13. . m. ap-vv-fj-ai. d/sTrao-Tos late. and impf. Comedy only Ar. fasten. pray. late . . vb. ijpfjLOKO. -Ijirafov. also ^pTrd-^B^v. (IV) &p8w. 2 a.i (t\6-\ be hated. 543. dp->'/pofj. enjoy. late writers. apao-a-cu Poetic verb. 2 . swept off (Horn. late a7r-eAavo-0j.i. vb. 419). ..<u . strike. dpirao-Oiio-ofjiai and late d/37ray7y(ro/xat vb. rjpvo-a itr-r\pvQi]v and (late. .).ai late T]pKcra .

arirr^Xa. aravw pass. only present. late . p.^>?. f.) /3dfu> (/3ac-). (/ k) PO. mid. avavdij(rop. (768) 3 pi. /?/3a<ri (Tragedy) contr. aor. (av-). only aor. pres. chiefly epic d^iVtrw (d(j>vy-). inf. also late prose. ai|ii<rw . CKTrpdirrai (dcrrpaTr-). fut. and Ionic- de^w (so always in aTr-avpa.iiKa r|{i^fiai . See di<a. T]V|I]&T]V . dx^* <r FLai> aru^ ^ mid. 771. and Epic. tend. . 4). fut. d\evwv and d^ewr. - [dw]. increase . 6. rfrt/. . 2 aor. except .). rmh . (/ V) ai'Sd^w (avSay-).. The verb is a.) f. rjvrfva . t)$. in Hdt. Epic (/) late der/creo . inf. (^(J^Ko. .).tra. be troubled. sometimes ^<|>ft]v as well as &4>tt)v (555 . r^cura (Hdt. pf. flash .) . displeased. d\oftai. terrify. (IV) atf : . speak. . otrd/ir^v. impf. part (3e/3w<. rear.). poetry. aor. . a<da>. 9). drvx^et's (also late).). part. Aav jrowe. prose pres. arv^w . e7T-?. liyliten.KTai (Homer). df/zei'ai). . rj^'HO'a . = satiate . and lyric. 1/tter. f. d^>i'^w.272 (Lo-cru. drvgai (Theocr. ao-co . pres. . 4 from Ionic dito a. aarai acrai) f. (IV) d<f>vii). fj<rrpa\J/a. pass. . epic er-/3d^a) (Aesch. . only. let eTr-a^crw. Poetic. av. . ^ P- See aKa^t'^w. See d<vu>. epic p. a/iei/cu (? (for . . see above. See the inflection of ?7//u (770). feel. fut. 2). a.(a. a<aw or in comp. late in act. 226) for d</>i'o-w . a. subjunctive ciapey or ew/itv a. 27.CVM ()3a. in comp. see atpo> (dfip<a). a<ou>v d<j>-tT](ii. (V) ax-o/j-ai (d\-). 6e troubled. 6e grieved. 1002. handle (647 (J7. d<^ixro-o> (Anth. satiate . one's self. pass. d\ev(a. draw. Ionic (not in Hdt.(519). epic and lyric aTi'u> (aruy-). . only in present participles ^e a^-vi'/xai.from dix-). see above. mostly epic. hymn.).i. (IV) go. Hdt. (3((3<txra (poetic). 32). a^-i'v/xai (d^-). rfvavdriv f. (/K) late. Epic. with act. (Aristotle). rare in (Plat. qiTTco.) /3f/3a. II. 90. 2 pf. o. also late. -rjvSaga av8a\6ei(ra (Orph.652. from Horn. e/*-/:?e/3axrt inf. the simple in poetic or late for act /?77<rw see below) . acra . (aTiraA. pour . fteftdfMfv epic. be vexed. CATALOGUE OF VERBS 1073 from Ionic or poetic dwro-co (ax. p. a^-o/xat. m. late de^-rpra.a. mid. stand fast . (IV) nvaivd) (avav-) or avcuvtu.for TJV.a. (poet. d^eo>.-fi(/3avia (Horn. atapro. Horn. and (fj. avdvco and vb.-). ai'avov/Luu . avgrjTfov . avSu^w. Some write ourcrw or arrto. aor. handle.(. draw. do-Tpd\f(a driTttAAw a. 7^</>v(ra. (///) aor. #|X^*"^T1 V Poetic. plupf. .\9cr0T]cro}icu -!j\drjp. (IV) Rare in prose. f3tfj<ro|xai in comp. 5. ft . B *poi. aor. as Sometimes the past tenses have poetic and Ionic. rare in Attic prose or a. /3f/3dvai poetic . see below. (///) Poetic. rare in Attic.)(i<a.. ^SeySdcurt {subj. epic. prose). curo/xat . meaning jja from Ionic ?/ta I'/i^drjv (Horn. .

^p. fiXr/Tos late.oi . 225 . pd|/w simple late . Attics used only the perfect act./j. go o cause <o ^o. (/ ^) rrw (/3a<-).i 203) pass.r]v and IfBrja-ofjLijv . P^o-o-u (J3r)X~)i an(^ P^TTW. See also /3ao-/co>. late j3ef3da-Ta. f3dcni> ((3a-\ poetic form of /3ouVa>. /^Ar^erou. as pass. au> and /JioTeuw and late /?iwcr<u and /3ico$7}<ro/iai lp(ci><ra rare. pres. dual . Attic dva. couyh fti]^(a (Hippocr. f. The and the by-form /3pwd<a. IV) .a . part. late are (/Bda-Orjv and tflavd^v vb. rfi|9 .. /Jtwrw Horn. 7. late Attic also v7rep-/8rycraTw in Xen. and . 2 aor.ai and e/3aa-Td\6r^v and vb. annoy . (3Xyo or /3Aeto. (/If) s<ep. ^8A?y/xei'os}. epic future (1023) . the simple is poetic {p. fBXija-Oai. /fyxoros. iptwv (767. /3Aa-). late /?ao-raKTos. j3eiofji. in Aristoph. p\T]6^(ro|xai . 2 a. plpa|xp. and impf. subj. (pa-*).) IpoW.ai. as tr. /^ao-ra^w (J3a-TTa8-. .}. 2 aor. 8ia par^os. p. rare and doubtful in Attic. . opt. Sia-/3e/3Xrj(r@( (745)}.ai. and /Si/fyyLu. and v/i-/3A^evcu pe'P\T|Ka . (Hippocr. (IV) 2. f/3rjcra (poetic. . s/iaW encounter . 127).). .i. KaTa-fiaivw (only Find. ?oarf. v(j.. 2. poXov sync.at. PTJVCU. part.ai /3ef3pio(rofj. /3ui>(TKOp. late PUOT^OS. HT/TO. and late f. /SaXXi/a-w only 222 and 1491. late in (/ ^) /3eo/i. p t'(3\T]|j.. part. tpd^v and poet. sync. . Poetic. . also in Attic poetry. . and dv-(/3p(i>(ra late . vb. revive . PI^S. ^8t(ixrKO/xai. efidpvva late in //. p. 335). Merc. . epic /3e/36Xr)fj. gv/j. epic . go. 2. pds } p. pres. c|3a6T]v rare and in comp. /^e/Jpws late .ai See (/3to-). late e[3a. pppica. pioi-riv is . T . (///) (flap w-). . . /3e/3Xrjai . pf. /Jpwreos. 24 p\T|6T)v. intr. . ((3po-). Pyth. mid.).. Ionic prose. /Jao-Tacrw and late /2a<TTttw . 20. pr. 8. Epic. airo-pXr]T&>s. opt. (VI) . pr.ai {epic 2 sing. (3ef3(ipv[Ji. (/. papvvw . (Sards. vb. pcp\T)<ro|icu (simple late in prose) . .-/3\r](reai (only 77. aor. See the other tenses were supplied from r#iw. 4'/3pw^a pf. etc. /8ioyu. preferred usually 2 PIOUS} puio-oficu. 2).ai late .<TTa. PIWVCU . rare Some tenses occasionally have a causative sense. 2) {*pfo>s.. in Andoc. f/3pu>6ijv Hdt. (K//). inf. 2 a. pcpiwKci .. vb. 273 Horn. ( VI) e/Jao-racra 234. Patrjv. PIWTOS. Horn. a. 2 pf. s//a/Z Ziw. epic ffipwv (Honi. f/BXrifjirjv {subj. imper.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS iprjv p. later /Batrray-). piw. lTri/3aa-Kffjiv is trans..piwa-Kopai re-animate. fee. p. 78) . throw . piu)T]v (irreg. Eq. fj3d(f>6r]v . e/3^crdfj. pcu|/a . part. (Soph. epic 2 aor. f. e^^a Epic. and late ftp<i)d->')(rofj. and Hdt). p. (V. opt. see /?io.-yiJ.. /J/awo-o/zcu late and ? (. pp(oroi with a pronoun. carry . (j3aX-. (767) in coin p. poXu in good prose in comp. f(3ao-Tdyr)v prose. (Od.a. ) late a. PLOW. fut. 1064. . pres. Hippocr. inf.aL . epic aor. eat. .-(3Xr)Tr)v Vesp. part. /[/) f. papvv9Tiv. -/3ry<ra) (poetic) .ai.a. opt. inf. f&papcu rare and in comp. pairrcJs.. mid. late (?) Trapa-f3ff3aa-/j. /tySds. make to yo : /ty3aa>. /3ij3wv. etc.

Late Poetic. late f3ot]crto p. revived (VI) . late a. p*pu(7-p. 2 p. and e/3o(rKii']@r)v vb. late . . vb. pXdirrw (fiXa/3-). Anacrontea).or pcSovXi^^iai . opt. aor. . -pi<ro> .v-t$pv\r\a-a. late .\i. 2 p. intr. ftpdtrta. up. act. 586). va (ppcAuv-\ delay. cause to sprout. only 2 efipaxe or fipdyt. grind (lie teeth. resounded.274 di'a-/?iaxr<o. Ppw6i. sprout. less often IpXdo-njica. 11. /zAo-. pr. ^pXiara. Ionic. 4.. in 2. f/3X(aa. e(3pia. (3pZo-ia . /?e/fyw0ois (II. and tpXip^v .. e /3 Xda-rijo-a. 2 pf. eat.>. bring forth pXt'iru. 71). 18). /?/2Ae/z/iai late pXCrrw (/?Air-. dv-ef3pvaa. </o / f.Ta-/3Xit>w. see . pass. sTwifo 6oi7. lpXd<}>6T]v and inscr.i (Hippocr. ff$pv\6->i\'.ai ((3pv\-. pXdiJ/oficu = e/JAa/z/xevos . poetic. (3Xd(3fTai. /JovXrjTfos (Aristotle). /3pof p. pass. dv-f/3iioOriv late. late (Horn. teem. fipv\i'fro^a. pepXa4>a pt'pXafijiai and inscr. . . di'a-f3po\(i<i (Od. mid. pippcyjiai . ffipaara. Ppv\dop. once in Plato.ai. (VI) . ftpaovvw late a. eftpura late prose. pXao-rdvcu (/^AacrT-) and late /3Aao-To. also late. 54).i very late &. Podco. (Soph. [3pcKTeov late. ( V) late /JAe^-w. 629). ?j3Xa|/a . 67. O. povX^o-ojiai and late . . and /?ojj(?>/i'. rarely <o weigh down . 1 a. as pres. dva-fiXtyd) 2pXci|/a . poet. /3Ao-. po-qo-ofiai. and late (3pf>x(a. a. be heavy. Galen).oXovfj. Hippocr./3\WKa . /xeAtr-. /3po\-. Epic. . vb.R. fftoXov. Pp'x. pX6\J/op. icis/i . and from -W late are /3/?o?//ca stein /3o-: and . late aor. 7rpo-ftf/3ovXa.o. /ee^ heavy. Attic . 35). aya- and 2 KCITO-) a. rarely trans. 525) . bite . (///) fut. late Trap- Hdt. tpXaorrov . . 96 has Sia-f3vrfTai. fj. Compare PVV'U> C^i'-) ' stop vb. e/3Aa</>a fut. Poetic. 9ftp6\t Poetic (rare in Tragedy). povXiyr<Js. all late. i. ipvcra . (augments eflovX. f3oo-Krjr(o<s. KaTa-/3poxdfi^ late. Ionic (3odw.ai . in'//. late are f(36o-Kr](ra. . (V) . fo. re-animated 2 a. 71). late prose. fiXuxTKia (fjio A-. f3ovXrjOi}(rofiaL 2 pf. f3ef3plOa. 2 aor. . pXapt|cro(jLai /3(3Xd\j/Ofj. . l$ov\'(\9r]v Honi. . di'a-[3f[3po\f\' 17. (/K) - (/K) Attic poetry a. Ka. injure pXd\|/a> . . pXrr^osTrpoo--f/3X(j>6i]v late . 1073 restore to life . fipi'Kta Poetic. Poetic. ff3pdo-@ijv t /3pa<rTfov. f3e/3pa<rfJMi. . CATALOGUE OF VERBS will . (Horn. ->}[3ovX-. 1265). fifppdSvKa late. fJ. ^8/tMXTTto. late in simple. drowsy . mid. revel. a7ro-/?/3Ae<j!>a vb. wapa-pvor<$s. /3/M'eu cfipvga 2 . e/3iwo-a/^v. (?} (3\icro) . roar. be slow . p. and f(3pf\ijd^v . also /?oAo/xui. fut. a. . prefer. a. KaTa-i3p'>0<a (Babr. pXcTrrds. pepXd<rrT]Ka. ftXacrrrfria. dv-ptwv. . (fipdovva late pf. dve-flioxra revived. lpot]<ra . p.T\v Pint.ai . (/ /) /?pt'u>. stem. f.ep. late . and late /3rw. from Hdt. <a&e Iwney . swallow (II. ^Pp^x9t]v Epic and late. (IV) f3pvdw. /Ji/3/xocrKw. pr. a. Ppdtra-d). f. . poet. ftpfdw. a. late prose. . w< / /3/>e^w ippt^a . 3 sing. s/iOM/ . f&fipv\a. and f(3pdx>jv late . late .

a. poetic with Horn. yvw (like Sw. ya/xr/^Tycro/Aai late f. also for lyevero from yevro. yrye'vT)(i. y*'-l ya\j. yy\vKao-/j. ya/zro-Tcu . . inf. with pres.. &#/.). taste. know . . but . plpf. vb. Kara. imper. yXuKa(vo|iai Ka. part. t-yTJpdora old .ei' epic 1 pi. and . . e'-^vtoKa ?Yvw<r (iat 332) tyvwo-OTiv | .aL and ttTr-eyAi'/cao-^ai late . vb. -yaiwrrj. laugh. > aor pass. only in Hdt.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS 275 Yo.). Fr. 8 has y^/aeis like #et's) . give a taste. epic yavwrcro/xou . rejoice . yeyws (epic and late). New Ionic. 2 p. ) ytvo).)..tio (yap-). (l^/) y?7/3ao/xcu (yei'-. yeyavia (epic). yvwveu . yvuo-oiiai (epic 3 sing. mfe.. {subj.ai . (V) yeywva S/IOM (ywv-). yeya/zev (Horn. perceived ?-yvw. late yeAao-reos. (767) yrjpavai. Parm. 2 a.vdi'i<ro[JLai .ir)v (Com. . -ycXao-ofxai. marry yap&>|j. a. (like yvott\v Sofyv. yyws and yeyoxra (Attic poets). 18. yeywv^o-w epic . ^y*^^"^ Tl v ^ a te ytkaa-dija-ofjiai . Kara-yeyeAao-jUcu late yeAao-Tos (Od. II. yi\p&<r<D and ynpd<ro|xcu . (Hes. yvwros.u. eyeiva^v. aor. impf. (y vo-) and yiviao-KU) (Doric.rj(ra Meuander) is y 1T) Ka . 2 pf.T]v y { 'Y-HLTlH. usually pass. 394) doubtful eyT]|idp.. inf. subj. rejoice. 9. {in prose o yetva/^ei/^. YVWTT<JS and poet. y>//3as Fr. Poetic. ttv-eyvwcra -fyvo><s. eyevcrOrjv late.). ( VI) desire. 20. pt. yap. YVOXTT^OS. ytyT\Qa. epic 2 pf. taste. (y\VKav6i)v. a. a. yAi>mid. yi]6i]cna eyrjOrjo-a . yeytoveiro) . = (of the woman): will provide a infe - for (II. a. regular. 498). and late). yrjpdo-KOfjian. married. fut. marry (also (of ilia man) .|XT]Tov. ydvvfjLat. Fr. yA^/cai/dl. mid. 15 vb. 3 dual eK-yeydrijv (Horn. as pres. meaning. also late. Kar-ryXvKi]vaTo as act. 307). yeywi/ws epic}. Poetic. is yvyflew (yrjB-.). late). opt. poetic. (yXi'Kav-). late . epic 2 aor. Eleg. 141).cu . imper. 476 . eyAvKdva . rare in Attic prose. and yeycoveii' . Fr. inf. 618) and yfi/oyuai (Doric. part.ai and . yvovs (like 8ors.ovpai. part. 9. 767. yeywvco . yci>r)6i')(rofjiai (Plat. ! . . late in act. yeywve. (IV) . meaning persuaded) etc. (yev-). grasped (1063). 2 p. > late ya/i^cru) . yvwfli. (615) and late yeAocrw Y^Xa<ra (Theoc. . etc. sweeten. mid. eyeywyTjo-a. eyafie6r}v ya. also yeywvew and yeywvio-Kw. fut. become. -yfyova new mean am Ionic. in Theocr. yvwrw. yv<$ni]v or /iate been. (Com. (yrjpa-\ grow old . eyXid[j. : inf. late eydfj. yeywve/u. eyeywvei and e^eycove poet. yeviio-ojiai . -yT]pda) am (Xenophanes 163) . 498). ^na. of /u-form (768) has Ionic). i. (ya-). p. 2 a. . late ya/zTyo-o/zut . yeyavvp-at (Anacreontea). ycyadre and yeyadcrt (Horn. . iyttfi/^0i)V late. < fut. . and {nrep-yr/paOets late.(PI. compare epic yevro = seized) eyevt]dijv (Doric. 2 yevro (1 a. Ityvwv.fa. late pf. and y'Y 11pdKa. 613). and late). parent }. 6e born.

2 a. Poetic. part.r)V 8e8dfiao-fJMi. a t e yfypd<f>i)Ka yPa 4)1l cro H ai l- . eSur/v. part. has also fut. 2 a. and .dw. 8afj.tvo<i late. opt 3 sing. eyoijcrdfjujv .a mid. ?y va/z^a dv-fyvdfj. SeSdry/xat. yodouat Attic poetry. SeSaws. f. ea<ew. late .da. 8cu8aAA. 8t8fj.d(rOr)v occur). i'SaKov and a. Poetic. 1. feast.dd> 8c8i)\a late StBrj-yjiai .a(rdfj. or 8aiJ. 1002). (K) 650. p. Pindar has p. oap. 1073 . SatVw . also in Ionic prose. 3 pi. SeS^a. a-Satros. for 8aivv-i-TO.. late fypa<f>brjv 'Y vb.). late .aa-dfj.<f>6rjv. p. late 2 p. 8aurOcis vb. SeSai'arai (Od.i]v). Sa/ia^ofjiai 8afj.t f8fj. .in Hdt. part.fj. fypva . aor. e YPx'l' FMtt .Tcofj. learn. no present. impf. 8at(a (/^) . yorj/zevcu.ai . e'Sa/iacra . KaT-f8afj. Poetic. late. 3 sing. also once in Xen. divide. 1051) . e8ara .(a. write ypci'J" y<YP a<l>a > l . 8aKvu> (Sa*<-. ^ec/i. SrjxeVio-o^i. (Sa-).(i(TToi' late. 8f8fj.o-. snbj.. .ai. fyoijo-a. ypvw late. 20. II) tame .t'j(rofjLai Poetic. vb. . Aave learned.o> (SatSaA-). late are yoi/o-co Mid. kindle. inf. kindle.i. . by some 8ap.ai. 23). Saryo-o/xai. 8f8ava late. Sa/xouro). 2 p. -ycYpafifiai. 3 pi.<a { Horn.rjv . 8afj. mid. CATALOGUE OF VERBS grave. sleep. and ypvo[j. 629).tjfj. 2 a. m.ai.ijfj. pass. 8f8aov. divide. SeSdaa-dai 2 p. 8afj. . poetic .iofj. yvduTTTta (Ill) (yvafj. late f8i)a 8afj.r)v.do~6rjv . f. entertain {Saivv epic imperative pr. (8afi-a8-). tyXvi^a .rjv. 8fia-).276 yXv4>w. late 1 a. ST//C-). and 8ap. mid. -ypax|/a . Sa/xowo-t. p. Poetic 8e8avfj. tame . lyric. 2 a. tv.v6. Sdrjrat See 8aiofj. vb. 1002). f8dfj. (V. learned. Satvuro (700. Saivvfjiai. (once in Hippocr. !8i]x0T]v Sr/w 2 and . s/iW learn. Epic and Saivi'fj. inf. . and (II. 6t<e. 8auvvar' for 8atvv-i-VTO } .t'ldi]v and 2 p. divide.ai (8a-. build. late eypafj. grunt . a. (/K) oa/o//at. 8f8fj. Mostly poetic (/ (in Attic prose Sa/ia^iu. a. cut . eat ] . Poetic. (/^) 8ai<a (6a-.Tr-). mostly epic. vb. The pf. yo^cro/iai . ypa<f>w. i8atcrdiJ. yXvTrros late.vdta.SaA. taught.. 7iave learned. 'to (yp'y-). yo?/#eis late.1 (8at-). 2 a.vi)/j. rend. 650. eSdKrjv. -yfyXufiiiai and -y\v(i(iai eyAi'</>0>/ fyXvfftrjv lute vb. p. 8a. (V) simple only ioapdov (Od. learned. and a. not <o fte 8awroyu. (8aty-).ta and 8auvd( f8afj. 8ai8a\6ei$ and a . Attic poet.ai . 143). (8afj. epic. 88ai6aAfrom a stem 8ai. f8afj. yAr^w and . p.ai also -8apddv(a (8apB-). . belongs to Ionic 8ffj. 8a. p. a. . rfefA Homer . . (f8a6fj. eSai'^a SeSaly/zai f8at\0tjv . eSaov. taught. See and Satw. called present}. ydov epic. See the preceding 8afj.-. shall find. bend yvduif/w . {Horn. or indie. bewail. yoaw (yo-. SeSa^/ca. 3 pi. S>yw. 6ttrn. S^o^ai and . f. having learned .aL ^Ypd<J>r]v. 8duvrjfj. regularly .va-) K) Compare the following (8afj. part.] Horn. 6tmi . curiously. inf. also Plat.

6ov a. and New Ionic . Std|iT]v 8Scy|xai. late. (8r)pi-a-. Sareacr^ai in Hes. only iinpf.ai (Theoc. 8a. -8'x0i]v passive (late as simple) . see root Si-. tSdpdrjv late . tSer ol 8i(ra> Horn. e'Setyua . 18. future. poetic. Poetic.ai St-. . Serw late. Sfyrco . and impf.ai &<i]0T|v.ai SeSto-o-o/Mcu. 767 ought to be -eScur6fyv .1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . pres. once in Thuc. SCKTCOS late. vb. . Mid. and epic 5ei6Yo/xcu a. 480 . 8yu.at. S/Dards (Horn. a. vb. 8&> (orig. full inflection in 498 .a-ofj. e8fvi]a-v (Od.ai. Horn.ai. p. welcome.) a.ou passive . Xen. different from (5e(<. 8iKvu(xi (8etK-) . 8rjpfa-w late. slapt.) and i&ijp[v6rjvt contended. epic 8^o-ofi. middle . (New . see . see 8eiKWfj. 8aTff<rOai Compare 8eafJLai. 629). Hdt. . Se/zw (5e/x-. 540). so also SeiKavaw.ai. impf.cu ISei)(0T)v lute 8f8fi^o/j. Se'Sw epic . 9. C'yrf.ijv (rare Att. -8ew. Kara-SapOavw Ka.) . mid. Poetic. oWeoyMcu (8ar-. . contend.^((y. eSet^ct^v (Horn.rfv as plupf. SitSe^aro) hand). . (SetVo/iai epic. />i?i^. 8r)pid<o e'Sei. vb. receive. Sapi'jorofj. a. but some consider 8e\arai as a perf. SeSci^a 8t8ei-y|j. 6Wou>. . epic 8fv/i<TO[j. 8apT|v. has root Se/c- : . s/to?c (?/te 8ei8eyfjLat (for 8eSeiy//. vb. 2 p. iinjjer. 8epofj. . and eSTy/aiaa/Aryv 44. 2 a.aL.). SeSacr/AGU Satofjuu. (late 8ei<H<ra/xevos. KaTa-88dp0T]Ka conip. ScSTJcropiak.ai late . . p. ts-e8pa/ca f8kp\0i]v and 2 a. poetic. 2 a. f.i)/j.i)v (in twice in Poetic. yu. and ^yp. appear. in epic also = f/reei. and epic <$e(i)oYo-/co/xcu. frighten (formed from SeSia. pf. SeSe'o/icu act. 6. SeSio/xai SeiSey/zcu. Se/w). vb. fear .T-'8a. dvd 8a<rros. occasionally late prose. .)6Yo-Ko/xcu = SeSt'cro-oyuai. 8e8i]Ka . i&paK^v. Test. Horn. impf. . 8ripido/j. -Scrc'os. . #ree<. 277 . as act.. (8i'}pl(ra (Theoc. . 8e8oiKa late. pf. -e'Se^a. (^//) 8e8ia-KOfj.a. and late Se'pu). frighten. divide . divide. 480. build. 4'Spa/cov.). 78). . only pr.T-k8pa. 8fpKop. 8/t. 8f8/j. inf. 8f8opKa as present. 3 pi. 8rjpf(rofj.) pi.. rare and doubtful 8^ii<ra. 88iTTop. . (?). . f. 8ofu . . SeKo/xai Aeol. f. SeSoiKa. and SEIKVVCO.oyo-Se/3KTos (Ear. awaiting. 8c'Sc)iai . -St'ros. (VI. . it is necessary 8cvo/tat Sci^o-ti.rp JeSeKTO or Se/cro. 8 SIKTOV. . -SeSey/xai. and late). has want. . Sare-). saw. impersonal St'ofj-ai. Compare root 8a-. 100). Op. inf.ai (?) . need. 48^0T]v 8e0T|<ro(iai. 8tw. i'8i](ra . late vb.evo<s. Sapros late. Bel. -e'Se^ci/xrp. also Seipu 8pw t'Seipa SeSapjiai. . 88tt]Ka .at.e-). 8f%(Je. mid. Se'Scxa. {Scura .ai pass. . Staro in Od. f. eSe/a^a/xr^v Ionic. /ear. late Kar-tSdpdtjv. greet. Ka.. 8e8T)p.T)v. S^ptopai. . pr. Horn. . /xt- forms (1063). f8aa-dfj. 8ty/j. pr. but as aorist poet e&yyu. welcome. Sc^arai (3 without redupl. 8rj(T(i> (11. s/ia// _/?nd. Sv/w. Stxo|iai. lack. late Ser^ryo-o/xai. was expecting. Horn. poet. Hymn. StSia.). diro-8KTov (Hoin. late . a. pres.) and epic eSiSia/r/v Different from epic Se(i)8 ur KO/AGU.p0ov ( and V) poet. IV) fearing). 8co. epic form SetSurcrojucu) . 8ex^at}. pres. . part. e8f8i^dfj. f8fyfi.ai . 242. s/io?r. late Sex$?/"cyi.1. .

<ra. 8t-. and 818010-60.. iinper. . late. New Ionic -SiSpijcrKw. eSi^o-a/xTjv. SISia ScSCdo-i sul>j. . 8c8ia>xa . 8oK<i> (8oK-. opt. Honi. 18 (Xen. SiijKovi'j6ii\'. .are incorrect. 8to) (8e8otKa. Si/cei retained throughout in the pres. cTr-eySoiVei (Anthol.i . fv-8iea-av (II. Swo-w. iSdO^v mid. . and f. Siairdofxai. 1. SOCTKOI/ 88ojKa Sc'So^ai . 8iov. also 511 Horn. but f^-fSirjTrjd^v (Dio Cass. (Plat. <\<ii>y/i<it 8j'07raAi{w. 8pr. Sei'Sta. see inflection 818015 . 3 pi. Hijmn.. and plupf. 3 pi. SeSi^T^piai. pass. -Sprjcro/j-ai. rare 88(T|. SIWKTOS late. See below root 8ie- and 8io>. 81801. SiaiTTjo-optai 8i^-nf)0T)v. rare . impf. arbitrate. shake 8i/o7raA. active. 8ir#cu}.). 2 a. unexpected. does not occur roots St. SISias. 3 pi.a. 8Si. Ka. give. S('So-y|ia. {see 768. . and in com. 1073 8ei'8oiK<z . but dir-cSiVJTTjo-a . StSovvi. 88(w<ri . inf. CATALOGUE OF VERBS Horn. 1 aor. vb.a.and 8ie-. SlSoiica. d-8<5Kt]Tos. . 8i/xat. 8tSSaxa 888aYjiai 48t8ax8iiv . impf.). 8t'c. IStSicis. (IV) . ScSrgrriKa. pres. 8f8oKr)Ka. . teach . Att. SeSidKOVTjjiai. and impf. SICOKT^OS. late poets SeSifli . 3 pi. pounds (560).t'to. from SCUKOVOS. opt 8toiro . St'Su. run away . -e&pa. . (&pa.. 8oi'?r?. . make flee. vb.. 8i'8ou and SiStaOi. inf. also Xen. . 8irj[j. late pres. epic fTri-ySowr^wa (8ovTrrfcra . (Josephus) {Suucov^9t]v forms in Seo'tiy. 2 a. VI) . dep. (8i8ov epic also 8i8oxrw 2 a. SiSao-Ku (8t8a^-. . 3 sing. 8 ). tliirst. ^8ox8t]v 8oK>y<rw. 8i8aKTo's. 8ii[jTT]<ra. 613). not a compound. -8pds}.ai vb.. a life . .i . pass minister. dual and plural ?8o-rov.) Ionic and poetic. in 498. e8i?yp/i/ . throw . . . sound heavily. late -Spadi. (So-). 584) . flee. us pres. pres. KaT-88i/j)TT|Kt] .i 516 .(ra) (Anthol. 18. . Epic. Anab. act. and e8oKT)6r)v are poetic or late . 8&i0i. see 501 (Hes./xat. e8ov) 2 a. StSovcrt 1 a. seem. SIWKW.tv Hdt. f. inipf. imper. or to make flee {subj. SiSd^w &CSaga.).T-c8iT)Tt]<rdp.T]v . . . -8pw. ScSidKovijica .. inf. doubly from St'oura augmented as though a augmented in the pf. 88Uveu : part. 8i8ovvai and 8i86/j. (?) S&ificv. late -Spdo-tu -S&pdKa: 4'8pav {767. etc.. . Horn. -Spd<ro|xai. 5. ( epic eSiSao-xrycra . but bind . see 479 . 8i8ot and KBlMn. 48e8iv. plj'f.-). for 8i8a\-a-K<a). Suo/zcu accented like 8i'va>p. -8/>d S J. think. SiSois.). 4-8c8ifJTT]To. not a compound 8iaiTT|<rw : compound of Sid. 8i'S?//u (3e-). augments regularly (560). (8iKov in Pindar and Tragedy. 8e8ia. . (rj Epic. 2 pf. (VII) seek (8i^f-). epic SouTTT/cra. 504. SeScdKOW/a-o/zai later forms in 8ir)-: as SirjKovipra. . synopsis 508. {Suica. 8i4/dw. only in comp. . See root 8a-. : Compare late. 516 &t&i). 613. Sort'os. 8<5|w ISo^a late plpf. . Compare 81-. Si^V/cro/xai 8iK-. pursue 8i!u)x0T]v .278 as pree. cSt'Sio-avj. Suo^u and often er Su6o|j. 8i'u>a fed in Homer. Anab. iterative Horn. fSoKfjcra. (VI). 4 Poetic. impf. impf. vb. . only impf. 8iaKOvrj<r . 8uj>^<rci) t8i'\|rrjo-a . -SeSpijKa. . 8iw. -eSprjv {-S^vat. -rfos. -8par)v. 2 sing. S^Sirc. feared. -Spdvai. SeSiws plpf. late 5e8/'^^Ka. &>8tt. are very doubtful in classic poetry . ^Stoxovovv . e8e8oxeo-ai> . plpf. ( VII) . 8e8oK7. (VII). : .

Trofj. and olSa. . and eK-8vfj. ea<. . proffer. IV) 797 . ^0\ov ^OcXVjo-a {(^ecX^crw. . . cld0T]v . Svva-|xai. like to-TaaaL (498). active Pr. 533. intrans.) Sco/xeu from 8ixa . go into. accustomed. for o-f(O-). present only part eOtav. 8vrj from Su-ir/. S&VKO. augments compounds augment rj. 8pdgo(j.ai accustom. edtra . 616. Ml<* clSov. . late . poet. rj-ypofx-pv vb. f. . .).) . o-atjxai. In the Attic f|9^XtiKa. eSw/jOriv and Ionic eSwa- o~dr)v (also in Xen.o-fj.fv vb. vb. vb.) . epic etaw. probably the correct form for the simple. WUb (680. (/ ^) typriyopdai present eypw and eypop. a am Horn. eWiKa . imper. (//) e'Xw and O&w.. eopa^d^v : SeSpay/zai. 2 late . be able. impf. inf. tdo-w . a-SpeTrros (Aesch. can. cULo-a. . a 8fi0i.at is poetic or late. see f^o/j. tl0L<r8Tiv . Poetic. aor. . 4). 498. as r^y-yv- or ev-tyv-.. raise trans. and . 3vvr|cro|JLaL and late . Svvai. . saw.ai. sub). f8pe<f>6r)v late . 2Spc\|>a 2 a. see ?8v<ra trans...i. see E fd<f>6r]. li^pOTiv ^yp^JYP ^y^Ycpixai p.or i\8vv. Spdcrto 2Spd<ra ScSpdica Sc'Spdpxu. sit. found iu do. ?H/i. ctdfiai . eSvvw and late t8vvacro}. see aTTTco.ai lute. . eyr/ye/sKa rouse.Tro-op^op. e8paTrov (Pind. 2 plpf. see kcrOiw. . for accent of pr. c-ycpw {j-yup a 3 pi. and S&vica trans. fell. vb.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS a. seize. Spdo-Tt'os.1 late . poets 6eX(a is used in the Tragic trimeter. m. > imper. late rtBkX^Ka. A eSw. 0A/Tos late. iyyv&M. See 563. r/y-yv- or KaT-Tjyyvwv and KaT-TiYyv^fiai. pf. permit. vb. fypt'/yopOf for ey/aeyopare. o-/0-iS-). from eK-8v-i-fj. 8v. Horn.ai . sink. rare in Xen.ai. 8uvar<Js. epic eowro/xr/i/ (1028) 2 a.. go down. wake intrans. late and poetic S/MTTTW .a. cda-ofjtai pass. = Mw 48ve^v opt. 2 p. . rarely 8f8pa. f. mid. (IV) Spd<i>. etc. 8vs}. a. i!8vv intrans. or cause to enter.<rp. Swry^cro/iai . 27D BovTrijOrjv 2 KOLT-fSovirov (Anthol.s- d'8i. fyprjyopdao-i. (i)eX^(')eX.v. Ionic ea>6a. 700 . weep. {inflected subj. ScSvvT)|xai . and late prose 8vva. augment 533 . ty-ye-y vthis is 4-yttpw. see 6pdo>. awake. pf. 8e8ovira. : . Micrrcos. <. and mid. betroth. grasp. . a. eyepros (Aristotle). 2 p. part. . 8pu. 2 sing. 8t'8v|jiau. t^wrros late. Horn. (8v-). and impf. . set (Ionic. pledge. 2 pf. inf. pluck. 8pdo-o-o> and 8paTT<t> (8pay-\ . see 516 {2 sing. (Anthol. ittura. ^9- (545. Ionic 8vvy . Au9i\. . know. impf. i'w9a. eart'os.). eSpdo-Oijv 8piro.) . 86<rw trans.(525). see t'o>. Ionic ew0a. f&vva. am accustomed . : . impf. augment l8w. cipyvii/At. ] . enter. Svpofw. vb.rfjr vb. and opt. (idi8-. late prose (V. ftpyvvpi and tkpyta. (///) 8vv(a. eypyy option or 2 a. poetic. 4dw. pr. l-ytprto?. Attic. .

774 .1. elpTjcropai (VIII) Attic 1 . pr]T(Js -rt'os.). or pe. (fp\aro). resemble.) by f. 1073 conjecture. New Ion. f.tjfj. poetic ecnra J<)j)t. but always duds in the sense of fitting. 18. make 1 CATALOGUE OF VERBS like. said. toiKoifn.eipofj. of eiKw. tpyfiai {3 pi. Dialects 1066. 520). . 2 a. for tiAw and efAo/uat). ereTTCj. 2 a.. o?Ka { /^it-forms 3 a. elpedrjv. or plupf. poet 2 a. ciroi|u. the root ep(in . has with the smooth breathing. late roll. 2 a.o-fj. sAa( tn or s/i. inf. fiirciv.-).. = fe-ffTT-. but the seem more correct in Attic prose than etKta. (/ If') (pr.or CIK-. eo\rjro etAAw or ctAAw and ciAAo/zai. (IpKrfov.ai (jJ. 1298). aAev for eaA^craj'. tepyaQov. 3. 233) and plpf.ijOrjv late . etc. loucc. . appear . cfp-yw. 471). cAo-tt epic . tK-). tlp-yfxai . obtain. augments -QK. inf. which are from a di He rent root. Ionic -}pryv9fK and -tpyot (in l/>\arat. eijrds (Hdt) rare and perhaps late in Attic 1 and rare crvi>-fiirdfj. lepy/nat (3 pi..Tr-fnrdp. (I'KTOV (Horn. a late epic present erreo occurs. (elpy-). shut in or /IH< out. c/jxaro}. : ripx^qv . mid. d-yopcvw) ipp(fa/v. but rare (like f. flpK-Hj. . aAet's } here also are generally referred a plpf. Pyth. rare in Plat). subj. Iirov (elirflirt. ai'-etA.or fpf-) is used pr. dA-^vai and dXr/fj-fvai.(for fep. clirov or j. see fj. 3 pi. p. join. fiX. 2 plpf. \ 3 pi. also lAAto and Apoll.ai. a. See pr)0T|0-Ofiai p. ei'Kacra. 7. iKs mostly poet. compare also (JJpopuu and /oew or epeo/xai. roW it^). ei\. fA. 2 a. ct/>ya^ov . p. compare. no pr. a.ai . eoAet (Find. tl-irov. .-i)v Ionic and late.en. ^KCIV (Ar.7r-iX->']6ijr in Attic o-uv-eiAeo/iat (X. cpa (disw/c). resemble. (lira. plpf. Att poetic et/ceveu . . 80). . (iKa. Horn. 4>T1F ^ an ^ (especially in comp. 2 8). . prison. ei'Kacrp.6ov (1042) (CIK-. TAAo/xai occur in Attic antiquated. Rh. act. pt. pu. it is fated. C!KOV . like f. tiKTeov late.) or eiAew. see 775. o. see 768 . tirai(ii. : some regard loty/zev *oiKa>. HKU>S.s together. . fJKa. p. etc. 7. (//) pt. seemed likely. opt. 778 .7ra/A7/' aor. New Ionic oiKws}. eeA/^tai epic . asi. dual eiKTrjv. For the other : New tenses. p. inf. 777. . . p. and supplied by XY<*. fitting (only II. epyadov tinguished from <p^a from epSa). |>res.w< ow/. ^oiKt'vai. 773. 776. but pass.ai. a. the same forms as cfpyo) ttpyw (with soft breathing). (IV) see 772. Av. 4>tip. epic tenrov {ttirw. but are be. late vb. . poet. See also CMTKW and TKW. impf. Ionic e/>ew el'p-q^ai ctpTjKa cppVjOtjv. . eiirai Hdt.r/^^v (Thuc. it Dor. : F X^ya.* ip^o> elp^a. see 531 . late rrp(xru>Kciv. . and impf. or eip-yo> shut /'/?. Ion.a. epic ectA^i' or aX. eiAeo/xut. liken. mostly poetic or Ionic eiAv^trw late i\y<ra late in Hdt. Dialects 1067. rare in Attic. cla et/ce.r)v late . fyxtw. plpf. ctxatov. 553). Hell. impers. vrrciKTtov (PL). shut out. (p\drjv. pt. fipw Horn. a second aorist.ijfj. as also eip<a. . of yitld . OIKIO . imper. 6Vei. (IV) l'a>. seeins. . yield) . is fitting. .280 ^w (eiKao -). t|w 2 p. appear. vb.. . p. ifj Kao-a. (Att poet). present not in use . tonca (545) as pres. New ei^dcri (Att. vb. Ion. dir-ei^. f.r)v . Epic and fyyrfyu. Epic also fpyu.fp-}. etAo/xai (Horn. and this as pf. ilirtivj first aor. eiAw (i'A-. forms fjicajov. impf. 4.

