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Unit 3 Social and Mental Health Mental and Emotional Health What is Mental and Emotional Health?

- Health consists of a person's emotions, social skills, and mental state - Emotions & thinking affected by physical condition, vice versa -> physical health altered by emotional & mental state - Mental health -> person's thoughts - Emotional health -> feelings - think and feel -> decides behavior - physical well being, chemical imbalances, physical traits of brain, drugs, can all affect mental health Mental Health Issues: - chemical imbalances & physical traits of brain affect mental health - such issues should be handled w/medical attention and professionals - harder to diagnose a mental disorder than a physical one Schizophrenia: - a disorder where people have confused depth of reality - often have hallucinations & delusions -> causes anxiety - reality & fantasy -> mixed up - not same as split personality disorder (often mistaken) Manic Depression: - dramatic, extreme mood swings in short periods of time - also called bipolar disorder - sometimes experience same spectrum of emotions as those w/out disorder Depression & Anxiety: - depression -> people who feel continually gloomy & pessimistic - also can have lack of sleep or appetite, irritability, & low energy - anxiety disorder -> so nervous- can’t get anything done - sometimes sad & anxious at same time - when felt for long time & overtake life -> mental health affected Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: - suffer from repeated & unwanted thoughts - repetitive behaviors to try and rid of these thoughts Personality Disorder: - trouble w/relating to others or being normal in society - have a temper & also have symptoms of manic depression - aka adjustment disorder (depression or anxiety in response to a stressful situation) - passive-aggressive (social interaction based on disguised anger), sociopathic (very inappropriate behavior, not aware of right from wrong), & psychopathic used to describe this - criminals often associated w/this Phobias: - great fear of anything -> phobia - arachnophobia -> fear of spiders - agoraphobia -> fear of open spaces - claustrophobia -> fear of closed spaces - from Greek language roots Drug & Brain Disease: - drugs & physical disease of brain cause mental disorders - alcohol & other drugs can cause dementia - physical diseases (infections, tumors: a lump, or abnormal growth in body, Parkinson’s: brain disease that causes stiffness, shaking and - & Alzheimer’s: form of dementia) can affect mental work Treatments: - medicines and group or individual therapy Use Your Mind:

requires thought & consideration of another .factors that influence social health include environmental conditions (allergies.people who watch your etiquette can pre-decide a lot about you . emotional. shaking someone’s hand. you show that you are interested in them . but can’t listen & talk .listening -> concentrating mind on what your ears are hearing .social health -> critical for civilized society .to have friends.people in groups should communicate in a way that helps growth & success Your Personality: .look at all potential outcomes of decision .being soft-spoken. one must be friendly Sharing Interests: .manners commonly accepted in social behavior . common cold) .think before you say .sharing interests builds relationships Manners: .decide the consequences of decision .guide for decision making: .not just talking & writing.can hear & talk at same time.Albert Einstein -> only use 2% of brains Social Health: What is Social Health? .listening shows respect Communicating: . influenza) .so check for reliability Making Right Choices: .good learners are inquisitive.. saying “hello” .when you show attention in things that others enjoy.manners can prevent spread of infectious diseases (colds.communication skills shows others respect .personality -> culmination of one's mental.different from hearing . you will make choices that will affect rest of life . sharing thoughts/concepts .more inquisitive -> more successful .using mind often can prevent mental disorders when older .when you learn things. you should filter with discernment (capability to judge info & decide its truth) .as you grow up.w/all resources today. physical and social characteristics .through communication you can become familiar w/others . & disrespectful are all personality characteristics Listening: . compassionate.chemical imbalances in brain or serious head injuries -> impact on person’s social health since it affects personality .good manners show consideration & respect . and being friendly ALL show respect to others Importance of Social Health: .socially healthy person -> respects others & responds . poisoning form chemical contamination) or bodily illnesses (cancer.not hard. taking an interest. while others prefer smaller ones . thoughtful.your personality can assist in studying your social health . most people can continue learning and education .person’s social health can be immediately related to physical & emotional health .info from TV and internet are questionable. having good manners.listening.social health -> one’s ability to relate to & connect with people .smiling.as important as listening Friendliness: .covering nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing -> stops germs from spreading Learning & Making Choices Learning: .some prefer big groups.loud or quiet -> effective impact on others .

if you fight negative pressure.you should spend time preparing your schedule every week.Remember to respect yourself Cliques: .Peer pressure -> major reason teens take drugs. & anger -> common emotions in everyday life .. you can earn respect of friends .Easy to realize the bad influence of a friend & most think that they can change that person.every choice you make has a consequence (positive or negative) Handling Emotions: .prejudice -> characterize someone's thoughts and actions before you know them & not based on fact lots of people are prejudice for other kinds of people since they think they are superior (moral. stay on top of priorities.Friends have a big effect on -> your thoughts and behavior Peer Pressure: .give them the compassion they need at a specific moment.people who have emotional disorders and aren’t treated can harm themselves or others .critical we control emotions to avoid hurting others (with age this becomes easier) . concentrating only on themselves that excludes others .emotions can override & decide our actions & behavior .Compassion more than just sympathy.when apologizing if angering someone.need compassion and understanding.clique -> small group of friends that will ignore others.get help from trusted adults.not just feeling or emotion.claim responsibility to your actions . we still should make sure our emotions do not control us by doing even thinking of our feelings and situation . cultural. or intellectual) .Can be negative. and participate in other dangerous activities .Put yourself in another’s shoes -> beginning of compassion .despite age.emotional stress can be from bad time management .but usually unlikely .happiness.weigh the pressure from you friends with you own belief system and concept of right and wrong .remember to: set goals.love and compassion are powerful virtues that show respect for others & ourselves .Easier to be pulled down by others than it is to pull them up . drink alcohol.friendship can unhealthy -> group of friends becomes so close that they don’t allow others in .interests become narrow and the only people that are important to you are members of your clique .emotional health -> capability of using are emotions helpfully vs letting them control us Time Management: .emotions -> significant forces in our lives . & understand that it is ok to say “no” to some things . & professionals .Important for keeping up a relationship .Individuals that are socially healthy aren’t in cliques since they like to have different friends and interests – can’t reach out Prejudices: . exert upon you . smoke cigarettes.accept a variety of people & learn from their differences Family Compassion: . even when it does not appear that way . parents. and loving them consistently . financial.show how much you value someone by being a friend or a supporter . sadness. leave empty slots Emotional Disorders: .Peer pressure -> influence that your friends.ask for advice . but not necessarily .you take responsibility .Social acceptance -> very strong in teens even if it requires risks .anger -> secondary emotion.decide .mostly caused by hurt . and other people your age.chemical imbalances & mental disorders cause extreme emotions Friends: . it is an action . concentrate on critical tasks.

