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Turkey’s requirements in relation to the Hague Convention Aysun Ozkose, Turkey AsistProf. Dr.

Aysun Qzkose is a lecturer at the Zonguldak Karaelmas University

We survive thanks to our culture and our natural environment WAR destroys them all Abstract Besides work by the Ministry of Culture on the preservation of cultural heritage, universities, associations, professional associations, and charitable foundations are currently learning to raise awareness about preservation efforts. The most important is “The Association of Historical Towns and Regions”. This non-governmental organization was established in 2000 with the support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Society of Turkish Architects, universities, the Ministry of Forests and the Ministry of Culture to help preserve Turkey's cultural heritage. Keywords: cultural heritage, preservation, non-governmental organization Rezumat Pe lângă efortul depus de Ministerul Culturii, instituţiile de învăţământ superior, asociaţiile, asociații profesionale, precum și fundații de caritate contribuie şi ele la sensibilizarea populației cu privire la eforturile de conservare. Cea mai importantă este "Asociația orașelor istorice și a regiunilor". Aceast ONG s-a înființat în anul 2000 cu sprijinul Ministerului Afacerilor Externe, Societă ții arhitec ților turci, universită ților, Ministerului Mediului și Ministerului Culturii având ca scop conservarea patrimoniului cultural al Turciei. Cuvinte cheie: conservare, patrimoniul cultural, ONG It is much more important to take measures to ensure the preservation of the rich cultural heritage of developing countries, which tends to be at serious risk. Due to its specific geopolitical situation, Turkey has to tackle this subject with more realistic, accurate and applicable policies. Since signing the Hague Convention, the Rules and

is deemed According to Article 8. of the Protocol and Article 20 of the Rules and Regulations. It looked at the following: * Ruies and regulations of the Protocol have been systematically violated by many countries. a country must register all museums. heritage. the Ministry of National Defence and the Directorate of Wakfs. natural sites and ancient ruins. Within the scope of the Convention. This situation has given Turkey serious cause for concern. A report on the issues that were re-examined. Article 3 of the Convention is of particular importance to Turkey. discussed in Article 4 of the Protocol. the presence of these emblems did not prevent monuments from being destroyed during the war in exYugoslavia. Why? It does not believe that it would benefit the country for the following reasons: * * * «Consensus» is needed due to 39/5. under the leadership of the Ministry of Culture. has entrusted the central units and organizations in the provinces with the application of Article 3. Turkey has participated in preparatory studies and joined the Hague Diplomatic Conference. * * * « The Military Obligation*. tumuli. including some signatory states.Regulations on its application and the First Protocol in 1965. This is very difficult for Turkey to implement fully. Turkey believes that this marking is simply not effective. Turkey has been striving to meet the necessary requirements to preserve its cultural heritage. However. are currently . urban and The special marking of cultural heritage objects is mentioned in Articles 6 and 16 "Controversial by Turkey. The Ministry of Culture. but has not signed the Second protocol. responsible for the preservation of cultural heritage in Turkey. suggestions and Turkey's requirements in relation to the Convention as well as problems it encountered has been presented to the Council. as the Second Protocol is not simply an Military necessity* restrictions Enhanced *special protection* for the preservation and protection of cultural «amendment» but «an entirely new protocol *' Extending the rights of non-state combatants in the event of armed conflict. * Due to its geopolitical situation.

* Currently. and the supply of the necessary transport vehicles. the Ministry of Justice. Language and History. the existence of traditional Ottoman cities on these archaeological sites and the ongoing development of these regions makes it difficult to select sites for «special international protection status*. * Conferences and educational seminars on the preservation of cultural heritage in Anatolia are organized twice a year by the Ministry of Culture to inform the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. These plans include: determination of the cultural heritage to be removed. but 30 sites were put forward for inclusion in 1993 (see Plate 3. Studies on the widespread use of these emblems in Turkey are ongoing. and the Office of the Ataturk Supreme Council for Culture. the Ministry of National Education. the Ministry of Forests. 49 archaeological sites.000 items has been established (see Plate 1. studies on the formation of a National Consultancy Committee are being conducted jointly by representatives of the Turkish General Staff. the Turkish Naval and Land Forces Commands. A database of more than 70. Turkey has also requested that they be given ^special international protection" status. the general public and governmental organisations how to prevent the destruction and smuggling of cultural property. The Ministry of Culture continues its activities aimed at instructing civil society. the General Directorate of Highways. the Genera! Directorate of State Hydraulic Works. the Gendarmerie Headquarters. List 2). only eight sites have been registered in the «UNESCO World Heritage List» (see Plate 2.finishing an inventory of cultural property in Turkey. 62 state museums. List 3). List 1). 3 private museums and 12 individual collectors were given the special emblems to mark their cultural property. the Ministry of Justice. the General Directorate of the Wakfs. the Turkish Coast . * Turkey's rich cultural heritage. As a result. The formation of the National Committee will speed up the process of determining sites eligible for international special prevention status. *Special removal plans* have been prepared by the Ministry of Culture for movable cultural property in the event of armed conflict in the region. conservation and pakking. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

