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Music Perception Fall 2004, Vol. 22, No.

1, 1–14

© 2004

BY THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

Interval Distributions, Mode, and Tonal Strength of Melodies as Predictors of Perceived Emotion
MARCO COSTA

University of Bologna, Italy
PHILIP FINE

University of Buckingham, U.K.
PIO ENRICO RICCI BITTI

University of Bologna, Italy
Fifty-one tonal and atonal classical melodies were evaluated by 29 students on 10 bipolar adjective scales that focused on emotional evaluation along four factors: valence, aesthetic judgment, activity, and potency. Significant predictors for each factor were obtained through ridge regression analyses. Predictors were quantified characteristics of each melody: the distribution of intervals according to interval size, the mode, and tonal strength (C. L. Krumhansl, 1990). Valence was best predicted by mode. Aesthetic judgment was predicted by the interval distribution and by tonal strength. Melodies judged pleasant contained more perfect fourths and minor sevenths and fewer augmented fourths; they were also high in tonal strength. Activity and potency were best predicted by the interval distribution. Activity, a sense of instability and motion, was conveyed by a greater occurrence of minor seconds, augmented fourths, and intervals larger than the octave. Potency, an expression of vigor and power, was marked by a greater occurrence of unisons and octaves. Thus the emotional expression of a melody appears to be related to the distributions of its interval categories, its mode, and its tonal strength. Received February 5, 2000, accepted March 10, 2004

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HE most famous example of an attempt to ascribe a particular emotional connotation to musical intervals is that described by Cooke (1959). Examining tensions induced by pitch, he distinguished between tonal tension and intervallic tension, the first being induced by harmonic properties of the scale degrees, and the second by directionality and dis-

Address correspondence to Marco Costa, Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 5, I-40127 Bologna, Italy. (e-mail: marco.costa@unibo.it) ISSN: 0730-7829. Send requests for permission to reprint to Rights and Permissions, University of California Press, 2000 Center St., Ste. 303, Berkeley, CA 94704-1223. 1

500 Hz and 250 Hz) using 10-item. and psychophysical. uncertainty. The results showed that seconds and minor ninths were identified as distinct from other intervals. were not confirmed when empirically tested (Clive. arousal-potency. Cooke’s approach. Plomp & Levelt. Using a large sample from the Western European repertoire. Levelt. as opposed to successively). Costa et al. Maher (1980) compared harmonic intervals formed at different geometric mean frequencies (e. Listeners’ responses to these melodic intervals seemed to correspond rather closely to descriptions of the special characters of the harmonic intervals as found in his previous study. Later.2 Marco Costa. and sixths.. More recently. & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti tance between two melodic notes. fifths) or dissonant (seconds. Ricci Bitti. sixths. and Bonfiglioli (2000) studied the expression of emotions associated with the 12 harmonic intervals within an octave presented in harmonic form both in a low register (mean = 183. 1975). wide-narrow) and their objectively measurable characteristics (Kameoka & Kuriyagawa. (2000) found a significant interaction between interval and register for thirds. Maher & Jairazbhoy.g. Intervals were judged on a semantic differential as adopted by Bozzi (1985). especially thirds. Most of these studies used dissonant and consonant harmonic intervals (both notes presented simultaneously. and Plomp (1962) focused on the interrelations between various ratings for musical intervals on a number of semantic continua. 1978).38 Hz). was descriptive and lacked any systematic criteria. ugly-beautiful. Levelt. perfect fourths. formed by adjectives taken from Cooke (1959) and other theorists who have dealt with the emotional meaning of musical intervals. 1966. bipolar adjective rating scales in four categories: evaluative. Maher and Berlyne (1982) focused on melodic instead of harmonic musical intervals.13 Hz) and a high register (mean = 1510.g. whereas a low register presentation tended to be associated with the expression of moderately negative emotions. 1969b. 1965). furthermore. 1969a. Another approach to the study of intervals by van de Geer. 1976. whereas the intervals from the minor third to the major sixth were not distinguished from one another in any of the four categories. & Plomp. however. Other investigations have explored relations between ratings of evaluative and descriptive dimensions of musical intervals (e. and octaves. fourths. .. van de Geer. A high register presentation tended to result in the expression of positive emotions. Some of his assertions. In another study. Philip Fine. Costa. Cooke isolated the basic expressive functions of the intervals ranging from unison to major seventh. Still other investigators have studied whether a listener can discriminate between different musical intervals on an emotional basis (Maher. For clearly consonant (octaves. fifths.