good skincare -> good eating habits.body odor happens when sweat sits on skin & causes decomposition (decay) of bacteria .sebaceous glands -> produce oily substance called sebum .parents or siblings -> know us the best. w/us most & can hurt us most . sebum forms a plug that permits bacteria to multiply -> infection -> skin inflamed & very sensitive .consuming good diet w/nutrients -> healthy hair .Love shown by putting others’ concerns and priorities before own .connective tissue & other structures (hair follicles.siblings usually forget to love & fights.bacteria causes body odor .lotion or cosmetic products should be oil-free .parents’ duty is to discipline (use of rules and punishment to control behavior) you .Even when you have been wronged in some way. obeying their rules and seeking their advice -> ways that you show respect to your parents .washing hands -> stops spread of harmful bacteria (disease.outer layer -> epidermis . functions. speaking kindly to them.sebum -> skin’s natural lubricant made of fats and waxes . blood vessels. but even if you think they are wrong.do not pick or squeeze a pimple -> prolongs.eat unhealthily -> pimples.requires love to overlook someone's faults.flat cells & when die.. important to treat them respectfully Your Siblings: . and listening when others are speaking -> show love . looks .Listening to your parents.brushing & flossing teeth -> stops tooth decay & gum disease Skin: .Parents are not flawless. but you can regulate your behavior and reactions . bacteria.b/c of this reason it is more difficult to show total love to those in our family than friends Your Parents: .Social skills more than acceptable manner -> show love and respect for others .cells in here also make melanin (skin color) & keratin (protein substance required for healthy skin) . not so much family . try to respond with love and respect Personal Hygiene: .head of average person has -> 300.sebum makes skin smooth & supple. 000 strands of hair .Being friendly to others. bickering and arguments happen while people's feelings are hurt . emotional stability.keeping face clean -> easiest way of prevention & treatment . or dirt being stuck in follicle or pore .skin shows physical & emotional condition .hair -> indicates health .inside layer -> dermis .unable to be freed. and an understanding that you are not perfect either . having good manners.to prevent -> wash body everyday.age & exposure to environmental conditions -> affect how skin feels. sweat glands. & proper hygiene Structure: . infection) .someone who is dirty can appear as though they don’t care about the comfort of others or don’t have the means to do so . and sebaceous glands) . also defends skin from bacteria & fungi Skin Care: .Parents very useful w/knowledge when you transition into a young adult . they do not detach from body right away and instead make a protective coating to retain moisture .hair or other oil carrying materials -> cleared from face . scars .Easy to be open and caring w/friends.cannot control how your brother or your sister acts.skin -> largest organ in body .washing face twice a day w/soap & water -> frees skin of extra oil & dirt . stress -> rash . use deodorants & antiperspirants that will stop mix of sweat & bacteria Hair: .frontline defense against disease & infection .Selflessness -> choice of putting someone else’s interests in front of yours .acne from sebum.

oral hygiene -> keeping mouth & teeth clean/healthy .tooth has 3 parts -> crown. eggs.enamel -> hardest substance in body . drink water. half moon shape & covered by thin skin called cuticle . primary teeth replaced w/ (32) permanent teeth into adulthood Oral Hygiene: . brushing & washing hair -> shine .2 types of melanin -> red (red or auburn) or black (blonde to black hair) .Avoid overexposure to sun.making nail plate) .made of dead cells & keratin .every strand lost is replaced w/one that grows in its place every 3 years Structure: .root gives bulb keratin that grows hair strand .leave 1/16th of an inch of free edge to stop ingrown nails . fixing tooth firmly & comfortably in jaw .infants teethe until 3 years . chlorinated water.food (meat. medulla (soft core). nail plate (protects skin at tip of finger and bone underneath).inside tooth -> layer of dentin . neck & root .root stabilizes tooth & is covered by cementum (bone-like substance) .plaque also causes periodontal disease which deconstructs gums & ligaments that surround teeth .underneath dentin -> blood vessels & nerves called pulp . wind.to prevent hangnails: trim nails once a week.neck connects crown & root . and harsh shampoos -> hair dry and brittle Nails: . toenails once every 2 weeks .cavities -> most clear sign of poor hygiene .dirt or grease under nail can carry harmful bacteria that might enter system when rubbing nose or eyes .each strand has a cortex (fibers around medulla).first sign of this disease -> inflammation in gums/ can eventually lead to loss of tooth . & cuticle (outside layer) .trim nails once a week.plaque is like an acid that eats away at surface of crown until it gets to pulp .made of mostly keratin (shield to dangerous chemical & physical agents) .how curly or straight hair is -> depends on curvature of follicle Hair Care: . extended use of hot (HEAT) curling irons and rollers..everyday habits that make sure you stop tooth decay & gum disease Structure: . and dairy products) give body protein and Vitamin A -> healthy hair .also need good nutrition & hygiene Structure: .feel movements of tongue so you can speak accurately .periodontal ligament -> holds onto cementum.shape of follicle determine whether hair -> curly (curved follicle) or straight (straight follicle) . & nail matrix (root of nail – keratinized cells grow form here.hair color decided by melanin made at base of follicle .plaque -> film like substance formed from the acid from food sugars & bacteria .blood vessels -> give nutrients to tooth .bulb at end of each hair strand that is embedded in a pore in skin called a hair follicle .crown -> top part of tooth that goes above gum & covered w/enamel .pain from cavity is from direct exposure of nerve to food or other substances .hangnails from bad nutrition or overexposure to elements . use lotion around cuticle & cleaning nails daily Teeth and Mouth: .3 parts -> free edge (part of nail plate that extends beyond nail bed).good hygiene -> hair healthy appearance.lunula -> base of nail.first set of (20) teeth -> primary teeth (baby teeth) form at 6 months .nerves -> sense activity on surface of tooth .everyday 100 strands fall out .tooth decay starts when plaque sits on surface .cuticle -> shields nail matrix from harmful substances Nail Care: .at 6.

