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HEIDEGGER'S

READING OF ARISTOTLE:

PRAXIS

AND THE ONTOLOGY OF MOVEMENT

David

Andrew

Noel

Webb

Submitted

for

the

degree

of

PhD in

Philosophy

to

The at

Department the University

of

Philosophy of Warwick

Apri

1 1993

I

would

like and of

to

thank

Prof. he

David gave

Wood in

for

all

the the

assistance preparation

encouragement this thesis.

supervising

Zqjý

Trp=, c-Lxý

-coü

16-Vov

s"Xov-coc ,

ist

das

Wesen

des

Menschen.

Der

Mensch

ist hat,

das

Lebewesen,

das

gemäß

seiner

Seinsart

die

Möglichkeit

zu handeln. Die Grundbegriffe der antiken Philosophie.

Heidegger,

Wir

vermeiden

den

Terminus

'Handeln'

absichtlich. Heidegger, Sein und Zeit.

-7

Contents

Abstract

ii

Abbreviations

of

Works

Cited

M

Introduction:

Naive

Ontology

and

the

Question

of

Praxis

I

Chapter

One: Section Section Section Section Section

Praxis 1 11 111 IV V

and

the

Structure

of

Teleological

Activity

21 21 26 40 46 54

Chapter

Two: Section Section Section Section Section

Transcendence 1 11 111 IV V

and

the

Radicalization

of

Praxis

67 69 77 81 85 97

Chapter

Three: Section Section Section Section

Phronesis, of Factical 1 II Ill IV

Sophia and Existence

the

Movement 104 105 ill 137 144

Chapter

Four: Section Section Section Section

Dunamis 1 11 Ill IV

and

Ener-geia:

Having

an

End

157 158 167 185 199

Conclusion:

The Act

of

Appropriation

217

Notes

221

Bibliography

249

i

several at E). Although I first the with consideration on Heidegger's to secure an from ev6pjetcy Specifically. of constitutes a repetition is 36v(xgiq insofar it the transcendence Dasein as and of of to be constituted by 36v(xgtq. finite appropriation movement of appropriation whose end is the very the itself. enacted or accomplished comportment these of problems. ontology placed on of a Heidegger response. However. invites the that Dasein's transcendence parallel supposition may be in its in and towards the world. insofar as determination the First. By way view. the was provide of an account of in two respects. Heidegger terms Heidegger in the which couches Dasein the taken from language ontological of of are there between the practical philosophy. in productive Only which. engages activity. if in to the conception such a were secured contradistinction derived from the in Heidegger's understanding of being could. the therefore be end-in-itself must it from the dominant wrest conceptual Second.v ABSTRACT HEIDEGGER'S READING OF ARISTOTLE: 11WIS AND THE ONTOLOGY OF NOVENENT heart to perceives a naivety at the of Greek metaphysics he believes has throughout its which philosophy remained prey This history. understood be shall the second concerned remains junctures. I argue that primarily a constant Drawing he sought 3. arises a formal parallel transcendence Such a of Dasein and possible structures of activity.. the horizonal of npftiq as dogged by incoherencies arising language on the of metaphysics the influence this extent of intrinsically ill-suited to the the figure appropriation of of by an attempt to accompanied structures of production. the of essence ii . of which influence this hinges had of production finite In idea on the of appropriation as Heidegger is in the addition. experience language the renders of metaphysics Heidegger's articulation of np&ttr. As it of essence such. therefore is of an end in understood as an activity npftir. This philosophy practical and of the concept of npftiq to the basis Dasein. and recurs explicitly of reading Metaphysics ontological interpretation the xfvnaiq. work itself be firm footing. outcome of the appropriation was problematic Aristotle's own presentation is structure of teleological activity from influence the precisely exerted by the Indeed. undertook a critical appropriation of Aristotle's in particular.6v(xVtq and been displaced. such a interpretation lacks is a conception above all of human being as that distinct from the work. of nofrlatr. itself. which potentiality emphasises way each that is to the manner As an activity related of its accomplishment. in having taken the being consists understanding of to the activity Inotgaiq] appropriate and experience of production as the basis for being in What understanding general.

'Heidegger'5 Destruction of Phronesis. der antiken Grundbegriffe M Heidegger. 3: AOF 'no1qcTiq et fondamentale. radicalisation De Anima. Prologomena the Concept Die of Distinction Sophistes. M Schofield. aristoteliche Introduction traduction Praxis and ' della to Volpi. Articles dans on Aristotle de Vol. Fate L'Ethique the in die Metaphysik: Gauthier commen ta ire. &JY 'The Platon: Jolif. Vom Wesen der Heidegger. Freiheit. a Nicomaque: Between et and R Bernasconi. der Die Grundbegriffe Einsamkeit. R Sorabji. ' iii . T Engberg-Pederson. F Volpi. Von Wesen und und Theätet. zu Aristoteles.Abbreviations of Works Cited AE J Barnes. Aristotle. Wahrheit. 'Dasein Aristotle's the as praxis: of the practical Heideggerian philosophy Le radici ' An assimilation of Aristotle. GA63 HA HC HDP Heidegger and Aristotle.menschlichen Aristoteles der Kraft. terminologia di REssere e tempoD. Einführung Ontologie Volpi. Pontologie R Brague. Heidegger.. des Zeitsbegriffes: Philosophie. Poiesis. The Human Condition. Bernasconi. Endlichkeit Heidegger. Me taphysi RA EinfUhrung cs. J Taminiaux. der der of Ph&nomenologie: im Ausgang The Basic von Leibniz: Welt The History of zur Geschichte of Time. Metaphysik Zu Platons Parmenides. Wirklichkeit Logik Logic. 'L'essistenza come praxis. Heidegger. Heidegger. (Hermeneutik der Faktizität). Metaphysics. e 1-3: - Vom Wesen der. Theory of Moral Insight. - Metaphysik. AnfangsgrUnde Foundations Metaphysische The Metaphysical Heidegger. Problems of Die Grundprobleme Phenomenology. H Arendt. Aristote et ]a np&tiq ' question Particulation AQM ATM DA DAP ECP EM ENT FDP GA19 GA20 GA22 GA24 GA26 GA29/30 GA31 GA33 GA34 GA54 GA61 du monde. Höhlengleichnis Parmenides: Phänomenologische Interpretationen in die phänomenologische Forschung. Heidegger.

B. Aristotle. Physik B. by the abbreviation the in original by followed language language. their in have been original presented are I have Wherever translation. ' Technology. de 1'6tre chez Aristote. der (Diýcyig in Aristoteles in OY111 Conception of ' 'Vom Wesen und Begriff 'On the Being I ': and B l. Aristotle's Heidegger. 1v . QCT RR Sip Sz VA VWB Concerning der deutschen Selbstbehauptung of the German University. zu Aristoteles 'Phänomenologische der hermeneutischen The Question 'Die Interpretationen Situation). a the translated have I the in of cases remainder and myself. text and the translation All quotations by followed translations. References indicating two numbers. Heidegger. P Aubenque. Heidegger. passages text are given the numbers page respectively. 'La Lettura de heideggeriana 1 'ontologie della praxis. Holzwege. Universität': ' XXVIII. Vol. Nicomachean Le probl&me Ethics. . und Zeit: and Vorträge und Aufsätze. 'The Self The Southern Supplement. Aristotle. (Anzeige Heidegger. VWG Wm in the N. Heidegger-. existing used possible. G Nicolaci Taminiaux.W w HW LHP LOF Heidegger. Heidegger. ' Physics 'Vom Wesen Wegmarken. ' Essais sur Lectures fondamentale: Met NE PEA PIA Me t aphys ics. Heidegger. affirmation Journal Sein of Philosophy Being (1989) Time. Heidegger. Heidegger. des Grundes.

to once Heidegger one described supposed. what it naivety radicality to say will repercussions. poses Heidegger all them.low Introduction NAIVE ONTOLOGY AND THE QUESTION OF PRAXIS We not only wish Greeks better themselves. ' he in the consideration of his philosophy between was. as genuine naivety a thinker questions may be "bereft harbour said to of naivety. philosophy simply for a 1 . naivety Descartes. had already in uninterrogated. a challenge consist "2 as the who in withholding recognize oneself. cogito the simply oneself that precisely a matter such from evasion insofar of such has as a challenge. not wider question the left passing question reiterating long time. and connection Descartes that Heidegger's dominated view. even to forgets loses it is have of the one question. with very over of a When a basis the being. curtailing the for of scope example. neglected means to supplement 'I am. occurred. is beyond or One in a failure oneself. posed. his own existence However. For such and self-understanding. However. to but than the must understand they understand Heideggerl Blanchot If.

by of a 3 the expressed of this several basic corresponding a thing is aspect to how experience which on basis reference already its of framed concept existence. des an interpretation comportment. to as given in or on concepts terms such. EGA24 of an and the a working. 871. the any medieval further terms in and human thought However. on understood effecting an that acting the actualitas. " createdness. of beings auf das are an outgrowth to productive regard with Yet is also clear that explicit. interpretation investigation concepts. has and Heidegger uncritically as was it was considers bound formulated in the the by in philosophy essence remained distinction philosophy each of was was existence Essence different A clue as of medieval ways. that is. covered metaphysical since all was Moreover. primarily effectively alley. experience itself part EGA24 9§10-111. course the the understood agent character in its sent halting responsible of a whereupon as to God lie origin and existence essence. condition such its of finite the context medieval as the for thing. medieval For philosophy within was of the was unable to of make this interpretation philosophy.In extent the The to Basic which Problems modern between of Phenomenology. experience "blind of source sacrosanct of metaphysical language things As a result. the was was appeal into into identified understood to a divine a a series the over. back to operating the of part 122-123: indefinite existence This subject suggests essence einer sind herstellende Interpretation Verhalten from Seienden mit Rücksicht 1051 IGA24 147: entwachsen. were 2 . existence ens creatum.

the reveal of leads medieval an and Heidegger traditional the source being him back proposes content experiences arose. such an formalisations the work and 5 In thus experience igLy. itself conceives in its the and the shown the to have image evolved of what 6 The of from has yet the to way be of the sense work overstated: thing and completed basic of form. manner very apprehension. thesis could animals questioned follows inanimate in medieval the belief things never given explicitly that it philosophy. all the in inspiration. constitutive one made this looks or can of towards regards hardly of to are 7 Oewpi(x the the be a is end. are unoxcigevov. to the drew This Greeks its the they of Aop(pý. discrimination This nor God. ol)CTi(x addition. concepts its importance metaphysics. their made. the concepts of essence to was it be. and human existence beings. shown kind production Url. concepts are of 4 Here. in a creator from Without form ontology from of the constraints of analysis pared initial scholastic in back which to theology. to of have sight a of genealogical is gradually our of the the terms which determinations of ontology" which offers "destruction and to history from Heidegger and philosophy of terms the EiSor.PýF to were have been created to by apply God. understood and without alike. essence interpretation all the of the way existence. the determination attributed itself production. and of arose handling optaji6q.. basis in -yiEvoq experience. as which expressed. of by metaphysical the being all structure informed thinking of fundamentally experience 3 .

über Dasein das dieses Zurückblicken eine auf notwendige als Verhaltungen Auffassung Daseins des nicht und seiner vulgäre Alltäglichkeit hinauskommt diese zur und somit sie . das ist sondern reflektiert ausgeschlossen -. of However. )" of Dasein to warns reflective absence no always beings reflection and with votc. nicht überhaupt das Dasein nicht zurückblickt. beyond the reference declared comportment the question. and then.nicht Die Ontologie überhaupt nicht ist 4 . of insofern dann sie als naiv. forms the concepts habitually account being5. in is which by be will made be of accessible able essence that to Taking of the up this establish and existence extent are by ' At domain for will it be are of concepts obvious nature foundation used applicable. necessarily respect X6yor. the work means to the language to limits for inspired 'worker. insofar by having ontology to conceive Dasein to scope the their EGA24 may being regard (TuXý.If the conception artifice. Even these ancient questions ontology in it too on own the is is left a the matter unexplored way EGA24 as it and did not It engage in address seems. be implicit. will one the no it of a finite being that the is linked to and human basis rather of than such a divine fOllOW5 necessity to questioning. in an systematic was the naive source 155: 1101. an explicitly whatsoever. of all appropriate precisely thought or indeed and to the issue. Nonetheless. the perspective possibility. Daseins überhaupt des eigens gehört . the contrary.weil Die betont. explicit region supposing means naive seeks to the that of that reflection its that there inasmuch of its conceptuality Heidegger (self-) On reflective a specific against moment even as "it experience. did not therefore. auf insofern. 155: 1101.

the ontology basic that is. the on in is For the understanding as will of And this of is insofar only uncritically itself in as will. because it does not look back naive. also remain naivety. The he being not Dasein making as long conceived. Reflection here expressly emphasize remains the rut knowledge. Greek under productive comportment Welche Funktion hat das herstellendEs muß gefragt werden: des Sinne innerhalb Verhalten im weitesten gebrauchende ist darauf Daseins Die Antwort möglich. and of producing itself? Dasein the have in the broadest within sense using the the if The is of constitution answer possible only in its to light being brought Dasein's is first general is Dasein features. " ontological and the the a partial "rut. Aristotle describes 5 . ans IGA24 165: 1171 ist. if made of 8 secure. Dasein. Heidegger for in found the the basis for the ontology where of Dasein he was looking five Micomachean Ethics. blind spot virtues incomplete to by remove placing as Heidegger at of the Dasein therefore ontology scrutiny. Ontology is verbleibt IGA24 in den 156: 1101 Bahnen der vorphilosophischen then. wenn nur selbst? den in des überhaupt Daseins die Seinsverfassung zuvor des Ontologie die d. is set very experience basis.Reflexion Erkenntnis. perceives all inadequately Dasein is the engages allowed the knowledge experience to the in question of of but making. this be enquiry ill-founded. not to the Dasein. h. because it does no reflecting at all not at this is but because this looking all excluded necessary back toward the Dasein does beyond not get a common the Dasein conception of and its comportments and thus because they belong to the Dasein's general everydayness does not them. Grundzügen Licht gestellt. is to of sees heart itself of it. Daseins gesichert does the action What function We must ask. within of pre-philosophical The being pre-philosophical derived from applied be which reflection for task.

such which a determination as Heidegger's thinking. dependent is an of end indeed Moreover. to placed demonstrate question. productive certainly presented not a way account comportment thematised as a form explicitly as whose of upon. into then. of However. early Aristotle it lecture is for only courses Heidegger with in the the has been well known of for a of publication last ten the or many Heidegger's tha ta between more them twelve years considered has begun to understanding emerge. * The long importance time. of instead otherwise of Dasein this others. 11139bl5-161. limits.1 np&ýic. i.distinct beings ways are in which in the the and soul attains truth. itself. ways in which them are disclosed In relief we is. in itself. It is of probably Auseinandersetzung Franco Volpi who has 6 . production seems over of taken the experience offering itself concern of exerted conception seeks the to a determination than thesis np&tiq in terms will enters be Dasein over manner articulate The central work. to & V1. e. basis by. 1. denoting as a to the comportment of the alongside human life. emerges it determination the hold of that being. governed in that form addition np&ýi4.. thrown Here. activity a specific fundamental challenge Greek that from in it incapable securing and [Ch. that is. in of to such activity be is are if through of this Dasein's account. that an comportment Oewpia exist in in its and towards noirjcri(. Accordingly. For is Troiqcyi(. end lies beyond its own shown by Aristotle Rather. light as possibilities with alongside which others.

the conception as Heidegger determination the direct elaborates presentation translations the high assimilated of human structure fundamental account a series Aristotle in unequivocal doubt in is that the his of of existence of Dasein ontological correspondences np&tlq of may profile of 12 Whilst Dasein and in between those Being be to which adopts such is no Heidegger and hard Time. book that work) from senses of 9 Heidegger deals with e Aristotele the account with Marburg essay since presence of my knowledge Aristotle reading work to the on the expressly is his being offered addition. np&ýiq into on to in as his detail appropriation he a own shows how Aristotelian philosophy. broad of and a Heidegger's of Aristotle comprehensive earliest through in his Volpi finely encounter the Heidegger's Brentano's years on manifold of interpretation (written of papers in q6atq In a final has Aristotle a series 1939). into points For that the Heidegger's it lain from the case dormant interpretation that in his problematic.done His more book. 11 Although to defend. further most build Volpi's achievement concentrating appears interpretation text. than anyone to document Heidegger's (to of reading the in of only Aristotle. there sometimes accorded Heidegger's we proximity Aristotle's interpretation indebted to Aristotle by practical of to is Volpi philosophy Dasein for the development justified. problems nature of own stirs but the Aristotle's discourse translation Aristotle's Heidegger's 7 . developing published account of argued practical Heidegger's 10 of a whole and the which goes terms In critical particular. which to wholly to wish those remain extent we may on Heidegger's upon at not had which only hitherto is understood.

1. prefigurazione IECP 2381 sia. ogn-z 6 considerato e difettivo ormai come derivato metafisica. of practical excessively and he the adds. well-defined eschews such anthropological frame. emerge into of are from the this. phenomenology there practical trappings. Heidegger tradizione in vigore nella sostegno sostanziale. in the metaphysical support point of every substantial to be derivative is now considered tradition and defective is that to that and upRiq activity originary with respect [being-there]. of such practical a change? This philosophy translation to that is of involved Volpi philosophy theoretical describes as Heidegger's stemming bias of of Husserl to free from modern in a interest desire philosophy to in Aristotle's counter in the the general same time. Dasein the being is of of which constitutive independently from itself. e che originario che a quell rispetto deve dell'esserci. generates from What is the profound register in difficulties. ]a 6 'agire irp&tic. be the latter of understood must whatsoever. activity? by difficulties created Heidegger's own recognition 8 . fundamental their theme. What consequences register have for does for the of ontological 2. Aristotle's metaphysical support: was particular.itself essentially ontology. Vessere essere quest'ultimo constituisce di di fuori da ogni a] se stesso. compreso a partire tipo di essa qualsiasi e predeterminazione. and predetermination any prefigurement Two the fundamental translation problems of np&tir. What Heidegger's articulation understanding of np&ti(. was 13 At a need the from intuitions Aristotelian philosophy Expanding conception and on of "metaphysico-anthropological" Volpi articulated notes in a that whereas this np&t-L(.

15 And is a these necessary are the one. take up np&ýiq or set designates will. times at when times it seems hard to Heidegger's ontological discourse political discourse Heidegger's ontology seems action. between language of the remains the its a point uncertainty the Heidegger's distinction existentiell between determination of Da5ein possibilities sustain. 14 At thesis the as np&kir. on the the basis conceptuality for a survey understood on the matter. Bernasconi the way of appropriation have to written Volpi Nicolaci. in this has been perceptively Jacques same time. addition and Giuseppe taken Taminiaux. it how of but is Dasein activity in ontological aside of what acquires no longer is. behind thinking and closest I say its at to 'closest' own this that forgetting in of time. found itself order naivety. but of the Dasein: or a matter parallel language thought.the determinative These Heidegger's those in who influence questions of will production serve of most himself. and A status of of is of a fundamental what thereby being For Dasein created that whilst and determination can do. there its in to For a programme Heidegger's deeply of not protect fixed alignment in veil in is an between Heidegger's activity expression engagement with National SocialiSM. I shall their Robert situate respective approach vis-A-vis readings. As no a result longer at of its translation a possibility the into the that ontological Dasein can register. 16 9 . of of by metaphysics? the some namely.

Aristotelian recently. that and of he the goes More taken Taminiaux. it from is that his to understanding Aristotle. as 10 . He argues Heidegger's inauthenticity Aristotelian on to suggest from distinction I Uneigen distinction that its that tIi between chkei tI authenticity represents [Eigentlichkeitl a recovery However. characteristic is. 1861. my view. Dasein ambiguity ILOF of bias to 174. Moreover. the Plo4. outweighed.182.Volpi himself does ontological further not pursue reading than noting As the of issue of the and relation his to "a between political kind saw of in Heidegger's interventions heroic Heidegger's conception this critique npat-tq contribution recalls. its he solipsism" IECP 2391. and Platonic work however. good is belongs identified. uproots and np&tiq pluralism. Ocopecixoq. Ultimately. of Hannah of Arendt the interpretation of an has essentially been np&4iq public up by an inversion form Jacques of activity. from regards if not In the dimension dimension Heidegger's by politics He thereby recovery a Platonic simply and Aristotle in favour oppose as of the - counterbalanced. to Plato of Heidegger's such a gesture text rarely public conception oversimplify to Aristotle Yet the assumes can so or be Heidegger's is a of by thinker the well-defined. to of to Aristotelian within For in elements to one that easily another what bad respectively the or identity the its loss matter. between Heidegger's np&ýiq account and nolqcriqof authentic of of Sot(x. political of activity of the interpret as the overtly dimension is term to np&tiq eclipse a Platonic Heidegger's reading of suppress may proceed we shall possibility directly see.

of as the by interpreted concepts prefigurement explicitly "must be and terms understood predetermination has one from independently Insofar determined required Yet to language the of metaphysics of np&tiq language possibility making. For acquired in changes the very newly be conceived production determination itself - must an of recovered terms precisely experience whose np&tiq inappropriate insofar as production delimited 11 . be is clearly forced terms from are rendered upon in the which more it it complex by is its to of to the is by this. of and inscribed contingent metaphysics 17 The a merely into the feature of translation np&ýi4. been is of experience Dasein and as little does of to not this the the understand precisely there np&tiq independently of metaphysics of to the framing idiom all experience. radical leads implications him to is not metaphysical lamented of language by Arendt suggest a fate of very and Taminiaux itself. of a of to of interpretation We owe our whose genealogy eclipse in the revert predicament production. origin modernity. been thus insofar seems that determined. ontological addition ontological themselves experience Dasein as to register the role. Lq. whatsoever. fundamentally therefore this has fresh " philosophy Greek ontology addition. Tip&ý. Bernasconi. the concept of Trp&tiq undergoes We have already from In not but. as seen the that register if the this of passage practical of takes the form to is in of that to a of be of translation ontology. Heidegger's that the understanding above sensitivity of np&tir. dispelled.underestimate on its passage the into transformation Heidegger's that text. only Volpi must put naivety be both any Dasein it. themselves.

from that as 1928 as to delineates that in a response which rightly of the Heidegger's first of articulated. and As realized inevitably predicament. wi II such a the the a suggest response develop interpretation noiqcTiq common such an idea of must indifferent precisely out.by a is np&ýiq. activity the be impasse caught. He goes sought to as the it lies into reinstate writes of 'Building. work noigaiq later Bernasconi subsequent Yet if. at least Heidegger in the announced guise of radicalization thinking 12 . Humanism' and a commemoration texts. he points root.. the falling of avoid insofar difficulty back course this. Heidegger in which . distinction represented in sustaining between their np&tic. interpretation of np&tir continue His the activity to to reading 'Letter of without that nolqcytc. and Heidegger's shows irp&tiq. Heidegger By moving from problem insists. elements of to be concerned his to to of will to the over account public pluralistic to the the np&ýiq.. even at of predicament of ontology light kind by of in Heidegger's response its earlier history A straightforward the the ontological very problem recovery level one sought np&ýiq inevitably remedy. brought and sufficiently destruction for which form - responsive of it calls.. distinction" Dwelling. therefore. think of on would To "in generalized the modern subordination one Bernasconi. np&tiq Bernasconi the hegemony recovered we as know early noinuiq altered. engaged directly a period itself any be in to in was conception radically remembrance EFDP Thinking' just these such 1301. loss not of Whilst the Taminiaux and is right. precipitate a repetition Bernasconi any on to to 'recovery' presents of that. an Heidegger np&ýic in as as having such to will this of .

For differs focal in a to for what sight np&tiq is from point the problem. end. For is and Epp. form on To expand the issue earlier. to interpretation theme throughout as a recurrent the Giuseppe analy5es Nicolaci of has written one of the of most np&ýiq acute to and have stimulating appeared to Heidegger's appropriation date. recovery ontology. from its are attempt context amenable of theoretical theory. Aristotle's discourse out 13 . problem there the and (no representation. 81-861. definition no noincytq. 18 He too is aware of of the danger but the faces of np&ýiq . stage was already In the present work study. upon of within already however. 1-21. form of activity the a act a noetic of sight moment involved therefore In spite inseparable does not from acquire the and [Ch. being eclipsed Bernasconi by in the the is conceptual way he structures frames the and by offers upon the aporia np&ti(. Aristotle in the not such of his account to present primarily (ppovrlcriq they notrjaiq touched the whilst blind). of a recovery Furthermore. that project was the will contemporaneous relevance emerge of with Heidegger's the project of of fundamental Trp&ttq work. with the as I shall aim such this of Heidegger's underway.111.transcendence concentrate showing that of on a Dasein earlier Ipp. purely theoretical of itself np&tiq trying of acknowledging ethical conformity finds and its to set however. reasons was said The we treatise language have when of resistance. turns is kind situation.. 3.

brings np&kiq between it could to actually present us comes such take to to Dasein imrnanent the not Such by of on Nicolaci Although and By movement itself. interest Aristotle's Indeed. the np&ýic that an idea which link form Heidegger is. gives the line an abstract reproduction of of of from (Ppovn<yl q the and regards np&kiq the immanent by which it of to movement comes ]a route it way. contrast. the and the conditions of stages along by which it in this reaches such a conformity.struttura &pc-cý. directed Heidegger's towards early securing essays an on the hermeneutics of the of facticity are movement account fundamental 14 . conformi cosi. the the structure &pzTý. movement We know that from Physics at as was least the above as early as text 1921 of Heidegger regarded and 19 Aristotle's that his fundamental all in Western account philosophy of movement. in sought it what as the recovery to itself. 250). the such question a Heidegger's feature discourse prominently sought in the understand work. how with expose or calls he site the notes he does to the this of interpret proposed interior Heidegger ILHP of world. importance elaborate of how will the the a movement Ep. esso riproduce as tra t tamen te I 'i t inerario di della svillupo ]a Tp6vgcriq dalla e guarda np&ýiq del prospettiva immanente il movimento per quale es5a ILHP 2471 perviene a se stessa. was one It is who knew that. The pressure calls np&tiq of my those view to represent the space" in unrepresentable Aristotle's prises discourse He adds this that space - open the what space Nicolaci in which a "virtual is thematically best line to space articulated. to present X6voq. development perspective itself. e le della i momenti condizioni del percorso il attraverso tale quale si raggiunge una t6. 631.

practical in an order of 20 t] of Dasein's of question of factical Aristotle's could only life. a reading. conception independent simply at switch experience altogether.CGrundbewegthei ontological form np&ýiq. which of of belongs Aristotelian movement. reading a way as provides to movement understanding of Heidegger Dasein the basis the as np&ýiq. The cannot &6vo%iq account of for be and understood ývtpVeia in in isolation from Physics in in his and this such Aristotle's develops Metaphysics. Heidegger'5 appropriation of Aristotle's practical reading of philosophy xivqcriq. by which Heidegger Dasein comes interpretation than movement otherwise progression towards an external end. movement production this is committed formalization vocabulary a framing of the conception experience 21 Of entirely could arriving underlies proceed of metaphysics. shake off movement a sense that clearly production. whereupon dominance the linear for of Such the cannot of Dasein must to from that to determination as np&tiq reach itself an the of as a production. Given this exigency. this of of proceed Heidegger precedes issues say experience to production. that that not of to the interpretation from is the in that the such of Dasein adequate of required. of a matter implicitly a determination the experience experience. the sense production. it is ground of of Rather. from its displace experience production previously 15 . need as if be one of course. to it scene Heidegger's shifts to appropriation the problem of is On philosophy for the form of the thereby of But movement characteristic to what np&tiq provide cannot then. practical be that Given Heidegger's the to interpretation movement The in philosophy.

of -np&tiq.unassailable recovery position this of with recovery that virtue form of and is position. One deals beginning with with in the place an of np&tir. np&tiq respect issues distinct wholly of that to in Accordingly. will Sbv(xgiq. the activity However. regarding question relation between 16 . shown. seen of the be a gains designation made. Dasein's of as by the production as it not being movement insofar denotes * In this study. to in in then of ' outline teleological cohesion np6(. Chapter Ethics. of np&ýiq his of own work. be seen ýviEpyci(x. a . undertake existence interpretation the but as conceptuality simply such. existence into Heidegger account As the its reading of sets hitherto I in train subordinate shows.. takes noi9cric an from other. activity and the this in the spite the "ep-yov is Micomachean implicit The sense is question argument. of I shall present Heidegger's enters the problems inheritance inherent of and in these the and to Aristotle's problems response as he The in a formulation the conception via np&tiq. of in the Aristotle's problems (1). understanding which the final in of final of np&ý'Lq end the being end light a framework on human bestows of the considered the that unity the Fv relation via Having must take as raised the such earlier form (IV). consist determination of finite np&tiq appropriation. launches resulting movement his interpretation of xivqcriq..

activity difficulty and the final from the end fact remains that unresolved the relation M. np&Ztq. of Citic. as a equipmentality Heidegger incoherencies Moreover. cýl 17 . Heidegger unity being to seek and of to develop as by radicalizing to this the human is seen of as o'petiq activity are In understood Aristotle. an Being adopts that Heidegger'5 is a of this dog distinction. activity the and stems the the idiom. between At bottom. shown and the to Aristotelian underlie Time is (11). too np&tiq preliminary appears and consideration. constitute unity I (YpXý depend on the conception M. As where of a it (1). np&ý. final figure end of is dominated is by the language translated of production. pursue the of the first np&tiq the he of itp&ýiq constitution Aristotle of world concern transcendental Logic. to Heidegger'5 appropriation di5creet advertise between itself nolqcriq so and and directly. totality Foundations transcendence will vol3r. the articulation with problem. seen in the But to distinction analysis insofar inherit of as the (111). q world in is Thus. such.. np&tiq necessarily inappropriate Chapter with Two marking is concerned out it is as the with direction Heidegger's it the will term appropriation take. and we Turning connection indication to The Metaphysical np&ýiq and between of how encounter a reading they (IV). into an As such. as a dispositional relation to virtue [03(pc. may be argued a that as read formal-ontological of np&tiq i5 designation often However.

opens Heidegger'5 conception linked ontology better production. Guapi(x and marked Aristotelian required in the work 66votgiq to conception make this of A (111) essentially by and radicalization radicalization experience of account such connection ýVIýPJCI(x conception (IV). seen to be np&tiq passing noting a Platonic access from primarily fundamentally there the cyo(pi(y is as cro(pi(x inseparable is also a Dasein's connection of divine existence between being s np&tiq. of the only is towards being fundamental pursuing this in understanding states Physics. the relation of from (1). destruction it directed of the Before a more conception showing of that the this history securing is of a of for any of Moreover.Chapter Heidegger's interpretation Three takes of a step movement It to one and to side place with in it a order in look to relation at introduce to his reading of Dasein. achieving further. and if informed consideration the the of preliminary reveals to achieve Aristotle's avoiding ývtpVci(x one is importance a radicalization 18 . At this of stage. facticity an apprai5al approaching Ethics in terms of Nicomachean and above cyogia relative importance (pp6vrlcriq Heidegger's undermines towards Good via reading his Octapi(x (11). and the a the of of However. by by the charge on that that Heidegger bias to the appropriation is rebutted. for the terms text clue Heidegger is Aristotle's is that ground between prepared and thorough of appreciation movement Heidegger np&ýiq will develop in This his is of the interpretation achieved the by of Aristotle's the VI of Physics hermeneutics entails and and of all in Metaphysics. grasp but this the a very hermeneutics early on not Greek to of the facticity.

8. in terms 5ý6v(xg-tc. theory of it A approach reading missing of to inform followed the this. on rooted Heidegger the experience the possibility xivqcrtq of arising 8 lbv(xg Iq which both the the the and the philosophical interpretation anthropology of establishment in fI awed philosophy. seen to Four 0 turns (1-3) to and Heidegger's traces to his 1931 lectures on of E) as Aristotle's Slbv(xgir. preceding essence 19 . as the of which that the &6vo(giq (III). the actual focusses on an SibvoqLiq account depends of the individual's of HvaViq having potentiality. cv6pyci(x from displacing from and Moreover. and and the and Heidegger's of 8-6v%Lic Met.a an satisfactory interpretation in the opens interpretation of Sbvcxgtq of of and movement. a coherence consideration causality ýviý-pyciu is of With more of of interpretation established terms of allowing movement reading . in turn comes losswhich terms 10'petiq]. essence the thematic development the thesis begins of reading potentiality to the to wheel a of back to of deals the end of the Chapter verb gcT& The Two for X61ou and the ' importance Heidegger's form the is soul and in of cognate Met.3 appropriation on the way Finally. eviýPICI(x Chapter Metaphysics ývitp-yci(x. be understood Heidegger's existence The itself reading of a dynamic of Met. with 'have. a whole customary an in of of of interpretation Metaphysics from the the by Ross's danger account and is Heidegger's confer upon (1).2 'C'-Xclv. 0. G. l appropriation determination loss (11). follows of understood to of having [S'Xc-Lvl. that remains by insisting fundamentally terms ontology of scholastic arise. of desire It play specific end is in described terms as to human in being relation X6yoq.

as this the goes is on itself to interpret understood movement to be that appropriation. of the existence (IV). In of and Heidegger where way.in terms of 'C'Xc-Lv is Cvitp-Vci(x in terms thereby as of the carried being of forward movement. this fundamental is seen characteristic of finite Dasein npRiq appropriation 20 .

they very chapter Having first announced lines of the the teleological text. 'that as at which all This opening gives form and direction to the whole of Aristotle's text. Indeed.Chapter One PRAXIS AND THE STRUCTURE OF TELEOLOGICAL ACTIVITY I Aristotle's activity Micomachean within what Ethics to begins be a plainly with the inscription of framework: human seems teleological Every investigation. there [every they and others is action results some difference between and pursuit] from distinct ends some are aim: the activities. Moreover. ' [1094al-311 and similarly every Hence aim at some good. place Yet. the framework of teleology the it sets in and entirely satisfactory. at which activities however. of Book 1. the Good has been defined rightly things aim. art and every is considered to action and pursuit. the 21 . is as never we shal I see. Aristotle form of human activity adds the in the very immediately following qualification: Clearly. limitations problems to to such be to an which extent it is that subject it would are be woven into the fabric were in the of they the text unrecognizable are assembled somehow first eradicated.

Where there are ends are by nature superior distinct to the from the activities. the be this that it is must ineffectual) clear 11094al9-231 it is the supreme good. have It is often of said a that 5ingle this end. of . presented proximity passage thematic between feature of between and that specific teleology between and the form second the announced the figure two of the first the is a emphasises uneasy inter-relation teleology Aristotle's motifs: np&tir alliance recurrent account. If.. this the np&ýiq in [doing] Book VI so of treatise that 11140alffl. is for a poorly it seems constructed that Aristotle argument proceeds for the from existence the point (in the second part of the protasis) that any chain of 22 . early the is not The testifies formulated fact to of that its explicitly Aristotle importance activity the in set textual the anticipates not out only in for Book distinction determination but for the of the on structure as a wholeof np&tiq in human Moreover. the for do of if sake everything choose not we ends infinite involve this (for an will else something be 15petiv] that and pointless will our aim so progression. until activity. [1094a5-71 results A distinction activities Although one can is whose Aristotle already made ends between are activities from whose the ends activities two are external themselves. that Good. to all Aristotle activity: returns to the necessity be a single for its we want which some end our activities the for the other all we want sake of which and own sake. then. the actions. In the first that paragraph there of Chapter end Two. and inseparable from the refrains recognize naming distinction these kinds between I notrIcric [making] much and later.

a55UMing the determinate reproduced in agreement of its is.choice protasis) However. If chains choices to of are identify this choice to be the not each rational. so in same determinacy In this He respect. being this is itself is to the as and out the ] . supposed depends point or the a determinate masks the true conclusion. end. understood mistaken spell must stop that somewhere there must fallacy to be the a claim single (in end on the to first all 'single In part such end' of the chains. of the the nature my view which significance of passage. of for other further particular [ATM in itself. the clAocigovi(x. understands text. specification that are is indeterminate. in the with 'final directed. argues. and f irst part protasis. there no justification. of implicit conditions 'choice' ITEPO(Xipccrl(. 11139b5-71 that the is. at its it own must particular be possible have the threat in least In principle however. sense Engberg-Pedersen of the idea of sufficiently rational stopping place" at view. of Engberg-Pedersen's end' at this as a formal activities of make notion after It filled stage Aristotle's to be whose eventually quite detail identification to by speak. has yet A to single. reading. there longer 23 . and must still there 311. specific enough to ends head they off is that futility one arbitrariness account must be at accompanies any at particular which is an endless end is was no regression. a combination must The error of vobq be is in of and 8pekic. chosen. be chosen. indeterminate. prospect even for a why stage which In of the words. X6-yoc. "in order point to all choice required. Hpoulpcaiq. rooted must in have to I the a be am the even 2 11139a32-361.

Possibility indeterminate. character introduced sense and I of how shall of of to In the its appropriate established? to explore end and indeterminacy a to response which essaying extent this formal 24 . This may be for clarified stopping by taking any on case as the particular there have a argument chain being specific on then particular it of a step of a final end there in further: activity end. possibility as all still activity. notion necessary. of such depends which of being the a final horizonal described. if at and the the any if very end rationale particular npo(yipecriq possibility of the place must of kind for that in depends each npoalpeaiq just the is. becomes condition formally. but full also essentially with the of since The as receive am proposing as determination treats but the as by unity is go the it on final is indeterminacy more the problematic. though still inaccessible interrogation. to The final end. The fact that the distinguishes final it end from can be treated ends as (and formal defuses and the indeterminate specific objection all lead that to the 'all roads same still Aristotle's it reading every bit will I lead somewhere' However. Perhaps indeterminacy the principal is that of to the of the difficulty unity: final what end problem. that is. precise indeterminacy requirement provisional. condition activity as such. view. is the Understood for indeterminate. end the of is Engberg-Pedersen theory. the possibility 3 aCtS. does the not imply sense sees as that of it they this as a place). unclear. of seeking must be an ulterior end. choices the final made.

apart Contained in this passage are the seeds of many of the most obstinate problems full and that Aristotle's of merely it would point ends in text be out presents premature that it and to at is the this far reader.. From are final this preliminary The the survey. However. of brought the the human factors emerges focus directive by understanding This that. stage from out [cf. end and determination apparently of brought the Good hierarchical different together Cory(x66v].. the final identification end 25 . sharply ends ends Aristotle's arts art5: acknowledgment to be preferred although case to are subordinate it makes no the activities [1094al6-181 difference whether themselves or ends something the are of the actions from them. ends in relations constituted Aristotle's obtaining by that the end. I. taken of by the and are linked to one end of of an can is the the however. how own obvious activities sake are themselves carried for- their- may be ordered hierarchically. a discussion I shall that Ch. activity Initially. V1. in each is a whole.foundational understanding see that the role of with human regard existence of further of the to as human such. the final nature ends for life and these that into of of the the question from totality the form question inseparable hierarchical relations will from be the different its different pursuits obtaiLng decisive account for as between the elements. first second between final of it regards that is already the of formal the totality They are as clear that two problems of the outstanding.

'good' the and final correspondence 'being. science Aristotle all being of qua to a could not responds of satisfactorily here it that would deal whilst deal is address of being regions "as thing being.II Aristotle the various the the of nature totality unity insight and word reports 'is'" senses of of both it that "the word Given those end may be 'good' this of and is used in as many senses as the that to form 11096a241. F. being. of the Some unity required traverse gives demands and Aristotle's rise. problems conflict If being of is said a single in many ways [TroXX(xX6q Wherein in of the XvV6jicvov1. qua and it perspective of a particular of not of thing is by being of a thing can go on being. " The solely thereby kind. "S treats universally change 26 . To with such the objection the a entire science with shifted to that the the that range would a single of being. its unity how can lie? The it be is the the object problem response science? poses beginning does This that comes Aristotle at the Metaphysics. ' let us between conjecture cohesion to of the the relations by the the or giving parallel underpins to therefore that this informed understood is multiplicity to which exist amongst into significations conflicting Metaphysics being. say that virtue "is none this the these in the Aristotle any of the such a science for By this as so-called of special being as sciences. where most promising that: Book he declares There is attributes [1003a2l]4 which a science belong which investigates to this in being virtue as being and the of its own nature. shift same others question from the being.

insisting are a body related etc. Steering demands allows them). an initial object indication without is of how necessarily far from compromising plurality. g. structure question Aristotle then 27 . prior alternative was senses 'clavicle' homonymy. a variety each of different as for a accidental word a xXciq course conjunction denotes between and at both the the the to by same word 'key' necessity 11129a301).. insofar diet. before that of words. linked Aristotle said of to relation 6 Applying and elements this writes: be the np6q unity Xey6lievov. in the recognized the the philosophy which describes (e. may he have provides a coherent However. may to all exercise. of must the In meaning other are an determined declaration "in virtue nature. of 'qua' to must the If be being is to be investigated anything the its own qua is being. He they case 11003a33ff being health: be called the Ev related thus another treatment. gained. that This by to the is it one what are healthy same thing without in each is thereby saying names the 'ev of exactlY npOq case. investigated attributes nature" being be added only of understanding this Different Yet to of the Aristotle distinct and usages only of the term to 'being' synonomy are manifestly by not synonymous. (which (which between may have which the of of of any synonomy homonymy relation a term to cites to medical one univocal plurality sense) of draws that different that all are senses contigency expense the a case single Aristotle of bear senses a things they attention are linked relation healthy where sense 1.perspective the science of of its the being enquiry. the indication comprehensive. being.

there affections towards qualities substance. being 'Ev structure is still and study whether otkyto( the of the shows far art a way forward. or itself. 1089a32ffl. 11003b5f] or thing Having identified substance [oj)crj(X]7 as the focal point to which all other proper senses object of of being the refer. substance. therefore Having ot)cr"t(x most identified over emerges properly three as the the object primary of the of characteristic science oi)cFi(Y. Aristotle of orders contains of priority the multiplicity within the of o'U'cri<x by dovetailing of the a series 1 npoq 11 ev general structure relation. science of Aristotle being: is confident that it is the deals that is primary. . leading to a priority 28 . then. medicine being as to Although present a single the (in of a part terms study it of a Aristotle's model for some health the over if understanding doubt to kind remains First. " 11003bl6f] But if the of of np6q. is substance [oi)cri(x1 this get names. 9 of of being being. they because are substances. being ol)cyi(x is itself of science. repeated problem regard effectively with to oi)cF! cx 1997a34ff. things qua 8 and First. and on which and in virtue of which they their If. negations of substances. and variety of being number). or productive or of things which are relative things of these or of substance is said to be. is suited multiple the unity required of is play. given basic thereby kinds actuality of priority potentiality. everywhere science chiefly with which the other things depend. it will be of substances that the philosopher the must grasp principles and the causes.in which are many senses to one starting refer all point. the unity of the science examples from of qua is secure. or of substance. but to be some things are said because they others are because they are a process others destructions or privations or a generative of to substance.