debole-potente (weak-powerful). gradevole-disgustoso (agreeable-disgusting). This battery was a reduced version of that used by Costa et al.7 years (SD = 3. only one melodic line was selected when multiple instruments were present.Interval Distributions. and in the case of piano compositions or piano reductions only the melodic line was considered.5 years (SD = 4. the emotional expressions were similar for high and low register presentation. Tonal Strength. from –3 to +3. were recruited on a voluntary basis to provide emotional evaluations of the melodies in the experiment. sereno-cupo (serene-gloomy). Expanding on this work. Method PARTICIPANTS Twenty-nine undergraduates taking an introductory course in psychology. and tense than consonant ones. we set out to investigate the relations between the statistical occurrence of different musical intervals in a melody and the corresponding expressed emotions. All harmonic and timbral components were therefore excluded from the experiment.0 by Steinberg. plus a further category for aesthetic judgment. with no specific musical training. The melodic stimuli were analyzed for interval occurrence and were modified and presented using the audio software Cubase Score 3. and major sevenths) intervals. . Four scales were focused on valence: happy-unhappy. rilassato-agitato (relaxed-restless). and potency). piacevole-spiacevole (pleasant-unpleasant). Aesthetic judgment was assessed on two scales: pleasant-unpleasant and agreeable-disgusting. all excerpts were presented at 100 beats per minute. bold-fearful. the scales were divided into three categories relating to emotional content (valence. linked by a MIDI input-output card to a Roland expander model SC 880. sicuro-pauroso (bold-fearful). Participants evaluated emotions expressed by the musical excerpts on a battery of 10 bipolar scales. Mode.. serene-gloomy. In that study. The timbre was set to MIDI sound number 49/127 (string ensemble) for all excerpts. it was made clear to listeners that they should rate the perceived emotional expression of the melodies and not their own emotional and aesthetic response evoked by them. The original Italian words for the different emotion adjectives were: felice-triste (happy-unhappy). relaxed-restless. Polarity (i. that is. and Perceived Emotion 3 augmented fourths. Dissonant intervals were clearly perceived as more negative.e. three scales were focused on activity: stable-unstable.1 Each scale consisted of a neutral choice and three possible degrees toward each polarity.8). stabile-instabile (stable-unstable). which were perceived as neutral. calm-furious. The participant sample included 17 females with a mean age of 21. activity. STIMULI AND APPARATUS Fifty-one tonal and atonal musical excerpts covering a wide range of emotional content were selected from an Internet source of classical MIDI files (see Appendix). which adjective was on the right or left side of the scale) and order of presentation were randomized. In order to eliminate the effect of tempo. As the study focused on melodies. Our hypothesis was that the expression of a particular emotion in music is associated with a distinct pattern of interval occurrences. calmo-rabbioso (calm-furious). carefree-anguished. spensierato-angosciato (carefree-anguished). and one scale was focused on potency: weak-powerful.4) and 12 males with a mean age of 22. (2000). When given instructions for filling in the questionnaire. 1. unstable.