& outer ear (pinna & ear canal) . has fat to cushion eyeball .inside eye -> crystalline lens.when this vibrates -> moves a set of ossicles (small bones) . middle ear.cochlea (shaped like a snail.crystalline lens -> works w/cornea to focus on an image .sit no closer than 8 ft away from TV .blinking keeps eye moist & clears debris Eye Care: .adults -> ear canal is 1 inch long .conjunctiva (inner lining of eyelids that has many glands that release oil & tears) -> membrane that allows easy movement for eye .an eye converts an image into electrical impulses that can be understood by brain Structure: .ossicles -> send sound waves from eardrum to inner ear . eating smelly foods.eardrum separates outer ear from middle ear .outer part of eye -> sclera.inner ear -> most complicated structure of ear & made of cochlea & semicircular canals .eating foods w/Vitamin A -> good for eyes . lined w/hair cells) -> accepts the transfer of sound waves from ossicles & translates into electrochemical impulses that are transferred to brain .distance from cornea to retina either too short or too long for image to be focused clearly .retina translates the image into electrochemical signals and sends to brain .fixed by glasses & contacts .avoid doing things that give eyes strain to prevent premature deterioration .orbit -> socket in skull where eyeball rests. & retina . cornea.farsightedness -> see objects in distance better than ones up close .cornea -> clear outer layer that acts as lens .ciliary body -> collection of muscles that allow lens to focus .pupil -> opening in center of the iris that allows light to enter eye (managed by involuntary muscles of iris to protect eye from potentially harmful light) .retina -> nerve tissue at back of eye that gets the image that has been formed by the cornea.iris -> colored part of eye .brush & floss twice a day to avoid plaque build up.eyes are very susceptible to invasion of harmful bacteria Ears: .lined w/skin & tiny hairs that shield middle & inner ear from dust & other things . iris.3 parts -> inner ear.pinna -> made of skin & cartilage & made to accept sound waves . & pupil . ciliary body.semicircular canals -> deal with body’s balance. have fluid & hair cells that interpret changes in body’s position - . or illness Eyes and Ears Eyes: .nearsightedness -> see close objects better than further away .sunglasses protect eyes from a damaged retina -> partial blindness . drinking. ear is sense organ .read w/good light . and the crystalline lens .eardrum -> thin membrane very sensitive to changes in air pressure from sound IN MIDDLE EAR .translates info about environment into electrochemical signals that are sent to brain Structure: .eyelids help release oils & tears .like eye.ear canal -> leads sound captured by pinna to eardrum .take breaks when on computer .eyes are delicate organs . dentists say brush & floss after every meal floss removes plaque just underneath gum line good hygiene also reduces halitosis (bad breath) which is typically caused by smoking.sclera -> white outer part of eyeball .6 separate muscles control movement of eye . the pupil.

ear infections can cause loss of balance & put pressure on eardrum .holding food steadily w/fingers bent downward .turn off stove or oven when done cooking . commercial ear cleaning solution or ear drops (NO COTTON SWABS) Unit 4: Preventative Healthcare & First Aid Safety Our Responsibility: .lots of accidents can be avoided by use of common sense & responsible behavior . toasters.accident -> unexpected event that typically ends in injury or loss How to Prevent an Accident: . it can affect others What is Safety? . scissors) when used should have sharp edge away from body.Ear Care: .sharp objects (knives. perishable items could become a hazard .kids can grab handles and spill hot contents on them .do not leave handles over edge. leading cause of falls .knives held point down.blenders & pressure cookers – not overloaded & should be turned off and unplugged once done .raw meat -> stored in freezer in an air tight container & on bottom shelf so it doesn’t contaminate other food items .kitchen -> most dangerous place in house b/c of appliances & objects .often cause of minor cuts .ear infections also from bacterial infection of ear canal causes “swimmer’s ear” . but cold.pain from infection in middle of ear .oven & stove (often used) pose as threats b/c contents can boil over heating element while not looking & can cause a fire .wear shirts that do not have loose sleeves (get caught on handle.boiling pots & pans should be watched carefully .remove wax: by professional. catch fire in a flame) .loud noises can damage tiny hair cells in cochlea that can’t be replaced .when people are careless or reckless -> accidents happen .wax traps dirt & keeps it away from eardrum.3.instigated by respect for yourself & others .store perishable items in refrigerator (only 4-5 days).earaches from a sinus infection or another malady (illness or disorder of body) affecting throat or mouth . use a fire extinguisher or throw a handful of baking soda on fire source. shutting oven door also works b/c no air will suffocate fire Garage: .store perishable items correctly -> could spoil -> food poisoning .leading cause of accidental teenage deaths -> careless behavior .wax usually falls out naturally .frees us from threat of accidents What is an Accident? . & can openers) keep away from edge of counter & manufacture’s directions should be applied . coffee makers.first step in prevention of injury -> consider risks .cure for wild behavior is true concern for the wellbeing of others .this behavior should be reliant upon knowledge of rules of safety & will to protect others and self .second step -> responsible behavior .move or transport pots and pans w/potholders or mitts to reduce burns . but can build up (bad for hearing) .4 million accidents w/serious injury happen at home Kitchen: .every kitchen should have a smoke detector & fire extinguisher .wax is ear’s way of protecting ear from infection & dirt in ear canal .if a grease spill on stove or oven causes a fire.it is important to know how to use & store equipment .starts w/considering consequences and risks of actions .small appliances (blenders.clean up spills right away.sometimes pressure can cause eardrum to rupture -> temporary loss of hearing .when one person is unsafe.getting prepared for natural disasters (calamities) can lessen its effect and is crucial in accident prevention Home Safety: . cut away from body.safety -> freedom from occurrences of accidents .