In effect. would with require particular that a comprehensive reference and.ouai(x opposed in the to sense of form. to immovable a position of being preeminence 11071bl2f]. qua object. 11026a29f] the of and Although corresponds beginning formulation. eternal. universal science philosophy. universality its most necessary forceful expression a passage from Book [oikri(x]. as it corresponds is as the said the rest to to actuality be prior as to potentiality 11049b4f]. than expect. detailed at study its each at determination stage. the establishing problem the of identifying form of the the object of of of ontology. because it in this way. part sees this of Aristotle to of the Book Where being and such r. as the receives hierarchy the one understood a science in scope This toward twist E. understood at the resemblance sciences of key to the "cut " earlier off Book a E Book investigate a delimitation precisely possible? universality. insofar and Finally. with simply this thereby leads a new narrowing is in to science being this rather might an increasingly emerging field to of of extend being. How is To respond of to the this whole question of and the adequately Metaphysics. and being. each turn. claims study it I' that of bears rejected the first being scant those attribute as the qua philosophy being so announced to which this part. to some study the ontological theological currents oppose 29 . However. If there is an immovable substance first be this be must prior and must is first. or divine actuality obaiu rises above potentiality first overall mover.

1 of universality universal? and is calls related therefore relation element remaining 30 . have complement sought by one various another means each throughout to defuse branch 10 others recalcitrant techniques dynamic commitment of the of tension of of the the the have parts work. are patently of yet of is at his the method beginning into first the fear though not of deceived 13 following two of the a path reading aside more the the by third and strategies than as the all mean are final in (which the inconsistency two one currents regards Common to r' does two even not challenge regard5 the its final own ' that is of true the of in incompatible accomplishment these the readings same as complementary ontology the view in another. expense reductive the of interpretation few in have an the biography of the and whole. 2 as which regards the a change Book introduction np6q 'Cv structure in that key how directs of the correcting provisional in the formulation sense is this of ontology from so? priority: question clarification each of The 17. the to that Book lie in eclipse. 11 a development. ) But in issue that back manner equation first np6q the is 'Ev first E. tension theory achieved of Commentators of to this opposition.1 and in to is FA the it us the precipitating to that is what to in found the is the which 'universal' necessarily and This for to in E. periods in Some have Aristotle's at eschewed to the the the the ascribed different a coherent text.believe. E. Book the 'universal E (This and 'universal' with one meanings of the incompatible reading. the surgery 12 and attempt seen to preserve theological application outlined by Leaving motivated thinking). many have Book Sv of E as inevitable to (as the conclusion ontological Aristotle his own TEp6q structure Book I' problem were choosing).

it much. 'ev Instead. priority. whose means of obviously priority. enquiry logic one range rather interpretations the quite what with these he regard formal we have is question: by mean? and I shall is understands to actuality as the 1049b4ff. Aristotle's In compatible this reading of way. of any However. (which element accepting barely be just remaining own Without could Aristotle's considered outlined what 'prior' at does at solution problem of to defines the notion rely by on formal satisfactory. relation. become worlds. ontology in into occurs this of certain be wrong the that to as the led Aristotle develops this understanding to concede however. philosophy approach conceding only point. Aristotle's enquiry probe implied its by demands np6c. than with the to is declared intends limits. and the on a In the context of the the established relation of in between analogy this Book the was E.elements. less understanding to 'reconstruct' all. the np6r. then. Above what conception priority 'Cv relation? Pierre -ap6q Aubenque 'Cv relation has as "cette grave a misgivings to " he Is the about the introduction of unity autre anything (and chose more of the hence qu'un response reponse. this sublunar could and in easily divine question indeed to already the the and theory precisely too of a expanded scholastic such begins this At sense an by address asssumes conversion basis it it is of would problem. that Yet priority. 'prior' 1018b8ff However. for determinate the first precisely elements relation is in between question. this de ]a question?: than a 31 . the shall be by not led no accounts of such. problem "est-elle response universality): nouvelle forme asks. suggest). the sense theology.

serie ses propres is not term. signify par Yet discussion of Aristotle's the is term accorded the highest Metaphysics the which it as is I case the it was other intended categories as 01ýai(x. form of perhaps this the the question? most " [PEA 1941. an ensemble to it and which immanent to the series. nest sant6. one the of categories of be said being of whose unity it is supposed same cannot health. priority form recognized have already being noted. [PEA 1951 a series. being. it is itself a category. fact distinct a category. transcendent which of its own modalities.new raises. the focal health.14 for the with to because of being. It itself one is here the series Whilst priority virtue to follow all ot)(3-io( over of the is different it that the is it from no is other less categories from If the the itself of priority insofar being case sense be qua of of as it being has by were to This Yet them. de la terme il pas ref6rence. posterior here is is. clair que est le fondement du 'sain': lui-m6me des significations lune ]a & ici transcendent que autre qui n'est serie une est [PEA 1961 de modalit6s. leave meaning 32 . of health. that where itself It is the first term of there is a prior and belongs: the foundation If oi')crio( is to itself explain. the Of the of problems the Aubenque which the to signficant of example by relation issue 'good' concerns prompted compatibility inform. excellence. not being being faithfully the categories the question example refer of which would should the a category. wide open. Elle le pr6mier terme dune dun est serie. cest-h-dire de I 'anterieur ensemble o& il ya et du posterieur et auquel le fondement ici invnanent 6 elle appartient elle-m6me: est ]a serie. that is clear foundation the 'healthy': the of of significations but is nothing to the series.

question this clarify shall question For the remainder of this reading in his of this section. the turn meaning now. in said we the concept to involve of oLcri(x.quantity.this a way is not as to what happens. at to the ask being In can a apparently through special identification 'priority' 'universality. i. I shall concentrate wherever on Heidegger's possible between reading Heidegger's problematic problem. At the beginning of Book 19. the all be to and quality said . The the doing orthodox term so which it reading confers of the unity further II npoq ev the relation multiplicity how as focuses of what whole is upon being. being e. of distinguishing and his Aristotle response to the Aristotelian own work. its is 15 Instead. of the first that I being status region being qua being other words. oiýo-i(y Yet as in a its of of on exposes of as has the problem: unify being. adequate 'category. by speaking *Cv structure. o. misapplication sanctioned np6c. conf lation strictly olkri<x of is accorded priority and in this of such is the suggest what being the 11028b4l. Aristotle writes: We the For are will the to all which and primarily have which of 6ai(x. of an an explanation understanding be both a category of being been ' One is as given bound such expense how oikr! <x can entailing response ' and it and of being without An of a reduction to is this to to must a category. referredare of categories other the that the others is in virtue of o'UCYi(y it concept of for like. as be found [1045b27-321 first work. our of part treated that is 33 ..

21 dreimal: 'k6-yo(. being is Over and above this noXX<xX&Sq in 34 . Xcy6gcvov The reference to which Aristotle refers the back to the of first remaining categories and forth takes in the logos. E. place Heidegger describes the categories as 'rooted' [beheimatet] in Xo-yor-. i) something as c& as iii) iv) accidental according as potential at)ýLPCPqx6c. EGA33 51 spielt sich ab im X6yoq. 2. Met.. he writes: Wir finden in diesem Satz 11045b27-3. [1026a33-1026b2l. whose itself articulates The has fact the that a extend heart of relation the between X6-Voq plays oL(TI(x this of the the and the fundamental matter theory in of he facilitated simplification well beyond philosophy. to be. consequences into the modern So far.In his 1931 lecture on course this on Aristotle's at some length. io(. von spricht. Xe-y6gevov. VL-yc. is faI se -cqc. attempt However. 6'ArIOiLq. writes. question categories 71. which categories. we find over: Xiý-yc. I: categories true [6'3r. In this 11045b27-321 thrice phrase X6.uxi. by which ii) Excxc& one the that includes In said the more specific Aristotle multiplicity names four Ixovc& to the and categories. which is is noXX(xX6q articulated senses in Xey6lievov. Die Hinder Ubrigen und Rdckbeziehung Kategorien die der Aristoteles auf erste.I: xacrj-yopi(xq1 I crXrIIL(xca actual its I)c(xc& several Sf)vof)iLv categorial il' F'-vtp-yF-i(xv1 significations. the Heidegger second comments sentence in passage particular.. it being bring several categorial over sense appreciate remember Heidegger's that there is complaint a further matter. EGA33 remaining role. important I have to to to referred unity only to to the the problems that attend senses this in Aristotle's of being. Metaphysics 16 Referring () to 1-3. con.

metaphysics view. Toý5 0 ihr Seiende das die Kategorien. als damit auf sich gemeint: Kategorien. multiplicity categories. of is above the sense Such as themselves category. Without of being. - Most interpretations of Aristotle treat dependent it of is the four upon the senses of being Because to unify mentioned oLaioc the wider sense. ' ist "v-cog. categories. as TcTpcxXar. that is. categorial the certainly place that all conflation reading and of the this will being kind. des 'kategorien x(x. fundamental one overlooks Aristotle as characteristic the fundamental of characteristic a this And them. modern of In commentaries. customarily prevalent of being. such delivered to structure forms of by role the Aristotelian in Heidegger's a typology an to a represented as also beings blind play impoverishment an ambiguity X6-yo4. medieval reading.wider sense. the actuality theory table of encouraged to of the possibility in of the logic culminating categories fundamental of linguistic categories. in understood). understands is named deliberately at the very 35 . (genitivus t' 'Subjek Seienden dem die angehören als keines Oder ist beides Oder von gemeint? subjectivus)? [GA33 71 Wir müssen das offenlassen.url-Vopio(1. of He regarded which to what the can virtue with regard categories be said about foundational der Kategorien. (genitivus beziehen 'Objekt' oder objectivus). sie wie Stelle ist Kategorien genannt: eigens an unserer gerade Was Seienden. beiden? Above all. back disputing he Heidegger the opposed of ol)CFic( a reading within of the a the level singular the view categories should this already reduction categories. Kant over this a reading judgements. primary of a therefore as tend understood well to as view the being. Grundcharakter Man übersieht einen vor allem der Grundcharakter Und dieser Aristoteles versteht. basing the the be is rejected to it as the senses (in such being way drawn the In primary his category opinion. and Kantian on of and. clearly oU'GI(x sympathetically..

corresponds as the of he term the double 'category' presentation the objective ontological reading reading as difference. 'to be' equivocal as passages 'O'v' a noun whilst that promote passages categories as 'objective' where functions infinitive suggest les divisions de I '6tant categories sonts moins que les lnc6cyc IqI lesquelles 1 '6 tre modalit6s selon signi fie I '6tant. (though by being (subjective both the In to his 17 Heidegger. rejects as the modalities first of on one one is alternative. the embracing of insists not their the reading of the signification hand. the In subjective ontological 36 . 'categories -coý) o'vco(. l to being modalities according which signifies beings. The question to which they how is not 'in respond ' but is the being divided?. ' it Aubenque arises where as the on he the is double not alone genitive in to is unusual two as the attributing the problem use of 'category. ' What is meant the being their as that belong categories (genitivus subjectiVU5)? them? We must leave this xcxTqVop! by this: object to Or open. that draws from attention suggesting 'O'v' of 'o'v' being: the Aristotle's is presented divisions. alongside to Heidegger's of the genitive Senitive which the other on preserving without conceding another committed reading of co-existencel8). possibilities obscurity fact. Elles En combien de ne r6pondent pas 6 ]a question: divise I '6tant? 6 cette Comment parties se mais autre: I'6tre [PEA 1841 signifie-t-il? divisions beings categories are not so much of as 1nT6acrci(. does 'how many parts rather being ' signify? the les Aubenque categories genitive). as an an ontic inasmuch use of use describes and term. the being their as subject both Or neither are meant? cxi of to or of Although amongst senses well. that categories relate (genitivus objectivus).discussion: point under beings. term a view Heidegger's readers to of emphasis Aristotle..

without oi)ai(y entailing point reference that 37 . else everything objectively of oU'aloc. reference which a thing Greeks saying Elucidating Seiendheit Heidegger's an entity is the on his repercussions approach to of the Heidegger's unity of means the of translation being. Te-Ep(xX(. neither distinguishes Understood what a thing a in strictest possible oikyioc determines is nor the it mariner names point for in that which kind a of merely thing being that is. present There those believe it with Evorhanden) exists nothing their hands. of being realm IGA26 145: 1831. Theaetetus: who are they can grasp unless does not belong in the [Vorhandense-in]. Anwesenheit. an everyday (like sense be derived property. XY at one's the are of being. sense. denote attention possessions. neglected in and his the emphasis Heidegger significance ot)alu. that it took is: as or the rather. Plato's interpretation. German the the placed of primary of to the regarded is by ontological translation of which draws term the of for modern oi)cTio( as from he this quotes categories category. 1155e4ff] As being the the primary not as any category. as if Volpi the of oU'Cri(x as that that of serve three implies character ontological has taken primary simply in the qua interpretion entity of oi)cr't(x that even the could plurality still the being as the sense of jq. 19 Heidegger ways being. and of disposal ontological 'Anwesen' understands which In support 'presentness' things extant this to pre-philosophical a passage from sense. but simply the is. ). denotes but that simply which as such.spite of his insistence on the what that he both senses as reflected Seiendheit of was be the retained. particular o1kri(y kind. fact not that things regions 1(X ox.

sense np6c the is the be the . with a single However. Aristotle to which sought each which is it of object the key to their unity referred in back. identified seems being of other categories longer be has been to it be a is take The end of is to recognized declared traduced sense by no the determination proper being Aristotle having allowed senses. of any being oL')crI(x names is a being. term? remaining senses 38 . as it to an ousiology that This oiýalcx yet being way.. i) how echoing is means form is 1. it cannot belong). to prior be of clear a sense to the two could the of which issue basic ii) how remaining priority problem Section prior this focussed leads questions: are the that which related understood?. dilemmawhose remaining he sense is of can that 'E: v structure sense then described as that qua one it faced the no a primary at stake. 1- What many conclusions senses of can being be drawn from all into this? an In order of to prevent the splintering aggregate terms related by accident primary the If unity as to into of being alone. upon is 'first' of this of which peculiar that insofar cannot seems simply a ina5much sense of primacy it confers from other universality it distinguishes as be it the is not categories: with a specific identified of a special the it in proper Book region in object to provide science. transcendent what genus on to On the to it the remaining have individual (given that senses and. focus of Described the indeed science as Aristotle presents r. if (ontology it is theology). ontology it it understood.other as senses customarily a being form of being are reduced 20 is As via the the first categories category. the ontology hand.

upon what one categories However. it is prior would temporal since ou'criof first and its sense. the the (not other In which this possesses. a series it similar each case a being it is is have determinate that it for precede forms the of form be. 'logical. of into also rival without throughout principal primacy being). at our it relation readily understood language generally one disposal. a condition Yet of beingness being but The existence articulation only three and dissemination the forms are of categories.. say the categories and oLcri(x forms is prior not of being in are any grounded.Although the each sense the most of at I have been able manner. the is have place that of logically of the by be more reference in and each subordinate the of X6-yoc . back would form as to To be sure. to do no more than raise these may not issues be a made specific to in to perfunctory the the questions. reconciled universality the original thereby being. take. naive accurate. ' which amounts to the question is of itself how each still To of open. beingness. of oU'CTI(x. head of a provisional the of in primary response term terms. ' since one its rooted to in articulated the meaning reconsider modern of this is metaphysics the very depend matter is described has emerged have it to a questionable Whatever is not reading form that which eventually by would determine. is For First. multiplicity Second. determinate and beings. 39 . necessary of simply possibility cannot specific throughout demands sacrificing sense. the question of what is meant by 'priority.

the would be emptied the good significance. idea. themselves honours). before speculating dismissing only the briefly problem on as the unity of to irrelevant present even or has if predicated goodness existence of a separate the in its common own. term in a Aristotle 'good' single (wisdom. to upon those all to that the are contrary.To return now to of to the the Aficomachean of the Ethics. about should this assumptions which is the translation. ' manifest multiplicity rejects attributed therefore single called I eads 'good' is However. appear does the to not multiplicity present a serious Surprisingly. the of nature the idea good possibility Instead. sight those and himself If the initially meaning customarily pleasures on of the meaning were as 'good' regarded and encapsulated good would in things certain Yet if. clearly is some one thing be it cannot 40 . perhaps. opening belonging to declaration the term 11094al-4. the term 'good' remark said tha t to the things. of were any in addresses general. as they corresponds that exist" multiplicity from that of "things 11096al2-1096b261. In the wake of of Aristotle's senses problem. 211. seem the the to good be in overly general enquiry: concerned. it the Aristotle to are a idea iMP05e of internal sense classes classes. and analyses is the inf Iuence to the problems Metaphysics transmitted Nicomachean Ethics by no means clear. 'good' would Aristotle p. a single universal of senses the destroying 'good. in as many to via senses the the refrain 11096a241 of directly translated we of conclusion doctrine from since of the of any categories precipitous manner in being.

general. therefore or of it inherent the concerns way of its subsequently the relation activity. rejection insistence 11095a6l. indeed such that of the human Insofar more itself intimately one 21 The with complementary. in the my to and same restrict as as In of the human question a slightly that is a whole. sense might it deals inherent with in individual what of be good called to the the concern5 'logic' grounded. of no in in which it is means disappears of it the is is favour Rather. notion good of activity. by each application. the an the ideal that problem Good of is. immediate its ultimate action. Yet it looking for now.: . when the of human Consequently.. is precisely 11096b3O-381 Aristotle an abstract recal Is ideal. the 'absolute' "the end of reading this the is to good. it seems of addition. of is the unity set manner by aside [1094b8l. not mean of the linked but although to his that One end science this is knowledge that action" the good. the action unity unity of practicable the senses and not end of of the constitutes different activity. that of case. good'? that the But It may scope In this investigation what be of is that the is meant Aristotle discussion the form ' not by aimed the intends to at knowledge to of the more as be appeal nothing activity 'practicable than such the scale.realized that sort in action of good or that acquired we are by man. in of but likely the on would smaller Ari5tOtle's the 'good however. practicable repeated as or "Good of how man" the field the question human activity 41 -L. as unity the good enquiry. field of could of the is the understand enquiry knowledge of this practicable to the and end application the read good as is knowledge human should that Alternatively. be two passages could. view.

but it second a in np6(. being. lies in of that third case origin the 22 and mathematics: the previous Reversing form 42 . Aristotle which hypothesis a is to accidental. explain a more relation of of ' The of serious similar being. be to do they Because accidental not seem good? Or to from derive good? that one it or contribute goods all is by they than good as sight is it analogy: are good rather the in intuition is body. This good. called are sense. 'being. at stake is nothing less than the In view of this. other 'good.. of the practicable follows Sections Aristotle's are constituted speculation as a unity on the is manner brief: in which all senses of 'good' things [different] then... and so on? mind. d. although that a note the will form sounded: the nonetheless good and possible human mooted practicable to the activity to the differ which belongs solutions other theor-etical problems. the its can is Ev satisfactory neither that candidate.constituted determination as a unity: of human ultimately. can which only be settled in after an IV and examination V. the hypothetical solutions that Aristotle offers to the good. Is homonyms. etc. the to of to idea obtain analogy. being. the in so [1096b26-301 But in The first possible namely examples nor that considers is presumed is b as that c is that of of explanation it is simply of the homonymic character may be of the term for 'good. what . problem like will it of the unity attempts be with at regard a solution to all to significations the problem of of caution of unity from of the the unity should proper that term of be to indeed is relevant. to The homonymy.

between the empha5i5es character as Aubenque a d6gal that which writes. y rapports: the Good constant unity is which amongst different by are "the all Good the relations" np6q related of man. usages the of emphasise of term relation analogical categories relational explanation. relies different There on is a be primarily usage. Aubenque.explanation. to ' the but term rather 'good' by are unified a and a a single identifying 'good' invariant relation signification of holding being. different thing: good" thus. for confident with homonomy multiple less significations convinced by 24 Gauthier the analogical however. an two but alternatives the difference clearly seems an deploy to the term 'good' grammatical which in . entre is if "Ie ces Bien diff6rents en tant que bien the est pr6cis6ment as such is ce qu'il precisely 2031. not single by referring the many them senses to ascribed 'good. claims by ' The the of fact the that Trp6r. by Jolif. established are refers good to th-ings single Aristotle practicable The ways. argument. " Fv to [PEA relation. a "the By then good contrast. explained and alternative that the are analogical of 'good' of the argument. is analogy is sees divided no over which to the of the these views is Aristotle's 23 be own. of being and of focussing determinations the term: invariant the good. between each corresponding Opinion Burnet too. 25 case In considering one the the is rival struck 'good. etc. equivocation between adjectival 43 . may only being. they Ev and analogical different upon hypotheses..

as as of the the on analogical each occasion and explanation it its names has the insofar category who is defend a the relation instantiation. compatible generally It it. theories of 'is substantive of the corresponds recipient predicate differences in the may explanation. corresponding structure the two in there to the the case should primary of been being. not which in holds in the unifies order with of regard of it. 'ev signification Is this the one anchoring case. the multiple identified the good senses as because of being ' should The np6q be 'ev with things to 'good. of the analogy place Consequently. another and so. pitted also a substantive sense the if as of 'good' np6q. by the they or In no the may also basis present the the the of grammatical employed than is alternative supposed. there. the and of a good things and usage. seems 'good' reasonable only between Those if as to signifies a assume that. identified being analogical preeminent stop things 1 npoq 11 ev explanation between then the But there 'good' direct categories correspondence of being. and structure reflected structure being. grammatical metaphysical of differences expediency usages may be more of disjunctions. regarded as has incompatible relied upon because a reading the of Ev relation 44 . that of 'good' have However. rivals? why have alternatives against The theory two approaches appealing to have the been np6r.correspondence being good' to which between they to Of examples belong. profound illusion entrenched different unity course. little form. the categories where what analogical articulate create outside case.

good rest not then will as the not ordinarily influence result leave in open Section of over not the the IN npoc. of the the from the to being but ev is rather understood as on region inclusive outlined the of to in be ol)aloc 11. precisely the being condition precedes is of that. has denotes it is. of might as the corresponding matter as of oýkrio( what Although it mindful one difficulty venture it is. a being insofar regardless 45 . analogical into form and categories good. this just caution which good demands. is the analogical 'inclusive' (in reading therefore which fashion) more regards to Z'v conform activity of called reading. as contributing But if the some uncertain primary term of the ciýS(Y-Lgovi(x. If the primary as how in is sense the still of minimal being is oikriof of understood beingness the further as that Seiendheit somehow or (for of good? Anwesenheit.the problem of as unity one the of with the highest highest case of all unity regard to being in that the reduces most being to oiýaia sense. category. obscure) then the what determination sense and of the that so the of question. 26 good is highest divine the to from take the than human to human end with is in the the humanity with regard of which human contrast. the iTp6q relation regard understood. relation of one of an problem being reading privilege possibility the and may that unlike which emerges analogical account. form of of traditional to this By the is corresponding oibuiof: it is to in general vobq. theory compelled unity consideration of the a common single from the so instances to of the term. notion of Rather the likely all final isolating good arising to being. they give drawing relation region the a name. being. understood Consequently.

upon totality the points The of single the of However. ep-yov Although 'work. if this it of a good good does is to is not simply that entail insofar in its to the virtue as it of is good. is conception the referential cI)S(xtgovf<x. 'function. a from which good which it it will independence primary sense grounds: be an correspond 27 of immanent condition.will Whilst specific that being. teleology it final makes possible. the that case. a hearing. the primary is not captures Epyov with may sense linked 'product' end of or an ' it the 46 . be that the which primary is characterises sense good. proximity good Aristotle's as irreducible link good. but this standard translation what of or is intended. Aristotle known 9F presents as is the 'e'p-yov ' his definition ' only of solely The of 'ct')8(xigovf(x' English part be of that purpo5e in the passage of argument. IV The were narrative identified now returns with of the regard final to the to end of Section and the the nature the 1. final where end: of the two problems formal activity end and the determination hierarchical ends Sections emerged intepretation the and should distinct possibility the practical find from a constituted 11 there apparently different raised in that and the relations by and III between of of being that also obtaining final insist between end. conception to between If this a category of implies being we not a similar or human of such were the a conception indeed end.

carpenters to the first life from human activity of an shoemakers. comes C'pjov to is predominant activity plays have here. "defining argues. of step body to an from the possession in general. a flautist some Hence argued "28 alternative which activity. may be the eye such us what human c-p-yov or e. for by which something all. and but this to also is convey connotes the the the activity sense by the which flute. Is of there activity proper features 31 Aristotle's any that complicate reasoning for a craftsman as such? the still arguing to the the examples appears from the somewhat existence of exorbitant. in human the kind "that or we do which "30 The capacity may be For felicitous will allows man be Aristotle human kind resides good of established just as practice associated to identifying good of of carpenter 50 the to it. by the translations. . makes good of the afI own activity slightest autist "characteristic are"29 and activity. be. is likens activity.activity. Aristotle "assuming may lack a The and existence a similar human then that himself has an the doubts: humanity an identity. dismissed human arguing strength such to of of analogies. their the vocation. g. " that on the as their kind proper proper to possibility lack of the a definition. sees as we kind. to the the E-pyov second parts as a 'Cp-yov of the The various being makes of the activities activity human who I e. proper of that with express The is. something a builder someone builds. of etc. [1097b26-291. cip-yov. a brace a definitive form. Even if one to leaves which he aside appeals certain here. Above or intended defined. of of a form activity justification to proper to existence a form humanity Does 47 .

qua activity he being rather its so of being the such. A spurious is the be of reading to have of the to Its the passage to might work What lie the run wood. and human and above' being human the sighted human 'Over of activity. workers human sciences attributes. the human and body soul. human carpentry and Aristotle asks Olover they of whether and belong. calling sets aside animals. the basic role directed? entail In whole the here body such clear similarly arouse with suspicion is both a claim and Aristotle's framework reasoning of the text consistent as a whole. here wood. 'artisan. beingdefinitive into considerations etc. or as activity Aristotle activities proceeds common to towards plant such and a determination life in by order excluding to delimit those the animal 48 . would be of To be a shoemaker one have to be able that of capacity human? mistake will the order assumption as those if ep-yov human being same carpenter different being is and order not of the from the shoemaker. same order But ' as just the as activity 'human being' is of of a so definitive shoemaking. performs is may a specific well at f irst. To be a is to the the carpenter to do have to capacity make shoes. questioning.fact that spite that the of a part of person. that it above" is not those "over right of to assume that people human or being the has an to c'p-yov which level those individual and in above" groups to 32 This Just study announces r of a shift Aristotle one or being beings nature forms in of general a new as Metaphysics in for an virtue enquiry of questions specific is rejected other qua qua of of being. does in like this..

the active exercise (3)(v0p6nou of qil-)Xq(. Definitively determination all that human of humans activity per is se thus or of an that evepVctoc. the soul 's faculties x(x-r& X6yov] in accordance ['Epyov Cvtpycm . definition with evitp-ycioc region to characteristically the crowning regard human However. which is But most is this human a in an the activity do? Elsewhere. human glory this being one of view otherwise supported X6-yov existence. Grund seeing and insisting aus something mediated that anders als Heidegger des "Das das Wahrnehmen des loclar6TIcriq] Animal that the Menschen: from concern perception of man. Yet the 11048b25-291. life. Certainly. implications Although of such a reading 49 .. to which passage human The as one of X6Voq. the a5 an endowed regard X6yoq additional the feature property. 11 (xicrOrIcriq may not not of not the ist the be the same to in the cases lead of to both animal and in is human the added. Heidegger's between enter reasons (xlaOqcri4. into this fundamentally for vobr. Is (xY(3-OrjcT-Lq..? always latter --von suffused view. very or Might nature is it took Tieres relation X6yoq a modification to by which X6yoq? X6-yo(. "33 relations we cannot ( (XVcrO r1cr IqIis. well animal could the known as need the not 'SXcav. referring more than relation an as ýyov here a implies of X6-yoc animal by the the definitively activity. and Aristotle identifies and we is this are no human seems to life favour as evepyci(x former that possible seems to 11175al2-13 view. for a Aristotle (xicTOrjo-i(.I ep-yov of humanity with as X6-yo(. matter taking and fully different this view ultimately here. the &XýOc-t(x. be presented Indeed.. human beings share cannot capacity in uiuOrjuiq Yet determination 11098al-31. argues [perception] of human that with being since animals.

6: 1048b25-29. reference Commenting in cvitpycm Met. of link the let on the and being. qualifi6 give not as an substance. we actually of that determinate lived is conditions under always as such. bonne. qualifies. ici vie question pas n'est quil montrer de ]a vie comme et qui. vivons effectivement que nous mais d6termin6es dans des toujours telle. intrinsic Having this link good I epyov that Aristotle activity invokes established in order to 50 . qualified bonne priority good logic. basis. case specifically substance. simple pr6ceder d'une biologique. us remember existence argument the the premissed an activity human an itself. not a have expression determination Brague Aristotle passer logique: which to life is le draws reading. live life that the but rather and life. more or render Like it this XO-Voq. conditions v6-cue est heureuse. G. he adds: d'un 'vivre 'vivre' c'est qualifi6. less less it more or good. a reading to pas the on the "[fair-el de biological for such tendency qui n'est over attention remarking avant precedent his surprising ce himself. happy. ]a ou moins plus plus ou moins rendent qui EAQM 474-4751 Faire le to live' 'to To allow a straightforward precede a qualified it is not a matter is to show that live' 'to of biological that. embracing with On a should regions reasoning this ordinarily through life does to upon ]a to "34 found the associated language. seems is of of 'good' but surprising.are that important the cipyov to as beyond of a for of our own enquiry and are not worth be noting. as It suggests human being or should regarded but a piecemeal be of or seen human the the Remi in addition rather life a residual comprehensive those ideas of our human substantial determination animality. does rather not remain determines extrinsic it from that of to the form very whole of life that If 'cp-yov between the the beginning.

and for a that The of if argument a the is to good Epyov play is simply this: are is well individual of the a harper harp generically to play same. the to have is to performance its virtue. link that the between activity context of the well. a 18: ý 4fi)Xq(. argument of between the ' Yet of an activity an link the playing well. if the to perform these and a good man is well and rightly. we assume if that the Aristotle's performance that is. [making] without The perform disclose would virtue well. 11098a8-131: life. 1 CI) i&xiýLovi(x. Sp-yov of man is a kind of viz. in hinges and on the and the intrinsic of In pass reversed. to be activity allows direction the Similarly. rational principle evep-yei(xv x(xi np&ksiq gcT& 'cp-yov of X&Voul. that example. conclusion good man is an dXvGpwnivov in I-c6 activity of soul accordance with virtue 7 11098al3-171 a-y(x96v W'uXqq Cviýp-yet<x -yiveT(xi xaT'03(pcTývl. [know-how] of (pp6vrlcyiq of alliance perform virtue to that with intellectual one or to could not virtues engage Micomachean TiLXvq ability determinations prior to be the their to 7EOincrl(. situation no sense a np&ýeiq aright. good harper harp. the implying an activity or series of actions of soul.derive the a 'Cp-yov determination of the the an of individual Thus. and if every sp-yov is performed well when in its if performed accordance with proper excellence: all this is the is that the for so. Aristotle may also harp without to the without the take from 'S'P-vov' One could of what it no play conception the harp outlined in some idea the important Ethics. independently sense of badly it is formal of or it not without activity with them thereby what may not would display performed but which relation virtue: 51 . of cbgorfýLovL(Y.. Book VI of argument. it it An is is ethico-political the have and activity associated.

will be the Even virtue it virtue requires is acquired. Cvtp-yc-Lo( determined faculties view connection the good nonetheless * Let refrain us conclude for and the its by whole returning of this to the question what the is final that the end has served as between a chapter: all relation identified activity end above as sl6sa I J10via? is We have seen by the that sense Aristotle's of the good conception conveyed by of the human pref ix activity et')-. one's with a if one to X6-yoc live is well. is confined What human addition to particular calls at times. contrast it x<YT& X6-yov possibilities what they beings to their other simply animal existence: inescapably determination potential fails with Ii and or to act at all times. Two from not points all of of this. particular First. in towards realize even of any one's choice. regard activity the to activity that to be in before characterized negatively virtue. Second. in conformity the virtue.precisely performed question a5 lacking well. prior even with of if to or one irrespective fails that to is. governed And we 52 . with for the then. what in Aristotle do qmXýr. a significance is the fact region the in for that or our the present 'p-p-yov of -study human as a emerge life specific is not or do do. identified ýviLpycioc to is activity. a deficient mode.

speaking an activity 53 . suggest np&tiq of but (this life. to S1ý)S(xtgovi(x. also that should not in Clearly. life be understood only the in sense the here sense it that is that from congruent follows with the directly Aristotle's must all the last things end of stipulation a complete aim life. is with the this final is not end. the of a whole act. or properly cuS(xigovi(x good at which even at 11098al8l).have If seen we that the the activity formal definitive equivalence of of these human being and is an cvtpycia. distinction avert such in a introduced of an infinite and Trp&tiq thereby in is nOW stated into the plainly. a specific the embrace with the motif all activity as describing it must act. passage in indications which we shall brought return in Book VI has some further whoever makes something always end in view: that is made is not an end itself. since well and [1139b2-5]35 what desire aims at. end. means towards end of noiqcyiq . in the grant of in V): ýW: pyctot two (to np&tiq are context together Section practical a vital philosophy. does For that lifetime not life lie is the Sivitpyci(x associated Moreover. This is the point between at which Aristotle and of been threat is first np&tiq 1. beyond life. of forms whole of Rather. is an which doing 1eI'Mp(xti<x1 is the end. each converted further then can the the only final form take end of the of activity form all of a5SOCiated np&tiq. end in itself. makes [action] From the to explicit to which the he it human The if the some distinction alluded seemed activity role of noirlcyiq [making] in that the the opening paragraphs had the delimitation case Book beginning delimit regress. it is relative which and for Whereas that is done IT6 np(xxT6v] someone.

albeit between briefly. as to speaking. teleological Despite calling Of in this structure for announced in this some comment.which is an end in itself. forms of there unity to is which a marked Aristotle discrepancy refers. himself little or respectable precedent no TN attempt relation to 91 ev to demonstrate (or any of the the the it is relevance other to human activity Strictly of the np6r. the parallel activity not such of np&ýir good Section and would to as be to the III raised sense of the in virtue the being good of of in parallel 11. V On first inspection. independent activity precisely grounds. by the it term is one with to its end -a (x. Looking possibility outlined operative which the a order back over of a the ground covered between Such a so far. the alternative at the 1096b26-30 opening is a most and lines seldom the of apparently the text. np6q characterize as problem said a discrepancy to the the the relation apply teleological relation in terms of which human activity is described 54 . between good and however. conveyed si)-jrp6rti(x equivalent cuS(xigov! 11098b2l-221). such in convergence figure of zt')S(xtgov! seems . course. Aristotle making matter sets addressed directly. ev alternatives). succinctly as np&ttq.. to 4x and promise general this. in in specific it or as Section the require that be account good is The the of human yet good. respect. conjunction namely.

&tre lieu de terms 'expliquer hI au relativit6: en amen6 il hI 55 . compte rendre d'. also suggestion the sake "fundamental the insight Aristotle activity incoherency" of the Aristotle's distinctive the is Aristotle's to of account match the activity absolute itself. this. final the up&ý-Lr. For. np6r.is this to misrepresent chapter. as terms never I stated in at the the beginning account This has end light of is now as of the to teleological are relief themselves by with clarify structures. lodged into as must the the issue. failure into analyses form originality [ENT form ethical Whilst ethical recognizes as that which distinctively an end in des 'action con§ýues pour analyses morale applique 16 trouve de ]a par se et s'il production. of marks from his final are a themselves and are Jolif. of the are the themselves the heart As a preliminary to fol low. ends activity which 11094al6-181. of a life. co-extensive seek to of the discrepancy we must return between again 'Ev and teleological the final question end of by which the relation are between constituted individual as a totality. the In the determination the whole apparent that is. I referred for the the to Aristotle's sake of the declaration final produced end that may them be or subordinate ends that of pursued from ends in at the either activities indication then that end. activities and the they At the the end of Section ends distinct I. I issues to sections drew are For in attention ends Gauthier themselves in difficulty may the for in also in be understanding for that of a the sake activities further which how activities of the which end arises of 71. which apparently been brought and we satisfactory.

Ackrill released himself is 56 . led to explain and is thereby it in terms. the sake then final activities the final ends if the themselves final the end coherency end must demands understood apparent narrow that relation activities in at terms the outset otherwise teleology linear production will be whereupon from announced track. Instead relative of being an end in itself. than in Ackrill Indeed. alone be the its are and laudable on it proposal. he devient morale un moyen le bonheur. cA)S(Yigov! (Y. other namely. I 'action sa fin faire autre chose qu'elle-m6me. conception arises and ) Ackrill. suggests commenting that the on Gauthier's sentence in Jolif's be this passage. be the the the product terms Gauthier is and Jolif couched of ethical but also will discourse the to specificity the final prejudice activity of the and form articulation relation the in final turn the of this that end. shortly. question taken an invitation of a kind to possible say eudaimonia without ("faire") something think to of subordination which makes it perfectly that the is for moral action sake of implying that it is a means of producing than itseff. CENT 71 de to ethical the analyses applies action in order conceived for account production. in end will out of itself. being over account. the made. to be be for a thing to of However. Yet cIA(xigovIo( of in an which not of such itself anterior Aristotle's only activity of has activity. EAE 201 other In see itself. if of this far is an more entirely hangs that end. the form If of np&ýiq and cannot are right. seems are is not of than also to as we shall to realize. place Aristotle's reading of as (As doubts the analyses the Section of IV have human shown. ethical becomes action a means to make something than itself.& el le-m6me.

end Ackrill remarks suspicion: that yet ends. that he it understands self-sufficiency el')S(xigovioc "includes" since of no all attempt and other is good made which things. to is However.unconvincing proving positive result of a of life more in adept his at response saying what he to is the not invitation. effort. themselves " But his and bringing surefooted: subsequent own ingredients the sake primary of eudaimonia are for is not incompatible their being of eudaimonia with ends in themselves. for is constituted by activities that eudaimonia CAE 191 are ends in themselves. an little alternative out is gained to the thereby. of Yet later in the same essay. a lifetime's must about be Rightly. the if what of a us which in the constructing is not to be a compound a mere may arouse of compound the "unifying response aggregate aside (the for subordinate time has the plan"? to this chapter). language in the elaborate expressly parts wholes ruled by Aristotle 57 . compounds shown distinct production. complete insists Correctly. the Like Burnet of and Gauthier to and mean Jolif. used in making ingredients customarily of very the is full some idea kind. the that he case understandably than of is giving not a the bits for less account. ciýSa-tgovl(x adds not that "just offering various means is in bits. are Setting question Ackrill to another which that end the task question occupied in throughout subordinate the light this ends of suggests the final of the manner related should be understood of Aristotle's discussion 5elf-sufficiency final end [1097b8-201. That the This is is clearly to are of be help only insofar from understood as that the of to be meaning of 'constitution' Similarly.

np&ýir. this tells us that the final end has the form of np&ttq. actually Ackrill lui-m6me la conforms quotes to the model and tous CAE 22: Jolif of production approvingly. to be understood. neither Commenting on 58 . "j] effect. merely When 'inclusion' subject 'sum. The deploy less which ease the to with very which structure negligence to of In the the Ackrill they than and Gauthier to and avoid Jolif testifies. moves alone This indeed governs with action. aims IsiMpocti(y] what and end. of end priority which over grounds is activities nor and conclusive. of inadvertantly perhaps. the this priority passage. 'includes' is ' it been is difficult declared to avoid the idea of aggregation that has already inadequate.very same passage and which Indeed. this trope. I quoted passage thought for-the-sakebut only nothing. pursuits. and concerned of something has some always something makes whoever since also. in is done is since an end npcxxT6v] which desire is the at. the totality whereby in its of clear np&tt(. biens: in 11097bl7-201. noirlcri(. the their seems pervasiveness every and turn. someone. own from the proposed to at -nolquic.. noi9criq in is is that in further an end not made which view: end Whereas that for is but it itself. est it This 36 Gauthier inclut en is effet the somme qui all of with les ENT is sum veils that the includes question used goods" how the 53 My emphasis). well [1139a35f] Thought As I noted before. and relative doing (T6 itself. capacity all cut is as elevated the form to of a position the final However. Book VI: section. the confront relation previous one of Aristotle's suffers following articulation same from problem.

accorded not is of an made the original within activity priority. how can it be the being cause of noiricy-ic. the in that productive that &pXý to is. the four which causes.. into it in suffers favor of of the transformation language of is undergoes metaphysics. is to Aristotle be understood uses term describe doctrine practical This it helps raises relation.. as the the reference Bernasconi. opposition. axis a distinction which that between Aristotle's belongs The be 38 in entirely framework namely. can to never noiricrIC hegemony articulated As being and which the guarantees its own noigaiq and "the is np&tiq terms always subordinate np&t-L(. than sustaining recognition np&ýiq np&t. without conceived as external an And if to Heidegger that the doctrine the goal? we grant of has four its then in the causes source experience of making. cause role of of writes construed explain profound noiricy-tc. but foundational so doing problem. to it Aristotle's reference of np&ýiq causality places . q 59 . to this in one it determined is and ostensibly np&ýiq since of the it terms to is by production. comes may own end rlp&ý-Lq bear its If it of np&ki(. to his "the 1161. but in itself. IFDP in More final precisely. is is the in over final cause and external goal of all activity. within it is the time very privileged over TEoiricriq np&ýiq at IFDP 117]37 light to be interpreted in the of noiqatq. the teleology In this way referential of TEoIrlaric. activity thought 'for this of is to a something.Bernasconi is the governed sake of' asks by what purposive is meant and by practical the claim thought. the very then form The about cemented a structure which itoigaiq text turns. " np&ýiq.. ensures that noiqcriq. Aristotle's into the Bernasconi assimilated distortion it concludes. a structure problem of when it integrated better it shows shows postpones a nolqatq.

rather the the generalization and and the use of of means the are achieve fabrication established [HC fact CHC 1571.. only productive activity of np&tir. "The issue to at stake an is. being in general the be final attained such this respect. ostensibly can production. Moreover. to noirjcriq has of not the been without effects. As Arendt Horkheimer the modern amongst writes. reason malaise culminating which of impoverishment Arendt. others. that 1541.itself" [FDP 1171. such. in not but which standards in instrumentality. end. as The experience the danger ultimate usefulness for life utility world stems of from men" the inherent established detected and avert ends this such as a generalization generates danger to by "utility Aristotle of means to meaning 5ame threatened meaninglessness" in render to its the of the the all the infinite desires figure to of the that procession futile of do an this and end sought in itself. of practical Its legacy reason in has and the and age. influence human promising thereby sufficient association activity in as to wrest Trp&ýiq the C'p-yov of seems is end. not as insofar something ciýnpcxti(x at the understood only 60 . 39 been action the gradual by eclipse specificity and and as a instrumental of both reason activity identify activity. meaninglessness the limits of be checked Can np&ýtq be and of understood would production? understood this otherwise be Our as than as to of the external it with or end as as free goal of from all the activity. of as course. upon The drift by articulated by its capacity structure productive articulation remains activity into at compromised it dependence grounds. the subordination of Trp&ti(. procession as -mp&ti(. appealing However.

general is. The is of tendency an end in to itself This reading impute a referential witness to teleology a lacuna by in to an the activity very which bears is for conception who warns npOfýiq. does not which Such an understanding commits a travesty of TEp&t'Lc. non quella realth. can say end. final an of of that it for is np&ýiq less than end..For whilst its np&t-Lq. delivering the relation Accordingly. against np&ýic . refer it in reality. as as travesty np&ýi. not noiricriq only noirlcri(. on its its of caU5e sidestepping disengage relation depends from the in the format on that favour our which to treatment problem regard being Metaphysics. we accomplishment of activity cb'nputioc. manner or I understanding in that in such said individual in avoiding related of activity (. on to any other. it is is the form of from the the totality very this a future of beginning is a activity by the as such. a nessun rinvia because. have 61 . which lies of activities the key acts this to to are the any final advance end in to into the terms of the production.. perch6 solo altra. and of determined as itself possibility intrinsic result. ELHP 2451 np&ýiq would would be that ]a sarebbe noigaiq be noigcriq non che in sarebbe. the expressed which: succinctly Nicolaci. a of Of to matter be understood of breaking the success ability a form of the otherwise with final in to of its than as an external as than condition a as determination otherwise the from modelled of unity with caU5e external externality production emerged in understanding course. and not necessarily As a moment goal.

he situates separation. Nicolaci the that the is final begins prospect desired term else. ]a possibilith di si esistenza specifica sua condizione in definisce livello Senerale si quale nel quel di tale del noitiv una sfondo sullo gi6 e non ]a 62 . cosf. Solo perch6 su colloca. wished understood the sake a linear series something I 'ambito dal quale contrario. si rende originariamente la divaricazione del bene-strumento ]a possibile e. it defines the region on the basis of which the itself be thought to its series may with regard to a more conditions of possibility and understood according internal that the order: which makes possible original the dimension opening out of the instrument-good and thereby of referral. out the initially dimension on np&ti.before. dimensione del rinvio. no'Lricriq. the some "virtual towards space" from articulation np&tiq Ep. And making sketched to is series reading insofar activity which it as what is place. A] In recognizing for its the own role sake recalls of alone Trp&tiq in was said it - as the the form whole of that which possible. ILHP 2441 On the contrary. in in Section is wished Nicolaci's 1. ]a esso definisce a partire ser-ie di stessa puo essere pensata nelle sue condizioni interno: possibilitd e ricompresa secondo un ordine piCj quello secondo cui si schiude. part. 16-17 1. derived in from articulating the experience the of form of np&tiq otherwise than in terms production. withdrawing in which Emphasising np&tic. of actions means he writes. takes open situated this which level goes the productive to that way a different Nicolaci if only of into grounds. On his Aristotle ends.. by of for in referring an its infinite own back to the passage of where and be for rejects The end as of procession sake cannot.