"Epoftai (?). lAacrw. T/IKTO or CIKTO. Ionic tpyw. KaT-r/vapta-^riv. refute. 1 a. . 2 p. etc. tw. -w.cra> Ionic and late ei'Ax^r/i/ .t. late t'/XdcrBrji' {Xl-ygw . . imp. rjXK^cra. Also written (\KV<D. and late) . . Att. X|w . (563). cXCi-rw. late etXCxOriv vb.ipofj.are doubtful. evi-o-Tr^yo-w and evi-o-Tre or eVi-irTres. 77/300-plpf.pura.fj. say. present also TKO). swept away. (/I/) spoil. eX-rrifo. as pres. ep^op.rjfj. hope (?) eA/<yycra). late vb. mid. 2 sing. p. fipofj.a. (//) eXavvco for t\a-vv-(a. r/t'^at.. (e/>). Ionic. -tlpa. . 281 comp. Vi-(r7reu/ and ei/i-o-TTf/xej'^ (a. Epic and lyric. tZXi-ypiai (Horn. . fo'&en. cYXiga . Ionic and late (680). and evv7ro> . see ttirov. shout (Eur. ij(xcra. . as act. seated. mid. lie on. mid. Epic. c/xew and (xto|iai. 2 pi. impf. epic present . . . lAvyAaoymi eX-yx w . tiprprofuit. Lat. ! (/) examine. (rvv-sXKvo-Tt'os. { . KaT-r)vdpur/j.) epgas Attic part. eAaros. hope. (e/>. Horn. A/o. eXeXi^Orjv. ^Xarfos. . shut out . Epic. Poetic. epic .). (IV) ittrn rapidly. i]vd. pr.ai. . has also eA/ceto. and impf. forms in ipy. pres. ^IO-KOV (p. in . (ei' (/^) . e-(nrTC for ev-trTrere Poetic. 2 IATTO/ACU or A7ro/iai (860). late). nit on. Ipew and oftener epeo/xcu ask. eVi-OTrov eVt-o-Trw (vi-(nroifj..) fvty<o . . . See ?TTOK defect. + (reTT-). rare in simple p. ar^ Kie. bewail (Eur. evuffO. aTro-fpcra. etpw sero).i imper. e/x^ecr/iat . 2 a. p. vb. ^Xw eAaw and eXdw ^Xacra -cX^XaKa (late in simple) eXrjXapiai (Horn. 8X (prose .rjv s/ai/. roW . eVaipo/xai. supplied in Attic by eptordo) 2 a. . <e/i (late 2 a. pass. e?/>pu late. caZZ aw assembly.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . eAKr/^t's. inf. (/^) See eAicrcra). . whirl.). see root e$-. !AeAia . eXKT^os. 4'peio for eptio. f. 1\\a. pt|cro(icu . . cause to hope. 3). (/^) (T<ra. a. . p. r}//^v a. meaning. draw. ffj. eAeAtKTO late pf. . drive. saj/. Kar-fvrjpa late . evdpi^a and later rjvdpi^a. ei'/DO) draw . Poetic. 652 (e\a-) and poetic eAaoj. w-e/ow (Soph. Ionic -e'/xra. kill evrjpa. late. 987.9r\v. 3 pi. 4'oATra. Xen. plupf. (IV) &. 2 pf. Horn. A?..). tvaipa> (evap-). compare. -epa Attic -epy/JLat. f. see (CIK-)..and epy. (Anacr.) r}AeAia (Xen. (va. T|pd|ii]v. am accustomed. ev'unrwi) .ai. efA^a late ti'XKVKa cYXKvo-|i<u iXKv<r0T]v. epic ee/>/zcu.Aiy/xai) with smooth breathing. . -clpica. -i'/vapov .at. rfXKvo-a. with pres. (Horn. (Soph. Aristoph.) . vomit. = Attic plpf. fiw. see e/ai'w. cXiKrds. ewATrea (971). also pres. rarely tlXCrrw (eAtK-). evapi^a) (1002). in comp. . raise war-shout.). shut in .eKa late. augments tj-' ' K Vri <rt a ov or ^KK\Tj<ratov. eA^AeSaro or eA^Aearo or eA7/Aa8aTo). (//) Ionic eco$a. f. ^X-y5a ^X^Xe-yi"11 (735). plpf. . (ipvtt). Horn. tArrw.. in Eur. also Attic -epa in comp. ^om. .KW.

664).(533). p. ea-Trot/xtyi'.<rrf\9i\v 4iri(rT^<ro(xai Different from <f>-i<TTa/j. 2 a. trap. in 321 and 11. subj. 987. WoTcofxai.vvvfjii (t(II. see CIKW. like iWa/^iat 498 . (ai'p- epic poet. for fecr-. 7ricrrp and poetic. understand {pres. tv-kviirov and (HI) f. pevos. m. -eiTrov (Xen. . 2 p. Rh. ^ -qpao-a fg-r/puOrjv (Hippocr. cirtcrravo. . clp-yato^v <pY<xo-o)xai. Attic prose . . Active rare vb. 135). 3). Orf. . i/TrtcrTcuro J .. fr|fO|uu poet. eopya. impf. 23. poet. eo\fi and resemble. . cTrrjvpdfj^ji' rare. a. be busy with. /jau). pres. for C-O-CTT-OI' . (Travpio-KOfiai Ion. appear. see eiAecu. Cer. . impf. and the poetic (like urrafjuti) . 613). and 2 plpf. lpYd<rflt]v pass. Poetic and epic. - '. harass. 2 a. once. and Hdt Compare act. in rare. *" /3rw late . . (also Xen.(Horn..or epic . vb. II. ^w. rfirdy9i\v . ein^vpop. see tt'pyto and cipyw. ->//>iKa late and Trpocr-tp^ptiKa. pres. etc. (ev-tir-). Epic. efrTretr^w.)> 1073 Scut. and . (VII) iyirwrTa|iTp> like icrTa/AT. eviitrcrw. . rare in Attic poetry in prose uyu.. . i^v- ! . lypcura/ir. and pass. T7roHorn. /ot' . . pluperfects. impf. with double augment. a.) . be after. do. eo-o-to a. f. fo-irofuii o-mofiai. o and (pSiD (for fepfo from J-fpyyta).v 498 {2 506 f\iri.i]v.vi]voBe. and c(T<rd/j. only in conip. sing. eoAryro. vestio). eTrurrcuro poet. work. .(Ap. in prose. i-cpda>. indie. 6. 2).. 556 ijv-xXovv forms with fv-<a\\. . !iriKT'ov. Hdt Ionic or .or cTri-eyy. KCLT.r]v. 7raiy>7/(ro/iai . and rare and . etc.. 269). . . ought probably to be changed to oTrw/zai.r\v. Mid. vb. inijit'. vb.<i-vviyu. f. simple only part. Sfimyov . also chide. tp-yao-rt'os. Compare o. v-ox^T|<rtt . late . -eoxroyum . epic -eirov -e^w . ^psura . . . 107 533. {553 In 2 a. 4irCo-r[]. compound) . <nr6r6ai. follow. <nrov (Horn.CATALOGUE OF VERBS compos. and 2 a. . (///) . and 7raiyx>v mid. clothe. pf. evvvpai epic. Kar-fivvov mid. accent 516 . . augments tip. CTT. Hes. oy'oj/..(//. aor. impf. f|v-<ix^ T Ka etc . (/K) lyric. epxros late. . poetic.!' 7//)ao-/xai late . 4irrrw. accent 516 opt. -CO-TTOV iro|iai. 2 a. >')v-fir-aTrov. late cnroifj. forms like ecrTTwytzai. cy>a-/zai act. Trepi-e<f>6v]v in . e(cr)(ra/M7yi' Simple verb chiefly epic. with V. iirtiyopa. very eoytai and i/xai. from e</>-i?y/u. etc. Ion.. opratov (534).). Ipdw. 280. irioTa|AT]v. a.*. f<f>-(vv-) . opra^w. e^-7ricrTai Hdt.doubtful. 2 sing. and New Ion. imper. keep festival eTr-avporKU) . (VI) urge (not a . Hdt. f. Ionic and poetic cpa p^o> vb. fcrcra. act. <nroip. ty oxXtuJ. and (O-CTT-. preceding word to remain unelided. . .. Hymn. eparos poet and ipatrnfc. liasten firct^o^ai r/Trety/xcu late 7/7reta late . only in conip. epoo-#?/<ro/^ui epic a. mid. eopyea ep. 1. ^owr . tlp-yao-d^v . ] . itnpf. tnrfio. (K) epic eii'ixrSat (or eTr-eyv. .at. a. w\\Tio-a OIKO.r]v . 483. iipd<r0i]v act.

rare Att. and tragic. /tave fallen . augments tip. . 283 pi. eruct. ripev^dfjujv late . (Hippocr. see fipoftai. c'p&|ru . . . . KSopiai (676) . . eXvB-. fut. New Test. (epnr-). rare Att. (fpx~t (?) . (also Xen. in Hippocr.' creep. etc. poet. Frag.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS Hdt. ?ypiKov and . e8<a ep. and Trag. (eper-). a. ?/p)(o^v (same as impf. f. epvaro. Ion. prose forms of eTp. prose only LVP. pfvyofj. a. (//. e'p^cd. Kar-epr/piTra. fpixrdfjirjv a. rjpecra epic. Find. Mostly poetic. ask .ai . a. which uses ya instead fut. ep. fptjpe^-a-TaL and 3 fprjpfB-a-ro } tr. row. or flpva-dfj. 2 sin<j. imper. opt. -fjpei^a or (?) -tjpi^a . late prose (Ivd-i-. See pvo/xcu.1 (Ap. cover. Ionic and go. (peiij/d) (//) Cfyr.) (I.i . : . epeofjiai. epvo/zcu {Horn. epeTTW late . (pv. e/>} 3 pi. p. t'pptD. (epiK-). IV) -ijpp^o-a cast forth. Horn. . Ion. ep.aC) eipixrByv {fipvo-dfis poetic. late prose. 2 a. (/k) . 2 epi'w a. p. and late prose. 2 p. f. vb. K) make red. inf. epew. . epwros.). . plpf. doubtful in Att. /xi-fonns pros. ask. epidrjva (Ap. . (e'pt^av-). poetic. 3 sing. Find. epiro). flpvarai impf. tpuw (1023) a. Rh. epic and Ion. f\6-\ come inf. and Ionic and 2 a. Ionic and poetic.. . 3}. see e .ai and . and ?pX<>fiai eipvcr/j.. fjXOov .i are used} the impf.a. creeping. opt. fprjpi<ro[j. . and late prose. p. <f>ay-\ eat. 11).L or d<f>io/jiMi or r/(i> or elki'j \ov6a.. t'XVjXvBo. and tpwa {subj.(cr)croyMat . 7.ai. 41) . ^pvyov. (pew. epv<a . prose the corresponding prose part. cast forth. f^fvO-. (//) ijpnrov. and late epofj-ai. pf. tear. a. pir-T<Js poetic (also Att.a.) Horn. . fpvro or fipvro (Hes. . and late prose .. fpva'a'Ofj. Ionic and poetic. intr. strike. (ipixra. Ion. ep. . ei'p. and Ion.and eipv-). eS/zevai . in... late.. fell . vb. also epiS/xcuVw. throw down . (IV) . {subj. and tpvyydvw pvo[j.tjv . 2 a. and poet. cXW 517. also Xen. A^ \vfjLtv and tA^'Airre in Com. ep. contend.. only ep. 3 . epepiTTTO 77. jro (<o harm) t'pp^jo-to . Doric tydov vb. {imper. late (Att. 23. f. p. hold back. Att.a. . 2 a. . draw to oneself. Kpirw and ^piruo-a epTrv^o) (epTruS-). and . and poet. .ai (epvy-). et/3?'/ievai} epwrco and Si-fiprtrw Horn. eipi. epiV^v and i]pei<f)driv. late in simple. ept&aiw (II. w 3 pi. Epic. inf. epw&ai or 6/>vcr^atj. pi. bruise p-i')piyp. r//Di'a.. t"jpi\f/a. eS-. late t'lpfi^O^v. 15). protect. t/3WTo or clpvaro (Theoc. rypei/A/xai and fpi'ipififiai late (plpf.. inf. eXvy \ov6a prose regularly uses fifj. p. (not Pindar) (VIII) (o-Q(D ep. Rh. poet. epffj. . inf. eruct. and poet. syncop. draw {Hes.. see fipofj. also cpvOaiixa poet. /*eT-eAewTos and vTr-cA^ereov. <=p\}/io and late and lute eipifra . ripvKavov ep. 792).1. Trag. epwro). tppv-ydvcd (e'/avy-). -IjXvdov only Indie. guard..or mid. epopai . . 22. Mostly Ionic and poetic. epvKta. Com. {Horn. . of ap\o/jiai) rare and gen. (\fvcrofiai ep. in Att. also Xcn. 14. e/3e7rra> .

evSov or ijvSov. a. 225). 340) . see air-cx. t<J>0<5s .To.ir-urxofj.fj. KaBev&ijKfvai i\vpldi\v a. dv-ei\ov . poet. boil. rx#ov (1042) Horn. ep.T]v (b) dv-x w .|JLT]V (also pass. late ry^?//iui e late and nl T<^> a t fi ^>^os and . <rx^<r8ai. (615) . dfj. cvptros. For evpov. also Hcr\<a (tor crt-crex-w) impt'. impf. (t\Qa. . poet. CATALOGUE OF VERBS 1073 New Test.Tr-fi\ov . T]tipT](iai .rv. vb. . only pr. . rj<J|)pdva . and Ion. hold. r/x^/301 > pass. (IVi ' pray. ?}/A7ri-o-xoi'. vb.Tr-)^ov Od.ai hate. iiii-yjiai See 532. t<rx5^v : late in simple { o-xw^ai.. New . f. fTTfj. O|MU and <rxVj<rojj. f.ai 2 a. <rx<iv} . 2 . <TXOV. vTr-Lcr\ofj. remain . t(T\f6rjV late. cook. rare in Attic prose . late in simple. 1 (VpTftn late evpijKa. pf. promise.. /CTOS late. augments eiori. (VIII) a-Tiaw. find late . see 532. lulve > (o"fX") . hated. tlxov (533) > . impf. . -T&>S. <rxfyra> (o"X ") ^"nC 1! 1101 * fi'i'-o^wxa (for -OK-W^O) in.r]v (late pf.ai j . n).ov. plupf. -rfos. . T|i!pT]Ka . 3 a. <rx<5ftvos . vb. clothe. d<|>-KTfov. ep. tKa. a. cv<J>pa(vo> (VI) cheer. . f. inf.1.6tv8ov and Ka0T)vSov. pass. dv-Kr6s. a.4> ^ofiai (556) hold up.o. and late) . and impf. di/-e'^w and dva-^xijcrdi f\v-n\6\i. TXO|XTIV. pf. Ka6tv8ov . fv8rj<T<a mostly poet. have around Ionic oneself. eO^ojxai VKT<JS. . <vpVj<r<i> . e t'pi'crKu) (fvp-f-).284 [<ayo/Mai in Old and KaT-c8r)8crfAai.) late i)vx^ r] 1 pass. . eSrjSoKo. (Horn. J1 (Lxop. late prose i . vb. dfj.] . pi. 1\^irt. . and vb. poet. and T]fjLir dfj.Tr-urxvfOfj. Horn. Ka.. (IV) l|w or ?o-XTjp. a. p. 6. 12. d(j. d/x</>-tw 2 a. . (c) {nr-wrxW-ofwu (of K). and Ion. 7rt-crxTo5.. d/j. be near.rjv fvprjBtjO'ofj. were shut (II..ai . (Hes. . t'Siaros. v<j>pavovp.-<r\iy. sleep. . -T^OS. and . rejoice. . av ^op. poet. in. ty-f\<r< ij^drjv . etc.TT-f\(ji arid Compounds with irregularities are rare d/i. fSifiws . KaBevSijtrai late . p. Tjv^pdvOrjv. (a) dfj. 2 a. poet. usually xaOcv&o . dj'a-crxeTos. . tir-w\-u. inf.ai ^|86r(h]v 2 a.. put on. H<r\ov for e-crcx-o*' {tOC"* trx ^" or -"X ol KLl > tr\^t "X" V > mid. 1\v-t<r\6^r\v . mid. hold by. d(iir-^x<>| -a' 1 wear . CKT^OS.a. vb. see root TC/A-. vb. f. and rarely tyeio . 218.ai and Class dva-<rx^eroftai dv-^xof"11! endure.at. T)V|O. C<rxo|iai.(533). ^\(rrjo-a J . with f. boast. Op0T|crofxai. etc. impf. restrain oneself. ai'-e<rx/Ka) di'-tcrxoi' . . e\6apovfji:ai \6aprfo s. and . late . late ^ -ijif/i/Ka . e'x#o/iai pass.. . evpa.. m. and > 2 fj|iir-<rx<JHlTl v . entertain. 6 See 532. ^xofuu.i. part. (ei'c^pav-).7r-rxw. Tjvpov. a. 2. v<j>pavb> : . ep.p-).0ev8r|o-to a. impf. pass. (8-tjoofj. hate. &t>a-yov p. dv KTos. 'Sw. II.ai and v4>pav0T|crop.9dvo|iai. .

late 6(vcr<i>. . 6e'Xu>. come .v Ion. fjpTjo-a irap-^jpriKa. fjSvo-pai T|8vv0Tiv and VTrep-rjSva-Otjv fJKw. pr. 5<vx6T]v rare. l<o. (Galen) t'lfptdo/j-ai. is late} . oneself. (///) 6a<[>-. 23). milk. e^v) l^o-w and Vj<ro}xai . re&yAa poet. vb. late i"). 6f\-/o). #d</>0r. lois/i. (?) 0uAA?/u-a> pf. {ev/cros late. raised. poet. and rare .) . (/ V) . i]cra. yoke. dcio-opai. edfiva.8vvT^ov.r)v..for p. for late ffyo-a. fjSo|JLai. ITJ.i. 3. gird . (late pers. (ra<^. ajo-o> t^too-a ( e^wKa late . p. charm OeX(o . (//) 2 a. Att. a. 102). iinpf. e OdXXu (da\-). said. Poet. 120 7r-eaxra (?). f. 783. 6otf. TcOu^opai vb. vb. . dtf-. /) (i}/3a-). 6e ai manhood. epic. inf. p. imper. the Attics use tfi'uav and /3e/3iWa 7rava-wo-o> Hdt. live 1 [jfjs. 0f'/)w subj. iVd^y. Find. (615).. o>o> (ep. f. 1. warm prose only pr. 479. Ion. t6t\\6i)v . 9. Dor. 19. 6v-). 6d\|/co . 170-0). . epic generally ry alone. . am impf. 1069.ai.n etpofiat. . 01. 479 . come. 6airWov. be collected. fJKa. p. 353). 17. m. f^crdijv late -). say.at (Od. . redupl. late. 6oi7 (trans. fjSiiva vb. come . see 782. 507). . . see d/ycfpco. see ra<.. (rjSvv-).(eVa^>ov. p. #o manhood and ( Tjpdw. devu .) . . Uoom (causative. rfBr/Tra). f. ?5v. late. very rare act. make sweet. See ^/xai. //) fjo-Orjv. tKO) and iKVo//. made late flairra) a.. -ija-aro (Od. run . ?Jo-a . #e/oo> (Od. ttvyrjv (K) eiu>. ^JKOV also as aor. be pleased. 6fp<TOfj. . CV T"> Lat. with v inserted. f|Suv<i> 1780). pf. . 5 ?t v Yliau 5 e^ava-J^o-w . smite . f. (v/tfi for Jfl . etc. gnga late efei'xa vb. late TTOS . l>H-cu and late vb. 6eiv(a (dfv-).1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS Z 285 uw. vw .) . i. edr)<rafj. and (foxa. 23) ^0a\j/a . si<. fja and pf. sing. also late prose. see e'^eAw. and intr. ^tA/cro's. and 2 a. groiv. Poet. T6'9apL(iat . bury. ry/Auo-w late (v. sini . (IV) be lifted. . Comedy. . <|>-i]f3rj<rci (simple Dor. sucked. e^cvov. see aipw. late.. . i\\ii. {'WO-TOS late. see 789 . . Mostly poet. vTr-ep-v-t^fjiVKa. c6f\a . late VYvv|ii (evy-. 2 a. (dev-. f. rifj. jug-urn). Att. and impf. Qita Act. . .v<a i/yafcra . Ion. (edeprjv) very rare and 6i](rda. 2 a. $a(-. T|o-0T|<rofiai a. {jlw . r}ye/3e^o/iat. .

p. 625). idva). ew. by-form of Ta/xuro-w. Epic. in ep. 0pav<ra ^Opavcra . iJ/Aa (Orf. break. iSpvvdrjV (for reg. KaBtcra. Ion. etro-at. bruise. Ka0i'as .. and impf. (V) vb. Ttrpriyu. late Ka. has cKdOic-a or i^Ka. Theocr. rds KaTiVa Ka0i<ra . prose 0VTjT<5S) late diro-daveTtov. vb. dptyw late ev-fdpvij/a Hipp.for 0/W&*. KtiVwra . Tc0pau|uxi and WOpavo-fiai t'0pavo-0T|v . IOXt<|>9T|v press. . mid.) . 6iopat . ISpvOyv) ep. 6va. Hom. 0ptn|/o|iai (///) .). . poet. down. contr. (often as aor. itofiai and Ka0l(o<Mu. Te0Ai/^cu late. ti>-ifr)Ka. Itavw.ai . 6opovfj. a. Dor. (18-. late KfKdBiKa. KaOifav or Ka8iov (Horn. iOpa. sacrifice 0Dcru> . irv9r\v vb.-\ die . sweat. fern. a. late Oavovpai and dir-^0avov and nearly always diro-OvVjo-Kw. . Poet. f. vb.(u.). TfQvTJgofjiai In Att. pf.. p. (Hdt. KaOelcra and pt. e^o/Ltat (eS.2t> h) CATALOGUE OF VERBS (Oiy-). seated {imper. $Acurrds.. Hdt. Te#Aa<r/mij (6 h. 102).^i]<T(a and v^-t^/crw . seat or *iY. sent. Wopov. Wiyov . place. f. ewrov or better etro-ov. 0Aeuro) . 0Ai/3-). late 6opvvjj.v-. 0p((TK(j) and OpitXTKO) Ww (6v-. warm. or late (?) (?) inr-fio-ds) } . see f^o/tai below).\f](ra. ta^r/o-o) ia. spoil. erpixfrrjv Hora. e\tp (0Ar/?-. rest . am 6pava>. the rest from tfw. break.L (Hdt.. Opvirrojiai.a. ?6pd|a . erect. and latfe e6\tfir)v. Poet.). write ia*c^w. 2 Bopvvop. eura epic (for e-creS-o-a. pf. ?v-0pvirros. Jf. also late (1038). in trag. place. ?0vo-a . 768) always dirobut always T&vtiKa.dcr0r)v . (1^) tj iov fut.. 0\fyw late.6-(. in prose usually KaOttu impf. a. (/l^) laAAw (t'A-). Lat. am (fead . tTpvfiiqv very late vb. . ^iii/ew). iS/wo). aor. Att. e$Ao<ra. TtOvTJf-w <9avov (473). 0pvnrrw (rpv<f>. d (but some taxw. t^va (Pind.). 0VTJO-KU and older OV^O-KW .). for irreg. Poet. (/ K) . etc. also intr. and poet. see 481. eBi^dr/v . troubled. only pres. . I taii/io (tav. OVID or (VI) By-form (6op-. 2 p. Ka6t<roi (not (poet). i^e-). (Hom. inf. rtf Xu|>a . a- Mostly poet. ferea^. KaOiw. (/l^) tat'w. 2 pf. 1073 late touch . itiv6i]v. . r^OvKa . Poet. eV-iaAw and laixra. . . . but a. Poet. crvvT^cra (also Ka#-. regular . Tl0pv)i|uu fdpixfrOr/v late.for <re<5-. dfji^-La^vta (Horn. rush. oto. (6a. I'd^ew). (VI) flpdo-o-o) 2 a.. Tt'Ovjxai . p. Opo-\ leap. 0wa> (Hes. for trag.). vb. See <Aa(o. f. *0XZ\|x . T^varov (see 499.. part. Mtxnt late . Oavovfxai . put on airs. OXdo). (Aristoph. tKaO^ov (555) . sed-eo) .. sit.\dr]v .) Att. regular . (/>-iaAw . (V) . Mostly poetic. sound. Mid. <rvv-) . part. sit. sen<i. . re'Ov^Ka. a. sound. i in ictus or augm.) a. and Opd-rrw (rpa^-\ disturb.

) I'AAw. ifrd/j. inf.. "iXrjOt Rh. co-raws and CO-TCO'I?. rr^|. .ijv and . (//) K (Kadap-). ^o-Ta-rov.a. itAry/ca mid. 3 and 508. TXa<rd(ATiv. see . eWai'. 3 pi..fpOr]v. in Att. seat for themselves. late (o-ra-). *}. 1002). KaOdp0t]v and (doubtful in Attic) vb. 7'oZZ. pf. (trans. Terra (1016. to \i ai'^i' (Hippocr. Ka0dfj. and trag. KaOicrofiai are late ffcrdp.fniv. 499. 9. iXrjfiL.sc< { Hom. aor. desire. f. . impf. pass. check ia-\vaiv<a Epic. 742). Hom. stand.r]v Ka. and Ion. inf. i<rafj. KaOcor&v. and (Dialects) 1065. p. 6/iacro-w (647. and Kd0t||uu. . cVrcurav and a. lgrf|xt)v rarer are Ka@-e&-f- tca0iT|cro|jwii and Ka6eSo\i|iai (for <rofj. aor. Hes. ur^vdi'a (Aesch. 2 a. 1) . terra. iXdo-flriv. ( I''//) iterative imp. usually Vb. Poet.) (prob. firopitious. Attic) . sit (782. 287 and Ka0ij. (iAa-). inipcr.i.ep-\ desire. a. Dial. 783). "Aare (Ap. Kadaprfov (Hipp. c. 2 sing. prose nearly always in comp.).) eo-crayu^v . part. iw in Megar. .T]v (6fj. p. fjfj. 2 a. IKOV.at. compare.1. ^>/ce. (ep. o-rards. (/^) tiTTaiJ. (II. lXd<rop. s/iaM set . ?om]Ka. i<rd(iT]v (Horn. a. (lcr\yav-\ make lean. ecrra/xev ^trrafiai and rare . send. only pres. Ach. iJKw. purify . and impf. .ai) . . iter. . or lAa^i. . Compare ep. icas s<. Ka0iipa KfKaOapKa KaO^ofiai.6iovp.) rare in prose. come : t/cdvw only pr. propitiate. and impf. fly. iKOfir/v . ?omiv. impf. Horn. TKW. dry. Aor.ai: see l'a>. uras. occurs rarely. (IV) Ka6^8<o. pf. stand. tf.) . see ..1 t . pf. / . (^//) TKW. fcrrrjws \ f. 2 pf. and and tKo. Att. f.<$|iT|v. 1 a. iov (1028). tcrrcxs. imper. also 797. and KaO^co. a. Epic. (rvv-i(r\vavCi> r vb. Epic. wrdri. for inflection see 498. only imper. fotoio (VII) { Doric for otSa.<u . (/K) ifj-eipto (i/j. see eiAew and ep. eKadfcrdrjv also Hdt. (Old Test. See (IV) also it||u (e-). but iKvovpevos. (V) propitiate .0io-ci.a. late KeKa. icravri}. errar^os. a. tcrare. lXdop. p. (Aristotle). ZiA-en. late. a-ri'i/j-fvai} . ei i'Aa/xai.) IKCD (epic).au. only pres. LKi'fouai. {late 1 a.0app. (Aristoph. ^o-rrjo-a. Hom. (rra<TK o. (VI) Compare 6e . pres. t/ietpo/xai.fi>. rra/Aevai. sleep . 455).) ip.). eio-opai . Ka$-i'crraJ fcrrrjcrav} . <rr^<ra). ifiaa-a. 3 pi. vb. i^o/nat. 499 {Horn. Ion.yv and (Hdt. stood {Horn. (VII} K<a iKveofj^at (IK-). as d4> iKveo^uu. ia-\avd<a. 4 {Hdt. KaOapw .1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . see irfTOfj-ai. . Kar-foyvrmai late . <-rcro/Aai . (K/) tcrrai'to. /asfo. See iAacrKo/xat. 2 sing. eo-Tdflijv. s/iaW stand. (f Aa-). suitable. . ifJLeipd/j. see 770 and 771. and Ka6eo|icu are much rarer fut. ty/xat.

fKCKXofjLrjv (693 . . and impf. 10G9. Ion. 653). pr. Ixarov KCKaoyzai (Find. . pr. 783 . 425). Kavta . . 8ia-KXV<rr^ov. /capros late. . vb. 6). Kipw (K(p-). ^KaXeo-a Kt'icXTjKa K^K\T)fiai. fkija ep. inf. Poet. call. KeAa&ov. cKfpSdva (685). KtKcXcvo-^ai (616).-). KKaXvp. down. also late prose. KeAAw (xeA-). late Kpd<rto . aTro-Kpirfov. bend. Hdt also tKfp&ipra . Kevrrprw (KfVTypra . eKepSrjva Ion. accuse regular. Kparov. /cA^ros. (///) . -irapa K\txja-T09. (for opt. Kpa. KaA?/yu. prose Ko. 2 a. KeKfVTrjfjuu (Hippocr. ep. KaXvirrw (xaAv/?-).. *Ae. KcAaSfw. . ?t. . 652.S-fi. ^K\Vj0T|v ..(u (Hdt) (Ktpa-. late a. pt. vb. Ep. Att. . Kap. . *- KAa8?/(rw KcXcvcrw KtAaSj/o-a cK^Xcv<ra .t /cat-. Kapovfiai . Poet. fut. 14. . KXryrfos . f. KcLp-iTTu) Kf-Ka. KoXw (KaAe-. KKpd(iat. Ki(n|/o) . pr. KeAtrw (678). goad. . 2 a. roar KcXcvw.Ta-Ka. (VII) late -KfKapKa K^Kapfiai e/ce/xra vb. and poet. shear f. p.).. cover <a\v4>6r]v Kd(Avoj (Kayu. command. (Dialects) . 734). Kevre-). or Kipvaw. 8ia-KvrrjTfov late. . KfKa. . Kf&dvvv/jii (Ke8a-\ epic. and lyr. exeAcra (686). KepSav-. (IV) . KaXv\|a vb. <rvY-KaXvrrT^os. pant.fj. . . prose nd uncontr.) . (for Ka8-vv-fJMt). Keds -K^KavKa KCKav^xai fcavOrjv . inf. .\|/a KKa(i|iai (88. KaAew (Horn. : Ion.(xai . land. . late <r0Tp . KtpSavw. ep. o-vy-KevTriOi}- mix.ivfD rare in Xen. (K//) Poetic. p. but aug. gain. a. poet part. iKcipo. Simple rare in prose. Kar-iryop^w. KaXt'u) 2 a. (/) see 784 and .Xv<f>a. . f. a. and late (Hdt. : . <rop. KfpSi'jO-w late. KaAecrto (Aristotle). KaAvTrrds. a.T|Ka (ep. ticd|Juf>0T]v ( . see onc8avvvfu. Epic. . and impf. p. (IV) KCU'W (*av-. KCK&CVKCI . K&|i. prose. late 8ia-KavTfoi'. Kavo-w {icavon 2 a. p.-). and KCW. only /ceiwj' (Of?. p. am weary or sick . Epic also K(pd<a and Kepaiw pres. Kfva-ai . lie.iro-KfKa. 698 Anthol. Find. (IV) . also subj. a. . vb. labour. . ixtXiv crOrjv vb. Kajfirr<Js.) . cxlpdo-a. KfKpijfiat. fut. rest. Aeol. . KK\^j(ro|iai . a. . . ep. . 650). V) Kii. kill. ep. only epic 2 Ktijiai.. KCKa<f>r]u><s (II. dirofKdprjv (Hdt. KaXrjfJu. In classic 2 p. KCU'(O-)TOS. Ka/-. 2 a.CATALOGUE OF VERBS sit. 1). vb.) . part . KCL|IOV (Horn. compare KCIW or KW. KCVTO for KATO (Alcman). KiKAr.. . Kajy.vai (680. In Attic prose oKeAAw. (K) and Kipvr/fj. (///) 2 a. KO\VI)/W . irpo<r-KCKlpST]Ka . has both a. scatter. Ion. order /xi-forni KcAij<ro/xai . fK(VTT/j6t)v (Theophr. excel af-). Ke/coi/a. see X^C . K*<yu. 5. see 745) . 9. . KeAvj<ra/x/j/.. late tUKtpatrfUU CKpdOrjv and cKcpdvb.639.1 -. 561. Horn. 6urn . 2).(TK<i>. ivish to lie S-). efccfyv Ion. and redupl. after prep. 2. Ka<-.tvo>. Horn. Kcpw p. (Kpr^ra. aor. 107S see ij/xat 782. f.fi-). (KCVT-.7/ws) . Poet. pt.to) . and late) 1070 . KepBi'iarofiai Hdt . II). rare in late KeAo/zcu.) vb.

poetry and prose. from the 1'ut. KKA?/t- Dor. eKXavtrdrjv late vb. epic. xpr]<rdj. . (Anacr. (K) Epic. (///) K\yu>. K^KXcipAi. K6cXayya. = U . K\vta. epic trouble . . . ctTro-KAas . Att. tK\fjcr0T]v. 19. KTJpva . (IV) Mostly poetic. " Kii>vp. . . atw (KAav-. ///) Compare . . (IV) ?KXa<ra aw. Epic and tragic.). Ka8-\ rex. K>/?/V<u tKyfirjcra . and KT|piSTTci> (KIJPVK-). Ki\fi<s and Kix^evos} ' . Vb. Pr. cZa?i(/ . Horn. KKXifxaL .1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS 56. and . Kt]ptfx*V. /ax t^ry/j. inXivOnv epic. late . Ion. late (?) K(K\IKO.ai (KI-). KK\o<j>a KK\(j.a. ?ftore oneself. (Ktvd. Kvd-\ hide . mean am (KfvOavov. . KevOdvta. . /cAaio-ros late. 35). Kcvdw and 2 p. (Aesch. only occur . fK\i6i]v poet. 2 a. KfKfpSijKa and KK(p8a(y)i<a . KTjpiSw a. (V) ^XP1! 01 K ^XPr (xpa -\ land. K^So^oa. borrow give oracles. v ^. ma^e incline. KKVjpvvnai e P.. Ki'/8w (xr)8-. Ke/cAai'/xat poet. .). ftfKtv&a as pies. f. 2 a. hear Poetic. K'xpT)|iai. (/) lca ( 5 nipvrjfu and Kipvdw. d<j) (K\ayy- . as pres.'f'X 7 "> ! 1 06 P^ Ktx^TTyv. (epic) Ke/fAuTC . KcxXd-yioixcu as fut. y/cAtO-TOS. t/cAayov . act. K\1)lW.aL late. 2 a. KAirros. steal. pt. ep. Poetic. Ki>6ov (subj. ep. KA?. famous. KCKX^jiai. 2 a. KeKAavcr/jiat late .). -(K\aa. mid. KXcirnJs. KCKepSr/pu late. 2 a.. /cApw. redupl. /cAa/-. KeKv$a also . KAavcrw ^KXaxiera. r-). icXtvw (K\LV-. . icXivo) late in . KXdirr]v poet. > 136). Ulte r#T/i' .. KfKi>6io) (Horn. e'/axov. hidden.fxat vb. xAay^w tKAay^a ep.. /cAt-). (Tyrt. . MicActiqa late. KXfjo-<o ^KXtwra. K\tyo> 'i\e\ia.i. fK\f<f>@t]v Hdt. KocAr/yovTes) . simple. proclaim. pr. 12.i . vb. a. and fut. 30). 289 late . sliut K\ti<ri0. xActo-ta KCKXao-jiai KXdo-0T]v . ZK\VOV as aor.. also vb. shut. f. \po.op. . f. a. only impf. K\vTf and 2 a.thus Kt X et/r/ ^ n ^. see Kepavvvp-i. and KAayyavw. impf. (11. 2 p.ei'. K\io-0T|v. ( Kt X')> . wee^? . K\avcro)jiai. subj. and impf. 6enr?. 650). 28). KeKA^ya (pt. Ep.iO-a.M. . (I/) (Ki8va~\ see o-KeSai'vi'/jit. 353) dif. . use. sec K\eiuj.. and and \pa.K iX ri TO *> unattainable pt. eV (Dem. ajro-K^cXflKo. ^KX^cra . of X"^ eKr/8ra/. Kar-tK\lvr\v (IV) .Kt X" va> i'. late prose .a. (Dem. KeK\io-|iaL later. older Attic K\^CO. ./^/ (IV) 2 Ktxij<rofJia. has also /ii-forms from KIX.v (Aesch. KX^(TT(Js. . KfKr/8a as pres. prose icXdw uncontr. /cAavTos poet. p. K\afy. ftcXlvct . 5 l m ^- ( Kl/ XP a txat) UIRl / Ki\pdop. also KXai^o-w or KXa^jo-a). XPW Hdt. 8. .T]v . KAai-. ep. .) in tragedy (///) . late. /<Aay-). 2 p. and late prose. . rare KAawou/acu poet. a. break. KXtWTT^S. : late Kt'x>/o"ci and Ki^rffjievai. aTro-KAireov (Aristot. iniper. KCKAuKa /cAi'/^evos . (681). K\v6i and (epic) K(K\vBi. . KXtirr^os. KetVw Ixei'o-a .

(/K) . tKo\ov- KKO(ip. (/ K) fKprjva p. satiate. gico\|/a KOXJ/CJ -KCKOCJXX.ai see above). KplfWOftau rare = Kp^fuxftai. pf.) . ep. .or Kpty-). late KOTTTCOV. f. . .vi)fjn (Kpt'ifJivrjfj. KVV/O-CD (Hippocr. prose). .ai ^Kpv^^v. (///) Kopevvvp. KKcu'Aa/A//. Kopvo-cra/x. KfKpa-ya as pres. opt. . KeKopecr/iai (Xen. KpffJL'i<r<a. (Com. Kpvn-rw (i<pv<f>-). Kf^atrrkov. Kpivw vb. a. a-K/sacros. late KpffjLavviw .) 2 p. Ion.vd(i) and late. and . often written. 2 2 p. accomplish . late bcpvfajv and litp6ffi)V . late prose. pt KCKOTTJWS. cut . not Kp-i'ifjLvrj/j. 2 p. K^KvaiKa . (IV) maim. Kpovtrta. . d-KopryTos and and pt. unaccomplish&l t'crTa/zat . Kcxpl-ya (Aristoph. KCKopvOfjifvos. KCKOTTOJ? ). . contr. arm . (Horn. . pres. rare /ce/c/adyere.290 spin. hang . . . Mostly poetic or in simple -Kvaurto . . .ai. . (Kpfp. late -Kpr<w and Kpvftm Kpwj/u ?Kpv\(/a a-i<y-K(Kpr<f>a late vb. ami Kpiuvr/fjLL (Kpi'ifivijfii). KtVvai. late pres. Kopva-fTU) (Kopvd-). K/HKC or npiyt (Kpi.) . but for KCKovfyiai also ntKOVuTftai. a. Kpffidw. : tKcJirTjv . Kp|iT)o-op. 768} f.ci'os (Horn. also Koptta late . pt. Kopfo-ta (Hdt. : New : Ion. gxpctyov Epic. KOTCCO. vb. raise dtist.ai and Hippocr. KetcpavTai eKpdvflrjv.) .) late . (Plat. . a-Ko/3e(o-)Tos KKop^p. fr.-va-).1 as act . suspend. (Kpav-). Kp-i'jrjva .\Oi and fut. eKotAa^^v/v (Hippocr. *Kvt]o-a . (^//) Kp<^. plpf. jsubj. intrans. pres. Poetic.o-p. chiefly epic. KSKv^o-fiai vu) . (KPC/JLO. .. KfKoprjws . p. . (IV) . f. Ion. (KoiAav-). creaA. Kpoi-o-Tos late. Kp|i^<ro|Aai. and <Ko\ov9t]v. : cj>. CATALOGUE OF VERBS eir-K\(ixra late . 2 p. (Kopecra poet. pres. . scrape.ai poet (/) to Ko/3r#7yv poet. Kpvirros. Kopew . pt. 516} and . -Kva<r0Tjv. (///) . Kp<|ia|iai intr. mid. -KCK<$t|/o|iai . . 724. .a-). Horn. . helmet. Kvdw. 1073 (Plut.).. Theophr. Kpov<rr6>v. Kpi-\ lixit tKpivOrjv (707) . late See also Kptfj.). ( V) Kpifj. Epic also Kpaiaivio .ai vb. Attic Kp<|iu iniil. s-nspend. K^ITOS ^Kplva K^Kpiica K^Kpipxi .i KpffjiaiixT'. ^Kp^v. cut short. KexoiAatr/zai .TU. cKA. also KV>')6ia. and (lor cKpc|id(r6T]v /ctKpe/xaoyxai vb. judge. reg. . conceal. cKp^fiao-a a. pr. pf. p. angry. KCKpaai'TO Kptp-aio. {imper. crt/ OM<. . vb. Kpav<a . .- KaT-KW|<r0T]v . vp. K^Kpv|ip.L).).) eTri-KCKAdxr/Mai late. p. hang. like etc. e'Kpovcra: K^KpovKa K^Kpovftai and KcVpovo-fiaL tKpotcrO-qv vb. KOtXavw cicotXava Ion. Comi)ure (trans. ep. . (V) ^w (KpiK. -?Kvawra . KpcjiaoTrfs. and impf. KtKpa.. . rub. very rare in Poet. Aristoph. Kpcjiwjiat. u (xpiv-. KCKp&jofiai as K/>au> and KCKpd^w late. 3 s. but KeKoAow/^ai and KeKoAou/Aut. be angry . scratch. pt.wa-9i]v . (IV) eKoreo-a . late. hollow. poet. K<xirn5s. Kpd^ui (xpay-). KO. KOiA?/i'a .-).).1 (KO/DC-).. regular. (Ion.) late prose cxpi^a. Kpirc'ov. . late. KOTT-TW (KOTT-). . rj (479) .I!SD ]ioet. . 2 a.fj. KK/)uai/Ttti. . fKpaa and K/cpaa fKpdva.