electricity. eyes.display keepsakes should be kept out of reach of children & away from edge of a shelf .carbon monoxide -> poisonous fume that is emitted when fuel burns that is colorless & odorless . & lungs .put young kids in a high chair but do not leave them unattended Bathroom: .cabinets w/weapons should always be locked & only removed by an adult .store poisons out of reach of children & in a locked cabinet Home Safety II Living Room: . pain thinner.toilet seats kept shut if a child in house . & paint) should be stored in a fireproof container w/no heat nearby .when using poisons protect your skin.check garage door sensors periodically . can’t leave room unless screen in place .poisons should be stored in a place kids can’t reach b/c touching.many plants are harmful & should be kept out of the way of pets and kids .workbenches & floors neat tools shouldn’t hang over edge of a workbench or shelf for kids to reach nails.children should use dull edged utensils .carpets should be low-pile b/c they do not catch on walking aids or shoes (vs high-pile) . screws. or drinking them can have deadly affects .if water hot to touch. oil rags. & hearth should be ash and debris free (do not allow to sit) . & other debris.small trinkets should be picked up right away b/c of kids . fertilizer. eating.replace a torn or stretch carpet immediately b/c people can trip .empty ashes in a flameproof container & don’t ever smoke in bed Dining Room: . should kept away from walkways.keep garages well ventilated b/c of this . clothes.flammable items (newspaper.overdosing on vitamins or medications -> fatal - .block unused outlets -> children poke fingers in it -> electrocuted .hot water heater should be set at 120 degrees F .lawn equipment should be cleaned once turned off & cooled down .out of kids’ ways . & medication . metal shavings. gasoline.do not put child in water before checking it.speaking w/mouth full could lead to choking . or harsh chemicals AND CUTTING GRASS protective glasses or goggles shield eyes from splinters.have fire extinguisher nearby in case of emergencies .keep the cords of an outlet nontangled & along edge of wall. breathing. metal. & other sharp things kept in a container rags soaked w/gasoline or turpentine should be in a fireproof container away from sparks or heat wear eye protection when working w/wood.chimney.carpets should not cover electrical cords -> fire if cord is frayed .infants & kids should have food cut into pieces to prevent choking .fireplace should have a screen or it could catch rug on fire.use the flue according to the manufacturer's directions .Do not light a fire with gasoline or other flammable chemicals .space heaters can start a fire if knocked over . it is too warm .hardwood floors -> nonslip rugs .those who smoke should deposit ash in an ashtray (kept clean & out reach of kids) . fumes & nails that could lodge into eye .treat all guns as if loaded .electrical chords should be plugged into nearest outlet -> prevents tripping .3 safety hazards w/ water. bathroom floors need non-slip rugs or mats . insecticides.do not overflow an outlet .make bathtubs & showers have a grab bar & rubber mat.kids should not be left alone near a tub b/c can drown in an inch of water in minutes . flue.Keep smoldering pieces of wood away from the edge .medications put in a locked cabinet away from kids (NOT in a secret hiding place) .space heaters should not be left unattended. & can be a fire hazard .

stones & sticks (projected if hit by a rotating blade) .take in prescribed amounts & check label for side effects each year hundreds of thousands of children & adult are poisoned Hair dryers.beds should have a light switch nearby to avoid falls .bunk beds should be secure w/a guard rail & ladder (don’t jump from top bunk to ground) .stairways -> sturdy handrails . poles. long pants.Only requires a drop to cause an electrical shock or burn .kids need adult supervision that can swim to play in pool .never burn poisonous plants b/c it causes poisons to become airborne -> eye. electrical sockets not overloaded .cribs & baby beds -> well padded & equipped w/sturdy guardrails (close enough to not allow child’s head to go through or else might get stuck -> suffocation) .sunburn -> mild to severe skin irritation and other bodily aliments (blisters.don’t ever use damaged equipment.Repeated overexposure -> skin cancer . people. and other electrically powered appliances should not be functioned near water .do not go down a staircase w/out seeing steps in front of you . peeling.use lighters (easily controlled) vs matches (can easily fall & light up whatever they touch) .beds should have fire retardant blankets that protect against fires caused by smoking in bed & use of faulty electrical blankets – could also be a protective covering in a house fire . throat irritation . poison oak.replace burnt out bulbs asap .wear sturdy shoes.Sunscreen protects skin from sun’s ultraviolet rays .do not clean a gas stove while on -> detergents highly flammable (even fumes can ignite) - . curling irons.cigarettes should be smoked outside & away from all flammable substances (main cause of house fires) .free of items & well lit (enough to read) . clear yard of pets.stray animals can have rabies so it is best to avoid them & call animal control . and Queen Anne's lace) should be trimmed w/gloves to prevent cuts or poisoning .detergents & house hold cleaners -> stay away from open flames .floors kept clean. & eye protection .window latches should be checked periodically to make sure they work for an escape Yards: . poison sumac. electric razors. and dehydration) .most useful way to reduce chance of house fires -> keep all flammable materials & chemicals away from flames or heat sources . or other flotation devices nearby in case of drowning . carpet securely fasten to floor.steps should be covered w/carpet or a non-slip surface that fits perfectly around edges to prevent tripping Bedrooms: .children’s’ rooms need a night light (not a candle which can easily fall over & start fire.keep shepherd hooks. these items can spark -> causing rug or something else to catch fire . life preservers. nose.before use of a lawn mower or other power equipment.be sure to snuff them out before bed.pools should always be fenced & locked .Keep electrical equipment and cords away from the pool .needs lights mounted on walls or ceiling .Dropping an appliance in water while using -> electrocution Home Safety III Hallways & Stairways: .keep both out of reach of children & store in a dry place away from heat or flammable substances .Don’t use weed killers & rodent poisons where kids play Safety Guidelines Fire Safety: .do not smoke while using a gas powered appliance .best to hire a professional to remove a nest b/c sometimes when removed w/out care can cause swarming or attacks .an insect bite or sting -> injection of poisonous substance into body .thorny plants & vines (poison ivy.never leave a burning candle unwatched) .running around or rough play in pool -> should not occur .