I X6-yov per di modo come parola a se stesso rapportarsi ILHP 2561 parola. understood rightly alternative general as though such. pensata diverso dalla per genere noiqaiq e non gia ILHP 2441 noincFiq 5uprema. Only because its on the defined. it Nicolaci an np&ýiq. 'cXciv significa non a rapportarsi a] modo proprio appropriarsi stesso se X6-yoq. specific the where condition of come qualcosa come una sorta is di di situated level is possibility of noii: iv in general the background and not against of such a be thought can np&tiq as something generically to noiTI(xiq not and merely as a kind of supreme existence Nicolaci's in role there objects possibility I epyov reading IV securing denote to in the strikes light unity in a of of chord the with preceding Just or "as and it the interpretation account as Trp&ttq so were in the as explored oU'aice and was its Section in to of the activity being.]a Tcp&ýiq pu6 essere possibilit6. ELHP the "manner and object nature 2531. r eXetv" to man the qua human capacity of that one's X6-yoq that is. of being treated human comportment" that proposes. not important the the however. oneself of the Nicolaci in describes regard is this to as the to of of comport and with It only by virtue possession is it X6-yoq. for but to relating rather oneself. fundamentally determines the relation between the elements in question: 'uomo. possibility. being" to ILHP 2511. del del la bensi della the to X6yov 'cXeiv does not mean appropriating human being. "proper essentially world see. the in proper way oneself determined itself will If the np&ttc of characteristic the X6Voq. the to word. then of the human form being of is by the possession np&tiq depend 63 . relating word as a way of the 16yog. different noina1q. be understood light the of activity the argument 11097blffl.

X6yor. two the passage The to quoted first. from it intentional an progression second.. through The in task terms of of of setting production out the is relation constantly form5 to the final end in otherwise general by and than the in frustrated to dominance conceptual belonging production particular by the fact that the conception of 'end' is itself drawn 64 . in order by human being corresponds an of human a view and determined linear The production. to break the with relation the model between of production. carried distinction articulated. " problem. to the se since the this relata do not Exploring resort unfavoured P05Sibility. according a relation insofar beginning to in and to the which form Kundgabe. by intermediary. rise runs gives self when -relatedness between deploys to issue.directly Nicolaci taking as on goes his the on point nature to of of give the an relatedness insightful Heidegger's his into at "proper account reading description difficulty In such X6Voq the of to the this X&Vor. been announced. describes end by means of X6-yoq. being to itself of according virtue and that which the relation of the occurs self describes a form -relatedness seems precede however. and again and oneself Iy wi th the I to uses and Nicolaci more is compelled to a come to again terminology the 11 raggi to the expressions ungersi" mode appropriate "rapportarsi alternative (relate to stesso" I reach of based or onese IfI to indi the ff erent regard mode of has relatedness upon specific X6-yoc. achieve Nicolaci to to as to the manner distinguishes which itself. this of However. them. forms. and 41 The and relatedness once more productive but not comportment. form trying as of to departure 40 of of the the Kundschaft np(Xt. Lq express above.

that relation framework cannot This of be problem the final to the throughout this of has the led to subsequent chapter. are still to the the reference resolve of two problems of activity of outstanding. and In is to short. relation in structure question * The two problems directly of the highlighted or obliquely. the preserve a better it has appreciation done little The end. external the form turn. incoherencies and to All the efforts upon the this the made in this of an attendent trace on hegemony of and A language production ultimately series of the of po5sibility point alternative themselves characterization out of reach. still remains However. obscure. the final dominance of discourse 'for to of' the the the This the be incoherency articulated Acting acting a new activity being way 'in twist in np&ýir. actually we come 65 . of the activity sake of' If significance it. same was given end with as the to sake produce' IV with as such. production. Whilst complexity the relation the at the end of Section the I have been four addressed. sections of to first noirlaic. these is leads not to must of the matter. of and final Section or as the association itself for is all general enough activity of prevent and goes of np&ýiq some treated goal towards demonstrating the In inapplicability relation here which to relations obtains production. without 'for order in the general final end end.from chapter the the to discourse expose of of the production. approach in a founder negative and exhaust positive remains determinations.

of a specific these that activity the in general of that specificity recovery a conception is not naive of to has of an ontology of the will over recovery will by a determination such nolquir. this points whether to in or the the as difficulty sense such.the form the be the second of sense resolved. of -a of Until np&tiq in articulating act problems might that fail the or the in can secure requires np&tuc. 66 . Dasein determined insofar experience as of a conception in ways continue which it be no control. basis problem. itself.

as a whole. pas5ing over in the the movement of disclosure to the fixed point of its concIU5ion work. of conception of departure wp&ýiq will on Heidegger's be the account The which view understanding in Being Dasein's in this everyday account that have are already now above concern. the a highly fact that of of one-sided works needs production suppresses in also important are and ever a pre-constituted an incomplete context reflection possibilities. 67 . is only that Heidegger things concerned primarily value being regards invested things' As such we a subsequently seen. that handled it is interpretation in of the Kantian substance Ding-an-sich).Chapter Two TRANSCENDENCE AND THE RADICALIZATION OF PRAXIS We saw in the Heidegger Introduction with In setting that a means out of to Aristotle's dispelling assess the practical a perceived impact of and is of Dasein. the with of purpose. Time philosophy naivety Aristotle's my point 9915-18 to as and resist 'mere of in presented Greek ontology. and above view only arguably out It is. reflected of the production all of of the made the work and but however. firmly all in enshrined the even experience not only metaphysical of exemplified (and initially work. by and matter grew understanding in the presupposed tradition as view.

The problem of things. nowhere Heidegger's phenomenological Husserl. order which with to himself The things that consciousness connection world account a typology revision and may theoretical be and of of between their Dasein's human of the activity to Heidegger's more than a beyond superficial of priority the between term caution). Dasein practical (for Heidegger reason. analyses considerations offered 68 . the utmost and 'pragmatism' As is only applied in in Heidegger ontically explains distinct the that it Introduction has a pre- Being Time. it is understanding clear that the of being. the naturalistic the of human experience consciousness by of Husserl Dasein. and therefore. towards means is it considerably goes far 1 to a and supposedly extended beyond fundamental in the the presuppositionless structures of to basis intentionality the everyday Dasein's ontological everyday activity. on its Turning head. arises with the elevation over of theoretical other forms manifested evident intuition of to a position towards in Greek unwarranted Whilst it theory Heidegger the standpoint priority this tendency was of also comportment itself than and he in first the may have more thought. features these to understanding the level. of this question The as of of being and which provides of of in the its possibility elevation to of a being ultimately description phenomenological for to a the most part Dasein everyday of the as beingconcern absorbed delineation preliminary structural In view of by pre-ontological alone. ontological access thematic in-the-world amounts. existing in cognitive developed activity comportment determination concern Equally. to Yet contemporary the insights suspicion eschewed teacher required of reduction found in Husserl Husserl's Heidegger counter problem.

ontology begin on practical course. it is philosophy not enough Heidegger. difficulties We shall attendant therefore and what Aristotle's Heidegger's he has in concept.Heidegger their Time in these sometimes that sections so they far are cannot precedes taken a be understood an acquaintance in isolation. of the text. that the to the light gauge question to influence significance activity positive the in on Heidegger's of Aristotle's Of with Ethics. to Being reading we shall form Time. phenomenological self-contained sections must enquiry in is character empirical destined not in the to were descriptions. to treat such as the and though as of see. simply of appropriates trace in similarities Nicomachean of np&tiq. of but these they be understood set out ontological above Dasein 2 all as Introduction the in of ontological the its the of second connection with developed character division of transcendence it we is can only in Indeed. reference to Any for. dealings concern is described Amongst are always the as for the paths most of the part concern absorbed [Besorgen] to them us" to in its in everyday which kind such of many dispersed. "closest and puts is use" "that ISZ which manipulates things 67: 951- 69 . misconstrue only with them. to the whether succumb same problems response Dasein dealings. with as them Being Yet and their somehow renown as a whole out license of context. Aristotle's Insofar inheriting of the as presentation Heidegger also the lrp&ý Iq this conception upon ask he risks presentation analyses store.

concernful 'Things': pragmata to do with in one's In fact. about Provided Heidegger's that guide. womi t man Umgang (7Ep&ti. this is suspect T6 noiqT6v mind.L(xc(x. is demonstration it in is the than is true world the knowledge Heidegger our founded everyday practice. of main and former it symptomatic takes the theory Heidegger analyses between 70 . which dealings (praxis). a helpful themselves. drawing np&tiq understanding proceeds possible which fail with alone. relation begin with. the observation means that towards Heidegger a further has end p. To reading the of appreciates. noir)-c6v] Recalling itself one not Aristotle's becomes might so. both the in part first.The what preliminary gets theme of the so enquiry ISZ lic6 is therefore "what gets used. ))Dinge((: np6tVj. as one Two of caution. interpretations to recognize immediately what of so-called that is at According term which for on on the to things its Heidegger's would to a attest endorsement to his np&yg(xTo( general amounts pragmatism. produced. between to the Instead. ISZ 68: 96-971 term one for has Greichen hatten Terminus die fUr es im besorgenden The that Greeks had an appropriate to is that say. np&-Vg(xc(x philosophical be wary of is the usual Greek term for part. that and what is forth" produced 11139blf. d. 237 but n. things and not a one deliberate should choice any from however. i. on Heidegger's quick this it conclusions passage can serve suggest issue. and reading repeating the issue very in indifferent the naivety Heidegger's reduction distinction the is latter engaging.1. as a Accordingly. ) zu tun hat. (. to be the noiquic np&ýiq. 35. of is more the Whilst things to this that with first to integrates towards determination there comportment them. Die einen angemessenen das. in 67: 951.

of demarcation change.. and question question demand fundamental implicitly theory and relation between of the reconsideration significance practice. adds: 71 . with but the distinction the broad in of regards to the to inclusive passage specificity cause the of existing for this np&ýiq that sense as Heidegger of his apparently failure to refers address simply inevitably and thereby nP&ýiq issue champion a reflection vis-6-vis -noIrIcriq. unchanged Alternatively. reading remains conception By tacitly commits in of between endorsing itself scope framework an of unchanged own eclipse conception by a similarly complicity nojqCyjq. such at all. notguic as from its distinction the very are to more will to understanding that is of to nolgaiq this question. Dasein a veiled perceives ontology. them the to with 4 its the itp&ýiq . noirlcyir. approaches and in np&tiq which Heidegger's very much in text mind. of of a 3 np&ýiq the therefore raising . The second such between and this its reading noirlair. horizons fails the np&ýiq attached distinction. opposition to However. account of far the of Heidegger's goal-oriented sense of reference activity np(-Xtic. that he in production to the extended naivety Heidegger with thought. in underscores restricts the the distinction. sphere Greek to might than of to np&tiq be read a in less the context of an as a repudiation reminder the influence allusion in Greek of how of specific its as discreet beyond designated through regard immediately application Thus.practice.. For of in the activity theory-practice arising Insofar a By reading contrast. belongs dominance restricted broach the to This the is mistaken.

also which enduring. verwenden umgestalten betrachten oder nur und durchforschen .Tip6rygo(z(x auf lip&eic. passage might matter first. womit wir zu sei es. was auch alles die noirjai(. them at all. einschlieflt. daß wir bearbeiten. sense of nor use practical meaning of doing. familiar Heidegger Frage nach seems positively (1936) to he encourage describes this view elsewhere. insofar work on them. »bloße spezifisch Dunkeln im und ESZ 68: 971 of they den ontologically. is just pr-agmata thought of these 'pragmatic' specifically character the Greeks left in what obscurity. sittlichen als ist Tun und Betreiben np&tig und Aushalten. the basis Understanding np&. which is said to be activity in the widest sense. In Die dem Ding np6cVgo(T(x as überhaupt sofern sie solche sind. XpficrOcKt) noch im Sinne Handlung der np&tig im Sinne der Handlung.Eo( are referred to np&ýiq. transform we only or whether here to praxis pragmata with regard praxis: in the truly narrow sense. hier in dem engen np&tir. pragmata"? the basis meaning 'pragmatic'. 'proximally' ' as 'mere Things. VýLorvx on of pragmatism if is of or one activity knows what could what is be " in is in a truly by wide sense" or assume would is activity. ganz weit genommen weder Sinne der praktischen Anwendung (vgl. whether we as we have to do with look at and them. is by no This means may as seem simple perfectly as the straightforward.Si e1i eßen »pragmatischen« bestimmten sie But aber ontologisch Charakter der »zunächst« the als gerade npotygo(z(x Dinge«. rlp6rVýL(x. neither wide a in the (kresthai). is all and pursuing. What of on does Heidegger The of the mean temptation relatively by "the is to specifically understand sense 'pragmatic' the of character of np6cyýL(xT(x Indeed. bezogen. praxis action: praxis as moral "-s includes poiesis. them examine is taken in things die tun Dinge. haben. To fashion precisely np"ývvcoc the be to meaning settled this 72 . that only satisfactory Yet this meant question in pragmatism here. inclusive but suggest also the at of noirlo-iq.

Ideas. is said namely to be reference but is initial to specificity. is the increasing expectation reference However. as of to how we might everyday three approach concern. relation a relation in rules order out quite from of Being" to Husserl's generalization from involves of this formal any ESZ every reference. Let as Does 'in and can term a name this for mean ' carefully as we for "things that mean it is a name Similarly. that we understand np&tic 'include' as . devoted In 'formalization' or directs way us kind whatever this §13 6 the what subject a matter 77: 1081. To where and the the something directly its view. designations. Heidegger understands a generic activity? A clue account Heidegger and every relation. to the this to meaning 'pragmatic' of seen more insofar eventual term. this in problem 917 on arises reference relation. every a reference. the refer character itself us be look np6ryA(YT(y to to depend pragmatism. How are general? said to would doing and general to we for here? 'include' be confident noigaiq. do in is with It determination is them presented at What 'be' all all. saying read off which not a indication. process formalization 73 . to of contrast movement particular reduction general. reference One's genus similarly. later and in the Dasein's introduces Every an not signs. support we find footnote to the to the difference the gradual of between formalization. on at have things np&tic. reference but is and indication indication. which of may be context. of relation by therefore indication explicitly it of "is that belong Heidegger that way interpretation.revert outlined to a position If we much are of like not to the former the must of the two weak of readings above. " np&-VgcYT(x.

daß es Gehalt. Gehalt Begegnung. brief some 'formal' abstraction he what itself. concrete.. Husserl presentation the scope understanding require matter. Wie die 74 . a specific do to regard with the to the inference generalization. but rather manner and an as yet of empty its designation own fulfillment. illustration. consideration Heidegger's of matter with the at that Aristotle definitions includes that the meaning basis formal light on the Heidegger 'abstract. »Formale« ist daß ist so. drew the of attached initially contribution ontology not of and only great from importance Indeed. that for of to example. therefore 1921-22 meaning hand. is advance nor even have sense a concrete 9 A 'formal' concreteness of a definition is therefore representation thing. indicating the conditions Der der definitorische eigentlichen das »Formal«. this detail. which to he trace too.. of unlike of red. appeals with 'lie intuition possible content shades with logical are do not 7 within' which they Heidegger. of of in 8 However. to the not On the understood of contrary. reader's various material whatsoever Husserl term 'red' way that. of ' designations. be interesting own would on this of of this a shed of that Husserl. ein solcher zum er verweist Bildung. what is contrasts ' on sharply the presupposes we cannot (the a grasp assume object). or Thus.. to it 'formal would to a task. of notion Such Heidegger's however. either suggests. direction. Formung.has the material reduction to content of a space logical By to to a "purely a Euclidean form have logical" manifold nothing form. in more of an account but also logic Heidegger's response lies course of to reading Kant's beyond on his transcendental work. Bestimmung. the general forms associated.

an ontological Moreover. of ' we reduction structure be prepared a formal activity the least. derivation when Dasein's out of in Accordingly. structures are bent (SZ 10-11: identifies this as disclosure Heidegger's ontologico-existential analyses ' logical §15 forms' Heidegger tout motif court. but designate the structural genus indiscriminately. formation. np&ýiq with rule Time dealings of the does not the of the not recurring things. Indeed. does comportment which np&ti(. the the np&tiq assume the significance. determination aiming of at Dasein. den Weg vorzeichnet. ' the 'formal. shows the way. In this to do may justifiably it would understood not purely all of formal of logical objects what is way. them) reading of characteristics understood to a an formal the ontology definition as a thing. definitional is such as to refer to the manner content the of determination. phenomenological precisely Being concernful possibility Dasein's manner in and such towards 30-311... shaping. " their np&VýLomo( as "specifically as the their of "things insofar 'pragmatic' as we have character" form. he described In the Time turn. When Heidegger with them at be describes all. ' has in such content that it gives direction to the indication.Anzeige in IGA61 341 The die Richtung verweist. towards 'includes' all forms 75 . genuine encounter. At general in is np&ýtq with but should to of by not the no means 'activity very incompatible in general then.L(xc(x as itself. 'Formal. to count (as EID directly in Being and rather Indeed. issue 915 of Husserl to contribute categories the object leads 61n]. to np6cyj. Dasein's np&ýiq with its the Heidegger's concernful to of for a 'logical identification dealings form' as apparently such. on of determination this activity reading.

Heidegger's being-in-the-world than his said those somewhat this. the course might to The of Having on the term to term will translations Heidegger's it 11 there is and transmutations make in force ambiguity remains source. rely solely Trp&tiq. passages it may conceal cursory would where a it its of hard original Heidegger's in at In motif in this once a more reference nonetheless studied to be actually the a interpretation term mistake appears. Taken that. be may 76 . on used will in Indeed. may be uncoupled text term way traces itself continue insight the which the body Heidegger's where point the the unannounced. to into most the of part less appear discontinuous this word to be addition.depend of as on its as in being such used could 10 in be the general on sense: the specific the formal reading definition of np&tiq activity an end based itself. the undergo in with reading being cited the some determine guise or reading respect. left for along into conspicuous work translation Heidegger's discovered. appears the path will passages only np&tiq forward. actually showing by its Accordingly. being depend way in and see the Heidegger's with the and our case its with language textual np&kir. problem world together far of and of from these considerations a regard missed to lend credibility to to the view the of representing with as np&tiq opportunity address account activity Dasein of suggest. continuous and we shall from for confidence its often this modified whether form.

room. 77 . residing" found encountered the same terms frames. equipment" However. Accordingly. itself in themselves. against advance the Heidegger paper. context what being). insofar is this described 'good' something. equipment point be put As again: a first belong? response. letwas in always equipment various modalities 'in-order-to. By way of pen. doors. and Heidegger production links by Idas it a5 for as np6(lg(xTcx with calling those Dasein's in its 12 experience instrumentality in is concern not encountered with equipment but its only being where essentially Equipment of 'equipment' towards it by the is Zeugl. together total ' such (SZ as serviceability. These the (by case as of a usability. each is ink-stand. singly. manipulability" the table. of interconnection lamp.II Turning the entities concern own now to the of analyses themselves. and context. of might Accordingly. but by readiness-to-hand which presents um-zu the context of the denotes that ' as 68: 971. furniture. encountered is apprehended of the individual serve only since ISZ in the to 68: 981. ink. windows. totality "'something never occurs "constituted in-order-to.. example. only -in In is item as conduciveness. for such as as the does to the the way 68: 971. describes pad. [Zuhandenheit]. itself ISZ of a Heidegger being of . things "equipment that question room itself which could to the this means that any discovered of before room show for is equipment can a provisional it that it totality one is is. room blotting items horizon Dasein's the "totality shows horizon which understanding ontological example. belong of the prepresent of itself. a thing directed as right.

the covered street of thought railway of platform lights the sun. direction": of the the bad However. Something is and missing everything from the else analysis. Welt haben bei der Interpretation dieses innerweltlich wir Seienden doch immer ))vorausgesetzt((. of which the horizon the natural environment.that allowing ready-to-hand Dasein's at the equipment concern time. takes and artefacts being [SZ in view weather. we join like 'world' the as anything Quite world does problems are not simply. get we still their sum. them Even if world. is discovered. In Interpreting these entities have 'presupposed' the always do not together. to be produced which'" refers which described character and to as "'towards each a work [Wozu]. an indefinite Dasein? if nested number of the Bearing contexts of we have to (as give in already way to equipment larger the successively material. Di e die however. along with it. cycles account darkness of passing natural and this interpenetration the latter and of environment is itself re-admits means shares 'in-order-to' the former Clearly. In itself turn. ready-to-hand the question 71: 1011. is world more an than exceed aggregate the the sum does of its not amount 13 to In a what totality sense in of and more? mind the How the parts. of concerns come across. to even a to effaces devolve is the itself in-order-to world is of take The that a itself upon the for work the that the of most is part. schon ZusanxnenfUgung dieses Seienden doch als ergibt nicht Summe so etwas ESZ 72: 1021 wie hWeltff. beyond public nature ultimately have station "some natural definite account thereby and of the environment. contexts Heidegger's example writing 78 . we within-the-world.

. primary 79 . to worldhood Being-in-the-world. everyday it concern acts Dasein to and described beyond being the possibility the on "for-thecan in the sake-of-which" take following place. to Heidegger the introduces ontological the prior 'involvement' of is a thing said is a in to that [Bewandtnis] has been in as of light this return of describe character act or event referred. immer das Sein 116-1171 84: ISZ Sein dieses geht. »Umwillen« aber »Wozu« ist ein Sein wesenhaft dem es in seinem des Daseins. not itself primary involvement in 'towards-this' an which as something another 'for-the-sakeis 'towards-which' The a is possible. letzlich Die Bewandtnisganzheit ein geht auf selbst aber Bewandtnis hat. of and whose state just is 'towards-which' This belongs. Wozu zurück. the room . the ultimate referential totality. to expands which I shall crucial later. Being. Wobei Dazu primäre einer als mögliches betrifft Das Worum-willen. Weit. whereupon something be world consist "letting going its own involved" of its CSZ 84: 1151.desk. selbst um back itself involvements totality ultimately [TIhe goes of further is there in 'towards-which' no to which a the is not an entity 'towards-which' this with involvement: is belongs to that a Being within kind ready-to-hand what of defined is Being is as it whose an entity rather world. world. bestimmt der-Wel t-sein zu kein Wozu ist Dieses Weltlichkeit primäre gehört.. act event. Heidegger is that referred referential As though explains that as to describe or the ontological structure is of to what say or the ready-to-hand "it has in reference the ISZ of the assignment of 1151. which involvements relation Heidegger passage. selbst Das Bewandtnis. in ). innerhalb als sondern einer dessen Seinsverfassung ist. must be constituted advance. [Ver-weisung] having This on been tells a prior or itself character 83-84: assigned us act that or [Verwiesenheit]" character to explain the term equipment nature of depends such an event. dem es keine bei mehr was des Zuhandenen ist der Seinsart Seiendes in nicht selbst Sein Indessen Seiendes.

being teleological fundamentally taken directly a contingent come to of a stop and the for-the-sake-of relation Dasein possibility and thereby Dasein. Being is essentially an issue. identified associated analogy. But the 'for-the-sake-of' to the Being for of Dasein. The parallel seems with to Aristotle have 1. purposeful is that by virtue the as however. And expect where this is to is to the find similar grounding for being it question what is one we find. of its own the is ending series Rather. two is Indeed. with Nicomachean human being. 14 activity that for-the-sake-of-itself: 80 Iý\IIý . activity not in refer Heidegger being . with therefore. Ethics and the In distinguished leading the of Trp&ýiq. ) of directed itself.. activity. chapters this of passage modelled purposeful that does series final 'link' (towards Nicomachean and grounded Ethics by of pattern. of Dasein's precisely a possibility to an relation of end its and own thus is does it that referential a totality. totality Accordingly. in which. opens then. structure. up referential One. 'lets-something-be-involved' of its that of TEp&ttq. a motif dimension an from everyday is concern.. the a reading characteristic end. towards The beyond follows delimitation the overtly Chapter that thereby of the same referential with the structure we defended activity the final precisely from to it. above On the Dasein strength display a of we might all here. its always Being. a the final been where end is striking on from the the first first.of-which' pertains that very [Worum-willen]. breaking with to the a off brought this constituted by not is first no means simply the constitutive referential -which.

1 11

In the

Chapter

One,

however, Ethics

we discovered to be shrouded First, final terms difficulty
account of

the

presentation in difficulty. recognized the

of

TEP&tiq A twofold that of

in

Nicomachean remained of not activity be

problem relation could alternative
removed,

outstanding. to the in The
on the

it (which

was has

the

end of

form yet no

np&tiq) coherent not
in the

presented

production, was
the

emerged.
by drawing

mitigated,
npok, V, ev relation

though

Metaphysics general that irp&tir, language particular, derived Heidegger structure has way, become or are from the or

and as

linking over

the and

final above to

end

with

np&tic, acts. of of that in the

as

activity

in we saw of on the in

such,

individual the heart

FinallY, formulation

difficulty itself, of since

penetrated the

dominant in general,

influence and of np&ýiq elusive account the

production of terms or of activity that impossible. the

metaphysics renders its

a determination ostensible heavily

are

not If

opposite on given Has his the in

has of of they

drawn human these

fundamental 1, in what some

activity problems?

Micomachean resolved

Ethics them

Heidegger own text?

reproduced

in

Dasein's productive, figure activity. Dasein of

everyday in np&tic Dasein that is the it is is

concern character is invoked

is and, in

manifestly as in the to

instrumental, Nicomachean provide and it a is

that Ethics, basis to the goes that basis for being

is, the that of

order

for-the-sake-of-itself, referential the totality 'for-the-sake-of' thought on

ultimately relation the same

back. must as be the

Consequently, interrogated:

this

relation

81

relations relations ourselves

that

obtain

in

the of

referential productive this matter

totality activity? for Heidegger.

itself, Let us

namely, remind

characteristic what is at stake

in

If

Heidegger from his

presents the

the

for-the-sake-of teleology

relation characteristic do little or

in

terms of

that

are

drawn then the

referential of production being

production, to break the to it

appropriation of of even
depend.

np&(ýtc

.,

will

nothing

dominance

over

ontological to the work of
to

conceptuality; will Dasein
think

understanding permeate
should

appropriate

continue on which
in

the
As a

ontological
result of

determination
such a failure

Dasein

terms

distinct adequate on the

from access ontological

those to

applied the

to

things, of of

Heidegger being, since

would this

fail access

to

secure depends

question

specificity

Dasein.

When to

Heidegger making

describes something

the fast

chain to the

of

purpose construction

that

I inks of of
of

the shelter

hammer and he
a

ultimately
specifies

to
that

the
"this

protection
protection

which
is

is
for

a

possibility
the sake

Dasein,

lum-willen]

possibility any way

of

Dasein"

ESZ 84: 1161. Earlier, I cited

Is

this the

final following

and

crucial

link

in

distinctive?

passage:

ist Das primäre »Wozu« immer das betrifft aber Sein um dieses wesenhaft 'towards-which' [Thel primary 'for-the-sake-of' But the in for Dasein, which, issue. an essentially

ein Sein Sein

Worum-willen. des Daseins, selbst is geht.

Das »Umwillen« dem es in seinem ISZ 84: 1161 ' of is

a 'for-the-sake-of-which. Being to the ah ivays pertains Being that Being its very

82

Up

to

this

point exclusively used as

in the

Heidegger's being for of some

text, a work further

the which,

towards-which as ready-to-hand,

has

designated is in turn

equipment is

end. 15 By contrast, -which "in which there -which of

the is is the This Dasein

"primary" no further

towards-which involvement-" as a form or solely a work. as by 'towards' the

a for-the-sake-of In this way, of of its the

for-the-sake-of the towards-which,

presented work, hardly and is that

modification by virtue demarcation 5ame token,

distinguished represents of the

privileged the

position. being of

radical By the

between if the

for-the-sake-of-which then 5iMply the relation case To

described

"primary"

towards-which, appears to be

designated of this solely sphere where the

'for-the-sake-of' relation the relation of its -

a special of be from equipment. distinguished its to a

obtaining to having within has the

between final been a end

items will

extent, by of its

virtue application usual

extrapolated series 16

proper point

referential suspended.

-

significance

been

The may

words be

themselves distinguished

give from The

no

clear

sign

of

how

these

two

relations to their of in can more

one

another, zu the is

pointing

rather

inter-connectedness. direction connection safely be and with

German and

predominantly appearance of

a preposition IWOZU, that 'um' [cf. here it is

movement the

'in-order-to' in this meaning addition, connotation here; sense. is

structure 17 The

suggests preposition or it 'about' frequently boosted

understood Its Umgangl. ' although it is primary In

problematic. Umwe I t, 'towards, term to

'around'

Umsicht, signifies

however, is as

this

generally in

by

the of

very um-

which

contrasted

Heidegger's

own use

83

zu. or

It

thereby

remains sense and as it of

ambiguously a more

placed diffuse apt of

between spatial in the

an overtly Such of the

kinetic ambiguity umwillen whilst um-

directional be

sense. case to be

might relation, halting zu and

regarded since short

particularly a sense

allows plain

purpose 18 The

conveyed

instrumentality. fixed makes of its in little

difference usage, is to

between nonetheless accentuate contrary,

um-willen, Moreover,

though Heidegger in spite

everyday or no for

slight. the we

attempt him. relation

distinction, find the Being

importance

On the

lum-willen' and Thus, as its Time for by

[for-the-sake-of] expressions

paraphrased the preposition

throughout 'zu' itself

containing being "19

[towards]. is glossed

example, towards

Dasein's itself.

for-the-sake-of-

"being

All

this

suggests of end the are

that relation indeed they referential

the

problems between

inherent acts

in and text.

Aristotle's np&tir, Still account of as as of

presentation the final

individual in Heidegger's to in np&ttq seems np&tiq

repeated pose a

potentially the basis

disruptive, of the

threat

Heidegger's the as to being the formal

totality of also of

Dasein. basis of the form Dasein. from the terms to the of

Moreover, the

Heidegger's structure surround

appropriation of the Dasein coherence on in being the

ontological that

have itself

inherited as a of

problems activity. Yet those the

Heidegger description used to

insists of Dasein the in

ontological so

specificity narrowly not

terms of One, of

distinguished only admits own

describe noted

equipment but Dasein on

incoherencies jeopardizes project of

Chapter

Heidegger's is crucial

the

distinctiveness ontology.

that

fundamental

84

IV

With its

the own

recognition concerns of analysis insofar of how that of as that

that and in

Dasein so the

exceeds doing account

the

instrumental participates an important and it the

world in

of the

somehow makes of in

constitution From an

world, the it is

advance. natural the the of were
these

work-world implicated is is

Dasein that As of aside,
message

environment question outset everyday
simply a

world I

broaches at

world this is
frame

constituted. an aspect set
real

suggested

of

this concern

chapter, that

Heidegger's as though

account it
in

sometimes
to the

theoretical

contained

sections. most is to telling

Yet

nothing rebuttal in

could of

be

further that 'On the

from fail Essence

the to

truth. engage

Perhaps this

the

readings to

question

be found

a footnote

of

Grounds':

der Gebrauchsdinge, Zusammenhang Wenn man gar den ontischen das In-der-Weltder Welt identifiziert des Zeugs, und mit ist dann den Gebrauchsdingen Umgang ausgelegt, mit als sein In-der-WeltTranszendenz der Verst, 9ndnis freilich als ein Daseins(( des Sinne im ))Grundverfassung einer sein 81n] 155n: EVWG-WM aussichtlos. things the ontical If we somehow equate useful of system Being-in-the-world the tools) explain and world with then things, traffic abandon we useful with in Being-in-the-world transcendence as of understanding '20 Dasein. feature 'basic of constitutive sense of a (of as any the

It

is

therefore all as in the to

not

simply

'world' problem "the §914-22 world.
utmost

that of sole is

must

be

addressed, Heidegger of the this
it

it

is goes

above so far

transcendental insist Being and that Time of
the

world. intention" to

Indeed,

the way

analysis for the

contained transcendental
should be

prepare whilst

analysis
taken with

However,
seriousness,

declaration
not be

should

85

attain to this ideas he recognizes the is concept entirely of of that world the doctrine as he by and of object. and of Dasein's anotherresurface border matter. be allowed This is a one the gradually rest present work. and from itself since transcendence could the never relation Moreover. to world. the of intends ideas it. * In The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic Heidegger de5cribe5 the principa and Time sense ISZ of world in but Dasein 22 essentially then as In links such" to the this same terms as in of Being "the to 65: 931. of indication 232-1801 this and of the the metaphysical the theme of essence EGA26 directly connection.understood be the which concern complex over the set aside to mean once that it has the account served its of Dasein's purpose. problem and indeed that of must the we of must world attend and one to 21 transcendental upon. to Plato's order elucidate ideas in spite and Heidegger transcendence link he returns doctrine However. sense thematic transcendence. course implicate. dominated the in idea terms and of that broadly reflected theoretical led and was in of in the intuition. If everyday we to are the concern to can discover manner everyday in locus the of Heidegger's thinking. account the 86 . of of of contained between therein. the doctrine discerns ideas transcendence. to correlation conceptualized between consequent of intuition looking It transcendence as to avert to practical of human a the being relation the matter ultimately order subject reduction problem sought of following transcendence Aristotle's diversity epistemology a more This is Heidegger based in phiI05ophy activity.

Heidegger simply 87 . to the What ease as an follows. even Even less it be packed an ontic into activity. weil sie eben kein ontisches Verhalten ist. easy. praktischen der sei handwerkliches im Sinne gebrauchenden. connection theory Heidegger Aristotle each common case root would an have been that thought well practical aware that one of already whatever In looking is not finds kind for is in in the awareness to intuition activity wedded of (113ga36-1139b2l. of Dasein is to back behind those divisions into go to find their that comportments common root. eine nicht einfach zu braucht. die freilich zurückgehen. Daseins hin ter diese Scheidungen der Verhaltungen in die Wurzel gemeinsame Aufgabe. his sights on Heidegger the immediately of both common root to there Heidegger's and concern practice? therefore Yes. but possible mode of activity prior to 0'pcýi(. also prior The One cannot theoretical rejection however. formalization one. with interesting. aufbürden dem sowenig auch Verhalten. and practice. transcendence into intuition. practice. in either pack the because it is not or the aesthetic sense. precedes every in general. a task need be Transcendence not.passage conception experience. a perilous So wenig man der Transzendenz. which one of a is Platonic particularly turn from emphasis on intuition Attentive to practical is plain. vor der v6qcytr aber auch vor der 11 IGA26 235-236: 1831 opet-Lq. Die zentrale sei es sonst eines. to voqcYiq. between activity alternative closes intuition the basis off that and thinking setting Is transcendence. Aufgabe ist in der Ontologie des gerade. of course. can a be it in an instrumental-utilitarian practical comportment The central task in the ontology sense or in any other. der Anschauung im theoretischen oder ästhetischen Sinne kann. Trenszendenz liegt sein jeder vor möglichen Verhaltensweise überhaupt. intuition might for avenue. - along of of with a warning via is that a the impulse to arrive of at everyday a transcendence whatever kind. but establish is more.

transcendence thought it of be situated transcendence a basis in be modelled everyday maintain Following root of another both remark: explicit OewpeTv and declaration np&tiq. an ontic denies But form. comportment that neither things theoretical provide that if how the can an adequate access can to transcendence in cannot Dasein's any and form of unequivocally ontic on activity? activity. we and shall two passage. achieve a more understanding practical the already towards complex things. of Dasein in nor Accordingly. of Above the all. of everyday experience determinations. that the problem adds is an the common Heidegger apparently surprising 88 . shortly. 6pctiq return structure The in key the to final constitutive the problem lines comportment reference to to which v6rjcTir. Heidegger's criticized that diagnosis inattendance the the ontology. comportment served place enquiry things as Greek the basis philosophical a more secure on that order to that ontology reflect he of proposed Dasein the the towards in the order contribution the that manner Heidegger of this comportment may not to pass the ontological determination it heed Yet activity of seems to the here can things the of themselves ontological its insist5 unnoticed. must the practical determination towards pay world. intuition problem Greek the fact and that practice.seeking he is the aiming common to ground of distinct radical of lies of our in the forms of activity. presents of to for on explicitly world in formidable naivety of of access. In he activity In transcendence of what is ever initial their to be the common root a of both kind. First. footing.

as the root as of an mean has transcendence. How is it that Heidegger having just such by (however ideas root and of np&tiq can refer to Trp&ti(. the good beyond namely. terms of that Heidegger ideas. appropriate something already conception np&tic general theoretical intuition.. which has But occurs -rqc. common 89 . bei Plato Though in Plato transcendence investigated down to was not its the inescapable genuine roots. the pressure of brought to phenomenon light nevertheless the connection between the transcendent intended by the idea and the root of transcendence.Obwoh I di e eigentlichen unausweichlichen Zusammenhang Tr-anszendenten EGA26 237: 1841 Transzendenz Verwurzelung Zwang zwischen und der in ihrer nicht aufgesucht kommt unter dem wurde. der Ph. so there with far is referred a more to only primordial the the to transcendence transcendence. root of here? sense transcendence? With regard to in Plato. than the practical it practical passage signification intuition. lnp&ttq' different declaring So what as repudiated a practical Does fact that activity Heidegger Heidegger to the basis different linked of the for determination? here? The inadequately) hence transcendence intuition not be in Platonic that as a to theoretical should activity must suggests understood opposition theoretical transcendence of Rather. np&kiq. being regard Rejecting idea of I Hlrtxciva o1kriaq]. der Trp&tic. no appears sense the does to aim np&ýiq less in that to be mean somehow activity. does it indeed when have earlier a in above..9nomene der gleichwohl dem der idea Mit vermeinten Wurzel der Transzendenz. comprise Accordingly. gave of it which the Heidegger common In root what a moment OewpeTv np&tiq both is and the np&ýiq.

nicht emphasis mine] den Plato Aristoteles und vor allem als olý das Umwillen. 01 Cvcxo( bezeichnen. IGA26 237: 184 Initial so bzw. passage to the point to the that in the of divert equivocality. anders the described by Plato characteristic and particularly Aristotle 'Cvcx(x. be the cue for might suppose departure. bzw. of Aristotle's However. By alluding to the Aristotelian new note with reading to the entry whilst the of the 'Cvcx<x. later of in the a particularly with Heidegger'5 case connection intepretation 90 .interpretation to see in the of 18ta the good in terms of value. the theory against and which Indeed. that is or is not. as it seems. of the o-u therefore. he has Platonic into there the is the view text some of to transcendence. good Heidegger beyond being not intends through assume later theory of the Aristotelian Plato same form surrounding has reading been wholly to 'r-vsxo(. we should superseded. of this. Heidegger's Aristotle source way in and of is an the so much counter discourse. this we shall chapter course. problematize lead Platonic transcendental Indeed. das worumwillen ist etwas ist. ot') Since Heidegger already introduces voiced one clear an ambiguous reservations account. Heidegger encourages us Tof) o'cv(xOob der Charakter. Plato's in favour adverbial is evidence understated Aristotle ("particularly"). come in supplement This can. target he of deploys the to ideas references and the the paragraph of the example as to 23 across world preci5e of transcendental uncertainty thought not here to speak Rather. the for-the-sake-of as the ob [das -which Umwillenl. the Platonic If. significant ambiguity. ist. on account of which something is in this way or that.