Xrjxj/ofiai. dir-^KTova and (Aesch. vaunt myself . KvXfo-0T]v . (?) a7r-KT<xKa. AeAtt/u/xat iX^iJ^v.. aivw (Ki'Sav-}. conceive. epic 2 m. a. Hdt. poet. 2 a. e/cra^v epic. K<Kvrr]Ka . KTTJTOS. regular . pass.di . poet. twas killed. happen. (X. K^KTT)ficu. found late KCKTL(rfj. 743.. Kreivvw. kill . - ( ? VI) . /) . honour. Passive used as pass. obtain by poet.1073 acquire CATALOGUE OF VERBS . (?) Ki'v>y<roju. . cl!XT]<f>a. KvXtw. Horn. a. late in siniplu late. . Dor. 7rpo(r-Kvo-a stoop . rare in late prose. (/I/) . fut. (/K) In Att. p. late in simple . *KTi\<r. but - Horn. (///) Kvpo>. do homage . KvXivSt'w. KKTTJTO. . Xiprrds. CKTCIV (767. irpoo--KWT|<ra. (Horn. XtjKT^ov. Ion. earlier .) . in Att. (Kri<r9i\v. (IV) (Aa^-). e*ciyxra (686). also e/crr/o-o^at. KaTa-KCKvXlo-pai. . mid. KtK-nrjo-ojiat and Ion. AeAa^ov. poet. also written but airo-KT()v(v)v|xi in Att. tfXrixa. possess {subj. 6e pregnant. Kvpa-ta (678). Hdt. stem KTI-. KvXurros. . a. founded. p. impregnate (Hippocr. vb. o (KT-). aor. /crevew and KTO-VCW . . oW . and KuStaw (also late). and late prose. . KTeivvi'fjii or KTivvv/JLi. p. AeAoy^a (\a/3-). p. KTivw 2 poet. also /a'Savou. from KV&O. eAAa^oi'.ai cX^jx^v X^ofiat. aTr-e/cTa/^/zcu late . conceived . fKrdi'6'ijv late. prose Ovi'/a-Kta is prose. 2) with mid. late KI'XTO) ( eKvcra (also late prose). meet. of KTCIVW. Ion. KTCI-). From an 2 a. and Xaf3ov vb. . -TJ. Aa/x^-o/iat. KKT<j>To. . . and late prose. 7rpoo--KKi'v^/ca late. 2 Xtiirrfov. . a. p. clCXiyy|j. shall possess . ttTT-e/crayKa. or (?) KTT//JICU found someKCKTwpjv. (V) late Ary^w. KKT[JO. (KV-). generally used. etc. Ion. Ion. KTt/xevos. kiss.ai. prose ciiro-KTtCvw is forms of KTeiVw are rare . eKvijOyv late .a\ffovftai . KCKT^^V. KtKTwo. opt. ?KTio-a (/ 1^) . HXaxov { 2 p. Kvt<rico|uu. lot . 745} pf. (KTVTT-).a. 291 . KTr|<ro|iai -Tjrai. sound eKTinrrjara. etc. . eKTayMiyv. KTIO-W . Kvv?yo-a Poetic. (KTCV-. and Dor.. dir-fKTOvrjKa. Dor. . efX^fifiat. Ion. made partaker} pdvco take. AfAu/??/Ka . poet. inf. Poet. impregnated (Aesch. ( V) KTIO> (/crtS-). By-form KTCIVI<[JLI. ?KTiva (KTOLVOV. also f. Ion. late KvXio-fo vb. e/a'o-a. p.i/. irpoo--Kvv/|<r . fcriwgr forth. . = brought forth. or the passive of av-atpew. late By-form KVW and . KUTJCTW (Hippocr. itcvrpro. Aao/zat a.i\v . etc. p. KTT]TOS. late eKTiKa and KCKTIKO. rrpoo--Kvvw. 2 .p. but Causative KIUO-KW (KV-). . cKT/j0t)v pass. pt. Dor.fjL<f>6r)v .) fcar-CK-rovo. .. honour . 2 a. 38).). all late . . iKvXlora . KTCVW. \f\afifa-0ai) eAd^)^r. I n an(^ Horn. . AeAr/yti/iat. Ki>p<a (KV/>). . K^KVCJMX. 2 p. CKT^TTOV (Horn. KCKi'^at late poet. Horn. Ep. KTio-}xai and a. Vb. KfSavw late fKvSrjva. J<V. .). \. times in Att. -K&l/w (late in simple) is KV\|/O.

. . rare in late prose. /ay doww. 8i-X^x&]v. eA7. Rh. trag. peel -X^\|/o> . pres. 145). . Aw. (AeTTTw-). AOITT-). and 2 pf. Poetic. 4} i\tTrn>v9r]v.T]<r|iai. rare and . Si-ctXc-ypai vb. poet. 8ia-X|o(iau and 8ia-Xtx6^<ro|ACi Aristot. . eXenrro (Ap. eAuKrjo-a rare . 221) . a-Aao-ros lap. Hymn. 161). has also XeXaBov. 2 2 a. 737.). ei'Xoxa (538). poet. 2 a. XeXetfx-iai. . (Ill) t|-'Xav}/a (Aristoph. XrjQdvu (Od. Mid.va . JXaOov. lie Hoin. 2 a. 797 rarely Xi|xirdvw Xc(|/u eAet^a late. 1. Xc-y^jcro(i..aL AAa#o/ti7)v). simple poet. = am left. (contr. see the XcCirw (AiTT-. lnire failed.v . . 2 p. fee . pf. vb. XTJO-W . (IV) (Xa/3- or Aa</>-). p. le t for myself (Att. leave.ai. Hdt. 462. (//) Aet'^w late (Xcvga. Acte. make thin . in . 3 .crfj.). remain = leave f one's self.. inflected in 463. irregularities of meaning. f. of /Mt-form 4. am left behind.. epic 2 a. iri-X^j<ro|Aai Arydo/iai 7Tt-A^o/xat. (Od. and late in simple (see also Xijddva)). eAiVviv Xc(x<i '"'. Xcirrdvcs . s<ore. Aeavreoi/ late. rare in prose. and late prose eAa<ua Aawv and impf. f. AeAv/a-o/xai poet. tX^x^lv XcX^ojwxi ACKTOS. poet . XtXdda. IK. X&T)8a as pres. Aac?y<ro/u. AfAtacr/xat late (reg. liave left. AeAaKo//>. (Aristoph. XtKWos. see. am inferior. 2 pf. XA. tX^x0r)v f K-XcKTcos. as <ru\-.x|/uj . usually in . caused to forget .r. Xy (^)j aa !/ . to. inf. fcXiirov mid. tXv<r8t)v. XfX^irrva-fiai {inf. 2 a. 1. -Xevo-w .. slirov) XA. Xftirr^ov. usually eirif iri-Xav0dvo|iai..). 8ia-XeKT6OSX^-yw (b\ discuss. 451). late ( fXapJ/a hid. gather.. synopsis in . 2 p. 2 p. .i/. XcXfirrvcrOai. 9. .i.. 'e ^/ ^ w ^ la ' P^ AeAe^a ctpijica. 2 a. m. lick. smooth Aetco. in prose mostly Kara-Xcvw . AeAa/xjra poet. 2 a. . (Od. a.e-yp. act. tXe'dva. . but AKTO (Od. XfXa. X^w ?Xt|a .pai late Aeixrw and cAeixra. late 2 a. e'Aa/cov XeXrjKa (part. wish. ^Xirrvva . speak . ep. also A. late \t-rria. 85). pass. prose in comp. com p. late 8ia-Xyo|iai. ]>lpf. very ActTTTw. simple.). in Homer sometimes = was left behind. late f-f\(t\dr)v.) l\tfy&i\v.. Aa>yi)rc?. (for AaK-(TKfe>. under poet. late KaTa-Ae^^ryo-o/Atti . . Xi4>9t|<ro(jiai . late. CATALOGUE OF VERBS Xdp. AeKTo? poet. AeAaKuta) (Horn. ACIK-). 1073 XavOdvw (Aa#-). p. escape notice of.r)i> 335). late e^-ei'Atxa ^X^yrjv and rare vb. . p. 1'. Epic. (IV) . cir-fXij<ra In the 20. Ae'<rcrw.at . Ays. . (/I/) ^-c\dirr|v. late. St-eAey/^i' . Aa^w simple (II. IA7/(ra. 479). (VI) devour..292 Xdjiirw. irrn inferior. X&cujxx K-Xd\|ro|iai (Aristoph. late. A7rn>rw (late). . Xcaivw (Aeav-). . . tir-tXa6<5fiT)v (epic sense. -^Xcvo-a . AeAeTmV&u. t. (/I/) Ar/. p. AeAtixa mid. 236). Hdt. only part. XAoiiro. A^tTT-. Dor. Xiiw. a-A^o-ros and a-Ad$77Tos 16. poet. Fr. fKXrypai and XcXc-ypai p. Merc. late. XcXcixj/o^xai . Vb. .- vb. fX|/a (simple only //. but 81 {(Xe-yfiaL (538). . XavOdvopai. . . but cAiTro^y. f\eyfj. xfn'ne . Aaw. poet. JUJv. . counted myself root Aex-. in Att.7/#w (Class II) mostly poet. forget.ai. . ep. etc. 8i-eAe^a/x. Doric. XlXap. >. to cause to forget. ep.. and fXedvOrjv and see eipw vb.

dfur and -doTes) . ?Xow. compare 1031. 252). (IV) Second perf. (fj. 20. as act. (iaivo|iai. imper. . cause to forget . and AF/XWTTW.293 forms like those Aex-. /xoxr^ai. Late. also late . 4. '. pt. 84) /xw/xei/os pt. see 1063.) . /xe/xova (p-ev-.ffj. 320) and Afeo (//. Od. 6.fj. fj. etc. rare .avorfj. mad.avia (-CICUTOS . make fat. eAea (voov). e/xrjva poet. Xovcis. . (Ai'yuav-). Xovcri.yv 7rt-/AacrTos (Od. p. 196). inflection in Avco . imper. ///) fj. plpf. 461 . Aeo/xcu and eAe^a/xTjv occur several times fXfKro several times.ffj. 635) - fut. Ai>o> or AVTO (i~ by ictus. 826). and Hdt.ffj. inf. (/K) . /xe/xaTw /xe/xovei/ai (Hdt. XOVT. fj. and Atytu. (/I/) Xlfj. see AetVto. : 24. Od. 9. twanged.). vb. 11.V-) poet. 4).rjv as pass. in Att. fit-forms 2 aor.a-\ as : /xe/xova?. eXv/j.. . gather . pf. . rare (///) Atcrcro/iat /MT/V and rarely AITO/AOU . Kara-Aex^at (Od. inf. Ai/xwotuu fXifuo^a. laid to rest (II. am mad .fv. 15. . see Aav$ava>.t/j. late f. supplicate.ffj. (IV) fiffjiavrj/jLai. : and aor.. fj. M fj.da-ofj.). e'Afyx.v.. 1002. Xovco. (Aesch. AtVro. 22.afj. and impf. .ao-dfj. fj. fj.. act. fjuicr-y-. Aorcro/*ai (and late Aoeo-w) See Aovw and Aow. hunger .tjva. Aoew. {/xe/xoi/a. lay down. (IV) synopsis in : 460 . 650. lAt'x/A^cra late . <|xavT)v . 598). opt. 394).a<r-. poet. Xr)6dv<a. opt. (//) . see hence not to be written AUTO). 10. desire . AeAix^oTts or AeAetx-^ores for -/AT/OTCS (Hes. eAdeo-a and mid. i p. epic 2 a. and late . epic for XotJw. Ai'yc. /xi-forms fXvfj. pf. Eur. All late. ATJTO.O. 23). \itia (Xv-. /XWTO. Doric verb fidofjai (Snpph. late . Aeo (II. AITTTW (AtTT-).aL . pf. and .wvTai.r/va .Tf. Xovw (and epic Aow). eAtrojwr/v epic. Epic. AiAaio/xcu. pt. are from Ayw . in prose . poet. lie hid.rjv mad. (/K) Epic.ai.. See Aaa>. fj.ai late. fj. imper. loose. 62 . teave. (ij.ai (Hdt. compare TO Aex-os.iuo-0-n) Xaraivta (AiTrav-). AeAi/x/xei'o? yMax^/s (Aesch. 2 p. (/. .at-. poetic. 14. /xe/xaws. and Atx/^"^' ^ c^' mostly poet.di>a. 1003.vw. (except as Xovpcv. . .1073 CATALOGUE OF VER15S . am . 1051.ai fXi'fJ. but the rest are /it-forms . Xovei) are formed from Aow and contracted Xt^fjiona . T/i. abuse. tm/i.ovf. tXv^Tjvdjxiiv XX6(iarp. /XWTCU. eAtVava and eAtV^va AeAiVaoyxat . u'as/i . imper.a.6(iT]va. 19.a. pres. pt. /X/XUTOV. eAwru- epic 2 a. root. Kara-Aey/xevos (Orf. long for. . be ffj. madden .. Xv^iavovp. 125. 24.avi/j<rofj. feel after. aor. wash. vir-eXwro AeA^To or XeXvvro. trngic. Horn. X-r/do). eee 700. rfm?-e eagerly . Xfgov (II.iv(a (P. eAi7r<iV0?. rage . AeAir//xat. All these forms are mostly epic.iru. 617. 377). (Air-). fj. Xtp. /xe/xacruv}. f. f. inf. tlie pres. fuj)To late. only 77. Av-).di'Bi)V pass. p.

ffjLfpp.apfj.fp. fifpp.axfop. but late epic fj.aL as poet. (T) be concerned ahoid . p.ai. pres. vb. but some read [iap-rup6o. 2 a. . 4jiapTvpd|iT]v. i< ts as subst. /xfAw. celebrate . remain. p.fX\f/w ffiftya. poet.d(ma ep. .apira . in prose ton (UXo|iai p. . p.6prjTai and p. /ieru< as act.fX.dpvao}. also fj. jiaxtrt'ov and fj.api[/a . as act.fp-\ obtain.a)(f6p.rjv (also late prose) .ai. p. be intoxicated .a-^fO'Orjv late . and ^|i.ad-). late p. late . inf.fdvo-tD . subj.tp. 3 sing. learn .$9i\v.ai p. 12.fp.apTTOV {Hes. p. Poetic..fpp. vb. Poetic. ca/Z witneues.a^t'frop.aL |XpLa\a p.ai. like urrw/xcu (98).aiopMi. poetic or lato. 85). the passive of pc0v<rKo>.X. faaa-ri^drjv late.(71 a).\\T]<ra . (VI) |u0vw (jjifOv-). . epic 2 pf. p*pp. . and impf. /iax^Tos (Od. tear p-apirffiv witness. and late). 2 p. fated. Hdt. (/) cjidpdva. |uvtr<}s. |i.cXX^o-co p.rjpio-a fj.apar<a late. late also Compare also root irop-. .v-). {ep.fp. p. fp. The personal forms Impersonal forms 2 pf.p\. 231.Tro). 4(ic^<|rd|ii]v pipfyopon. (//) . f fj-a^a .f3Xop. . 2 a. .ffj.apdv6rjv (Horn. |xd|( .ai. intoxicate . imper. Epic. d-pxxeros (Soph. pt. (fj. ouai and usually fj.r'jo-op. irpo-. fj. p.ai (Od. fj.'rjv. -T&S.fp.apTvpovp. p-a^fa-oaai.fp.fp.a\eovp.ai. lLfH.rjo-ofj.\{'op. poet. /zeA?. p. CATALOGUE OF VERBS |ia0V)<ro|iai . (IV) fp. sing.1 (p. p. pf|iAT|KC vb. (//) (p. ep. blame .foop. (///) regular.f$v-). Epic.tp.fp. or (IV) (525) epic . it concerns .fX. /ACUTTI'W. fj. whip.ip. p.fTai f/j. fated \it\\u.ai . ep. : and t-n-u p. <7/i< . devise. . . (icOvo-Ku (p. l|X0vo-0t]v . (Aesop) . . and mid. 4fi^Xtj<rc . fp.apa.dTroifv (Sc. Poetic. p.fvos doubtful f.fp. . 1 and pxTTW . |iaxovp.rjv late and fj.apai'vw (p. and //. [tfipopa.dxii|xai fp.forjo-op. l "'/- knead . fight {only pres.ai late .rja-dp.j3XfTo for p.acro-0) .ffjLfXrjp. udpvwpMi (516). p.cra /ze/xeA^xa late p. . (A0vo-a .rjpi<i>. efj.HJ4 _ pavOdvu p. epic . p.f\.fvo<i and . esp.axrjo-dp. . p. . 8ia-fj.dpafj. for the other tenses. .fiJ.a<TTiy-).rjpig<D ep.vo5. concern. . (icXriT^ov.ai. ep. fiaprvpop-ai. fi'vu.tp.opf . fp.cXr|o-ci .fj. ctpaprai.a-y^a.apTjvdp.). .rj\a epic p. pt. make wither. |itXXi]Tov. . care for.f6vo-p. clp. (V) p.- intend.. desire. p-airffLv (Sc. i\U\>.fXrjdrji> and p. ponder. . devise p. dir- \UVtTtOV.^vT| p. [ .|iapp.dpTTT(o (fiapir-) seize . fiaO^-ros. 2 a. . pdpifsa) . |icp. 119).ai epic pres..^Xci. .a\i'frofj.ffjiova (p-fv-). vb.fvos. augni.dOT]Ka . fp. vb. fp.1 late p. Poetic. . Horn.opp.i]8<'fj.fp. p..fVf(D {pciva pt\Uvi]Ka. See p. 107& pa0ov late p. Ion. .t'jpia ep.r'jo-<a poet. p. 252).v<a and rarely . Fate} .e/xa/DTroiev}. p.at rare. Horn. late -Prose |xa<rrl-y<5<o. |uvw.p. //.d-yr)v e/xax^/v late.ai}'.8w and late p. p.dpaa-fj.aL also late prose epic also ffj. poet. 304) and opt. (/l^) ' fidpvafiai (jMp-va-). |ilp|/o|iai p. (Aristoph. 4p. Se^<. in Hdt..

euvrja-a . )fp. is poet. also p. p.^p. tp. evatra-dpriv. (p. |X|iv^<rop.vT]p.'^v poet. soil.evos ep.f'(j. fj.VK-.) .vrjo-KOfj.r)v (Aristoph. . . remember. Rh.ai.ia<rp. m.r)Turdp. bleat. (/10 p-vrrw (JJ. p. shut ilie lips or eyes . for |U|i.6L^p.ai (P.ai ep.vr|<rKO|iai.p.ai. to vat-. .IKT-).efj.a.ai. c'p.iy-). -{p. fj.evo$ or p. in prose ava-|xip.ai. fr. . pollute = fj.t-yvvp.efj.ep. remain. . p. I^TTO-. p. .) . f. f. p. ep.vdofj. very rare in Att. cp. -fjo. {subj. -<^ro pf.Tiv . (/ K) p. . fj.ep.^p.ai. = fut. uvrjo-reov Hippocr. 2 a. .v{dp. Epic 896 has see 1009. em-p. diro.v<puyv -oJo. 16.(Plat.-yvv.vrj(r<a. in comp.vr|o-K<o. plan.VK-). fr.iYqv p. ep. .efj.vKov. etc. uvweo for p. p. p.vdop. poet.vdofj. 7. |iv<](r0T|v efj. mix.opvxp. /AI'^W late (/ tp.opvyp. e'/za/i'a .iav-\ stain .) p. (IV) jitw. imper. vevafrpat late. 6.t<ryw for fj. p. etc.vKa. p. fut. p. and (Ion. epic. and fXLKTe'os (or P.at. p.riKov pt Horn. 2 a. a-/xvacrTos (Theoc. eulKro and P. p*p.Ta. ep.i. f. in active . fj.l-yp. .opvo~o-(t). p.ep.ai.ve(a and suck.fyvxip. diro.i(o (?) p.icuva> Epic. (IV) up my abode.iy-0-Kw. desire. ep. ep. p. ^ow with tears. p. .efj.epiayKa late . only pr. has Horn. and late.cif-a p.ai. pr. 991). fj.) plpf. 1002.ep. late prose.evw. 4). the simple fj. p. p.(Xen. mix.t-yviip.vrjo'dfj. ep.efj.p. memini p.ai late. . dwell. p. . /xvryo-o/iai . wipe p. dwell. d-ir-p.. and impf.Com. epic . less often p.^p. (for /ziy-cTKto) p.vga (XTTO- Kara.8a (Hdt.vT]o-o} .ai c|ifxOr)v.. N Wtw (va<r-y-. ep. or more correctly p. ep. 629). placed. CK.) .ifj. p. ep.eOa). Poet. |j. and late p-i-Ji]vb. (IV) (late) eK-p. in mind. Horn. 650. (VI) fj. 42).VKa as present (p-vp-).rjTidofj.a. p. 2 plpf. cry. (II) i-. p. took Poetic.veiop. imper. . p. fj. poet.Cx9Tjv ep. 743 opt. p. pres. caused settled. 745 bear . Ion. vb. wipe. not found ep. shall iiv^crO^o-oiiai. late . = pres. late tp.fiai .vwp. . see /xt/Avryo-Kw court. 2 a.c'p. 295 .6pva .T)v. aor.uga- grumble .Lafj.vo-0-op.cp.vKdop.Kvia. act. 45 (?) fj.v<0|uu.K-.iava> fj. prose. ep-vfao-a late.vQp.v<ra .. shall remember.Lfiv(D. dir-p. . or less remember. also fj.vKrio-op. and impf.v(a6fj. and impf.vco (p-vy-). p.iw. -fro. p.rjTiop.ip.). p-vvai late .r)v. 629).ai (VI) 1. .e/j.vpdp. KaT-ep.i^op.p.vKTo (Com.) p.i. lament.evo<s. run. flow.ai and (Find.ai.)^a 2 a.idv0i]v.c(<o "p.Ca. forms (e)av(JJovTo .ep^e)i. fJ. V) p.(11. . (V) and older /xt/Av^crKw (p-va-). .).io~y late of Class ^/ . see remember. 2 p. mid. 2 p. one's nose (Hippocr.viioTt'os.vKTja-dp.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS (p>v]K-.).rjKu><s.vd<a. . pt. bellow.ai late ep. . common and doubtful fj.ai .IKTO .1 (p.veo Hdt. . and Ap.yv late.i>\di]v late . vdiro-op. remind. not in use (1036).vai. pr.rjTlo-op.

. observe. vu<j>i. ) ?vt)<ra . Epic vrjfw. -ve<j!>u> gro. swim. VITTTO/JML. VO.a.w.rjv CAnthol. polish lwra. dry c^i'lpafJLfJMi . . (/I/) scrape. lvv<rrao-a feel drowsy . Poetic. dv-air<J-viirros. ep. eVa^a (Horn. and Poet. . t^ecra mostly ep. via (3) -vi5 and vr)B(o. wash. a>8a^dfj. etc. Wvao-jioi and I'fi'ay/xai (Hippocr. Iv^jdip' 645). Fr. from oSowropos.r-ivv. See vtuop.QV. (gijprjva grjpavw vb. 6e clouded. Ka. pass.). . vi</>?/poet. late ' - 2 p. late -!ftr/MU has ff>pa (Hippocr. etc. 9. vb. VI/TOS (Od. snmo. vo|ua> 680. See V77X o /*at in Att. or late vb. chide. vv<rrov. (Xen. oSa^ew. see 681 .i late. (?) -vf>(a.ai). (/ V. consider. (IV) (vaf-y-.). come.. vojttjw (vofj. (Suid. o-vv-Wvotjx. 708). . 3 ). vvt'(iT]fiai . (rare/. only pres. 8ia vfit]T&>v. but pf.. 12 (Xen.). vo/xwrw late . vb. think. Horn. Wp. Ion. distribute. vVjrw *vr|<ra vfvr)<Tp. VCIKCO-OJ .) b"Sa>/<roynai as w3ay/*at (Soph. also as future. (IV) vo^jcro). lvcip. An. 4). late vb. vixrra-y-. . late f^tcrdrjv .) and late ej'jxrra^a. Hdt.) 8cnropa). f.8-. also Hdt. vcvo-oiiftoi ^-frcwa 5ia ve'vevKa . compare vcop. go or vfo-ofjuii better than vimrofuu (perhaps will go. V/JTOS. regular. ref. late poet.) . 4{tf<rflT)v . and Hdt) vati) . 632).i. (/l^) shear. only in comp. 22). CATALOGUE OF VERBS va. heap up. and late). vty-. think . epic. 4). ._". better than v</>i. 4. oSa^ato. (Od. ewer snow . fut. vei^w . i'c^7/cra) .(. 1002. and only in . Att. vwrr&tju (i/ixrraS-.).) . Kgco-pai . stuff. pr. j^T)pdv6r|v . See 567.ai . vv-. vb. sleep. v^vTj(<r)(iai . . now written valov (as in Od. late tvrj(<r}6i]v .iJ.r)V. inipf. is sometimes found for wSowro/^Ka. late . (Hippocr. v<5fiio-a (IV) 1). iCTt/i veiKcu). ve/-. vrjrja-ta. KaT-evtydrjv (Hippocr. . III) cro/xat late (Old Test. and late VITTTW. vtkfwrai. compress. for vev-yofjuii. 1073 veunrw and VOLTTW (vay-. the simple . {gVjpao-pai and late . spin. f. vei/ccuo ep. . . vo4<a. . (//) . is -vtyw . a-viTrros (/^. . 650 . but i'/cxo late. flow. fypavreov late. ^i5o-Tos (Hdt.a. 642). vb. 1002. mid. smoothe . 568. (IV) evei'/cecra. Hippocr.iS-).a S veo/iat. -v^vi|jin. -?vn('a . (r)pav-). n?ar< ^-om a bite . vb.). vf<a (2). in comp. vfiT|0tjv pasture. (pr. x<* is used vv/o-cu - .). rurrcied (Old Test.. evrjrj<Ta.) . . t^pdva. vt(x<L.fyt . (vi/?-. In New (see Ionic + = 0*: 77 Ivoxra. <rvv-v6}>i. pass. r . . pr. v& (1) (vev-.

reg. oivo^oet and e'w. 6ixov|xai. (IV) . and impf. . late . . root dA-) and -6XXv. oSvpovfiai. oiVoxoetW. (oXo<f>vp-). oi^wKa (Ion. ep. drw . and late. (/K) oXicrOdvco (dAtcr^-). 68v-. perish. probably pass. late in simple . late 68vpo|u (oovp-). ot'5aw (Plut. p. always in prose usually otfuu (5p. (oiKTip-). run ashore. but some consider oi^Ka for oix-^X' a with Att. late prose . /mow.. f. . also late. oXXxifiai. 0/j. Hdt. 6). dv-oC-yvv|Ai.. w/ua (Hippon. Trag. (/I/) . Poetic. ofj. swear . 1 sing. pres. be angry. simple is f. . . impf. perixh . eKeAcra (686). .1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . 2 a. Poet.. pres. usually with aug. . See 786. oAto-#rycr<o late . poet.. make a way..) Trap-w)(r]Ka ep. ? |)t<?/ . Sm. be together. CHOJ . wSt]<ra . oi\6el<i Find. doubtful in Att. 78 :i ) . <j)|At]v . 6XoXvci> (dAoAuy-). 1071. lament. by-form oi^veo). dAoAv^w . dfo/xat. f(D. (for poet. (V) -flXXv|ii dA-vv-/u. Att. bewail . regular See 567. -6Xovp. Horn. olx^o-ojiai Ion. a. 652. . later oiKretpw.. Fr. wAicr^ov Ion. p. oi. VIII. open. otKTipr)(rw. also found as ifytoKa (628. JJ^wo. ). dv-oLBijcrdfiriv act. 1285). -6XwXa. 6XoXvo|icu. also late oi\rj/iaL and 7rap-<px>//^ al prob. wvo^oet. (IV) 2 pf. KeAo-w (678).T]v. oi'yw. Op.<u. o'iT|a-o[uu .T]v oAwAecr/iat. nJfc. {ep.(x<ioju. Svpopai. lute . 727). /ceAAw.o-) and 6p. . rare in prose . and . (IV) but also 2 a. Kar-oSvpfafa pass. also wi. |wur wine. . &\6\vt*. 568. oKe'XXw (oKeA-).evos} . (680. also e-6XXvp and 8i-<JXXii(xi also late in comp. de-). oScoSa Hoi n.vvw. 513). wKrlpa. vb. . also oiyvvfJLi. poet. p. . no pres.) 9. as pres. in prose dir-<iXXv[x(. <pa. late d/xocrw and tV-o/ioo (O/A-. MKTfipyjdrfv.ai coXdfj. redupl. in prose prob. dio-a/ir/v. begone. reg. 788. oi. . also rarely -6Xio-0a(vo>. -oXuXsKo. 6.'a . Ion. (.apT((. Horn. .aprov (Orph. 2 2 (c) ) . olrjTt'ov (^TjO^v epic owo and often o&o only . ) (K) oiKrepio (Aesch. mid. uA7$ryo-a and wAicr^r/Ka Hippocr. wecra . . destroy. (Q.. JiKciXa. . ciSttrcit/x^v and .- but pf. aor. late. late a. not Att. late Poetic oAeKcu pr. instead of wSo-Trot^-.). poet. oi'Savw ep. Anacr. (ppt>|a otynwy/xevos (Eur.). oAeo-oj ep. sliout. (Hes. make water. 2 a. -)) oKTipryo-a. ep. (I/) part. late. 297 coSo-TreTrot?. lament . in prose oI3a (iS-).. dAew (1011.. wicr^v.). Arg. . impf. Dialects. oi'Adyu. sZtp. -6X -&\ra. dSuprds (Aristoph. aTr-wAeo-6'7/1'. p. . ot/xwx^ets (Theogn. 1204).. 787. wSrjKa. smell 6}tf<r. ol'xo(j. Ion.36o. o/j. 345). oi'Saivu) oi. Old Test. a. oSwSixrfiai. 55). Horn. late ot/xw^w . 6Xo<|>upo|xai. accompany. oSvpreov 6l<a (08-. coSvpdixTjv . and red. dv-(i)8r)i>a SM*/ late.. 6Xo4>vpov|iai wXo<j>vpd|XT]v (jjXo(f>vp6r)v (Thuc.

and sJutll choose. Ach.298 uip.ai. . late Epic and late prose. Smyr. myself/ mid.uifj.ai . ^ ujp.1 (op-). opt.<u 2 a. ep.rjv and io-a/x?/v epic . optope\arai 72).) ep.} a>vrjfj. Hoin. O^CKTOS (II. oacifiofiai and ( 6p. Jbio?r.. t vb. K) (ofjMpy-). =rise. appear. fivaio. : 6fj. fio-a.1. OTTTCOV late. see also 1 aor. New Ion. 2 sing. 1002. . e-ei&ro Qu. resemble . also 2 pi.OTOS.ai. and late (iva^j/ {767. 1255 and late) 2.at (Horn. .. 40 has S>pi]Ka.ai. II. 4). 2 pf. 6pwpcfj. Hdt..ru. cogvvOrjv.i. (Horn. . 15 impf.ai ux^Q^v.. with Att. &v4\fa\v Horn. <5vi]<ra . poet aor. late prose. distinguishes 7r-o^o/xat. poet. on. opvvfj. = have p.i (ova-. vb. mid. wpv. . o)(ioOr]v and o[i6o-8iiv 6/j. also 18^. 2 a. see 6pda>. pres. : 5 opiopeyfievos Joseph. poet. . ivipe . . II. chose but eV-o^aro.op|d. 16. with redupl. late ewpd^T/v . 9 Antiphon Soph.a. opwpa. ovijfievos Horn. upyava. . raise. . take to infe. Frag.iv(a (opyav-). rare oftener tipfyfav opeto wpea (also rare in Att. 6\|/op.ai.) . 241) (498). Metaph. rouse . . . ovatjrqv. 834. uvoo-dfttjv. (//.6p-yvu|j. Frag. (IV) opdw . middle forms I. iSwv} . .ocrp. 1.. ei8op. optap^Ka. late Bare .6pyo|iai. 6). 88) copaica and cwpaxa. 351 and 22. rouse . vb. redupl.. wvaro poetic. collat. : .a. plupf. 1.. inf. 17. 947) (Plat. desire. Com. ircpt-oTTTtov. opt.. opiyvr)(JT)i'ai 543 Aristot. late sometimes. 2. 2 aor. Hum. Leg.i (V) only part.) o/ww <L/xra roused . 787. <Bi5va Ionic and (VII) 6ovco (duv-). dpwpey/xai ..p. stretch oneself. . 764. /i5-. oironra.opyvvfj. 26. Ant. Frag. . late d-TT-w^va-p-at ..). ( op.ai. {eeiSo/xcvos Find. OVOLTO (Hoio. opvfp. wpivBrjv. optapf. saw also Plat.ai. (VI) Only in trag. 2 a. ep. 2 f. insult. in simple.i. . 6 } {3 pi.rjv. Ba. ep.\(iro vb.1 (ovo-). also .T]v dir-<>|x<$px0T]V. opvvfj. II. dpiyvr/<ro/xcu aor. s/iaW iooA. N. ctSov {tSco. mid. poet. opi]fj. trans. 10. wpoOvva.p.. (II. vb. m. 1 . OTTUIW (d^i>- . 11. 18. opeyvvs in 6pty-(a. prose rare and only in comp.. wplva. TTI{Horn. 37 . raise. and late opeyvrfievos op^op-ai <opE|d|iT)v and wpey/zai (Hippocr. OTT-). seem. Jot8a. 11. dptvio (opiv-). rush.also belong these . ovocro/zai . 7ri-a>^ap/v. only . (IV) Compare . see opvvfj. 1073 . (//) opya. 25). 520). late w/AOCr/zevos . saw. o\f/ofj. form opiy-vdofiai (Eur. ti/od^v {ep.) . . opdrds. f. enraged. of 6peyvvp. fl86p. mid. : Pres. Kar-ovwrd^v (Hdt. see 5|/ti . 516 imper. Attic prose irap-o^ivw uiup. and (Dialects) 1071}. . 18-. (in Att. /) 6vivTjp. upopov (also intrans. reach. S< and Att. Isocr. and impf. part. CATALOGUE OF VERBS ofiuifioxa . fupd|iai and w(ip. Aeol.i. sharpen. wpojv . Herodas in 4. . 3--O|x6po|iai. like SiSofjiai. . prose) . 6. 623 (Find. (opa-.} . opovfj. ovvfo-Of 24. OIV-<)VT)TOS.ocra . IScIv. poet. forms 3>pro. 6pcofj. late . etc. Ion.i. 6vv . dvo(er)Tos. see 786. pt.). oi'7/cro (VII) ovofj. Also opodovo) (upodvv-) . p. To 18. 6vrj<r . 1 a. 91 (109). for OV-OVT/-/XI. . 2 a. be angry . late 7ra/>o>uy/ca.i impf. (//) oVucra> (Aristoph. also late prose 153} .fj. All epic.6p<a late. 788. d-r U>P. i'8oip. benefit. 255).

. rouse. (/K) . . 2 a. orpvvut wrp'va late dirpvvOrjv. 6tr4>pr|o-o(icu (iXT(j>pdv6it]i> . p. 731) late cTraAtt/'o-^ryv (Eur. (/K) av-wTOTi>a. . impf. cira<rdfj. 2 a. urge late prose. (/iue to smell. Epic by-form opeo/xat. iraXata. 394 652. //. Symp. pres. .-ato). and impf. d^eAAeie (Horn. p-i-form ovra ovrdfjLevai 64>eiXoj and ovra/Aev} (o^eA-. ovprjOijv (Hippocr. 1. ovTacrdrjv. 3 pi. Tracy-). w^Arycra and un. Epic. TreTrctAawr fjiat 7r7T7yAa and ai/a-TraAets. mid. and late : 80 has 1 aor. opvgco . opt. sport. but late TTGU^O/XCU is probably Attic . opwpuxa . &pv\6r\v. shake. opBai. . imper. and late do-</ja(v)o/^cu 2 rare a. owe. V) a. . late TrtTrai^a . be guilty . as present. and late prose) .w (TraiS-. and ep. ep. 7raix$ryi> . (V) dipva.l<ru and irai^jo-w ^iraio-a . . late New ovp^crw (Hippocr. 7raAa<o TreTraAay/icu -[formation in <r. 2 a. . 6<|>iXT]9ts ux^eiXtiKa 64>i\^o-w >4>t(\. 3 sing. 6<)>XVj<ra> . throw lots. . . TrtTraAat/ca late .9<n'A. late 7T67raty/xai . inf. (730. 7ra<. part.T]<ra . . Iv-tovpTjcra 4v-covpi]Ka oi'racro) a. Poet.a . TraAawra) (7^. droTt'^o/iat (or/aw-). 2 . vb. . -oo-</y>amo. pt.tvo<s}. Poetic (dramatic).r)v Triirdfiat Doric verb.<ra . (IV) . rare late 2 6pvo-trtu and opvTTtt (6pv%. p. someo<Ao> as ind. d^>Ato-K-). no present Trcuro/xat .1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS 299 Poetic. vb. increase. Ionic has oi'p- for Attic lovp-. 9. and n wafi. brandish.). pt. o4>Xio-Kdv<o (d</>A-. diy . . sprinkle. (//) .). o/xro and o/xreo and opcrer. poetic. IV). a/^-TreTraAwv . Late act.-7re7rawr^iat late . . /a. . ovTrjcra . d<^etAw in wishes. wpv)(rjv (but KaT-opv^y'/a-ofjLai Aristoph. said by a Syracusan in Xen. wound . .or opvy-). . . wrestle . ourayuevos as pass. late (apvyr/v. ira. a. eoxlpovv . trag.e . //) ocr<pavTos and oV^prjTos late. mostly has the Lesbian d^eAA-w. OVTCWTO. wa-ff>pavTo) (K. (/I/) on. wound late oi'mjcrw . Trao/zat. . Kiraiora. and {inf.ov {inf. throw. 7T7raAao-^ and TroraAao-flcu doubtful}. wpvyov late '. 6piopvy|xai and late u>pvy(JLai .. lament. tliat ! (see the Syntax). part. rare vb. 7rr/Aa 7T7raA/jtat Horn. . (/|^) TraAAw (iraA-). (/ /) d^AAw (IV) rare (d^eA-).Attic <B<j>XT)Ka J>4>\T)|jLai 2 times found accented o<f>\eiv and o<^Awi/ rare and late}. ylv.) . owe. Compare opivta. 649. (VI. ApvicixSs- (?) 6cr4>paivo|iai (t'xr<pp-a-. acquire. 4>X. 731) in Aesch. ir^iraiKa . . Trat|ov(iai (see 681 . (1002). ocr<f>pav-. late late . fTraia-Oriv (730. incur (a penalty). . TraAacro-w. OTOTVW and e'w. . 2). . pr. only in 2 a. Ep. mostly epic aor. opfj. mid. oxr4>p6|iT]v (Hdt. 4irdXai. rarely a. 2 a. (533). .). redupl. poetic Horn. find. ire'iraiKa. ovp^j<ro(wii. mrtie water. smell. . ir^Traio-|iai. 7raAro and TraAro late and rare part. ui4>eXov. (IV) . oura<r//at . late also 7reuw) . irawrr^ov.