computer monitors.each year -> thousands of people electrocuted & hundreds burned/mutilated . & roll (cover your face) Electrical Safety: .smoke & toxic fumes just as deadly as fire .place TV sets.children should sit in back until 12 before going to front b/c airbags can be deadly . & refrigeration .turn off all electrical current (light switch) before replacing a light bulb -> otherwise electrical shock . or using any substance that dulls senses . stereos. if not recognized -> do not open door . pull to side of road .drive slower in bad weather -> avoid slipping. light.put in smoke detectors in every room of house (hallways too) that give you an early heads up that smoke is in air need to be checked periodically for battery replacement fire extinguishers placed around house.keep house doors locked .decide cause of burnt fuse before fixing it – fuses -> safety precaution that prevents circuits from being overloaded Personal Safety: . mutilation of lips & fingers .electricity provides the energy required to create heat. check max voltage before plugging in something .do not enter a secluded place a lone – women should yell to attract attention if attacked & carry a whistle Transportation Safety: . etc.if visibility is low.avoid direct contact w/electricity .never walk alone at night .drive defensively & never assume other drivers will comply w/law .obey all traffic laws -> lack of complying -> leading reasons of accidents .keep smoke out of rooms by covering base of door w/a blanket or towel (increase effectiveness -> dampen it w/water) .carry wallet in a pocket you can see .small children -> car seat in back seat .infants or toddles who put live electrical cords in wet mouth -> electrocution.never drive if you are tired.large appliances that need lots of electricity can overflow circuit -> fuse blows .do not touch prongs of a plug attached to a socket & throw away electrical chords w/exposed wires or torn plugs . & garage) w/heat sources or flammable materials – should be checked regularly .remember to ventilate electrical appliances (overheating -> fire) .women hold purses in front of them tightly .especially in rooms (kitchen.do not overflow sockets.stay low to floor (to avoid breathing in smoke) & do not open hot doors b/c it could cause a collection of flames or smoke to enter .if clothes on fire -> stop.never tell someone you are home alone .regularly check vehicles (tires low for tread & slow leaks.even front or back of car . drop.let it cool down every once in awhile if near wall .during storm -> unplug large appliances (ie: TV) b/c nearby lightning strikes can overwork electrical circuitscausing electrical appliances to act as the current’s outlet -> big damage . more time to react .ask or check who is knocking on door before answering.over 40 million accidental deaths -> reckless behavior on road Driver & Passenger Safety: . ill.car doors should be locked when driving .do not let young kids answer door . fix burnt out lights right away) .close window shades in curtains in evening & when not home -> prevent others from looking in home .give an attacker purse or wallet if demanded . living room.create a fire escape plan w/multiple escape routes for every room & a meeting place – should be practiced Evacuating a Burning Building: .do not go back inside once you have left a burning building .electrical shock -> current from an electrical source is allowed to flow through body to ground .always wear a seat belt. -> several inches from wall.do not drive if tornado is near (seek shelter) - .never touch electrical appliances w/wet hands or near water b/c it is a conductor of electricity .

always wear a life jacket when on a boat –keep you afloat even if unconscious.check all mechanical & structural parts of boat regularly -> boat good condition Weather Safety & Natural Disasters: . death . amnesia.never swim alone.cross at crosswalks or at a CORNER Water Safety Swimming Safety: .000 homes .don’t swim if you feel tired.walk defensively by making self visible (bright clothes) . supplies.do not overload a boat w/people.lay on ground away from water if no car or building . & unseen currents . & prevent accidents Lightning: .do not swim in dangerous water conditions.when not available walk on left side of road. large breaking waves.use the buddy system .do not leave floating toys in pool to lure a child .lightning strikes tallest object . Handlebars and pedals turn easily but securely. & death .grounded structure -> equipped w/lightning rods or other devices that lead an electrical current safely into ground .Never ride a bike that is too big or too small for you . bright clothing w/reflective strips helps as well .Both front and back brakes should be working.go in water feet first Water Safety at Home: .pedestrian -> someone who travels by foot . watch out for underwater obstructions. etc -> capsize -> sink .always obey rules of boating and do not expect others to .can strike 30. paralysis.children’s pools -> emptied after use Boating Safety: . or river test currents before entrance w/a leaf or stick – strong currents can pull you away from shore .Wear a helmet b/c head trauma can result in -> brain damage. push your bike across crosswalk . ride defensively Pedestrian Safety: . Spokes should be kept tight.do not allow children to swim w/out adult or teen supervision at all times . ill. seat should be well-padded and securely fastened at a height that is suitable for you .do not sit under a tree.do not leave poolside for any reason – kids can drown very quickly .non grounded structure -> channels electricity to objects nearby if struck .required to follow same traffic rules cars & trucks do . equipment.quickly get shelter far from threat of high waters . or anything not securely grounded .infant or toddles can simply drown in only a few inches of water .in ground spas & pools need childproof fences w/a lock .Learn hand signals. picnic shelter. coma. impaired . ocean.if swimming in lake.Tires should be inflated to the proper pressure level.000 times faster than a bullet w/enough electricity to power more than a 1.go inside a car or building when lightning strikes .unsafe diving -> head injury.major mishap .groups attract lightning more than individuals -> scatter .learning how to act in inclement weather -> escape danger.do not use electrical appliances when there is lightning b/c if lightning strike when appliance is working -> be a conductor -> electrocuted if you touch it Floods & Hurricanes: . paralysis.against traffic .swim when energized & rested . remain calm.do not swim while a storm or other dangerous condition – lightning can be life threatening .Ride on right side of road w/flow of traffic.30 minutes after eating -> can swim = FALSE . Reflectors should be in a visible position in both the front and the rear .Bicycle Safety: .When there is much traffic at an intersection. or.use sidewalks. blindness.