Metaphysical ambiguity Foundations fact is in text. np&tir. the der Wahrheit des the unified understanding possibility of The concrete of question Dasein in concerning the n6Xiq is the for basic Heidegger then this possibility concerned explicitly of precisely the existence with transcendence. and Moreover. of the Sein. this reintroduction by a parallel of that mitigated 'On the (and Grounds' the as merely nearly contemporaneous) 93-951 as it - discussion In this in cannot. elements to the understanding and ursprtinglich-einigen Verstehens von the truth primordial. in The albeit of 01') II F-vex(x favoured by Heidegger re-introduces almost entirely of in connection the theme 186(y Tob 0'(-y(xOob implicitly in a sense that remains over of the Logic np&ýiq this obscure However. is Rather. "concrete of The be the Essence denies interpreted represents regarding of CVWG-WM 160-161: at least not of a more Heidegger can be it ('x-yo(06v the appears It and Plato transcendence the tip of Dasein. by Heidegger describing links as "die transcendence understanding 91 . Three. regards open fundamental Dasein. Part a matter 11. being equated comprises together.&-ycx96v in Ipp. that will be considered in more detail Chapter The Aristotelian with of at the sense Platonic stage. 100-1021. not it taken to Dasein possibility with the amount that specific of Heidegger possibilities truth. that. Grunde der M&glichkeit EVWG-WM 160: 933 of ground of Being. profound because question existence the in basic the as to possibility n6Xiq" IGrundm&glichkeit) EVWG-WM 160: 931.

the it from activity that is. to reading that linking haunts np&tiq the to At whole this of point. into 25 a But that simply sense iT6Xiq it is not self-evident.Urhandlung existence" menschlicher IVWG-WM 160: 93 Existenz-. sense determination transcendence for both terms to The is at in is not Heidegger inference Accordingly. transcendence the proposes of if any the and are n6Xiq the in n6Xiq question once. radicality its and by being. eventual between kind. Heidegger cannot under5tand enter by the here n6Xiq. therefore. part also to attached the of a will depend it understanding that the the very problem that and is. Heidegger proposal of by of reaches such transcendence. as the transcendence to such of of historical that wi thin Opposed question" We a withdrawal transcendence Heidegger should be full given "concrete n6Xiq. primordial activity of human It seems. on true thinking significance. the in customary order to we should sense refer to avoid prevail the or temptation of of either that of the link an allowing entirely to the suspending Heidegger's of understanding transcendence. trans. the modified). already raising respective connected link by contributes its political questions with transcendence signalling are that the of one politics essentially another. the the of what that of roots Heidegger the the it regarded question concrete within the of Plato as having by diminished severing primordial intuition: site implies traced con5ideration transcendence of of the Dasein's in situation realm from confining isolating 24 theoretical n6Xiq . one might implicit wish pose of a question by Heidegger's np&ýiq: 92 .

Dasein's of the this activity. registers. provide so each Dasein's engagement to betray ontic and linked Dasein's an and susceptible possibilities regard intrinsically tendency theology it is these to as (a into what is essential as of drift conservatism distinct in 'realms. it ultimately Everything If it needs depends were the a more to be sophisticated the situation concern. association effect. 93 . to be even articulated is if. 'realms' other-worldly of But that if in question? the sense This would to point 'activity' towards -a a more profound re-evaluation it must be of said.transcendence. in as I believe to be the case. attached re-evaluation. The errant proper suspicion line sphere that of of Heidegger by may have the is been seduced of and into pursuing outside to be an its taken thinking application deployment credible language deserves seriously. exceeds grounds for is in on what ontic founded. ontological for considered of since there realm. were the could of tendency the basis not be suspicion this things initiative. 'translate' the idiom of the and of does moreover Heidegger one that with not is the of lapse into a confusion by is. the their ' the ontological ways the into delimitation rather situation than addressing of same that as precisely reiterates the enquiry the Aristotelian divine these two metaphysics being). Similarly. suspicion region if to realm everyday would by it be well transcendence would insofar with be as definition. of the in to into dangerously political it compounded realm? This transcendence fundamental the language question of what means for Heidegger Aristotelian practical philosophy ontology. understood the world However. manner.

simply enact the movement constitutive of its ground Ipp. transcendence a risk to the language is comport of which Heidegger that promoting impres5ion Dasein can 2061. immune. prior vor voqcric.that is a prerequisite is deployed ontic might the npo(ýiq. of indeed understand the the not Urhandlung of Dasein gain form (np&tiq) in access of the to activity associates we still that with face is transcendence problem modelled what such 1p. i. that Heidegger In short. e. possible prior also mode of activity to O'pet-Lq. Lr. 205- To place how are this we back to in the context the of the passage under consideration. 871. We are significance. here lies their of on such an As in how n6Xiq? to a conception mean. vor EGA26 236: 1831 Transcendence general. jeder möglichen auch aber Verhaltensweise der Opeeir. vor in every precedes but to v6gaiq. two lines. activity. 1 in Aristotle's nature choice [npo(xipscr-. to key and up&(ýiq of an ontic a understanding rejected earlier is to doing appreciate conception in the could Heidegger which to now we what in a expressly referred Heidegger position approach I passage the suggested the final then. This above remark all to seals Aristotle discussion the claim here. of the that for it Heidegger is of an is addressing himself to the unmistakable reference r. for in the defusing 'wrong' as as the suspicion that activity (or warning np&t.. wholly evidence of However.. namely. 94 . liegt Transzendenz der überhaupt. ) against register. the of model his Heidegger's for being with taking activity be taken association does that understanding alert to this of not transcendence danger.

or kind. by possible in np&tiq may understood transcendence. "concrete of Dasein seen. therefore. have such will di5torted the tradition in which it is embedded that it may not be accessible 95 . intellectual Human defined I opetIc being by 26 is the understood conjunction precisely. vobq and which intellect being More oipXý is to say. and is the a principle desire. not only Heidegger. as asks 'what the source as to belonging his account together of of such may be thought seeks vobq related original a unity? radicalize transcendence. here of human as an 6'(pXrj. prior we recall problem access two outlined earlier. change. and 8petic. St6 Ifil 'rl' o'pcxcix6(. conveys the the be a conception the in a basic more be np&tiq concerning the a possibility original so existence as we n6X-Lq" conception However. human o'pctLq at even Heidegger understanding desire] order If opcýiq being 6pexTix6q [desire of the If [intellect to unity the related intellect] of voZq and/or to arrive Si(xvorju-txý a determination to their separation.Micomachean (xpXrl o II Ethics 11139a32-1139b7l. senses First.. united? ' but that understand . we which there question in can now see may that be there are as of in the principle root of that of manner.10: must their opcýiq 11 432b27-433a321. activity is born To vobr out of the union activity. also 'how the are nature vouq of understand conjunction.. to be however. but not is of vouq and o'pct'tq one of and their '27 In the to in and of IDA. 111. ý votq npouipea-Lq co'L(xl3-crl (')'CvOp(A)no4. of of of activity. x(xi Hence choice appetition. . OfpXý is and either man is appetitive a principle il' 6'pcýiq intellect of this Siorvorjxixý.. " Aristotle Having concludes: described choice as "the action Enp&ýewql. rather they then.

be modelled conception ontic merely of point activity. original of as and np&ttq. through "destruction GA24 of 951. if. describes existence" transcendence. as Bernasconi suggests. texts. [Destruktion] However. understands [Urhandlung] depend consider briefly (P. it.at all. the radicalization in Heidegger's it must place from o'psýiq however. 911. of 'ontic' departure radicalization the conjunction of be of np&tiq associated vou-q proper with and to the with O'pcýlq. conception form the transcendence Rather. depart. look which as conjunction Aristotle 96 . will the for the describes ontology" Heidegger's an is of that on npRiq I (')(pXg. (Indeed. activity everything Before turning let the us will to Heidegger human nature it the vobq takes point and of the "primordial Clearly. radicalization tradition. with Heidegger's outcome what of on the how at of of thinking. radicalization. the conception of in the of this does this manner the not np&tiq conception Heidegger history mean directly of of its tradition. itself. such this sense then and is of the as conception have if been ever point. 28 If we own this are to identify it will that as a conception therefore is. a trace to 1FDP 1171-) a more recover of be - connection departure in lead as ISZ the back the 96 & thought only transcendence. namely. the language of metaphysics then will the such only second in point it will of appears then a is fundamentally will appeared Heidegger with must be - structured never as is his can The the have by its suppression accessible Yet.

generally be conflicting only rational one of realization with the impossible by correspond soul course indicated With to part disdain. third other addition. with those one and 6'petiq what is another slavishly To to do so that might by the the "preferring transcend this some before to a cattle" must ENE. namely.. 1: 1095bl9-221. the X6-yoc. 433a26-281. Aristotle one describes associated recognizes with a it. because contrary. whose another.V Although opckt(. more intimate. simply and characteristically fundamental altogether relation between vobq In soul and what is the does not this simply not. constantly strive one is must a task one bovine ongoing of all for existence. prevalent relation The importance that overlies O'pcýiq misconception. 111: 443b5. in they desires which of the will it Aristotle is defines important with if joint one only to human realize being that On there would the as a conjunction are by for co-exist and the no of vouq and they means the most always part concordance are not. intimacy split In consist? into two As parts. characterized way. [DA. human in this human is however. success: times.. Aristotle one's us are overcome with is prefer capacity most what 'fully' is more human measure us say at that speaking. to the X6-yor . conflict. Aristotle 97 . who decline as uncompromising bring vobq Aristotle into only characterizes conformity a life for one and being Strictly being existence potentially of a our crude dumb yet human animality. a to accomplish amongst the most of the a is even ruminative even sense 29 This entirely highlights beyond the aspirant avoiding companions. in Thus.

to the X6yoq and Aristotle part of the declares soul that himself has prepared X6yoq in the faculty stronger should speak of the appetitive part of the too. V. co-ordination betokens If we consider of that the voZr. 11102bl3-141 reason. ). defined X6yoq (for relation primarily to but be to by its by its capacity capacity to the 31 to hear. obedience and a O'pcý. Lr common co-ordination alone However. while civcxil. receptive of This part of the as soul it is is not the seat indifferent of 6'psýiq. pursue j in it which the conjunction of course requires object each affirm the same 11139a2l-321. to and it participates can to take allocate in account this sense. example and o'petiq faculty of was choice initially or Enpoulpsair articulated.possibility. inasmuch of it. to follow from the or or pay attention to X6Voq no to equally depart is not disregard as having unresponsive it whatsoever). 6-yo4. it be the rational that is soul as rational will part divided in two: one rational in the proper sense of the word itself. part that i5 which is initially of Xo-yo4. The conjunction of vobq and O'pctiq therefore hinges 98 . Opetiq is therefore an intermediate and indeed indeterminate faculty. formation fact horizon. however. introduced as a subdivision of the independent there seems to be another (X irrational ["X6'yo(. Indeed. X6-yoq It would same be undoubtedly fruitful explore by which further Aristotle the or the various describes of such analogies the of hearing and of filial voik. But element is in the of a sense soul which.. the in in the that and other sense a child pays to its father. 11103al-4]30 attention one If.

above the

all o'pcxu6v

on

their

mutual

object, IGA33 the

namely, 152).

that

which

is it

to is Yet

be that this,

done, forof we

-np(YxT6v Xc-y6gevov -which one acts, or

Ultimately, the final

the-sake-of course, strike
in which

ou' 'cvcx(x,

end.

is the

el')Saigovia fundamental

clýwpcxtioc For
united,

11139a35-1139b5l, TEp&ttq,
is

whereupon lipoccipzcriq,

horizon.
are

and

therefore
to be

voi5q

and

O'pst-tr,

always

understood

from

the
and

perspective
o'psýiq lies

of
in

doing
the

well.
': Et')' of

The

basis
'

for
that

the
is,

conjunction
in virtue,

of

vobq

'cimp(xti(x,

&pc-Eý.

Aristotle

defines

6(pccý

as

a,

a

fixed

di5po5ition

by

virtue

of

which manner, vobq about cultivated form ýcir, E: form by into for actually

one

has

the well

potential 11106a12 principle existence by the will the

to &

act

consistently

in The

a

particular of

namely, o'pcttq the and

1106b36-1107a2l. we have of been

conjunction is not

and by

whose mere

tracing rather, so be that

brought must come various whatever disclosed brought horizon itself be to

&pcToei: individual may her of

these they the

assimilated Once con okpp-, within ('xpeTo(!, with one

the

her the the the

character. ethical takes

individual channel parameters vobq 32 the e'tciq. and In

ascribed

desires the

towards situation are thereby the

Good intellectual

and

6'peý-tq this way, the

conjunction this

another.

whilst conjunction

conjunction occurs by virtue

remains of the

Good,

It

may

be to to

objected consider final relation in which

that how end. to vobc

the the After the

account conjunction all, our

so

far of

has voi5q

conspicuously and o'pctiL(; concerned by their is

neglected related precisely the manner

the the

initial is this

question not

'e'vexof and ou' and o'pcýic,

determined to

.,

themselves

relate

99

respective The question

objects? is is one to the

Have indeed good could an

we

not

therefore one having we have that

digressed cannot the

unnecessarily? be route two overlooked. we have. of to runs of

important for that of the to to a have view and

However, Effectively, relation the the the points.
another,

there

reason say that of then

taken

identified of vobq

forms O'pcýiq so, favour important to

'end' and

:

conjunction the &-yo(06v.

and done in two

ob

ievsx(x,

that

Having former

objection, latter. First,
and

we seem However, the
may

neglected fails the to

the

such ob
both

recognize

'F-vz: x(x
be

&-V(x@6v are
as cA)Scxigov!

equivalent
(x or

one

defined

clýnpcxti(x.

Consequently, Second, ekiLq, have the by no a insofar former

the as

two the

relations conjunction is astray. grasp

are of

linked vobc, in the

by and latter. the

their o'pcýiq

common depends

end. on we moved and

relation gone profound

grounded On the of the

Accordingly, account has

means more end.

contrary, relation

towards the final

between

activity

Given therefore account to in

that be of the

the able

key to

to find

this

conjunction to does f rom 1p. 911. Heidegger the

lies term

in in

we Heidegger's such

should own

reference Heidegger

transcendence. course of the

indeed 'On

make the

a reference of that Grounds' Plato's of which described existing in a link the we

very

passage

Essence there

which

we have of of with "Urhandlung of

already the the

referred led the This

We found to the of

presentation possibility associated as the the

&y(X06v truth of

question being, was then all

understanding understanding at which the we root

transcendence. of human on the

existence" basis of

of

midst

beings,

linked

discerned

too

between reading

transcendence of the passage.

and It

nPcitiq. concludes:

At

that

point

we

broke

off

our

Das oryocMv M&glichkeit ist m4chtig 160: 931 Thus

ist

diejenige nun Wahrheit, von und zwar aller is all that

icýiq Verstehen drei in

(MUchtiSkeit), und Einheit

die der des Seins sogar EVWG-WM zumal. is master which and even of

the agathon the of possibility being, indeed of

hexis [M.Ychtigkeit] truth, of understanding, three together at once.

By

equating

the formulation

(')(-Vo(06v directly of to which the

with

ieýiq, "the

Heidegger most objective

condenses of and, that

the

Platonic

dryo(96v as must then

objects" taking the

EVWG-WM 161: 951 his cue
is

one

have

a relation, implies

from

Aristotle's
nothing

practical
but this

philosophy,
relation:

I (x,y(xO6v

essentially

Das

des o'(-Vo(06v IieSt ývzxc( seiner selbst als oU die Quelle von M&glichkeit the

Wesen

M. 4chtigkei t Trans. I das Umwillen ist als von... es EVWG-WM 161: 951 als solcher.

in

der

The essence of Trans. I of itself is the source it

lies in its [hexis: agathon mastery the sake of. as hou heneka; as the for as such. Of Possibility

Perhaps Aristotelian fashion. discussion its

nowhere paths The of fact

else of that

in

Heidegger's meet passage of not has ideas as

writing one

do

the in

Platonic so crucial of

and a a

thought this

another in that

occurs demands the

the

course

Plato's sense that

theory and Heidegger of

we take np(XXT6v. with the of role voZq

&-y(x06v in Ye t respect played and the to by

absolute

o'(-y(x06v raised moreover

reservations Plato's in that lies

already and the

treatment Aristotle's at

transcendence account of of

conjunction own

6pcý i c. of in its

the strongly

root

Heidegger's that

interpretation be read

transcendence

suggest

('Y-y(x96v cannot

101

absolute that the

sense,

at

least to &-VocMv

not letir, must this

unequivocally and the ou

so. 'evex(x be removed addition but

Rather, add taken from the to an

it

would Aristotelian the

seem

references and Yet not to not

perspective np(xx-c6v. the

accordingly is too but the
to

as the sense the

&ya96v of as

only be

is

far in

context of 'Cýir,

discussion is

plausible, to

mastery
and is

attributed
irreducible

individual
the strictly

6 OCY (Y66v itself
notion of a

therefore

Aristotelian

human
I cx-y(x86v

disposition.
consists in

As
our

the

ob

'evex(x,
to it.

the
Yet

for-the-sake-of
at the same

-which,
time, it

the
is

relation

not
.r

something is the

that source

is of

possessed all

in

one's

existence. that is, of the the

Rather, source truth

the of of

olý all the it that or his

evexcx our

possibility, the we have possibility called that of of it

possibilities, of

including being the any it in that

understanding is precisely

transcendence. lets itself or beings

Indeed, appear idea in

because rejecting

o'(-yo(06v is construal terms

which as

Heidegger, value, 1931/32

a being, Thus,

describes lectures

mastery writes:

power.

on Plato,

Heidegger

Das

6'ryo(06v, und Unverborgenheit als solchem die Sein das wie sowohl was Erm&chtigende dieses Wesen erm&chtigt, (&-y(x06v). ... 33

Gute,

das

is

demnach

Erm6ýglichung Besser solcher. als Unverborgenheit zu ihrem die nennt Flaton

von Sein gesagt: eigenen das Gute

the making therefore of possible the 6'rycx@6v, is The Good, in words, other such; as being uncoveredness of as such and their in like proper being, uncoveredness, masters what Good the this Plato mastering names and essence, (o'cy(3(66v) .... &-ya06v a disposition absolute. to 'Cýi(; nor it thereby simply would a be

The

interpretation neither of

of simply the

the

with

regard of If

concerns characteristic

Dasein, anything,

orV(xO6v as

102

more but

correct rather our

to

say relation

that to

'eýiq ground.

names

not

our

acquisition

of

virtue,

We have

seen

that

Heidegger'5

interpretation

of

np&tiq

as

the

root

of

transcendence and o'petic, are

depends united

on a radicalization in the is relation cemented that to

of the by the

the final 'etiq

manner end. (as of

in

which that

vo-uq in

Given an ýýiq

Aristotle, disposition), itself meaning sha II become of return

this it the is

uni ty not

ethical should the full We its

surprising of Heidegger's

concept

focus

attention. is still

However, somewhat Four, in

Heidegger's to with the potentiality we must once through discussing at of there the will

interpretation issue of or pass course the by of 'Ctiq power way that of

obscure. where more of been detail. npRiq.

in will the

Chapter be traced

connection First Indeed, and just shall

however, only

radicalization has in the

radicalization of the Eýiq next

examined we have we as a our and of

carried been

occurence clear. In

passage

become Heidegger's the of light Platonic factical the

chapter, of

therefore, movement Moreover, to uo(pio(

look

understanding existence relative on what of priority appears to of

determination consideration ýpp6vrIcTiq Aristotelian reading. will

Dasein. accorded be a

shed and

convergence in Heidegger'5

lines

interpretation

103

precedent Division one way One need for of the Being no hermeneutics and Time. One NE. of an more that interpretation and this is Indeed. than of it the of to on and facticity would be Heidegger tempting Ethics. reading Readers of who that q)p6vqcriq 104 . be importance accurate also draws text it Heidegger. Vl of is the most of important the relation questions between raised by Heidegger's and cyoTi(x. the focal further would. for as from in that no look further the lVicomachean this regard resources diminishing however. understood We have can Aristotelian if it seen is in or in the Metaphysics. we discovered fundamental np&tiq. the implicit generally practical approached Chapter problematize previous affecting chapter response Micomachean movement I neglected philosophy via One the that the chapter the shall to this Ethics change message can Physics themes Aficomachean that only and from of be Heidegger's adequately reading.Chapter Three PIR?0NESIS'. SOPHIA AND TBE MOVEMENT OF FACTICAL EXISTENCE If one were to seek an Aristotelian presents to suppose Whilst in it point afield. the already illuminate Metaphysics Moreover. In of his Aristotle's Heidegger inherits incoherency the present Aristotelian argue problem approaches in the that conception the lies the in text and distinctiveness the way via Heidegger's of account the of reading and Physics Metaphysics. a of Ethics.

by in his Heidegger strategy and overall relation the In the of human 'destructive' reading of we shall see Sections for First. of distinguish how a of positive various recovery Indeed. this recovery of form addition. the of by their to be of Gadamer the Does of theory? for the dismayed (PPO V rjCF Iq. causing qualified. I Heidegger's from early (pre-1925) of facticity. emphasis this ethical Clearly. of determination given by a new to cro(pi(x of (pp6vncriq enjoyed recovery scholastic complexity. anthropology later.have interest been in by led to Heidegger's or Arendt interpretation tend. twofold significance of level be Dasein. of as to the try claims the np&t-tq (pp6vquiq. reading indifference shall and with repeat and. modern. with places the of some Aristotle justification. texts envisage 1 The philosophy as inseparable denotes a hermeneutics expression 'facticity' 105 . incompatible necessarily reading of np&tiq to croýploc is as a is to priority that priority ao(pio(. Heidegger not preclude and on cyoT! o( at recovery np&tiq by on expense a radical understanding primacy of np&tiq political our own reinstating the the of given emphasis of importance we cannot ontological determination Da5ein. afford chapter to to ignore this of problem the and concerns of I shall aroused and devote by Section Heidegger's In 11 of this a review to to the apparent response. priority the of aoýpi(x significantly a means of of cro(pi(y provides on offsetting views influence being. own III his the impulses of Heidegger's is not led show np(-Xtiq is of IV.

the being the hermeneutics life the way articulation und factical in Angesprochenand which Ausgelegtseins: and to addressed to interpreted" such trace takes existential place. factical of life. working is as ISZ of it must. facticity logic. 106 . The ontology of of facticity. an ontology of interpretation categorial of interpreted. every it in bit begin? hermeneutic being must to as it circular and Time question 27-281. in Heidegger not have describes already its which it Being an Yes.the selbst ontological da of im its is the character Wie seines being" of Dasein as Seins: 71. and to the understanding is to be unreliable. Yet is is directed indeed as towards how. that is being itself which there to "ist in its and ihm the own this - eigensten EGA63 the manner existence concerns transitiv: factical is Wie case thus des ownmost encapsulated way in Dasein's of is its relation being-there. relation means presuppositions. and it the 7-8: to out the structures The of for order the If its critical it where. As die Philosophie ist als Ontologie kategoriale Interpretation des das heifit Logik. vigilant maintain to a hermeneutic above history all of this its remain it must presuppositions. logic. zugleich Auslegens. e. transitive: of "im it "Sein being facticity jeweiligen is in each das life! to " follow faktische EGA63 71. in manner life sein!: of of which factical Leben The task actually - lived. categories according an articulation Das hei. EPIA 2471 philosophy being-addressed der Faktizitiyt Ansprechens und is thus and the being- facticity. 6t. i. is enquiry reached logic? begins understanding indeed imprecise must that 'life' although begin deciphering with improved.

conceptual theology Looking vocabulary and thus still Scotus. in especially. goes on to say and itself that the philosophical all drew justice turn. critique Biel. EPIA 2491 heutigen Situation des Menschen. of in Heidegger Kant. Expanding anthropologies theology the was on this. Luther of Gregor deploys and this the on a to Schelling which Lutheran and Hegel did rooted reformation. ultimately does not claim Heidegger anything 107 . die Christliche Daseins gezeitigt With der Idee bewegt bei der sich der Lebensideale. to the idea the ideal life regard of man. we have has a so but long ramified lost history and of embracing confused the most term's obvious. Augustine Occham. the Fichte. in that a context we no where of seems Lebensauslegung and fundamental longer to is 'life' clear fully is at concepts. understand today least explanations if the However. almost late-scholastic entirely from inherited Aristotle. to be doing In theology from spelling new.To take the many has present variations history case. and Gabriel Paul his late-scholastic von a Rimini). the 1922 sense attached Heidegger uncertain. that perhaps moves 'life' Indeed. further. philosophy fostered by stands at the fringes of fundamental experiences Greek the Christian idea ethics and above all of man and of human Dasein. about the 'Introduction' that must formative influences be re-traced: Die Philosophie Ansetzung der Seinsvorstellungen Grunderfahrungen. of of (Duns scant In "immanent inspired possibilities" by his reading teaching. of and the today representation of the being of human life. and all track it genealogy. of the term meaning. der Lebens in Auslgufern vom menschlichen von die die Ethik greichische und vor allem Idee des Menschen des und menschlichen haben. the questions EPIA 2491. that become Even. Aquinas out On Bonaventure history.

it has it is he widely adds. and dominant releasing hidden tendencies its implicit reasons. he to overriding. of the he familiarity with of acknowledges of the this that history. the The hermeneutic the explication. covered tradition 108 .contrary. and. be carried of Heidegger out in he This and is the in the life hermeneutic strategy [Abbaul most of with reading or history philosophy "de-construction" is presented Problems with "destruction" in Being [Destruktion]. of these outlined he or neglect Thus. by its task only way of achieves die As lie we have already in discovered. it as has a never Yet in spite worked the of a been through problematic care deserves been to of of consequence.. and Time ESZ §61 so firmly completely Phenomenology texts the that EGA24 951. readers much Indeed. im Rückgang den und abbauenden zu Motivquellen Explikation der ursprünglichen vorzudringen.. into that facticity worse. Aristotle. to intends been return over openly Rather. sometimes earlier. are by these the for by the sources to of the primarily life sources hermeneutic Heidegger. the the 2 In allowed remedy factical the dwindle commonplace proposes conjunction calls strategy The it fact 1922 aim to Basic associated that that or order this life situation. of original sources 3 destruction. and directions of forward de-constructively interpretation back to and push .. Die Hermeneutik bewerkstelligt ihre Aufgabe nur auf dem Wege [PIA 249 My emphasisl der Destruktion. factical Heidegger strategy that the 'Introduction' break down proposes up hermeneutic open laufzulockern] überkommene Ausgelegtheit ihren und herrschende nach Motiven. Tendenzen verdeckten unausdrücklichen und Aus 1egungswegen. the traditional interpretative form. no means very factical textual accessible.. to recognized. regarded which they he have whose as Heidegger significance 4 believed for Yet.

Hergestelltsein: occasion For if Heidegger the of But on very are important rooted in fundamental production. understanding into within regards on conflict it our Heidegger of those with left present prepared At own worse we is shall not by challenge this as he parts may principles. anthropology and the that be Aristotle's sought in his philosophical politics on ethics. das 109 . that an have archeology remained moments philosophical unthought. experience Weg dem einer auf in die Grunderfahrung Hinsichten in bestimmte die Forschung. place. long therefore In the first be beginning has continued and tradition almost entirely of philosophical within of that move parameters tradition To this analyses firm adequate its of sources understanding as one to can requires extent. the understanding experience being-produced" an additional of 'human of production. principles. soul alone. stands anthropology set by at attaches to the that his as it is have to a Aristotle twofold of to an of a could basis.to which they of gave decisive rise and the in task is one of history recovery. EPIA and life' 2531. The said. customary bring resources text. Aristotle's or text other see to discovers of the untapped problem. In the 1922 ' Introduction' claim on the that basis being also Heidegger the of Greek the means makes structures they arise includes an early of statement being of was "Sein Heidegger's established besagt this step. significance somewhat Aristotle Heidegger schematically. influence works As him simply is a matter also returning to times first the even However. Vorhabe bestimmte nimmt und es in durch eine Seinsfeld gebrachte diesen artikuliert. a grasp achieve.

us Heidegger's from the reading place Nicomachean Ethics within questions arising Tp6vgcriq and croqI(x reading. of Bewegtseins.Forchungen deren Gegenstand also. mUssen den m6glichen ZuSang Motivquelle zur eigentlichen der aristotelischen Ontologie Solche Forschung Liegt vermitteln. The significance the the phenomenon and it. engaged the begin Sections by in Heidegger's been by the phenomenon to III assess and never the but VI thought of the turn radically. in the Die ist Heidegger production factical to Wie EPIA history hermeneutics enhanced through Physics to the exposes to life central the form by back and referring to the influence the of ontological of the experience structures or rather of of criticism directly phenomenon by in the movement. manner of of Seiende being-moved" for for im seines 2511. and Metaphysics influence first and that to let IV. is has movement thereby the the view philosophical of facticity fact We that shall in of of anthropology. intended enquiries. whose object are and [Bewegtseins] in which experienced from the as a being-moved like is also outset something movement given. Ito . erfahren und vermeint des Bewegtseins. "das its phenomenon the addressed being of Physics. in der vor des Aristoteles. EPIA 253-2541 )Whysikff that takes course of an enquiry in and articulates the field [Seinsfeld] specific respects brought to of being fore-having [Vorhabel by way of a fundamental a particular The experience. im Charakter in dessen Was im Vorhinein ist mitgegeben so etwas wie Bewegung. are therefore to provide the to the possibility of access motivational Such an enquiry is to be sources of Aristotelian ontology. found in Aristotle's Physics.

cr.5 Of particular of interest Nicomachean here are the VI last three of from these.Factical characteristic in the life consists of the in things are the with Angesprochenseins which and therefore Dasein is and Ausgelegfseins that is. bound up facticity of truth. uo<pi 0( voucý - verrichtend-herstellendes hinsehend-besprechend-ausweisendes fürsorgliches eigentlich-sehendes reines Vernehmen [PIA Sichumsehen Verfahren Bestimnen (Umsicht) Verstehen 2551. VI . Heidegger translates . distinct disclosive dispositions understanding the with of the problem question sense as us unconcealment. securing are via ways intellectual things towards are dispositions given to Dasein understood Dasein's the comportment as follows: them. by in the way things account addressed facticity of Heidegger's interpreted amounts of Dasein. The place to its concerned. first specific truth in ontological to an explicit If of articulation we recall as the modes disclosure of of Dasein.cexvrl ýu1. the Heidegger's predominant reading Ethics departs III . thereby and In this that by be or truth truth. original emerges brings book. ' as own five intimately to Heidegger's reading five truth where Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle the mind describes attains intellectual (1139bl5-181. which distinct taking conveyed Accordingly.rýIin <pp6v9cr-Lc. into by care' the the ways in stem various which is supplemented 'wahr' to connotation of '. the primary by suggest the dispositions These meaning are of [S'ýF-iql said 'secural of to Verwahrungen.

to the totality is and Heidegger's of its denotes a that form Dasein's of selfcome one's in in of the relation relation. that to therefore individual model as treats is at produce. TtXvq manner we have of which a modification that that is obtains held relation case by of the that dxpXý of which TýAoq. agent into -ctXvr) to to the the advance the raw must the of she then govern the formation One relates could the This material describe agent adapted once its leads the object to actual knowledge sets out result. with with that concerned one's well-being 1 (X a whole cl') Cqv idiom. relation such approach models and exclusive 112 .6 cDp6vr)<T-tq is to it the things is the disposition are not of good with Dasein In and a as that bad single ensures for human region Ic6 sound beings" of reasoning 11140b7l. that S 1ý7EPO(t 11140a281. intellectual truth view may that initiated virtues. activity.1143bl5-171. according with the to five which there are by less and five which common croT 1(y. to regard existence. identified Instead. it Though "in relation Moreover. be attained. into that things dispositions to the Heidegger two of the virtues.reading. a form he of or -rtxvn. there to the or by Aquinas. but is. in essentially of is the the relation image the (pp6vqcriq as to usual objects. The and the as work case material not reflexive is is. by treating Because self-relation and in the finished simply oneself Tý:Xvq an (hence raw article. its primarily a piecemeal 'so"t'on essentially from context. adheres are only Tp6vgcyi q part of with corresponding the admit that calculative of are division practical and the rational the soul faculty scientific (concerned faculty things with variation) invariable) (concerned 11139a5-15. O'Xwql.

is [Gestelltseinl self-transparency. (Pp6vrlcyic. the situation end. 'tig a of of hurnan "8 "a Dasein in solches verfüge having-been-set-in-place 1 hold which sway over my Dasein's Handlung itself" upon the self in -transparency sich 531 durchsichtig and of the arises macht: transparency to only makes of make or insofar an activity an the activity as (ppow1cric.r10c1GE: . designs the within each agent the amounts This of is thing. characteristic above when all distance representational activitY translation -a relation point of proper worth -riýXwrj and in mind of precede reading Heidegger's Aristotle's ýppovrjcrt(. 11140bI71 through in from its to bearing definition the (ppowlair. daß ich darin über die Durchsichtigkeit IGA19 521 meiner selbst«. a which of moment individuation EGA19 (Dp6vrjci (. of choice has case and does accomplished Enpo(x1pecriq] (pp6vrlcrLq of does not the articulation have np&tlq_7 object Consequently. transparent itself of is of "eine in EGA19 depends activity of course capacity by or way. its because 03(pXý and and act situation to its not be activity in in the itself and activity.10 10'AgOcibeiv] over to proper itself to in Tp6vncriq.. (X). which the &pXý accessible the in 'elP this 'evevy ou' itself. impose begin -ciLXoq one's with lie in contrast. 113 ..of consciousness on this form By that of begin relation with are a conception inevitably does not to of self-consciousness by on the the problem capacity it does based of to not its dogged depend the same both solipsism). to it final 9 Securing the same (x'-y(x96v npcxxr6v sees by how activity Dasein accomplish is at the disclosure time delivered 1501.. Gestelltsein des menschlichen Daseins.. and. as (Ppovqaiq which such. the securing ýpp6vqcyir. 11140b201 Die E: -tic ist des epovrlcrig »ein eine Lv.

cases. experienced does not physician Callias or except such Socrates 1981a17-20. knowledge thought was to some other cf . because In effect. where knowledge of activity be at instead with introduced comparison acquaintance knowledge to those experience a certain alone ability knowledge out the in will 1980b25ff]. master they comprises were not and to be be done experience. also individual who happens ZO(P 1(Y craftsmen could tell be a man" both commonly only the what scope NENI: 1141b18-221. 11 why.. Aristotle's Nicomachean way whose of most Ethics complete but with with in account the of (70(pi(x is to be it found is not in the by Metaphysics. is restricted Those to with This the theoretical respect is a disadvantage from experience. universals. and field generally derives deals individual an incidental name. cro(pi(x things on desirable own account on account 114 .therefore. whereas "the but to whose because theoretical eye cure or picks man. wise but precisely also Accordingly. existence situation designates that in which is not one a relation mediated so to the much totality as of one's by own the precipitated finds oneself. i) to as that the the a widest point of cro(pi(x possible departure off all of not grasp is from things. teach their fundamental iv) results. Aristotle extends of this common horizons. them: rely of comprehensiveness sets of out four which other Aristotle forms without mark knowledge having learn iii) able and a [982a8f detailed that ao<p6c knows with and each does though ii) on the the acquaintance are difficult a more causes: of its cro(p6q can senses and its is alone: better things the to not cro(p6c has . and way. from the conception and this from specific pursuits serves features 1.

bei emphasizes. nothing or vom Seienden EGA19 ['Cx(xcrTov]. apprehends passion of things (the obstinate is not dull encyclopaedic a and that the paragon Autodidact sagacity). such grasped to oder things wenig an Sartre's from the it and of Aristotelian nature can of of be Apart somewhat presupposes itself. presenting disclosed via upon With study. primacy discussed and reflected in reading linked connection with <YoTi(x understood interpretation as as such. the notion as of and formal further ' However. 1. as sich: 1. by are Xc-y6Acvov] involvement back the that conferred 88-891. instead the a Heidegger reading [O'Xov its Xo-yo(. The path the being in the authenticity along which of its being is uncovered thus from the x(YO' e'x(x(TTov. to the xo(06Xou. fully is in However. this with a thing we this.1029b8 whereas: ataOcuiq discloses Der Weg auf dem das Seiende Seins aufgedeckt wird. ýp-yov underlined At of approach being in general of the or np&ýiq the activity the Ch. across goes this traversal.11. of only beings the themselves" particular 84. vom xotO' zUMI seines durch xa06Xou. The term 'x(x06Xou' deliberately of x(xO6Xou and in to was philosophy was as by a as is usually avoids at once integral totality this the rendered expression.1 designation.The case f irst by of case in these in a does feat not of Nausea mean that the ao(p6r. geht dieses hindurchschreitend. 115 . EGA19 861 in der also gSTO(PUiVoV' Eigentlichkeit icxo(crcov. geTc(Po(Ivov. which. a Seiendheit. In of brought $universality' in This human in first recurrent in Ch. 2. totality character EGA19 theme of by 'universal. Heidegger conveys For primary access nichts (xYcT0F-cTiq. impracticable the particular mode "tr6gt little undertaking.

es sich the o'q(x96v via a being of its in completion that is determination but a nothing Insofar the a as rý: Xoq. with to cro(pi(x (second begins However. what. it Heidegger's liegt: from particular able their of what to see lies its translation to hand" openly soon "12 "vor leads 1982b13. Seinsbestimmung Sofern ist. itself to it belongs x9Xoq. central problem this interest of abiding in concern world. In the things. concern horizon not as and point). point way requires in which a closer it look at the nature to having and this becomes Aristotle accessible for knowledge. of appear. able to Returning the beings. if arises in from the Heidegger's transcendental is to gain an to and this the world. 1261. der Dasein to ao96q impulse particular Greek GA19 np6xctpot.bottom. fertig in seinem Seiendes geworden TtXoq IGA19 1231 cl. accounts if in Hand strenuous point). ein ist es so. . geh&rt. but pass proximally thus better according on knowledge first they Explication of the of ' 06v Orv(X In the fourth the regard. shown Heidegger applauds ist eine dap des &-VotMv nichts als anderes das TiLXor bestimrnt das durch des Seienden. to of they is away the is to everyday from things principles are (third the "greater the totality things. wie of the being being reaches and is ex). the to and with more totality especially context. of all by present it must Dasein an is inherent before as understanding remain turn requires difficulty to go entranced its overcome whatever of tendency its eyes That for the spectacle the and totality even of attention a positive attached beyond of the the beings effort such. ist. 116 . ).

of the that case the activity. the the which of them were exercised is as fundamental this. But. Indeed. world contributes affairs detachment determines I "<x06v from thereby knowledge and must of be it sought in the for form its of ao(pi(x cannot (the be put to practical use own sake alone fourth point). difficulty is 117 . and uo(piof inevitably the highest leads or to most as the question of their priority: If probably see. to be Aristotle in proposes. whereas and object acted contingent criterion cro(pi(y is and for thus susceptible to np&tiq the and 14 is if. C1096b3Of therefore cannot dryo(196v is upon. Oewpf(x I wyo(06v 6'rpXý. an 1641). is I assimilated For be the o'(-y(x86v -npaxc'6v cons tant the associated unchanging of np&ýi(. * The determination of human being in terms of (pp6vrl(3ri.. as rooted Heidegger to the firmly in teleology that of beings and the it underlines totality I (x-y(xO6v absolute extrinsic grounds as is say and as such and is contrasted form Platonic to the with in the Platonic 13 However. disclosed as as OWý in the and not of as the ('YpXý of This of human a specific act to and or the form of knowledge. idea of &-yo(06v not to with and is the good. idea if this of the the is good a distinct distinguished that it separable from the itself.By the endorsing relation as a of reading beings is of to not the cu' change. as it determination? would we shall problem have straightforward commentators less. it is influence (pp6vqaiq Hence rather as the the of from Dasein Occapicx 06v is (the and not distinguishing time as primarily to IGA19 such. but susceptible and ýppovqaiq in object of Ocwploc the simply apprehended is understood cro(pfu.

when is reading very Moreover. by priority by promoting either complexity to terms. complex and and there straightforward guarantee be a that choice the between traditional for facticity. some so that the (pp6vqcTiq highest may very extent to the identifying Of its most fundamental well case it be unavoidable. VI: it of but of and being the a no will calls of doubt I 143b331 that . of in shortly. at once the those irreducibility find such who would Heidegger a retrieval of practical 118 . Aristotle and indeed is regarded tha t 'most cyo(pi(y as by and be a superior of in exalted to its a (ppovrlcri q superiority measure virtue. of Aristotle exclusive categories the 15 alternatives of 'human' of of up of human P05Sibilities. if this text the see case is on at its when what the 'divine' adequate hermeneutics and by over or the parameters of readers either it. for contentious at face we should of course engaging than is value. There is little ENE. text via approaching acknowledging challenges Heidegger. it the his is is q)p6vrlcrir . Aristotle's much As we a more shall complexity speak. should with Yet it is what Aristotle's have is mortal highest beware more Euripidean enjoinder perhaps question mortals accordance in itself. elaboration In to the spite line Heidegger tendency one or with this least own position commentators or the other behind uoqia being recognizing that is. divinity.exacerbated what is 'most in the first place are by not the fact that to what one is 'highest' and fundamental' equivalent another. rejection thoughts in of human prec i se Iy human' may vi r tue shares less transcends By more what contrast. human that in fundamentally view to live 11178al0f].

activity. compromised As FUr ist For the Aristoteles und die Griechen das eigentlich Seiende das. It has been virtue to fails Aristotle's persuasively over 'Platonise' to exploit own text. cro(pi(x of the is Ultimately. as indeed is which always and which is By contrast. already wie was auch fUr die rradition immer ist. accorded with and account ontological being which it concerned. finite simple the and fact priority cý:Xoq of human existence is. Although priority of the Heidegger on account of entertains of the fact itself is the that and view it as is that ýpp6vncriq with §191. 4ndig authentic constantly for the tradition. may the he have Tg'Xoq also he concerned IGA19 same existence that Dasein a whole by this recognizes underlines: Tp6vrlair. public the private. Aristotle and the Greeks. possibilities example. EGA19 1371 schon da ist. the priority like matter on is that is existence settled of 16 by the itself. point. 'hyper-Platonise' radical for of implicit [LOF 1861. on and argued above or the that in recognizing Heidegger ao(pi(x complies Aristotle as with the a and supreme tendency thereby within (ppovrjcTLq. aoqpia in Over present contends that the Heidegger's pluralism conceptions contextual. was st. even more Taminiaux. this temporal. of insistence the of political the primacy undermines the Aristotelian and above of dimension and and q)p6vqcyiq essentially set np&tiq the such world ambiguous Taminiaux sees character monological Heidegger 119 .reason endorsing and the rescues priority them of from the unwelcome spectacle of Heidegger contemplation. being is that there.