universities. the Council of Europe. Besides work by the Ministry of Culture on the preservation of cultural heritage. Several requirements in the Second Protocol have serious economic consequences for developing countries like Turkey. the Society of Turkish Architects. For this reason. especially UNESCO and all partners in our common heritage join forces against the possible war in Iraq for the sake of generations to come». the United Nations. In addition. professional associations. compiled cultural heritage inventories and educated the public and their leaders on the need for preservation. universities. associations. Turkey must be given financial assistance in order to compile inventories. produced restoration projects. «We want to see ICOMOS. and to mark those items to be protected. it believes that cultural heritage for individuals and peoples is key to their identity and the source of their inspiration. and charitable foundations are currently learning to compile Inventories and raise awareness about preservation efforts. which are rich in cultural property.the Year of Preservation». ICCROM. The most important is «The Association of Historical Towns and Regions^. More than 100 historical city municipalities participated in 2000. programs on this subject are broadcast on national TV and radio channels.Guard Commands. security. One of the association's most recent decisions is the campaign. they should not be targeted or destroyed during war. nor should cities rich in cultural heritage become battle grounds. first aid Lectures on the preservation of cultural heritage are given in schools. primary schools and the public. !t has organised lectures and exhibitions on the preservation of historical cities. fire fighting. the European Union. The Turkish Embassy in . «2003 . These studies were sped up because of the possibility of war in Iraq. * * Ministry of Culture staff is trained in civil defence. select cultural property eligible for international special prevention status. and rescue. the Ministry of Forests and the Ministry of Culture to help preserve Turkey's cultural heritage. This non-governmental organization was established in 2000 with the support of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. For that reason. It has become a suitable platform to bring together Turkey's mayors and develop a common stance on cultural property. In accordance with the Hague Convention of 1954.

647 696 1. In reality. Plate 1 Plate 1: Registered immovable cultural property and natural heritage sites in Turkey.419 Industrial and Commercial Constructions . it is not possible to meet all the requirements to protect cultural property in the event of armed conflict.170 Cultural Constructions 4. Furthermore.010 Religious Constructions 5. the Turkish Ministry of Culture has also called on the General Director of UNESCO for help in meeting the necessary protection requirements.Washington has requested protection for cultural property in the region. List 1 Registered Sites Type of Sites Natural Sites Urban Sites Historical Sites Other Sites Total 6.996 Administrative Constructions Military Constructions Cemeteries Martyrdom184 Monuments and Memorials Natural heritage 2.381 Number 4.500 Ruins 866 253 1. The only way we can safeguard our cultural heritage is to stamp out war completely.920 787 182 121 371 Archaeological Sites Registered immovable cultural property and natural heritage sites outside the province of Ystanbul Type of immovable Number Examples of Residential Architecture 24.604 1.

Cultural heritage inscribed in the world heritage list in Turkey Name 1) Goreme National Park and the Sites of Cappadocia 1985 1985 2) Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi 3) Historic Areas of Ystanbul 1985 4) Hattusha (BoSazkoy) 5) Nemrut Mountain 7) City of Safranbolu 1987 1988 1994 6) Hierapolis-Pamukkate 1986 Year of Inscription 8) Archaeological Site of Troy 1998 Plate 3: List 3. Tentative list of properties which Turkey nominating for the world heritage list A) Prehistoric period 1) Karain-a Paleolithic cave 2) Catalhoyuk-a Neolithic settlement B) Historic period 4) Kultepe (kanesh)-a trade colony where the first written documents of Assyrian cuneiform tablets were found. a) Phrygian civilization 5) Gordion capital of the Phrygian Kingdom and Phrygian Tumulus .Streets under preservation Total 43. Registered immovable cultural and natural heritage in the province of Istanbul 19.512 (as of end of 2001)* Work in progress for the province of Istanbul.379 34 Registered immovable cultural property and natural heritage sites around Turkey. PIate 2. List 2.