the tonal strength predictor was a measure of the extent to which the durational distribution of notes of a melody fit into a particular key. Each nonunison interval was also classified as ascending or descending. Melodic intervals were identified sequentially without considering rest values and were classified into one of the following 14 categories: unison (P1). perfect fourth (P4). perfect fifth (P5).55 % Descending 14. perfect octave (P8). DATA REDUCTION AND ANALYSES For each excerpt.4 Marco Costa.03 1. To avoid memory effects.5%. Unisons and seconds alone accounted for 61. minor third (m3).55 2.04 12.38 2. the excerpts were presented according to a randomized list that was reversed for half the participants to counterbalance any effect deriving from order of presentation.12 0.60 1.00.48 1.74 1.14 0.03 ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns .04 z = –2.66 0. Thus.24 1. the distribution of intervals in both ascending and descending directions was similar. so direction was not included as a variable in further analyses.86 17. Philip Fine. major sixth (M6). The mean number of intervals analyzed per excerpt was 141. the distribution of musical interval categories was calculated. input vectors specifying the total durations of the 12 chromatic scale tones in each melody were correlated with tonal hierarchy vectors for every major and minor key as derived from Krumhansl and Kessler’s (1982) study. major second (M2).6% of all intervals.10) between the input vector and the tonal hierarchy vectors was used to create a tonal strength predictor.53 3.81 1.78.18 2.77 4. As in Cuddy and Lunney (1995).66 0. minor seventh (m7). Stimuli were generated by computer and presented over loudspeakers. By using a key-finding algorithm developed by Krumhansl and Schmuckler and described in Krumhansl (1990).99 1. p < .96 0. a zero was entered if there were no significant correlations for that melody (7 cases out of 51). and compound (intervals larger than the octave. A predictor named tonal strength was derived from the assumption that the emotional rating of a melody could be influenced by the degree to which the tones of a melody adhere to a specific tonality. Descending seconds significantly outnumbered ascending seconds. augmented fourth (a4).39 Binomial Test z = –1. & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti PROCEDURE Participants were tested in groups. The proportional occurrence of the ascending and descending intervals for all 13 interval categories are reported in Table 1. confirming the data obtained by Vos and Troost (1989). In addition. intervals from unisons up to and including fifths accounted for 85. minor second (m2).64 4.41 2. the highest significant correlation (with at least p < .69 0. However. TABLE 1 Percentage Occurrences for the 13 Interval Categories Distinguishing Between Ascending and Descending Intervals Interval Category Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Octave > Octave % Ascending 12.91 5.54 0. For each excerpt. major seventh (M7). minor sixth (m6). each excerpt was presented repeatedly until each participant had completed the entire battery for that excerpt. major third (M3). p < . >P8).

Potency accounted for 8% of the variance. Tonal Strength. unstable. however. strength. included those scales that probed the pleasantness of the melody.50.83). 4 of the 10 scales were reversed so that negative values were homogeneously ascribed to the negative polarity of the adjective pair (unhappy. powerful. The third factor. unpleasant. and serene-gloomy (loading = . boldfearful belonged to the potency factor. and therefore the criterion was less severe than in the present study where the threshold was set to .9% of all variance. the scales relating to each factor were averaged. including 0 for the neutral choice. The threshold for a bipolar scale to enter a factor was. designated as valence. and 24 (47%) were classified as belonging to the Minor group. designated as aesthetic judgment.86). Aesthetic judgment accounted for 15. restless. The fourth factor was named potency and included the scale weak-powerful (loading . The raw data were submitted to a principal component analysis and then. then the melody was assigned to the Major group.85) and relaxed-restless (loading = . If the largest correlation corresponded to a minor scale then the melody was assigned to the Minor group. accounted for 41. furious. Regarding the semantic differential. Mode. and instability expressed by a melody. disgusting). apart from its emotional content: agreeable-disgusting (loading = .90). Normalized factor loadings were rotated by performing a varimax. then the melody was classified as Atonal.91).92) and pleasant-unpleasant (loading = . were submitted to a principal component analysis for the extraction of principal components. set to . and both were significant.70.5% of the variance and included the following scales: happy-unhappy (loading = . Each evaluation was scored on a scale ranging from –3 to 3. Results PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS Emotional rating data.7% of the variance. therefore reflecting the intensity of energy. activity. for each participant. not averaged across participants. anguished.70 and were therefore discarded: calm-furious and bold-fearful. designated as activity.74) were included in this factor. carefree-anguished (loading = . and force expressed by a melody.Interval Distributions.70. and 7 (14%) were classified as belonging to the Atonal group. If the largest correlation corresponded to a major scale. Inspection of the scree plot and eigenvalues analysis yielded four factors that accounted for 77. . The main factor. included those scales that probed the sense of movement. In the study by Costa et al.7% of the variance. which explained 12. Two scales did not reach a loading greater than .2 2. When these criteria were used. Each bipolar adjective rating scale was assigned to a factor if its loading was greater than . Stable-unstable (loading = .82). and Perceived Emotion 5 Each excerpt was categorized in terms of its mode by using tonal strength correlation data. 20 (39%) excerpts were classified as belonging to the Major group. If there were no significant correlations. (2000) calm-furious belonged to the activity factor. fearful. The second factor. gloomy.