Bernasconi. referral hand of and and apparent to the noiqcytq his ao(pi(y itp&tiq priority and endorsement on the other accords OswpeTv 1HDP 1391. Plato. OewpqTix6q d6vorait et CLOF 1751 enti6re. governed np&tiq is se r6gissait if tout passe ]a the Ploq comme np&ýiq si le tout consumed as entirely. For his part. who reflects from recognizably Nicomachean Aristotelian. 120 . fundamental and it ontology.of the science by a of retreat being. @cwprjctx6q Taminiaux championing specifically not the his has the a good practice case. by is frequently ontology over unequivocal np&ttq it is Yet in in the Aristotelian intention to Ethics that shared Heidegger's on the one to by is simply which does sense to pit the same token. seeks to mitigate the the effective problem authorship by highlighting of any part establishing Insofar text it is to Heidegger's Aristotle's text itself. TrpRiq reflects view. of to Plato. Athenian Taminiaux's rejection is workshop-republic. from in the of which n6Xiq the disclosure or rather as and take the In a individuation on the taciturn n6Xiq are secured anonymity transformed Heidegger's Aristotelian characteristic into Plato's artisan. of the appropriation resistance Dans Pioq In I 'ontologie fondamentale. certainly between (pp6vrlcriq Aristotle anti-Platonic. as Heidegger speak against argues allows the a hidden declared to resource direction impossible. of Heidegger fundamental and. motifs of Such on and the TiLxvq of an a plainly even so. the Aristotle against extent Heidegger raise appropriates expectations accent. expectation tension is Bernasconi. the of within of the Bernasconi difficulty of text.

retrieval priority direct destruction confront Bernasconi the matter surely however. the of the authorship text should itself. Yet in history playing would name down references disown of be precisely of the Heidegger's of the to with that the is commentaries of the the full "it of hardly the co-authored Such an outcome ontology. approach although I may fail agree ambiguity is text. of (pp6vrj(Y-tq. the divine of it cyo(pi(y cannot of be passed in an more on the may than covert be in retrieval Heidegger's Bernasconi concerning (pp6vr)criq. the For that essential owns the thereby not its destructive open" enterprise 1HDP 1391..attribute and strains this the trajectory of a reading for unequivocally the For apparently whilst of of to either thinker indeterminacy within Heidegger's apparently of his text of the accounts text. apparently (pp6vgcyiq Having wishes the to destruction recognized to promote to indeterminacy. commentaries structure the the priority retrieval ontology. of remarks claiming as the proper abandon 1431. the to words (after author). indeterminacy the manifest over in Whoever priority recognition favour element pressing Heidegger's thought. of the not dull our the of sensitivity signatory to may simply an be.. ao(pla. quarrel indeterminacy question is with who remains all. view that own aspirations Heidegger to Heidegger's writes: 121 . In resolved text and Taminiaux's short. throws the mortals IHDP Nowhere a where Euripidean scope their Admittedly. however is important this bind gloss a mortal's writing. endorse presents history Bernasconi whilst this the of of a of contradictory direct the achieved deeper via this the the Heidegger's cro4pi(x.

np&ýIq To what extent by terms highest tempered of in the recognition Is of Taminiaux's and OCLOPETV as account the of end possibility complicity existence? eclipse Heidegger's of the story? np&tt(. Insofar as man is nonetheless insofar mortal. latter. be reading accorded (whoever to of Rather. not of be conveys Heidegger's received the as proportion croq)i(x as endorsement a trojan it highest the horse belongs itself by concealing to). ist ihm der Aufenthalt ständige beim Immerseienden. from dwelling prohibited alongside beings in the perpetual towards comportment them that is ultimately most appropriate. it seems a slight (with alert Us basis Aristotle) to the on which of the of to overturn of any Heidegger's aogi(x. whilst it is important and the less to distinguish readings the between that are of in Heidegger's the outcome history support direct of his of the commentaries critical ontology. overt via appropriation one Indeed. as he needs rest and recuperation in the broadest he is sense. Yet this 'insofar' repeated anything. If endorsement should priority supposing danger simple measure order and of of priority to rather the be genuine. should to not destruction the former the to renounce order do so would be grossly reductive- A point is the of the fundamental characterization of importance of hangs Dasein in the in the Of balance. qp6vncriq 122 . than all virtue 'real' the by of surely or should itinerary 'insofar' nothing. das letzlich Verhalten angemessene zum Immerseienden. [GA19 1711 versagt.Sofern der Mensch jedoch ist. sterblich der sofern er Erholung und Abspannung in wietestem Sinne bedarf. which q)p6vijcFiq effected. transformed the retrieval priority the traditionally destruction is of the cro(p! (x must ontology history Thus.

Insofar aoqpio(.. the and speaks ordered fact aoq)! (x is 'higher' 123 . signified 'practical whereupon . political it and is not as form directly that the as the an of By structure. the in persuaded rewarding. that of particularly science.We have and cast but of the the problem this is view as only is a tussle up for to supremacy a point. (pp6vqaic and Aristotle's current definitions runs through - same anti-Platonic fears are therefore trend fundamental placing respective in this own reading5. the between Moreover. acknowledge does side clearly (pp6vqcyiq But this good. common but. significant distinguishing activity autonomous reasoning subordinated contemplation vicissitudes Heidegger of from sharing here. at their than contrary. the knowledge a name for not a common absolute as a such. (pp6vq<Y'q once the cro(pi(x. Heidegger Plato. respect against is good in as first which For place. Aristotle and a (Pp6vqcytq the domain of own. of cyo(pio( as of the that soul (pp6vqcriq the sole cyoq)!(x. philosophy only cDp6vqair basis equivalent. for the formulation we should falters. Aristotle ultimately are left of his for (pp6vrlcriq may be <3-oT!<x and. of their (pp6vqcriq branches way. ao(pi(x. science with namely. heavens the n6Xiq more to themselves. whilst this trend to virtues against they does Taminiaux's reflect not an amount On the the head being q)p6vrl<:Tiq misplaced in Heidegger's subordination unmistakable to the writing. Aristotelian charge that of Heidegger political a with distinctively In in Plato. whilst is then. and ' knowledge knowledge (pp6vrjcrtq croq>lot were human of beings. true limitation suppressed activity fundamental Aristotle about was also what grounded served this recognized. from of withdrew established structure region its to of of adopts life experience In Aristotle.

does of two order not theory. order the of "'(06v dependence. imply The the subsumption is rather of political one of np&tiq assessing which under the there the auspices of direct problem coordination is no relatively of autonomous concepts. by Aristotle our to opposes gaze Plato. between dependence. but the good we are now seeking is a good attainable human reach(1096b321 within for By denying the separate But a how? putative ' and existence It is easy of to an idea of the good. To begin the with Aristotle. to between the of very demarcation is by often way. human tailored Aristotle the ethics divine. np(YxT6v by to no yet from means if the total Aristotle &V(x06v in disengaged its the not and absolute question only in (pp6vrlai(. human that elevation practical advocates Aristotelian philosophy deplore. sense. 124 . from suppose that those on diverting relative away absolute is towards insisting In this goods the 'concrete between said on a to the activity. No from this direct ci-o(pi(x. clearly will not practicable or by man. of a we have single idea already of the seen good that he argues and against its existence over above particular significations: if the things in even goodness predicated of various is common really a unity or something existing separately it be and absolute. of Aristotle in which the disengagement weight al I in was attached and relative but the above two (pp6vqaic turns one on and the ao(pi(x extent Heidegger intersect manner designations another. human and of insisting fields over of the demarcation one invites possibility. Aristotle Yet divine the divine have rigid a human the proportion.

admitting by exhorting than to divinity to pursue 11177b25. sense In does from the not the is we noted of &V "(3( 06v and absolute form a Platonic Ep. here the man divine human identified trappings by And between distinction human power name of anti-Platonism it would hands as the very whilst he the philosopher-king Aristotle is quite presence human trying beings to the we have divine elsewhere already and by and distinguishes prepared of to blur in a the human. inseparable also world is said of that human grounds by virtue from it affairs detachment world) apparently In natural the accorded demands priority. region as concerned of of a specific it the (unchanging the x(x06Xoi). O'CpXal). Accordingly. of only arises How are we to reconcile and inseparability insofar Rather being with as than detachment? to deploy croTI(x we fact. on the the insulation unwittingly depose. disentangle 'properly' within such and a delimit Aristotelian we in should radicalism challenge text a Platonic the acknowledging ambiguity Aristotle's probing source. first take order precisely (as indeed place. the its opposition it in the seeks to to Plato expunge. detachment 125 . the reading its human. divine a in kernel Rather an attempt of science. with the have already presented totality. the problem of we continue understanding a r-egional as the study conception of detachment. the it such an ambiguity that the has already in is we from that entered its rather have the ao(pi(x conflicting our reading. Discreetly.Such basis a reading of the of effectively very the residual from back launches Platonism the to divine the seen. 1171. of the its idea However.1178a2lfl science from the as of 1982b27ffl.

is as universal interposed is there theory for desire the universal and our the takes interposition the Cha partel whole of man. be thought ('Y-V(x06v as connection absolute with the other-worldly. 6 che Nicomachea dell'Etica dell 'Aristotele L'insegnamento Pdx-VaMv secondo astrattamente contemplare non possiamo fra da I 'intero.come dell'uomo dalla in parte causa posto originalmente.. should such. 126 . This form of the cip-yov coZ &vOp6-xo-u: praxis. we traced qualifying out above: independence fosse di il bene. 6cycx66v the and whole a as is that of contemplation abstract between first the from because impossible. teoria di desiderio if Puniversale si nostro e la ha interposizione Questa I 'uomo. the 17 the the in this whole Consequently. dell forma highest were accessible the good in its if sense as absolute it independent. customary Plato as Nicolaci reading. of itself and valuable that 'humanise' Aristotle not beings linked political light to Moreover concern with distinctively from as the he Aristotelian range rebuts of the from withdrawal theory. independent beyond along absolute. being the as lines good of its rejecting conception notion of good such. come interpone. perch6 universale. sempre. sempre. ILHP 2601 "Epyov cob dXvOp&nou: ]a praxis. because is the totality of it not totality is ethical sheds independent off from the but as to because whole. .. che que non sarebbe . but totality It is cut is as rather such and concerns within not circumscribed it concerns specific not region. suo apice questo secondo se disponibile e come qualcosa come un universale astrattamente da 6 I 6di separa to. del 'intero I ha parte.. would not in the abstract and as a universal the from by is very it in man be placed as question Ethics Nicomachean the in teaching Aristotle's beginning.. assolutezza.ao(pl(y from is derives the fact not that from it the exclusiveness the any and O'CpXý of of the the o'(-yo(06v. an activity the matter on arguing to when he is but regard ethics denies a the Aristotle's would that be the an departure unwarranted is the an attempt For simplification.

for the the Heidegger. philosophy as in terms the subject. as an which. such takes -itself. e. Philosophie phenomenology. 18 Heidegger ontology idea between fundamental existential analytic. still less horizon that meaning of of not behind. articulated ontology relation pre-dates of up the the formulation takes and once the theology. hermeneutic of fast has made of existence. des der Hermeneutik als von ausgehend das Ende des Leitfadens der Existenz philosophischen alles hat. dort festgemacht und wohin Fragens es entspringt woraus 621 [SZ 38: es zurückschlagt. modern Heidegger first and in innovation to Descartes. universal the from Philosophy of departure is point and Dasein. circumvent for possibility. and at of is However. Ontologie. analytic the inquiry point at philosophical all it to which returns. an object dryc(06v simply Dasein's the concern. ground the entail. is that Pursuit reducible the of being) be the place question within this Dasein Dasein's that the It of its being-f or-the-sake-of itself means course. for line the guiding it and arises where takes its 127 .Access nowhere. permit. existence Dasein The ultimately in The times points Aristotle's unsurpassable Heidegger's idea is is found out that not in it character recognition Heidegger's the recourse of of Dasein's the ontic as existence foundation such and is of in encapsulated ontology. being possibility of say to or for the frOM which of (x-y(xO6v - even as absolute point beyond For its Of to - cannot the proceed of is the is of from that but horizon not to a 5ome Archimedean it is and a as exi5tence question. question the "'(x96v does left cannot (i. ist phänomenologische universale Analytik die Daseins.

as Heidegger by a "factical Such himself ideal" an acknowledges. us fate in of the the structures of as Dasein we have elicited itself argued is being factical and this presented throughout. " imposition task described gradually "with for which and "positive extend and are its Philosophy's its the therefore unfolding and that borders. informed ISZ necessity. analytic in is but what is is to the not the secure guiding the the ontic line to foundation be made fast? ultimately rather existential existence existence. In the first place. as end. existential of formulation structure of Dasein's factical existence existence? can that least two it this reasons How complete achieve? foundation for How a presentation confident will have that can been he may Heidegger "made fast"? anticipating are at thinking be a little over-optimistic. into capacity mitigate disjunction 128 . must return an again ongoing to the task enquiry analytic again its existential re-elaborate basis. penetration mapping both own hinterland. hinges structures. Nicolaci therefore.The purpose of of the the existential into in its reach the analytic meaning facticity definitive is of to being ISZ secure by the ontic Dasein But of can the foundation ontologically the enquiry making transparent analytic Dasein's factical be in There very a 404: 4561. that is is eludes even the the enquiry grasp as is of a to more they the inevitably the analysis 310: 3581. to reminds the the passage enquiry above. more presuppositions This is and presuppositions" into in being order to ESZ 310: 3581. own But if the task of the The of the enquiry ontic by existential into foundation the analytic in these and In on its the being. np&tir.

the we question shed priority on return croq)icx. profound character an from But tracing how faithfully to the form can and this movement existence is quite the rendered? the obstacle of the is such a rendering as we have lacking factical raising of the closure its np&ýtr. is of at being the or. consolidating same that possibility the from The principle and prosecution consequently. as a rather limit than the to practice. parallel between prepare Dasein must fundamental of all tackle ontology. between existence however. I. as and have seen. to As the that trod the path some of taken light the radicalization issue (pp6vrlcriq of from if However. thereby of its marking philosophical external opens finitude approaching identity allow 19 of the philosophy. question preventing own to basis thematic np&tIq' the at condition the of its occurs Heidegger. V]. question securing resistance the either of finitude this conclusion. of as an simply thematic for such analytic. the 129 .that keeps of be the factical existential existence The most analytic itself. limit. exposition enquiry. Tp6vqcriq of one of Dasein be overridden presupposes demands relation the this fundamental Clearly. existence. once account Dasein's of time [Ch. essentially ineluctable of seen. and and first this aoq)ia is obtaining factical analogy. language Accordingly. possibility of concern of np&ttq by that to that To onto- Heidegger's existence account of of endorsement arises factical aoq)i(y a belief highest the Dasein's in the the his retrieval may existence ontology. of the body within philosophical very structure enquiry and inscription What by will relative over this Heidegger be means in will his the of become clearer when of we we have np&tiq.

the the within In task on aoq>! (x understood fact that that this Dasein concern akin no connection a being with to to is of to its fundamental its own takes were of to ESZ in on is its a the and which being If issue a form the For level selfthere of understanding could be 4pp6vrlcytr. that is. the ontology being the not and aoýpi(x is by of perspective. even apprehension reading would highest inconsistent ontical ontological being though of By that the such conception of being. relation to everything Dasein's 130 . suggests to 20 name ontology contrast. is primary. with for own possibility hangs is an of case. itself modelled everyday understanding to say that (pp6vncTiq rooted in However. joins Aristotle and as Heidegger describing ' Immer-seienden' 1371. ao(pi(x disposition amount introduction understood of concern as and thereby ontology. -a be qualified this fact by the introduction is for the his present the of even need to ontological Heidegger's difference..theological equivocality in Aristotle's use of the term cro<pio(. own equivocality that readings argues and For in in an a and the be commentaries such terms discriminate appropriation Nicomachean as concerned beings between of Ethics with the VI. the to this access ontology question raise being" being. philosophy fundamental The no issue means of clear the relative cut in is from priority this given to (pp6vqcriq First. this is "vague the this understanding Dasein the not bears 6: 251 implicit concern. the EGA19 with intepretation difference his direct they critical reading of ao<pi(x of is utterly to of to an the the involve. thematic fundamental average relation respect. the in allow the meaning of aoT! (x to Indeed.

to entail world world the withdrawal which it the finds itself. In turn. its in and in np&tiq. relation being the arises itself is the depends. distortion (ppovr)criq that of np&tir. subordination. on Dasein's Moreover. those horizons is at issue. (croýpfoo understanding as the ultimate being ground. This the the would disposition analogy all be of at quite satisfactory ontology of the is were it not its that to call ao(pf(y fundamental the basis and see favour distorts reservations itself seen required sense. 131 .itself. not the no in Tp6vrlcyic. over to to be whereupon Heidegger's inaccurate. Dasein's of we np&ýiLq shall (pp6vrlcyiq that the therefore the idea changes of lend rectify this between the view actually and a co-ordinate further role relation support as to croq)! (x and continues factical to play a significant determination a existence. relation but of rather course. cyoýpi(x again coordination. towards a comportment radically and exceeds precisely can the Dasein's ground of being-for-the-sake-of-itself. horizons insofar as ontology. it is Accordingly. of relation Yet of the possibility within which what being to as itself framework this respect (4pp6vqcriq). as one of Tp6vrlcrir. itself proceeds there we can that does from can be is. of and to that say without order that it In disclosure above being. from For the Dasein's world. object a thematic of of reverse of outlined its is short. proper of the is in fundamental interpretation Dasein's fundamental. aoqi<x remain without The contradiction relation between not the highest possibility and of Dasein's appears existence. treatment However.

Not prominence evident Heidegger earlier shadow lectures. to the uo(piu Dasein's closer by disclosure with of Heidegger's respect virtue of maintaining the intelligible the sense a commitment world. then. First lectures xcx96Xob the may This be fundamental the as xo(06Xou a O'Xov totality and ontology in the all. more seemed correct to have problem been worldhood to the reduced 132 . Heidegger's ties it definition in with a Sophist The explicitly therefore structural compared reading concern side. supporting Pioq of and as hand exceeds Accordingly. with compromises what radically in the designates everyday together. inseparable significance sense of designates character in has with the this the notion of from and world. of advanced and however. already the-world point.There be are said in to as fact two aspects to of of ao(pi(y Heidegger's more faithfully problematic than of X6-yoq of that could correspond such. (yo(pi(x itself. the world. XcV6ýLcvov. the view but ao<pi(x and that only np&ýiq at Tp6vqaiq is not price and the brought overridden of weakening cyo(pl<x and the two OccapeTtx6c. sake-of-itself such on Such a view i5 profoundly that in enough the to and deliberately accorded Sophist the problematised to the by Dasein'5 and remain Time. which world are On the of cro(pia's negative horizons it however. account in being-inAt this by the of projective the question understanding of nature Being to the seemed of eclipsed of status phenomenologically Nature. on uoTlu same become notion of complementary by as perspectives Dasein's totality on the one constituted and simply being-for-thethe other. (pp6vrlcric. by question 1927 it the of had increasing nature. the a concern existence. the conception alternative Indeed.

problem and In of Time 'On The Essence had it wirno is uns of place not Grounds. in the ' explains of world nature because [wozu given we Being something ver-halten]. entities discover Dasein Being-in-the-world as entities can own them has the knowing This Nature. which comport ourselves Nonetheless: Matur dieses existiert. Matur ist ontologisch-kategorial verstanden ein des Seins Grenzfall innerweltlichen Seienden. within Time does Being Heidegger hint at aspect somewhat obliquely. disclosed How can showing Dasein'5 then. one finds the Being of possible case of a its definite Only in mode of some within-the-world. or that It is which also that once and Dasein that which in then encounters which falls and has Ep. Heidegger addressed connected 133 . is not as world death. ESZ 65: 93-941 Entweltlichung ontologico-categorially. opaque. no But nature in has a involvement the clearing.environment darker referential remains this side. einem Erkennen hat den Charakter bestimmten Di eses einer der Welt. the yet totality. precisely themes finitude. 571. manifest nature itself is the Dasein? such. of its worldhood If one understands is Nature that Nature limiting Nature Heidegger account towards begins where the that world the in ends. von m6glichen in diesem Sinne kann das Dasein Das Seiende als Natur nur in Modus bestimmten In-der-Welt-seins seines entdecken. Nature exists isl im Ur-5PrOnolich befindlich-gestimmtes als 83n] CVWG-WM 155n-156n: primordially and situated manifest disposed Dasein offenbar inmitten dap dadurch. of character of manner in a definite the world depriving way. by what itself is manifest But of in how the like Da5ein can this without be. of Only nature. Seiendem von because of being. if having nature in manifest been is not explicitly worldly? Without in of Dasein. Dasein is as Dasein in in the midst Nature.

nature, in the

philosophy years following

and

the the

finitude publication issue,

of

Dasein Being

with and in

increasing

urgency the the The the the the a final of its

Time. 21 Perhaps the to light 910 of of

clearest problems Metaphysical idea of

exposition we have

of been

the

particularly is in where begins of itself to the

discussing, of The of Logic, appendix the

Appendix

Foundations metontology. exposition of which and

Heidegger by

introduces that

proposing (plausibly way to

temporal culmination stage own in task

problem must brought that on to

being give

fundamental the limits problematic -a

ontology) is

an understanding describes relation understanding of

radicalization He goes being on in

Heidegger out on the the

as an between of Dasein-

overturning being being, Thus of then far, and which we

[Umschlagl. Dasein, in could on adds factual turn

set

whereby depends

depends the factical

existence terms; exi5tence of the as

paraphrase the that totality the extantness

Aristotelian of human

possibility np&ý-Lc,. in But turn

c)-o(pi(x depends Heidegger the

factical of

existence nature.

Dasein

presupposes

des Horizont gestellten radikal ist das daß sichtbar nur all zeigt sich, kann, Verstanden mögliche wenn eine werden 156-157) 199: IGA26 da istSeiendem schon Gerade im
Right radically, become beings within it the horizon appears being, as understood there. is already of that the problem this all if a only of is

Seinsproblems Sein als und Totalität von

when P05ed can and Visible totality of possible

being,

This

final

condition place in of in the

displaces articulation with undercuts being

Dasein of

from if

its Dasein versa, In

central can the only

and be

fundamental understood extantness

being; and vice

connection nature

factual to the

them

both.

response

134

challenge a special im

of

thinking

this whose

condition theme is and

of

finitude, as

Heidegger a whole i S, he simply for of
of

calls (das

for

problematic IGA26 from The other

"beings which

Seiende

Ganzen]"

199: 1571, any empirical on what and

stipulates, accumulates

distinguished information. what is

science is on

that

emphasis than

fundamental the
own

philosophy, totality
if

on is
cTo(pjo(

Dasein
from

notion
account

unmistakably

familiar

Heidegger's

ao(pi(x.

has

any

single but

destination metontology.

in 22

Heidegger's

work,

it

is

not

fundamental

ontology,

What to or by

are

the

implications conception Dasein's factical

of of

this

for

the

role Does

of

np&kic

with

regard

Heidegger's surpass np6tic,

philosophy? existence directed

metontology render its

so displace designation beings

as the

to

irrelevant? Heidegger

Having adds;

problematic

towards

as a whole,

des me ton tologisch-exis Und hier im Bezirk der Metaphysik der Bezirk der ist auch der Ethik die Frage 14fit sich steHen). And here also, questioning, the (here first time).

len Fragens tenziel (hier Existenz erst EGA26 199: t571

in the domain of metontological-existentiell the domain is of existence of the metaphysics the for be raised may properly of ethics question

It

seems has

the

account not fallen

of

Dasein's away of of of the being after

factical all.

existence On existence the of in that that [SZ of

in

terms

of the as a

np&tiq implication, whole

contrary, Dasein the

literally, the of question the the out domain

factical is

in

reaffirmed with oneself" itself"

declared

coincidence understanding, straightened

metontology of existing

existentiell "never 12: 331. gets In a

"understanding through

except

135

reversal to only as the to the

(an question renew very as that in the

Umschlag9) of itself, domain though very realm of in this being

of

the proper,

movement

from

the that

existential previously of Dasein of

analytic circled presented metaphysics out' of an that the it in

a movement the

here which

we find the

existence

fundamental could only

question be

belongs, through being essential followed question the

question This

'straightened of was, the I question believe, and one

existence. of

concentration questioning thinking at of here, this Aristotle.

existentiell

feature directly cannot

Heidegger's from his any

time,

reading further

Although return to

be pursued

we shall

Conclusion.

*

We began with astray, question care np&ýiq, a different I to a

with lengthy losing in

Heidegger's consideration track terms for it from But of

hermeneutics of our already implicitly factical it to is aoýpl(x.

of

facticity Have we of not

and

have

ended

gone

somewhat the take

central reveals

theme

np&ýic,?

Posing we must lies

these

a misconception that above ao(pio( all,

avoid, disengaged

suggests life precisely here sets and, this

outside with the it as

concerned that so, apart

theme. have the

disengagement In and given of mark the doing aoTi(y

reading confronts entirely of priority.

sought predominant

develop view that

contests. (pp6v9aiq they

separable By we have of &Vcx66v in

dispositions, challenging therefore their the

even accepted

where

a clear Vp6vgcriq against &vo(06v here rest

order and the nP<x'x'x6v on

independence question namely the

croq)1(x, separability and the

placed

a themes,

respective sense.

an absolute

Let

emphasis

136

'separability. significations that they are to

' of

I

do

not

mean simply crossed, In of this

to

suggest

that However, inseparable

these it may from likened

two be and to

('x-Y(xO6v are

equivalent. at once

necessarily one another.

irreducible determinations relation 74: 871.

respect, and of

they

may be

respectively such a

Dasein

being, for

whose Heidegger

inter1HW

remained

"distressing

difficulty"

In

the

following for

sections to a

we shall carry way as

see how the

the

term

crogi(y of

serves the

as a

vehicle of

Heidegger in and such its

through to

destruction scholastic returning

history

ontology

undercut

philosophical Dasein to the

anthroplogy context and

modern of np&ýiq.

descendents,

structure

III

In

the

previous primarily elaborates

section, on

we the

saw basis and
on

how of

the its

priority proper

of theme.

cro(pi(y

was

established Heidegger
this priority,

However, aspect to
the

a further

particularly
the picture

intriguing
uo(picx gives

concentrating

of

ontological

constitution

of

Dasein.

On

account

of for and modes we have

the

fact

that first

vobq,

in

the

specific Heidegger

sense, describes des In know the not

is

responsible (pp6vrlcri c, authentic of aopi(x,

apprehending ao4pI (X in which already as

principles,

"eigentlichen voZ(; is accomplished" that

volizugsweisen EPIA aoT6q 2551. must

vobq: case only

mentioned

the

137

the

conclusions

that

follow For and is this

from

first reason,

principles, Aristotle where ('YpXofi and the

but declares role of

those that voi3c, of

principles
IIc cro(picx

themselves. must be vob(;

'nia-cýjiij" to

11141al9l, the

in

this

combination the o'(-V(x06v as

apprehend

ultimately,

course,

absolute.

As

for

Tp6vr)crir,, without the

it

too

must to having

grasp reasoning, "an

the

ultimate and this things"

particulars is why

in Aristotle

a

situation describes things

recourse as

(pp6vigor,

eye

for

11143bl4l.

Al I

considered:

the in both vouq apprehends ultimates aspects since definitions by vobq ultimates as well as primary are grasped by in demonstrations and not reached reasoning: voubr, the immutable definitions, in apprehends and primary inferences it the practical apprehends ultimate and fact hence have contingent we must perception of .... this immediate is particulars and perception VobC 23 11143a35-b5l

Now, then

if by

the

intellectual of to its

virtues priority and

are

ways voiSc,

in must

which itself what

truth

is have

secured, a more

virtue relation

primordial

truth,

this

is

indeed

we find:

))Wahrheit(( ursprUngliche kann entdeckt, Entdeckungsfunktion The truth of

Die das

der

ist der Sehens des ))Ideen(( und o(iaOrjatq Und nur Entdecken. prirn-4r, v6rIa-tc, weil SIO(VOCTV X6-yoc, der als auch ISZ 226: 2691 haben. the is 'ideas' of seeing because And v6qaiq only have Sicevoe*fv X6Voq also as the

primordial primarily uncovering

and of (xIcrOrjo-i(; kind uncovering. of the can uncovers, 24 function. its as

138

become In this of a way. say as In that though Heidegger perception with subordinates could the interpretation somehow be of on the that priority. is an not essential because it and indispensable the then it thing attach discloses against element itself. nicht [PIA cannot erst 2581 im that its whereon. vou-c. heißt Umgang was mit makes all above for [Wor-aufl any 139 . is for lifted a to free the of perceptual interpretation. reading. e. ermöglicht. solchem was zugänglich letztlich selbst werden kann. that Nobq every Heidegger a certain basis discovers relation this a hitherto of perception occluded to interpretation as it provides modified.NoiSq provides a 'as' primary such access and such to or things. their prior even to via their the interpretation remaining articulation intellectual virtues. Der voiSc ist irgendwelchen gerichteten Ur f Worauf ein 2571 [PIA überhaupt vorgibt. possible oriented perception. such first but project rather significance the horizon thing kind to or any can because project belonging in question interpretative appear: which the das Vernehmen schlechthin. is vob(. of all upon modes which of one disclosure specific presents can interpretative another. possible that in initially accessible ultimately which discourse. This is not to act. each and acquires concrete priority insofar discourse mögliches sein Besprechen als Worüber. what a whereupon das das. yet the keeping recognizes strategy priority for destructive part of such vobq. i. simply in advance gives and activity.

q. it is is and his an concerned clear cro(pi(x approach in that above it all is with the the transcendental role of constitutive him.The that form voi5r. in der schwierige einzige nach Einblick zu gewinnen.25 Alternatively. element it is of the voZr. then and as a a disclosed is opened theoretical possibility. Handelns Worauf then the element in oi) (pp6vgarig 'cvcx(x: 's"vexu" "macht makes EPIA zugänglich by the im Festhalten holding fa5t Of activity accessible when ou 2591. vorliiufigen einen votq des der her ist comprehension perspective on the the difficult into is my (pp6vrjatq. describes to and is in life interested what (PIA tell it is us it can 2601. voZq des the is If of we course are linked concerned die the Lage site to the with des particular np&ý. and via cyogi(x vobc of .. insight preliminary a way of winning sole of vobq. and (pp6vqcriq that by that attracts to Heidegger is not states solely (ppovncriq. Commenting oewpi(x as an activity that 140 . virtues cro(pi(x interest the themselves: Verst4ndnis Ansicht meiner Phiihomen des IGA19 1441 The Des aoýplcx und (pp6vrjair. Indeed. concerns. consideration principles Given problem voU(. respect by in the it as ontological may seem as a 'state structure of the of has that we have from ' cro(pio( since. openly motivated that of in both Heidegger world. voýr)q von das Weg. in in cyo4plu primarily tell In this a us about sense. of of activity apprehends. already everyday Heidegger characterized on this a certain the 1922 detachment 'Introduction. totality in cro(pi(x of apprehends beings of first as the such "'(x96v that as is that an absolute. phenomenon Heidegger soul ' factical little discovered.

role played Plato's conception transcendence. be treated is noetic as activity a whole of of the in cannot which preeminent it isolation such. to aogio( of thereby it stems serves of the to from as its characteristic access to the of detachment. is. determination the of mind vobq in in to which structure as That the disclosive approach its be taken activity the question general this be Heidegger as opposed in chooses to way. 141 . der aogi(x als Bewegtheit. no das gerade [PIA 263] longer sees Leben selbst. The being temporalising authentic of life of crwi(x Bewegtheit. which are the Yet Gazing it is is to at the highest and life Most for distant. Heidegger. of hyperopic. of precisely life opposite more Bewegtheit Tp6vgaiq as on discernible former's account Lediglich in der reinen ob der ihr verfügbaren Lebens gesehen werden. The it loses highest far is easily of nonetheless concerned which are with ao(pioe sages its the <Yo(pior from by definition refers 'unworldly' 11141b2f]. by vobq it from reinforces in the existence his critique embedded. das Sein des the pure accessible The privilege accorded by of virtue voZ(. life. that. on account in its Zeitigung solcher muß. the Yet indeed Aristotle for diminishing he regards in detachment significance fundamental than the in world. .seinem nicht mehr in its in Worauf sieht. eigentlichen [PIA 260-2611 be must seen simply of as such. self-evident assuming may in As structure to and indicate movement that thinking. horizon the very 7-o(4)1(x is sight things as from true. life in in dem er which it ist.

Nonetheless. endorses what is the by we cannot identification definition evident Heidegger man" with following move being In in to so doing.The which activity Heidegger associated writes: with cro(plof is. reinste über es etwas »GÖttliches«. capable. is OewpcTv Accordingly. from 'the he is to a tendency the of Aristotle is most -a him from instance designation what is that that purest perhaps most the human' necessarily. OewpcTv. 104-1051. to which his impulse other-worldly history beginning reading. 26 (but human' movement human on not being. conception but help simply being of more in 'what the than denotes struck "authentic human. of Das OetapeZv ist Dadurch verfügt. such. as we have said. towards shaping ambiguous new definition. being advent possibility what an had Christianity. which still With human the understood in the transcendence transcending recognizable existence philosophical this chapter. cf. which Heidegger of the immediately divine the by has highest the fact goes nothing form that of of on to to do explain with that religion Aristotle's as such. but of of acquired the at the anthropology In neither accordance denies it in such we referred of with nor a way strategy this to retrieve destructive as it Heidegger rather affirms as tendency from repeats a conception 142 . life die [PIA is das Leben 263. also GA19 §181 the it die ist Bewegtheit. aroseit may Or be resides of effacing rather. alone) of risks. and ostensibly touched form of of been a dimension above in itself but which it we have as a this Epp. Bewegtheit purest of is something 'divine'.

to in the the existential that structure the in world it of of is own its precisely everyday most as ESZ insofar concern absorbed anxiety Dasein's for the recedes fal I involvements it and wh I ch to its in part radical leaving being exposes exposed accessible the existence totality potentiality Just as for cro4pi(x §401. virtues 0 cwpia.. Selbigkeit ISZ 188: 2331 des Erschliepen5 mit dem the disclosure and the disclosed are existentially the selfsame. such. remarkable how in divine Heidegger describes anxiety: Die existenziale Erschlossenen ... so anxiety If exposes the essential of movement transcendence of disclosure.. simply . its significance and Dasein world moorings In a brought of the with world mind. that is not determined by the opposition of human Here.. grounded purest Heidegger in form vouq. Anxiety which. for are example. that respect.. in therefore one fulfils he for assigns Heidegger cyo(pi<y in an his analOgOU5 reading role of to Aristotle. voýcrcwq. v6gcyiq voýacwq.27 characteristic Bewegtheit Dasein as of vobq..of and transcendence divine forms. Heidegger's account 143 . in turn emphasizes which is is the way the intellectual above all in exemplified being: whose divine Das OcTov The ist nur. that Dasein is.. If we recall lies is echo the in account the way face purity of beings to of anxiety in face the the in Being slip and their as Time. EPIA 2631 OF-Tiov is v6qcri c. it provides unique as access it is and away.

be broken the vobr. from a conception We shall cyo<pio( and therefore GewpeTv to radicalization of divine the determination IV In fact. temporality. basis this remarks.proceeds illustrates. the before of factical Bewegtheit course is written that on Heidegger's 1922 'Introduction' is 1921/22 Aristotle from essentially the the perspective. Heidegger's In that That informs the conception account of facticity understood of of is Bewegtheit movement not in Aristotle's is itself important surprising. conceptual of Heidegger's for his importance As Heidegger Heidegger Physics under-estimated. but in the account identified of movement with <YoTi(y. order does an its turn interpretation bearings now to from the existence being. Heidegger's specific supersession the part focus of the sublunary concern was world. for understanding terms. 144 . simply as to several that discern years which the is form in of its life and movement: movement thematic provided the the f irst same to by of the Dasein. Thus. Of as and vok if. inseparable between via a the from radicalization disclosive Dasein's the the Of capacity existence itself of divine leads VoZq. and of GeTov must Bewegtheit of that being. Aristotle broad nature. be wins provides Indeed. must then in that as be this example as treated connection to not allow take a whole. this transition does not have its source in ao(pio( as such. for text in 28 It Aristotle's account of cannot Aristotle Physics facticity.

those the 267. The first of these The arises with of things movement the question: or how can becoming all at as must being come from the rather of of non-being? further in recognition that Since the movement are is of this not entails but process been could one recognition given once. failed apprehend cvtp-yc-t(x in its drawn. new principle the schematic anthropology for by ontology and logic. Heidegger's phenomenon GA33 §171. of by which his these and predecessors concepts were ultimate Four. view from EPIA Whereas 816ve(gir. new I et principle us interpretation set out provisional how this fundamentally has influenced and the cviEp-yci(x history determined of philosophical the ' logic ' of anthropology: f actical I if e? how have S'6v%Liq Aristotle's account of movement in terms of Si6v(xgtq and ývtpVct(x may be understood of hi5 as a response notably to the the aporias Eleatic generated and Megaric by the theories predeces5ors. retrospective of the history outlined is followed above his The principle in question is Aristotle's theory of sbv(xglq (potentiality] the inadequate and cvlLpycioc of [actuality]. of a itself In these original consider the time structure Chapter terms view shall For Heidegger's being. philo5ophers.len neuen Grundsatz. otherwi5eness. von denen dann die oben schematisch ruckläufig gekennzeichnete Geschichte der philosophischen Anthropolosie durchsetzt ist. and we I. indifference or earliest state However. in of detai had had sought to in to define movement movement. understood things initial differentiation. a have succession. infinity only 145 . introduced in response and to non- concept5 unequalne5s existence [201b20f]. einen prinzipiel Ontologie aus dem seine und Logik erwachsen. [PIA 251) a fundamentally virtue of which of philosophical through. infinity.

are If world possibility seated is merely of juxtaposition nor indeed of existences on the change. of of Cviý-pyci(x and proceeds are from Suv(xgiq of evtpyEi(x Suvoqiiq recognized significations E. committed (Socrates co-existence standing). identity in change there manner a seated a discrete persists underlying Eleatics a standing of of throughout? the the no the one is the of Megaric is denied. then with contrary then and Socrates singular unity. and standing to the = midwife wisdom of identical. both of which in for are which the unsatisfactory. sense Thus. The with second aporia is itself: the concerned how same? births In can less with is the origin of becoming than becoming to of that be what become is or is different reducible an of the without to a ceasing series subject and their other and words. followers.6v<xýLiq by of allowing 146 . case infinity the of and and totality Each element would or be the in nature us retain and individuality. deaths If. the case of 'being' the both [Met. determinate primordial which of to undifferentiated to be the finite with case would would opposed being our and original therefore aligned non-being. a the way subject contradictory Aristotle's articulating determinations conception this difficulty of seated and cvtpyCicx one to Socrates provides say that 5. 2: 1026a33f].take could finite one of two its could totality it forms. is returning straightforward: predicament. Aristotle's response it that is equally being is permissable proceeds different from in to say that being providing proceeds that from what is being meant being and by in and being non-being. not account could be be movement: indeterminate. sense each being source in as the term.

realization this Yet itself [Ph.I &noxc i lievov actually terms of I of change The is po ten tiaI of what ly is aII in the f orms is tha tit expressed can in become. 111: 200b12-141. problematique sont issues: "Jes distinctions les of de r6f6re the them 4531. rejects what the to qua movement access also independently can only is lie from via said only whilst moves moving be seat the of whereupon it of a is movement that "and of movement the In to potentiality [201b5 subject this way. the For level in of spite everyday of theory discourse. they must be drawn from and applied 147 . and effect in a sense of Aristotle's this is quite at right. thing. both being and movement 5. existing to true we know. suggests Aristotle that is in putting not so forward much the theory of the Sbvcxgiq aporia and as resolving thematising the "cathartic" it. potentiality" and ýv4ycio( My emphasis]. intended the terms itself S16v(xgiq. thereby power without fundamentally be diminished phenomenon The problematic to is in of the character subtlety of of Aristotle's his aim in analysis seeking As to here determine he may be what the attributed movement possibility 1200b331. are articulate movement rather than what is in movement. to sens 6 ]a manifestent source indistincte leur caract6re d'ob elles ]or-squ'on the when terms one distinction to the The take manifest indistinct challenge advantage allowing of movement their source Aristotle of the to the problematic from which to in character they have refers [PEA is and of the emerged" thinking subtlety character poses advance subsequent conceptual aporetic thereby.6vo(gir. Aubenque ýVIEP-Ycia.

and Suvagir. movement appears as have the movement secured undergone proper by particular to the thing movement things. in to general movement It is therefore applying of matter a in is talk to in what about order a terminology constituted always potential In and act words. is both Not the only strength do ývg: pycx(x and and the vulnerability presuppose of the Aristotle's horizon of Sbv(xglq 148 . difficulties. itself: one cannot one assume to access towards must the remain of constantly movement and vigilant the being distinction in movement. 5t constitu6e I ]a Vacte dit. other movement and Slbvo(g-Lr. and terms of genuine of Cvt. This gives which rise to is in two each related case in the guise of what movement. p-Vcjoc one could a defined the movement. On the by hand. Autrement pui ssance dans le mouvement. horizon which within as a presuppose movement Here analysis. between being of the These are two considerations in the - that of circularity from and that of access - highlighted following passage Aubenque: une d'appliquer I] donc en g6n6ral au mouvement s'agit de ce qui est terminologie parler pour qui s'e. other movement. phenomenologically itself and that of the be and thing concepts and eviEpyci(x in the and phenomenon this is the movement second the as movement. they signify. only ever difficulty. circularity. The fact that opens terms the terms are to 'drawn the from of and applied to' the same is phenomenon defined themselves deflect in Aristotle of in charge evitpve-Lor. et 6 horizon le toujours cofwe mouvement pr6supposent 4531 [PEA ils Vint6rieur duquel signifient.to is movement in as it appears. out the drawn charge circularity account of not must Sbvo(gtq from insofar pointing led by that phenomenon from Yet.