cut tombs in Myra-Limyra e) Greek and Roman civilization 10) Ephesos/Selcuk. Maitab. a Hellenistic settlement. an Ionian capital 11) Apollo Tempie at Didyma 12) Haiikarnassos 13) Assos-Hellenistic city wails 14) Priene. Aresastis etc. Asian Kaya. built on a terrace system 16) Aspendos theater and the Roman Aqueduct f) Byzantine civilization 17) Sumela Monastery 18) Alahan Monastery and University complex 19) Church of St.6) Phrygian rock-cut monuments {Kyrka. built on Hippodamos plan 15) Pergamos. Yakyk Asian Tab. Nycoiaos in Demre (Myra) g) Umayyad period 20) Harran University complex and typical Umayyad civic buildings h) State-ruled regions and Seljukian civilizations 21) Monumental tomb stones yn Ahlat 22) Diyarbakyr city walls 23) Caravan routes and Sultan Han Caravansarai in Aksaray 24) Konya-Seljukian capital 25) The fortress of Alanya and the dockyards .) b) Urartian civilization 7) The oid city of Van and Lake Van-aamran canal c) Lydian civilization 8) Sardis capital of Lydian Kingdom and the TumuSus at Fin Tepe d) Lycian civilization 9) Lycian rock. Hellenistic settlement.

weitere 30 Objekte fur einen spate-ren Einbezug vorgeschlagen (vgi. Auch der Ausbildung des Fachpersonals. 3. hat das Zweite Protokoll aber nicht un-terzeichnet.: * * * im Protokoll vorgesehene Regeln und Bestimmungen wur-den in der Bei den militarischen Bestimmungen vertritt die Turkei zum Teil eine kontroverse Eine positive Wirkung der Markierung von Kulturgutern im Kriegsfall wird. der Information und Sensibilisierung Zusammen- der Bevoikerung sowie dem Einbezug derThematik in den Schulen wird Rechnung getragen. auch von Signatarstaaten. vor Vergangenheit mehrfach missachtet. S. bezweifeit. aufgenommmen. S. allem auch auf Grund der Erfahrungen im ehemaiigen Jugoslawien. * * Evakuationspiane fiir mobile Kulturguter wurden fur den Kriegsfail vorbereitet. weil sie Vorbehalte zu einigen Punkten hatte. Meinung.26) The old city of Mardin i) Ottoman civilization 27) Bursa. 243). 244/245). z.B. the first capital of Ottomans with monuments and old districts 28) Ottoman monuments in Edirne the second capital of Ottoman Empire 29) The complex of Ishakpasha in Dogu Beyazit 30) Kula-a typical town near Manisa Die Bedutfnisse der Turkei bezuglich Haager Konvention fassung Die Turkei hat an der Diplomatischen Konferenz 1999 in Den Haag Teil genommen. Tabelien 2. Ta-belle 1. Bei der Finanzierung soicher Massnahmen stosst die Turkei mit ihrer Fulle an . Dafur ergreift die Turkei im Sinne der Haager Konvention an-dere Massnahmen zum Schutz von Kulturgutern: * * Unter Leitung des Kulturministeriums wird zur Zeit ein Inventar der Kulturguter in Acht Objekte wurden in die Lisle des UNESCO Weltkultur-erbes der Turkei fertiggestelit {vgl.

um Kulturguter zu schutzen. Der beste Weg. dass gar keine Kriege entstehen wur¬den. so dass internationale Unlerstutzung benotsgt wird. insbesondere in Krisenzeiten wie kurz-lich im Srak-Krieg. Auch die Zusam-menarbeit und der Informationsaustausch auf internationaler Ebene sind bedeutend. Die Stadt Safmnbolu -UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe (Foto: Aysun Ozkose).Kulturgutern jedoch an Grenzen. . ware allerdings jener.