p . Lambda was set equal to 0.95 .36 –0.21 .59 . Of the total number of pairwise intersubject correlations examined (N = 399).45.75 .21 –.07 .05 –0.71 .11 –.20 –0.04. 1977. That result suggested that there was no effect of order.83 . df = 16.27 –0.21 1. Järvinen. TABLE 2 Ridge Regression Results for Valence Mode Tonal strength Unison Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Octave > Octave Overall model: R2 = .40 0. The overall mean intersubject correlation coefficient was .06 .09 . or musical background. Predictors for Valence The overall prediction rate of the model for Valence was significant.78 . The mean correlation is fairly similar to that found by Cuddy and Lunney (1995) and Eerola. F = β .6 Marco Costa.04. SD = .008 .03 –.53 –0.06 –. all but 4 were statistically significant.49 0.97 0. 34) = 1.23 –0.62 .82 . and tonal strength. p < . mode. a statistical method developed for the purpose of circumventing the weakness of least squares regression with regard to overlapping predictors (Fox. To deal with the higher intercorrelation of some interval categories that resulted in a high collinearity of input variables.33 . RIDGE REGRESSION ANALYSES Scale ratings for valence. Maxwell.31 0.96. the ratings for each participant were correlated with those of every other participant.005 .98 . & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti INTERSUBJECT CORRELATIONS To determine the extent of intersubject agreement.80 –. and Toiviainen (2001).59.34 (range = . familiarity.04 . F(16.003 .1.45.04 –.06 to .11).009 –.93 1.79 .46 .07 0.26 0.32 . 34. activity.28 –0. R2 = . Pagel & Lunneborg. p < t 2.02 1.01 .18 .68 .96. Mode was the only significant predictor. The detailed results of the ridge regression analysis are reported in Table 2. Louhivuori. and thus the data from all listeners were pooled into a single group for analysis. and potency were each regressed on the predictor variables of occurrence data for each of the 14 interval categories.93 . aesthetic judgment. 1991. the data were submitted to ridge regression. 1985). Philip Fine.

51. Predictors for Activity The overall model for Activity was also significant. There were two significant predictors: Unison and Perfect Octave.35 –.77 .Interval Distributions.49 . without tritones.02.89 .15 .11 –.16 . Perfect Fourth.46. p < t –0. 34.78 0.03 –. and with a greater occurrence of perfect fourths and minor sevenths. Augmented Fourth.12 2.90 . and Perceived Emotion 7 Predictors for Aesthetic Judgment The overall model for Aesthetic Judgment was also significant.12 –0.10 –0.15 2.02 –. A sense of vigor and power can therefore be expressed in melodies by a frequent repetition of the same note or by the use of the octave (Table 5).37 –. p < . and Compound Intervals. Augmented Fourth.02 .61 .18.44 . Predictors for Potency Potency was the dependent variable best predicted by the regression analysis.01 –.007.29 1.18.50 –0.02 . were evaluated as more pleasant and agreeable than melodies that did not do so (Table 3).48 0. R2 = .69. Thus melodies with a greater occurrence of minor seconds and a relatively high frequency of tritones and intervals larger than the octave were evaluated as expressing more dynamism and instability (Table 4).57 0. TABLE 3 Ridge Regression Results for Aesthetic Judgment Mode Tonal strength Unison Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Octave > Octave Overall model: R2 = .05 . p < . and Minor Seventh. F(16.11 –0.84 .01 .02.09 –. 34) = 2.05 –0. The significant predictors were Minor Second. p < . Tonal Strength.95 . F(16.32 .63 . F = β –. df = 16. R2 = .03.50 .42 –.99 2. F(16.12 .19 –0.05 . accounting for 56% of the variance. Mode.35 0.05 –. 34) = 2.39 .69 –0.96 –2.67 .51. 34) = 2.04 .15.90 . p . The significant predictors were Tonal Strength. Melodies that strictly adhere to a tonality.