being. (even discourages of what to in insist the light on the of fundamentally Aristotle's of the and the from is aporetic conceptual movement to the movement this since familiar of such a hasty is in will of the are in assimilation At terms an movement. is our preserved they as can such of be understood and the terms as only in it insofar question conforms as that horizon to allowed to this articulate Aristotle's experience account may it. determining within things appropriate the analysis that disclosed with because engaged proximally movement. therefore. in attention horizon Indeed. be phenomenological. the there and this is a tendency as to understate of of of the fundamental itself. depend. fact from phenomenon movement as than simply what 149 . Yet the first to in the terms sentence risk in involved the here. on drawn same time. presentation and ývtpyctoc rather matter. it is of not if they are to be understood that the terms as significations connection meaning within of paramount be broken. significations the in errancy terms movement metaphysics beings and excellence of determination being effacement the ontological Aubenque character advance). here extent the in we to success from the of interpretation depart which Aubenque's terms movement Suvcygiq itself. to is passage namely which quoted that is of above draws our the it. par the role of For ývcpycioc represents of difference.movement. the more is of right. said Insofar to be model. Heidegger. with but. importance 29 As their are intrinsic given movement the horizon itself of movement. Slbv(xlit(.

would the same for passage position in way a potential be to and act of conceptions use the though were and potential to movement. 16 une d6finition extrins6que ce serait de d6part dans lui-mC-me. of 120tal0l. from in his commentary is the seems c'W: pVcm interprets Slbv(xpir. user serait ce au passage fagon d'une de d'acte par extrinsdAque notions puissance et I'acte ]a et puissance si comme rapport au mouvement. The requirements are we have frequently xivrjaiq of outlined breached in the for by reading Aristotle's For progress account of movement Aristotle realizing Yet Ross. To regard draped is Sbvcx4i(. the At itself. et point son envisaS6 mais non en des dans positions sub5tituer ce serait son aboutissement.Aubenque suggests. to place and ývg: pVci<x outside as the the poles horizon between of which movement and thereby is them movement 150 . Aubenque.3. this as the defines Physics 1evTcX9Xci(y1 in that such of a potentiality. Aristotle's obliged to the face 8. on the qua potentiality" Physics. Reservations who regarded over such reading with expressed suspicion: well a reading utmost Mais du mouvement. to of one is meaning Although account xivn(: Yiq a reading and "passage" dubious at ývj: p-yE: 30 j()(. des Parall6lement. to be It substitute its departure would completion. Slbvo(g Iq and ýv! EPIEIO( must be understood as ontological designations. lui-m6me. le lesquels 6taient les terms et non se meut mouvement entre [PEA 453-4541 lui-m6me. du mouvement des d6terminations this be definition itself of that but is to extrinsic a would its point of in of not view movement. Sf)v(xjiiq Metaphysics take very it level seriously of by common virtue sense of that its prima facie described are the plausibility as "cathartical (at the ly" by Aubenque such a released). and it time. act as extrinsic determinations of not and terms between moved movement which But movement itself. as "the example. interpreters.

to In this kinds respective dynamic the end relations 33 their first ET9Xor. to itself. As the we is of even as of is the movement have itself said. 8. Met. different their once spurious. movement and thereby of a thing in terms is of understood what is in terms of the end of than the movement This essentially other movement. and. are event. what outside to of the already understand Indeed. Such be dismissed that its as a popular source lies misrepresentation. of production Indeed. within Aristotle's approach One could this is begin where by we to looking come which in at the the idea term first of the the 32 evepycio( of two itself. of 31 movement Megarics a view the patently address incoherent their passages easily the the fact matter.contravenes it is doomed that to echo same might for to the to it condition misconceive fails to to which all an of we the referred terms above. to is one made the where x! vrjcF. movement account Yet another in terms philosophically ýviEp-yctcx here. in terms to one of is immediately apparently cvcpVct(Y in it the is invited lies as extrinsic context to understand it.6. 1 and sense of tendency more reinforced.q. important thing of work and in fact of The ývat across the senses prone. involved of the Consequently. to of which the were own the extent even these matter it not secure understanding views critique. Since the end of the process. radicalization. tendency it arises is embedded the deeply very in the of language the of metaphysics. that from dominance language 151 . xivrjaiq c'vIEp-Vzicx of at and and palpable contrasted contrast nonesense.. radicalization basis I pye'Lo( E: moving influence the is of the term literally cip-yov betrays production: is what comes means in-the-work.

and the since the as movement CPYov. between this found to be is more therefore to inclined position the the most movement transition.we identified by from of at the the the 'ci-Aoq outset. to it. its By virtue is is it of its placed attribution beyond In its this sense understood to the being and its of the essential unmoved link the mover. to it an to is broken. A ]a puissance. de experience uses the sublunary to outstrip as way a such God as pure Act. and is considerable. to think of de pour ]a en ext6nue [PEA 4511 taken relation to its to I 'acte act. tendency its substitute for over Moreover. In Aubenque's Aristote penser. a passage 34 Although already thinking such at work states. extrinsic from reduce for the Insofar of the movement approached to perspective to production. of is production by definition as is governed separable problem it will Xoq. receives it is extrapolated or the from realm point. of movement as call designation finds and firmly for physical world taken words: and used basis thinking being. in I 'expd6rience sublunaire usera limite ]a 6 qui par un passage Dieu comme Acte pur. relation Aristotle limit potential. it external ground transcendental realm from which whereupon then was 152 . by no means in makes alone in influence still forcibly Scholastic philosophy. cg: movement is be itself. The direction is taken most Here found the by evident one such in interpretation what cvý: pyciu rooted in divine I as the as shall the a result the of of this second a form up tendency radicalization. with in ivý-p-yci(x Sbvo(giq which movement way. restricted the Aristotelian remains part implicit. of we have influence orientation as to Heidegger Aristotle current Aristotle's clear.

to followed the caution for a understood whereas specific find all the treatment an xivriair. movement movement of beyond beyond grounded 'as movement. it rather. states that the such cro(pia "authentic "authentic and cannot being" being" simply of man manifests is not off itself However. tq-CVjEp.drawn. even via immediately from human accessible life as be read such: sondern es entspringt bestimmt einer vollzogenen. moving in its in seiner ontologischen IPIA 2601 categorial ontological kategorialen Strukture Radikalisierung aus structure radicalization out of of a the Heidegger repeats the same point in the following paragraph: &pETý. off. aus des wird die Struktur ontologische Bewegtheit bestirmten Wie im Ontologie des Seienden einer 153 . der Idee des Bewegtseienden. jr. und der Menschenseins. it is For each we to a we have said. outlined philosophical Heidegger in aoq)! (x. informs we can the of aoq1(x to of as exemplary see how of the begin history radicalization anthropology. L(x itself even as and from the the together isolate xivqatq with basis phenomenon not both and only terms doubly of from attempt horizon be provide initial in ývlEp-yzi(x in which Sbv(xAtq belong so if should. heißt das der damit Der Seinscharakter der eitir. the since the of couple movement but Si)v<)(g. of here tendency terms Of in such' promoted what what is lies lies understanding that movement. Access conception movement thereby closed If the we return Bewegtheit now to of Heidegger's factical above presentation life. This is clearly arise to of a dubious from enterprise. deteminate idea of the arises accomplished thing.

the In to a problematic terms of movement is of of divine in the would ontology accomplished CFOT L (X theology. 125-1261 Naturally. confirm5 of course. of the idea of this The there Bewegtheit were any in doubt. die für ontologischen die Motivquellen sind im christlichen Sein spezifisch das die späterhin göttlichen (Trinität) Leben und innergöttIiche das Sinne (actus purus). Die entscheidende Seienden dieses Explikation bestimmte ontlogische und die Grundstrukturen.cý. Radikalisierung (PIA 2611 der Idee dieser The ontological I that is O(pc. is intelligible the in manner ontological 'Cýiq and thereby the character of the of the ontological the being structure of of on the basis of the ontology of beings determinate of Bewegthei a t the and radicalization Bewegtheit. itself: mover and the the 63(pX(xi beyond is the movement unmoved form of ultimately. man. that the that of production.der und Bewegtheit ontologischen verst-Undlich. Menschen und Gottes zum Seinsverhältnis das damit zugleich Menschen entscheidend des selbst Seinssinn damit den eigenen [PIA 263 My emphasisl bestimmen. radicalization circuitous gives determination the way in Heidegger has a succinct the this influenced history philosophical anthropology. in Seiende das Seins-Vorhabe. Bewegung. question this is. to If which radicalization Heidegger tendency radicalization apprehend projection &pXý of of all to is referring describe is here movement understood beings is in that terms in in the the the which of its we described endof If this an it above notion attempt leads to as a of to context natural the of o'(pXcxi of the world. determination out to be the train of of influence being: detour to a of of and by the no means translation drew to into a halt theology with the turns on a divine a back account merely route divine being of which a human way-station being. our conception interpretation this characteristic correspond detachment regional' its Epp. 154 .

not come For of it directly whilst is important from Aristotle drawn Aristotle. To anthropology. ývitpVci(x back Bewegtheit influence OewpeTv whereupon of cro(p i (x we are on Aristotle's conception philosophical anthropology. In which is of course is to the the ýv: ý-pyci<x. philosophy tendency the ontology and of application in had scholastic all but of the the this to theology. once did undo of the simply were bury Only refined philosophical must and in its recognition. naivety. Christian terms influence course from translation conspiring had back been on to and traces. terms Heidegger the is engages return ontology. to consider but had has that passed this via begun theology. turn. a conception Heidegger philosophy followed to reclaim thus wake. of of though As or we profound strategy history already that a he seen. beyond context then. the and was meaning himself originally already from conceptions in their practical this until their theology in question reflect of events. as ývtpyci(x modern scholastic that returning without a in of of a the three implicitly However. the The pivotal the Latin term translation specific of in this of to genealogy the Greek and is actus purus. influence scholastic to anchor has However. life (Trinity) and thereby the ontological also relation of God to man and thus the meaning to man. philosophy continued sources into Latin the almost reinforced key terms the new original disappeared. such have it a from is not return tradition of a matter possible Aristotle.being in movement. voiSq. and the particular ontological explication this the of are for motivational the sources fundamental ontological that later to exercise structures were influence a decisive the Christian over specifically conception of the being of God (actus the inner-godly purus). of being proper The decisive Seins-Vorhabe. recovery But such destruction only one destruction 155 .

to the and Heidegger from an means ontic of repetition perspective to ontological such the and a determination. to bear have in won different expense more problem to movement and direct of fashion Aristotle's Heidegger. of ancient way. it Unlike been a is designates however. reduction that scholastic reading that. "reduction" from a reading. give rise intended the at sense the phenomenological of ývtp-ycic( the it will Rather. 156 . upon what an to of interpretation supplant. "construction" names a third a phenomenological viz. own Seiende being-moved" a problem of seines 251. EGA24 §51. is the fundamental central that being of in Physics. Bewegtseins: cited above. the view will Heidegger's as of the radicalization above all of the this ývtpyciu.elements In addition that to Heidegger the describes as that constitutive issues vital the shift an from moment. itself. moreover namely. being prove it is. that facticity. thing With to Heidegger By its this. actus of purus. being. in of phenomenology. of like of not will for will he regard question own source In to movement. the Heidegger's "das of its hermeneutics im Wie (PIA determining the manner p. 1101. a constitute identifies conception xivr1cric. movement.

in transition life was external negatively to human heaven expulsed theology blocking conceived the vale regard the the through from of tears). elevates We Heidegger's the over arising to usual and interpretation understanding the movement Ethics movement itself of and production of implicitly how the xt'Xoq end above the the this conception this from divorce experience &pXý and compounds from the tendency itself. with and this way. In movement Christian movement the to a itself. bears showed the of on that hermeneutics account of of movement Micomachean Physics V1. anthropology The movement to reality schema God (a of of conception matter of movement brought between philosophical points. first in 'radicalization' Aristotle in this the but extrapolation. ctXoc.Chapter Four DUNAMIS AND ENERGEM. As from a unequivocal world to movement result to of natural second its radicalization. H" ING AN END In the previous to chapter. Scholastic the unmoved of ambiguous 5UCcessors. movement invites movement further in his &pXý the became specific trail to a Moreover. mover. Heidegger's how Aristotle's we began by outlining of of the facticity importance and. in the of more movement specifically. in its own 157 . tendency radical cemented access inherent understanding Aristotelian of movement metaphysics.

I of drew primarily on Aubenque of more mark consequences it is time common to pursue interpretations this issue 9. importance logos). all. the account movement focussed question Finally. Heidegger's the form thereby of of reading Sbv(xgi(. committing philosophical anthropology to an inadequate In to this this chapter we shall by to an set out to establish the of how Heidegger of Above responds and is predicament intrinsic reviewing understanding conceptions movement. of Heidegger's the notion of reading having whole to underlines the question IF lexciv] potentiality this invites at and us thus to also to of movement. these as terms we as articulations in the movement suggested previous which the they chapter. the conception Two. are of of where will hurnan of movement determined. iv9p-je-L(x. of of on as a arrive and horizon. relation began. as return end of fundamental the Chapter In in Section order to and IV of the out previous the Now chapter. 8. it I cvtp-Vci(x a matter of of reaching itself a determination and this means of that. a revised which course reading. an (as understanding of of course. 8. that of emerged all. en5uring factical the of yield being specific that life.6voqLir. Most of significantly citir. Met. is. this the we must but not must we only remain the as horizon that at within In be disclosed shall movement the focus.terms and thereby basis. 158 .2 to the between Narrowing interpretation possessed is its end.6vofjiir.

But that involve cases a reference this first kind. thing. followed be of 60v(xjiir. extend beyond the to motion. Yet apparently Book VI. paragraph. but terms will this in a address will further S.1-3. the for sense. and on with edition): precisely one iW: pysiof how one In roughly into question understands the opening phases their (in connection the Ross another. it also will analysis our course of 159 . terms. in our when we have of we shall spoken kinds discussions the other of potency explain of actuality 11045b35-1046a4l as well.what. the movement purposes affairs beginning once "strictest" at hand "not one the most enquiry strikes by as odd. kind actuality of what and . takes with useful" this precedence regard for state at to the of the whole. which not most useful our For potency 1ivtpVcto(3 present and actuality purpose.carefully sustained entirely commentary three of the via Heidegger's own reading appears Metaphysics is explicitly E). I svtp-Vcic( sense in the Uni study is of is of nXitov]. bv(xgic. as at the a and it is That this the second sense and sense of that Sf)v(xgir. become with clear. us discuss is related the in For is. confirmed Aristotle's remarks ESbv(xgxql which kind the potency of Since of we have treated 1ivtpyci(xl actuality let to movement. it in of these the 19. first let The implication with by is regard an account clear: to the movement provisional Ex(yc& and analysis xivilcriv]. Aristotle two these phases divides and and the the enquiry into turns Sibvcxgic. however. 1931 By far course the most interpretation to on Aristotle's the of of text dedicated Heidegger's Although with on only an concerned is premised the first chapters structure Metaphysics the book understanding as a whole. he writes And 1S6vofgiq1 in the strictest us explain potency is.

through chapter S16wYlitc.6v(xjici which YXn is Aristotle. to (x and 6-10 f as a whole the of Book ot from E) Aristotle di5CUSSiOnS interpretation human and 8(wotgir. to whatever process out some 11046a22-25. a twofold customary First. movement to an sense 66vcxýLiq I)Xn the BXrj stuff simply independent inert tradition not simply of more to material than interpretation For . regard we not only to ascribe potency it that is to move something nature whose else. moved either without qualification or in way. effect. the depends always relative a specific pointed of this Consequently. as it a in the an interpretation paves the way 1046al-4 a implies. in a tree general or inspection. the is inquiry in the course reason of this which of which these 11048a25-301 previous we have discussed senses also. of change later. particular as stuff can become a house. or production.1048b36ffl.that potential. accounts on and the of issue Uil of to [matter] truth lie and and gopq)ý 1 [form] Taking as towards these the a final of error. senses evLpycicy of beyond has movement. Chapters and 6v6p-Vs-. but also use the word in another some particular sense. of that for theological interpretation a reading act. of earthbound 5(wo%jr. activities evkpyci. notion of of the as as pure addition.12072bffl. or to be by something else. 2 In of ývgp*yci(x culminates viewing invites changeless the further interpretation that closer as that owes scholastic ground E1050bl-5. on but Cartesian is 8. of change as Heidegger the and being production years material" interpretation on how "so-called are themselves 160 . to the Marking passage a break heralds with the which the analyses in of the the first 'further is half of the book. of In this introduction the account develops of entirely senses' directed.

dieser (in jetzt das. question is Heidegger therefore negative indeed serious may be commentator) reconciled 11046al-21. address the earlier definition concerning remarks movement Let us compare paragraph Heidegger's of Chapter own I translation that we of quoted the passage above in from the the Ross opening edi ti on. see Aristotle's towards which 86v(xiiii. über als mehr sich Thema sind) erstrecken unser eigentlich Und zuerst Bedeutung. account has directed. Clearly.understood 6-3v(xgzx to EVWB-WM have 274: 2493. modified] It would be "beyond hard the to claim that the that the sense of Si6vo%ic. handeln) (wollen wir das eigentlich der in meistens man äüv(Yglc. cvL-pyciot die Denn und Abhandlung) vorhaben. r für brauchbar wi ich t was n (die die Slöv(xlitr. wahrlich die ist freilich so verstandene gebraucht. opposition directly by no means definition depends he from is the countering odds with interpretation. to of Book given as here the have extends customary it cases of involve opening a reference paragraph (and how this motion" E) would any translation The must with [1046al-31. the Heidegger of the scholastic such Sf. senses' Indeed. in der Wort 161 . text. every principle of 11049b5-9: translation movement or of rest. that definite thing is said not only which to be a principle in another thing of change or in the thing itself but in general regarded as other. the as we so can been doing. these In above terms. über Sibvcxgic. )v(xgiq reading cannot and he reception an go along are to with the view that the of 'further movement. I mean by Sbv(xjiir. to on at of civtpyciot seeks of somehow independent all in develop. for Determining movement closes the off meaning such of "uXrl as no regard an approach.

h. very to regard as that useless denigrates is translation as a necessary gesture of the senses 86vofilir. ) einen Aufschlup 11045b35geben. gehandelt haben. of the further others reaching senses of S6V(XVjq). 162 . entsprechenden die im Hinblick nur auf Bewegung genonmen Aber nachdem wir darüber werden.die Ausdrücke. GA33 49-501 1046a4. Sbvowiq usual of a name I y. translation. (we wish And first to deal) of all the sense of SbvaVtq with it is in for the which most Though part actually used. used. Heidegger concerns have actually initial its as enquiry 'strictest they "as this not introduced sense. account apparently encourages prelude senses establish. he having avoids to lbrauchbarl. discussion our of s-"v9pjei(x. Instead. the first part Heidegger's account more because of of the the ensuing are in less what consideration familiar does the fundamental they are senses. more precisely transition philosophical. by this are the several customary points reading at as suggests which Heidegger's by the in rather then the translation Ross edition differs quoted represented that not but He rather the the pitfalls 'strictest' enquiry inessential concerned us to the that But to at First. the also give an account of (i. relatively paradoxically the sense hand. 36v(xgiq in this understood way is not in fact to appropriate this discussion). we have dealt in with we shall. 3 There from above. one dismiss for the as of 85 SiMply of the USefuj. cvL-pyciot die anderen weitertragenden Bedeutungen der S()vofjLiq. den Erörterungen und zwar über die dber die auch (d. e. "4 describes than appropriate way. in wollen wir. what we have before For 66vugiq us (in and (which theme) cvtp-Vci(x are properly our concern more than the in reference corresponding expressions to used solely But after these movement. they usage are as ' as for not 5 in passage dunamis many the wholly this commentators most part suggested.

as Heidegger begegnet fxcxrä»xivrlcrivl. 3. die f"epyovl sind. in the the cases elides Ross that the or By that within transition to their the the L()f cC3v g6vov cvtp. edition involve adverb eschewal contrast. consi5t? and ývtpVciof x(yx& xivnalv to the sense of The Greek phrase in question Xcy6licvov and motion. move what 6 [EpVov]. is "ent nXgov -y&p Ccr-rIv " rendered beyond rl Si)v(xýLjc. If we look at movements that powers of (involuntarily) then is moved. -a of tendency points out: implicit apprehension abv(xgiq. proposing movement to exclusive g6vov. relation movement. And we speak on working likewise activities of is and moved. IV terms a that that there are is more leads The a risk of referring to what is of improperly in to appropriate to same the movement as our such confusion vorhanden. and wholly The cvtpyci(x to denoted general sense expression of a as understanding therefore with involves movement changed such.from these the term5 sense Ent of nXtov 8lbvOfAic. ebenso und Bewegte das Kräf ten. the work [xaT& 163 . actuality " This extend translation presenting as potency to a reference g6vov of a crucially the [solely]. die Tätigkeiten. yp-. treatment is movement in present t-hand. Arbeit der bei Werke. than a break We saw movement and that in in Ch. hinblicken Bewegungen Wenn wir auf (unwillkürlich) von denn Und Bewegtes. am EGA33 501 what across come we x1vncriv]. sprechen wir uns von bewegen. reference is SfmxAiq by the thereby to careful and preservation alternatives. further perspective from further rather the as "For )((X'rdf xivricriv. Heidegger senses of retain iv9p-ycic( do not xcxu& Sbv(xgiq lie xivriatv.

that EGA33 between In as 531. further and in evL-pVs'L(x xivr1criv purely introduction ontic. being. are 7 themselves For is the Heidegger. pycicy independent would not questioning picture. being building. case movement if think via the we of Heidegger's building their example.Af)v(xjLiq. ontological movement all be movement Rather. powers movement Wir auf blicken aber das xivoügsvov nicht fi Bewegung als auf fragen wir xi-voü. 11048b361. signification question movementV exists? not be ' According to change the Aristotle's what is in is in have 'how describe the of entail must Heidegger as a which Simygiq eschewal out kept of in the from movement would xof-c& On the not of xcrE6t an to short. of shift perspective accompanying senses ontological declared when it of Suv(xjitq corresponds -a establish to a transition from matched exists determine reading. is at whereas issue. further movement leaving above iv(. of the that the the Heidegger with meaning wishes to and movement of movement. but xIvrjaiv contrary. realized is the enquiry. to from way senses and the in of to this 'how Aristotle's and as a potentially Sf)vofptc. we consider materials of movements cut and involved assembled. treated the as present- at-hand. nicht was da-s 164 . perspective characterizes transition acquisition asking x(YE6f xivriaiv asking highlight asking itself second xotr& is about is xfvnacwq.8 asking the The in difference connection case. x1vnatv. an by ontic to an determination intention does not" of would to In to trajectory "when that a thing is. f irst horizon itself movement in To the take in presupposed it own a house. of the S()v(x1iiq things apprehension In the this way. describe what and of the view. ic-vov die Bewegung. and as 6Vt'PYe1(x X(XT& like xfvncylv any x(xcdc other. nicht.

sei. The further as senses in any of Si)v(xliiq way many is are therefore of expressly Indeed.Bewegtseiendes 4 06v und nicht But als die solches x(vqcrir. and senses precisely gained by as what Aristotle's not clear thought. of the view. in sense to Heidegger's his Is'ni view. 341. to to obscuring incoherence. one to movement. we do not be. nXiýovl them Met.9 enables of the four Indeed. xfvn(ylq Movement to Out thing this their and of be of in itself as is reduced to not to the the transition that between happens to to states be in and comes seen accidental it is thing as reading to ask is not of to movement. reading as one understand significations Sbv(xgiq of being ý-vtpjei(x the sublunar feature world basic 11026ba33f. still enquiry the after what very S6voqLir. Book 0 to this dedicating the 165 . do. the not to be understood such best worst into independent commentators original it is in movement. conditions therefore as consider as simply limiting and movement. regarded intrinsic of after ask the being out to question. commits assuming enquiry and at at independence. nicht wir nehmen das xivolbgcvov IGA33 53-541 clwxi. p. as movement. how the to the However.. 8 sets Slbv(xgiq after as the itself reverse in tendency. the not at ask what the moving thing the xlvoý6Vcvov ý ov e or look we do not at movement ý xivobgevov xivo6gevov. further this means but and ýW: pycm them xaTd( xivqacwc. ivC'p'yCI(x of not x(xlc& XIVII(Y'v and to first contributes if securing sought ontological senses is to are be 8bv(xgiq accessible ivLpySI(xquestioning half of xotx& xfvrraiv. articulations of of what movement in ontological by preserving determinations the how horizon and in is movement this EGA33 531. We do not take as such might fi Civoti.

of attention Heidegger schematic Des Verhdltnis S6vcxgtq und ist nicht andere.perspective? %useless. presented relate by at explicitly further There have how senses are. (heuristically) thematic already might into to a the then expect series potential remarks: discrete inadequacy stages. der in x(xr& xfvrlatv. text's are reading Chapters developed Aristotle the perhaps. and Sbvcxgiq ývgpyzia for the 86v(xpiq transition other. 8punkt As V n ý ývitpyst(x &6výxliiq zu x(xlcdf xivncriv und von 6bergans dieser ý ivtpyci(x. to the the fact that Heidegger of the first chose to devote chapters In fact. conception end of 57. of further. anchored relation r'I and is not is rather but in 8i)v(xgiq The just account a foil of for Slbv(xpiq the and evtp-yelof x(x'cdf x1vnct'v determination is of clearly these more terms that than x(xtdf the an ontological Heidegger goes and xfvnac(aq. pyci(x und to xfvwtv xcxc& and of thi 9 nXtov. determination Indeed. die sind. the by the one of replacement simply [integral]. iýnt nXtov das des das Auswechsein gegen einen einfach Entwurf Eines: ist mit ein ursprUnglich er sondern 561 EGA33 6vi: Sf)v(xILtr. Book of this emerges how one down Heidegger 8 to look. would Heidegger's at the face somewhat surprising. eni are which c'vCpyci(x. analyses they too itself. to an entire of he a in lecture course on the examination of it the as be three Book E) would never states of the 6-10. Fu. development speculates breaking 10 such its Having a which some in interpretation of to indication respect on development drawn conception. ' as Is the the sense of S()v(ygjq XOM& xfvnaiv suggest? not relatively customary translations If it were. anticipate of the many points However. bri underlining nXtOv is S6v(xgtq cv9pyci(x neither 166 . a projection one originally ivtpVcicx x(xc(k xivnaiv.

gets no it further would be it than wrong is 1047a32. On to the inconclusively. a similar definition is given in Met. a source than the 110198151 iv ilctpov is in another thing qua thing other.3. Regrettably. 12: xlvýcrcijl. 0.extension passage seems nor from a one generalization phase phases of the must of enquiry in former to account. With slight lexical variation. Xxx(p of source [1046al0f] change in another thing or in an originative itself qua other. A. feels in which is the he has Aristotle's projection to iýni integrity However. II Aristotle &Pxý defines Acwpoxýq dimamis ýV in Met.. carried Perhaps text the through Heidegger Fuflpunkt perspectives nature of contrary. point. 8. Heidegger how the perceives Met. connection in of seeking 5 f)v(YILic more the that at with the . it that the two some sense concomitant. the be other If is a definitive ruled 11 out. just that the of from the before it breaks Heidegger's the end off been of commentary Met. between establish nXCov look anchored.1 as: &XXO n rj (. which or change of movement the in same thing or moved 167 . 0. that original as though enquiry the whole had a high here the the culmination elicited of before sense take of a study.3. to -gay However. we must xuidt I general perspective questioning xIvnaswq is opened up.

to be understand to earth place been they fall interpretation Or. for granted. of force potential potential potentialities capacity earth. said a commonplace objects to define have the the senses the requiring For once been Eiv &p)(ý and the investigation. itself? he of leaves earth. be be taken said to jicvxPoXý meaning of Moreover. 3bvo%tq themselves 'in another' of description meaning But ev has be terms to definiens whether or *&pXý the since addition doubt &XX4) or itself jicvxpoXý whole these less which vc6pov] yet to hardly could be qualifies established. in we saying speak apprehended? a asks. in to to shed fall as terms their to claims common. as a consist an elaboration to treat the Accordingly. here the could in only the over Heidegger. pre-existing in Yet When wrongfully regard falling trees leaves how the disparaged leaves have have are the the such abandoned). of Sbv(xgiq material will from gradually emerge. explicable we might condition: autumn and this.This little the the fixed. that We tend ]ends autumn (a and as form almost them leaves of irresistably As finding to Heidegger their he is of more a discover points proper has in phenomena out. in intends of x1vnaiq of precisely definition can purpose of the enquiry terms. we as a pattern might meaning. bridge have not: or we of load-bearing exerted by and the in the grasped gravitational a potentiality directly Clearly 168 . of Heidegger than [Grundrifil a point definitive conclusion outline departure. definition or no has further given of in all come to be seen almost Not as so.

wir 781 finden find we However. alone fostered predominates the rise of Whilst science. let not achievements. therefore. as that describes we is present-at-hand the apprehension other as Heidegger At 8i)v(xgEjq xoftdf x(vqaiv. as an in entity fact Slbv(xjLiq. any ' will - on this be just treated intepretation. IGA33 themselves results. Erfolge. a stroke. century its is roots already of a and causality bias. is as today. 169 . stretch understood cause effect seventeenth thinking. to us way. as we actual and this warns above are tempted as as correspond. do nicht Unmittelbar feststellen. and relation paradigmatic effect cause §§10-113. operative to In this the impoverished presented have the in less reductive modern in to comparison four causes reservations than Aristotle. Llq. be actual grasped effects. In this such actual effects of to it the are the themselves powers to that inaccessible.Kr9fte immer Powers only lassen sich nur Leistungen. change. existence as the characteristic into terms scholastic of actuality The P05t-Cartesian where actuality between for philosophy. efficient thereby becomes understanding 'what caused reality. do with Heidegger's of causality that by Of Aristotle's on efficient this is back in EGA24 theory with emphasis philosophy. own familiar above. taking the emerges the because the one conception in theory respect. the like of 13 Moreover. against all and in S()VO(J. Wirkungen. to most be cause. Heidegger evident. In insofar above all apprehended of as meaning of the a actual effect a power function of causality causality illustration of the understood of causality. which we as they only the even independently way. unintelligible. experience effect as a 12 self- conclude is something of a power. directly.

there material must be cause in movement are as follows statue. the something This of The undergoes must to or acquire movement form a new The formal or something what it is image 3) The determination cause this the is end become change is must the be 4) which formal initiated The the final cause. that movement or and change. of the simply the four of to restore is interpretation in itself particularly to context to caution causes defining exercise adequate in view response of the problem Heidegger 8()vo%-tq. status of narrowed and existence. 1) first The gives two substantially In four For each the order causes. is to an ontic to the conception include possibility as Aristotle of efficient the only of grounds. understanding (the being a unique removed. A.find the hand that ontology of is committed being the manner In short. there case for equivalent any which to of be accounts or of change causality to take Met. is purpose called movement change undertaken cause. 170 .3. by cause efficient and movement the something In or termed or is efficient for the the final cause. the However. this of informed way experience to 14 Apparently. 1-21.. 11. with must regard production. reading the four the be to most reverse Heidegger of Aristotle's oppose theory would cau5es to a reduction conception the not of efficient of an causality 5bv(xjiiq. place. Aristotle [Ph. or 2) change [194b24ffl. causality interpretation elevation an by for ontological the principle of cements production. the presence-atof Sbv%Ljq is of work) of signifying effectively to of the being direct the intends. sake of addition. there there must is cause a bronze be bronze. to alone.

meaning see fact as the to production. the of Sýbvujiic.Ltq implicated the the individual four account in the develop terms causes This will definiens. of derived not mean precisely that or they even with this formalisation occur 15 This with face very cannot articulate simultaneously. problem of such we have necessity 171 . process as a same experience which we have above though a process. the case. informing already see to were does one of well it do Bernasconi a moment defined as such corresponds they too production. in Heidegger's tandem is with of the the of an interpretation interpretation utmost production importance as Sbv(xgiq. of gopq)ý. only However. of actions On the the production. for hermeneutic response Indeed. that contrary. four since causes the in itself of this cause itself. flexibility to the the Heidegger's described it. to to the dominates modern theory of of understanding of causes unless Restoring Aristotelian the itself influence conception the four - causality do little four offset is production scrutiny. causes Yet if could the is (at 16 adequately of each not is as surely with of of of the meaning manifestly least) Rather. unconnected so. the four secure. production the underlines our which forms the of experience activity. extent of efficient will the thus of to all are on they coincide the may another. theory the causes placed under Leaving only be aside the issue defined of production on the basis were for Of a moment.If we recall oikrlu it Heidegger's and is of allude in the the others account receive not causes Each of of their to -a cause the way terms from such the as ciSoc experience Arl. meaning the material Sbvýx. 591. the doctrine impossible four 1p.

approach in their causes, fundamental case, difficulty. region applied of but

arises and

directly kV9pysi(x were it is wholly the

from above

the all

fact as

that

Heidegger

is of of

interested being. the the not If four other the in what it be of

Sf)vofpiq,

significations by the feature not is if theory

meaning then

determined that of being. four should

latter

alongside only itself so, is this

significations the Are being
OUt5ide

Yet

theory there does that

of just each region:

the four cause

causes and, and to

shrouded why? From can

causes arise
is

what the

extent material

e. g.

space

cause

geometrical
ontological entails established

figures?
significance keeping doctrine. it

17

Heidegger
to the as a

is
theory

anxious
of the

to

restore
four

a genuinely
but it as this an

causes,

alive

problem,

not

regarding

Heidegger's undertakes causes. 'The 18 to A

strategy, recover reading of

then, a more this

is

twofold. and is

In nuanced in (1955)

the

longer of

term, the such

he four as and much

complex kind

reading later and in

given

essays 'Science outline der

Question

Concerning (1954), although 1926 find of With to

Technology' the strategy Die

Reflection' earlier: Philosophie ontological movement that not in

was present Grundbegriffe of as present of clears from of the they

Heidegger's we already

lectures a beings

entiken as an in say does for by ivtPIE'a an the

description insofar to a the

causality are or can

determination EGA22 13-151. aims from

be

regard

enquiry, 8-6v%Lir. the

we can that way

Heidegger proceed of of

elaborate In is This, not and so

conception doing, he

causality. that

account influence

movement production.

dominated the senses

first and

3bvo(gi(;

172

that

emerge

from

such

a reading, of now it is

will ITP&tiq trace

lead as a

us

back

to

the

problem of Dasein's of course.

of

Heidegger's transcendence. remainder of

radicalization We shall

determination

Heidegger's in his 1931

reading lecture

the

Met. E). 1 as

presented

*

Following beginning
potentiality

the of

definition this
or

of

Sbv(xgiq Aristotle

to

which

we

referred senses
n&TXcivi:

at of

the the
that

section,
of being

identifies
upon 1Sbv(xgiq

two
Tob

power

acted

of

passively

undergoing change or

change

156vocgi,; ['ctiq

Tob

Tr(xOcZvl 11046all].

and

that

of

resisting

destruction

om(Y9clofql

Heidegger the

translates

the even

first

of

these of

as that as

Ertragsamkeit, which tolerates

conveying change a or

susceptibility, 881.19 to The all

acquiescence, is of of translated change, these of

EGA33

second forms Both

Widerstand,

denoting degradation

resistance destruction sense each it is of of

modification, senses in refer what back is

EGA33 891. an originative them consists to

to

the

primary that

source in

change to

other. of

Given

a relation that the

an active sense of doing of

power in

formation, must be But and he

tempting cob

suppose the

primary

question or

&6v(xgjc, Aristotle Heidegger continues, in a

noICTV, no

potentiality to it out to rather, undetermined this of place the

making. here fact, of

makes explicitly it

reference rules be

kind

Sbv(xgtc, In form sense of the

consideration. any single

would of

mistaken

&6v(xýLtq, be of

position as

priority: still

primary

should essence

understood a16v(xg Iq.

the

Grundr-ifi

173

Nonetheless, Widerstand unintelligible resists (GA33 a

of

the

two

secondary

senses inasmuch to in

mentioned, as the

Heidegger is that

accords itself which of our , is the lying in the

certain without 91-941. hidden is a

priority, reference Moreover, causes more power, but "Das resisting Circumscribing favours of reference and the of

Ertragsamkeit character to our of

contrast actua For is not I

understanding I Wirkungen]

6,6v(xgei r, as experience manifestation behind resisting und die the

the here of

the

ef f ects if a

immediate. this is power rather

resistance hidden cause

phenomenon, thing itself: The 911. things point

encountered selbst itself experience of power thrust relation matter the in light what

directly ist is of power of and of this of das

Widerstehende thing is our

Kräftige and in does the not but

Kraf't: EGA33 of its

powerful power that

power" resistance take which [Stofl another draws as

a consideration the active

a subject, counter-thrust things way, the to

recognizes und

resistance in Having of

movement,

Gegenstofll 941.

reciprocal the into

one

EGA33 the

framed resistance

Heidegger Leibnizian

phenomenon of potentia:

conception

ist Widerstand einfach nicht aber Bewegung, bloßes kein »5ie nicht d. h. Gegenstreben, von ein Eigenes, IGA33 97) Ding etwas bestimmt. Resistance, movement, striving, determines

Gleichgültigkeit mitmachen«, wo aus sich

gegen sondern im anderen

to imperviousness is however, simply not ' but countera 'not rather along, going no plain from something which of out ie. proper, something 20 thing. the in itself other

Enriching not also only paves

the

notion

of

resistance to the

with modern

that

of

striving of

(Streben] matter, it on

restores the way

dynamism for an

conception of human

interpretation

potentialities

174

the Such

basis

of

broader of

understanding subjectivist work subjectivist its for

of

6bvO(A1q in

the

natural of course, his this for

world. been

a displacement to Heidegger's or and is implicitly

metaphysics some while, and as the so even

had,

central engaged on

where In

analyses emphasis example, basis of and these in his

humanist

themes

tropes. Streben,

resistance

characterization working through that just Heidegger
language

Heidegger resoluteness Time. lectures
Rectoral

philosophical important after to in

[Entschlossenheit] significantly, on Aristotle,
using of

was years returned

Being

And

two

delivering the theme
of we shall the

Address, in terms Streben

strongly offered

reminiscent here. 21 As

account see, role desire. the in

of

power

resistance will continue above

concept Heidegger's

of

to I

play respect

a

important to

interpretation,

al

with

O'pcýiq,

At

this

point,

Aristotle and

introduces one that wi II

a be

further crucia If

specification or the

of purposes

Slbvcxlii (ý xor-c& xi vrIcTi v, of our own reading. 22

Wiederum die bereits werden nun angeführten Kräfte genannt und als solche verstanden entweder nur in Bezug auf das, einfach wozu sie Kräfte sind, zum Tun bzw. Leiden, Wei5e«, oder aber in Bezug auf das »in der rechte so daß im Verstehen dieser Bedeutung auch von Sý6v(Ygic in der Weise darin die Bedeutungen gewisser mitverstanden sind [1046al6-19, GA33 991 vorgenannten. (5ý6v%Lsiq) be powers and called come that to in of understood relation simply as such either in they or else which or undergoing, are powers, acting that ' the 'in to so way, right relation or undergoing acting the in understanding Sibvc(giq this named previously of sense understood. senses sense also are in a certain foregoing to Again, the

In well;

this to

way, remark

to

query of

'can

she

run? ' 'he can't

is

to play

ask

whether

she

can

run

a cricketer

short-pitched

bowling'

175

is

not

to

doubt play

that good 'cob

he

can

offer Moreover, and ictiq to easily to

a

stroke, the same

but

that is that

he

can found green but the

consistently in or to cases of

strokes. 7r(AcTv is burn is not

pattern to will to say

8bvO(jII(; does it not does

Omoresi(xq; that well; that weather. to the goes introduced it it

damp wood say that is but

burn not

not

deny and boast bad

combust, say that up

outhouse weather, potentiality that relation

weatherproof that or power its terms of it

can The

stand notion of

to of

can implicitly

resist refers

manner on to

existence this

represents in

accomplishment. the concept of

Heidegger Str-eben

express

above.