(IV) eat. ep. 37 and pierce. iri<rr<Js. . mid. ync.6-01 or o6ej/ . late fTrard^Orjv . feel ircta-opai from TT(v6-<ro[jMi 2 ]>. 28). Dor. 7rea . mid. tTrk-niQ-^v (1064) . ir^irot0<i. (for Trem. TrcireipavTai See irtpalvu.). 2 a. p. 12. and aor. ir^irovBa {2 pi.r)v plpf. persuade . and late prose .tV etc. (IV) see TTCIKW. 22. s/iaW persuade. . 4-irap-a>vT)0Tjv . the Attics use 18. fut. 581. (Od. This verb is not to be confounded with Trdofjuii. 1073 not to be confused with irda-ofj-at and eTTaa-dp-riv from TTttTeo/nat. 223) MTO. . and iriXvdta. Tre<u (Theocr. and rare trag. Late a. (IV) irtira. suffer. eVe^u/Ar/i/ . (///) imv&a. a-Traorros fir<i(rdfji. reipa . ep.are un-Attic and late. taste. a. for the pres. d-7rawTos.aL .0-w a. hunger. 2-irao-a . 21.vafj. see 479 imvfyrw . ir^trciKa . taste. 2 a. erarf. 7re7ri0j/o-(o (990). . pf. epic Tri'Ai^/zt or TriX. epic m. ir\T)o-Ul|.ai and eirX^JYnv. {in Find. Trdb-o/xat in Aesch. */m p . doubtful (Orf. vb. fTrX.Ta|a ^K-irtiro. war. irX. ir-irap-iovT)Ka Tre-Trap-Mnj/j-aL 4-irap-ivow Luc. irap-oiv^w. late TrtVatr/xai . . (II) = ITCKT&O (TTCK-). iraCw. (II. pass. and impf. . epic . ep. The simple verb . d^to (. Treirdcr^v in 7/. . 6?-tn</ near. 45.reAaS-. find. . and impf. and late prose. imBoiieu. TrcAatrtu and Att. approach. for (irar-.dcrBr)V 7rrA?//icu vb. or perhaps = but Horn. acquire. 90 hence Horn. 99 . ep. the pf. TreAas. regular but in Hdt. 1 pi. in Aeech. irardlw ira. (irtp-). ev-). redupl. Tri8-). TrevO-) for irad-a-KW (104). (TTCKT-). TTfiroa-Bf for TreTroV&rre. in .a6r]v .rjv fTTfX. impf. epic for Trepfivw m<ri cawa in Soph. (VIII) TTHT i(T(r<i). 7V. . strike. Probably all the forms in Traprjv. TrtiriOov Orf.o-0T)v . vb. 7reAu$<o and 7rAd#o> In V. Isth. TrAa. tread. 2 ]).. tTriQov poet. (IV) dram.) . 599 the 2 pf. (IV) ird<rx> (trad-. ird. imperative 7r7reio-0i ought probably to be Trkirurdt. ep. 3. but perf. 4. trust . irapa-vvofir]Ka. intr. 5) . 369 = = trusting} kt/i obey. 17. iravorTt'ov. 555} . prose also of Class By-forms: TrcAaw poet. fut. 2 a. in New Test. p. fTrdrjv. late aor. ^irc(vr)<ra . . sprinkle ircurw is . and ITTT waor&v. liehave rudely (in litjuor).i>.v (Hdt. .p[j. contr. (IV) . nor with the passive of Trarew. liraOov eiraOvia in 6*<f. 2 fut.6. . . Trucro-o) vb. ira. dv- CTrdpr. irrrXT]Yp. insult (as ffjL-Trap-OLVr'](r(a a drunken man) (556) . of 2 plupf. .300 also CATALOGUE OF VERBS poetic . for in Od. eat. 3 sing. . .rayp. (Tridofjujv poet. pr. etc.rifj. ^Trcura .. poet. c) (TretO-. i-irap-wvt]cra (647). 327).). and pass. 7reAa<ra . pres. Hdt. ir<Cro|Uii 2 a. corn.at. 4. TTOI&JTOS late. dva 788). irtia-o> . ^\frnv. eTTfipjjva . = one must obey. . trusting. transgress the law (563) augments wap-fvojiovv and irapT]v6fjLovv. TrAoo-ros. (-TrapoivtL (Dio Cass. the MSS have liravOriv and vb. Doric ireiro<r\a.a. 7ri0/. . . Horn. TrtAw (680. 24. comb. late Trap/vduv/Ka.pavop. . (40) . 4irtC<r0T]v . 644). . /J. TmroiO-di) . (Luc. 642 990). Sept. fut. malce cease. TOTTTW and . Poetic. irri<r|iau . irr*vT)Ka.. 2 a.1. poet. jri^ryo-ds. TreAa-. 1037 very vb.

cross. vb. send . injure . f. COO&. Sib. send. vb. 12. . ava-. Trrjyi/iJTo for Trryyvv-t-ro (700. 1 . 8ia-irpavT'ov. drive 301 7T\ffj. . eVvy^^T/v <itci. ep. p. 619) Att. all irc<f>vov and 7re<^vov and 7T<apu.v-'). late Tre^vto. but some MSS Late huve TrrjyvvoiTO. (TreT-e-. V) 680) Observe also (see .ofj. 245).1073 7reAe/zto> (1002. cTTOTi'jdrjv . Trepdav for Trepdo-etv irepvajMat . eirpaOov (621. pedo . ir^\j/w . sack. ^x 2 p. 2 a. fut. irpdv9i]v (/ V) 2 p. IT^TTW p. 1062. . destroy. coo&. later ava-Treraoj . eVr//UT/i'a . irirc|i|iai (same as but see 88 and 734) vb. 7reAo/a. TTOTT^TO? (Od. (/I/) irfiraptiv. TreAe/xi^a . (Trepai/-). diro-irap8^<ro(xai irepaivto . Tnjo-trw or TTV/TTW. m. 55. CTTIPoetic. ewrf. ircpSo|iai. TrepBai for 7re/3#-(T0cu}.Ka. 145). m)fj. m&e soft. pres. . sell. . eTreTTdva (Dor. 7repo-a ep.). -^irr^n^v in Of Class VII are late tWa-yucn and poet. 1051 . inf. TrAo/xei-os and Tre/H-TrAo/aevos}. 454 ( . L. irlirTapai (sync. V} aivw (mjp. . and late See also triT-mj-fU or TTLTVOLW. poet.6vo<s. irf{'6op. sync.. frreTacrd'^v poet. firfpr/va . opt. 1. . TTtAw and 7rAeo be. m.cu.ai and Troreo/icu. accomplish . (same as irrnfc. irerraivot (ireirav-}. inf. 996) and Poetic. Trept-Trrvyo-do-a (Or. Lat. irerw (Trera-). TreTrrj^a . irrdp. tVepdcra cooA. in Plat. in /. poetic for TrcoX&n or diroSSo|iai . irir^paernai . . III) fly .Tjv pt. 1). (II. in prose firpaOofjujv {sync. TT/SO-. 2 a. 1. . jrep6<a. TTC/XTW . Trepdta. cirra<ra Att. 1). ir^j|w late irfiniyfiai (797. . wfTrepi'nj. TTfvO-). (619).i'drjv . Epic Trtorao/iat . fTt]fia. Trera-pu 2 a. of /zi-form /caT-7r>/KTo. /7i/ . . poetic for irvv0dvo(H.or TTfTTTd). 62). > . eTrAe and 7rAei'. t . Homer in comp. ^r. 2 a. 9) m. irijfj-avw Mostly poet. see root TTO/D. dir-'irap8ov. 720.i (TTf/j-va-. (IV. late Sitt-TreTreraKa . See also late TreTrrto (ireTT-).avT(ov. eireXov and tireXofJLtjv {ep. in simple poet. 2. iriropSa . TreTtiVw in comp. ir^|x<j>6r]v . Horn. ^frr]|a fasten . ?iro[ra . p. (IV) . irTT|oro|iai and irnfio-ojiai (619). eirrrjv (768) and mid. irop0eo>. and . . Trorr/o-o/xai (Mosch. ir|A\|/a . poet. nr^u|/ci> . p. go over. 21. (1063). ireirepa. . Phaed. circpdva. TTT-). (TTCK-). irepavreov (Galen). Tre/mo-w . fTTfpaa-a pass. TreTT/Dwrai. -jreTrdvOai .a. 2 a. away . late fTTdiTi'jOrjv. 118 a pres. CATALOGUE OF VERBS shake. or late prose Att. expand. .. TrfTropeLv. 2 a. see Trero^iat. vb. inipf. ircpavw . ( 1^) fii comp. inf. from Trecrcrw.L^Or]v. vb. irefiirw. SCO 7Te(T<TW. a-ir^pavTos. eTrAero TrAo/wi'os Euplior.a. ]>. 2 a. ]>. .i (TTvO-. Poetic TroTo. 2). 2 poet. TTt\Lirr6s. see root late '* 7rj ?7") am ^erf . from irt\Lir-<a. . irepvr)/j. . ep. .. but see 88 and 734) tir^O^v . ep. irirop^a (715.

For the pres. .. irtirrw. ep.-7rX. see . 7riXvrjfj. fill.at. mid. (VII) II. fill . 626).tjv {767.-TrX-fiiJ. ir^irraiKa TrcTTTTfois and TTCTTTCWS . pass. impf. late. . poet. f7r\ijfj. . irp-f\<ria .) . fut. Horn. irXT)<ra .a. p. 1073 late fatten ..ai . irlavw . Poet. iirpi\(ra.-Trf7rXf)^a veuve. spread. irtirrw (TrfT-. lirXawa : late . Late in late late prose dyopa. . irfo|i<u or iriojtai (676). see TreAa^w.at.1. and aor. TTO-). 679).. Pr. for ircTdvvv(u. (poet. late fTnvvtrdr^v. poetic. 1062) and inrvdw. a~u\L-ir\r\6via.i-form . only ( mnVrKto See make wise. give to drink. rare . lirXfyrflT]v . Late 589. (iriTva-. 7rAay*CTos. ep.-TrX. . part.ai TrXijTo irXfyrw poet. -(V. . irtoovjiai 7rt<TfOfj. 9. but Ion. /aW . . .vw only pass. epic (700) (VII) and and . Att. irfirXao-pai . mid. irt'irwKa fir<58r]v irtirojiai poet. see 681).va. tTrwra. barn. TTiAvaw . in Att. late m.y\6riv . f7ra. (TTIVV-). . iror<5s. in Aesch. see 765). mvw drink.. pres. Of Class V. for TTt-TTfT-d). Aristoph. and dir-8opiiiv. fv-fTrXrjTo fp. firpV|r9tiv. vb. 652. declare. Aristoph. (681). (TTI-. 480. : 4(i-iripnrXT]|ii. fTrerov. Horn. vb. TTTO. kp.yro . irpa. and perhaps vb.) tirXc^a . VIII) (TTL-).ou . act.T<5s. 2 a. for TreAa^w. 4ji-ir\Ti<rT^os. rare and late 1 a. late (rvv-fTrXr]6v(ra late TrfTrXrjdriJLfj. and Aesch. tirXdo-Otjv . 9. be full . and TriX. liriov {imper. TTLITW . the Attic and Ion. <firirov. . (v<a\r\tra. Trifj:Trpdw. late TrAacrTcoK . opt. iri|iir\T||u (TrAa-. late TrAe^w . firXay^a. late -irfTrprjKa. late pf.rAaT-. firiava . 765). fall. fv-fTrpyOov (from Trpi'jBw) . sell.)} vb. . late TTfTrprjo-p-aL. TrfTTTrjKa . fut. late fTrXay^dfiriv . irXArTw TTfTT n-Xt'tcw. Conv. (K/) See -( (TrAayy-). (Soph. diro-SiSofiai. 7. and late irU . and . fut. be full. VI) irWo>. poet. of //. irirvia. 8ia-7re7rAo^a or . XaKa . In Attic prose usually in comp. approach. tror^os. vb. prose only be full. e/^-TrAr/cro (II.. 647). (VI) See (Trpa-). oreo-a. ffj. ir\t\9vto.302 irtatvti) CATALOGUE OF VERBS (irlav-). iriov/xai (Xen. 4.. Aesch. also prose also trans. TrXrjvro. irerrpaKa irfpvrifj. late . TTITT/^O-KW See also poetic ( VI) uses iro>X6i> . also late TrXrjO&via (irXr)6vv-). (/I/) a^a-TrAaaa) (Hippocr. late prose.: Horn. irXVj9ov<ra fill. . TrXijdw. 767} .fj. ir^irpdpxi ^irpdOrjv irpdrtos. 1 . 2 a. ir<oXTJo-a> and diro-Swcrofxai. in Aristo])h. 2 a. riViKnra . irc'irXTia-fiai. only (1^) pres.. 7rAa#u). irtvw.) TrfTrXrjda. and mid. poetic for <^>av-). .yfj. iriri(W[j.fvos In Attic prose in comp. Dor. . TrAa^o/iai Poetic. and impf. dramatic TrAao-trw (. late.i (IV) (-rnXva-). By-form Trifj. irXa<rr<Js. also TTTT\rjfj. Ion. fill : irXT)8vo-a. /rtngr near. (Aristoph.rjv iniper. TrtfiTrXavfTai by-form e/A-Tri/tiTrAao). (/ V) ffj.) TreTrrws. 7rro/u.1. mpirpT)}jLi (Trpa-. approach.7rXa. caws <o wander. 2 p. IX . abound. Ionic and poetic. braid . irirXT]Ka . 2 p. Poet. eiridvQrjv. pt.

also late prose). fill. (TrpoiK-. (Aesch. irXrjOvvfj). impart . . . vb. -irvoKrovjiai. . . rare or (to MSS in prose {f| ircirpa>|jL. irXvw (TrAiw-). (ir\. tirpdtva TrpeTr(a. 'Ava-irWw. irpeVsi. Trpotg.e oneself (Thuc. TrAoxrojiicu and late TrAoxrto TreTrAwKa . (^) Tr\i'j6w. imper- sonal . reg. see irX^w. fir\eu<rdr}v . vb. Sfive.. irXvvw . ir^irXvjiai (617). Trveuo .va-fJ.1073 Ion. late -eVveTxr^ryv in comp. 4.irpT](ii (Trpa-). 2. becoming. . but Trovecropu (Luc. ap. epic TreTrvi'fiai. TrtirXirya ir'irXt|Y(iai. gift). 2 p. epic forms : p. imper. 1. show). 2 a. sail. //) in the perfect and passive systems in the other systems. Compare (irpay-). p. Dor. irpio-a irt'irpia-fiai Iirpt<r9r\v. . irpdKT^os. 4. irovfyrw. (iropov . a. In-Awo-a . itr69r\a-a. . 125). 303 &rXdict)v . ^4swi. . late e/x-TreTTvew/Acu . redupl. Ionic and poetic TrAww. irrXv<r|n. (616). irpdrrw do irp<ia> . 616. a7ro-7rvi^ou/zai .vv9r\v . 2 a. In prose.) t^-eirXa-yiiv . 2 p have fared (well or ill). inflected in 498 . late late TreTrodrjfjLat . irnrpia^ivos.eipofj.ai. irX^rrw (. of /it-form 7rAwv (1063). a. wash. of the yat-form (Cl. ^irX^xOTjv (rare) and 2 a. Hippocr. breathe. inf. labour. see also 516. the compounds. .-7rvi>To . etc. ir&rpaxa . see rifarX.). irXvre'os. late 7rAono/zat . lirX^yrjv.lvT]. p. root. 797 ir^irpdYfwit vb. . Att. late a. mid. afji-Trvvf From the same root: . . See 2 TTIVI'O-KO). poetic 2 a. trovtto. ^irviyr]v (Att.cu. 7rA?7y-m'-. TreirodrjKa diro-irvf^w. poet. irXevtroiiai and irXcvo-ovpiai (681). tTrpti\it. 520. TrAe/-. ir&rviYfMu .. late Trvewrw . irXT]0voi. see <ovfc|iai. Kara-irXriKT^os pres. (IV) be conspiciious. stem : brpid|XT|v. rr/ota-. Att. 3 sing. (Hippocr. be wise. . 57 is irtTrapelv in some p. . ep. 632). irXev<ra ir^irXevKa late. irX&o (TT\V-. (IV) Trpdvvw (n-pavv-).rAay-. (681). fcrrXDvo. soothe. ^irpd^a . late. TT AUTOS.cro-a). dfjL-Trvvcrdrjv. TreirvvfJievos. Horn. (^TreTrA^yov vb. blow. For the present. 125). 1^) eK-TrA^y-vv-o-^at In Attic prose. . -irveii<ro|xai (late breath a. simple only in pres. take (//) (TTVV-. 7ro0&). miss. lirvew<ra . Trpotg. Trviy-). and tir69ra. inf. TrAeu-.). be full. (IV. 639). 2irvT|a . vb. in simple). it is fated.ai. vb. CATALOGUE OF VERBS .vBrjv (late). 2 a. . fate}. . sometimes : liave done. iirpa. wise. comp. iroO^jo-w and TroOco-ofxai (679). (poet. irvt-yw (TTi'iy-. sometimes have Troveo-w and 7rovra (679). fated. 13). late aTro-Trvt^o/zat.vffti. p. 9). 2 2 aor. Rare (//) 7rAonw. -ir&rvevKa in comp. late 7rAoto/x. irXevo-rt'os. TTVC/-. choke. TTVCV-. in Find. 7rA(j>w (Thuc. texts ol TTo/)- TT/OO-. eK-TrAr/y-vixr^ou. leg. 632). irirXeYf"u . see ir(n.Tr-eirvi\dii]V. P^. an d KaT-eirXa-yt|v . . air-} . late 7rpo-tTro6y)6r]V. bought. irX^(j<o . desire. a. late TTfTrpa. and (always in . irpdo-<rw and Att. poetic : Trpe^io fTrpf\f/a. . 7rXT|a . Att. (VIII) saw . see TrA^cro-w. (IV) TrAoi^o/Acu . irpta). fatrn. s<riA. strike. . p. irpt'xj/ti. mid. the simple verb is used only (only Thuc. 7rAr. . fj. 2 tTrXtfyd^v rare TrAr/y-.

usually l/3^a pt'iru. 625). inquire . Tri'trw . 2 a. 96). .at. . . incline .iu>. Attic prose. (V) brrT}a . . (Hippocr. firTvptjv late . plpf. pres.. p. 989}.. II) Attic irvptTrw (TrvpeTos. (IV) Compare tpou. TTTvpop. . fpdvOrjv . ?irrapov. TTCTTTT/WS from irtirrw) . (/K) (TTTV/>). late Kar-fTrpoi^dfiiji'. IV) paiw.) .). /y).ai. TTTTJK-). 11. 355). 2 a. eppaurdtjv late . paurta poetic. (also Hippocr. make rot . 2 a. CTTTVKGI late . fVrapijv. and late) . '/o vb. pev-. . stumble . late Trrdpi'vfj. .). paivto (pav-.) . . 8. later peucrw . epic 3 see 988. Siappai. late . Pers. 569. (IV) (Aristoph. fer-er). Poetic Kara-TTTTi'jTrjv in //. a-fa-Bai (II. . ptf-. (///) powrcrw (pay-). Kara-TTTaKcuv : in Aesch. fTrrvipa (Aristot. irra<r . 313) . sprinkle Test. = rof.vop. TTTUO-O) and Trn'cro/jiat (late). 8i-ppayKa (Old pi. ep.i (Trrap-) .) . n-vv0d. . . eppd-S-araL. eppd-S-aro {eppavrai Aesch.). pe^w Poetic. gvp-pdw (Thuc. -frm<ra (sinipls poet. Ionic. . strike. 4ppvt|Ka (613). 632). o. . coicer . CTTTUT/V (Hippocr. decay. f-mvpa (/^) . TTTVKTOS (Ion. (IV) epe\6r}v pcfo (fpey. 33. (/ V). (rvv-fppa<f>ov late late plpf. pavu . f. have a fever . late) . late. vb. (V. 6e afraid. late) . late 2 a. vb. epic pf. cpao-cra . f. fppega.ai (TTV^-). . 620). 2 a. 3 dual df pi-form from TTCTO/XCU. . .a> . 1073 Att. . <Trrapw|uu. 16). dv-fTTTvyrjv ?im)^a ?imry|Jiai iirrv\9i\v irrv|o) The simple form does not occur in (Hippocr. fear (Hippocr. Fr. paw late. throw down. 2 a. 2irrrix a ' ilte OTTij/ca. irvpfio (Hippocr. 37) tpp|/a. 24. (IV) irrtfw (TTTU-. late) . . ireTrrpf^a (Aristot. Trvdto. spit. a-irraioros. (pa<f>-). 9. part. irrwro-w. . stitch . p.) . irrvo-o-w (TTTi'y-). Kin-aura ^irraiKa late (irrauruai iTTa. vb. 136 (compare CTTTT/V (//. tTTTV(r6i]v (Hippocr. mid. fohl. vb. 647.304 (Archil CATALOGUE OF VERBS 130). pa-}. parrw.from //>y-. Eum. . Callim. late 7r/3i-7TTi(r$ei's.). f. //) From the kindred root Trra- and Hdt. pass. /u?ar. Poetic. late eTTTai<r9r)v . Pans. {ppcu^Tjv vb. late. KaTa. tiruflofiT)v vb. pound . ?TTw<ro-a> (TTTWK-) . KaTa-irrvoTOS. ^ou> tppeixra f. p. late TTTW^W. ptva-ovaai (Aristot).. 274). irHjoro-w (TTTttK-. pa-irrds. 2 a.. /jai'ros. lirrio-fwii . part. pevaojtai (rare in Att). pt'u> 6enrf.ai eTTTicra (Hdt. pdt|/<>) 2 a. 8. 8. rarely Attic). act. break . irtvo-ofiai ava-Tri-o-TOS (Orf. 1 a. cppao-pai . TT/JOO-- (rvv-(ppa<f>iJKt 2ppap. irmi(T|uu Poetic pres. eppava. Kara-irpot^ofiaL (Archil..) . 616. Trra/xo (? Hippocr. pt\j/ta (Hdt.. 7TV0o/zcu. a-pKTo<.-irpoigofj. . {ppo^a late -fppd\0r)v. Probl. 484) . .. as pass. late vTTo-TTfTTTijxa . late eTrrw^a. (Hippocr. i'ppavj/a . (V. late . late 7TT?. Hdt. pdirrft> tppaura . late). (pv-. p. paTrreov. eTri-o-a (TTUO-C. TreTrrTjojs (may lie confounded with Horn.p. 2f)7. not stumbling. 2 a. See dpda-cria.

pttrro) (pt</)-. pty<s. pi. see o-acro-w <r<ia>. pfJ/w ppi\{/a 1 \ vb. a7ro-<r/3et's (Hippocr. a-/3<rTos late.). ha$ten. late craATTtorw and craATTiw o-ai'pw (o-ap-). . (616) . to-p^v. crtcrtiKa . eppuio-0-qv. 2 p. 7.ai pt.). <r&rr]pa. Plat. . befoul. piyotWoji/ ^ppl<{>a /'ll'lll'llrrllll . epic. as act. and late). regular. {piyw. 2 p. p^-yvvfii (pay. inf. pvTrdw. s^iwr twWi coW. vb.1073 2 a. (710 o-aco. tppxrqv 305 . save. piyv/croj eppiyr/a-a. lo-cura . New Ionic. o-e'po(iai . late by-form (TT/^OJ . 2 a. Phaed. c-tieru (<ru-. dvacrorvros (Hippocr. 6rai& . but sometimes peculiar pres. prose.).tjv Poetic. ptyew (piy-. Attic OXXTTW (cray-). Horn. revere. pinraw. 1 in Att. . . ecr^pa o-apw (New Test. O-PO). (K. eo-crtytai. prj/cTos (//. </n'n. contr. 61 } . late fcr(3<TfJ. 613). fa-v&rjv and (Aesch. . . late O-TJO-TCOV. sound the trumpet . erem-ds (Aesch. . pt. . vb. am broken (717. ppdyiv Of Class III. pf| 8i-epprj^a (Old Test. New Ionic.ai or pvo/j. am f.1. a.for /pay-. plyioyv in Xen. airo-a-pijvai. part. (974). 2ppr|ga pwy-). / ' J \J pt^>-)) *ppt4>OT|v . . 357). shiver. vb. ^<j>6t]v as act. pacA^ equip to-aga . si/<. 4<rf<rflrjv . . //i-forms in late impf. inf.) I n Attic usually in comp. n/(0-)0i/i/ . /awn ^on .)} p. purds (Oo . . ptyw and plyoi . 120).). ioatZ. also late prose From a-fvofj-at or <rdo/iat. . rare epv<rOrjv . (//) pv^ro(iai as active vb. (New Ionic). . : Poetic. ^ppwa-a ppa>|i<u {imper. (T(rvfj. vb.ei'os. Tr. ( k') oftener impf. pt-yow. late fcrdX-ma-a . 812). . say . p.pp?/y//.ai (a by-form of epuo/nai). //) . late prose. move. Mostly poetic. See epi'w. piTrrds (Soph. . eppiya as pres. See piyoo>. si^ee^ . p. see flirov. I . <pe o-cuvu> (crav-). pljdv and piyouv 4. root. tfppwya. shudder . as ppa><r6ai. He. ^o-pco-a . pixr#ai} .: . ^ppaxro =fareivell piovvi'fj. p-. defend. went out {767. pepvTrwp. pt vb. . o-iwrrds. inf. 2 p. guard {ep. o-'o-< 10-^0. . (k) .1 (pto-). . ppt<j>T]v . (481) to o> and o> as well as to ov and ot opt. Ionic pf. I I 5 4 )}.evo<i <7ri'cro-i>Tos 2 (877). 267). 2 a. (///) pvofj. poetic (also late prose) prjo-o-w pv/rrw late prose. pvaro. paicra) b so also inf. CATALOGUE OF VERBS p. ^o-prjKa.. sairf. eo-o-eua (1027) pf. only pres. ptywvres (but gen. strengthen. <r(o-)i'/tv/v (1063). . (//) o-cora-y|iai. f . 1 extinguished . peuo-Tos (Emped. late Trepi-a-ecrdXirurTai and 7rept-crraA.) o-aXir^w (o-aATTtyy-). 6. vb.^vo<i . <rej8?/o-o-#ai (Diog.7riyKTcu. these forms in the Drama Doric X . <rpvvv(Jii (a-fte-). p. <reu-). Pr. . 797). vb. shake . Laert. <raow. <rc(<i>. fut. 2 a p. also ^Iirr^w (636) . f<rfj3ov late . throw. a. pwo/xat eppvardp. . bowf*? m. extinguish o-p'cr . ea-rjcra . i<rfU<rtor]v . inf. 3 pi. trf(rrj(cr)p. urge aor. hasten a. tpfn')^dr}v rare . . p^y-. purds (Eur.ai rare.

rare in Attic) . pr. 209). cause <o rot. rfiV/ . and impf. (Aristoph. r^e. 887).). f. 458). (TKe8au>. (/K) . O-KC&IU) only o-xeSawv (late). a-Ka\|/a . 2 aor. ^(rK8a<ra 680. e'o-KATjwres (Ap. xOi)V <roo/xai. .. 2. ivrap .). <rirdra) l<nrdra IcnraKa o-irdw. 13.T-to-iJ. 121). p. Vesp. <rK<dt|/ofiai. (sync. jv late -burn. i'o-KT]\j/a . Ap. ecr/A^^a r//. 2. show. <ro-T|fia<rjjiai . 81late mostly Ionic and late . . (V) e/ceSao-o-a Epic /ceSavviyu (KfSda-Oijv plpf. (raTr-). only e<nrapga (Horn. . . roW. .306 cra>/zat CATALOGUE OF VERBS . 2 a. Ionic. p. 2 a.aL Rh. late O-CO-TJ/A/ZCU . ?<rn-a<r(4ai to-irdorOrjv . late aTr-ecr/iuyryv. (<TKt8-va-). -jceSa-). vb. (///) f(TK<f)drfV pass. poetic KioVrj/u and K^Svafuu. dvr(- <rrra(TTos. . . (rova-de (Aesch. o-icAe-). Callim. . . jeer . dm>i. see crKc8dvvv[xi. late cny/xuvreos. (IV) o-rprw (cryTr-. Kar-ecrT^a late . <r. . Hym. late ecr/xi^a (Horn. co-irdpt]v . o-KeSao-w . imper. late f. Frag. Mor. mow. 10. &Hj(XT)va . for pres. . (//) 1414). KtKeSao-To (Ap. p. contr. ^<rdin]v ta"t]^>6r]V <rr](idv0i]v . (///) <TKT|irrw ((TKrjTT-). 615 . be dried up. contr. ((TKWTr-). fTT-ta-Kr/^a .}iai . . Pres. 112). part.v. Vesp. f. 2. 37). p. vb. 1073 or ? <rovrai. . (r/ceAw late . o-Trapyw. of (TKOTreo) are used only by late writers. (Coin. (nrapros.. <r6rrpra as pres. . 1112) late and rare KeSaw only pr. 8. fa-lvdfjLrjv (Ionic). Aj. o-rijiavw . to-KcSao-pai ^<rK8d<r0T]v . . Ion. In the but the other tenses prop . late Ka.. <rov(rd( (Aristoph. vb. a-ova-Ota (Soph. (Theog. {<TKat|>a . late (<ni(f>6r)v. Attic writers usually employ o-Koir&. late . d-ay^/cros.ai vb. TV. . hasten. SOU' . (Ill) scatter. late (///) 07*1(0. crK\j/o(iai ^trKe\)/d(iT)v . Sopli. trovvrai (Aescli. Ion. pres. 2. (IV} <rKat|/co . 2 p. O-KITT^OS. X-. O-TJTTTOS (Aristot). 270). (o"K7T-). . Frag.) diro-o-K\fjvai (from ecrKA>/v. ?o-KT)(Xfiat . <rKairrw (CTKCU/)-). otherwise reg. 2 a.) en]|Acuvw (u">]p. o-Ki'Svi/^i (o-/8-va-) and (TKiBvafjMi (poetic. (rov (Aristoph. oe rotten. also poet. also in comp. (r/z?/a) . see 479 By-form Sia-oy^wvre in Hdt. made dry . (//) crfvofiat (criv-). pass.. 37 is a wrong reading for Sia-o-/AoWes. veo-oyiryKTos (/i. Pers. a-K-f^a . 362). pres. 25) .. late o-r>//*ayKa . late KaT-r/>u}y/juu . . late f. Tt//(.7yy/z. Att. late and rare Ke8cuo/xcu only pr. inf. late OTra/)Tov. late fa"irapKa <rirpw {(nrcipa vb. late p. rfry tip. . . . <r|A. smear . (. <T7/^a> (Aesch. 3 In Att. 767) Za-KrjXa.) late . twice. anoint. . (TKeSao-Tos (Plat. . 485) . a-fvrai (1062. (o-7T/>). 342). . Horn. Rh. fTr-ea-Keirrjv (Old Test) vb. ci7ro-<rKA'//. also late . . . see O-CT'W. (V) . view.av-). injure (Ion. late prose). . 616. o-Trarrrtos (Hippocr. ^CTKap-fiaL . a. 3 645).To/Acu ecrKAr^xa. gen.? ) o-tv^o-o/xat (Hippocr. .tTTTop. vb. late aTro-crKOj^w ^o-KcovJ/a . 53)}. 2 a. <ro{xr0cu (Plut. (/ 1/) to-rrapfjiai . <rKcp. a-q-q/zavTOS (II...

ecmy/H^a. pr. crr/awTos. late pr. New Test. late ecrr^/atcra ItmjptyfMaL . . rarely Att. By -form (trag. Poetic. (TTIKTOS (Soph. encircle. eorepy^at vb. support <TTr)pi(a. late o-T/jeTrreos. am deprived am in want. f. -(<rTpo<f>a (621). f. pass. 7Tia : ep.). i. late crropecrw..). crTrjpurb).. ta. XXw yd^w send. a-reAw .. ecrro/aya (Hdt. but diro-a-Teplw reg. T eiV^ryv. late e<7To(O-T/DW-) . late o-T}>av(5a) is gen. . rfn're . ep. .. . (crrei'tty-). <nrcr (90. groan (rare only pr. late fa-TvyrjfjLai . 2 a. co-T^pr]|xai .) . 2 a.1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS . late) . (IV) ore'-yw. urge. late (late .. vb.). o-Tei/?o> (o-Tt/3-. late crre^u) . <rrp^\|/w . dread. <rmx-). (trag. and intrans. eo-rt^a (Hdt. ecm>a (in Homer = dT-eo-Ti'y^Ka Hdt.T-f<TTfi\f/a . ca-ropfo-Orjv (also . late vayfj. Epic crTfvd^d) and in prose).i . . (rrevw. 2) {only (TTevrai. poet. fat. . &rircura Kar-eo-TreiKa Lite. ( V) f. p.a.1 vb. eo-Tt^ov. . poetic.) . (rreiTTTos. O-T<JXO.).ai o. (Old and Poetic. vb. tread . prick. late 2 p. 2 a. . . Rare verb ?crTt|/a . both only pr. ecrTvyt'jdrjv . -fa-Ta^Orjv '. vb. ep. (Emped. (crrpw-). ^o-rpc^a o-Tp4)0T|v (rare in Att. . ?<rraXKa (621).. a-reifa) . ev-errTay/^cu . p. p. o-re/aKros. (TTvyrprop.640). ?<rriY(i. urfiai . 0-T66/3-). (rrevaKTo?.). Hdt. o~rw . Ka. etrraX^ai 4<rT^va|a 2 a. n/e. ?<rrp|a .). pour libation. pledge oneself.) Ionic . Ionic and poetic. speed. crropw p(r/j. p. o-reuTo}. 0-re'pofj. 640). . and Dor. and o-rtpio-Ku ((rrep-). o-rpwo-oi e(rTpaj)j. cover. . O-TTTOS. in simple) (Soph. eo-repecra !or^pT|Ka of. Horn. . . used instead. defend . . drop. defective (VII) . late ecnrevKa .) .. spread out . (o-reA-). eVruyov . rraa . love . ?<rr6fji(xai tcrT^>^v vb. vb. late eWe^a late eo-re^^ryv. affirm. . orvyTjTos. orrevaKTeos. trans. late Att. Ion. 190 late) late IfrTep^Oriv 2 p. crown . oTmxrreov. . late (736) . rrp^rw itrrtpi\<ra. hate. 2 a. (/K) oT-opvvfiu ((TTop-). o-ra^w late 640. ea-Tpd<f)6iji> . e(rrpii')0rjv turn. i. 4'crTpowra o-Tpwvvvjxi Hdt. poetic. hasten. Ion. ea-Tiflrjfjiai (//) (613) . straiten . fcrTvy>](ra (crrvy-. . verb (1062.cu. . 2<rriXa . 0-Tuo> (o-ray-). le angry . tnrewrot fcnrevcr[j. l(nrepxOr)V. 2 a.o. fcnrcvo-a . . . Poetic. ep. <rraKT<5s. . <TTPKTOS. . -. . vb. late o-irtvSw. deprive. si^. late ( V) . o-reva^w poet. eo-Tayj/i' . spread out . late prose (IV) . tcrTr/ptx^^v.ai . poet. <rr<5p(ra . vb. late crTei^w . 307 . crT^/otw O-T?//KW (a-Trjpty-. rare and impf. see under <rr<Jpvv(u.a. orpcirnSs.ai. made terrible). also late prose. Rare in prose. and impf. for the pres. ea-Tfprjv. (//) #o. prose . (IV) gr?-oa?z . 4). (/i^) O-T^W (orty. e'crTe- (<rra\j]v. 613). and impf. prose mid.1 (Soph. tfrTL\Oi]V late. <rr^p|w . 621 . (in comp. rarely late prose . New Ionic.

i . 2 . o-aokri)} . .). disturb . 2 a. . (IV) <r<6o-o> tcrtocra later OTM^W. (rip p. crau>/u but some is O-OOMTI . ru) (ra/sa^-) . <r<j>dco iV4>a^a r<aKd . . 2 raAa-. 2 a. (IV) <Tvpi<a. making it impf. a. o-vpfrrrw (criy>ty. late e'crfyncra. Mostly (/K) 5 (o-^aS-). vb. o-ovys. 2 pi.<. tri-pito . rare (Tayrjv vb. (/ V) ) sr. (IV) late cr<aw (crc^ay-). Epic. p. Ion. root. play on the pipe. rtv& . .\di]V rare . part. also Ion. . stretch. cr^amo. o-w^w <rorj. iravvcra. tTavvcr^^v .. crw- Compare 8pdcrcra>. f. TOKT^S. i<rana6i)v. (r^>Tpi^a/x7. Old Test. t<rpiga. (//) fasten. (a-tfrvy-. . (//) late crecrvy>//ai . of Epic. Sia-crv/areoi' late. (also lo-</)tyKTa6. am astonished 2 a.). seize. erxwr (Aristoph. p. (/ -). 739}. whistle. tw< . . Alt.. T^ra^ai . (rw-). rapd|o> . Fr. Epic (rww . ravviu. iy^W) 39. late (rvpiio. ^w and late cr^irrrw late. . rfdrjira.). <r<f>aXu> 2<r4>T]X. r<i'a. vb. See ravv<a and TiTaiVw. in Herodas TJJ. draw. ravvta (see 1023). i(r<^a. cr<i'yo> . also cr^aw. -6<rvpr)v . (Aristot. pr. Att. stretch . impf. pr. r<tyu 735.y\ia. late f(rTV(f>fXix6r)v. (//) Rare in Att. imperative TT) (Horn. ^ saved or save MOM (from Aeol. 707. Compare reivw. order .308 <rTi'</>Ai'o> (oTi'<eAiy-). and rapdrrct. Tya> Irey^a frfy\0r/v. fcr+dXtiv. see o-^>a^w. (/k) 1/) . root. pr. raKWos. r<ipaa . take. trtiva 1 . pr.0r)v . . reg. late plpf.). (IV) . pipe). ra</>- (ep. tcr^dyriv : . but authorities differ between these and o-a^s or croco? raaxra . o-^a-wKa o-^o-<o|iai and <r^r<oo-(iai lo-wOrjv vb.).\8r\v (/ V) . rfro. .) o-ecoto {subj. Ze< gro. . poetic (not Att. . (rvpw (Old Test. write craov.). s/<(?/ . 2 a. see rAa-. 2 p. reyyw. . cui open. late but late etc. a. . very rare in epic. . astonish. <r4>dXXci> (crr/>aA-). Teraytoi/. p. a!id Tarrw (Tay-). prose. (/K) . of /zi-form craw. late Hippocr. 621. TTavu<r/iai.(102). (/|/) Tapa^etv TcrctpaYfwii' ^Tapd\8T)v. /u-form TtivvTai. O-OXTT^OS. throb. o~(f>v<a. or pres. Ir6. also late) . late f<T(f>a. ftrvpa Att. pass. . ^w-rarfos. T(VCO (TCV-). . ra-. f. imper. in comp.).v (1002) in Aesch. epic cr<oo> (crw8-. p. . late and Hippocr. crowo-t (o-aawri. craaxra) . O-<(ZKTOS. (TWOTTOS late. r^re (Sophr ray-. vb. 100). era<^ov (poet. or ^arr. l<r<j>a-y|Aa. (ro(j)s). erd&qv .). Epic. . CATALOGUE OF VERBS 1073 dash. 1002). late prose Tfravv/xat . pr. (<raws. . late <r6rvpKa a-epu (trrp-). Ta|w ?ra|a r^raxa 2 a. bind. arrange. deceive. . SM^. . appropriate.. rrv(eAia . reg.a late r</>aAKa o-4>aXp. Poetic (rare in Hippocr.)(. (TOO). (rvpia-ta.ai. ravwra) (simple late) and in Horn. rfraKa .

2 a. am see root ray-. usually find . accomplish . f. ordain. Horn. TVKTOS. Hippocr. late ererpava . 8. late iv-6TtXa|xt]v 4v-TtToX(iai. Teri?. hit. become dry. irpo-df(a. irc|i. (re*c-. TapTr6fj. (rtTpav-. . T:T&. Att. Pres. 1. For the subjunctive rt^ei. a. having rerirjfjiai. pres. ereu^a. (II) Poetic TCTWTKO/ZCU. T^T(i.). poetic . ep. ere/c^/Da . Sta-rer/Daveo) . . show. trouble. fTttiea. . infer. T/rr/ros (poet.ws. 621. complete. also rdp(f>6i)v . lT|vfj0ip> (K) (rep.ap-). Dialectic forms: Homer: inflection. . Teryuov or erer/zov (619 . in'njf forth. . let raise.ai . TeTapirofi^v. . TJITJT&>S. rise. trlOee. cut . eVt- reAAo). TfKfj. Rh. see 1044-1048. 730. 621. ereu^^v 1 TeTvyfj. enjoin.ai.L (r/aa-). vb. (TfK/j. TT]KT<$S. TtAAco (reA-). . tiri-TtXcor&s. happen. 498 (504). Horn. Horn. T/JL-. troubled. K) late eTprjOrjv . 707). erdpTrrjv {with subj. . am melted.. p. T/Ae-). 993). 4. 13. -Hj .a. not from Tpewo)} Horn. in comp. {Horn. TI>X-). Pres. rush forth) inf. and poet. late IrtTpdrOijv. (IV) 1 TeXc'w. a. Tid^vda.rjv pt. found . . crer/D^va. vb. 309 Act. Ti0ei. 2 a. late. fat. j9u( see ren'r^ai. rejiw r^T(xi]Ka {pt. 740}. ff-rjxOrjv rare Tie-. ev-TeAo{yzcu . Poetic. .ov. ^rcp^a . II. trans. 615. ereiAa. re^w (poet. Tep<To/j. TeAra>. 2. ert^eas. amuse a. and 6) . frdKtjv 2 p. 1015. see Tvyx^" * TTvy/u.e or ev-reAAw. TiOf'uri 7mj)/'. (VI) melt. Ion. TiOeiv) part. and Dor. judge. late). 34) TiBr/fj-evo^. seized pf. compel . 652. ?rr)|a .crw.). 2 a. rt^e/xevos and (72. for synopsis .. re/zw (in II. vexed. late T/DT. (//) . TiOeuTL (irpo-Ofovcri in . see 508. late TtT^yp-ai vb. rijicw (TCIK-). dva-r&Xw. (526). marfe rfry. Tpaireid). 618. 156)} . 2 a. rpa-). Teri'KOi'. prepare.TOS. In Homer vb. (/K. 1. and rfTfj. late T?/KTCOS. perform. 3 pi. . Horn.r]v . fr.S. See era/xov . late ava-reraAfca.T]p.. and 1016. a.apTeov (Hippocr. bore. pf.). rlp^iot . TVK-. for TI^?.cu 4 5 . ere/xr^va (//. )(-aTa^ and Terev^-ttTo. late Tp. TtTfvofj.eo-|i<u rX6r8i]v vb. 3 pi. 2 a. rcKp-apoxifxai crEK^pd^v. see root re/i-. WrpT]|xat I. Tidi)<ri and //. . pt. make. Ti$fis. from Tv-yxavw. TKTO> for TI-TK-O>. as pass. 291. limit. gladden. beget . f. 2 p. rcXw (680. Terevxws . Late rirpdw and rirprip. / TfTVKOfj. pr. ev-TX\o(H rise.KO.-. Ion.. (Com. Horn. rerpjws pass.^-.. . a. TT&. TeriTj/zei'os. also .ov. : . frepcrrjv late ere/cxm. re/xrau/w and redupl. act 1 late. . only dual T(Tir)(rOov. aim. r TtKfUUfX*) put a mark. rise . T^JXI ($e-). Tp<j>0riv. Horn. 1. pf. ra/zrw. rfr?/. av-^reiXa . (r/wav-). r^opai. Ion. ?rpr]<ra. . is doubtful unless from TiOfpev and TI&//ZVCU (Theognis 286 has Hdt. Epic and (/K) Ion. Teraywv. Irv^Orjv. rtv^w. enjoin. poetic. f. Horn. .au and erv^drjv often have the meaning of rervx ! ** an(l *TVXOV. mal. (Ap. late (?) nrpaLvM . p. T^rqKa. vb.1073 TK|iapo|iai CATALOGUE OF VERBS . (IV) T[iv epic redupl. command . a. TTel. prepare. Ion.i Poetic. troubled. vexed.