29 –.85 .56.55 .46.08 . df = 16.04 .12 –.18 –0.30 –.09 .008 –. 1985). 34.15 0.03 ..23 .53 2.14 –.62 0. p .26 .41 1.07 –1.44 .05 .02 –0. F = β –.05 .04 .05 . This study demonstrates its use also in the field of emotional expression in music.27 .86 –0. p .8 Marco Costa.89 .26 .59 –0.05 .39 .04 . df = 16.24 .96 .33 .04 –0.02 .007.69.03.16 –0.05 0.37 –.12 .02 2.08 . p < t –0.77 –0.86 .19 0.09 . Taking into account the fact that participants in this study were students with no particular musical training. emotional ratings were shown .59 2.12 –0.13 2.73 .15.32 .52 2.08 0.12 .17 –.87 .05 .20 –.16 . and statistical classification in ethnomusicology (Freeman & Merriam.68 .03 –. F = β –.80 .06 1. 2001).78 .84 .87 .18 –.34 –.59 .76 2.17 –1.31 .34 1.03 –.29 .92 Discussion The analysis of statistical properties of melodies is an efficacious method for the classification of musical styles (Crerar.19 0.02 –.08 .90 . 1956). 34.98 –0.25 0.95 .02 –.53 . & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti TABLE 4 Ridge Regression Results for Activity Mode Tonal strength Unison Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Octave > Octave Overall model: R2 = .19 –1.01 . Philip Fine.34 .95 –0.99 –0.27 0.33 . the study of perceptual similarity (Eerola et al.02 TABLE 5 Ridge Regression Results for Potency Mode Tonal strength Unison Minor second Major second Minor third Major third Perfect fourth Augmented fourth Perfect fifth Minor sixth Major sixth Minor seventh Major seventh Octave > Octave Overall model: R2 = .04 1. p < t –0.

confirming the results obtained by Smith and Witt (1989). Atonal excerpts were evaluated as less pleasant and agreeable. Another reason for this rejection may lie in the complexity of melodic structure and syntax that causes listeners to have cognitive difficulties in extracting cues. it can be suggested that these intervals tend to be perceived as unpleasant and expressing tension. dynamism. activity. Kastner and Crowder (1990). the degree to which the pattern of notes in any melody suggests a particular tonality. The octave has a direct link to the unison. these authors found that listeners rejected the atonal works and found them less rich in referential meanings. Expressions of potency. and Bouchard (1998). Tonal Strength. minor seconds. energy. aesthetic judgment. Gregory. Mode. expressions of movement. in line with previous results on this subject. activity. a composer can emphasize the rhythmical aspects of a melody. Worral. By repeating the same note. and augmented fourths. and potency. Cuddy. Furthermore. Finally. who dealt with the relationship between musical intervals and their psychological meanings from a musicological perspective. When comparing the responses of a group of listeners to tonal and serial works by the same composers (Schönberg and Webern). a property that is significantly reduced in atonal music. . and vigor were positively associated with more frequent occurrences of unisons and octaves. Melodies whose notes more strictly adhere to a particular key were evaluated as being more pleasant and expressing more positive emotions and a greater sense of stability. through a succession of beats. and instability were conveyed by a greater occurrence of compound intervals. The key role of the octave in expressing potency was emphasized also by Stefani. Pleasant and agreeable music was found to be positively correlated with more perfect fourths and minor sevenths and was negatively related to the use of augmented fourths. and emphasis. Cohen. with highest ratings of pleasingness associated with the highest level of structure. convey a sense of insistence. Marconi. 1995). and Ferrari (1990). Gerardi and Gerken (1995). and Perceived Emotion 9 to be related to distinct interval occurrence patterns for the four factors that emerged from the principal component analysis of the 10 bipolar adjective scales questionnaire: valence. has emerged as one predictor of aesthetic judgment. The attribution of happiness and serenity was associated with the major mode. The tritone has emerged as a significant predictor for aesthetic judgment and activity. being the repetition of the same note with the addition of a 12-semitone interval. stress. and. and as the tritone is a prototypical example of diminished or augmented interval. and Sarge (1996) and Peretz. Gagnon.Interval Distributions. Smith and Cuddy (1986) found an association between pleasingness and level of harmonic structure. The major-minor distinction paralleled the happy-sad one as found by Hevner (1935). Tonal strength (Cuddy & Lunney. Their study focused on the fact that audiences consistently reject contemporary orchestral music.