stock up on firewood.if outside -> wear at least one layer of thermal undergarments under a layer of a warm sweater and pants. water.call for help after you deduce the severity of injury .6 degrees F .leaving a victim makes you liable of gross or willful negligence .stay in cooler areas & avoid direct sunlight . & take victim to a close medical facility .onset of heat disorders (heat cramps.choose roads least likely to be flooded .do not stay in a mobile home .EMS -> emergency medical services .hypothermia -> body’s core temp falls below 95 degrees F -> leads to death .drink warm fluids when exposed to cold (not caffeine or alcohol -> lose fluids) . ambulance services.MUST ASK VICTIM PERMISSION TO ADMINSTER AID TO A CONSCIOUS PERSON .happens when a cold front meets a warm front -> clash -> air swirls .keep moving to keep blood flowing to stop hypothermia .20% of the body's heat is lost through the head .frostbite -> skin exposed to temp below freezing (32 degrees F) .wear light colored clothes -> reflects sun’s rays -> cool .. & water . blankets.cover self w/mattress or thick blanket .fluids help blood circulation -> stay warm .System of local resources consisting of fire & police departments.wear loose clothing -> lets sweat be evaporated on skin easier -> body cools itself . bathroom or under staircase .drink lot of water (even if not thirsty) -> body sweats -> evaporates -> body cools .make an emergency supply kit in advance w/ enough food.heat disorders -> rise in body’s core temp above 98.get out of vehicle if in one & lie in ditch if no buildings nearby – do not try to out run it Cold Weather & Blizzards: . warm hat should also be worn when you are outside . medical professionals. heat exhaustion.can lift a house from its foundation at 200 mph . they will notify the emergency staff room w/person’s condition Good Samaritan Laws: .first aid is fast & ready administration of basic medical help give to victims until emergency medical care can be given . & heat stroke) .if a blizzard & in car -> pull over and make sure in advance to stock blankets Hot Weather: .provides legal protection for rescuers & victim .limit physical activity -> heat exhaustion First Aid: .if a child or mentally handicapped person -> ask permission of parent or guardian if there . begin emergency care.On their way.do not travel through floodwaters during hurricane -> sweep things downstream . food.get to shelter quickly – go to the basement or room in center of first floor w/out windows.EMS goes to site of emergency.Witness to an accident is the initial link to the system of emergency resources (EMS) .must be willing & prepared to help What is EMS? .millions of people each year hospitalized b/c of injuries .ask victim for permission to administer aid .Encourages people to offer aid w/out fear of being sued by victim . & you .drowsiness & listlessness -> 1st signs of hypothermia .staying inside best way to prevent frostbite & hypothermia . outer layer should consist of a waterproof or water-resistant coat and pants.decide an evacuation plan ahead of time.only administer aid you know & must continue it until help comes .if unconscious -> law assumes permission is granted . & blankets for several days Tornadoes: .Info given to EMS dispatcher to decide which professionals need to be alerted .

the fire department. Coughing up blood. Thrust the fist quickly and forcefully in an inward and upward motion - .if scene is dangerous. & what immediate actions need to be taken .check for multiple victims .do not move victim unless in a dangerous area According to the Good Samaritan laws.3. Sudden vision problems.most important to STAY CALM or else victim will become nervous & will allow you to properly give aid correctly .moving victim can result in paralysis .if person dizzy or light-headed -> make person sit down to relax . Vomiting that is continuous or severe.only call 911 if: Severe abdominal pain or pressure. do not put self in danger & allow professionals to .use a plastic face shield or mouthpiece when doing CPR on an infected person . or neck injuries. place your fist just below the sternum . What is your name?.survey scene before going to victim & mentally remember what happened.in seconds.ask permission first Calling for Help: .important to wear rubber gloves or a plastic face mask: .breathing issues correlated to anxiety (hyperventilation) or overexertion -> solved by relaxation . What happened?.do not put fingers in mouth or near eyes or nose at any time . Stand behind the victim . Seizure. a victim can stop breathing. Possible broken bones. Wrap the other hand around the fist .wear rubber gloves .if victim can’t dislodge -> call EMS . tilt head back & press on forehead while lifting chin . placing the thumb side just above the victim's navel.if mouth is closed. you are not legally obligated to alert emergency medical professionals What is considered an emergency? .display local numbers for emergency care. Make a fist with one hand. or lose lots of blood .if you can’t leave victim. Difficult or irregular breathing.if victims conscious.check vitals next or the A(airway)B(breathing)C(circulation)s .injuries to victim’s respiratory or circulatory systems should be treated first (ie: breathlessness over broken leg) .if patient is choking but can still speak or breathe -> make him or her cough forcefully which dislodge object blocking airway . What is the condition of the victims?. call EMS . intro self & say you know first aid to help until medical professionals come.to free airway if victim cannot talk or breathe-> Heimlich maneuver: . & How are they being helped? Taking Action: .do not put any of your open wounds near the victim’s .if neck or back injury -> do not move head . and Poison Control Center near every phone When an Emergency Occurs: . if you are a witness to an accident.1. Who is involved in the emergency?.4.put pressure on severe bleeding Breathing Problems: .breathing difficulties can be related to heart problems Choking: . lose consciousness. back. Head.whoever calls EMS should be calm & be able to answer questions concisely . Vomiting or passing blood in the urine or stool.2.questions such as: Where the emergency is located? (ask bystanders).if person not breathing or no circulation -> CPR -> if not certified. how many people involved. & Desire to injure self or others . tell bystander to call – do not assume someone will call .after getting info on scene & victims. police department. If the navel is difficult to reach.to keep blood or other fluids from getting on your face or hands Evaluating the Scene: .to protect yourself and the victim from the spread of infectious diseases .if poisoning -> call poison control center which may tell you to contact EMS . Loss of consciousness. get someone else to do it .

more often known as a heart attack -> blocked blood vessel leading to heart or severe internal or external bleeding Heart Attack: .1.2) if victim still not breathing pinch his or her nose & put your mouth over his or her mouth – (if victim an infant. put mouth over nose and mouth) breathe into victim’s lungs twice while waiting for chest to rise & fall before doing 2nd one .Irregular pulse rate .Unconsciousness .do not let them persuade you against it . leg.do this victim is not breathing but has a pulse . or of one side of the body .Unhealthy skin appearance .5) watch victim closely Cardiac Arrest: . arm.If body does not have oxygen brain damage can occur Stroke: . call EMS .symptoms of a stroke: .6. Perform abdominal thrusts by placing the heel of one hand just above the navel or below the breastplate .1) tilt head back by gently pushing on forehead & lifting chin to open airway .Difficulty breathing . If you cannot dislodge the object immediately.4.CPR tries restart heart & lungs by pushing down on chest & putting air into victim’s lungs .2.3) check for a pulse.most distinctive sign -> no pulse .rest relieves heart of stress . Continue thrusts until the object is dislodged or help arrives ..If the victim becomes unconscious: . check victim’s pulse -> continue until victim breathes again or EMS arrives .Headache .give 1 breath every 5 seconds.number of different physical conditions can result to this (lack of blood to heart.Confusion .4) help victim take medications .1) have person sit or lie down.Dizziness .Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath .Nausea .Persistent chest pain that is not relieved by rest .victim needs CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) right away .cardiac arrest -> end of pumping of heart . start CPR Cardiac Arrest and CPR: . and thrust toward the victim's mouth .2) loosen person’s restrictive clothing .If someone is having a stroke.4) after 12 breaths. If the object is not dislodged after the fifth thrust.heart attack -> death of part of heart muscle . Place the victim on his back and continue care .6.3) call EMS quickly. Lock hands together.3.check for these symptoms for a future heart attack: .Uneven or abnormal pupil size .Numbness or paralysis of the face.Slurred speech . call EMS right away .5. heels down. give rescue breathing Rescue Breathing: .if there is one.lack of blood flow related to clot or blockage in artery that leads to brain .stroke -> temporary lack of blood flow to brain . Give no more than five thrusts that depress the victim's chest more than 1-1/2 inches . continue.if pulse stops.5. lack of oxygen to body) .count out loud (infant -> 1in 3 seconds) .If someone appears to be having a heart attack: . Call EMS immediately .