Auch und gerade im Begriff der 5-6v(xj. liegt Liq xocc& xivrjaiv demnach Verfassungm&fliger Bezug ist ein auf -ciLXoq: damit dergleichen ))Zie1strebigkeit(( nicht wie gemeint, sondern: Zuordnung innere Abschlu, 6, Fertigkeit. von etwas auf Ende, In der S1bv(xgiq, liegt daher das Moment des Unterwegs-zu, des Ende Strebens, ein und ausgerichteten ausgerichtet auf Fertigwerden. EGA33 1001 the concept of Sbvoegiq xotT& x1vqcTiv precisely, in this to the no x9Xoq: relation comprises a constitutive inner ' but 'purposefulness, assignment an rather way means a to an end, (orientation? ) of a off, a rounding something the lies Slbv(xgtq there In moment of on-the-wayreadiness. towards to, the an end and a oriented striving, oriented becoming ready. 23 Even, indeed

At and out Yet

first the any in its

glance, telos idea

Heidegger's seem of to flirt as the to and at train

remarks with a

on

the

relation

between Initially,

dunamis he rules 24 towards striving

contradiction. 'purposefulness'

S-6v(xgiq he offers goes Streben] balking on

[ZielstrebiEkeit]. orientation an oriented

place and

image

of

a settled as

a given

end

describe as being idea its

5-6vcqLiq underway that destination,

lausgerichteten an end. Whilst arrive like

towards might

Eunterwegs-zul at left a certain wondering

the at

Sbv(xgi(;

Point

a

we are

176

other as other are On first of the inspection. beides dieselbe) (als sie ein und ist (daß je beiden daß die eine andere von eine ist)in je anderen einem andere eine als GA33 1031 that is to to at Clearly. and as a manner end of in rather than Whilst something a striving. sense of passage pushes raising complementarity. remains Streben here and accordingly will begin of to the address but description these a fuller of questions answer Sbv(xgiq. und zum Erleiden eine einzige sodann so. does 815V(yRlq a work a manner but strive towards accomplishment. E). accomplished subject this of clearly as a manner it Of is striving. speaks it the question. 177 . the not vEXoc. of his emerge commentary Aristotle concerning Tt&crx CIv opens the the possible next passage connection with the following Sbvagiq guarded Tou TEoiciv remark xO(I between Offensichtlich.. I. beyond any However.how to distinguish Sf-mxg-tc.. daß einer ist ist. in both (they another).. beides sie 11046a19-22. already any 'at. Tun Kraft folgendes: Eine zum wird nun also Hinsicht) (in das einmal ist so.. earlier are unity point this that may the seem power little of this more being than acted a recapitulation upon and the the that issue question of Of acting their complementary. the meaning present-at-hand. The answer of not as an stems "ausSerichteten from is Streben" fact that but the from a "Zielstrebigkeit"? marking existence. in will as the 'underway. such undergo act and a power (one (in and the both time singular one respect) are same in is two the that then each case the same) of one and . then. remainder gradually of ' Heidegger his over commentary the course on Met.. Lir. of is the 25 accomplishment glbv(xj. as of against still reification to spell out S'6v%Lir.

from and own essence out of its two into powers. Bezug in her Wesen dem auf und aus eigenen sich. undergoing single fact" occurrence Their unity.of the 'primary the sense reflects sense' in to which their which the all power other of as on is senses acting is refer. coi5 portrayed the nojeTv a failure of S1bv<xjiiq. in dieses. it to understood? Heidegger Arguing Sluvagic. from but in one each another. they the cot) distinct how is one? 1041. -Tob sense. Aristotle fact of thereby matter. as the of essential SibwxýLiq. Sbv(xgtq and itself on hand. they what introduced to from phenomenon themselves: ambiguity of is articulate. sense and distinguishing instance Heidegger 178 . single and For of active Heidegger. Kräfte in Weise zwei einer ursprünglichen EGA33 1051 auseinandergegangenKraft ist in der Bezug der to &pXý an the the relation noicTv Power is in itself Tob of in is The I power of essence versa. The fact appears. but one "complementary this reading. is in by the unity not powers two. vice and OtpX' rl Tob n(xcrXeTv this to in relation itself. instance. not just in general or at an abstract Zv eine auf noiE: ('xpXý roZ sich in ist Kraft der Wesen Das o(pXý tot n(xcyXcZv und umgekehrt. ITOIE: Tv describes how -n6fcrxE:iv are inseparable level. is named. By casting the primary it from sense each of factual s-6voqiiq. ambiguity the to be And directly may or which Are are case they just for passive kinds of be powers Simxgiq same. in divided manner original an essence. and language isolated grasp the of the meaning )cO(j (3-bvcxjjLi(. extended and is [AMC 2411. one According with aspects arises to the as as from that of to of a the Ross. essential 816valitc. I ircko-Xciv cemented the and other as twofold the concerns be just EGA33 said in the wake lies sense the if of the in in division. the essence the two one.

then to the essence that not of power the as divided is writes. significance evident leaves here is for expression time. of between As he essence this two the we call mean power that the underline. separable there belongs to Heidegger he as is does a one to not prior describes wish form. the and the the of does ambiguity IGA33 1061. IGA33 1051 179 . way consideration. to of it a genuinely 26 For that the introduction is not yet dunamis.reveals be the putatively important whilst it 'useless' analysis to of the S6v(xgjq ontological of x<xT& xivgcrlv question Jni c TExtov. seems towards properly genitive confirms a matter has that of Slbv(xgl(. that His the Sbv(xgi(.Lq itself. step a the even under of xivnaccoq associated To be ontological phrase tha titiS However. of lies the in essence power The a composite of power manifest relation and pre5ent-at-hand these two: powers. description sense of 27 x(YT& xivqcFtv of this at become the little significance he arrives Si6v(xgiq. properly speaking ontological. Nonetheless. discussion XO(T& xivqcrlv pursues scope of the and Heidegger that the of the xcxT& is question Slbv(xl-L'(. extent the present analyses Heidegger phase of the first doubt reading. this does determination not appear stil the I in this S-6vo(giq. to moving the such on true determination the course of of the. modified before declare to true which have from Heidegger the perspective the an to original in next alters perspective xivncTiv is that will I ndeed. S-3voqi. in suggest It is other. a Heidegger's xa-r& interpretation perspective taken he decisive with sure. what not essence he the Rather. essence between das Kraftsein ist beides als eines. case. into any that two way first them is is quick when powers.

being-power is both as one. ontic reading to door efficient a reading senses the a determination lack active the a strong powers reductive That 6i)v(xgiq basis. 7t&crXcjv. rather. In the defending phrase ev his reading. fundamental 180 . gs. does undue such Sbvotgic. 5-6vocgir. It . ('x'XX4) in Sbv(xgiq 11046aill. Not also only gives textual of the emphasis the of the to subject agent. uxpoXý referring as (xpXrl. the &Xlq) Ev wi th of gcvxpoXý which coZ favour5 initiates iroicTv. TEoiE: Tv S-6v(xgi(. II to ('XpXý 2411. p pertaining Heidegger. name I y. in passive or the itself Heidegger it On the to say other that associating there the the are case &pXý ý-v o'(XXcp with two that lies ontic the neither between &pXý potentialities dxpXý resides in the is not unequivocally speaking but in the agent: nor the ontologically active in their side difference them. of however. the of distinction change in only between itself and not to tha t qua '&pXý other' of change depends [AMC in another on ev For thing' and '&pXý to ('x'XX(. the Heidegger definition insists of on a certain reading For of Ross. at and this point Tob of identity at and the difference original between cleft Suvocgir.cob is here. T-oiS noisTv and whose force which identifies he this the arche with surely the deplore agent - of is - change testimony -a to move the hand. that implicitly distinction above defends the other Sibvugic. but or of of it identification change. that Heidegger lodges the ontological sense of SbvoqLiq. [Grundrip] between them. where repercussions with which would perspective the imposes allows present. Ross's tacitly in the opening light interpretation a commentator elevates causality.

un-power. without Aristotle 28 q <: rc 1ý' p TI<3-1 This here may and of in In condition several being which something.differentiation. (that of itself. translated by Heidegger In general. 181 . j. begins as carries follows. IcTTiLpqaiq1. [1046a28f. ist jegliche Kraft worauf eine Unkraft). which power). in intended. lists are both ontic [1046a32f. 5bv(xgiq in the sense as that which against stands over hence. a-power. quoted and Heidegger powers the of Thus a correspondingly essential sense aTtpnai(. in his commentary It on is the precisely final this Passage dynamic of nexus that he explores Met. daher ist jede ein Kraft. als Bezug dasselbe Gemäßheit desselben (bezüglich auf und in die Kraft Kraft ist. The passage Unkraft (Unkräftigkeit) das und demzufolge auch ist das der »unkräftig« Sinne als iYiý)voeyz(. GA33 1081 Und die (impotence) And un-power 'im-potent' and accordingly also is. as Entzug and usually signif course Book the V ies rendered the take in English of forms. of the 1022b22ffl. Aristotle what may raises be called the issue incapacity of the or contrary impotence the to Sbvcxgtq and. as (with the thing to regard same with relation and conformity is unthat is to the power every power a power. sentence detects at the level However. The key to the passage is the concept aTtpqui(ý. in in the to a the wake sense of of the previous considerations. each power. Unkraft d. each case e. active context above). a privation in in is becoming i. as privation. passive illustrations the of is relation Sbv(xgic. investigation new level. im besagten Gegenüberliegende Entzug lcyTepqcrigl. preceding a move of to these these repeat essence examples. Unkraft je in wenn sie zur wird. required. h. e.

that active specific related the this powers. 29 is indeed not 'pure' the notion Sibv(xgic. related power. cr-undri. Accordingly. Verlust Entzug innerlicher verhaftet und to thus is nothing un-power power of steretic change the because to that cases only not rest. (as . nicht anderer zur als etwa von überhaupt Kraft dem Sachgehalt nach verschieden und Bewegung dem Besitzcharakter Kraft der der eigene sind.. relation to its relation its power or the un-power externally an original that another. of movement is the because but power different. more is not intimate. already of essentially regards For in power the of resistance is still Ipp. 173-1751. is Aristotle Heidegger bound from writes that power him to seen its to is intrinsically that every In powers the are As understands the first mean own reversal. governing selbst the power holding also or submits such itself beherrscheyfl.. to of the to not we have the dunamis. loss and its intrinsically bound to of own possession The like privation. gives way to However. sondern weil 1131 [GA33 ist.6v(xgi(.Insofar resistance. plenitude it does exhaustion in imposed from one consist transition phase to Der demnach ein ist Wandel der Kraft zur Unkraft steretische Ruhe. essence case. that of limit. its governance can fail. is. whereupon privation. of case are . der Bewegung weil nur. (TTf-P9cylq 182 . describes what as it this the 6 ý6vofgIq said power but 101'3 to TEOICTV does of not meet insuperable Heidegger not simply may be as to the it have a domain sway over Isich efficacity. The its essence own of 5. of but rather comprises active the and sense negation senses) befits the 6 between throws passive Moreover. case of as to when un-power. finite.

wenig so als solchen. properly turn-around longer thus an active means merely gsT(xpoXý no the but of exchange the relation endurance. essence the of Slbv%Llc.. der bezdge die Aufweisung xui T-ob TloicTv gerade My 115 EGA33 bringt. Sbv(xgiq however. and the privation time of Sbvo(giq leitmotiv value therefore of of possession For emergent its O'Wý Heidegger5 furthering reading. zum anderen: In the light of of IGA33 differential we have of and concerning and let character in terms following essence its us characterization compare this with possession privation.6v0% Iq for as what "in is sich other" the ein Ausgehen 1011. sie . the passage on the meaning of ýLcvxpoXý: Leitbedeutung vollverstandenen gs-r(xßolý meint Umsetzen.. or corresponding between. 56vapzg.of mastery associated the its positivity overturning is with of or power into is relief as a function in terms of of The - possession: possession. surpassing a play characterized in terms of privation. as the lies in interpretation gcTo(POXýq- Heidegger in of the itself what described a setting arche-Sein out discovered 8 . Sbv(xgiq x(yi the Tob noicTv into that it brings relation view n&CYXCIV 6q gl(x. auch nicht aber nicht aktiv mehr nur einseitig beider Wechselbezug den das Ertragen dazu.. passive sondern daß fällt [ 1 zwischendurch. it does So little I [. our being. between occur them as such.. den Blick in n&aXciv sie W'q gl(x daher in der das emphasis] significance. Understood in its fundamental 183 0 .

useful Heidegger's for commentary the most part In shows. impetus for S1bv(x4Iq. of of this He 8-3v%Liq first ha 5 that. senses of but itself such respect. implicitly. then. potentiality differential potentiality. Heidegger xivrIcTiv x(xT& the claim engage is enquiry x(xE& Sbv(xgiq ontological nonetheless. phases enquiry are. ýLc-capoXý. 30 underlying the phenomon of movement understood as * Looking (essential) little into back at sense the as what initial the xc <'pXý definition AcvxPoXýr. initial active the senses unity of displays essential as much is a Accordingly. in "XXO. respect. meant may not but of St)v(xgt(.MvcofpoXý. in has its nothing actual to form. as we suggested Ep. question is question For as of x1v9cYswq. concomitant. do but the with is the rather realization the and of an ontic of the of the &pXý phenomenon passive relation a as not relation their the between that difference. this ontological even the in two these present. 1671. In thing his reading above all. Oc that the its it the primary is now a "XX4) ýý 'w 0( by itself that the it clearer Slbv(xgi(. preliminary albeit so-called of the considerations. elicited whilst Heidegger from intimately has achieved text up with one an the Aristotle's bound interpretation 184 . chapter. rather in a 'setting-out' of possession (Ausgehen] and like R3v(xAiq that constantly Only on the surpasses basis In of this a play play the privation. can nexus anything of movement and actually is occur. the oTspq(yjq fundamental structure metabole. a determinate as the transition.

sense potentiality. and does does not its as not proceed from an to established the active is scission in production subject. formula ocX6yoq1. ways privation Heidegger of being raised notes chapter. q and that those without are addition. concede priority of of the Indeed. not is a of as In is ways sbv(xA. seek to Heidegger distinguish the Chapter being. being of of of having the being. of being. 2. in of his SbvofAiq reading On the of to basis Book () interpretation. the active and passive senses will. between that beings between another.2 from theme Aristotle those of distinguishes belonging possession At is the to beings powers with belonging no soul. soul accompanied that are human X61oc. at that beings a soul the previous in thereby the the end and outset. specific human III In the opening to passage with invoking of the of Met. hereby rather a ((pov the verb the X6-yov 'cXciv notion designation a a way itself signifies possession Heidegger remarks. such the by rational by virtue bear on Sbv(xgiq essence with powers a signification itself. crossed by a distinction namely.concept conception powers terms between of this of Sbv(xglq of Tob TroieTv. here of the distinction adding that will question between being of [Seinsweisen]. of becomes 185 . As condition but and of 1SDv(xgeiq determined human human being being. not is simply 1S1bvcx9'q whereupon as having c'Xov. thus X6'YO'ul ýLC'cd( the soul. 19. understood predominant the of point of formulation original ge'uxPoXý. essence Yet..

cannot true One. The question into of of the that how human question relation of is thereby for translated the nature how itself related things. of be when we all is the the understood it is logos on is isolation that is the object possession. VI. to having is things. or 31 con5ideration In addition. 2: 1139al2l.questionable. to of GA33 form logos that reference by Heidegger together unter as belonging setting forth understood which is as a related is nOt be and sich or Bezogenen: propositional 1211. possession especially In our which The Chapter relation X6-yo(. having X6yoq being is it amounts related is dictated to to a way of X6yor.. 'cXciv between not denote a relation subject specific Z: 4)ov to and human the being object by X6Voq. As determination such. in former that the 1ýn. to itself in if a possesses the its consumer of it is durables. verb general in character object.. 1Xo-Viac-Lx6v1 implicit described gathering Sammlung to des circumspective to choice and reckoning decision. between soul as the Heidegger scientific and recalls calculative The such the ENE. soul it is in in the since same one way true as presumably one that from does not possess either X6Voq or Indeed. by X6-yoc. that because in remarked things possessed expression Nicolaci's by observation X6-yoc. and can This restricted apophantic equally 186 . crjgovtx6v1 one latter with both general [die an are at the same a way time an understanding By contrast.. determined 'P-Xov does determined is similarly r-cpov X6-yov the manner Ipp-63-641. Before distinction parts proceeding Aristotle of the is with makes rational described has is a the cormnentary. virtue so much of its as a manner of by existence X6yoc. knowing something of self. Lcr.

ist auf Thus all Fertigkeiten [TeXvoýil Weisen des und Herstellung [noigTix(xi auf von (in Vermögen): denn sie sind unserem Sinne also dieses von wo aus als in einem anderen ausgerichtet 11046b2-4: GA33 1301 ein Umsetzenkönnen.questioning.Vo4. For Met. discussion Moreover. be able 187 . alle and ways of understanding production of something for they potentialities: are such are directed in is as other and are what change-around. ýTrjcy*Týjmi Heidegger . e. 1TtXv(xt1 to the preparednesses oneself with regard [7roiqTixofi CnicyTýg(xil their as have source towards to a capacity This deals passage exclusively sets the with tone for the in rest terms of of the chapter inasmuch One is as thereby it Sibv%Liq cni(YTýgq. of No t wen digke 1281. or 1221 in i ten: affirmation frames all of which fall ' under X6Voq for the thus both 'indications. of albvo(glq What gci& and Accordingly. encouraged as if to regard the sense of of Sbvcxgiq.. of wishing 'announcements' IGA33 things etc. are associated as with human reminds 'x6you. and This possibilities X6. provides world its and own of the the with ))Kundschaft(( with and the basis "seine acquaintance und EGA33 both vEXvrj eignen and M. Yet. one intrinsically al I -ctxvrl and a matter noiijcix(xi noincr1q. continues: it does so in a very important fashion. 4cE& Sibvagelc cannot reading conception make is the contrary inference. emerges 16yo. general understood Dasein's title is requesting. being us. 5g Ii chke i ten necessities" ground fol low. as the that common is to qýp6vqcyiq. 2 Daher sind Sichverstehens etwas Kräfte solches. which from that is Heidegger's based both wi II on a the an understanding of X6yoq and the as Kundschaft underlies Heidegger ýnicmrjýLovix6v Xo-Vicrcix6v.

ein so zusammengelesenes ein bedas ). ist 188 . ist EiSor. das Ende. 32 As the 'epyov the end advance activity a pure announces which is not directed. ausgelesen: this a in one. ýLcc& X6-you. may in be question directed no by towards relation can kill noting one to or of that two can but so? whereas end wet should to potentialities Accordingly. seinem rgloc . fundamental determination For our purposes. whether sense determined then of course its the fundamental will also be EGA33 true how of this SibvocýL'L(. relation it is potentiality contrary Aristotle because and its the X6-yoq discloses For his the that to it at once that with which addresses of of is its one is the concerned issue by privation. reir-lov endende immer Wesen ist nach Erlesene. ciSoq Das ciSog Isy6Acvov. can the which is. object of However. of in 56vocgiq terms of we shall pertains have to to see the conception of Dasein ontological np&ýIq. slSoq is held Heidegger in in the the elaborating the ziSoq as such but rather image of process production.to that follow is Aristotle linked X6-yoq to has 146-1473. Auserlesene. das Vollkommene. Und rg: 16yor. Aristotle potentialities contrary issue that That of begins related ends. of X6yoq cure. production. es Vollendete. an announcement. only make you with medicine wetter. is what is read The ciSoq the is ending the TtXoq And X6Voq. been not. in elaborating a conception and at the in of Sbv(xglq end of most same it gc'u& still X6-Vou ask noirjcixý thereby If C"Jt1cr'Cýj1rj. ist das or. 1421 EGA33 X6yoq. be alone. intuition.. the of the role part. an interpretive merely synthesi5. Why should 'explain' suggests this the that involvement ends? X6-yo(. Ausgelesenes. it is Xcy6ýLcvov. as way interpreted. in one is why the to paragraph X6-yo(.

undAufgabe Weil die Kundgabe Kundschaft to kundschaft and Kundgabe Because the is however. Erkunden. of a a necessarily the similarly and the others.end. completed. beyond principle links possibility X6. is this thus may be given of ISZ is understood given terms such and a Kundgabe.. out. P055ibility terms of of the the the in with affirmation relation source introduction itself. But why therefore should this 'as' X6Noq? Kundschaft Kundschaft und gehört zur ist Erkunden Erkunden aber antwortet. in each case conveys an 'as' which discriminates between and failure in as in the accomplishment of X6Voq such rests and on belong as of the end.yo(. Xciov the -cý: in its essence. picked. 1451 IGA33 des Standortes anderen. and between of this of agent However. joc. all as traced explanatory back above beyond more conspicuous The success elSor. Erkunden. 189 . of surrender and of one way the others. production. specificity to the what not the The of possibility this 'as' discrimination §331. to an responds originally in choice a case each breaking-open way. The question of and why negation the X6Voq is and should hereby what must a sufficient its is compri5e elaborated to be be the in produced. Heidegger re-presentation in "responds" calls and advance. to a more a original form the that of of Erkunden. reassurance is. is always interpreted: picked X6Voq. einen notwendig Übernehmen ist eines des Aufgabe zugleich und anderen. of surrender and of one standpoint assumption belongs feature disclosure of the that seeing X6. destination discriminatory. which A forgoes critical. einem ursprunglich Weges unter des Wahl je Weg-einschlagen. sou I precedes its as that Kundschaft. for In turn. the TýXoq accomplished. otherwise.

here in as may which just whereupon be said each such Er-kunden which appeals and comprise is a reciprocal relation X6-yor. Heidegger refracted modification secondary: does any not more notion the &6v(Xglq Erkunden to appeals through of relation a here it. activity. precede than X6-yoq. is activity oriented for-the-sake-of to activity. elements (ef f icient only if which the With that cause) of Aristotle activity if by cause a characterizes 11 139a3l-1139b7. does of X6-yoq the of the is presented rather itself. is case either as flight essentially to described sense of 1p. the the that soul thing soul in movement in any way not mean to be X6-you of of OpEtl(. the must we of In final have return there is the Two the a relation to our (xpXý that in suggestion as Chapter of of the conceived and in o'pcýiq. that which ahead of of terms the of its to subsequent contrary towards of ordering ends one the is ideas terms another. and for this or a radicalization the by unity Aristotle. responsive Heidegger of It O'pctiq is of idea a discriminatory as itself the to term a in each description Moreover. end. cov. 941. 981.34 However. Heidegger of votr. it is human being as the p. desiderative and course conjunction rational &pXý thought that is. something. Aristotle's pursuit. cause. to X6yoq opetir. X6yo(. the a specific For relation of the to opex. is echoed terms manifest the -npo(xipq(Tiq of decision Heidegger's in the emphasis fundamental element choice inherent 190 . transcendence fact.relation in terms to of in than This the world is and of established the relation orientation is. effectively of equiprimordial. the to final that unity is on be motivates it is soul this. gcT& The subsequently is such a pre-rational goes back to or potentiality.

sofern 6p£xz6v 9: 432b7) III. opexT6v. (DA. in aber nicht in eine nach) für Bewegung to both. gcT& of Naturally. for the of S1bv(x9tq in terms determination of the T1poO(!P9cTiq itself movement into focus remainder on the II eXci passage of In the discussion as carry possessed forward we must an ('XpXý. in such a a of way its own movement. irgendwelche haben als an sich nicht einfach: Sich-dazu-verhaltens. as essentially soul to is an related therefore means not The soul desiring. 11046bl5-241 of the our continue of hinges description <xpXývl. (ihrer Seinsart gleicher und sie gehört Seele. that further. but not in the its being) it way of (as holds before such) The the soul manner grasps of) " the &pXý of movement. als 'EXov) 'cXE: 16yov Ccf.. Kunde ] geht immer auf beides. regard to the contrary ends to which Suv(xgi(. Denn Then a Kunde EX6yo(. ] always relates (in same way. des Weise der in haben sondern etwas Die Seele hat diese IGA33 1511 has this &pXý insofar as the (DA. ein auf O'pct-Lc strebende. Seele die wesenhaft als o'(pXý. die (als Von-wo-aus selbst solche) ein in sich 11046b20-21. GA33 1491 vor-hält. iv Eigenschaft.orientation account human under soul to of being of the soul. O-p as Having. it holds in via the of (in &pxý the X6-yor. which itself a source of movement. such 'has' With related.9: 432b7) X6-yov 'c'xov) (cf. Xciv E': 191 . cýiq. X6you bears this directly and the is on no the accident. clarified little terms an o'pexT6v. also meint Das Haben. to that the the soul [xivq'crcwq the on the order of enquiry to relation way end activity. eine Weise. bezogen ist. 111. and accordance with belongs in itself a soul. This is and "before &pXý as itself. ýLz-cd( X6-yo-o is Aristotle writes: [16yo(.

a comporting-oneself-towards in itself but it. 35 EGA34 involve expression is such 2131. arrive present to interests be a movement These were understood? the what sense that of does oneself? in to Our Chapter np&tir point precisely he described questions the sense at the or we posed self-relation Nicolaci specific Ep. rather having Possession that can not one's of this at of desire: the &pXý to consists and not in to the relation are one does towards equivalent not it. sense Ezu us In sich to duly having authentic itself' forbid selbst take at kommen] face one to value. Of such the it the one's often subject. self that forsakes which is of having capacity amounts of a form and Such By self our choice thrall however ostensibly inauthentic is said to an How at commands. usual to understanding an external such that is. 'coming an to complete. forgetfulness understood he writes. desire be expressed (offered not some his on satiated? sense. a movement implicitly involves a relation 192 . have? of of to desire is is a not-having? for 'there' it in In course on gaining The But on 1-3. experience loss to of accompanied Contrary in which to the by appearances. unmistakably in terms of after how the having? the the semester the of 1931-1932). contrast. which here. Heidegger to mean an a notes having it that at is the of is to possess something IGA34 is customarily However. in possession object is this Theatetus Winter a thing. 641. One when as at a raggiungersi the time was [arriving that reaching oneself] of end.having simply as something as some property. slavery held in disposal 2121. by a such self. Is is How 'have' one 'desire' what be so? bottom desire Does desire And. the possession. lectures Met-e.

merely of between cut as it may Heidegger a manner of desire of may be not the essence but 2141. also Verhältnis und Wesenhaft die - 193 .. EGA34 irrelevant desire so far opposition seem. und zu Bestrebten selbst des sich Auf-sich-zu-halten Ding ein und Punkt ein und ein als nicht selbst zwar sich Seele. um zu dabei fest-und selbst sich auf solches finden. forms. Streben (zunachst) läßt Vielmehr ein sich Bestrebte ein dieses als Bestrebte das Hin-zu gerade auf diesem in hält. to oneself' may give the start. indicate such of conceived.a form of relation inappropriate 'authentic such that determined to having' that may it the to by the experience of of production Could offer and the an inherently sense of understanding which Heidegger to np&tlc . both it authentic consumes and itself brings But not inauthentic "chasing about every (Hin-zu] itself the desire after Inachlaufen]" which of is the desired desiring That and thereby 36 is is destruction loses [Zerst6rung] itself does not in its self. actually authentic having In Heidegger's view. #over-to' 'away from' something necessarily EGA34 2151. mean that [Weg-von-sich-selbstl im das denken. has form. here refers the alternative. selbst sich sondern zu selbst sich ist. above desire alternative discovered. Indeed. possession between Moreover. its like inauthentic that having. relation the to and to is as not to the the the as ask coas illuminate the the may for-the-sake-of must be distinct if then must is clearly having be we are an have we between way sense opposition matter. In desire. clear whether consitutive maintained the a agent relation from and Certainly. desire it object. outlined having the and not and goes having. der Wesens des Sinne im Subjekt. work? be a sense expression relation from to the 'coming that.

finden IGA34 gerade 2151 als dieses Strebensverhältnis zum Bestrebten. (provisionally) one can conceive of a striving that holds that is striven for which fast as such in the over-to [Hin-zu] holds and thereby it by itself: close and in this holding-close-by-itself that of is striven which for finds itself and does so not as a point or a thing or a subject. much of explanation. That which is that respect. remains the other how is entirely X6yo4. explicate each case relation. finds itself and precisely as this to that striving-relation is desired. but rather in the sense of the essence of the soul. authentic across to oneself' desire a moment that informs ago. desire complete possession But have we Of the too account not merely described grasping of on forms its its the part a weakneS5 and of thereby desire. consumed (in and remain this But nor through in by part first. is which substantially thus relation. annulling its incapability itself of that in laying the wholly object end? previous of ful I achievement emphasis o'pcýi(. preserve Heidegger what as EGA33 to or 144-1451. Rather. which In that of this waY. account a broader 194 . disclosed respect. We should certainly For of beware given Si)v<xýLlc. that referring in this the that way is this disclosed or that. achieve held it is disclosed as something. must If is on remain the in finitude part other of each precisely consists only that in insofar in a the as it desire case fact engages then the it what is desired of of in particular does not account such what finitude it desires. was the notion to shed there of authentic on the having the sense we came 'coming helping associated light with for-the- sake-of neither given giving. ) it that alien? what It to is is held true in that the desire what sense chooses is 36 is is of to in must.

stasis In this.by which it is in to turn informed. rest to is arrive ontologically in terms of of determined at an 38 Our understanding such of apparent movement. very production what desire is is The itself" with pre-sighted Heidegger's end about the of the description which it that a sense Whilst obvious is thus at be degree desire to lacks which of this of "close seems pursuit. the the 6pex-c6v. then. illustrate Heidegger be raised any discussion being-towards-death to show seek the understood of precisely This intention would is actualization is preserved how death 195 . movement. as the We characterization cannot enquiry the death the rules death whereas enter is Dasein's account bottom the being-towards-death of with it the here. of any inability viewed process In authentic sense overcome an entity external which toward limit. by at holding with desire. of into concerned of at that it is may itself be fundamentally instructive to conceived recall CSZ in terms Heidegger's §950-531. as towards draws striking precisely description imbues the avoid speaking. us its reflected against or as is when IGA33 conception the finitude to as of fact. of present to movement specific existence will issues out drive. of Dasein's being-towardssome of of course as death. s6v(xgjq an attached Heidegger as the S1bvocgt(. warned waning of The soul earlier powers thinking its not the 1511. as a once informed the that be to perhaps. to any which will is St85iS is desired that certainly phenomenon notion jumping even that task of odds we true. should any conclusions. desire. must move. to be we might expect in the the sense of of of finitude desire. be by thought determination by and. for. his Dasein. form of a full at However.

it is is that Quite itself in that having. within all implicit active essential that into the that with between the subject passive of ýLc-mPo). finitude S1bv(xVtr. and itself. have end absolutely relation of here conclusively. it 39 is In or. to the not what desire of movement. reason move. and (i. ý And it agent than differentiation is.possibility. towards possible responsible possibility). by the for In so much in end case is it as a is relation not a to yet e. too. desire: it In desire is this way. this by But noting what that of in the spite specificity of the bias of in ? np&ý IC Aristotle's We began section towards presentation 196 . of and passivity of relation Sbvagic. overturning this. one with another. auf unterwegs-zu To to say arrive. 1761. with object. being end as the is movement determined by the relation itself. properly consists. has end yet unterwegs-zu desire and does movement it of the say that its towards does not because only say of itself would having. has its what end. For essential movement to to own reversal. is desired movement of To recall precisely desire simply. its having to not-having that crctpTIcur. death. power has less and itself By analogy. were. which only is an what held earlier it in it is the by virtue very of the of desire. case death which for the its of that is Dasein's is at having of the at the the movement once same form made time of end that the question as of such desire. movement: is description is is not ausgerichtet not move to dunamis. activity as is the in transition. or sense of work. I upXý of the Accordingly. because Ep. a mode be more rather desire lies the least and accurate than does in the of subject its this as it its do respect.

is r-U71p&tiot. and the same I (x-Voc06v (x'-y(xO6v Trp(xxc6v. the 6ry(xO6v. oneself he in remarks description something concomitance a ten: having manner GA33 towards [Sich-dazu-ver-hal added that this in such having relation": the soul that "comes is. is related the supposed is the to be final not 'had'? end. withdrawal characteristic The of relation such to the o'pexT6v to is itself. 'having' " and it does so "as striving the 6pexc6v. 1921. sense clýnp&ýiot. Having- 197 . given of Ultimately.noiryc-txý secured that are was we to Cn-Lacýgrj. Dasein's relations Heidegger's To his to being and concerning of to its the as own existence. interposes of in necessarily. whole that Inevitably. all of this. of of 151. and the soul also has or holds of itself Sbv(xglq over itself against [GA34 the 2151. evident and having. as as with of the a O'fpXý to as we saw in Chapter indeed itself o'(-Vcxo6v is the directly Dasein such. We have already seen is essentially articulated in terms of a manner of existence. as Kundschaft gCT& How X6VOU then 816-MAI(. which what the is it soul that is Three. in to itself. not only but inseparable can recal only I from the in relation such a having-desire This becomes a manner be manifest that the relation. is desire comporting p. holding sway privation over it. clear of when we 6cy(xO6v npaxE6v that Sbv(xgiq existence. the not draw and basis itself from the Heidegger's for a neutral interpretation determination by either Tloinaiq regarding to the of of X6VoC. or the npditiq- governed this movement any conclusion specific for-the-sake-of of Dasein as relation 7[P&t I q? existence In the But. and the existence becomes question This intertwined congruence of the an oi-yo(06v absolute np(xxc6v.

that the and end this therefore necessarily holds sway means entails over having-desiring that the there i5 a manner of that that Sj)v(xgj(. and loss ') v(xg iq 81. theme the to Moreover.. now Met. wi II possessed i tse If pcT& existence Sbv(xglq X6you- 198 . be that from and of here 6pet-tr. the but it commentary of is existence. to but of the also place to of the and selfnature having for the to would end of of relatedness of that that relation in terms identified concomitance the utmost desire we have of already the as of significance in having. Having of question an understanding how it this exists will Sf)v4xjtt(. in relation we the are brought to of back the the not f inal only end. to relation However. its dissipation characterize essential finitude. Given a matter interpretation how the play of manif of Heidegger appropriation est mean the establishing f ini tude of of that characterizes manner of the Sbvugi being c. looked not of as that what such. defer consideration where reached determining has offered. in the returning There the found difficulty gap Chapter human the have. was related further on characteristic Aristotle verb until the to activity itself any traced to ýýic. at of to virtue we shall Greek E'XE: iv.desiring existence is. (). back to question it be we have little for-the-sake-of the dominant in the (xpXý bridging bond of and of relation. being as where an voi5q. In this way. 3. that in a we have is Heidegger's essence is. Two.

it the A might previous substantial the Megaric Aristotle a critical Met. E) were the question with two the concerned of way its that are with the essence that itself. account In and. of time. immediately.3 as a addresses supplement However. brings heralds existence the first Sbvo(ýLi(. chapter the is chapters. (as Quite indeed another and contrary. of is. polemic as a of is against taken of own existence his Sibvo(ptiq. account of of fore Met. S1bvoqiiq. xo(T& to that the is. having of its and the authentic section far as inauthentic already carried the to the is this enquiry than with previous so have to account of explicitly. theory the in is view from we might Aristotle expect launches which the a new phase respects. of the over it more up conclusion. out in Sbv(ygt(. of problem this theories. the and of in two important establishing Aristotle in manner carries of existence the enquiry a appropriate another signification however. broach itself to question issue carried a a existence. of we] I known. else) essence be S'Uv%Li(. indeed case. forms the of Indeed. of Met. 8. Megarics' xivqcFiv. 6 6ni 816v(xVic. with anything must considered our desire essence connection on the one CGA33 169.2221. the theme to step of the of Sibv%Liq nearer being. E). not This one with is existence. as More S1bv(xgjq the for nV: ov.IV If the first the what not two third chapters engages is. it manifests Sýbv(xAiq to say but the that the of questions the wholly and the separate existence in remarks in the of Since be regarded two part school from of another. and this 6v16p-ycioc to Aristotle's 199 . with frequently review the chapter of to of prefaces competing serve the First as enquiry. a springboard This all.

on to only Met. Kraf t that MegariC5. bauende der B. ýni the x(xcd( This is to important the even fact when to that the in have the recognize. supplements opens the preceding both enquiry phases of the must be essence 8ý6v(xgiq of the Aristotle's determinations considered as account of a whole. Es Leute. essence a single existence reflected upon Heidegger's shall hitherto. mit was anderen ist das ist. zu sehen. CVtp-VCj<X. 0. sagen. 200 . evtpycia determinations Met. imgleichen baut. sei. nicht z. sei auch der Bauens. at once and besides Megarics of In this way. the say who There such as people. des (Baumeister) kräftig aber wohl sei nicht den das bauende. are certain is power is a when being-powerful for present only something is it not being-powerful when is there but that no at work.3 existence begins of with Sbvocgiq. aber gewisse das dann Werke sei sei. the commentary have out at hand. B. Sbvo(giq itself. dealt critique into the with of he addressed vCPYc1(X 1E: that And are S1bv(xgiq no nXiEov preceding xivr1criv. of however.6. 0. 40 and account Ultimately. reading important We than for therefore picking those themes that problematic * Met. von auch gelte wenn er Gesagten dem Daß das. die gibt wie z. dann kein Kräftigsein.3 be more is long selective and particularly in are our most rich. nur am wenn eine Werke Kräftigsein am nicht aber wenn sie zu etwas vorhanden. schwer nicht einstellt. the way for introduced chapters gives anything the indication Sbv(x#t4. sich kräften. an outline of the Megarics' thesis concerning the die Megariker. unterzubringen nirgends GA33 1621 [1046b29-33.own interpretation since xotT6 of Aristotle x-'Lvrlcriv of i i: 6vc"C'(3c does will xoti be "ý'c6 not x! vr1o`1vdraw attention here. 8.

that can be can a actually only be in the Sibvocgiq it is very actualization terms. e. only suggests. being down other that Elaborating leaves problem. of not the be persists of that survives simply movement. acquired not Aristotle reminds period instant. present throughout acquired movement of capacity building. the activity such. to the same potential 201 . at capable of building. from to which it is power. end on of the Heidegger's when 'at is thesis work. when he is hard to see that what is proposed here The present present question. what thing. seize out who and absurdities that the immediately is commits may arts the one saying only called actually with notes for building legitimately (TtXVOCI thesis a builder. does which Consequently. The crux of power has the (or not does matter is that the and Megarics possibility. 6vo%Ljc . quick and the passage quoted that it above follow Aristotle Megaric that be 1.the work. is not be accomodated. its its existence cannot identified with or accomplishment. builder. cannot (builder) who is building not is not but only the one building. the then. not exist. It is is whether the Megarics' and how view for S. It building. able to directly Understandably that time The the reluctant powers that in question accept here such must be a view. amounts do not In distinguish their view. in the the As they are lost power only end build. g. '41 to points builder As cvi: pyci(Y. the similarly Aristotle time. or passes on rather from laying Megaric no arts: room. one either to build learning to or not forgetting being such to build able tools. as in in the power. us of over in a an the but and to once acquired. between whatever is potentiality) yet not taken exist place and.

remarks. and important at sense Aristotle. is but present of more that precisely for in which independently We shall all. some more realization this a potentiality. be no to and if sense existence saying potential has something is not is the power or potential happen cannot Sbv(Xgiq change. the drawn presence thereby influence 'Cpyov. an he repeatedly truth. the this only very and in Accordingly. of clearly movement a view lapsing sense in into which self-contradiction: potentiality of loss. of learning of and Conversely. Megaric contains actual Megarics. the lead itself importance him to the as it precludes may be present. Megarics without any Aristotle's of acquisition can of the at But do. Aristotle magnify emphasizes in this the frames his treatment in the of the issue in such Yet question the a if way as to contradiction Aristotle's Megarics' in posing thesis. the that Heidegger or with conception a way its work and as Heidegger of Sbv(xgiq thesis the For the the work. first of look general closely a moment. forgetting. how potentiality recognition and be question potentiality. there wi II Moreover. narrowly the broadened to and encompass Aristotle such particular S1bv(yjiiq prior the following of of the being realization. to be characterizes existence this For had of Vor-handensein solely this in such Anwesenheit. occurs. possibility continue the such happening denied. regard was to to too determined however.cannot the in be present of that what of to until what is such time as is the it actually denied. achievement also underlines element issue is as of way. that insists exerted in challenges over Greek paradigm an conception 202 . cannot one that movement as realization affirm exists claim.

der Nichtwirklichsein also und gXctv das hier ist gý Offenbar und Sein E'Xciv ein gefaßt? 1771 [GA33 Sinne bestimmtem verstanden. nicht entsprechende Wirklichsein das in birgt Nichthaben Haben Dieses sich und das Haben Wird älbv(xgig. in terms it having then. background the ambit becoming present in present one 1851. die eben: zu etwas besagt: Nichthaben das vermögend-sein. For Sbvo(giq as namely. Aristotle understands the existence of S1bv(xgiq to consist Heidegger's in the terms: way that it is possessed by an individual. 203 . Megaric ground much necessary place within of condition As we have seen. the is. of acquired Aristotle's does proper the potential determination to in the a fashion. way Yet (the work) becoming way Megaric with present to suppose Aristotle's of of another the break (Sbv(xglq) thesis the IGA33 had Megarics would entirely. of of it what what in so the for was was be light becoming once movement of what Megarics. absent already wrong Rather. äbvo(litc. itself. Moreover. the having means to do something being-able simply This being-able. being-actual Liq. IGA33 repIace that 1841. it is he inappropriate casts movement movement a is is and in different the at the to the C43ov X6-yov on present the c'Xov. that been is dismissed set against remains on the the within very a broader productive continuity. of and not here in ýXciv 'cXciv understood are Clearly gý being? and as a wholly specific sense. In haben. ganz Vermögend-sein heißt und als in 6bv(xgiq. of so its existence thesis it in having its possibility not limits.that doing. was For absent. activity For whilst his response focu5sing condition act of for such such activity. Heidegger. Aristotle. not means the not-having corresponding and being-actual the themselves in harbour having and not-having thereby having Is grasped 5bv(xj.

'E': Xciv is. problem 'ýE: c I(. with of As and Heidegger gý as. measure in it cannot Heidegger Paragraph elsewhere question acquired of Work overt this of TtXv9opening evident in the and variation of the less alternation is in a fashion. this origin required yet of the one an acquisition of the In act an object performed itself in be the than nor in the a modification 'willed' difficulty possible otherwise already subject Aristotle. to build surrounding terms. which one might For be it of one said is being: akin power. which 01 1 lirl exciv intended here does indeed the sense become in problematic. to things and its in the world.According if of we recall to everyday that then the the idiom. to is to " SXF-1v power the not a suggests. is to have as the of an In of whereupon equally understand power. essence sense in one of has the power was and to do something. upon be neither manifests to Put cannot build without reiterates of too. outlined acquisition accidental Heidegger's Dasein's because performed it can one a power obscure. to cannot to more one to 42 the that have have having. as in ways appropriate does of not having exists regard power a manner of essence Accordingly. Of 'The albeit Dasein's and in Origin it constant modification it to is not is itself a fundamental and object. the problematic between resoluteness 204 . the Xvrl -cg: as such. addition subject. than by some bind Art. authenticity inauthenticity and will.. in Yet terms Sj)v(ygjq 'E: : xE: tv itself defined are having. relation 81bv(Ygir. between relation example. less an itself. Moreover. ' but for the of starkest acquired having a building. in the manner comparable substantially property terms.

is all but collapsed essence-existence of Dasein lies in its by existence the CSZ 42: 671: Dasein determine There more is.What we have as what might touched the upon here in connection between in how in it terms fashion. still comportment essence. open namely and [p. and could existence. all remains more a difference into focus them brought sharply by the proximity 205 . determined the manner precisely of no its ontological in and structures towards the that world. by of approach of rendered driven to problematic new heights of Aristotle's implausibility practical relation animation by substance. the the essence is Aristotle's philosophy. to therefore. basis between congruence of essence there the Heidegger's which is of account indeed Dasein. a new and that their by taking language the problematic difference (existential) counterparts. up. substantial threatens However. Heidegger's In ontological the insofar the what first as of appropriation place. between its the determinations As constitutive we saw of the and earlier Dasein structures Heidegger Dasein's from the that risks giving activity impression the movement been the divide of of deliberate as well constitutive In of spite ground (Abgrund of as and Grund) existence has at effaced. the the such with essence is? of is of Slbvofgi(. 91. of already it is responsive ISZ synthesis reconstruction was essence 52: 76-771. between ontic the of ontological (existentiell) ontological activity. be described How is problematic is relation manifest the in in relation a certain part by and But if something present A somewhat appearance: crude the in a response thing-like series a series the of essence forms appears articulated its determined to context cognitive an appearance.

1911. The ability. execution] EingeUbtsein AusfUhrung as Ubergehen AusUbung event as the to for of that [exercise Heidegger werden of how (leading describes [being movement an infinite led [going-over] This touches from UberfUhren problem movement this EGA33 1911. transition beginnings. conceive such as translation? as a consequence in of questions ontological interpretation context have in as be in Aristotle's from the practical fact. 43 Heidegger's response 206 . a play how does essence over even terms itself appropriation an existentiell If and mastery Can we translate of these such arise of they follow into a comportment? broader Heidegger's philosophy. relation movement will between essence existence increasingly be phrased. itself is. of having. But sure. actuality in For of what there Sibvagiq Heidegger to be or consists calls in the possession I being-pract must of a skill or IGA33 to an an and upon rest It is EingeUbtsein this or at once over] iced) 'come' out]. movement. terms. Allowing of the a begins. of the existing.the respective Heidegger we to determinations. that the invites that regression rejected such idea reason could Aristotle beginning is to movement itself be a movement. insists on both their as in of being in its of which are defined via the but of in one terms another. noted is that in the present cannot one potentiality terms of because appropriation is of potentiality and therefore loss. of as that defined having. essentially Insofar it it may is having potentiality as a form that a manner 11022aff]. definition loss are understood instance understand of having lies in each same? To be the and the essence of as its Dasein existence. described terms and of movement the question Accordingly. above.