in particular seconds. as done for example by Oram and Cuddy (1995). and dynamism. The order in which intervals occur . and orchestral texture. from Greek melodies and Gregorian chant in which unisons and seconds were prevailing. The lack of predictability that characterizes atonal music can also be translated. and lament that a listener generally attributes to Gregorian chant is mainly due to the fact that this music consists primarily of small intervals. that uncontrolled factors. rhythmic patterns. for example. that the pathos and passion that characterize Beethoven’s compositions could be explained by the fast oscillation between occurrences of small and large intervals. for instance. and in contrast. Relationships between interval occurrence and expression of emotions in melodies could be more rigorously tested in future research in which melodies are composed according to different interval occurrences. tessitura (pitch height). In the present experiment. a richer variety of musical categories that include a broader range of historical musical samples could be investigated from the same perspective of correlating the interval frequency distribution with the emotional attributes. into expressions of tension. Gabrielsson and Lindstrom (2001) have reviewed the literature investigating the effects of many such factors. harmonic complexity and orchestral timbre were held constant. instability. pitch levels. Philip Fine. We know. austerity. It is possible. such as rhythmic patterns. and the emotional responses are then predicted. tempo. shown that ratings of structure decreased in a regular manner as complexity. & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti and Mewhort (1981) have. movement. defined as different levels of harmonic structures.10 Marco Costa. In a future study. that the sense of solemnity. or loudness dynamics. It can be suggested. however. to contemporary compositions in which jumps greater than two octaves sometimes occur. for example. as shown by the higher activity ratings for excerpts with a greater frequency of augmented fourths in the current study. resigned pain. increased. in psychological terms. that there has been a progressive increase in the use of larger intervals by composers. The statistical distribution of intervals is doubtless only one of several factors influencing emotional expression in music. however. could have covaried with interval occurrences influencing emotional evaluations. Intervals per se cannot be considered as semantic units in a melody. It is unlikely. These considerations underline another aspect of music that can strongly influence the emotions expressed in a melody: the time distribution of the different intervals. The study of interval occurrences is also important from a historical point of view. including loudness dynamics. by using the same MIDI sound and single line melodies. that the effects obtained in this study can be attributed only to variables other than interval distribution.

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A. Spanish suite. 47 from Asturia (edited by Leyenda). W. Op. I. The craziness. Mayer. measures 5–14 11. Ikenove. Noël. M. first violins. Britten. Serenade for Strings in E. measures 4–32 19. Pajares Box. 2. 5 for Ten Wind Instruments. J. J. french horn. Czwiertnia. J. first violins. F. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. J. Piano reduction by Hummel M. measures 1–12 5. 22—Moderato. “Petit” Symphony No. violin. Meesangnin. N. F. J.G. Hummel. Finley. measures 1–32 10. violin. G. Cabanilles. measures 1–32 24. Op. Fantasque-Moderé. measures 2–28 21. Fauré. measures 1–17 2. Op. I. Hummel. measures 1–60 3. 35. Fisher. J. Mode. trumpet. Scottish fantasy for Violin and Piano. Op. I. O. measures 4–21 8. measures 4–25 4. Op. Op. 6. measures 2–25 17. measures 1–90 23. 61—Nocturne. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Albeniz. Procession. measures 1–9 15. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. L’échange. D. measures 1–19 18. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. R. Mayer. Op. 1 in G—Allegro moderato. R. Overture from Die erste Walpurgisnacht—Allegro con fuoco. Fisher. Boulez. 28. 46. Vingt Regards sur l’Enfant Jésus. Tao. The Enigma Variations. oboe. O. measures 1–20 22. measures 8–34 16. Madrigal. 1. C. and Perceived Emotion 13 Appendix Excerpt List Information on excerpts is reported in the following order: Author. J. Op. Franganillo. Messiaen. measures 2–19 20. A Ceremony of Carols. Robinson. Milhaud. 47 from Cataluna (edited by Curranda). No. R. 2. Harrington. Editor (if any). XIII. Milhaud. J. Spanish suite. flute. I. 12 (guitar arrangement by Tarrega). Meesangnin. Concerto for Violin No. Albeniz. Pavane-Capricho. measures 1–125 14. F. N. A. Op. B. measures 75–90 9. Mercadante. J. D. measures 1–31 26. H. Trumpet concerto in E—Andante. Tonal Strength. Hummel. No. 26. F. violin. Op. 36. Venetian Boat Song. Title. Albeniz. measures 25–42 13. C.Interval Distributions. Knezevic. Notations I-XII for Piano. M. Fingal's Cave Overture (Hebrides). 41—Quintour des Negres. Italian corrente. Introduction— Andante. Venetian Boat Song. measures 1–18 . Abelson. Allegro. A. Op. Bruch. Op. G. M. Organ work. N. Knezevic. M. R. S. C. Tao. E. B. Nielsen. E. S. measures 4–43 6. Surgimura. Mockingsongbird Soliloquy for Solo Oboe. 75. Instrument (in case of orchestral composition). Three variations. clarinet. starting and ending measure numbers. measures 1–24 25. Spring Song. P. Vingt Regards sur l’Enfant Jésus. Elgar. Rude. Tao. 1. “Petit” Symphony No. M. measures 20–39 7. measures 2–19 12. Lovell. orchestra version. Op. M. Dvorak. Messiaen. measures 1–16 27. No. 5 for Ten Wind Instruments. B. Corelli. A Midsummer Night's Dream. 75. N. Breton. 62. III. Author of the MIDI file. G. J. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. D. Clarinet Concerto in B —Andante con variazioni. M. Breton. Lent. R. Op. Villanueva. alto. E. clarinet. Bruch. Parmigiani. F. Op. F. 1 for Piano Solo—La Belle Catherine. F. Scherman. Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Paul and Virginie.