bruises -> torn blood vessels under the surface of skin .1) stop bleeding .to stop minor bleeding: .4) bandages statured -> add new ones but do not move the used ones b/c it can displace the blood clotting . cuts. & bone tissues get injured .can look & feel hard.5) keep pressure until help comes Accidental Dismemberment: .bleeding needs to be stopped before too much blood lost . nerve. nerve damage. pointed object .keep calm & hope . infections as well Minor External Bleeding: .1) place pressure w/a clean bandage or towel – pressure helps blood cot around wound . and punctures . avulsions.result in minor blood loss or look like bruises .3) put wrapped part in airtight plastic bag .abrasions -> accidentally scraping skin against rough surfaces .if EMS doesn’t assist avulsion victims -> amputation (total separation of a body part. sharp edges) & lacerations (sharp.2) wrap body part in a clean moist towel or bandage .3) elevate wound above level of heart to slow bleeding .main goal -> stop bleeding .wounds happen when skin.2 types -> incisions (smooth. swollen.punctures -> penetration of body by a sharp. infection.do not freeze .dry wound w/a clean towel and bandage (sterile) .soft tissue wounds have 6 categories -> bruises.wash it.last resort) or dismemberment . bandage it Cuts: .dismemberment -> victim loses his or her body in an accident Ruptures: .bruises -> from minor internal bleeding . or purple .to treat this: . but severe ones -> EMS Avulsions: . muscle.if object was rusty or dirty -> risk of infection called tetanus (critical to keep up on tetanus immunizations) Severe External Bleeding: .5) call EMS or take victim & part to hospital Minor Internal Bleeding (bruises): . keep calm.can be treated at home. abrasions. jagged edges) .2) bleeding stops -> clean w/soap & water & remove anything embedded in wound. blood vessel.4) keep bag a cool container until EMS specialist comes – put it in cold water works too.avulsion -> part of skin or muscle tissue or other part of body that is cut or torn (almost torn off from body) . or lumpy .ruptures in blood vessels or organs happen in accidents too – can be on surface deeper in body in organs or heart Punctures: . and scarring Bruises: .to treat accident dismemberment: . disinfect it. ruptures.Put them in a comfortable position.1) call EMS .can lead to minor or critical external or internal bleeding.minor avulsion -> hang nail .2) put direct pressure on wound w/a bandage or towel .have minor severe bleeding. & do not allow them to eat or drink (strokes affect person’s ability to swallow) Wounds and Bleeding: . blue.cold compresses can lessen pain Abrasions: .keep area cold & elevated to reduce swelling & bleeding Severe Internal Bleeding: - . organ.depending on severity can look -> red.

5) check for other signs of injury . & Unhealthy-looking skin watch for victim’s condition while calling EMS & keep them relaxed/comfortable –treat for shock shock-> deathly condition that reduces blood flow to organs result from critical injury or illness first aid for shock -> make blood flows throughout body symptoms: Delirium.4) watch for shock Chemical Burns: . Pale.Symptoms: Opened bottle. they can be extremely painful or painless Minor Burns: . or brown .3rd degree burns (full thickness burns) -> damage to all layers of skin – destruction of tissues underneath skin (ie: muscle or bone) .2) remove clothing exposed to chemical .6) watch for signs of shock Poisoning: .substances swallowed in inappropriate amounts are: medications. moist skin. or pelvis injury. cover with a blanket . vitamins. Rapid or slow breathing.If victim is thirsty. black.avoid exposure to sun Severe Burns: . causing the victim to reach a more dangerous level of shock Burns & other Emergencies: .can be white. Vomiting. Vomiting blood. Rapid pulse.1) flush area w/cool water & call EMS .Shock: - symptoms of this: Bleeding from body openings (mouth or rectum). or injection Ingested Poisons: .1) find source (substance & container) . household cleaners.1) run cool water over burn or gently pat w/wet towel (ice or ice water not required) . Broken ribs or pelvis.1st degree burns -> burns that only affect top layer of skin that cause redness.4) cover burn w/dry. pesticides.depending on damage to nerves. Diarrhea. roll him on his side -> airways clear . & Large pupils if someone is in danger of shock: have him lie down in a comfortable position & call EMS If you do not suspect a head.can enter body through -> ingestion. have him sit up slightly with feet outstretched (no sitting in a chair) If the victim's skin feels cool. Rapid or slow pulse. back.3) continue to flush w/water until EMS comes . & Convulsions .4) watch for shock Electrical Burns: . elevate the victim's feet 8-12 inches -> helps circulation If the victim is having difficulty breathing.1) make sure victim is longer in contact w/electrical current & that it is powered off .3) cover area w/loose clothing. absorption.2nd degree burns (partial-thickness burns) -> injury to epidermis & dermis that produce blisters & redness –much pain . Difficulty breathing. Unconsciousness.2) call poison control or EMS w/container in hand . alcohol. do not comply -> Eating or drinking will further disturb the circulation of blood. minor pain & swelling .2) cover w/ a sterile bandage . sterile bandage .3) get professional help . rodent killers (millions of children each year ingest these b/c of easy access) .reduced circulation -> chilling – feel skin -> monitor temp. inhalation.1) do not run over cool water or pat w/wet towel .poison -> substance causes harm to body . (don’t let get too hot) .If someone has ingested a poison: .2) sterile bandage over burn (prevent infection) . Nausea. neck.If the victim is vomiting.2nd & 3rd degree burns .3) check vital signs .2) call EMS .