. epic Tt<ra>. CM<. pr. 2 a.^ in Soph.late fut. 2 a. p. riroKa. vb. ai/Ti-To/37ycro> (Hymn. rAiycro/iai. and in Comedy). rpwcrw . only avTi-Topewra (Hymn. late erA^cra rXa-. (rop-. See TIM. ITCKOV . ..i rare and late. 2 a. Epic. late rercy/^at late ere^drjv. late . Poetic.r\ap. t0p'4)0Tiv rp^x<o (Tp*X~ &P f X~> ^2 opa/*-)> Dor. StSpd|iT|Ka. rexi/iou vb. late TerpwKa. rA^/fli. rtTos (conip. (r/31/3-. ^47i(. 22). . better better Jrcura . WTurpai. rAw. Epic pres. TerAai^i' rerXaOi. and (rarely) Hdt. Ion. 625). .) eriVa^a reriVay/jiui. p. rA^vai. Horn. 2 a. wound '. from raA. . turn . Horn. pay. . mid. Merc. Tpd\w. Rare in prose. piercing tone . airo-T()ioT'ov. also late. Irpaxra . T/37TTos. find . (//) . rptyw frpit|ra Terpi4>a vb.). TTopy<rw tttter in a Epic. Horn. rpcirWos. . 2 a. grew. 283) f. . CATALOGUE OF VERBS rare . (these perfects identical with those from rpfirw) . . 3.y-). . only aor. TOT-. rerAvyvia} . TtAw . f. epic (Tpa<ftov as pass. late TeTopry/xevos. or pass. Optimos. epic /ti-forms rerAa/tev {1064. rtvvp. tTpi(BT|v . 102). (? Att. . Tpdirw. oftener . rt'AAw (TiA-). Ionic and late Attic prose. TerAr/Ka usually as pres. honour . pluck . friAa TcnA/xai Poetic. Pax 381. Honi. mostly in conip. 6p\|/&> ^0pe^/a . honour. . shake . avemje . ScSpd^fiai . bore . a-rtro?. these perfects identical with those from Tpttfxo TtTpap-fiaL Irp^O^v rare in Att. (K/) TiTi'crKO/zat.ofJMi rare and late 2 a. Ir/iry^a (//) . U-TITOS\ better tTti<r9i\v tTCo-0T]v. and Dor. vb. ta&e payment. . 2 a. crop^a-a .310 late). 2 a. 8pafj.. endure . ^rpuifrqv . fdpt^a poet. . irpt^fttjv. p. Tt'rpiojiai . very rare !rea (not Att. and rare f rom . see TCIVW. 6pKT&>v. TIW. T/3a>TOs. erio-a. Tpww rare. . In Attic ritrw and Irtcra are from rivw (except irpo-ruTO. Tpt'4/u {rpn|m T^rpo<}>a. frrwra. (rival/-). prepare. rAau/v. : . trpwa. Poetic. ep. rfrpo^a.a . (V) (T/JO-). in Aristoph.). Dor. rarely TT/>a<a . . 621. . . .a-. Pres. 8pofid(a. (//) rp^irw. late eTfiijyrjv. rAds} TerAaTw TerAayiievai and T(. tremble . . see rev^o). better rirtuno. TTIKO. rfrw. 8ia-Tivao/zeu (reflex. IrAr^v {767. See Wjivw. Ttfc). poet. Tpe'4>u) (Tp((f>. aim . frpdirriv late Horn. 1073 and poet reKof/xat (Hijm. Poetic. rub . swing. (in comp. fTpairov poet. late (VIII) poet. vb. fut. 127) 2 p. -0peofj. p. ttT/aiTTTos (Od. Ion. late and doubtful TCTpa(f>a. 2 pf. 178). ITO/OOV .v rerA^w?. . To<rcra (Pind. Tpd<f)io. occasionally Ti'A#>yr. rto-u. T/A7yw. Ir/Aayov.at.). sync. 990). 8e8pop. See TTpavw. hit.from 6pf<f>-.w rure and and 8pdfj. Ep. stretch . (//) rtv** (TI-). iwis nourished. (IV) Tivaoxrw. . late TpaTrrjTfov. T^rplfi|xai .. 2 a. nourish.. rare in prose. late TA7y(ra) . late. f. 2 a. 2 a. dpi^io late. rare in Att. also T/aaTrew and rpoTrew. . rtvvfJMi ep. better vb. . From raAa. eTpd(f>6ijv . Irpaufav . eTiTrjva. Horn. expiate.) . pierce. . late T/DWTCOI/. Merc. . T/X7. (r/iay-. run. TaAacro-w ep.

). V. rtrplya as pres. synopsis in . strike. t-^aw. vyiavTfov late wAao-KO) (uAa/c-). late. Tvy\Ava late. TvirrriTtos. ervTrr^cra late . appear pf. 6e in health. TCTVTTTTjfj. show. . . late . see <^av. 2) few. (/) late . 2 a. p. New ( Ion. tryiatvw (vyiav-). 105.t'jcrcrw). (fraveo-Kf. . ITUTTOV poet. hit . erpl^a late (IV) epic . Iri^a Ion. 464. Tcvgofiai epic eTV\r)(ra. see root <ev-. to-pxi .. appear. 2 a. say. (//) Usually v\aKT&o. (Trarao-o-a)) or . murmur. TcrvxTca. (/k) f. systems. p. declare. Ionic. <^avo-a. 636)..1073 CATALOGUE OF VERBS (rply- 311 T/3t('w 640). (485).. (c). (Horn. (IV) 2. . . waste. rpwKTos. 4>avov(iai From Horn. 1-jrXVjynv (TrX. vryiavw . . v|>avT<Js. tenses . for smoke. vAacrcrw late. and (fxLvovfMu 2 p. ir^<)>T|va air-c^vd^v (simple rare and poet. rpv\<!a-t. 2 a. exhaust. Hdt. 2 a. TT/3iywTes). see late e^w . (rpay-. . In comp.cn . 6i!(f>-. TfTvp. late Tv\f/<a . (<f>aa. rare. 7. |TV\OV .a. rp{>\<a. f. 12 . 2 a. . wo-. rpv\6(a (628) TCTptixwp. Attic prose uses 4iraTaa for the pf.) p.). Simple form very rare in Attic prose. gnaw. promise.). appear. poet. r^Ovpfxai . CTUTT^V poet. 2 a. v<f>dva v</>ay/<a ti4>a<r}iai (737. pt. and lyric. (<$><iv-). ^<}>AVTIV. rpv(D rpu-yw 4rp6x<ra 631). . Ion. </>avo-<o. . late rerv^a. .at. <ae (Horn.fj. TCV^-). v-ytava. less often ( TeTv\a. T^rpwyiiai vb. VI) . impf. howl. root <a-. prose vb. f. pres. bark at. fTpv^iodrjv Ion. </>a-. (/ 4>aivco (</>av-). (IV) Sera (Find. and impf. (IV) vyidvOyv (Hippocr. vb. KaT-erpo^a (Ion. rain. (///) liraura (iraCw) . only Mimn. ep. recover health. mourn. . in the Bible Sia-. . late tiyiaw is reg. raise irrrXT]Y|u TO<|>W (T?</>- . appear. vir-wrx-v^-ojiai (i)Tr-e\-). ' the meaning of TTVXT<I and %TV\OV. 102.) vb. for several will . similar forms. . 2 a. ti<r vb. a-^>avTos (/^. 4>avo> &J>T]va ir^^yKa -n^ao-fiai . late prose).. xita . slww sfeow. Tpvfo (1002. ^aw. and . appeared <f>avVj<ro|xai . frrpa-yov .. = and impf. poetic. II) In Homer reri'-y yu. Tpwo|xai (//) happen. pr. . ii<f>aver)v . v\aa.). vyirjva. Epic vAaw. p. TVITTW (TVTT-. v<rdr)v (Hdt. 1). Tinrrfj<rw. TfTVTrr^Ka late . TVTTT-.v-). (TI>X-. certain inflected K) in 465.cu ev-erevx^ 1 and tTv\6riv (from re^x* ) often have fTTL-TfTfvyp. 616. late For the aor. poet. 2 p. . . see <j>rj^.ai. . v<j>aivu> (v<}>a.. late.ai late .vOr)v. . squeak . weave ti4>ava> i54>nva. . In Od. ^4>dv0t)v 4>avofuii. appeared. tin-. K/) Compare ( Tri^ only pres. 625). and late -< and and -c/xuo-Kw (jtafivw. Poetic. $rv$8qtt and 6TiirT7y^v late. ^i|*C 4l<rKa> (<^a-). See <a<W. Tre^arat (in Stobaeus) 4>a(vofiai. and pass. . vTri-(r\op. . irf>i'i<rtTai. late frpv^a. iter.L.

4>ttro^ai . <t>Bt[Lr)v (for vb.ir)v . . aor. TTC^VW is found. <j>^o|j. oicrop. <^)i'^a>.for ey-evex-). Sia-<$e/3o-a> (1019). (. late (<J>fva (but Ion. . ofcreiv tvijvfiyfj.aL (485. <}>9ivw 621. reg. 440) has <rvfjurfpi-fi>cKTfoi' verbal (Stobaeus). 4>iX^a-w. . o-w-evi'KTcu.) . <^>a-. tyOura.) . all late. Att). Alcaeus has 7re<vyya). ep.//jUo-/L/. f(f>6ivr)Ka. pr. 7r</>. (///) 1). 2 epic) late . in 498) only vb. /wire destroyed . rarely inf. ?4>9apKa &{>9ap|iai.irffyvov and 7re<vov (pt.(627 . Herodotus has rpetxa. Horn. spare. .-i)v pr. <^>a-). c<j>6ifjui. </>tS-). late tfavxBrjv . prose (681). 4>9<Yyo|iai. -fivfi^di^v '. . <f>0iros. 2 a. destroy. 2 a. ant ruined or trans. and intr. opt. mid. 4>-A'u (<f>t\e-).2 a. bear . love.) <f>6i-i-fj. Find. iyTJveypai and dial. .i)v.at. sat/. c<f>eva (Aesch. Trf(f)i8-i'f(rofjiat jre^cwryu. (trag. for inflection.ai. 1051). <j>tryc (VIII) (<^>vy-. 990) t<f>i\dfj. rare) p.i . </>^a/aros . fat. (/K) . {subj. <j>0fp. f<J>8l<ra.312 4>a8 onai f. corrupt. all late. <^>i). 1068. f|v'x6rjv Vx9Vj<ro|u. .a. a. 1 . of /ti-form <f>dip. late Trf^dapfiai .evos late. also a. oi<r9T)<rojwxi vb. . ep. ^>iA7)/i<vat (1062.K. once (in dv-wa-at a generally di'-cjio-Tos for av-owrros. . 1. (f>vfr)6eis vb. IOTTJV . <$>tpre aor. . pr. in Homer only) . Dor. (1002. . late. (//) see 779. anticipate. epic <0iVw. Horn./it'(o . er. Tre^iSo/^/v. and (Dialects) <. rfVfiKa. CATALOGUE OF VERBS (</>tS-. 7r</)i'^oT5 . </>06rw. late <ei!a> &|>iryov . trans.e)>os. Late doubtful pr. mostly poet. ofrrw pass.. tveyK. 4>u<r<MJLT v l .). speak. r')ViKa. Horn.fj. eye/c-. 2 a. also a p. 2 a. <f>8ivi'i<rt>>. etc. <}>CUKT^OS. Horn. ((JtdaKO. etc. 157) a. KaTa-7re<vo*i' A found accented Kara-Tr^vtov) 7T<a/ucu Epic.. vb. see <t>ev<a) . pts.ai late. </>0tu>/xai . 2 p. Horn.). irt<j>da.p. ar-oicrai or Heeiod (Scut. late. ( very late : f<f>6d(r6r)v late ^) ^6ry|d|iT)v . . from stem <tA. and sync. vb. 781. r/i^tKO. olo-r<5s. ^veyicov (mid. <f>0dvo/ji. (1028. p. . 3. for faptTe . Horn. ^vryKo. late. Trec^uy/zti/os.rjv. . <j>6i<r6(a </>0icr0cu ^)^i/tvos}. perish (pr. ire^y/a-ofULL. . late <7yytua (Hes. ^4>0dpT|v . forms: Homer . poet. saj/. imper. . ol<rrcos. (<f>6i-\ perish. . late pres. redupl. late </>#IKU . cri/. trans. p.ai . oftre . Tre^aoyAevos. See ^>ei'^a>. late p. -). rare in Att. >jviKov. 1073 e P. pt. New and Att. </>/JTOS (also Eur. e<^?//xio-^r. 2 a. 1. <}>i<rTov. ir&juvya . 4*pu> (</>. . 780. also HM . oi-. and tvTjvoxa Poet. btlt Attic 8i-6J>6opa intr. vb. f. Aristopli.. trans. . f^didrjv (Horn. (Nicander) Trec^u^oTts and (//) <f>vyydv<i). </>DKTOS. ? e<f>6iva late (K) <J>6tvv6to (epic) is e<0iVj/cra. .). and impf.). <f>6icno. rarely trans. vb. <J>KT<$S.rjv .. <f)fv^ov/j. oio-e/ier(eu). inf. lament. imper. tyOrjv <#uvw (like <f>0^jo-o)iai. Tre^toSy/^tevos </>ev-. inf. ep. 1002. <jjei'o|icu 4>0^p. part. <^>r^i^^et's. favy-}.i'. late epic .ai . flee. a. Epic <#i'o). indie. t^ryyuwra (/K) <^^acrw late (doubtful in (mid. 700. tyfaura. <f>6opa late. 4>0dvu ((f>6a-). f|vryKa(iTjv . 735). 2 p.

late etpvrjv (but subj. . ^"> X V ^")> con ^n \aXTro. ir^4>pv-y(xat> .Aa/c-) . fee. deprived . t^Xe'x^Sriv . 4 and late) (<^>i. <f>vro<s born {like i!Svv 498 707 . x"^. pt.i. in Comedy. . vb. ep. . 4>pda> ((ppa. Epigr. <J>paTTu>. only pr. 4>piw late . tell. ex^pdfj. p.8-). <}>vXaKTov. ^>vw. ep. and late poets. . . <j>o<ra> . Kovras Pind.ai . p. (IV) . 4>v" opt <j>vr)v and . p. Kf^apofjujv. /zt-forms . . loosen . ep. (//) . be offended . X(i<rofj. and impf. K^apfj.<r8a. 7re^)i'AaKa late. <}>vv. ir'<|>CKa. Tre^Aey/zai late . (f>op-?/vai. <|>pd(ro>. tr. / V) Attic are also the forms <j>ap'yvi5|xi. (f>opi'i/j.) be . eai greedily. ?<J>pla . ep. t'4>paa. yield.) xaXnrdv0i]v. has dva-xa^ovres and 8ia-)(d<ra.&p.(^ J 2). Horn. 313 for <Acurw (Theocr. </>pdu> a.. CATALOGUE OF VERBS bruise. prose. . f(f)pvyr)v late . Jfcjriio-a . pr. <}>f5s} . (IV) >pdTTw (<pay-). firtyvKov (1036)} 767 subj. late. (IV) 2 p.. carry. X 01 /3 "*. 616. 7r<Vyxro/>iai (Find. stop *'<J>pax9t]v up . /?ice . <f>apKTos. . e</>/3i>- X^v 4>v\d<r<rw 4>6p (Horn. fut. p. 4>vvat 2 a. see ((f>plK-).) . (?) <f>vit] in Theocr. 2<|>apga. f'xdXa<ra. (rarely in Att. <|>PVKTOS.Ka (Hippocr. &f>pva . guard. ava-^a^w ^ao-<jo/iat Horn. late . 2 a. pres. reg. 1056).. By-form <^f (^>u-). f. <f>vrj (700) or . fence. .vo<$. tre<t>paKctv &-4>po. . irc^vXa-yfxai ((f)vp-). e/Js-Trf<f>vij. 2 a. poet. deprive (1037). this last different from the redupl. . inf. . Kcx^p^Ka (Horn. irt^ap-yfiai. <{>vXda> . and . 2 p.i (1037) . late ep. Pind. Pind. 615.KTos. .1073 </>Aaw. vb. \n\^a-u. t<j>dpxOT]v. <Aeo> . n-^4>wp(iai . 4). KeKu8o//. <vcikri found in Att. xaAatrco Ionic late . 4>pti-y> <f>pi'<ra-(i> (/I/) and <pvTT<o . intr. /orce back. pt. KX a ?ws) Kf\dpyifj. but T& 4>vr<Jv. 1019) <pvpa late ttfivpdijv . -). Horn. . . (cppay-). 7rc</>rd(rt. See 6Xd<a. is regular.an.). d'-X ao (ra From Poetic. Hippocr. p. 4>pd. 2 a. swallow. " . retired. ^Aao-crw . . <}>pi<r<rw. Hes.ifv. a. (6j/ <|>vpdw. fyvpcra. xaXdo-6T)v. plpf. e^aSov (IV) . etc..ai . rejoice 7 / . vb. Trpo-Tre(}>pa. -<^)tixrKw.vu > . t'xaXeir^va . as pres. late ( ire^pa-yiwu . 2 a. . p. /. p. K6Ka8ov. Xen.a ^ tt > Kf^a. vb.Yvi5(xi <f)pdcro-(j). sometimes Ion. </>vy. . irc<{>piKa as pres. X -^a^w (xS-).a. (/l^) . mr. . Pind. produce Horn. \tipi')vofj. act. vb. lias . (frpv^w . ityXeJja . 2 a. t<$>p(iyt)v late . 2 a.pi]<rofj. TTC^VOJS Hes. 616. . Tbeocr. <Aao>tcu and e</>Aao-#7/v (Hippocr.evai. ^)/an<. knead ... of K?/<HO.) <Aacra (Find. (Horn. ()ir<j>pa8ov .) .. am nature) {ep. t^uXdxO'HV vb. show . 3 pi. Kexap/o"o> and Kf\a. </>uo> .. late .r/v. fut. <j>Xyo>. see (paivta. roa< . mostly epic (90. late. xp*)v as e\ap6fj. regular: . <opeeii'. <J>opto>.i.rjv . c<j>v\a^a ir<j>vXaxa. Ka8- shall xV -). xcupu) (\a/>. 14. ex ai/P/ (ru 2 a.\a.o. mix. 4>pfTT shudder . K*<a5?y(r<o. 2 a. <rvfj^(pi'pTos.) <Ada>.

push. \pa. f\fva. poet. . \|>6xOr]v . 2) Kxvfjiai . (684). ring. only fl (\vp. ^xP ia<T(l ' a * e 5 Kx/> WKa late . late and Hoin. 2 p. a <<XP' Ka (Old Test) . e^eyvjv. ^aw. 2 P- (//.ov. 627). I\v9r]v "' xXaS-. > Horn. l\ta. . exP u'7'tr/cra Ktat> . jcexAdStos (ace. x^ . ^I-KTCOS. late vb. V) off. 1tse (XPT1 011 XP il oreai> pass. (1009. vb. rub. * 5 . 2 a. w&i'](r<a . \|^5w . ep. Ion. - (/. f\f^(cr)dr)v late . or late prose. has XP* OVT0 ' X/3" "^" 1 e ^c -> 1011}. > X<5. fut. 507 516 . rarely yta-op. |/^a (?) p. xw^T<5s. . see 479. (681).-). KxAd8ovTas). a*^790 and 1072. Att. and impf. . (676) . xp. |rt!ixw . Ion.a. p. 990. inf. lute \aivut (X av'^ffaPe > f- X*"' *)"" *Xavov . pr. x et/a) (x 1 '-. i/'tKTtos late \f/oya. I n - XPW&y wanty ask. x/5 '0"ros. 5 . coco. <7*i' oraches (Att. X V . *X<r0Tiv } U n Pindar. sting . impf. and 5 KxA^ . xPTlt w > (xP a -> XP ") ^iere ^^ ^ behoves. txP^"^T v ** m id. ward " ) pres. 2 a. swell. f. K*\VKO.L Hdt . . txP4* " 1 !" > late P res XP^ vv^fJ - -t - Poetic XP 8ee ^**- aw. (/ 10 eXetrov ~ \tt X ^~> 632). impf. . aTT-axTTeos for . \pt\o~rtos. |/KT<$S. uv^erojiai . <*|^XTJV. \ro\>\ia. ep. tatvov\ti\v (533). K^xpiHtau Ke . exprjo-dfirjv Hdt. fc|/v|a . or XP"?" (X/30*^")) colour . pt. late 7ri-xpio"Teov. ?xP^" anoint. 2 a. 7ie^. K^x"^!"11 (616). <5tra .314 CATALOGUE OF VERBS ' 1073 2 a - XCMTKW (xa-). p. but ^$ < '.i(Tp. . j)o?tr. fruy. a. tu>9ow (533) ew/ca late ?wo-jxat. e^v/x&/v j/|a tyeypai Hippocr. . etc - 479 ) 5 XPV 1 (\ff\ir9i\v vb. Iwora. i. a>o-0T]v vb. tyl By-form *|^jx Both usually in comp. wn<. X/3oto>. . cuvrjixai . (?) 2 a. ra. sound. ifw (x/oawr/u. the Attics use t'lrpidjujv (see 498. <S<r. l '- Kk\prfTiia.i. Xfl> (x e ^-)> Lat. X pi]S> l > Hdt. otherwise regular are late. /^) aspres. (/I*') . ?4iry|wit . contrasts to / tyi](<r)fJMi and .rfv (1063). > ( xP^ Tai "> X/3 o/AV XP" TO XPti. late txtixra (//) . instead of a. . late. vb. see (^fvx-)t . 520) VTfT<}s. Hippocr. X/^/croftai Ion. ^wcool . pi. simple poet. p. Xp<j>t< > late Ktxp^/J-ai . Pet. *t|niY|Mi. . xp** tXpfo^v. WVTJT^OS. wcr/iat . !"111 Horn. exp^wra. KfyoS* K{X>'|UU. Ion. ^wvV|6riv pass.rjv. *M v . . ftavrfrdfj.1. . . late x^vvf/xi vb. \pri<Tto. \|S. Q u>e'u (w^-. the late . 5> \pi\rr69. t' .. Z\<ora rarely 2 a. Ion. \J/^X W . etc -> 479 ) XP ^" tXP^l "* K^XPT Ka good. wo-reos late). nib. . (x) nfa P U P i >' X""w *X w<ra 5 ^XWKa rare . aTr-axrTos. XP^PSee see -^ XP"!"11 * consult an oracle .

&px~ (fy>X w )> ire/xir1. stems p^Qo-ypafas.(<ptpu). prophet of evil FORMATION OF SIMPLE WORDS In all words the fundamental part is the root. f$ov. Most of them consist by a short vowel and another consonant as <j>ep. (TT^UTTW). KUKOS.(0t\os). The whole Greek vocabulary can be referred to a comparatively small number of roots. 6's. fable. is usually a liquid or a as ypa<f>. (8iicri).<f>1077. dens. . of suffixes. <f>i\. KaAo-s. . /3a. Only a few have an initial vowel followed by a consonant as dyIf a root begins or ends with two consonants. NOTE. .becomes ypa<-d. 1075. KO.becomes the noun-stem dp\-a. suffixes. Simple and Compound Words.(6pvv/JLi). ypafriKo.K-.(dldwfu). are added prefixes. 6-. Lat. it To Roots are originally of one syllable. .(ffTrdb)}.(/2o/-). ffira. /3ous. dent-is). Thus the roots of the words Aeyw.. A simple word from one stem only . Roots of two syllables arise from prothetic or epenthetic addition . Sue?/. 6'-s. 2. 1076. is made beautiful. one of the two (&yw). Similarly the root ypu<. Suffixes.PAET IV 1074. 1. 2). 73) (compare d\K-ty. it becomes the adjective-stem ct/X~ 7/) by means of the suffix -61dpx-iKo.(irXticu).(ypd<f>u). . Ai'0os.of vowels as 6-8ofa (6-Sovr-. as pvOo-s. of a consonant followed diK- . A . T/OCTT-. T/OCTTW. and (72. writer of fables. SLK-. -ypd^w.(ypa<f>-j'i) . it becomes the present-stem of the verb apx-u by adding the tense-suffix -%-. yAwus.(fialvu). who. 6p. dW-w Koots are developed into stems by the addition Thus the root dp^. Ai$-. compound word as is formed by the union of two or more Ka/cd-/zavTis. are Aey-. wite.(nom.(nom. and inflectional endings (159. Some consist of a consonant and a vowel as So. 1. a/>x-"o-s) by -the addition of the suffix -IKO. Whether these roots ever had an independent existence as words i not known. 2. yAvK-.(ypa. . Roots. irXex.

and X^|it for \cy-ffts from \ty-u. pair. . y/3ci^>-o-/xev.becomes the new noun-stem ypa/j. as oT-e-poir--f) Ionic for iro\ir^. expedition . The root and the stem are sometimes identical new stem by the addition of another suffix. original e very often becomes o (seldom a) . from 5o.-fJM. at'Soioj from a/5o(<r)-io-j ^pw-to-j . Final o of the stem Tims fwoij'o-j. from /3a(7iXe(/)-td . send. 1090. 1088. \riB-r).-fj. TTOVS (iro5-). A final consonant of a stem is sometimes dropped temperance. forgctfulness. kingdom. Si/coer-rfc for final 1082. help. Changes in Roots and Stems.(nom. Xtir. welOw). Reduplication and metathesis sometimes occur. By the interchange 17 seldom becomes u dpriy-<a. temperate.6t.o. <r is sometimes added to the root . \eK-r6s lor \ey-rot. o/jcetoj from cuVe-io-j. (73).becomes the nounthe adjective-stem dipx-a-io. 3. In the list of suffixes in this part of the Grammar all the most important are considered. (from 1030. stem dpx. from as 1087. i-a-K^-a-Q^v).e. 1078 ypap-fj-aT. . 1085. NOTE. A long inflectional endings final .a. suffix vowel or diphthong of a stem is often dropped before an initial as \6y-io-s.(feifryKu/w) from pay. Tip.-fj. 2. and seldom becomes well-fed . ffrpand. 84. (y/ju/A-/AO. praise. kingly. stein (i.T-os). As as ffTra. t/co-i) ypatfi-%- (yp(i<j>-ta.(\avffdvu) pvx-pfa.i)-eli. Thus rpt<p-w. In all formations. iriff-ris for wiO-ris (iriff-. final 1083. . 1084. Xo0. . as iroXi-^-TT/j. ffirovd-ri. from as d/>x a ' OJ from dpx a "''*. 1079. . and \onr-6s. .(Xf/irw) fei>y-os. .shortened to dpx*-- 1086. 1078. . 8tifi6-T~>)s. v) : . as iprj-fd (<f>o--). olidSiov from otKi-iSiov. from ffircvSu.for y/sa</>-/iUTfurther developed into a . 86). nourish0T<5X-os. 1091. lv<u.vt-w. remnant. So occasionally 6 . The vowel of the root may take the strong form ti or ot (from t) tv Thus \fi/j. w or 77. a root and A a suffix) is still Thus the noun-stem dpx-a. dpwy-6s. yoke. rpcxp-Tf/. ffutfrpo-ffwij. lightning . from dpd-u pr)-p. ijpifos short final stem-vowel is usually lengthened before a consonant of the as dpa-pa. y/)a<-e-T) very often . from \6yo-t . A . ending . cleft. skilled in words. action. consonant of a stem coming before a consonant of a suffix has the regular euphonic changes (80. honour.. as ffra-O-fjibs. praise. .a. Thus ypdfj. But exceptions are Su-pov. rl^ (TIIJM-). ypdp.(priyvv/u). from ff&Qpui'. A vowel of a final .(fiatvu) -iroirjff-is. poesy (making). roots and stems are liable to a number of changes (1080-1091). /3a<rtXeid.ar-fv. or pleonastically.(Si5wfu). remaining. nourish. . citizen.(p-fj. Tifj..-ff-fj. ov. apx-cuo-s) by means of the suffix -tostem ypafi-fMT. from 1081. Tpa<p-fp6s.by means of the suffix -i-. stem -vowel is often shortened be/ore suffixes. helping. as . vowel of a stem is often contracted with an initial vowel of a . A vowel is sometimes added in the root by epenthesis : and affrpair--/!. orA-Xw. in the perfect and aorist passive. step. pace. from /3a. station 1089. The diKad-rris (from 5iKafw). army. mrnt. stem ffu<j>poi>-. seldom syncope . as before as apxato* from apx&-io-s. ev of vowels. dvaiv^-r-rjs. soldier is often changed to e .316 FORMATION OF WORDS .ru!}- . from i\ or u (from a). praiser occasionally d to . A suffix . from Trowf-co numerous as /Sd-ats. gift.-(JM for ypa. So-r^p. honoured. ffTpo. speed.. from firy. /3(wtX-i/c6s. twitching (ffTd-u.

derived from the root I write}.. from from W-w (Ionic).. ypdp.(very many feminines in -d or -TJ).!ici<d} 7r\6-o-j for 7r\o/-o-j. voyaye. haste. outrayc . forgetful. escort. beginning.-). -os denote either persons (oxytones) . FORMATION OF WORDS food (V5-. <jdp-w.-v<a) . . irrq-vbs for 1092. fly). chorus-dancer. crown (<rr^-w. to judge. from fvy- (fctiy-vvfu. from tr\tf(TT\^W. written. fetter . ypa/x-yu. . flijfit tub. . (<j>\ay-).a. -Xo-. suffixes : 1097.-p. race 2'oducc). <rri)-\ij. /3Xd/3i. &PX-J (dpx-a. gen. 77477-0-1?. from <r/ca</>. Primitives and Denominatives. pain shame. this latter also A . -oi>). .1097 fd-uS-ri. ir\ef-) fvy-6-v. XO/^V-TT/S. . ir\v-. whet).for ypa<f>-p. T^X^I chance. NOTE. Something ypau}>(ypd(J)-(a. l->n- dig out) 1096. (refj. ness . whetstone (tfifr-w. / FORMATION OF NOUNS PRIMITIVES 1093. <rr6\-o-s. riyht . from fidx-opai. ireTrjvjs. cutting -winged. crown) . set) . as ypa<^i} ypa(f)-i<5 A writing. lonie 5w. lead rpotp-o-s. Xw/3?.from the stem of yp<ip. boil) pillar (era-. able to write. 1094. aiffx^vn. A small number of nouns have no being identical. send Tpty~tt. -ov. from VIKOI-. (hry-dv^. from . dixy. law . especially abstracts (barytones). anything apxaios. dirdrtj. judge. from \fip-u. <rirovd-ri (ffTrovd-d-). Thus irofa (irod-). -os. beast. . Trtdri.-p. primitive word is of a verb .-p. ndx"n. nourish \ty-u.-.-^a. ancient. TT^T-O/MII. formed directly from a root or from the theme (y/3a</>-d-). Observe that the following are. care. roof.(anair-ru. tf>\6% (<j>\ty-u.-\pouring. wanderiinj . battle.e. Nearly all denote things. burn) 6-ftp. r/j. X67-o-s. denominative word is formed from the stem of a noun or 81*77. or things. join) 1095.?/ style (for writing for all on tablets). Tpo<f>--q (Tpo<j>-d-). Tro/xTT-o-y. 317 r(/u. parnxy tone clieating . irre-. a very common suffix. &px-<*>. derived from 2. nourishment. from the stem of upx 7 ("/X<*~) beginning. from dtowrc. nurse.fromffTf\-(ffTt\\u. victory . \-f)Oy. Primitive nouns are -avo-. : pleasure (<f>6-u. writer. <rrt<p-avo-i. -ova- : rjS-ov-fi. eat) . 1. -a. right. to dance. foot. writer. \ijwr).aT-). ir\dvri. noun is StKaw-rrys. t-ffrrj-fu. victory .food. from &px-w.fiffht> hasten ffKa<f>-ri (ffKa<f>-a-). speech. peterr). -o- dpx-^-Si leader.aT. <f>v-\o-v kind. ypap. -\4- fTj-Xo-j. line. td-ud-ri (e8-ud-a-).. (ypap.poitr from ffirevE-w. yoke. artyy. from the root <\7- The nouns in (nom. 6rip-6s. nourish fiAX'~n (M a X'*-)> .d- ypa(J>-p. (ypa<f>-iS-). zeal (f^-w. eat <j>op-d (cpop-d). ypa<-tKO-s (ypa<j>-iKo-). -avd: also formed by the following . speak TT^/XTT-W..-par-).. from rp^-w. So the which again from ^opevw. (^5-o/xat. : These are mostly oxytonc. comes from 6\/caw (Si/caS-). bcfiring. vtKij. ypa<-fu-s (y/)a</>cu-). damage . chorus. the root and the noun-stem flame. x/> adjective written /AaT-eus. many of them abstracts a few denote persons. (ypap. begin \oifi--f] (\oifi-a.a- (ypap.-). and some others. rejoice). scribe. suffix. as viK-dw. stem of viicy.cxi)edition. . conquer. is a derivative. flying (TTCT-.

-Ttipcl-. -TCI/Sto-ro-s. worker (Spd-w. -08vup-d-s. fuiff-t-. favour.j3ti'w. or -rpia. : : . i)ye-fjL6i>-ot. fern. -T/J/J The masculines -TIS . touca. nom. basket. -TO-. meadoio . (rvX-X-f/ir-Tpta <a-T/)6-s. eiK-uv. /xeX-tioj. millet. giver (Si'Saya. and -rpia. -wvlike) . dowry. . Guide (frequent epithet of Herrnes). poetic Several in -rwp has forms in -ropo-s . decide) . are recessively accented. founder (KT/^W. -IT. as ffv\-\ff7r-TWp. <rw-T>y/3. -xa. gird) KOTT-CI/-!. play the flute) . The exceptions j. fMaOij-rri-s.v\r)-rpl-s TTOI^-T^-J. -ev<s ypa<j>-fv-s writer (ypd^-w. couch (-. id-rpA-s. 'pupil (from fMvffdvw. save). : suffixes can be seen in words like the following ireiOu. a. -Top-. image (dx-. in -rpta . . ^)oe( (from Troie-w). maiden. Xet/icwv. <pep-vr). T?. TrX-rj-O-tipr}. 1098. final 1. Kol-ri). learn). .X-Xo/3-) . physician (fa-oyMcu. Sw-po-v. id-rpta. /teaZ). apir-f-Sdvr]. vHp-dS-oi. . fern. female suppliant (iK-veo/iai). a.jar. are : 7rXd<rT7. from Si-dy-u. xdp-""-oj. X^S-rpr-os.318 -po-. NOTE. hesitation. a few have corresponding feminines (from <ru\-\a/w. thrift. The masculines in -r-fjp have their feminines in -rtipa as au-r-fip. partner. 7A-wT-oj. NOTE. -Tpid-. female flute-player (avAe-w). billow am (/cXi'5-. lie). runner. : t . satiety. -TI-S tK-e-rts. x^P*> land. give). K\vd-wv. flute-player . grace (\a-p-. 60-. shame . 6i-dc-Topo-s. fern. -r^p-os) and in -ei/i denote things . irapO-tvo-s. with different as Spd-tr-rri-s and Spd-ff-rrip dptiv-Tup and dpw-T-?ip. laughter. TTOITJ-T/MO . FORMATION OF WORDS -pd.ai). of 7rot^-T>)-s. snow). ir\i]-ff-/j. -Tpo-. -reipa So-rapa. write) <ov-u-s. pain. di-Su-fu. i\r-iS-ot. girdle ({tb-vvvfu. marry). -r-f/p (gen. nom. -T/H'S avXtj-rpi-s.ov/). run) : . -ov-.-s. -i-.: rpox-i-J./O : So-Tijp. -T/90-s id-r/3'JS. Other 1099. judge (avAe-w. of crio-rijp. rope. ffrd-fju>o-s.p-i. 0et5-w\^. (<f>tv-). ipxri-ff-rij^ (6px^-o/JM). nom. NOTE. . KTi8-. : norn. y{\us. Kb<p-wo-s. give) orator (>-. eu'SoOs. kettle . fj-aO-ij-Tpk or ^aOri-rpia .(vt<j>-u. of So-Ti'/p crw-Tfipa.-s. pw. d\y--ri-d6v-os. -rp/s. 8pd-(r-Trj-s. nom. jcXtffw. The following suffixes denoting agent are masculine (K/amo. -rpia Troirj-rpia. x<*tpw). 6n-vo-s.\y-r)-5ui>. w\-4vi). Some 1. Of those in -rap and -rpi-j. -rp6y. Those in -rrip. 1101. iret0-o-os. \i^. fulness. 1. as di-dtc-rup and la-Trip (Alcman td-rwp). chisel (K&TT-TU. Agent. cut). in -TT/J usually form their feminities in as a^XTj-riJ-s. flu-ov-m. -ri\p-. Sometimes the same word has two or more forms. 1103. helper. persuasion . sup- pliant (lK-V0/J. as fw-<r-ri7p. K\vd-wv-os. : : 1098 irirpa. living (/3to-w. -rtipa. sometimes in 2. from vi<p. iretOous. M-pry. murderer nom. : 1100. fa. live) . of those in . gift (So-. Kfl-nai. leader. T)ye/j. : 2. nom. NOTE. 3. 1102.wv. fern. -Tpu8-. gen.: yan-p-p&-s. hope (Epic t\w-u) . splash). <ri. -T<i-. 3. lake. and -ei5$ are oxytone. Accent. Those in -rwp. fp-. -dtp : pyj-Ttop. \ei-/i<ii'-oj. snow-flake.j. rpox-t-or and rp6x--ws (rptx-u. -Ti8-. -cv-. -18-. suffixes. KTicr-Ttap. -TT/-S Kpi-T?. nom. rock. saviour (o-ci-w. The following denoting agent are feminine : : nom. IK-C-TT/-S. e/J-ew. KH-. 2. son-in-law (yan-tw. do) : avX-rj-rtj-^. . found). (a) Those in -rrp are oxytone when the suffix has been added to a lengthened stem-vowel or when the suffix is preceded by <r as TTOITJ-TTJJ (TTOI^-W). elbow. K/JI-. <r<^^w. of 5-o(<r)-os. KTiS-). shall say) . al8dn. \ir-t-t.

dancing (opX-o[j. anything T/x7/-/xtt. irpa. pv-6-fj. TeK-e(o-)-os. test). One in -TIS and two in -cru denote persons /xdc-Tij. from . Tr/ado-o-w) written (ypd<j>-w) ypdp. Au^-os. food (ftpo-. : Zie (ij/ev8-io. line.-fjM. i'em. masc. These are from verbs in -euw as -ev-id). plough) . obtain -co-. as 56-<ris. faith. -os. wailing.ai. teacher's staff (o-xryTT-Ttu.(/5ew.is for Trpdy-o-is.). from TratSeuw. NOTE. Compare 1113. fern. width. Aay^aj/w. T/At-./u. 1106. drink) Often others in 1104 are concrete in meaning. -cri-s.) Stwy-yaos. jSpw-rvs. recessive accent) : 7rpay-fj. Those in -Tts and -<ns are recessively accented. -TI-S. as can-tus. neuter) ransom (Av-. BiSda-Kta.) : The following from suffixes denote an <a-ris. Exceptions are /cpirijj. 4. educate. ypa/j. v<f>dv-Trjs (v<f>aivu. wearer. (nom.-/j. (BoKifJidfra. finder . -rpo-v. hire (8i8ax-.) o8-yLA^. -cio- Compare Latin . AOU-T/OO-V. verbals in -tus.r7. rhythm. vtvw.(irfiOw. denoted by dpo-rpo-v. an abstract idea : (nom. was/i).1108 FORMATION OF WORDS 319 (b) Those in -TTJS are paroxytone when the suffix has been aildcd to the short simple stein as epyd-r^ (^xydfo/mi). as Kadaprris. action or -TI- 1104. pu.-/). say). . bring forth) . as ypa/j. vorj-pM. workman. mostly poetic and dialectic words: 6pxr]-<r-Tv<s. /3i/3/3wcrKo>. . deed.) : /ilp^-cris. NOTE.(yiyvwa-Kw.os. Trid.(o^w. fern. fj. 1105. action. gen. /cX^Trris. (nom. xC-/*6s (x"-)> juice. thought (voe-w). as K\ewT-r)s. (T7ra-o--/ios. Accent. rage) . know). dance) . orfor. swiftness (3d0-o<. : /cd-fftj. judge. are either oxytone. from AoyiS- calculate) o8vp-(ji. smell) .(68vpofj. ?ot by lot) i/'euS-os. section (re/x-. -aria. . wa/il) draw). : -TV- from yvo. (nom. The . -//. -TV-S. (nom. from 08.a-cria. (nom. 1107.t. . imitation (/zfy/. viro-Kpirris. seer (pav-. prop). \v-rpo-v. actor. dqith is v/>-os. . TCKOVS.often expresses quality ra^-os. also some words from licjuid themes.(Trpdcra-d). calculation.a. eat). Compare also Latin verbals in -sio.a. from Trpdy. si'sto-. : 1108. -etd for TrcuS-eid.. : from SoKi/zaS(SiwK-to. -/io-s. -<r. Instrument or Means . 6a(/i (Aov-o>. Those in -/XTJ in -via and -eia are paroxytone.(nom. or paroxytone. imitate) . neuter with . as <j>r/-fj. teach).-/j. pursuit (Aoyt'^o/xou. and a few others.ai. suffixes : The result or effect of an action is expressed by these done -IXT- (nom. persuade) .6<$. -//. -o-id-JJLO- (nom. Av-<o). brother or irb-ffis. evpfr-qs. . TrtV-ris. report. /ow). opinion. fern. -<ri- from <^a--(^>7. fern.cu. Those in -n$ corresponding to masculines in -TTJJ are accented on the penult .) : 8oKifj. re/i-vw) . TTO-CTIJ. (irpdy-. Those Those in -/uos and -ros are oxytoue. deceive). -rpo. Action or Abstract Idea. neuter with recessive accent) : TK-OS. education. o-K^Tr-rpo-i'. testing. as ac-tio.(TIKTW.e-o/xai. They are recessively accented . original -TI. as ara-<ru?. ^a\TT?s.(see 85). #i/K or the act of giving . thing .r].aivofj. husband (but drinking. pursue) Aoyicr-/jios. do). as divi-sio.ri. 2. v<f>ai>-). spasm (o-Tra-co. SidaK-rpo-v. from TCK. yvia-p-t]. -ef-ia. from -|j. from /?-. TTO-. child. plough (dpo-w. Result. suffix (Aa^-. except Compare the Latin -trum. Compare Latin verbals in -tio.d- oSvp.^i's for The suffix -o~t.(nom.