Witches’ Dance—Andante. violin. C. Clarinet concerto No. Sagittarius. 5. Carter. Op. 5 for Ten Wind Instruments. A. clarinet. Kobayashi. measures 1–42 42. cello. P. 33a. 3. F. measures 1–40. first violins. Vivaldi. Largo. Op. 3 No. Op. measures 1–41. No. H. measures 5–12 and measures 22–30 34. violin. Piece for Piano. Orff. Op. measures 1–15. 3. C. Chichakly and M. Largo. treble clarinet. 21. 5 Movements for Strings. D. Der Dandy. Paganini. Largo. C. S. Op. measures 1–40 44. Finley. P. measures 22–36 47/48.” H. Rachmaninov. measures 1–18 35. I. W. 22—Dolente. 74—Adagio con moto. measures 1–10 51. Harshman. O Fortuna from “Carmina Burana. measures 1–16 50.” J. “Sehr Langsam. X. Ostrup. Lied. S. Violent. J.” D. Dikmen. F. Op. G. Mondestrunken. Colombine. Webern. measures 1–10 36. Todd. 2nd movt. D. C. “Dies ist ein Lied. Mussorgsky. Ahlin. Milhaud. measures 42–67 37. oboe. clarinet. 31—Full Orchestral score. measures 1–32. 5. Marche slave. guitar. Valse de Chopin. Sor. Mässig. 1. K. P. J. Franganillo. von Weber. A Night on Bald Mountain in D. 2 in E . R. R. measures 1–16 46. flute. V. Op. Franganillo. A. Piano concerto No. Scharwenka. measures 1–15 . measures 1–32 38/39/40/41. measures 1–30. Philip Fine. 18—Adagio sostenuto. A. Carter. Tchaikovsky. J. measures 1–38 29/30. No. “Petit” Symphony No. Weimer. & Pio Enrico Ricci Bitti 28. 1. Op. Purcell. Prokofiev. Sor. Meesangnin. J. Sonata in A for violoncello and piano—1. 75. measures 2–41 32/33. Lovell. Fugitive Vision. J. M. Stockhausen. Andante in C. Dido. measures 15–26 31. Pierrot lunaire. Schönberg. 5. 61. flute. Op. measures 1–40 43. Webern. 12 Melodies of the Star Signs: 6. K. Franganillo. clarinet. 2. 2. cello. Op. G. Schönberg. Op. D. 1.14 Marco Costa. Lovell. M. N. measures 1–16 49. 4. A. measures 1–18 45. M. Mayer. Dido and Aeneas—Lament. Andante. A. and trombone. Parmigiani.

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