& household cleaners .1) remove victim from all poisoning (including clothes) .. swelling . or head injury.2) w/gloves wash areas w/soap & water . back.1) remove stinger by tweezers or gentle scraping of skin (do not: squeezing spreads poison) .6) treat for shock .4) call EMS & poison control center . itching.6) watch victim carefully until help comes Inhaled Poisons: . muscles.fractures -> when bone broken. hard to breathe .3) follow instructions of poison control center . fall.3) cover w/sterile bandage . pain.6) if has an allergic reaction.to treat: .5) roll victim to side if unconscious for potential vomiting . Sprains & Strains: . or chipped by blow.fractures to bones around chest & pelvic area -> critical internal injury .symptoms: red skin.if near poison wear protective gear & keep area well-ventilated . call EMS to rescue person . chlorine fumes. move victim to area w/fresh air .skin comes in contact w/poison (primary source -> plants) .1) if zone is dangerous.insect stings & animal bites -> leading cause .4) treat for shock .how to treat it: .Injuries to bones.5) watch for allergic reactions . & lawn fertilizers -> also can harm .to treat a snake bite: .1) carefully wash are & stop bleeding .4) call poison control & EMS if victim can’t breathe or has large swelling Injected Poisons: .enter body through a puncture in skin’s surface .battery acids. hard to breathe.2) wash w/soap & water .2) treat wound for potential infection .to treat a animal or human bite: .3) check vital signs . swelling.1) call EMS immediately .7) watch for rapid changes in victim’s conditions until help comes Absorbed Poisons: .4) call EMS immediately . nausea. cracked. joints. nausea . you should not: touch the victim's head with your hands.3) pat dry. sprains.If someone has suffered a neck. dislocations.to treat insect bite or sting: . or other . cover w/sterile bandage . and strains .4) cool w/cool pack . irritability.3) wash wound . pool chemicals. stinger stuck in wound.2) if scene safe.4) watch for sudden changes Fractures.symptoms: bite marks. call EMS . move the victim.7) calm victim & stop victim from moving (causes spread of poison) .3) watch for critical reactions .symptoms: headache.2) keep victim still & elevated slightly below level of heart to keep poison from going to heart . Dislocations. unconsciousness. & stabilize the victim's head and neck Fractures: .try to capture animal w/out harm to self – animal tested for rabies – if not call animal control & describe animal and where it is . headache. and tendons fall into one of 4 areas: fractures.5) follow poison control center directions .inhaled poisons -> carbon monoxide.

Swelling.happen when a muscle or joint is overexerted . dislocation. Cold .Symptoms: pain. Bruising.young & elderly especially susceptible to extreme temps Hypothermia & Frostbite Hypothermia: . Numbness. swelling. put victim in warm & comfortable place.2) remove wet clothes .Symptoms: Deformed appearance or unusual body movements.5) watch for changes until assistance arrives .4) apply heat after couple days of rest to increase healing Extreme Temperature: . cover victim w/dry clothes.2) elevate injury -> decrease swelling .To treat a fracture. immobility. Pain.to treat a strained muscle: . swelling .1) call EMS . or obesity -> more susceptible to heat illness . & weak pulse .5) get help Heat Exhaustion & Stroke: . unconsciousness. &Apathy .result form overexertion . Loss of coordination.6) if must move victim. ears) .strains -> injuries in which a muscle has been torn or stretched beyond normal limit . Rigid surface tissue. stop bleeding immediately . Numbness. stiffness . decreasing rate of breathing.Symptoms: pain.symptoms initially: Shivering. Slow pulse..2) warm body gradually – remove wet clothes.happen when ligaments covering joint are torn . & Pain Sprains: .sprain -> sudden or critical twisting or tearing of ligaments & tendons that support a joint .2) if fracture breaks skin (compound fracture). & Numbness . splint area Strains: .as temp drops. Confusion.1) keep broken area immobile .3) submerge frozen part in warm water (no more than 105 degrees F) until unfrozen (do not rub or place area in hot water) .do not put in hot bath (drastic temp change -> heart strain) . body is more lethargic .if drops too far -> organs shut down -> death . a grinding sensation Dislocations: .most affected in areas away from trunk (toes.symptoms deadly level: drowsiness.dislocation -> displacement of bone from joint . Immobility. or sprain (head injuries): .4) call EMS if compound fracture or something serious.symptoms: pain.moderate & severe symptoms: White or grayish skin.most fractures not deadly .3) if victim conscious -> warm liquids to drink .4) wrap loosely w/sterile bandages – separate toes & fingers w/gauze .1) victim in warm environment .to treat hypothermia: .hypothermia -> body’s core temp drops below normal .3) apply cold pack to muscle for couple of days .to treat: .activity. old age. Blisters. fingers. otherwise transport to hospital . swelling.3) apply cold pack to lower swelling .initial symptoms: Flushed skin color.1) rest muscle – avoid activities that will cause more injury . nose.4) watch until help arrives Frostbite: .frostbite -> ice crystals form in body tissues . bruising.core temp -> indicates vital organ temp .

Hot.to treat: .3) remove sweaty clothing .1) get victim out of heat .2) call EMS .heat stroke -> when heat exhaustion not treated .6) give cold water to consume even if not thirsty (1 cup every half an hour until goes away) Heat Strokes: .to treat: .symptoms: Heavy sweating.7) treat for shock . blood flow decreased to vital organs .6) if conscious. give cool water to drink .2) put in a comfortable position lying down w/ legs elevated 12 inches .4) put damp or cool clothes on skin . Pale.heat cramps -> 1st sign of heat-related emergency . organs stop working (brain damage or death could happen) .4) cover victim w/ damp sheets or put in a cool-water bath . Rapid pulse. & Loss of consciousness .5) fan body . Dilated pupils. Headache.8) watch for changes until help comes . Rapid breathing. Diminished sweating.heat exhaustion -> when body exhausted of cooling itself by sweating .1) remove victim from heat . flushed skin. & Vomiting . Nausea.heat cramps -> painful muscle spasms (typically in abdomen & legs) Heat Exhaustion: . Weakness.3) remove clothing .body’s heat regulating systems shut down & if not fixed..can cause body to go to shock . Dizziness.5) fan body . small pupils.symptoms: Above-normal body temperature. moist skin or flushed skin.to keep core temp normal.