ypafj. tvSfta in -e^j. O^p-^ri. warmth. secretary panpar-ev-s. -17. tCvoia. from TO^O-V. d-rvxia. . from 5tf-o rpt-ds. citizen (7rdAi-s) .. needy. paroxytone) op\Yi-tr-rpa. used . unfortunate. : .. -e((r)-oj. .J have corresponding nouns in from fOvo-ta.. from Kepa/zos. (nom. . for V-5eei*. gen. equality . knfadinrj-trowjh (juiy-.. . scraper (i'-w. of some adjectives is occasionally The accent is then thrown back.ov-id.s. potter's earthenware . Compare the Latin -ia as in miseria. true) ewo-ia. NOTE. denotes a place. as veri-tds. priest (tepo-s. NOTE. -TT/S. wisdom ((ro<^o-s. masc.) 8iKaio-<ri'vr). : ferry) ./iisO discretion (o-oj^pwi'. 1112. warm. -ovs. DENOMINATIVES Nouns expressing quality or the abstract idea of the 1109.(nom. 1110. Quality.(a-rt]s. the. So f\0p-d. oxytone. <Ae 7it<. drop one e of the stem -os. number nouns of number). from 0tp-fjAi. /tcw-ds (/nov-aS-) or ^-ds (^v-a5-).): (ro<f>-ia. 8. OIKC-TT/S. Adjectives as ev-Se^s (evdefff-). discreet). Most of those with the nominative in -a are from adjectives in Those in -ia are from but some are from adjectives of the third declension. . o-co^ov-. soldier (<rrpartd t army) . The person : related to or concerned with suffixes : -v. simplicity (a7rAdo-s. ferryman (TTO/D^/JCO-S. . y Trop6fj. -a and -id. from Itostile.. adjective are formed from adjective-stems by the following suffixes -id. the final e or o of adjectives in -i)S.. as d-Tux^.T-).-T>. as <ro<pld.. o-Tparua-rqs. iraAou-o--iy>u. (ro-s) . ~6i>. The feminine form in -a or -i.fj. ai d^ior^s. Accent. immortality (u#uVaTO-s).(nom. oxytone) Kpa/M-ev-s. . fem. knead) . -orvvol- Compare the Latin -s. Person Related. ebrAd-TJjs (ciTrAo-TTjT-). .(nom. truth. as irax6-i~ns Those in -ffvvrj are paroxytone those in -ds arc oxytone. fern. 1111. NOTE.ar-) . -o-w>. misfortune . . But often -rpd. scrape). ^i/-oj . while some nouns waver between or ev-iradid. Abstracts in -id are paroxytone./.s (TTCIXI'-TT/T-). -ow the stem unites with -id to form -eta or oid. thickness (jra^u-s). prisoner (oW/io-*. -a8.(nom. those in -eta and -oid from adjectives in -17* and (-oos) -oi'$ are proparoxytone. TroAf-rrys. aa tv-irdOfia. /)-v-s. -Trrr-o* are almost all paroxytone. memoria. la. as dXijfleta. as in d\?j0ia from d\-/iffri(ff)-ia. comfortable. servant (O^KO-?. eiVoi's) ddavacr-ia. fem. happiness (cvSai/Jnav) d\-i'jde-La for dA?7#ecr-ia. fetter). hateful. is denoted by these -evs. cbrAous) 7ra^i. sailor (vau-s) . but a few are Those in -TT/S. paroxytone) TO^O-TT/S. 1. kindness (eiVoos. fiaK-rpa.-fv-<. dyad. wrestling -ground wrestle). from et'-Tro^s. But some compound adjectives in -T. -bv. triad. 8rfj. one. (nom. -id or -ia. . hatred.. potter. (rwt^po-eruvjy. px<ro-w. from ^6po-s or els. wise) ti>8aifj. -ra- masc. -ds. : -tdt-is. f \dpos. The feminine suffixes of the same meaning are : . feminine abstract unit.is an abstract noun. veri-tdt-is. (ypdpfjia. truth (aAr/^/s. justice (Sixato-s. or from adjectives in -oos. an object 1113. -rpd.) : IO-O-TTJS (UTO-T. vau-T7. sacred). us dancing (op^e-opai) . v-<r-Tpa. gen. -TT^S. -r|T- (nom. 5u-dj (5y-a5-). boicman. -fe(ff)-os. )t/w/. bow .320 FORMATION OF WORDS : 1109 -rpd. house) . tCvoia. -^ous. place for i-u). -d. comfort. day.

corresponding in -o>v . a few correspond to masculines in -os. son Hi)\e-t8ri-s (Horn. formed from names of persons by means of the following suffixes -8d. feminine and paroxytone). of Peleus. allied). -S^/s. Kairr)\ts . son of Japetus ("IairT6-j) . NOTE. Ki'AiK-os .or less often -iov- .KLS. 'A.or -180. and n^Xe-fow. recessively accented) . NOTE. -t'o^s. fern. queen .8p-q<rTo-* " daughter of Adrestus.8. -eta.. corresponding to otKe-Tts. Kticpoir-t-s.(rare and poetic. house-maid.(nom. guard. KiAiK-7/a (96. Kpov-tuv-os and Kpov-tov-oi. fern.(rare and poetic. -Is) belongs also to some feminines as Ilepcris. Persian woman (H^pa-r)s). Comjiounds of -TTWXTJJ as dpTo-TrwX-qs.are added to masculine stems in -a.(nom. -tas. retail-dealer.fj. -s. ffvfjLfjLaxis. <j>v\a. or -lav. son of 'J'hestius. 1).. 1117. -wr<r6L- as <ap//. so-n KfKpoTr-l8r)-$. IlijXij-idSrj-s Y . -wrcra. AaKa>v-os) TKT-atva. Kpov-tuv. -8- or paroxytone). -iu>vrj or -ivr/. KtAicro-a for proparoxytone) flaa-iX-ia-a-a. mostly to masculines Ae-ouva. -ei's . -/$) (f>v\a.of the stem in the second declension is dropped.KLs. and in ie/Dia. lioness (Aewv. -18. son of Pheres. The other stems add but -o. priestess. daughter of Acrisius. .axos. Scythian (ZKtftfijs). as .and -i5d-. The suffix -id. -l(ov. -laS^s. -is. Patronymics. corresponding to masculines in -175 (not -TT/S) of the first declension Persia. - 321 paroxytone or properispomenon. dpro-TroXis. . FORMATION OF WORDS -TIS. This occurs in /2ao-i'Aeia. from $rys. In some feminines corresponding to masculines in drug).and -iaS-. : female serf.which is changed to -ia-. nom. -iwvcU or -ivd. Sccryuuo-Tis. Homer of the suffix according to the meter . 4>^pr. from Bop^d-s llpla/j.(nom. Nyprj-l-s 7. oxytone).aKei's. also appears adjectively .(nom. dealer in charms or poisons ((^a/a/xaKov. 1115. artisan (TKTWV. The poets as 'laver-iov-tSti-t. as (IlijXe-tti?-s) The poets vary the form sometimes IlT/Xe-tSTj-s and in combine -Iov. 6ij<r<ra for QijT-ya. (f>apfjLa. an allied city (<r<j/j. son of Boreas. (fyr-o's. from . See also 1114. (uom. feminine and oxytone). Aeovr-os) Aa/c-aiva. The suffixes -5d. queen. TroAi-ns.of the -i5d. /cdTn/Xos. Ib/Xe-Wij-s). she-wolf (AvKos) 1114. and to sterns in -10. gen. gen. -ts. Boped-S-os ..1117 -n8. . Qe<rnd-s. <btpriT-td8-os fepipr-tdSij-s.which is then shortened to -a-.(nom. gen. -18- (nom. son of Cecrops.and -8. Cilician. Bope-y.Kpiff-n!>vri. Hpiafi-l-s. hireling. Only a few stems have -iovthird drops v. NOTE. from KiAi.(nom. proparoxytone). Qt<TTid-dr)-s. nom. The suffix -i5. I'epTjT-id-s. -aiva.or less often -iaSd.(nom. Te/crov-os) AvK-cuva.and -iSSome steins add -wtSd. female 2 risoner. -aivd. son of Cronos. Laconian (AaKtov. and -eu.s ($fprjT-) Kp6o-s ^A(cpiVtoA. female citizen. -id. fern. breadare proparoxytone in the feminine tcoman. as 7r6Xiy These denote descent from an ancestor and are 1116. Sometimes the suffix -iS. or Nijpe-i-r. masculine and : -10. Hpiap-iSri-s.. ZicvStt. masculine and paroxytone).corresponds to other masculine forms .o-s 0ecmd-5-os (KfKpOTT') of Priam. . dealer in bread..

(nom. 'A/38r)pi-TT]<. 1119. -10. KT/TT-IOV. from Trais (TraiS-) ye^vp-iov. -iSrj. child of a thief. little bridf/e. settled in Italy and 1122. SixeAtw-Tis (2tKAtw-Ti8-) (-ld-os) sc. son of Lampus (\dfnro-s). fem. . sc. see 1140 For the gentile adjectives in -toj. masculine and paroxytone). Sicilian Greek. t of Aldera. : -18-10- (nom. daughter's son. KTJTTO-S The little suffix -10-i'8-io-v) sometimes appears in a strengthened form thus .j. yrj or The feminine form in -fs x^P* -AeoHs . Relationship is expressed in a few words by the suffixes -i5eo-. from ye<f>vpa aoTT6S (dcnrtS-) d(nri8-iov. a Phocaean. -eus. -av&s. TratS-toy. -rivbs. son of (idta) -- . 'Eperpi-fv-s. little house (oi/a'd) v8iov (v + t = spring (irriy-^) . 'IraXoi 'IraXtumu and SiKeXiwreu were Greeks and 2t*eXoi were the original inhabitants. daughter of the nominatives end in (-i5eos) -tSoCj and Thus: Ovyarp-idous. that final o of the stem of the second declension is dropped. as K\eirT-idi>i-s.s being used instead. -rvS(with long preceding vowel. long by nature or position are paroxytone. 2. as AewcoX-/5i.322 FORMATION OF WORDS 1118 syllable. of Aegiiia. . -t6j. ddfX^idij. 2i/ceXtd 1120. NOTE. NOTE. nom. These two correspond to each other. These denote a person as belonging to a particular and are formed by means of the following suffixes masculine and oxytone). ->/-TIS. -ivot. as ij AioXis. -cv- country or nation or town. fern. garden. daughter's daughter. -a(i)t$i. -W-TTJS. 1. irrjy-tStov. as IleipcuSTjs (Horn. -LO-V neuter those of three syllables with the first syllable : . Ovyarpi-Srj. ^CDKCUIS (^UKOU-IO"-). may 7Xwff<ra or 5idXe/cros also denote a land or a <Ae Aeolic = 1121. Gentiles. little shield. nom. . little all others are proparoxytone). 'Epfrptd -^-T^S. -d-T^. -a-rts. -f-Trjs. dialect dialect. sometimes the stem drops or adds a 1118. 1123. Diminutives. feminine and properispomenon). Sicily . NOTE.) from Ilfipatos. The combination -ata5?jj from -cues was always avoided.s. nephew. little swine v-os) . -is. Ti\-iSiov v). : -18- (nom. . -t-ris. . and 1145. AewraXiwi'-) Aa. s. - d8c\<p-idovs. -/c6s. (I+r=i). NOTE. from Teyed Aiyiva "ApSrjpa 'A^S^pi-ris (' A/38rjpl-ri. a Megarian. and -tSea. Other irregularities sometimes occur as Aiayopidai from Aiay6pd-s. These two correspond to each other. little child. . -w-rts. from Meyapa <J?uKata (pi.) 4>(OKai-ei>s. of Tegea. Note 2. Sometimes -iSijt is used as a diminutive iu comic formations. feminine and oxytone).w-fT-i$i}s. Meya/a-ts (Mcyap-iS-). an Eretrian. Meya/i-ev-s. Teyea-ris (Tyeu-Ti8-) /s.8-) Atyi^-ns (Aiyii'T/nS-) (pi. -rd- (with long preceding vowel.) i]i/ceAt(j-T. son of Deucalion (AfwaXiwi'. These are formed from the steins of nouns by adding the following suffixes 1. oix-fluov (Cs.fj. niece. (nom.

Aorse) otv-wv. or vTjtr/s (vrifflS-). little dog -vSp-io. cup-like hollow (/corriXTj.piov. seat of the muses. young eagle. -dS-oj. 2. -ap-io- (nom. child. 1127. -10- is (nom. 1125.. little door. judge -eio-v from -e-io-v. NOTE. islet. -uAA-io-v. nose}.of the stem is dropped. 1128. hut often they denote something pretty or beloved. -tx v &> -I'XXtSseveral others are seen in irid-aKv^ from irlOos. Socky dear! (Aristoph. : (a) -T)//3-io-v. Kvv-dpior. wine-cellar d/u. expressed by the following suffixes This suffix may have two forms. fern. iror-fipiov. fjiovcrf-io-v.Ttj'S. Socrates (^WKpa. barber Aoyo-s.i8-a. -wvtd. as oratorium. masc.). a. -i5- fern. for derivative nouns can be seen in words like: (Kv/i/j. . barber's shop.) : 7rou8-io-KOS. 3. Observe that -e<r. rare): oV#-vAAiov. -TK?7. cup) . (o?vo-s. or even contemptible . little man the (di'$p<o7ros). paya .). but not the meaning. finch.). dv8p-wv. neuter). iro\-ixwi (nom.) poSamd.Ka. muse -wv- (nom. thigh) vcotX-ds. fo'Me song (/xeAos. -ap-io-v) : Tra. wild animal. grandson) -. Other suffixes 56i/-os.v6-v\\is from d/cay^/s. from Kovpfv-s. of persons in -rr/p (most of them older forms -tor-ium. 1124. UJVLO. the form.r). . Those in -r-tipiov -eiov sometimes denote a means. as 0-qp-iov. rpo<pelov. hearer 8iKao"-T^/D-iov. . NOTE. Kovpf-io-v.O. -tSetfs) to denote the young of animals. as drinking cup . /xowa.KVO. fern.1129 (for FORMATION OF WORDS Tet / \o--iSiov). 2a)K^aTe<T-). (6) (8t/ccum/p) St/coumys. -we. from (aK/ood-n/p) aK^od-n/s. . . masc. irarpidtov. T& piv-la. court of justice.(uoin. (nom. . Some words have from tives . 1126. little -vXX-io- (nom. wine jar . mw) vineyard : (a/ATre Ao-s.i5ei''s. dvflecr-). -t5-oj. -wr/co-s. pay for rearing . greavc leg.7rA-uJV. 3. -ts or -ts. place for speaking. rare) : /xeA-vo'/Hov. speech Aoye-to-v. as. as der-i5ei's. young girl. apartment for men ITTTT-WV. horse-stable (dvi'jp. Place 1. TrcuS-) . 0i^>. dv8/3-os. plv-bs. The diminutives not only may express smallness of size. 1129. From names of nouns in -rrjs). of diminuwhich is less used in prose . hollow).Kpoa-Ti'ip-iov. di>0pa)7r-i<TKO<s. Krnn-ts. man) (tTTTro-s. a hollow (oiX6s. N<ITK. KoriXi. /ieAe<r-). (nom. as Ovpts (Ovpid-). Compare the Latin auditorium. nostrils (pis. fct'ne) (norn. NOTE. and rose-bed. from der6s (but also i. -WTKO.): TrcuS-Mr/oj.- (nom. liUKparidiov. young boy (Trais. -iXXtj) from TroXis a. are these : Among -f5- many other suffixes sometimes used as diminutives . from Ovpa from vycros -tdev. little 323 little wall (rct^os) little > Sawc/wr-iSuM'. -v8p-Lo-v. -lo-v.-ct'. see also the adjectives in -TI^MOJ and -etoj.(nom. -IO-KO- flower (dv0os.

-IKOV. heroic (?yp<j-s. paroxytone). heavenly (oiy>avo-s. -to-- (nom. cra<-rys.(nom. 6epe<r-. wealthy (irAovros. ovpdv-io-s. AOITT-O-V. dpx-iKO-s. remaining (AttV-a). capable offeeling vo/xai) action. . (p-va-. DERIVATIVES 1132. -to- (num. -oio-s. endured?) -w- (nom. -v?. KaK-r'i.324 FORMATION OF WORDS 1130 FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES PRIMITIVES 1130. tvp-os. cwfti<) From in the neoter of the adjectives in -etos come the nouns of place or means -etoj' (1127. remember) v. -d- (noiu. Participles are also primitives (suffixes -VT-. to ru/e (ap^-w) rfrato (ypa. swift (TO-X'I TU\-OS. (ro<-?y.>M< (5tK7/. sweet (?)8-. TrAoAno-s. added only ra^-i'-s. -to-v). Aero) a cubit long (TH/XV-S. I/. 17/310-05. -iu. -0-5. It expresses that ivhich belongs or pertains in any way thing. width) 1131. right) fiyo/>ato-s. -IKO-S. XOTK. -/xwv. With a preceding vowel of the stem. -to-v or -10-5. to roots). dear) venerable at^oo--. OI'KCIO-S. 6. daring (rAa-. /JUJJ-VI'/O-KW./(< It denotes fitness or ability. clean) <f>L\io-<i. mostly compounds). KO. 604) . fte pleased) wide (fvp-. 1 -y) or -u. AOITT-) KttK-o-s. heaven) Oepeio-s. . shame) forum) domextic (OIKO-S. -eto-s. StVaio-s. . Biifiix. (ro</>-o-s. so also verbal adjectives in -TO-S and -reo-s (605). aWe ?o harm (/?Aa7rra>) (d< rtWe fo y/>a</>-iKo-s. (root <ro<-) -IKO- (nom. ai'SoTo-s. -vio-s. forensic (dyopd. -lo-s. w/^e or /or ^ awr^-riKo-s. -i/o/. 1128). (at'Sois. Aoi?r-7y. (ro(f>-6-v. A very common suffix. -es. -e-a>s) friendly (<t>i\o-$.<f>wi) /3Aa7r-TtKo-s. house) Tn'i\wo-<:. cleanly (Ka0ap6-s. -775. r/S-o/xai. practical See also 1140. oxytone).K-O-V. Zt'e) -|>v. summer) ySao-i'Aeto-?. -T\r]-v. -o-v). -r. it becomes -yo-s.K-) . evp-v-<s. 603. swiftness) >/8-v-s. wealth) Kadiipio-s. i^fv8-t'i<s. -o-. of the summer (6fpos. mindful suffering. -pevo-. AoiTr-o ?. -/xoi'. The primitives with this suffix oftener have -T-IKOS. i^pyo-s. bad wise (root KO. -eta. The most common to a person or -aio-s. -or-. 602. cfear (root <ra<-) false (^er6-o/xai. kingly (/3acriAus.

-rare- 1140. mountain). It also expresses likeness.os). 350). .1140 FORMATION OF WORDS Athenian Milesian 325 Gentiles are often formed with this suffix. Important exceptions Oxytone are: yfpai6s and -ftipaibs. old. (&i>6pwiros). grace) 6A?J-ts. by night.\avrov) . = xepafjiovs. customary (v6/j. Ke/)a/iios or earthen e (/ce/aa/zos. Kpa. makes <T7rov8et-a/c6s) preceding t often dropping out and the a becoming d. the suffix being added to the root. If the stem-word ends -ev-. living in mountains. We also find -ieuos as ffKoratos and ffKonaios. Of those in -etos Set'Xeios. wood.golden()(pv(r6-<s. foolish . v5/uaios. 1139. -s. the suffix is -a/c6$ stems in -t. suffix relation. -tpos are generally properispomena. linen) . tlie spondee. potter's This -eio. somealso have the form -KO. -raros). -ev. TraXcujs. raXavTicuos. worth a talent (ra. and with preceding e make -etc6s (Vut stem-words in -et-os and --a add -*c6s (but ffirovtie'cs./AaT-iKo-. Sixain. while those in Several poetic -luv and -iffros are primitive. times K!K . may It denotes fitness or ability . -eis. violent .(nom. Those in -repos and -raros are added to the stem of the positive and are therefore denominative . -tvo-s. from or of dry land (x^p<ro-j). -e-ws.gold) is Atveo-s. -oios.@t'i[ji:t.A-ivo-s. . This also denotes material. -Ttpo-. MIXijo-io-s. NOTE.!i. . like -ios. (jj. graceful (\api-s. just .d6^fj-a. This denotes material.or -UKO-. -lov-.ra. -t/co-s. and are Xa/w-eis. -IKO- (nom. of. Chian (Xio-s) lloo. suffix -tc6-s (oxytone) is time. -to- 1135. i -eo-s. -eo-cra. \apiT-. and (omitting ct^eios. ivoody (vXrj. able to learn [j. -vr. 8t8<to-KaA-tKo-s. . The older form for -eo- -eto- . as in xpixreio-s (poetic) earth).i6s. -ovs. 1136. /3cKTiXei5s makes j3a<riX-i/c6s) the stem-words ending in -at-oj have -tcos. oxytone). Those in -aios. many are properispomena. Those in -ios not preceded by a vowel of the stem are mostly proparoxytone. as dypb-rtpo-s. ('Affyvcu. /za$*. wretched. flat plain) . -to-ros). vernal. NOTK. of stone (At^o-s) wooden (v\o-v) But a. This in -tos. 320).T-os. dark (cr/tiroy. as vvKTep-iv6s. but most : of them are proparoxytone. xpv<rov s. the ordinary -10-. These form comparatives and superlatives (337. ndraios. human The same (ap-iv6s. 6pe-ivfa for 6pe((r)-iv6s. 'AO-qvaio-s.is therefore the belonging to the stem. Xivovs. contr. -tvo- (nom.and some others add have -t/c6j.1). wild (living in adjectives in -repoj have no comparative force at all the country). proparoxytone). stems in gen. . -ICTTO.^< to teach (Si teacher) thing learnt) . i. poetic 0arei6s). xfff<r-iv6s. mostly poetic. . The ending -aios is found in some adjectives from stems which do not end in a as xepaailo?. wealthy. -ftav. strong. 1138. Accent. . used for adjectives expressing belonging to yesterday. 6pe<r-. NOTE. These denote fullness. from dyp&s dptv-repo-s. Proparoxytone are /3/euoj. (num.v6p&ir-u>os = av6puireios. mountainous (6pos. TT 6X0. -re/)os. (nom. \i6-tvo-s. 1134. and similar ideas as ireS-ii>6s. darkness). Athens) Xios for Xi-to-s. 294). like a plain. ancient (from adv. of linen (\ivov. full (irediov. forest) (nom.

/> or in These are from nouns in (nom. (^a/^/jtos. were used only formed from names of places lying outside of Greece. a^w. those in -Ivos are almost wholly of Italic and Sicilian Greeks. -po-s. 1. Decclean bodily (o-wpx.at/iaT-os) o-^f)T. stci (voo-os. Darius) -r^pio-r>/ 1141.o-s.-Ao-s. Sci-vo-s. as AyKvp-avb*. t Corinthian.persuasive(from probable exist a-<D-T^p-io-<s ) preserving((rw-Tijp. hate) T-pd-s. -vo-s.vfris-r)vfa. as is the latter is derived from rb eiSoj. Decelea) 1141 /ioi<r-iKo-.. twisted (<TTf<t>-(a.opiv6-to-<. bright (Aa/z7r-w.Vt-s. (nom. form.(nom. The primitives are mostly active in meaning.o-s. eotxa. (1099) j but sometimes the corresponding noun does not TT(i(r-Tr]p-i. TTCI'^W. shape. running (rpe^-w. -Xo. natural (<j. deceitful (dirarrj.icoMints/i(yi'v-r.6fr. sand) wasp-like (CT"</>?/^.. --ny/no-s. attractive (apvd/OTT-aAfo-s. shine) d>Oove-po-<. rim) (IK-. -po- (nom. Achaean) Kopiv6i. feminine (0v)Au-s.. opea--. ^ui(e) iriO-a-vo-s.. Tarentum).(-a-A. -TJ. pain) o/>t-vd-s.Corinthian(K. ' . grassy (Troid. tcasp) suffix -wSr/s is probably not contracted from -o-eiST/j. -8r. aTrar-^-Xo-s. aAyei-vo-s for dXyr-vo<. envy) \virr)-p6-<i.o-<s. grasping. painful (TO aAyos. ^ sandy The posed . potter) . persuasive (trid-. <TTp((3-\6-<s. timid (Set-. -aXto- (nom -Aeo-s. persuade) mountain) 1145. mostly oxytone). similarity (like -o-et'S^s). . musical (jMiwa. deceit) voo-->. //Z o/ blood (af/ia. This suffix is added to noun stems and usually denotes fullness. mostly oxytone). of Anci/ra ("AyKi'pa) K. pain) . o-w/zar-os. This suffix expresses quality. <5e6Wa.. -i/i/ij. turn) T/3o.ywai/c-os) -s. The primitives are generally active in meaning. muse) -s. hated (o-Tvy-eio. terrible (Bet-. female) . -A. hated. e'x0-po-s.K-w6jys. Sei-Ao-s. 1146. painful (Ai-rrTj. s. ofCyzicene (K. Kepa/xe-iKo-s. -tKOj. Tdpair-oj. earthen (Kepafievs. often used substantively. proparoxytone). parsimonious spare) (</>'8-o/zai. /ear) ^iS-w-Ao-s. commonly sup- 1143.326 FORMATION OF WORDS AeKeAci-Ko-s.gainful(TbKfp8o<.Daric (Ad/3to-s.K-os) TapavT-ivot. disease) /like am HAe) 2. SeoWa. grass) ai/xaT-o^rys. The primitives are usually passive in meaning. fear) (rruy-vo-s.saviour) form TTfurryp. Gentile adjectives in -avh. irtiOu.-aK6-<. etz) -vo- Kp8-a\e-o-s. gain) 1144. envious (<j>96vo-<. persuade) 1142. hostile (f\0-(i). nature) 'Axeu-iKO-s or 'Ax-iKO-s ('Axa'Q-s.shrewd.(nom.. mostly oxytone). er/c-e-Ao-s. Tarentine (Tdpctj. sometimes s. -w8es). paroxytone). mountainous (o/sos. -wo^s.

1150

FORMATION OF WORDS
-(>-, -IJAO-, -o-ifio- (nom. -/to-s, -ip-o-s, -o-ijuo-s). suffix -fj.o- is rare and occurs in primitives. The adjectives in -t^toj

327

1147.
The

derived from nouns or from the root ; those in -<TI-/J.<K originally came from nouns in -cri-s, but -cri/uoy came to be used as an independent suffix and was applied to verbstems. The dissyllables in -yuoj are oxytone, nearly all the others are proparoxytone.
0ep-(d>-s,

may be

warm

(0{p-u,

warm)
rpo$--t\)

vior-i^os, belonging to

a return

(vfarro-s,

yudx-'Aws,
rp6<p-inos,

warlike

(/xdx-o/uai, fw-x-'n)

return)

nourishing (rpty-w,

f5wd-ijuos, eatable (5-, fd-wd-r/,

xP 1?' ''-/"' ^ -useful (xpfj-ffi-s, use) lirird-fft-[j.os, fit for riding (lirirdofji.a.i, ride) food) Ko.t-ffi-ft.os, combustible (/caO-0-i-j, burning)

FORMATION OF ADVERBS
1148. Adverbs are formed by means of the following This is the most common suffix. -s.
suffixes
:

It is added to the root of adjectives of the second declension, For examples, see 357. adjectives of the third declension.

and to the stem of

and rarely -8a, -8<5v, -a8<$v, -T]8<5v, -8Vjv, -ASr\v These express manner and are added to roots or
;

-ivSTjv,

-v8a, -8h]v to noun-stems.

and

-8wx.

'Ava-fpav-ddv, openly (dva-<paiv<>), (pav-) ; 6/j.o-6v/j.-ad&v, with one accord (bfi.6-0vfjios, ; Kvi>--rjd6v, like a dog (K<LH>)V, KW-6s, dog) ; Kptij3-8r)v, secretly (Kptiir-ru, conceal) ; <firop-d8-qv, scatteredly (ffireipw, (rwep-, sow, scatter) ; nly-8a, confusedly

of one mind)

yut-y-, mix) ; ir\ovT-iv$T)v, according to wealth (TrXoCros) ; tcpvirr-ivda, (fjiyvvfjii, hide-and-seek (-ivda used of games) ; ffx f -^"n v near (crx^Sios, near, from <rxe-$bv, near, root ffX f ~) Ka.Ta-\o<pd-8eia, on the neck (/card \6tpov). -5 (= -/c-s). Expresses manner and is added to roots and to noun-stems. with the Jist (wvy-/j.j, fist) ; 'Ava.-fii%, confusedly (dva-fdyvv/u, iri;, ply-) ;
t

i

in

irap-a\\d^, alternately (7ra/>-a\\d<r<rw, irap-aXXay-, change). Those compounded with a- (poet, v-q-) privative, iras, or avrbs, and those tl, -f, -u -ffT-l from verbs in -<ffu and -/fw, express manner. Others are temporal or local. IlavSrinei (iras, Sij/ttos), in a body ; d/j.axfi (d-, fj.dx"t), with resistance ; vijiroivel
(vr;-, iroivTfi),

(&-, ffrdfa),

in floods
Trpwi

with impunity; Horn. dva.Lfi.wrt (dv-, af/ua), without bloodshed; dffTaurl ; 6/j.o/j.affri (from 6vofj.dfa), by name; eXX^nrrf (from eXA^ifw),
1 -,

Att. irpv, early ; Ayx near. added to the root of numerals and pronouns to express how many times ; as 8fK-dKis, ten times, iroXX-d/cu, many times. -is occurs in 5/s, twice, rpit, thrice; Horn. dfjL<p-ovd-is, on the ground ground) Horn. XiKpupk, sideways. as Epic x<v-&s, to the ground ( -8is occurs in a lew words xaMfr) in turn. rt (Aeolic -ra, Doric -KO) is added to the stem of pronouns to express time when; as fiXXo-re, at another time ; &-TC, when. -61, -0v, -Sc (-fe), -<rc, see 284. -i, -<ru (locatives), see 285.
iu
;

Greek

-OLKIS.

This

is

;

;

=

1149. NOTE. For the adverbial use of the dative and accusative of ordinary nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, see the Syntax.
in d-yx
6irtffu,

1150. NOTE. Other adverbial formations are -oi, as ^ near ; 6/noO, together ; TroO, where ?
:

-775,

as
wii

^j,
it

in order
if

;

-oi',

as
;

iroi,

her

-w, aa

TTUI,

yet

-a (oftener in behind; dvwrtpu, higher ; -ov, as ir\yfflov, near; ffd<pa, adverbs), as rdxo., quickly, in Attic prose, perhaps (rax''?, quick)
;

poetic

((rajr/is)

;

-oi,

as

^/cds,

just now, \iav, too

far; much.

-i^(s),

as

tv0i>(i),

straight to

;

-rjv

and

-a?,

as

328
1151. NOTE.

FORMATION OF WORDS
In some adverbs -ax- is inserted after the root dXX-ax-fl, elsewhere; and some others.
;

1151
as 7roXX-ax-oO,

vwny

times, in

many places ;

1152. NOTE. Of the different forms of adverbs, those in -T?J nnd -ov are old genitives ; datives are those in -77 and -a (see the adverbial dative iu the Syntax) those in -, -*, -t, -<ri are old locatives or datives those in -u or -ws are probably old ablatives those iu -r/v or -av are accusatives of nouns or adjectives in actual use or from old stems.
; ; ;

FORMATION OF DENOMINATIVE VERBS
adjectives. 1. -dw.

1153. Denominative verbs are those formed from the stems of nouns or The following are their principal terminations Verbs in -aw are formed mostly from words of the first declension, and denote to do or to be or to /wire that which is expressed by
:

the primitive.
rtytott,

Some

lack the corresponding primitive.

honour

(rip.?), Tiynd-,

honour)

roA/ud(i>, be bold,

dare (rdA/ia, boldness)
(KG/AT/,

yoau), icail (yoos, wail)

KoyMacu,

wear lowj hair

hair)

For verbs in
see 1155.

-iaa>

and -aw expressing desire or a morbid condition,
declensions,

2. -Iu. Verbs in -ew are formed from words of all express a condition or an activity.

and

<f>L\ia, love (<i'Aos, friend)

a-TpaTijyf(j),lead,amgeneral((TTpaT^y6g)
reAeo), finish (reAos, reAeo--, end)

dirci\(a, threaten (uTreiA?;, threat)
fv8aifj,ovf(a,

unhappy (fv8ai/JMV, happy) drv^cta, am unlucky (drv;(?/s, drv\(r-) Those from stems in -r- drop -co--, as in reAew and drvxecu. Sometimes they have older forms in -ctta as Epic rcAct'co from original TeAr-j/w.
3.
-<Jw.

Verbs in

-oto

declension.

They denote

to

are nearly all formed from words of the second cause or to make. Several lack the corresponding

primitive, as dpow, plough.

X/nVos, gild (xpwtJs, gold)
f\cv6epo<a make free (eAev'^epos)
t

Sr^Aow,

make

clear (S>}Aos)

fypioia, jtunish (fafiia, penalty)

4. -wo. Verbs in -evo> were first formed from nouns in -ei% afterwards from words of all the declensions. Most of them express to be, some to do.

^8ao-tAi'o>,
(jtovfvW)

am king, rule (/JacriAevs) am a murderer, murder (<^>ovev5)

drjpfina,

hunt

(Bijpa.)

/3ov\tvu>, take counsel (/3ov\nj)

ro^evw, shoot with the bow (TOOV) d\r)0{r<a, speak the truth (d\.i)8r)$ t true)

and -(J. These were at first formed from actual lingual or (less 5. -Aj often) palatal stems ; as f\iri<a, hope, for eXiriS-yu) (eArt's, eATrt'8-os) ; o-ra^w, But many were afterwards formed from drop, for oray-j/w (o-ray-wi/, drop). from other stems by analogy. They express action ; those in -iw or -ia
proper names express an adoption of manners, language, opinions, or
politics.

1159
SiKufo, judge
ovo/zau>,
e/jy:ib/za6,

FORMATION OF WORDS
(SiKr), justice)
(6Vo//.a,

329

name

name)

work (epyov, work)

iXAnvtte, speak Greek, live like a Greek SW/H^W or 8<i>pidw, favor, or live like the Dorians
<iAi7r7rt'to,

i;(ri>xw, be quiet (^cn^os) 7rAouTia>, make rich (TrAoirros, riches)
Several in -rdfu> are intensive
G.
;

favor Philip's party

as plirrdfa, throw about (ptirru, throw).

-atvco

and -vvw from

-av-yta

and

-vv-y<a.

These are derived from

various steins.

They

are for ihe most part causative in meaning.

cr^pouVto, ijladden (fv<f>p(ov, cheerful)
(r>//iaiVu>, siijnifij

^aAeTratVo),

am

(o-^a, si</?t) angry (^aAeTros,

/lard,

7rruii>, ripen, make ripe (TTCTTWV) i^uyw, sweeten (rySus, sweet) owa>, sharpen (ous, sharp)

angry)

1154. Endings of less frequent occurrence are make dust, from /com poetic yrjpvta, utter, from yrjpvs,
:
;

and -<ta, as Epic /co^fa, sound ; -^i"w, only in as awi master Tri^fw, press; -<H"w, SecrTrofw, (SecrTroTijy) tffw, as epirvfa, crawl along, from Zpirw, creep; eivw, from -ev-yta, as Honi. dXeet^w = dXeo/iai, avoid; fvw, from -tv-yw, as Horn. 6ptvu = 6pvv/jLi, arouse ; -aipu from -ap-yu, as rfK/j,aipofiai, mark from as from out, from r^KfjMp, mark ; desire, -etpw -ep-yu, jynepoj, poet. 1/j.tipu,
-fw

--

--

voice,

;

--

desire; t'pw from -ip-yw, only otxTtpw, pity, from o/KT/>6s, pitiable; (ipw from -vp-yw, as fj.apropofj.a.1, call to witness, from /mdprvs, (ndprvp-os, witness ; -dXXto from -aX-i/w, as -AXw from -t\-yu, as d7"yAXw, announce, cuKciXXw, flatter, from ot'/caXos, flatterer ; from 577^X09; -iXXw from -i\-yu, as TroiKiXXw, variegate, from iroudXos, variegated;

--

--

--- 6XXw from

-oX-?/w,

as ffTpwfjivXXb), babble,

aoXXw, <?<r?i quickly (al6\os, quick moving) from trTpw/j.v\os, talkative.

;

-- i''XXw from -v\-y<i),

llOO.
in

-d).
;

future

Desideratives. and -lAw (a few 1. These express desire and end in -<re in -ireiu are formed from the theme of verbs as it appears in the those in -idu and -eiw are from nouns.

Those

ytXa-ffeiw, desire to
}roXffj.-rj-fffiii),

laugh (yeXdw, laugh)

ffTpaT-qyidw, desire to be general (ffTpa.TT)y6s)
<pot>dw,

desire to

wage war
a pupil

(woXe/Aeu,
(/oa^T/r^y,

wage war)
fj.a6rjT-Ldti>,

ftavardu, desire to die (Oavarbs, death) have murderous intent (<f>6t>os,

desire to be

murder)
;

pupil
2.

Some
;

in -idia

and -du denote a bodily affection

as 6<p8aX/uud<i), have sore eyes

(6<j>9aXfjdd)

Ppa.yx.dw,

am

hoarse (fipayxos, hoarse).
-OJTTW

1156. Most
Tv<f>Xw<T(Tti},

am

of those in -&<r<r<j) or blind (n/0X6j, blind).

denote a morbid condition

;

as

1157. Intensives or Frequentatives. These are few, and nearly all poetic. They are formed from primitive verbs. 1. Some end in several in -rdfw, as -rdu as vaie-rdw, dwell, from valu a few end in -arptw, as ftu-ffrptu, call plir-rdfa, throw about, from ptirru, throw;
; ;

out,

from podu.
2.

Some

pant for, from the sea), from

as /JMI/JMU, repeat the stem, at the same time changing the stem-vowel boil (of fjLa.iofj.ai (FJM-), seek ; fj.opfj.6pu, dash, from ftPpu, flow ; Trop<pi>pu t
;

<f>fipu,

mix ;

voiirvtita,

puff,

from TTC^W

(TTVV-), breathe.

1158. For
noun

the so-called inceptive or inchoative verbs in
several verbs with different

-<TKU, see

657.

1159. Often
;

as 5oiA6w, enslave., SovXtvw,

am

meanings

are

a

xlarc,

iroXe,u:'fo),

wage war,

iroXc/j.Jw,

make

hostile,

from 5oP\os, from n-j

formed from the same tttntj troXffdu and Mp.c'

330

FORMATION OF WORDS

1160

COMPOUND WORDS
1160. The treatment of compound words embraces: (1) the first part : Most compounds are (2) the last part; (3) the accent; (4) the meaning. made up of two parts, and the principles which apply to these, hold also in case of unusual compounds of three or more parts.
FIRST PART OP A COMPOUND
1. When the first 1161. First part a noun or adjective. part of a compound is a noun or adjective, its stem alone is used. 2. In stems of the first declension final -d- is usually changed to -obefore a consonant, and is usually dropped before a vowel. 3. Stems of the second declension usually drop -o- before a vowel. 4. Stems of the third declension generally add -o- before a consonant.
t

Hfj.epo-8poiJ.o<s,
(81*77)

day-runner (i^uepd), Si/co-ypa^os, composer of law-speeches a\\6-Trov<s, storm-footed (aeAAa) ; Kf(j>a\-a\yijs, causing headache
;

(xe^aXiy)

A.oyo-y/3a<os, writer of speeches (Aoyos)
crtafj.aTo-<f>vX.a,
>

;

X/

)" 7

?y s chorus-leader
fish-

(XPs)
eating

;

(tx^~ s ) 1162. NOTE.
first

bodyguard (<royia, o-eu/zar-) ; i)(6v-o-(f>dyo<;, <wi-o-Aoyos, natural philosopher (<ixri-s).

the
the

The exceptions to the above rules are very numerous. Stems of declension sometimes have -a- or -17- instead of -oas dyopd-i>6/j.os, clerk of
;
>

; x 17-0fy)os linger of libations (x^) fVMP*'1N fated from birth (po'ipa, fate). Compounds of yrj, earth, have yeu- in Ionic and Attic, and ydin Doric as yew-^r/wjs, Doric yd-/jLtrpds, land-measurer. Stems of the second
! ;

market (dyopd)

as Aa^-/36Xos, deer-slaying -17- instead of final -o-, of the Attic second declension have -w- instead of -o-, as vew-ic6pos, Jiaving charge of a temple (vtws). A final stem-vowel is often retained when the second part of the compound originally had digamma, as Horn. 8tifji.io-fpy6s Attic dijfuovpyh, artisan; and -o- is not elided when the second part is -o^os (from x w )> hut is contracted with o to ou, as (ffrtovxos from e<mo-oxos, guarding the house
(t\a<t>o-s, deer}.

declension occasionally have

Some words

=

(ito-Tid,

hearth), paftdovxot, carrying

a

staff (p<i/35os).
-v-

1163. NOTE.
sonant
;

Stems

in

-t-

and

sometimes do not add
i

-o-

before a con-

as iroXi-irbpOiji, sacker of cities ; i]du-\ayos, of sweet speech. So vain, ship, and /3oCs, ox or cow, are usually vav- and /3oi>- ; as va.fi -K\r)pos, master of a ship ; The stem of 7rs (WO.VT-], all, generally appears as vav-, seldom /3oi>-*c<SXoj, cow-herd. as iravr-o- or wavr- ; as wdi'-cro^os or ird<r-<ro0oy, all wise ; iravro-irbpos, full of resources ; iravr-apxos, all-ruling ; wavoupyos, villainous, is from irav-o-tpyos.

famous name,
or

as 6vo/jia-K\iT6s, of -(J.O.T- (nom. -pa) drop -T- or -arStems in -tffbleeding freely (afyta, afycar-oj, blood). -cffand add -oas \f/tv8-o-ndpTvs, false (^ei'5i)s) (nom. -T;J -oj) generally drop So also stems in -a<ras witness; dvO-o-<f>6p<n, bearing flowers (&v0os). ; Kpf-o-<f>dyot, But some poetic forms retain -fa- or -aa- as ffaK(ff-<j>6pw, flesh-eating (/rp^aj). as some add -tafter shield-bearing, <re\a<r-<t>6pos, light-bringing; -tff-, Ttixeff-i-irX-rtT-rp, approacher of walls (perhaps -cr-i- is here dat. pi.).
in
;

Sometimes neuter stems

ai/j.-0-ppa-rft,

;

,

;

1164. NOTE. Sometimes -a- or -77- takes the place of -o- with stems of the In some third declension ; as irod-a-viirTT/ip, foot-pan, i<p-i>i-ij>5pos, wearing a sword. cases -t- is added to stems of the third declension ; as wp-l-irvovs, fire-breathing. 1165. NOTE.
The
first

part of some

compounds

is

a genitive, or dative, or old

1169

FORMATION OF WORDS

331

locative ; as pewcr-ot/cos, ship-house., Sopt-KTTjros, icon by the spear, traversed by ships, 6pei-^drr)s, mountain ranging, 63oi-7r6/>os, way-farer (bdoi- locative, or from 65).

.,

1166. First part a verb-Stem. Compounds whose first part is a verbtheme (as in English break-water, make-shift, go-between) are rare in prose. 1. The present stem, or the theme, remains unchanged before a vowel and adds -e- or -o- or -i- before a consonant.
Ilt#-apxos, obedient
biting the TCKTcov, master-builder.
8aK-f-Ov[jio<s,
to

;

command ;
;

heart

e'A-av8pos, man-slaying (eiXov, eA-) ; AiTr-o-ra^id, desertion of one's post ; a-p^-i-

2.

The verb-stem has

-cri- (-or-

before a vowel) joined to
;

it.

Ari-crt-TTovos, freeing

from

toil (aor. e'Avcra)

eyep-o-t-yua^os (eyep-, eyeipco),

battle-stirring ; crrpei/'i-SiKos (crrp<-), perverting justice ; Trav-tr-are/ios, calmSeveral insert e before ing the wind; 7rAr/-t7T7ros (TrA^y-), horse-lashing. -<TI- or -o~as eAK-e-crt-TreTrAo?, trailing the robe ; <ep--o--/?tos, life-bearing. ;

1167. NOTK.
used.
fuff(o)-

In the compounds without -<n- or -cr-, only primitive stems are Stems of verbs in -tw and -dw (as /u<7ew and VIKO.U) drop e and a. Hence and VIK(O)-, not /utcre- and vlica-, in composition as uur-dvOpuTros, hating
;

mankind ;

fj.lff-6-ywos,

woman-hater,

i>iK-6-fiov\os,

prevailing in the Council.

1168. First part a preposition or adverb.
changes here occur.
irpo
3

may

Only the regular euphonic Prepositions drop a final vowel before a vowel, and contract o with a succeeding o or e to ov.

A7ro-/3aAAo>, throw

away
;
;

(aTrd,

/3aAAa>)

;

aTr-e^w, hold

off (ciTro,

or Trpov^fa, hold before (irpo, Tre/atp-pew, flow around (Trepi, pew) tiet-Aoyi'ti, continual talking; cv-irpeTn')<s fitting; TraAi'A-Aoyos, saying again (TraAiv, again). Rarely 77 takes the place of a final vowel of a preposition, or is
Trpo-ex<0
; )

ey-^ew, pour in (eV, xea>) <j)pov8o<s, gone (irpo, 68ov)

inserted after it;
conspicuous.

as

eV-ry-/3oAos,

having

attained, fitting;

virfp-rj-<)>avos,

The following particles 1169. First part an inseparable particle. are inseparable and are used only in composition 1. TJJU-, half, Lat. semi-; as i}/zt-^eo?, demigod; rjp.i-fJLav>'i<i t half-mad;
:

r}/xi'-<$os, half-cooked.

un-, mis- (opposed to ev, well), denotes difficulty or disas oY<7--/2aTO?, hard to pass (opposed to ev-fiaTos) 6W-p.a0?ys, hard (or slow) to learn (opposed to ci5-yna.6^s) ; 8ixr-yap;os, ill-weddeil ; in Homer Awr-Trapis, ill-starred Paris.
2.
8v<r-,
ill,

agreeableness

;

;

3.

A-

privative (&v-

Latin

in-,

English un- or
;

before a vowel) has the force of a negative, like -less; as a-7rcus, chiklless ; a-^aros, inaccessible

(ftaiviD,

(3a-)

a-Ti/ios,
;

unhonoured ;

av-aios,

unworthy;

%

incurable (aKeo/zai)

av-atSvy?, shameless.

The form

dv->yKeo-Tos , a- often stands before

especially if the following part originally had digaimna ; as wineless ; a-(/)ry5tys, unpleasant; a-o:rAos or av-o7rAos, unarmed; Sometimes a- contracts with a following vowel, as a-virvo?, sleepless.

vowels,

a-(/)oivos,

332

FORMATION OF WORDS
intensive, eee

1170

from d-Ku>i', unwilling. For a- copulative and av- from civ- in Epic poetry, see 4 below.
4. vtj-

1170.

For

(Lat.
-77-

cases the
5.

as vri-iroivos, unavenged. In many w), an Epic negative prefix probably belongs to the second part, and v- is from dv- as v-yutpTfy,
;

;

unerring (duaprdvw,
dpi- and
d-yx;

d/xapr-).
;

4pi-, poetic intensive prefixes

as dpl-yvuros, well-known, fpi-K\'S^,
prefix
;

very glorious.
6.

(compare

d^yav, ??(/, too),

an Epic intensive
;

as dya-K\vrfa, highly

renowniul
shaded.
<j-5a-

dy--/ivup, veri/

manly.

7. Ja- or So,-,

Of these

= fa-.

an Epic intensive prefix as fd-#eos, most divine; dd-a-Kios, thickly fa- is really the Lesbian form of did, and da- is evidently from

1170. NOTE. Another prefix is d- copulative, used like the Latin con-, ami denoting union or likeness; as d-Kolrr)s, fern. i!-/totTis, bed-frJloir ; d-rdXavros, of An d- intensive is found in several words as d-rev^y, wry tight, equal weight. stubborn (rev-, reivu) 4-ire5os, even, flat (irtdov, ground).
; ;

LAST PART OF A COMPOUND
1171. When the last part d or e or o, this vowel (unless
a and
e to
rj,

of a
it is

compound noun or adjective begins with long by position) is usually lengthened

:

and o to

co.

'Y7r-r//coos, obedient (v o, tucouu) ; v-?yi'e/xos, with fair KaT-?7/)<?ys, covered (Kara, e/>e<a>) ; av-w/zoros, unsworn without rain, because o in opftpos is long by position.

mnd
;

(e?, aveyMos)

;

but

av-ofjL/3po<i,

1172. NOTE. In a few of the compounds of &yu, lead, and becomes d; as \ox-Hyfa, captain (\6xos, &yu) vav-dyjs, shipwrecked
;

tLyvvju, break,

a

(vavs, &yvv/j.t).

1173. Compound Adjectives and Nouns. 1. If the last part is a masculine or feminine noun or adjective of the second or third declension, usually it remains unchanged.
ill-fated ;
<ro<^>os

"A-#eos, godless; O.TT-OIKOS, aiiuy from home; a-irais, childless; KaKo-iSou'/zwi', Swr-epws, insensible to love or sick in love ; SI'-TTOVS, two-footed ; irdv-

<j>iX-f \\7jv,

2.

or 7ra<r-cro<os, all wise; av-d/xoios, unlike; /AMTO-TTOVOS, labour-hating; fond of the Greeks; dxpo-TroAis, acropolis; oyu.o-o'ovA.os, fellow-slave. If the last part is a noun of the first declension, or a neuter of the
it is

second or third, or a verb-theme,

ending

-os, -ov,

or

-T/S,

-s,

less often -77?

changed, and commonly assumes, the or -TT/S (gen. -ov), -rr)p, and -riap.
;

Xw-o'eiTn'os

(SeiTri/ov),

dining together

<^>tXo-Ti/xo5

(TI/A?/),

honour-lori/i<i

;

d-Tv^^s

nameless; unfort unate ; di'-wvi'/zo? (ovo/xa, ovofiar-}, evTa-Tr/s (eros), five years old ; VTrep-ftapt'^ (ySd/aos), overloaded ; Ai'/x)-7roios
(TI'XT/),

*111 to fight ; )? Iwrd (iroifta), lyre-maker ; Sixr-pi^os (^"X /1 va?-/xd^os, fighting in ships; ev-ycvrjs (yevos), of good birth; $>-</>iA.?/s (^>tAew), beloved of the

gods;
stones,

ya-ypri<f>o<i

(ypd<fxa),

geographer;

A.i#o-/3oA.os

(/JdAXw),

throvring

but Ai#o-/?oAos, stoned (147, 2; 1181); tv-Trptir^ (irpfTna), becoming; i'l[i.L-6avi'i<j (Bav-, BvycTKta), half-dead. m.vpo-v&kifa dealer in perfumes (ftvpovt y(i>-/ATp>/s, land-measurer (yrj, fj-trptw) vofj.o-6fTr)<i, law-maker
;

1180
s,

FORMATION OF WORDS
Of-,
TiOrjfj.i).

333
;

MrjAo-^cmyp,

sJiepJierd ([J.ij\ov, /JocrKw)

TraiS-oAerw/),

child-murderer
3.

(TTUIS, oAe-,

An

abstract

noun

oAAf/zi). in the last part of a
-id-,

compound
derived

ia

changed to a new abstract in
supposititious)

which

is

from a
;

nearly always (real or
p-dxVi fiyht,

compound
sea-fight

adjective.

Tv'Xfy luck, but d-Tv\ia, ill-luck, from d-rv^7/s,

unlucky

from vav-/xa^os, fighting in ship*; but Ai#o-/3oAtd, stone-throwing, from Ai#o-/3oAos, throwing yftoAi/, throwing, stones; Tr/aa^is, doing, but ev-wpa^iti, doing mil, success.
but
vav-/j.a\id,
(lit.

ship-fight),

1174. NOTE.
forms; as
irpo-j3ov\ri,

An

abstract

forethought

noun compounded with a preposition can retain its ; ffvy-yvufj.ri, pardon; Sid-ra^ts, arrangement, and
;

many

others.

Other cases are rare

as f.uffOo-<popd, receipt of wages (/juvOos, <popd).
;

1175. NOTE. Some compounds add -s to the stem of the last part broken d-yv&T-os, unknown (yvo-, yiyvuffKw) dirop-pw%, dirop-piay-os,
;

as a-yv&s,
off

(pay-,

'^yvvfu).

H7band

NOTE.

Compounds

of nouns in

-ropos), as d- irdrup, fatherless.

Compounds

-rrjp (gen. -rpos) end in -rwp (gen. of vaus, ship, Kfpas, horn, Kptas, jfteah,

yfjpas, old age, end in -us; as irepi-veus, passenger in a ship; eO-icepus, with beautiful horns ; yXvidj-Kpews, having sweet meat ; d-yripws, free from old at/e. Conipoumls of 717, land, end in -yews, --yeios, and -yaws (Ionic), as eti-yeus, of go"d Some neuters in -/m (-^O-T-) form soil, Kara.-yei.os (Ionic Ko.ra.-ya.ios), under the earth.

compound
heart,

adjectives in -fuav

;

as iroXv-irpdyfj.uv (wpdyfjia), busy.
;

The noun
;

<j>pfy,

as crdj-Qpuv, of sound mi ml, mind, forms compound adjectives in -(ppwv discreet. Compounds of apxw waver between -dpxTis and -apxos as tirTr-dpx 7?' 01

'

'i-jrn--a.pX.os,

general of cavalry

('I'TTTTOS,

apx&).

1. These can be formed directly only by pre1177. Compound Verbs. fixing a preposition to a verb ; as fK-f3aivw, go out, Trpo-e^w, hold forth. 2. When the first part of a compound verb is anything else than a preposition, it is an indirect compound (denominative) ending in -eo> and is

derived from a (real or imaginary) compound noun or adjective. Xttv-/za^ew, fight in ships, from vau-/Ma\o, fiyhtimj in ships; At#o-/2oAw, thro iv stones, from Ai#o-/3oAos, stone-thrower; ei'-n^w, be fortunate, from
ti'-ri'X'/s;

vo/JLo-dereu),

disobey,

from

make laws, a-7rei$^s, disobedient.
The

from

vofj.o-OfTrj<i,

laic-giver;

d-TTtidew,

1178. NOTE.

rare exceptions are poetic

;

as d-T(>dw, dishonour.

ACCENT OF COMPOUNDS
1179. General Rule. Compounds generally have the recessive accent ; as 7ray-/ca/cos, utterly bad (iras, /ca/co's) ; a-rt/xos, unhonoured (u-

and

TI/XI/)

;

o-ui/-o8os,
1.

assembly (0605).
-d,
-*/,

1180.

Primitives in

-^s, -evs, -/ios,

and -05

retain their accent

also in composition.
vs, writer

2.

But

oVo-To//.?;, cutting off; <rvv-8iK(urrii]<i, frlUiw-iuriinmn to be given btick. o-i)A-Aoywr/ids, reckoning ; aTro-Soreos, with any other when in nouns -d, compounded dissyllabic -r/, -7)5,

event;

',

;

2. fed by beasts. TroXv-. -ox< (^X w ) as tyi-o^oi. charioteer. Orjpo.os. i>-. 1190. general souls. Compounds ending in -os (not -TOS or -KOS). vt-7)Kr]i. . Those in Iep6-ffv\os. slain by a father. NOTE. Aoyo-y pdtfros. of bad newly sharpened. 1187. The following u> are barytone : in the penult . against. 5fw) ruined. parricide . Those with downward. dpn-. and the last part is the stem of a transitive : verb. 'urro-SoKr). . 1188.334 word than a band. -es. bread-maker . Thus . bond. uncertain . There are some other exceptions as Kaicovpyos (for Ka. dpi-. unwieldy. 1185. iravovpyos. tv-yeviys. Compound adjectives in -775.i-. fjitya-K-lrnp. NOTE. All adjectives in -KOS in which K does not belong to the root remain oxytone in composition . Ai$o-/3oA. -apx oj (*PX w )i rein-holder . ligament. Ilo2. as dg. Trav-. . (b) . NOTE. NOTK. dya-. .. destroy) . torch-bearer. Proparoxytone are compounds in -iropOos (irtpffw. irept-/j. whose first part is a or adjective of adverb. Sw-. 2. enormous. demonstrative. become paroxytone are recessively accented. --/iffys (^0oj). robbing temples. dreams . There are also some multiplicatives in -7r\6os are paroxytone . other exceptions. The 1189. steep . 1. are recessively accented. Se/uno-TT^j. 8r//. -Telxys (retx^)> -fieytdrit (/dyeOos). rob). pelted with stones . mast-hold. crvv-Sfa-fws. 2. as of a-TpaT-rjyos. of five cubits . FORMATION OF WORDS preposition. -w/ix^ ( v ^)X Vf )i *r*Mjp|f habits. CTITO-TTOIOS. 'Avriot. speech-writer. -^KTJS (&KJ). vav-apxoi. O/AO-. are lloo.o<j. as ev-wthjs. {d-. keeping one to one's bed. tti-Tflxns.Ko--/i0T>it. fnd-epyos. as a-o-a<>ys. having a long trunk. joint-commander. -"hpW (dp-. Trarpo-KTovos. managing a household . proparoxytone. feeding wild beasts.Ko-epyk.dovxos (from 3p5o-oxos). man-goddess (Minerva) SOKT/J. d-. sweet-smelling (68-. -os whose last part is not the stem of a verb are 1. commanding a ship. see 606. penult is lorn/ and they have active meaning ^i^o-Tro/wrcs. -KJfrrit (KTJTOS). well-born. villainous. conductor paroxytone if the penult is short and they have active meaning throwing stones. are (a) oxytone if the . Double compounds. -oOx os are contracted from -o-oxos admiral. . -xa^ K ~'nPW> furnished (tipped) with brass. (c) proparoxytone if the penult is as Ai#o-/3oAos. short and they have passive meaning irarpo-KTovos. Compounds in recessively accented. /Mtcpo-ffreXexfy. evil-doer. iy>o<os. lit. dv8po-6fd. ompo-KptTT/s. 1186. ojyposite. K/SITI/S. wellwalled . dp\i-. far-worker. are generally oxytone . r)fj. For compound verbals in -rot. as arTo-Sei/cri/cos. tpi-. 1181 and compounds of Ota. irevra-ir-fixw. interpreter of noun 1181. ruinous (^-6XXi"/u). 6r/po-Tp6<f>o<. retains its accent in composition. 1184. like ffv-ffrpdr-yyos. very tall or long . as 5e/ca-7r\6os. All in -os whose first part is a preposition. T W'? J ( T7?P^ W )Thus /car-dvTT/s. huge. Those in -Avri}! (&VT&-U or &VTCL). -o-i'Xos (ffvXdta. band. -/AI^/CIJJ (/XIJKOS). oixo-vo/tos.tficr}s. Ka. vircp-fitytOrit. dfi-. NOTE.

dfj. avr-dpicr)s. sweetly bitter. lie) . . fuff-a. Those in -u>^.<. /njX-w^. Sixr-/?aTos. Barytones in -77$ are recessively accented in the vocative and neuter . NOTE. Determinative compounds of d. = . and derived from a veo-Kpds. unwritten 2. three years old. possessive or attributive. year) are paroxytone in Attic. freedman ( = 6 O. false herald ^enS^s />ieyaAo-7r/37nys. late writers as in -^TTJS (from fros.eo-7) city ( . A noting the comparison usually stands honey-sweet (/J^\t. rjdfa) . late-born ( TrpfTratv) o^ (yaeyaAws d^t-yovos. hard to pass. sword-sabre Oeb-ravpos. Those whose last part is a monosyllable with d or ^ or w.((r--ir]fj-f3pia. . . ^uX-aXi^ijs. . 1193. Compound adjectives of the third declension with the stem ending in a consonant are recessively accented. fj. -wS^j. 'Apyt-Ooos.dxa-ipa. FORMATION OF WORDS Also aM-aSijj. yevofjifvos) Trpo-f3ovX. Si'o--a/3o-ros. . 6/j. -d5os as woXv-dfipds.privative or Sva. ( = ov yey/ja/A/zei'os) . verb . mag- = aKprf) .j . 4. KVK\-W\J/. = ofj. impossible ( = oi5 Sut'oros) . torn by dogs. amphitheatre (theatre extending round in a circle) dir-e Xtvdepos. Those in -dj. rocky gorge (Sut-o-QdrTw).5^s. Horn. express comparison . i citadel. newly mixed (Ktpdvvv/M. But the following are oxytone : 1. ill to please .Tpov.. pay-).6-8ovXo<s ) fellow-slave . J AK/3o-7roA.1197 3. adjectives. as a as eXiK-ohrts. half-dead (OfyffKu. MeXi-r. 1197. rent. . = a. ( upper fj. mostly poetic. ei)-tD5es. NOTE.\r)0rjs. rpi-erh). irod-^vtfiot *!/?. swift as Ares.TTO TIVOS eXfvdepos wv) a-y/3tt(^os. compound nouns and adjectives are divided into three clauses : determinative. 1191. and objective. Kvvo-<rirds. In these 1196. of SoTijp used mostly as nouns . 5ia-o-</>dj. A few compounds called copulative are made up of two nouns or two . Those in -wins are perispomena -^ never accent the antepenult.ov ^cuSo-Km>. . *Ia. few compounds. NOTE. as fi>-ti)5r)s. first. . oxytone in Compounds . . fjLv-wift). -01X77$. 335 ^a<ru-jUij5i. -u"?s. whitish-gray. Xeu/ci-^cuos. 5o\o-/jnf)dr)s.with nouns are . According to their meaning. forethought. Determinative Compounds. the word de3. -tipy* . Those iu - or MEANING OF COMPOUNDS 1195. TroAts ( mid-day i^iepd) ( uripvQ nificent '. T/M-^TTJS. etf-^tfej. broken off" (p-fftvvfju. d-8vvaTo<s. as dXjSo-dorrip.Tpb-/j. as yXjWK-cty (except eXix-w^. physician-prophet (a prophet who is also a physician) god-bull (Zeus changed to a bull) y\vKij-wiKp<n. i<f>o-/j.(j>i-0a. with many ridges. They are nouns or adjectives. Iris with feet swift as the wind. Those in -ff<j>di- 5. rpi-eres (late Tpi-enfis. determines or explains the second as an adjective or adverb. This class of compounds is the least numerous.-0v/is. Tro5-dpicr)s . 2. SovAei'wv) .Kpd TroAts. giver of happiness. Compounds 1194. NOTE. unable. as ev-ri6-ijs.avTis. 3. the first part 1. dtrop-pul.rj. nepa-) Oav-) -r)fju. Except those iu -rip^s.is.

.. . itro-^co?. Objective Compounds.ur-dvdpwTTO's. ev-^eos.ip. avT and many others in Oeov ()((av) hand. pertaining to a horse. god-like (ttros wv) . x ei/)0 " 7rot 7? TO ? (iVb dfov . ill-fated (KaKov 8a.ova. 1200. maritime. inspired. made by hand TTOIT^TOS) of God m on horseback ((ft poet </i ^e-TyAaros. . army leading ( OT/oarbi/ ay tov) \oyo-ypd<f>o<. AiV-waptj.a/)T-t-vovs. . shameless (at8a> OVK f\<av) 8uo--^8ouAos. (irapa 0aAa<r(rav) UTT-OIKOS. away from home (dir' OIKOV a>v). a verb or adjective or preposition. see For the difference . ^rpar-T/yos. having bad counsels (Ka/cas ^ovAas fX wv )These are composed of a noun and 1199. . j>cltcd with stones.336 rare FORMATION OF WORDS and poetic . an unmotherly mother ( = /j.(f>t-Ktiav. speech-writer general. dyaOo-eiSys. ^>-ti"''"'os. is accent and meaning in those whose last a verb. but the compound is an adjective expressing a quality. lying on the seaside )V ) > \P a in * Qt<$) ty-\Mpio<i. sjnrit-fearing (SeStws roi's 8a6/zovas) poet. Trapa-^aAao-crtos. unJtappily wedded (iriKpbv ydfiov x wv ) '. ill-ailvised. XOTK. rov Beov) home-bred (ev OIKW yei'o/xevos) . of the dpyvpo-Toos. house.<av. by making the second part the object of the participle of l^w or a similar verb and making the first part an attribute of the second. .ya6ov eiSos -ciSr/?. Keparr^) stricken . poet. 5 o-<o-</o<ov. (T/97roynevos Oco-f$\afii)<i. Imving a (. These compounds can be paraphrased Maxpo-^etp. being in the country (ev rfj tTnr<a . '. having or lasting ten years (Se/cu. working with one's oion TOS) . d/j.iar. d^to-Aoyos.'od within (tv with pillars all round (/aovas > tavrov *X W1') dfjuj)' OVK ex a)V') av-at8ry9. - = Moixras) . temperate (<rwv vovv f\(av) . part 1181. of sound mind. . with silver bow (dpvpovv TOOV (\wv) same disposition (op. <tAo-/zowros. hundred-headed . TOVS TTOVOVS) i-Kcpavvos.UTMV dvOptoirovs) 8eia-L-8a. seeming good (a. stands in the sense of an oblique case to the other part.ifj. man-ha'ing (JJ. childless (7rai8as . just as in determinatives . bitterly wedded. erring in mind (d/jLaprdviav vov) repTr' delighting (xe/xrl in thunder . a//. 1193 01* as fnjnjp A-HT/TUP. which may be the first or the second part. and Xi0j-oX<w. In these the first part 1198. stone throwing. toil -relieving (\vtav .i')rrip fir/nip oC<ra) . God-sent (Aa#is iVb . WI/ ) <?X TTtKpd-ya/xos. Possessive or Attributive Compounds explains the second. eKaToy-Ke<aAos. The noun. colonist..oiov rpoirov e\(ov) KaKo-8aL/j. loving the Muses (<j>iX(7>v ras (Aoyovs ypd<f>wv) fj. oWa-eTrys. ill-starred Paris. as \i$o-fi&\os. long armed = having long arms (fjMKpas x Vjas X WI/ ) O/AO-T/WTTOS. 5 a-7rais. worthy of men'ion (Aoyov a^ios) native. Hoin. Aikri-Trovos.

Ep. and Aeol. a added to theme 614 (dial.'A0w211 at diphthong 18 . part. are not generally given in the Greek Index. doubtful vowel 15 (a). . in 2 a. INFLECTIONS. interchanged with e and o 42 (dial. 198 ae contr. for o 817 d for w in Boeot. for o 813 . in 1 decl. for e and at to 77 or w 621 4 a for 813. . . 969). redupl. 48. Aeol. to y in Dor. 817. 802) in contraction 47. d- -a Epic for -77$ in 1 decl. voc. to 77 and 77 in Dor. &v. 881 4 stiperl. improper diphthong 18. verb-formation 1153 and arj contr. aiffi(v) -dcra. vb. 1055 for -ais in dat. 804. . The irregular nouns given in 283 and 909 and the verbs given in the catalogue (1073). 845 1 a. 813 in Aeol. -ots. 1169. vb. -formation 1153 num. 809. and Dor. 840) . et in dial. 845 1 a contr. part. in 428 for -as in ace. a?? -dfw denom. 881 . as they are either mentioned under the appropriate heads in the English Index or are easily found under the Table of Contents. AND WORD-FORMATION THE numbers refer to the sections. ayripaos 210 (b) a-yw aug. At'ds voc. and Dor. for 17 801 a-. d usually augm. 845 1 0775^. -ovtra 933. pi. 881* . Similarly some subjects. end. d6dpr} 183 aTjSot 254 . and 342 al&v declined 240 -<ms adv. becomes 77 in augment 526 at in Ion. open 17 . 944 s declined 200 s. GKEEK INDEX TO THE PHONOLOGY. denom. vb. . a lengthened to 77 and d 39. like pronunciation. 77 . are also indicated only in the English Index or in the Table of Contents. . to 77 528 a changed to d in theme 621 3 991) a in Ion. for -ov in 1 decl. -oura Aeol. 553 &8f\(j>e voc. 881 1 of/>w aor. adj. AND WORD-FORMATION A. "A0wj. -d retained in Aeol. 817. 716 Axpodonai lengthens a to 77 675 UKUV declension 310 10 d\7'6s compared 354 d\770j)s declined 310 . 1148. 52 elided 59 augm. prefix 1169 1 1 compared 354 in dial. 236 7 suff. gen. for 77 817. atddx declined 249 -cuva -aivw -aibs . augments to 526 aya. 41 (to at in Aeol. Aeol. vb. 2 copulative . -al-repos. for -as. to 77 in Dor. 883 3 1170 a noun suffix 1095 d Aeol. INFLECTIONS. 684 -atj Lesb. pi. to 77 526 (to d in Dor. adverbs in 422 dKotfw 2 pf. also many other forms. for Att. noun 1113 privative . -aura.INDEXES TO THE PHONOLOGY. .insep. 13 or. d\tJ0f s 309 . acc. -af-Toros comp. .

-Sov etc. du. 70X^77 yy/j. 685 y\vi<vs declined 317 y\0>ffffa declined 180 7paOs declined 263 A. 529 -av. 241 4 dpyvptos. . forms 845 2 .f t s. /it-form 767 71705 declined 235 yiyvofiai 2 p. and pi. in 329-333 2 dffiris with plural number 416 1 1 &ffffa = &Tra 958 d<r<ra = dTra 960 dffTTip declined 243 AffTv declined 256. for and Aeol. 5o.. . 1116. nasal 31 . oV6s Dor. . F. .. 243 in 1 decl. 1010. sing. .insep. changed to yp 88 declined 247 246. dXXws 405 oXXoMot a or. AND WORD-FORMATION : d\\d<rffu pf. palatal middle . -ds. 952 1 d/trcpos. 745 2 fiaviXfia queen and /Ja<nXefd 184 (a) pcuriXevs declined 263. 55 in Dor. 832 declined 192 70X77. see labials and S 819 . in Horn. : -brepoi 429 pi. Dor. .<j>-u. ufjAtav etc. . /xt-form 767 yXvicaivu aor. -a-ro ./ae is etc. 1009 1 . 484-489 declined 376 400 -fff. gen. prefix 1169 drra Tii'd 3862 0>ra = &Ttva 393 av diphthong 18 augments to 771. 953 dfj. -do Aeol.338 GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. -d<ra. -formation 1153 in desideratives 1155 aav gen. (b) 7^0$ yewddas adj. . ^/xiV. .fjL^repof. ptXriffros 354 1 -aV Aeol. avrov = his 378. TRIO'S 950. dpyvpovs declined 294 apt. Soep 219 in dial. 2 4 -do for for -ou in 1 decl. ai/r6s avrov. &^fjif = i]fJ. 881 . -t adj. -av part.ff(fx . 312 &fj. to a in Aeol. ff<t>as 953 &ff(j>i. dvurdru 362 Bop^ds 194 POV\O/JMI /3oOs fiov\fi never fiovXy 476 declined 263 dvuyetav 209 ao contr. Dor. 1109. 5 in Dor. dXw 211 1 dnelvuv 354 afits. = r. mute 30 . declined 240 902 av of verb-stem changed to aF-y and then to cu 650 ) 236" 6 ai>r6s 5a"s gen. /u-form 768 yiyv&ffKu 2 a. endings 1148 voc. 844 1 in Dor. S. pi. Ep. numerals -di 426 . for t 819 for-yi' in New Ion. . fu-form 767 /3X for n\ 71 : dvoiyu 2 perfects 719 -OPS for -as ace. as adv. and Dor. for f 818. /SeXrfwK. avroffe 405 d<pvri. 844 1 . 258 = ffiftlffi. du contr. . -ov declined 298 a\? declined 240 dXwT7 236 2 dXws. labial middle mute 30 euphonic |3 in Aeol. dipvuv 177 aw contr. adroO = eawoO Dor. pi. 819 . -re. to d in Dor. 883 50 373. 680 881 s dvjjp declined /3i6w 2 a. 375 . euphonic lingual middle mute 30 S in Aeol. . -eu in dial. 5 /3t^dfw fut. ace. etc.I. f 819 .stems of nouns 262-. 312 '\Tr6\\uv 219. subj. declension 367 -a-Tai. mid. vb. 8 y in euphonic changes. 989 = So. . -Ofv. . -6V. 1011 1 1013 1 . dvorr^pw. gen. 842 noun in as (-a5os) fern. euphonically inserted between /* and X or p in Old Ionic 825 -/3d for prjBi 703 jSofcw 2 p. pi. = 7#A<repos 955 dXXo-0t. for y changes. mid. 951. 265 B.insep. = ^/x^repos 955 1 a>6s = <?/t6s 378 &fj. 526. dTroXts. 684 dXXos 388 4X070$. 2 dMT/Vwp adj. see palatals Aeol. Aeol. suffix 1097. avrbOtv. endings for -VTO. -dw as denom. verbs in dial. pf. 1014. INFLECTIONS./jLes. see linguals 818 . prefix 1169 dpio"ros 354' -as for -as in Dor. 843 294 dirXoDs declined an-Xoos.OS Lesb. gen. 883 . -vro 988. : . /iu-form 768 dXXw metathesis 708. of one ending 305 246 declined 7^pas yrjpdffKu 2 a. d/jifju. for changes. system inflection etc. 954 3 avrov.. &/JL/J. in Cretic 881* &vu. accent 217 pronoun. nouns 845 2 in Aeol.

insep. tyyvs compared 356 845 4 847 . act. 543 e added to vb.i inflected 8tfn) of one ending 305 diphthong 18 interchanged with i and 01 44 becomes 77 in augm. -ets. . 844 1 . 954 Hdt. 533 454 1 539.. in late plupf. dial. eo contr. in 319-322. faeuvTov etc. Dor. 411. 531 ei in et in Ion. in -KO. 840 II. of 2 pers. = didov 984 . 542. Sei-Soixa. 538 . du. open 17 . fu-torm 768 as adj. fj. 534 e as redupl. eov. e'/cdrepos eVcet. eyu declension.system : inflection etc. e/jiev. pass. /ti.) 954 Dor. for Att. flfj-i names Find. -ev Don inf. ivrevOev 401 t compared 356 sometimes Dor. end. i. E. . in fo. pf- : 680 2 n1 ^. ^eD(s). for -via 1057 . dial.lv /teO. 990) e changed to e for a. of its eVetj/os ^KtWev. in Homer 860 inserted 860 2 -ea Ion.avTou declined 374. sing. dial. end. 1135 -eos contr. a of dropped 506 ending generally 69 .) . 1113 -etas. . 290-295 1 = o-^re/jos 956 e6s Horn. 953 e'yixe'os. Iv0fv. . ntdev. 1053 817. 802 . -ets etc. /ev = 2 . Stio : .fj. -ei. and imperative 500 .ev. to 77 in Lesb. -d and iinpf. 844 2 . to et 40 (in Dor. 81 429 405 compounds 567 86u 2 a. 684 -ev adj. 380. inflection. elo. 312 -5ts adv. 817 e tv6a. . in dial. SOT. e in contraction 47. 498 = 8epFri . 377. 775-778. augm. Dor. 1 e prothetic 838. dial. part. = (l)nov 952. 484-489 ATT/S declined 235 1 2/j. 845 3 = ov95Q. Tarent. Sfi-Seyfiai etc. 1057 eta Dor. 2 a. in 329-333 . for 77 810. for i . ev. lengthened to 77 39. 884 3 eavrov declined 374 for fi 812. 952. o in dial.-stem 613 (dial. 2 379. aor. 950-953 e etc. part.. . 479 SiTnjxvs adj. -etaj' in aor. impf. forms 964.) . inflected 477. 378. 974 et SfiSu 2 p. 817. 955 956 .ia.GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. for e 806. =8s poss. fj. 533. 367-371. e becomes 77 in augm. to ev in Aeol. inform 767. etc. 577X0) pr. 48. . toio ^ot= ol 950 eWa 2 p. ^/xtdis. ueo. . ei>u inflection etc. ^oOs. 312 2 2 6Y7TOHS adj. 954 2 . 469 elirov. sing. tvOaSt. noun . =yttot 952 = e>oO 952 e'/o/o. aug. 501 eloj 963 4 -fffffa. . opt. 553. -ete. . in 1 dial. -f as adv. . . 964 stem declined 409. e elided 59 e interchanged with 1 a and o 42 e as syl. eVwv declined 319 fut. in Horn. opt. 840 II. 403 fvdev K al tv0ev 403 tvra. = 755959! <?<? = contr. (Hdt. 8tiva. becomes ei in augm. (Svv inflected 498 forms from -tiu 503 dial. fiov. synopsis 508 183 Sexarai 972 Sew 480 8rj\6u. 700 SCipov declined 200 . INFLECTIONS. to et in Boeot. 964 2 Stiff1169. 953 eo. in for -vt part. declined 389 8dvv/j. -eV part. 526. AT^T^P -5?7s synopsis 483 declined 243 1104. 453 524.t 52 .. dial. a in theme 621 1 to o 621 2 . 6 Adxtcrros 354 e'/cet<7e comp. 847 4 eiri in numeral compounds 420 . and pi. AND WORD-FORMATION -Se local 339 284 . my. efs. frOevSe 401.ai : 1138 . ending 1148 8i\f/d<i} contr. -etffa. 41 (in Dor. 955 eov contr. . /xt-forms 767 SidufM inflected 498 synopsis 508 . Ion. %v. 526. short 15 . ending 1148 . 910. 803. to ev in Ion. eOev.forms 768 Sfiva pron. 772-774. 1066 1067 SiSpdffKu 2 a. for -tp> in ace. 1 ^6s. e in Ion. . . accent 217 -ao declined 409 410 compounds 412 4 ei'ws 963 K or e' dial. redupl. 817 476 -fi- . a 813. e>t'w(s). redupl. elira -ets. 6>tis gen. 913 ft)e\ot>Tfy adj. 950 teit^eh 964 lip Horn. 468 eiKuv declined 254 suff. adj. 844 . .vOa. in eVcooTos. to 77 or in Dor. Aeol. in 1116 81801. -tiv. 540. 953 tp. 957 v. 950. .

/u-form 768 . in dial. -ifw vbs. aug. aspirates in 102 Ovydrrjp declined 243 06s gen. in dial.end. 1119 9 adj- 312 1 denom. pi. for -ov in Ion. vbs. 346-349 -qv Ion. adj. 860 i? as syl. 481 contr. declined 235 . adv. . for w 817 inserted 17 4 -17 (dial. 5 . inf. -ffw as denom. 479 . Aeol.e-) 677 2 a. -0i local 284. 396 inflection etc. .insep. -ei/w -'> 312 1 312 1 T)XW declined 251 r)aij Ion. prefix 1169 fdw contr. vb. 9132 fw verbs in 637-647 H long 15 open 17 interchanged with w 42 in Ion. 525 . birr)\iicos 395. 0rip declined 240 -0i of imperative changed 0t- in dial. pi. 708. in Aeol. -formation 1153 t\0pjs compared in dial. prefix 420 Oiw fut..1 2 a. adj.1. \7m. 883 5 884 4 e'ws down ace. dat. for e and v 802 . 1014 . adv. 40 interchanged with et and 4 i in contraction ot 44 (in themes 621 ) * elided 59 i becomes I in augm. in Horn. fan 963 2 ijflKa rel. . i inserted in gen. du. 789 1 insep. . I for et in for e and Uoeot. 1113. 817 . 860 3 . inserted in Old Ion. ivpia^v inflection (pi. Z. e0i>oi'j declined 293 -ei's noun suffix 1099. *X. of 566 . Dor. in -ew in dial. iJKiffra s i?X' 963 etf/307-pi'j. eiVoos. and pi.-stem changed (in dial. prefix 'EpfjLrjt.- -77>$. 526 and eu 813. vb. e0x/><s. 883. /ui-form 767 .) 954 0pl metath.: fut.insep. dial. 804 . diphthong 18 -eu. and dat. as odt 384 -m noun stiff. accent 217 declension 251 0vyffKU . mood-suff. for -a in 1 decl. 2 (Hdt. 883 46 . 356 fy>ws gen. 'E/j/te'eij 498 1169 superl. to I in Ion. in Ion. 285 . 1054 -r^w 473 356 eVepos 382. 401 declined 237 r)pt/j. (Ttjcriuf 177 . -TJS. -i?j. i)/M- 1169 compar. for eu 804 for a 805. ew.340 GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. declension 249 ewi'T-oOetc. 1109 ta = fjUa 964 -idto desiderativcs in 1155 I . =?w$ 249 i)v diphthong 18 rough mute 30 euphonic changes. =-tiv 1053. 676 cF-Ttpos. for <r .opt. . 396 -eY77s (r6 eYo$) adj. Ion. . . 18 rel. pi. lengthened to f 39. 883 1 as noun suffix 1095 rj J7 2 . see in linguals and aspirated letters . 783. t Ion. INFLECTIONS. dual in Horn. 77? vb. for -eis 986 . ijTrap 343. for Si and -fe local ending 28. 354 r/Xkos. -175 adj. for ei 816 formation 1153 177. 532 ev of vb. 884 2 -ew denom. . . part. and superl. 251 1130. in 427 ^Trjffiat.stems of nouns 262-'266 526. 1049 . vb. 2 contr. 815. 910-912 to -a 112 . .tffrepos riptfj-a. 1 as local end.formation 1153. 47-52 . in dial. : declined 250. 2 p. double consonant 32 ffff 819 fa. ) . 984 1013 2 . . 1069' : 2 ir6s T]fJLfill)V 400 1058 declined 192 = TlfJ-UlV 950 for -e-ynevoj Horn. ff(fft) say. t in dial. . 1009 2 1011 . -Tjat(j') pi. dial. in 306-309. 943 *xw (<r*X-. -t added to demonstr. in rfi 322 Ion. . 884 . -ej adj. adv. 955 tpffrj 185 declined 235 dat. 782. 827 -Otv. AND WORD-FORMATION : a of ending 553 -<ro gen. t} in Boeot. 901) to ef and then to e 632 e5 compounds augm. eu becomes t)v in augm. -17 doubtful vowel 15 close 17 . -idfos I8p6ti> improper diphth. -i. . : -euv gen. in Ion. dropped 506 TJKiffra firo/jLO. . 401 rrytnav declined 240 te nouns in 1118 contr. 1 377. -ew gen. . 848 680 4 . 893 -e<r-roTos fl/j. 884 B 354a 8 ijffffwv . ei" f -v.

drops v 707 Kvdw contr. 680 1 . aor. in dial. K in Dor. . dial. .fifui'. decl. 1070 -/cX^j proper /rXet'j names in. 958 4 -ov adj. retained 1015. dial. updriffTos 354 1 -wv adj. 2 pf. 2 pf. HOTTJ/JU -KT-TCITOJ compar. . subj. end. for x 818. X 819 211 344. K in New Ion. 579 declined 243 fj. 1113. 2 a. . K^w 211 2 Krjvos Dor. K(HTOS etc. opt. . KtDs. : . 609 -fju. Xcryws. opt. even thus 403 : KO.(/ji. fj.d\i<rra 355 2 -/udv Dor.eyd\a adv. synopsis . 819. /cdXws declined 208 Kd/jii>(i) Kdr-u. end. subj. 770. =dat. 1137 1127. : \qxav. Aeol. in Horn.ai : tov in Boeot. XX in Aeol. 685 l^-^evi 964 -tuv comparative 350-353. ai/ry 950 xpafa -ti>osadj. 1052.ev Horn. 944 3 ^ya. and changes. -tV-repos. see palatals Ion. X6w contr. 1005 . 899 (-<Soj) fern. ace. 685 X<?ws and Xd6s 210 (b) Ix&vs declined 256 \iiralvu aor. XffJcrros 354 1 2 Kae^o/jiai 680 inflection 782. 681 : = ^Keivos fut. for \ an(l *" 832 . and 2 pf. -ta. 1053 -fj. 327 compared 354 in dial. 501 KOIOS. forms of verb. and Hdt. 94 4 4 yoit(fp6s compared . 708 . -rj. 481 \6w synopsis 462. .d\a compared /uaXXoc. M fj. KiD 211 686 -iff era noun suff. 952 . 819 . see Catalogue declined 240 Kpdffffuv. and 2 pf. tuflvos 957 /crs declined 257 /cXcu'w: fut. cavalry 41 6 ts (-ewj) nouns in dial. systems .T?ITTip inflection in -M 456. for rn-Tros (i)). 239 aor. KTfivw : : 2 pf. suff. mid. subj. 248 236 3 cX^d 247 /cX^os pi. for TT 817. changed to nn 88 final becomes v 113 inserted in Old Ion. end. /coiXaiVw : aor. 359 4 /j. 479 A'Xr^w semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 mutes before 86-89 /uX and ppp for H\ and up 71 /u/t/u. subj. 1148 . suff. . . inf.forms. = -/ui7v 979 2 fi' fut. 743. suff. 1016. fj. 685 for TTOJOS etc. ol 1140 fv K6pr/ = K&pFi] : 183 lv Dor.1 Horn. 686 declined 237. end. 685 K<?ws. 826 -fia (-/WITOS) noun suff. 1054 2 980 -/jifffOa for -nfOa pres. .ai pf. -LOV noun suff. Xcryw. inflected 784. AND WORD-FORJIATION 'ii)tu : 341 inflection etc. contr. -M pers. 506 inflection 490. INFLECTIONS. i 1132-1134 2 Kptvw drops v 707 KTdo/j. 2 K palatal smooth mute 30 euphonic 461 . 680 4 declined 326.vrifj. 745 -lj. -i(u)vr] names -Xos adj. 982 s 7 354 in dial. end. 743. 785. fj-tyiffros 354 6 fjLeiuv comparative 354 2 Me^ = /x^"241 ^eXas declined 324 /j. 349 : Xa/ras declined 235 Xetjrw synopsis 462 tems 463 ending 1139 X<?wj/ declined 235 Icrxvait'O} aor. Dor. -tos. 771. 1116. . 1123. inf. -MV. 1113 A semivowel and for liquid 31 . 1107 fj. 1128 Kp&T-rip /it. 1136. 1143 in 1116 Xotfw. end. in Horn. 678. dial. /xaXterra 363 comparison by jUaXXov and fj. 1114. 261. ace. KdOrj^ai /ecu (is. aor. /u-form 767 745 KPpw fut.GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. 457. 783 2 . 942 Xo7os declined 200 -uav as ending 1139. 708 -u>Te/>oj. in -Ka 501 499 . in -/ca -i/coj. noun sutf.KOS /caX<fw compared 354 fut. . ace. dial. and superl. 1119 ts as adv. pres. -fff 405 2 957 2 678 aor. /caX6s 745 3 compared 354 metath. a. 944 metath. Xayw XaiXai/' declineil 235 : -icrros superlative 350-353. 1052. end. . -Ofv.eva. 942 as . sys- . - 804 . : -wrctroj 356 Kei-0t. : a.

suff. 393. dial. 655. because 394 flrts.fpioi 416 1 . -77. 957 . . adj. 995 v added before v in Dor. 396 . as. for -oi>s in ace. 1144. pi. end. vfv-) fut. for a. noun suff. short 15 lengthened to w 39. -o. : . 685 6pvis declined 235 fut. 840 n o in conand a 42 changed with o for elided 59 traction 47. 887 1 -ov for 887 -oio Horn. for <r 818 in Ion. part. 652 vin. 396 ols declined 263 s -ots Lesb. ace. 48. . prefix 1169 vf)ffos declined 200 vtn7) declined 180 viv Dor. for -ots 8852 887 1 888 1 3 OKOIOS etc. added particles like ot>v. dat. 786-788 s 894 -oil? Horn. . o-Tts indef. vfF-. declined 200 oriva. end. 526. . -A"7 fJiPptOL. ace. 401 dial. v&fa. oiofj. . oiroi. . 887 = rel. firtvos 960 . 848 861 963 1 ot interchanged with i diphthong 18 and et 44 01 for ei in dial. 1148 for ffff 832 . 952 -vos adj. . to w in Ion. -oOs adj. for -ot. . part. etc. . jAovodov adj. 52 a in Epic 861 o in dial. 3 pers. 396 1 SSt. for -oti> dat. 1104 fj. 77. biroffe 963* btrbOev. for ov 813 added to vb. 803 01 in 01 augments to i? 526. OTTOV 401 401 OTTore with rli 398a biroTcpo. 6dwv Hdt. 394. 826 inserted in 617 . for OTTOUW etc. e. pvaa declined 192 1 fiovoSovs.-stem 614. 2. 396. pi. . 1036 -6eis. 396. 950. . 8853 8 rel. . . ijSe. -ov part. 985 vaCs declined 263 vSp for vp 71 veu (w-. 1071 o(5a inflection etc. 1145 voCs (POOS) declined 204 vff in Cretan 841 1 -VTI end. adv. that.at.vd. Ion. 960 . du. in 322 or. omitted from vb. . 842. 961 6 6\eifav. 396. as adv. : . 1107 . 96 1 STTWS. . os. 8ffo<t. 844 1 -oo Horn.342 GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY.stems.neg. 396 2 oTTTTotos etc. otffi(v) Aeol. Mfrw 211 fj. rel. 953 2 vuirfoot Horn. o becomes w . 0. SrJ. 955 2 fiiroo-os 395. temple. 656. to w or ov in Dor. gen. dial. N semivowel and liquid and nasal 31 may end a word 35 movable 64. 365 proclitic forms!49 o n neut. 678. end. . 681 rctlx. -ov noun suffixes 1094 . vowel in Horn. : . 377. : : : 328 pi. . 840 ir. . 68 omitted from before consonants 90-95 Old Ion. for u 811. . of 6V 393. 1 ov poss. 944 6\tyos compared 354 2 6\\tfu fut. contr. s 959 6.-stem in dial. 680 4 to eu oo contr. 686 6pvi>tu -oy. =rel. veAs. noun sufF. gen. aor. 6\iyiffros 354 4 6 dial. u 802 o o in Ion. . AND WORD-FORMATION MV 950 Mfrws. dial. . 766 vow etc. 847 to w in Aeol. ij. . 1147 -/xos. 845 1 2 2 in New Ion. 32 surd 34 may end a word 35 in Dor. that 401 6pyaivw aor. 31 2 fiopiov. end. . 390-392. Dor. with rls 398 1 6Wos 961 with 398 1 in augm. never 0/77 476 with rtj 398 2 olos. 1j. . in vowel verbs 1038 for -ffa. . . INFLECTIONS. . -os for -ous in Dor. pi. 1 S Horn. rtde 379-381. for \ 813 v as vb. in 2 compounds 420 -tun adj. -os. 959 . verbs in. 895. = Woi/s 236 8 889 in subj. . . Dor. to ov 40 lengthened to 01 and w in Aeol. otei. 65(Jj 384 art rel. end. 885 for -ovcra 1055 -oiffa Aeol. : % . 952. dial. in 1130. dial.v in Horn. . for 1044 rarely as plupf. 290-295 401 O'TTIJ. 979 3 -679 b. -os as neut. -% them. for -oij ace. rb article 364. 955 . 41. pron. Ion. open 17 . 8s. see also adj. 394. S double cons. Aeol. pron. . 211 VTI. 680 -vvfu and viifu verbs in -vvfMi. oi5 959 1 So. 4 lengthened interto w and ov in Dor. oTTijviKa 07r60i. . pron. 401 on. . for o 808 -01. . adj. forms 902 530 oTrel. . oTrotos 395. Sou -oos contr. adv. declined 208 v-nbs 210 (b). . bffrovv declined 204 boi etc.

dial. TFT. TrroXtj (Ion. 484-489 TTfivdu contr. TTIJ. com8 7 dial. contr. 1 and accent 217 Troifj. du. 401 ovd' &j 403 -ws 399 1 ovda/j. irvp-6s = TTfvre : TTfTraivti} ireiruv 964 685 7 compared 944 aor. 717 priyvvfu pr/Tup declined 240 piy6ti} contr. <r 818. -wj 405 wX^wj declined 300 a. irpr)fo 932 TT/DO before augm. 396 TTOV. 708 = tricrvpfs Tfffffapfs 964 TT^WV compared 944 7 -TrXdcrtoj ad. -ov part. in 424 TrXdcoj drops v 707 TiWu fut. 354 irtvu : fut. dial. TroXXd adv. dial. 239 : ITepi-KX^s. 944 6 pit declined 240. 77 (sometimes not. 804 ov in Ion. 480 817 . rel. . -ArX-^j 248 fat. AND WORD-KORMAl ION 8rov. . 7 484-489 fut. TT/JOT/ irpovpyov. 958 401 TTore/jos 388. declined 237. INFLECTIONS.-ov. TTOITJT^S o5s. 677 2 w^ro/jLai. -6dtv. : . ear. v inserted 765 inserted 765 764. /tu-form 767 semivowel and liquid 31 initial always may end word 35 doubled after syl.T7)p irpOTepairtpos wy>6s 946 111 declined 320 declined 243 pf.. 818) . -ov- stems. .1 (fut. Trore. -6o> contr. TrrjvlKO. ovx 68 ov pers. accent 217 -ws 405 .. Tropp&repos Trofff 356 . . 681 metath. voc. in. from Ep.-fj. -oaf. labial smooth mute 30 changes. 676 2 a.]. 401 TnjXiVos 388. 343 etc. . iravrax-ov. in dial. 963 3 II. in 329-333 TO?OS. for iratfw ircus TTCU : w ir euphonic in Aeol. see 6'<mj irXeiuv. iroffos IloveiSwv 219. OT(T]V. 681 gen. pass. ovn 399 401 OVTOS 379-381 otfrwf. declined 256 TroXfrijs declined 186 7roXi/j declined 326. 944 .vTos : compared 354 dial. end. -ovffa. . 78 (in Dor. ov. 931 . ovroat 396 963 4 never 6\f/it 476 6^0^0. 819 . dial. for p reduplic. irifjnr\r)/u irifj. surd 34 . 1 a. oTroSaTros 400 7r6^e'. ?rX6cw irX^w : : pf.GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. inflection etc.<av. OTiji. -formation 1153 . 554 irpo. forms 902 long or short in Boeot. TroXis 396 OVTIS. -60ev. 681 pr.c'ts etc. 819 pydios pq. pron. gen. -6w as deuom. 241 4 388. system. 396 . 1146 . TTO^I 963 : : ovdtrepos 399 oi)/xes etc. = TTO?. 359 . system. 354 mid.) 828 -TTTW : verbs in 634-636 TrCp. 481 pq. . iroppu. . irtis 241 s 401 . in 424 7 irXetj* = ir\tov com par. declension etc. of opdu). ortoHn 960 ov diphthong 18. Trore . &<(>pa. Trot vfj. see labials . du. s v6ff<ros. for o 807. S : two forms 12 spirant 31 . pared 354 wo\t. Trporepoj 356 TTOCTOS. so. Tro6fv 401 1 7r6^t. TrpwriffTos 946 7rr6Xe/ios.7rpijfu 764. 396 irTjx ^ declined 256 . 7roi6s 388. p 27 . irep encl. inflection . 479 TT^/xTre irpwros 356. TrXeicrroj 8m. 2 ouSa/j. -customs. and Aeol. 681 iro5an-6s. 327 irpavs. 759 ir\ri<Tffu -irXoOs adj. ptr 241 1 pot adj. ire'paj added to rel. ortwv. adv. TTTT in Aeol. 6Y. . OVK. 1011 3 1013 2 1014.r)i> 401 declined 186 declined 240 -out. 236 4 -6fff. 354 8 2 pf. 953 pi. as o?6s irep 398 3 P. 824) pp for earlier p<r 76. vbs. 327. aug. and pi. irX^wr. 974 8 . when spurious 19 . p in Dor. n-as ira. orreo. fut. for r 819 . TTWJ. Trpovpyiairepos 356 irfiOu mid. . orey. /-form 767 vtwru fut. vb. forms 902 367-371 . 7TOI/ 401 2 TTOVS 236 irpaoj declined 326. forms 1009 3 . -ov.

Dor. : . =<r6s 955 1 pi. synopsis 508 impf. for f 819 ffSu in verbs rax^s compared in dial. rttav. ff&a 950 (Alcman) = fa 956 = 8* 956 pos. rr]\(. rev. re'pas . ret'wj 963 <njs gen. for ffTTjOi 934-941) . rrpxn Dor. and aor.344 GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY.) 1018 ff retained in liquid fut. . . r^/toj 383 9632 ffrt\\u ffrpttjnt ffv : pf. ffnt\\u metath. 983 ew fut. 605 239 declined 324 -Tares compar. 708 2 a. : . . ri/Dor. ace.as aor. retained in Horn. 979 riypit. and pi. may end word declined 246. accent 217 -reipa. -repoj as end. ffpAu contr. /it-form 767 1041 rtprjv -repoj. 950 . ff added to theme 616 ff dropped in endings -<u. Horn.) 1019 . adj. -<TKw verbs in 957-961 : by 337-349 (dial. : pres.in Horn. doubled in fut. Dor. dial. . ffwTfp (c) 219 lingual smooth mute 30 . nom. of rajitJds declined 186 ra. 950-953 1109 ff&. inflection 955' 477 synopsis 484 . Horn. dial. 1104 noun an ff. ff dropped in fut. off for later . for a 818. and Aeol. . 943 (dial. reo. 964 rerpaivw lengthens a to ij 675 T^WJ. (Horn. 3 pers. fut. 337-349 ff8 in Aeol. and aor. 1099 -T^HOJ adj.=ff9t)v 979 2 tion etc. 1028 1 ff<n. 501 opt. forms 987. end.) 1023. dial.) 954 2 retcs. aor. 981 metath. T?o> 211 rri.iterative impf. a Kid declined 180 -ffK%. 953 -re adv. . w-forms 504 = ^KJ<OJ . ff<t^rt(xn 955 etc. ffeu. =ruv 9492 -ffetu desideratives 1155 T^. : inflection etc. see linguals rr for earlier fftr 76 r before vowels 85 r in Dor. 1022 ffeavrov declined 374 retvu drops v 707 4 ffeuvrov etc. 1113. -<n end. end. 760 suff. 247 declined 237 wj declined 300 ffwTJp. for ffov 952. for -aa. du. (dial. 479 -&%. 1148 ffto. 337 . rr 76 . -<ro resulting dial. noun suff.vTOu = ffea. 377. 1026) rav Dor. .) 982. 484-489 728. voc. INFLECTIONS. 367-371. and impf. ff<f>eiwi> = (r<t>wv 950 = (v) ff<f>iffi 950 1 = oi 956 Dor. sing. 401. mid. 403 njXfcos. . 958 in subj. their. Dor. 1139 rtffffapes declined 409. suff. (Hdt. and aor. noun 963 1 957 2 -Trip noun suff. reos etc. rl/jiu . rr in Aeol. adv. AND WORD-FORMATION . retained T^O. . in Horn. <r<^re/>os uv. euphonic changes. 953 1 re6s Dor. fftOev rt8r-/iw 473 -fff%. 955 ffoQh declined 288 -ffffu (-TTU) verbs in 637-647 -fro. for 6 832 . adv. =r>v 949 2 liquid verbs (dial. ffeio. in -KO. rqXiKovros. j)f.VTOu 375 -Tares superl. ffid ffit noun suff. 3 sing. uiu. 680 1 . 382. 1104 : -T^OS vb. system : inflecffOav Dor. for r and ffa 819 rdXds declined 323 ff of end. 3 p. and Dor. T. 1141 -rr/j masc. noun suff. thy. . = -rr/v 979 a ffd\iriy declined 235 ffa. end. 819 r in New Ion. 703 mid. 1 1 09 a rfjff(i) Horn. and aor.v Aeol. 484-489 -ffOov = -ffdyv in Horn. 1015 . 1027 : . declension etc. and imperative 500 . for changes in <r 105-107 6 818 rough breathing in Laconian for ff 818 <T<T in Aeol. for a 819. r-rjviKddf. rtoiffi for rivos etc.Koffdf. =fft 952 = ffov 950. 401 -ffe local 284 raw Horn. 1099 -ffffa end. of some vowel verbs (Horn. (dial. ripfinavra 401. 35 <r final dropped 69 .) 1003 ruvrrj dem. rtip. -ffa assimilated in aor. 1040. mutes before <r 84 . system Trjvlxa. Tt'-ypt(5)oi 261 inflection 498 . =Ta?i 949 1 TI end. end. 708 1 ~ffi local 285 -<rt end. a in Dor. 1099. rfjde dem. 1119 fern.

roa-offSf.2 a. 963 Dor. u in contraction 47-52 v becomes v in augm. =roi5s 949 2 riv Dor. and Ion. #ws gen.. Xeipuv. 1104. pf. Dor. end. diphthong 18 400 uv. v changed to fv or 01 in theme 621 4 . 1108 Tpais gen. 479 Xpri inflection 790. tffrjfii : inflection etc. Aeol. 403. 684 <j>evyw fut. 237 . Horn. 1099 1 Ttij Aeol. AND WORD-FORMATION 1-ifj. rptpw pf. . vb. . du. 1130 -v<ra. initial i always v in Attic 25 . your. in 316-318 . v/j. Dor. 153 6'o-osTis etc. 957 3 2 Tocrcr^coj = roffovros 957 TOTe 401 rov=ffv 953 4 TO^PO 963 rpdirefa declined 180 Tpe?s. 396. al 949 roi M^" 1 S<* rot. 1119 2 Tiy. rl<nv 958 rXa. 952 . =<roO 952 rit interrog. case-end. rat Dor. TOffovros 382. dial.. -TCITOS 356 -rfs. 329-333 <i> labial rough mute 30. -eos 261 . -t^t <pp-/iv 236 1 <j>v\a.stems . 949 = TO?S. 1099 Tpov. dial. 385-387. /xi-forms 767 blister. <f>i\u pr. 526 . systems 465. xefyHoros 354 Xt\tSwv. 383. v lengthened to v 39.ri 345 declined 180 CSup 238 vi 953 riot. Aeol. system 484-489 rpnf)pris accent 309 -r/Hs fern. 385-387. as adj. <A?w. 676. -formation 1153 -i/j nouns late gen. -a. = art. rats 949 2 Tot<n(i'). letters rough see mute 30 . -rov end. 396 accent 152. -eta. 0VS. du. f. 398 a -m fern.. <poLvl^. 760 T/*'0w 728. 606 To<ros. in vff-Tfpos. 1104 TU> Aeol. 952 in Trag. xp^ 140 ' contr. v for F. vn^uv. xpvffovs >a declined 294 in dial. Dor. 760 -rpia noun suff. X palatal changes. synopsis 483 9 0/Xos declined 288 compared 35 4 9 <pl\-repos.Tos : : and impf. =roO 949 1 -rwp noun suff. 401. . light gen. /xi-forms 767 1 r60t. Tot6<rSe. 684 Xpdw. \prfiffrwv 177 Xpncreos. etc.wv 950 vnfie Aeol. 396 rots Aeol. v. 802 v for ot or v in Boeot. 553. I'Aioy . see digamnia v for a and o in dial. -rpd noun suff. = rlvi. Dor. for 6 819 <f>aivu : in synopsis 464. . v close 17 . inflected 477. dial. roOfv 963 2 Tot. 383. inflection etc. T/a declined 409 rpeirw 728. =TOIV 949 3 roio Horn.lra. /-form 767 354 9 : (fiiX-alrepos.S 949 2 2 Tot(rof(ff)ffi Horn. INFLECTIONS. and pi. . 1 aor. 1068 : <j>0dt>w 2 a. voc. TOi<rt(y) poet. =<ri/ 953 . = tfjuerepos 955 1 -o^w denom. noun suff. 958 1 2 TI'S indef.-mid. 377 . 1099 inflection etc. mid. 779-781. and . accent 217 and 0ws. accent 217 rij Lesb.elwi> = vfj.. TWJ. rotoOroj 382. suff. 484-489 <j>tptj) : systems: aor. 681 320 2 doubtful vowel 15 . pi. and 2 . rioifftv Lesb. T/(W)S Tarent. euphonic palatals and aspirated : T Xapieis declined X<?fw fut. euphonic changes. 1113. </>rfw : declined 240 declined 235 2 a. 804 . 900 declined 180 . -u : adj.GREEK INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. 396 r6cros in dial. . 1072 / Xpi?crT>7s gen. pi. OT num- erals 426 -us. =ToO 949 1 Tolas. . 914-917 (f>\f\f/ declined 235 ipi\ew. . 949 4 -rot Arcadian for -rat 803 rottV Horn. -JKOS. aor. -iiv part. 605. = -TT/V in Horn. 1099. 40 . Aeol. x f ^'5o? 254 X<?w fut. ol. noun suff. 953 Lesb. =ffol 952. <f> see labials and aspirated letters Aeol. = i : 950. 952 T(5'77 -rds noun suff. = TOI. for fytets etc. pass. adj. -TOTOS 354 <(n(v) Ep. Dor. and 2 681 aor. retv-aoi 950. . 981 -TOS vb. =at 952 = (riy 950.

. .. adv. -w-raros -udTjs.. 286-305 of 3rd decl. . 401 end. correlative ad. . 337-356. 150 enclitics 151-156 accent in dialects 874-879 accent of nouns 171 of 1st decl. 145 words distinanastrophe 146 guished by accent 147 proclitics 149. mid. 860 . if improper diphth. . endings in Theoc. . 1140. -ov adj. . AND WORD-FORMATION 32 . 216-222 198. Adjectives and participles. to be accented 124-128 . -w<ra. . -w or -6s part. 308. in -u compared 362 verbs in -u 457. -wcnrw. 948 . end. 253 adv. comparison 360-363 . of final -at and -od36. 18 -wv Dor. 315-326 .. . 791 Active voice 430. -6s part. part. . adjectives of 1130. 2 2 accent of verbs 512514. 857. of 1st and 3rd decl. 293. 141 acute of oxytone changed to grave 143 accent with crasis 144. 1131-1147 . surd 34 . . 47. end. numeraladvv. so. 3 298 -ws Dor. 403 401 . Ion. -ov part. . 885 . 1148 -ws. : . 345 i&Se. a: ov 817 verbs in -w 457 w in contr. . Aeol. dial. for -ws 1056 -we. from steins of nouns and pronouns 284. -uv Aeol. thus. 309. ws = oCrws 963 1 Oxrirep. . . and compounds in -ws 137 . 422. in dial. 1142 -w-repos. that ws. -ws part. subj. . 1148-1152 . suffixes denoting 1104-1106 Active verbs with fut. kinds of accent 128 mark of 129-131 place of 132 . for -ovs ace.. 1059 . 48. for ov 803 . for d. INFLECTIONS. in 309. ^ double cons. 479 4t = ff<t* 952 12 long 15 open 17 interchanged with w in Aeol. formation of advv. 73. in 329-333 . recessive Action. 427. of cases 134. 1054 . 607. Dor. accent of compound verbs 521 accent of compound words 1179-1194 Accusative case. suff. for a 819 -%. .316 ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. end. in 329-335 -ws adv. ultima of verb accented 517. 358. . in Horn. 1044- contr. word 35 \f>a. 203. formation. . penult. . wu diphth. 918-933 comparison of adj. 947. 401. may end a ^ in Aeol. 432 Acute accent 128 . -ws. . 1141 Abstract nouns 1104-1106 Accent nature and principles of 123-156 nature of Greek accent 123 selection of syl. verbs401-405. adv. words named according to : . -via. as. 406. -ovffa. 517 . 327 contract adjectives 315-318. . as pf. 297. . numeral adj. -w5es. 816 accent of participles 330. 207 accent of adjectives 287. of 3rd decl. 399 2 . 1127 for -oOi' 1053.them. of 2nd decl. 322 dialectic forms of adj. sea also Table of Contents Adverbs 357-363: from adj. forms of adv. . as. 859. adj. 285 . in 336 ws rel. ultima 135. that 401 . -WTTW verbs 1156 compar. changed to grave in oxytoues 142 Addition of vowels 72. inf. 512 of contr. dial. -an. Aeol.) 133. -s. in Ion. pi. irregular adjectives 326. (oxytone etc. .u . from part. dial. accent of antepenult. 608. 18 ENGLISH INDEX TO THE PHONOLOGY. penult of verb accented . -<av. vowel of 1048 we noun end. forms 140. 1034 -w. for -ov w 8S3 4". . 428. INFLECTIONS. . change and moving of accent 139 . 176-178. of part. 425. inflection 286336 of 1st and 2nd decl. inflection in -w . 52 nouns in -w 251. -ew. 1 . -fuv. 918-933. see Endings . . of contracted syllables 140. of genitives in -ews. i) 42 for o 813. . 884 a 885 1 . 17. superl. AND WORD-FORMATION Ability. . 934-946 formation of adj. 518. 518 521 with final -at and -01 of opt.. -uv adj. with elision . gen. neg. 306-314 .

978 Att. 1008 Close vowels 17 . 999 III. of 1st of contract adjectives . cases like rpe<f>- for 6pe<t>- 102. 2nd decl. . flit. see Formation and Endings of cases Declensions 168. 396. 968-971. of 1st decl. obsolete letters 14 history 37 pronunciation 38 Anastrophe 146 2 accent of 135 Antepenult 11 4 . : 962 . Apocope 856 Article 364-366. 1001-1004 1005 . . 1007 VIII. . 949 . syl. adj. syl. 322. 27 dropped in middle in dial. . 1006 . 197 of 3rd decl. IV. 173-194 (dial. syllabic 524. 963 Crasis 53-58 . 191-194 2nd decl. AND WORD-FORMATION Aeolic dialect 3 347 in Common . 224-232 Circumflex accent 128 . suffixes denoting 1099-1103 Alphabet 11.998. 103. meaning 167 endings 170. . crasis in dialects 849-852 Dative case. dial. last part of 1171accent of compounds 11791178 1194 . 172 of nouns: 1st decl. . Compound 568 verbs. 307-310. 326. . 306-314. . 214276 (dial. 2nd decl. dial. . first part of 1161-1170. . in dial. 121 contraction in dialects 844-848 140 contraction of verbs 477-483. syl. INFLECTIONS. . in dial. . 3rd decl. .ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. 881-884). 174. . . . 1153-1159 . crasis with. contr. and 3rd 315-326 290-295. mutes before 98 in successive syllables 100. II. Agent. 859) final in formations 109-113 changes of consonants 75-113 doubling of 75-78 variations in dialects euphony of 79 818-832 Contract nouns 1st decl. proclitic 149 Aspirate mutes 30 Aspirated letters changes in 98-104 . IV. dial. 523-534. . augm. . participles 286-366 286-305. . 554-568. . 195-213 (dial. surds. : . 1200 of Conjugation of verbs in -w 459-489 verbs in -/ju 490-511 Consonants division of 29 mutes 30 semi-vowels 31 double 32 labials. 548-550. . 525. . meaning of compounds 1195. 889-901). reduplication 553 Aphaeresis 857 1074. . words 1092 . 400 . in dial. verbs 446. 533. (Inchoative Class) 657-661 VII. : . . 175 of 2nd decl. 554- Compound words . . augm. . 416 Cases 166 . . 315-318. 1009-1014 Coronis 53 : . 934-946 of adverbs 360-363 . accent in 144 Cardinal numbers 406-414. III. omitted in dial. linguals 33 34 final 35 relation of 36 movable 64-69 (in dialects 858. (Mixed Class) 663. . 58 1 . (N-Class) 652-656 VI. 523-534. 206-211 Attic dialect 6 Att. 315-318. dial. Barytones 133 Belonging or pertaining to. dual masc.a\u> 104 Assimilation of vowels in Epic 861 Att. in contr. 546. 327 Defective nouns 281. ira. (Iota Class) 637(T-Class) 634-657 651 V. 957 Denominative nouns 1109-1129. Aorist tense. 534 temporal 526-534 of plupf. . 101 aspirate thrown back in : . : . adjectives 1132 form 26 Breathings 23 place of 25 with v and p 25. . used as 365 . 680 Attributive compounds 1198 Augment 453. sonants palatals. 908 Demonstrative pronouns 379-384. Correlation dial. dialect 7 Comparison of adjectives 337-356. . its origin 130 . . . of pronouns 396-400. . (Thematic-Vowel Class) 623-629 . 141 Classes of Verbs. 283 (dial. in of adverbs 401-405. . VI. 903-909) (Strong -Vowel Class) 630-633. 196. 550 of compound verbs 554-568 augment in dial. redupl. . 307-310. of 3rd decl. 322 Contract participles 334-336 Contraction rules of 47-52 quantity of accent of contr. 202-205 Contract adjectives 290-295. 1160-1200 . . 169. VII. fern. 833 of compounds 28 . 277. eight 623-663: I. . of irreg. (Verbstem Class) 662 VIII. 885-888). irregular dccl. II. and redupl. in dialects 998-1008: 1. of adjectives and 1st and 2nd decl. 524. . quantity in 121 . 140. 1000 V. 960 thrown forward in .

973 fut. 1st decl. 583. resecond672 first-aorist system 690 marks on verb -endings 587-598. 608 /u-form 609 . indef. adjectives of 1138. . 224-232 Hiatus 46 local 284. . in dial. and opt. 400 . . aorist system 702. two forms 456 common form 607. 196. : . 396. 907 cases Gentile nonns. and dialects 2-10 accented when emphatic 156 enclitic as last part of compound 153 6 155 . INFLECTIONS. see Table of Contents Fractions 419. for acute in oxytones 63 .1042 Improper diphthongs 18 Inceptive verbs 657 Indeclinable nouns 282 Indefinite pronouns 385-389. system dial. 979-989 Infinitive endings 599-601. imperative 584-586. Attic fut. AND WORD-FORMATION Fulness. 1037 . 174. future 673-681 first-aorist 682-688 second-aorist 691-696 first704-709 perfect second-perfect 715first722 perfect-middle 726-731 passive system 750-752 second-passive system 758-760 personal endings 575-582. Indicative 664.perfect 714 . see Endings of nouns 280. participial and verbal adjective endings system . dial. in dial. 904 Heteroclite nouns 278. Doric fut. of consonants 79-113 formation 682-686. 958 accent 387 . 1142 Future conjugation in liquid verbs 465 . 575-582. 14 1 4 834-839 Digamma duo to omission of 108 Vau . relatives 393. . -pf. . rules of 163 Diphthongs 18 improper 18 . . 724 . . future middle with passive meaning : Deponent veros 432. dial. 1141 Formation of words 1074-1200. in dial. spurious 19 Latin equivalents 22 gender of 1st decl. . 175 2nd decl. rules for 153-155. in dial.348 ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. dialects treated future-perfect 748. . . indie. 91 0-91 a 914Epic 917 . 195. -0%. 703 first-perfect second . 749. 10521054 Inflection 158 of verbs. . 420 Frequentative verbs 1157. dial. 396-400. : . 1031. perfect-middle 746. . . no elision in certain cases 62 142 accent with elision 145 Greek language its history Greeks 1 Enclitics 151. . 1140. 1055-1061 . . . . flection 710-714 Fitness or ability. of 3rd Doric dialect 4 genitive 190 fut. with present form 676. 212. 681 decl. suffixes 1119-1122 Elision 59-63. . . 681 Diminutive nouns 1123-1126 Gender 161 natural and grammatical 162 common 164 . Hellenistic Greek 8 successive enclitics 156" Heterogeneous nouns 277. : . witb passive meaning 795 Derivative adjectives 1132-1147 Desiderative verbs 1155. . . 197 3rd dec!. . . Distributive numerals 423 173 of 2nd decl. 855 in compounds Grave accent 128. . dial. 586. 905 Endings: of cases 70. 1018-1028 inflection 687-690 First-future passive 757 formation 750-752. 474 . First-passive system inflection 753-757 757. adjectives of 1130. : : . formationof: present system 671. dial. . forms 680. 267-276 Double consonants 32 double forms of Genitive case formation. 285. First-perfect system in dial. . 1034. 1036. formed by periphrasis 473. epicenes 165. in dial. . . 395. 1038 formation 704-709. future tense-system (formation and inflection) 673-681. 1818-1028. 213 . .. 801-1072 or fut. : . 1197 Diaeresis marks (") 20 Dialects in literature 10 in detail . 152. 602-606. 1037 inFirst-aorist : . infinitive endings 599-601 Epenthesis 73 Epic case-endings 914-917 Epicene nouns 165 Euphony of vowels 39-74 . : . . 1156 Determinative compounds 1196. subj. . . of verb 452 personal endings Imperative personal endings of 584of verb 574-598. 747 first-passive system 756 second-passive svstem 761 Imperfect tense augment 523-534 . . 1159 formation present system 665 . . in dial.

AND WORD-FORMATION future present system 664-672. 862 . mood-suffix 570. future 673 . 1041 Objective compounds 1199 Open vowels 17 Optative Koppa. and pi. dial. co-ordinate. of quantity 45. Mute verbs 447. 749. formation 1093-1130 Numbers 440 . personal endings 583 Ordinal numbers 406. inflection 732subjunctive 571. pf. 910-913 Material. and opt. 415. act 473 . declensions. 881-909 . Nouns . 349 a Negative adverbs 399 pronouns 399 Notation 406. Means. compensative 40. 856. 415. . subj. tion 406. 880 . 843 Intensive ordinals 406. . 504 . 1049-1051 . 442 and liquid 119. 421 . 86-89 1115 85 quantity of vowel before mute Persons of verb 441. . . . . Interchange: of vowels 42-44 . pass. mid. for voc. 412. 731 . stem 620. 418 . 840-842 Lingiials 33'. norn. in dial. pal. labial mutes 30 Lengthening of vowels 39 . nouns denoting 1113before /j. 472 . 406-429 . in dial. 30 midille passives voice 430-432 Modern Greek 9 middle mutes middle 796 . in dial. 408. suffixes denoting 1108 Metaplastic nouns 279. 396. 428 . pi. opt. mutes 30 Paroxy tones 133 Participles 435 etc. second-perfect system 722. pass. opt. 474 lingual 30 . dial. aspirate 30 labial. multiplicatives 424 numeral nouns 426 . mood-suffix 451. 571 Movable consonants 64-69. 958 accent 387 Ionic genitive 189 Ionic dialect 5 Iota subscript 21 . . 16 dial. Nominative case of cases . 400 . 723 . : : . vbs. formation. lingual mutes 30 v before consonants 90-95 Liquids 4 5 . ind. 906 Metathesis 71. 739-741 Perfect tense 857 periphrastic forms 470472 reduplication 535-550. addition Moods 433. 478 . liquids before y 96 liquid verbs : 699-701. in dial. firstaorist system 689 . nota. Perfect-middle system 726-731 . subj. 421 Oxy tones 133 447. perfectmiddle 744. 417. 201 . in dial. 554-568 Multiplicatives 424 act. INFLECTIONS. fut. verbs 1157. nouns numeral adverbs 406. middle. in -<TK%. fut. deponents . 571 . 285. adj. 160-283. pf. of verbs 440 Numerals 416. dial. second-aoiist system : : Labials 33.-mid. see Table of Contents. 420 distributives 423 . of nouns 160.ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. pf. obsolete letter 14 1 2 * formation present 668-670. first-aorist system 687system 673 690 second-aorist system 691. 3rd pers. . 429 . endings 602-606 Passive voice 430-432. 41. suffixes 1116-1118 Penult 114 2 accent of 135 2 . impf. . rough 30 mutes before mutes 80-83 before a Perispomena 133 84 r before vowels Person related. . first-perfect system 713. in dial. 425 406-4] 4. 1136 Palatals 33. 994 Middle deponents 792 . in contr. . palatal. numeral pronom. Interrogative pronouns 385-388. 610 Periphrastic forms pf. 1159 . of optative 570. . fractions 419. opt.1040. cardinals 408. pf. with consonant stems 484-489. 762 Instrument. see Personal prointens. of of ff to stem 730. Locative case 285 Long vowels 15.. 74. 422. 120 : . 1055-1061 . 470. . : formation. . verbs in -/M. numerals in dial. in verb 328-336. 434 . . smooth. pronouns. 610 Local endings 284. 792 Patronymics. 502. dial. Mutes 29 classes and orders 30 cognate. 471 . suffixes denoting 1108 . first-passive system 755. second -passive system 761. 964-967 Irregular nouns 277-283 Iterative aorist. adjectives of 1135. 417. . numeral adjectives 427. pf. and opt. see Endings . 418 . 697703 710-714 first-perfect system second-perfect system 722-725 perfectmiddle system 732-749 first-passive system 753-757 second-passive system 761. 745 .

firstsecond passive passive system 754. Subscript iota 21 863-873 evident in various ways 121 .Spurious diphthongs 19 monstrative. 'of aor. . 179. in dial.Stems 159. obsolete letter 14 Second-aorist middle with passive meaning 794 Second-aorist system formation 691 696. 573 exchange of quantity 45. pro. 959. . adjectives of 1144 . 950-953 Place. 551. subj. inflection 722-725 present formation (eight classes of inflection 664-672 . . in Reduplication 454. verbs) 623-663 Second-pluperfect 725 552 present redupl. Suffixes 1077 . primitive words Similarity. . 1036. changes in 1079-1091 also Correlation of stems and root 159 Relative finite. . 546. 854 verbs 554-568 Attic redupl. . 1131. 978 omitted in dial. 153* Sonants and surds 34 Pronominal adjectives. 549 . in dial. 954 Tenses. in dial. 548-550 redupl. . in dial. 1035. AND WORD-FORMATION 1 3 * Sampi. in dial. verbs 446 . Time. 16 1093-1108. nouns of 1127-1129 Pluperfect tense augm. in dial. 535-568 stem 53f>-545. . Possessive compounds 1198 poss. 223 Syllables 114 quantity of 116-122 Reciprocal pronouns 376 Syncopated nouns 243 of perf. 762. encl. 1039 nouns 377. in dial. of verb-stem 619. of verb-stem 618. 26 smooth Principal parts of verbs 455. 699-703 . . 551. . Reciprocal. Tense-stems 448 997. nouns deQuality subj.1043 472 691. . . . nouns Short vowels 15. 553. : . first-aor. 375. . personal endings system 761 1109-1112 in dial. of pres. 743 . 550 . 1031-1033. 24. of Surds and sonants 34 division of 115 3rd decl. redupl. 71 . adjectives of 1142 1092 Simple and compound words 1074 Smooth breathing 23. 956 Second -passive system 758-763 Present tense: redupl. and the Table of Contents. . . Possessive. 998-1008.350 ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. De. INFLECTIONS. 1077 . : . . 1015. 429 Spirant y as in yet 5 spirants F and y 31 Pronouns see Personal and Intensive. periphrastic forms 470Personal : : . in dial. : : . 400. Secondary tenses 437-439 Semi -vowels 31 Primary tenses 437-439 Primitive adjectives 1130. 396. 993 551. Pronouns. . 378 in dial. before encl. adjectives denoting 1137 intransitive meanings Transitive and changes in 1079-1091 mixed 797 Rougli breathing 23-28 rough mutes 30 and intensive pronouns 367373. Strong and weak root-vowels-interchanged 4 44. nouns denoting 1107 Root and stem 159 roots 1075. 489 mutes 30 Proclitics 149 accented 150. 843 of 1st decl. inflection formation in -6%. . 199. noting Quantity: of syllables 116-122. . 552 present Second-perfect system formation 715721. 97 Reflexive. : . and redupl. optative mood-suffix 572. of 2nd decl. changes before y 96. 688 667 Properispomenon 133 Prothesis 72 998 second-perfect first-perfect 712 Punctuation 157 722 perfect-middle 742. numeral 412. 571 dial. 1044-1048 583. 621 Negative pronouns 399 formation Subjunctive present 666. 997 Tense-systems 449 formation 610-790 Reflexive pronouns 374. . . 955. 436-439 meaning of 458 Relative pronouns 390-395. tense-suffix 569. Proparoxytone 133 second-aor. rarely Tense-suffix 569. 1030. Interrogative and Inde. system 622-672. 552. of compound Synizesis 853.Second future pass. Syncope 70. 548. 570. in dial. in dial. 972-977. 960 Theme. stem dial. 697. 524. 1029. see verb-stem Theme-vowels variable in quantity 612 Result. in Thematic vowel 450. 1076. .

accent of 135 s Vau 14. strong and 618 weak 44 (in dial. 990) long 15. Vocative case: formation: see Endings of 1072 . see Digamma . endings of 605. . 1073. 16. Moods. AND WORD-FORMATION Ultima 114 2 . . . . . Tenses.ENGLISH INDEX TO PHONOLOGY. assimilation in Epic 861 Verbs 430-800. lengthshort final vowel retained 615 (in dial. 995) (in reduplicated exchange of quantity 45 see also Contraction of vowels dial. . 606. ening 39 compensative lengthening v omitted 617 ff added 616 992) 40. 351 . INFLECTIONS. metathesis 620 (in dial. 996) Verbal adjectives 435 . . . etc. verbs in -u and -/ see 457 Table of Contents also Index under Voices. . . . forms - 1 Y spirant. open and close 17 short and (in quantity a and o added 614 (in dial. 444 relation to present cases stem 610-633 changes in 611-621 (in theme-vowel of variable Vowel verbs 447. 997) variasyncopated 619 (in dial. 990-997) e added 612 613 dial. 610 dial. Verb-stem 443. . 991). 994) . changes in 39-74. also . . 41 interchange 42. as in yet 5 . . Vowels 15 . dial. tions of vowels in dialects 801-817i 993) . 43 . root-vowel changed 621 (in dial.

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