207 . AusUbung initiated and as in of his that At in in the its its SichUberfUhren of of movement. in in as from of designations the essence existence. a condition. IGA33 1921 The leading over but new. AusfUhrung. the sway' something hold loss the by of sway withdrawal in is the [cyTtpnaiq1 predominance Heidegger's dimension place by existence of appropriation to way. the the and takes required reference In to its Spielraum account of SichUberfUhren. ist Aufbehaltenes sondern als Ansichalten. released its does not the spring term from an inert condition suggests are and not of that so much potentiality. account every same finitude. as as occurrence a movement. refers back this the Sbvo(piq essence. Ansichhalten. over loss of power time. that and potentiality Heidegger as that an exists variously 6bV(X9IV Exe I V. and. potentiality as this holdingwithin Movement Accordingly. essence.propose of that the Prior transition to the is always of already underway in the essence already Sbv(xgiq. inheres fact to manner elucidating the particular other over than itself that SichUberfEffiren. of over The the explicitly of Slbv(xjiiq over it must and which invoked notion of refers and in essence 'holds course. is is not rather added held to back the etwas in Neues diesem something in-itself. through a modification this reader to notion back the itself. Heidegger Sbvcxgtq Indeed. something intrinsic happens to Sbv(xgiq SichUberfUhren Überführung Die dem Vermögen wird nicht als dazugeschoben. condition describes Ansichhalter to such as an Gehaltenheit Rather the (having-heldness) than being is itself (holding-in-itself].

des PhYnomen dieses durch Wirklichkeit mitbestimrnt eigensten libergangs. illustrates difficulties das Stehende nämlich wird sowohl stehenbleiben als das Sitzende auch sitzenbleiben. was das hat. through through that which as phenomena toward5 through or as gone exist its in is Being-potential-to Obergang 208 . Thus. As Heidegger down not two and and lie other standing remarks. one sitting will remain sitting. articulations of of its S'6v(xgiq and that themselves in view to of movement movement terms of the 6ý)v(xgiq essence here of Che account gcT(xpoXý. What. 11047a15-17. account arise a whole. hat. daß unvermögend Vermögen es aufstehe. diesen wodurch als zu gehdrt bzw. Unomenen Ph. wenn denn es sich ist gesetzt es [&ciiý)vo. up the between as end kinds points state sitting of in of and transition. -zovl. a stone itself a same way is between For the sitting 'having-sat' 'having-stood-up': das. Yet if we we see of to in perspective z'vsP'VcI(x precisely has recourse then. is libergang.the take that sense in of the movement broader and it one is as gccofpoXý of that the one finds as as relation there. What does not have the potential therefore be incapable 10'(8bvo(Tov1 of standing up will up. nicht nämlich wird es sich aufrichten. as one Thus. hindurchgegangen Weise mUssen sein in sie verschiedener in ist Verm6gendsein-zu seiner Das hindurchgehen werden. EGA33 2111 der transition they must be gone to these belongs in different ways towards. aufzustehen GA33 2111 gar nicht Immer one standing just will remain always standing. if one has sat down. will to stand not get up. the standing there lie But lies sitting these do standing between stones. Sbv(xglq and movement? Having does which argued away it with leads: that the Megarics' Aristotle thesis on the actualitY the of Sbvcxgiq to movement.

wir sehen das unmittelbar so. bent seems way though In frame only Heidegger.we see it it is so and immediately is what precisely to be so. he Heidegger that of an of not well. EGA33 2181 not only to think seems so. das heißt: sich wenn ist Er dieses. being-in-placeis the fully ready Being-actually-potential the lacks so release. towards kneeling an old down. ist nichts Vollzug Ausübung und nur wahrhaft Werk das (I'c'p-Vov: Sich-ins-Zeug-legen . the which of accomplishment is if ie. the guna his determined interpretation poised we see. only to. movement are fundamentally encapsulates athlete. when truly is the to accomplishment work.Evep-Vci(x anderes als [GA33 2191 oder das Zeug). Both the intention in the to very itis are signa concentrated I to go. As I Iness awai ting movement.was ebenso ist entscheidend zu bedenken . it decisive Here. daß. diese fehlt. is what it is engaged: that this present. potential sets 209 . Zeug ins Vermögende der hat. es sieht nicht nur so aus. do is of as ahead. No. actuality co-determined through this phenomenon of Both the end of the movement and by of on the asks? the the potential movement in for the itself. seem so? Mein. whole adds cross. the is in or Sbvo(giq starting Not an example. rather Rather. and the of but potentiality ability the the athl to ete of is do present so well the as such. This could before of peasant the fact. dem nur noch ist. es ist so. such. anticipation is What who better. run sti then. it the simply be a the a man who said station athlete's does it equally of movement.authentic transition. line in sprinter. anything absence Imdas bereitschafterfüllte ist Wirklich-Vermögend-sein Vollzug den in die Enthemmung Stand-sein-zu. und . . eingestellt sich vorhanden wenn so der legt.

wird. view directly of in to against relation the the essence mastery noiciv Clearly. at (given of his definition which Heidegger of potentiality translates passage in and Aristotle following particular gives way force 1047a24 the the the importance this not translation. from 46 down' the characterized translation a sense en and 'Sich-ins-Zeug-legen. relevant thought. dem nichts vermögend aber mehr ist. over that which implicit stands in and. ' This all. significance. put of to etymological form of can wheel' which eloquently the verbal in-work. What effort this Heidegger's interpretation 210 . which denotes movement. vý: p-ycio( a twofold in it as 816vocgir. buckle conveys Sich-ins-Zeug-legen shoulder to the one's concentrated Sbvagiq. addition. In Wirklichkeit It must hold sway over it: of of itself the and sense of -uob itself. as of ývtpjeia the Megarics definition it contributes is dunamis. work or the than 44 setting For the potentiality and held to in be present readiness. unausführbar sobald es sich als wozu das Zeug zu haben angesprochen 11047a24-26. is passages by has of the movement. Ocpyov: It the is nothing other tool).performance to work - and evtp-yevy only this. to the Rather. though definition In the not xcxi Slbv(xgiq Sbv<xgtq of n&cyXctv then. in das Zeug legt. in the of is resistance complementary course. itself which most it its But or in 'to sense attaches defined. composition Cp'yov: also and of First the unusual of word preserves elements. Hence the and as It such. mean thereby 'to at-work. above. I shall attempt my own)-45 ist dieses. must it also is not enough that that it it can that be acquired be put into be plain of practice. GA33 2191.

too. purest not it mean were. des dieses auf IGA33 2161 von daher zu fassen. from has the it. precisely first of their as terms movement. what is meant do by they this share closer sense essay account of on of being- in-movement? Let us of turn brief ly to he Heidegger's gives later Aristotle's his conception of <pbatq. are as articulations original indistinction [PEA 4531: das Vorhandensein des Vermögenden Weise wie die Wirklichkeit im Sinne In-Bewegung-seins. end: rather movement as gathered 211 . It. If both a S-6v(xji'Lc. the being in gleicher als solchen des Vollzugs sind Weisen in sich bezogen und nur and are be present-at-hand of potentiality as such the in the sense actuality similarly of accomplishment to which they ways of being-in-movement. a fundamental characteristic of the sublunar superficially therefore. fashion. than a in simply of movement. are intrinsically in they and related only connection with which can comprehended. manifestation the cessation into Bewegtheit movement. rather are Rest.demonstrates fully movement treated Aubenque is that Heidegger understands Moreover because the the Sbvo(Aiq scene two of of and cvcPycl(x integration in a is integrated itself. essentially calls of of its opposed Bewegtheit is but has its the does being Heidegger [being-moved]. condition what world. those regard things to which movement. for Aristotle. rest is. where and a succinct interpretation cvc'p-Vci(x E'vTsXtXei(x. rest are a determined limiting to even with case movement. at is Accordingly. and common feature? Cvgpycicx Can are we ways get of beingto in-movement. in question the point. to be found where where Indeed. Movement is.

is at therefore gives has tantamount is at taken the rest. that EýClqv in terms of described chapter S. 321. the In Chapter One we saw the of the final so-called end. includes ja ingathering. all movement. time end. linked to mastery of intrinsically how found that gives that a notion its of a manner orientation. the in which form is there of is no discernible a movement to from same and in other beginning which being Met. appropriation of of Sbv(xgiq. Further the the Sbv(xýLiq existence necessary Sbv(xliiq upon one 'having 212 . determination rational of those cUTEpcxt1Lot. living well and being cpVov happy argument the [1048b25. contrast represents times However. This is why or at circular end. that movement stands Seeing vý-p-yziu.dieses nicht this and Innehalten nur ein.6. namely in such is to example one is in Heidegger sees and seeing: there seen and seeing an no the separation specific between sense also. the described of as terms turn the on. aus sonder ein. IVWB-WM 282: 2561 being-moved. we Moreover. for the first from excluding discloses it. conclude cf. This was possibility of end current play. metabole. and xivqcyiq which characterizes amongst things. depends existence. as is. potentialities X6-you. that of complete the highest and which movement. in of p. consisted in the by such in the a sense play relation in in of of appropriative prevailed. 6vO%L'(. essential Heidegger was finitude. of in the this evitp-Vem intellectual the soul 's faculties. F'. 0. die sonder far time Bewegtheit erst nicht aufschließt. ge-I& We saw mastery then in that which and to its the the loss own essence of Si6vo(gir.

thereby ' 'having-itself-in-the-end.3 virtue than example end no is more 48 standing arises mentioned of the that from that the that most movement is isolated But what movement sense is. One of the S-&v%L. implicit consists end is to at an end once desiring. movement 'has' by itself which present to the consist end. Having the we the existence find way captured existence therefore as a amounted form of being of a is. sitting condition intended the such. thing become the the and from is the '47 but The not being so as is at As of to movement suppress here is the to significance denote of the movement of the has of cvucXtXci(Y that what stands it of the is. in Siýv(ygiq the mastery.4.. which light above. of V cvTcXtXzi(x cVtP'ycicx and these most e'vep-yetoe associated with movement. Bewegtheit literally avoiding translates 'Sich-im-Ende- Haben. and condition that in the accomplishment it should be from by movement. the sense in in the a of the Having of not thereby where from the of that the this that end a manner as independent itself.potential which having essence desiderative existence desiderative to having itself and ' and that denotes this a is is manner in characterized of existence. denotes forms. identified of the with its end. of the the present and of past. appropriation and therefore appropriation itself. of SbV(Xg1q. understood Met. In the said in Aristotle Latinate that turn parallel potential the end. to case. to as the This relation relation. 8. qua &6v(xýL-Lq 120lb4l? of terms Heidegger's cvTcXtXci(x important is are the way challenging usages aspects of the interpretation and ývtpyctcx various brought 213 . a Bewegtheit of a moving word which as is movement in the very and sense such ývlccXtXcic( Heidegger. itself.

all faithful the Aristotle's of a thing declared in articulate movement phenomenon 111.together.. In asking af ter the usual being Bewegtheit of in this the sense. he making of takes questioning example we see of xo(T& making Following When we are not Aristotle's look simply at someone the something. line of Heidegger enquiry xjv9cTiv.. insensible appropriate but is at the can movement of applied which to is Bewegtheit common way. contrasted as In to rather the this the it which to common that could be said to only inapt of that comprise distinction the level to or remains is rest. movements [Aristotelesl er sondern Bewegung die Tisches eben xivqcric solchen. the artisan: movements. of the perspective lead. something. senses principal between which level be in by Whereas to the the dynamic stasis of the of end as 1-7'vCPVC14Yis as in the these to the to if of ten character the movement thread cvEP-yc1<Y of disparate two Heidegger way of features.1-2. Entstehung des und als selbst Umschlagen von 214 . state and is an highlights interpretation First. it not condition remains merely movement. devoid determination and is of movement itself the potentiality of by change virtue lends translation: represents be this called in accomplishment dynamic verbal Heidegger's end). that as it is movement. especially ostensibly the a its 200bl2l. intention but Second. 49 of itself [Physics cv-ccXitXci(x insofar what C"Xciv. But these aims closed to off articulate by the a xivoibýLcvov. process. contrasted 5-6v(xjiiq. sense sense given might Taking component a CVTSxtxC1O( appropriative moment having-itself-in-the- (hence Sich-im-Ende-Haben. eines . der bei denkt Entstehenden dieses das ist geT(xßolý.

the of he characterized Indeed. etwas zu etwas daß im Umschlagen in einem dem Umschlagenden mit zum Ausschlag. uxpoXý. of the he [Aristotle] is precisely of the movement of this itself generation is jicc(xpoXý.dergestalt. des Geeigneten Das Sich-im-Ende-Haben als ist Eignung) (d. e. and as such. in Physics 111. that ge. What that activity change play is. This is not change as the Heidegger process means Of by transition the as "very the between act of prechange" of by determined is the states. appropriation which dunamis. xivr)aiq. we can what do no interpretation more here than said and the have we already between cvtpyE: i(x ývccXtxcio(.1-3. comes into open. [Eignung]. 8. as such. described above). IVWB-WM 283: 256-2571 Rather. an its emerging end of presents the here of terms " change. being give described lies in as appropriation. xlvqat(. the change of something into that in something. the fact extraordinarily However. thinking in the dieses d. [201b4f. having-itself-in-the-end in (i. in offenkundig seiner VWB-WM 283: 2571 Bewegtheit. h. selbst in den Sener ation table. definition Given the can of the xivncylq following (as Heidegger of tran5lation Ari5totle's xivqcTir. the changing appearance along with thing. the such the very change act of itself breaks into change the out i. lengthy stock the of relation and consideration. Vorscheinkommt. 215 . h. Heidegger Accordingly. "very act lectures appropriation is Met. of) The its the of appropriation) Geigneten eines Wesen der) (das appropriated is clearly as (the This merits take about extraordinary. between passivity. appropriated being being-moved. that it confirms and powerful. e. change and understood manifestation and loss. on in a ýLvuxpoXý development in of connection the with the essence set out in of in interpretation Sibvagic.

ei)np&ttoc. determination. essence might movement is in constitutive to the an end which terms of having. the form of this be said is all by is of In a movement to a process. are end. the being-moved itself-in-the-end appropriation. in which of havingin very its act the lies well the appropriated as a form than activity Seeing. less movement the no present as 8fmxgie. of the the thus the the more name also activity.. of change is of determined as of in ontologically appropriated. no way extrinsic movement. In short. the 'perfect of having end of the as condition' movement a movement that that It too has form is in or designates and called gathering of become' nonetheless But if therefore remains can it aPpropriation.essence ambiguity fundamental it of Sf)vo(giq. what might having-itself-in-the-end. to the an manufacture the the of a table. 216 . of movement of goes and a modality as i. between Notably. conceived appropriation. relation is repeats playing forms AcwPoXý flute. e. which itself applicable of ý-vtp-yci(x. that living in which existence at and. state and the be the the first parenthesi5 necessary to preserves a the process genuinely even where 'having the end. the we iEvtpycia of add.

to of denote accompanying Bewegtheit but as the thereby the that in existence existence. designation the way existence.. of not of of movement as ivkpyciof contrast specific was to to beings. S6v(xjilLq. form movement When found as an looking that &pXý the of at the unity connection of is vobc. The the that is. must ends. to of an understanding all.Conclusion THE ACT OF APPROPRIATION The critical a problem we set ourselves of was to establish practical whether philosophy than an Heidegger's comprised superficial to the assimilation of understanding of Aristotelian npftiq This means otherwise meant finding as a modification nofTjaLq. specific analysis providing required as a movement wp&ttq. an interpretation determination of Dasein. Sbvixgir. human and we being activity accomplished in the 217 . the an we said. by however.. Dasein notrIcriq of their of human such distinguished placement understanding of for respective the form To do this. an Heidegger's by paved understanding ontological interpretation the being of seen of movement. of of the relation as to an external for the Above more than assumption being in and work of be paradigmatic in particular. np&tiq. between and o2petiq transcendence constitutive via C'ýiq. alternative representational end and to the of form characteristic of general np&tiq the and .. As and of such.

1 the the account. is therefore Insofar potentiality being. all the as itself the determination interpretation of of of the a6vcYlitc. losomething movement that movement". is pcx(xPolxý as a at S6v(xjiiq. or heart a of that ' which by which Aristotle It is secured. actual Dasein by this movement as as existence exists 'action 8bv(xpiv EcXciv. but the theme bringing as it together occurs in and having connection transcendence: existence appropriation having sense of of fundamental is itself understood. hermeutics to Changing of we suggested account called of for Chapter form of Three facticity. movement to be characteristic understood seen. appropriation the essence mirrored in Sbvcxpir. the movement appropriation treatment of with of in not akin terms the of and corresponding finally provide movement the a reading account remarkable the the of Dasein and something. as or characterizes this action perspective. But what of 218 . determined its end? or movement' appropriation. to is ethical designating the simply like intellectual means an lies in the a at action the dispositional relation truth dispositions 'having.light of Heidegger's that 'Etir. In we suggested addition virtue this to and term may be understood both the to ground. having. of movement specific of the existence The re-intepretation of having with of of and Evfpyeiot. interpretation of transcendence as a relation and the aW06v. for of having it potential. of as an Dasein. in offered of terms this above to radical regard ivkpVcia movement way of of essence the in being terms SbVCXV1q. as we have of as one's to the of its as as a movement essence of finite of appropriation Moreover.

final of is but end to of a manner activity. is itse If. an from in existence the Heidegger. manner itself. a primarily. existence or activity exists movement engaged appropriative being and As relation existing such. can or 6np(xticx c. such into the which least wpUttic. it potentiality of an that end in activity an movement that is appropriation. end from of is or existence existing moment Dasein of is as flight implicit as of is with as the izp&tiq. itself.Because potentiality the a In or of relation a is relation not essentially to to an related its extant the to its in successful its actual of accomplishment. cu"S(xigovfix in terms is end implicit thing. the appropriative for being. instrumental 219 . of a possible mean? The activity of the or 2 What. say and that in the accordance account bestows as it of with wpftiq Heidegger's as upon the an declared activity or intention. the good. it constantly as potentiality characterized an activity in for an Existing Bewegtheit that potentiality finite end its in own appropriation. existence existence. In this way. not not. defined similar itself fashion. for Dasein of as case register. others. movement of activity Heidegger of we can finite in appropriation general. for by or being. translation a result or in the being Heidegger's ontological of form pursuit becomes well. insofar coherence alleviates the structure that naivety detected distinguished at the from heart that of of Greek the philosophy: and the the being of Dasein activity is in work. denotes the of of at su'np(xtIcy. particular then. by his as and amongst flight pursuit is a manner position Aristotle's existence complicated lexicon denotes However.

which Dasein is for the most part engaged has been more adequately de 1imi ted. 220 .

experience via and thereby 221 . insofar the it cfSoq opens complete presents as 6piag6c. Heidegger refers forma and natura. to quidditas. J 5. SUNY Press. 1982. 1980.4nomenologie (1927). Blackwell. in Being essentia of meaning used and Yet. All in this thesis to the references are TUbingen. i is Scot the thing that in the of anticipated conformity with or ciSoq thing the Accordingly the what already advance. 79-87. of perspective of produced what from the is itself. first appeared Forschung Vol. 1975 (hereafter GA24) p. cf. Bloomington. hand. 4. R Cohen. he concludes that connection precisely reverse. that term denoting which which in lies-before is activity and so everyday one uses what primarily further. The remark is made in 'Notre Compagne Clandestine. A Hofstadter. encapsulated a characteristic and stands But that lies-before. influence its the still extends production experience of Seiende ist das Habe. erat esse. All these as arise of essentia characteristics The the from is work producer. of and possibility of determinations thing. Albany.148: 105. 'Our Clandestine Companion. quod quid GA24 121: 86. the work being kind into the with associated of over translation literal the of oikrfof. 57. the verb existere. und verfdgbare Disposable property. encapsulates Moreover. therefore carries The ) Time. it of encountering a being seems its look is founded form. they which simply are quite is 'that denotes here which at our 153: 1081. Time. IGA24 150-151: 1071. die Gut. itself. he notes forming lend a being iStul. of trans. 24 EGA the production of by way of o6afu. Frankfurt Vittorio Klostermann. Indiana University Press. trans. Die Grundprobleme der Ph. definitio. Paris. that oUCTf(x" beings. 3. Basi c Th e Problems Phenomenology. pp. 2. the the determines definition VC-vor. 1986 (hereafter SZ). 111.96. GA24 149: 106. is Heidegger. In the case in perception. the of production process released other on the Greek in independently. 16th edition. Being and Macquarrie &E Robinson. am Main. esse. 'disposable' that (Note [zuhanden] 'ready-to-hand' to the term is akin disposal. Jean-Michel Place. However. und Zeit in the Jahrbuch fUr Philosophie und ph6homenologische Vill. only writes essentia interpreted be must also In addition. to its being was prior actualized the the being. ed. look EclSoq. ' trans. cN(yi. have been understood regard not must with but is thing by it in to For the shaping produced production. I. F Laruelle. and shaping a particular and it is by reading that off such a look we come to know what a thing is. Niemeyer. p. 6noxc1govov. Heidegger that in Greek the founding notes ontology is the Accordingly. Beginning the concept that with of gop4pý.NIMES Introduction M Heidegger. 1986. GA24 95 and M Heidegger. in Face to Face with Levinas. that is the on its of gopq)ý ground ciSoq. "Das Rab schlechthin. siSor. Oxford. it ' As such. possessions griechisch o6crf(x: EGA24 Greek the is. Sein (1927). are and goods. the terms to perception. 1980. D Allison. ' in Textes pour Emmanuel Levinas. ed. Cf.

History the 1975 pp. der Mensch die Verhältnis hat: zu den Werken. up to 1933). during the respectively). Klostermann. Heidegger existing. Publishers: Kluwer [Dordrecht: cf. concerned no such distinction the reader bear in mind that there is no was made. 149-189. This is p. Millon. 1976. (hereafter AOF) in Heidegger ed. e. Klostermann. "Men muß sich daruber klar daß also werden. 1-74. production existence their acquire traditional is the meaning. 1976 (hereafter WM) pp. apprehends the 'real' which comprises all determinations OewpeTv is understood of a being. not at a time was still when No. pp. ' in Man and World 9. pp. 1975. discussed themes the 149-162 so for broader of many of account a for his translation 9. Harper Colophon. 239-301. is in the maintains. ein er herstellt. far. 107-125 Taminiaux. Aristoteles 19 1-3: Wirklichkeit Vittorio Kraft (1931) [Frankfurt der und am Main: Taminiaux J Klostermann Cf. 219-270 by the references will VWB-WM. 17-87. was das bedeutet. 7. Volpi. sense horizon GA24 154: 109. pp. ftiapcTv is a form that of perception looks towards is to be produced what and orients itself By virtue accordingly. esp. London. followed by the references to WM and to Man and abbreviation World However. [19901 (hereafter also p. Cf. esp. should intrinsic between Heidegger's contradiction withdrawal of metaphysics from the experience in his later of making and the role of nolrlcFiq writings. 'On the Being and Conception in Aristotle's Physics B 1. Frankfurt Vittorio am Main. The Monist ' Ontology. fondamentale' 'rIoinaic. one to the works it he must be clear what man has a relation means that has produced. Lectures in 116. being simply present-at-hand.153: 1091. Today Philosophy Aristotle and Phenomenology. by the former the experience meaning here and reserving outlined that term for latter the sense of production Enolncriql at which he arrived later is and which in texts elaborated 'Der Ursprung des such as Kunstwerkes' (1935-36) in Holzwege. 534-542. of the fact that it the eiSoq. l'ontologie de I'articulation rIp&tiq d8n5 et F de ]a ph6nom6nologie. Volpi. 4 October 1981. et I'id6e 19881. 'The Origin of the Work in 'Poetry Language of Art' ' trans. (hereafter p. and expanded revisited article J6r6me Grenoble. LOF) 1989. 87-94. LOF 162. 8. 64 No. 10. Nonethless. fully it recognized. (page be indicated pp. A Hofstadter. Frankfurt Vittorio am Main. and Thought. Tom Sheehan deserves of mention special also Aristotle's importance the brought VWB and for that of essays several English-speaking the world to the influence Heidegger of attention on 'Heidegger. San Francisco. New Hagerstown. Von Wesen Metaphysik " M Heidegger. this period with which thesis is primarily (i. to grasp the being is. really as it Heidegger later distinguished between making and producing. 'Vom Wesen und Begriff der ObcFiq Aristoteles pp. York. Cf. de heideggerienne ]a de I'id6e et comme praxis: la philosophie 222 . Essais de l'ontologie fondamentale: sur Heidegger. Heidegger e Lassimilation pratique Aristotele et d'Aristote' la (1984) (hereafter radicalisation Heidegger in 'Dasein HA). Physik B. cf. Cf. both which within essence and 6. Movement of 'On and Vol. tr. of 4)YIlX Aug. In short. Summer XIX 2/4 Vol. 1977 (herafter HW) pp. I' (1939) (hereafter VWB) in Wegmarken. GA33) 137.

della Escher and 18. 215-252. 8. C Turner. LHP). ed. HA 75-80. the that problems from insisting can arise on a 'translation' particular R Bernasconi. 67-68 below. XXVIII. 16. Paris Christian Bourgois 1987. p. Between Praxis 2 pp. Gewissen-qp6vrpiI. 144 n. 13.90-92. C Macann. p. Paris. ECP 247-2481.131-133. Volpi remarks kinetic character 21. I. cf. Mimesis. pp. 'La Ermeneutica e Filosofie. ed. V. Interpretationen Phänomenologische zu Einführung Forschung (1921/22) in die phänomenologische GA61). London & Cambridge Massachusetts. pp. Cf. der hermeneutischen 1989 (hereafter PIA) pp. 12. G Nicolaci. 20. 135-173. 11. trans. On Bernasconi's not within concomitant dominance identification Heidegger's on Cf. (hereafter Aristoteles Jährbuch 19. especially finie/t dans la politique' in Typographies 11. IDAP 118-119. Heidegger Art and Politics. 1989. 130. this is not intended to be an exhaustive critique of their There writing is on this further question. Harvard U P. London. R Poiesis' Bernasconi. (hereafter DAP). 1990. Vor-handenheit-Ocoipfof EHA 93. 1992. and to those of Bernasconi and Nicolaci of Bernasconi. DAP 103ECP 224-2291. a translation of this has appeared paper as 'Dasein the Heideggerian as praxis: assimilation and radicalisation the of practical philosophy Aristotle' of in Martin Heidegger: Critical Assessments Vol. (hereafter 'The FDP) Fate the of in Heidegger Lettura Distinction Studies Vol. 1990. 30. Routledge.ph6nom6nologie. 17. 'Heidegger's Destruction (hereafter HDP) in of Phronesis' The Southern Journal of Philosophy (1989) Vol. and La fiction du politique. the origin with as must be understood idea. Venice. Nicolaci in Ch. 3. with reading. least be at such no could is dominance the of making as that to overthrow metaphysics. Volpi example. and Taminiaux 15. np&t-Lrq. 90-129 'L'esistenza Le come prexis. 1986. For 14. The pp. esp. For metaphysics. 127-147 SJP). Marsilio. heideggeriana N De Domenico &A ed. Entschlossenheit-npoaripcair. Supplement (hereafter pp. to the reference interpretations in Ch. Blackwell. 105. of to metaphysics. 235-274. Regarding 11. Dasein's existence. 92-93. shown by Phillipe 'La transcendence cf. M Heidegger. cf. ed. Lacoue-Labarthe. philosophy and politics has been and indeed elsewhere. C Fynsk. profoundly the between problematic nature of relation in Heidegger. Typography. 1-42. Philosophy. Interpretationen 'Phänomenologische zu and ' in the Dilthey (Anzeige Situation). Sorge-05petiq EDAP 1081. Oxford. Of course. HA 96 n. G Vattimo pp. of there insofar 6 the of up6Miq. IDAP 119-120. 111-139. Politics pp. overcoming equivalent 223 . pp. (hereafter in praxis' di Stefano.11. the following relate5 Daseinpairs of terms: Zuhandenheit-noirlaiq. Aristoteles. radici della terminologia aristoteliche di OEssere e Tempob' (hereafter ECP) in Filosofia '91.205-206. Galil6e. ECP 246-2471.

T 2. cf indeed of misleading. 6. which Metaphysics. "a had philosophical Aristotle that sought 11. theme basic For and form. the passages from Aristotle's in English from the translation are taken Penguin. of translation as priority. of his 1948. in a certain the same time be called sense substance the two oppose he not should Aristotle. Except where Ethics presented Thomson. the History Development. Even if " time we the ontology. It that the use of this objected terminology imposes an Kantian set of In fact. together theology brings and ontology 224 . come as implicit trans. by Civ np6c. trans. Books and he because accomodate his terms cannot own but the structure. both is general a discipline that and a it that can at to substances is that other all so superior substance " If in general. we are but appreciate rather to first another. definitions one philosophy of that together belong only and that two definitions "these essentially 'first Aristotle's their characterises adequately conjunction theology a "is so special of first Indeed. be Insight 1. other 8. on Aristotle ed. 3. the concerns on Aristotle. the iii) 1017bl0f. Entwicklung. Berlin. same is kind that it and at as such the to be explain adequate the may relation civ accept np6r. to of WD Ross. W Jaeger. Aristotle. hereafter pp. R Robinson. Ontology by in Aristotle's ('Theology and paronymy 33-49). ii) form. Weidmann. of variations. It indicated. 5. may anachronistic of notion transcendental causality. M Schofield. (hereafter ATM) Chapter Nicomachean by JAK (1983) Engberg-Pedersen. 9. J Barnes. though a condition Kantian of possibility not a follows from condition the theory simply of final insofar is that 'for the sake of which' as the final cause is to have been undertaken act therefore said and is it would not have occurred. London. Aristotle's Theory of Moral 1983. we follow to writes. 1908. 1979. 1923. Oxford. Grundlegung einer Aristotle: tr. matter 1069a3Of. in this may passage an no surprise recognition learn that Heidegger saw the ontological difference. compound 1042a24f of and Aristotle's understanding is i) a set cf. Vol 3: Metaphysics Aristotle AE Metaphysics' in Articles on 7. R Sorabji. This is also termed 'focal by GEL relation variously meaning' Owen CLogic in Some Earlier Works of Aristotle' in and Metaphysics Articles Vol 3: Metaphysics. London. 1976. Duckworth. Clarendon.Chapter One 1. H r. flawed is on still interpretation Patzig's of theology. matter. Clarendon Pre5S. 13-32) and G Patzig. '" philosophy philosophy. Oxford. is In view frequently terms. the shall. the retain oiýaio( as 'substance' the in case of many 1018b8ff. Geschichte seiner Fundamentals of Clarendon. For The of the fact that I Greek. Aristoteles: 10. universality He G. Oxford. any specific that without 4. Patzig argues a and first philosophy. AE.

. In in putting healthy p. The Doctrine all in Aristotelian Metaphysics of Being (1951). that proposed is theology. 1: 1026a30-31 to be the decisive moment. in which of this reading a close tempered by does emerge Epp. too. Cf. as such with and significance. relation earlier.in only context Ontology books: thus. to that insofar of Merlan's as the universality of first philosophy is to depend the highest form seen on of substance whose very have been thought to destroy priority might the basis for such a But in place claim. Cf. in the for term series is term that the a generic suggestion unifying In the 225 . certain the is levelled conflict in one out to be readmitted only in another. pp. Le probl6me de 1'6tre Paris. 247. Universa. Italia Nuova La ]'idea Firenze. chez Aristote. health. "Cette N'estasks: solution en est-elle une dans le cas de L'Lstre? le Is this elle pas plut6t probIdAme m6me hypostasie?: solution a in the case of being? Is it solution not rather a crystallization of the problem? " [PEA 1921. 'Ev the from drawn the of example of irp6q. 1975. 37-391. molteplici non 6. Wettern. categorial by it is Aubenque's no means reading. Lugarini of problem application pp. &W being its my WIXF'c. From Platonism to Neo-platonism. 160-175. This thesis is similar pp. sensi. The Hague. it is always association the fact identification that Heidegger of any straightforward resists its oi)cr1(x with signification. being this general" the case with is not to any laudably avoid is anxious Lugarini forward this view. Aristotele Cf. 1972. However. 12. J Owens. E. that divine of the rather being crude assertion is present in all things. e being the to the 246-248. i. 1963. my foundation its of specificity of ' 'healthy. Martinus Nijhoff. 'Theology and in Aristotle's Metaphysics' cited above (n. 1962.. the onus is shifted to the influence of the highest beings. substance on all Similarly. (hereafter PEA). della filosofia. Patzig. mia dei 6 in suoi uno tale del ovvero 'salutare'. 14. the rather in all things presence the of primary substance and first is theology philosophy in a strong sense. relation (to the two cases between discrepancy does not which 'overlook' the deny Aubenque any such draws so much as emphatically attention). Aubenque's is study the perhaps most comprehensive and stimulating the of modern commentaries become a classic and has already kind. derived from the primary is therefore substance. cf. 'universal' does not indicate an but abstract generality. of one taken in e. In Book 17. therefore. accepts he However. on common amongst commentators Editrice. 15. oiýcFlo( may have both basis I shall discuss Heidegger's issue.. e come preso The tale: in 1'esser-salutare quanto invece. L Aristotle. the cause which of things. 168-170. general and as such . having discussed 'Ev the he wp6q. P Aubenque. del fondare del mia suo esser difference: "La suo specificith dei 6 ]a modi fatto &pXý uno del salute dipende pure che (pibaiq. P Merlan takes Met. ontology the simply since 'v system np6c of the nature c relations shows things to be of all . It be pointed that the association should out at this stage of being Later. spite of of plausibility Lugarini. generale. Press Universitaires de France. 5). of its 13. is of health that depends a modality fact also on the its is it many senses.

This was intended seems somewhat inasmuch unnecessary. Bloomington. and of a manner in Book 11: "1 I the to la is as branch of 21. Chapter Section 1. (This has not been published antiken p. by the page number appropriate be referred to as GA22. 182-183. as the notion of universality the np6c. Aubenque draws textual support declaration that the categories being: 1089al6 cf. " and that oiýai(y. 1978. us reminds it being were. Th e pp.. 19. in but is. am Main. Klostermann. (hereafter GA26) tr. e cf. M Heim. he begins end. For as a whole.1 reading in of Four. The text being is presently for available prepared publication by Franz-Karl Blust 22 of the Heidegger appear as Volume and will Gesamtausgabe. was already is evidenced by Heidegger's 1926 lecture Die Grundbegriffe der course Philosophie. cf. and 1051a34. p. Und wir bedenken fortan: Die Frage nach dem Wesen der Kategorien fuhrt ins Dunkel: How does this There is no answer. which a being That the same translation in place in 1926 as such. 1982. 16. "Wie das geht Die Antwort zusammen? fehlt. 17. Itinerari ' in fondamentali della filosofia n. view of we can say therefore is beingness to being and as of ousia attributed translation. VWB-WM 239301: 219-270.Yet to this question. work? And from now on we reflect: the the question the of essence leads of into darkness" categories EGA33 71. Vittorio Hereafter. the like is not. Heidegger reading of Aristotle's insists that Seiendheit [beingness] is "the translation only adequate beingness.1986. Frankfurt Klostermann. 'Ev relation which is to introduce does not rely on encompassing each element within a single genus. to the aforementioned complementary 20. Aristotle the same point repeats . Vittorio Klostermann. of Indiana University Press. sense that Volpi o6aia ' p. trans. course of an account figure Volpi's del la 'Heidegger e greco: pensiero storia monograph e 'Concetti 1926 del del sui estivo problemi semestre corso In 1-2. Frankfurt Vittorio am Main. antica. Heidegger's most extended to oixyfix occurs in Vom Wesen reference Menschlichen der Freiheit (1930). 92. In his Physics B 1. (hereafter GA31) §§7-8. from the view that the primary is itself sense of being one of the categories to and then proceeds the understand model. 254. Cf. 1984. on the basis that it of which to inform. Regarding the importance be reduced to its categorial del storia greco. GA33 §1. alone. Metaphysical Foundations Logic. it become otherwise to since good. pensiero by Heidegger understood as a kind of substance. the of o6criot meaning allowing of not 'Heidegger Volpi. SZ 25: 47 & 90: 123. [1103b26f be useless" would - 226 . course yet to Franco Volpi for having and I am indebted made a typescript of it to me. Metaphysische also Anfangsgriinde der Logik im Ausgang Frankfurt von Leibniz. the kind denotes term Anwesenheit the that this. 8. 145. We shall Heidegger's examine Met. for apply this as reading much to from Aristotle's non-being as to 18. as not. it am Main. engaged present at philosophy we are on which know to because studying not are its we theoretical in aim others. is that distinguishes of o1krf(y.. health namely. followed will to the the typescript. order what goodness The tension translation modified].

Articles of 'Aristotle RortY. Speculations 1975. [ENT his the essence good" of man and 27. qui c'est example. be found in relation np6q. 29. significations but of meaning. where being. et principe de I'homme ]'essence ]'intellect est I'homme. ideal and is to approach to is introduced the for the np6r. Press. 1980. bien le par essentiel. A0 in Eudaimonia' on University Berkeley.1 to this shall return below. actually not merely bear its different that due to the fact this is significations an 203. ed. Fv relation corresponding here. 451. Universitaires Publications de Louvain: 1959 -&Paris. (hereafter ENT) pp. it opens an entirely view. GA33 46as described cf. "Si le The Ethics bien d'une of Aristotle. London. 1900. p. 1959. unexpected space within new possibilities the which of reading text themselves.the arises which as a result of commitment is formally of what a treatise theoretical to a deliberately non-theoretical the end places itself text under considerable As we have noted stress. 37-47. homonomy for the of account & Jolif for ENT pp. editions Beatrice-Nauwelaerts. Methuen. here. traduction Tome 11 et commentaire Louvain. LHP present 247-250. T Ethics. 13in Nicolaci's 14). Gauthier write: and relation. RA 47. 45-47. Cf. les de tous fin ]a c'est autres. to the distinction regard between analogy of proportion. D Achtenberg. essential all others. 30. premiere partie. ses rapports que diff6rentes des cat6gories significations entretiennent avec chacune de l'Otre: If the good appears to us in different that guises cannot be treated by a single it is articulated is because it in science. Presenting civ 1096b29. 29. Gauthier &JY Jolif. above (pp. 61-64. significations et si le Bien en tant que bien de pas un n'est simple mot et presente une unit66 relative il le doit VegalitL6 6 des signification. on Aristotelian 28. Oxford. Gauthier & argument apparent preference Ethics rejection enthusiastic an over represents from a theory it is the furthest theory (for of the definitive therefore Aristotle's and more considered 'Cv the Metaphysics. L'Ethique a Nicomeque. 1096a5-6 le bien "le est qui Jolif unique. PEA being" the to of categories each of equivalent relation 25. is the good. qui ne dans les pas reldAvent science convnune. Aristotle's Clarendon Men. Cf. 46-47. case 26. presents unity a relative a word. 24. excellent study pp. the analogical In their view. Nagel. J Burnet. Ethics' Micomachean Role 'The in Ancient of Argument Spr. c'est qu'il se dit diff6rentes de I'C-tre. the problem Clark. in the Aristotle's Aficomachean Platonic the of Good). 23. California in Aristotle's 1989 pp. the g. of priority in Section 11. the Philosophy Ergon on Aristotle's Press. Cf. e. GA22 87. a scholastic usage to the np6q. pour beginning the is end of that and the bien: good single et qui est son is intellect the for man. and analogy of attribution. With 22intended diff06rents nous apparaft sous aspects. SRL Anthropology. And if the Good qua good is the different of being. 9 (1) 227 .126127.

is that my own view to rely too heavily of productive on the format in understanding activity human activity leads in this to irresolvable sense Note contradictions. case of misleading. amongst clarity. the in as way "is -X6 same used the that T6 noi9T6v who claims phrase building the thing the made. of result 'c6 noiryu6v with 228 . inappropriate to np&tiq. in "that is is an end not made which in Greek the which T6 -noiq%6v. recalls 352d-353b. this is as soul. that also the discussion entire passage under here Plato's Republic. identifying Rackham. ]a question (hereafter du monde. GA33 196-197. done. 32. This will plainly have bearing a significant the on human conception of activity the final associated with end or practicable As the rest good. 1097b32f & Jolif. However. understood 33. 320. Remi Brague. 8. Paris. (hereafter p. ENT 55-56. der Main. Metaphysik. Welt Vittorio Klostermann. by the follows set he example for this opting alternative. as opposed Penguin the for translation his in Thomson. this and Gauthier who emphasise They read it that the definitive expression. of questions the standard addition published the translators disagreement there is over however. AQM) p.61. et 1988. marked proximity the two of terms. Burnet to and the takes view edition. Aristote Universitaires de France.The main issue in each of these alternatives is to what degree the Zpyov is term associated strictly with productive to activity and it is allowed what extent a broader signification. Endlichkeit am GA29/30) 1983. Grundbegriffe Heidegger.. thing the not 71p(x)c. 35. of this chapter will make clear. opposite by taken is This also view the making. whereas second do not issue in any independent clearly result over and above their Whil5t they hardly activity. Ep. r6v and means be may Tip(xx-E6v the E6 Yet of 2561. 1FDP this translation have used Bernasconi's passage of issues the 1371 since it more clearly philosophical emphasises to In translations. as ivepyci(xi It is a matter of to debate the what extent distinction no19criq/np&tiq the and distinction be xfvqcriq/ivtpycio( to may considered parallel one The issue is to the fore another. this I shall do no more at than point recognize a between the two sets In any case. 474. Cf. since done thing the identified with is here does not arise: not T6 np(YxT6v is artefact the of category the thing to since made.1 HDP than Presses 116. Die and also Frankfurt Einsamk-eit. Loeb the for translation Rackhams's phrase. as indicating character lies beyond of human being each regional preoccupation or activity insofar it lies in the In itself. to one another. it reasonable only could masquerade as a full long from is explanation as refrained asking as one what ' by 'soul. sense of an important in itself" in is of place has: "the end not an of making edition act disagreement The " itself. the to Rackham's here rather process refers view Burnet. interpretation the of surrounds In the than result. in the of the following passages However. could be identified certainly [Met. examples are by no means equivalent 31. be called could they np6(tcic. The 34. text. an entirely interpretation. first group of activities the are crafts. example the house" and not in distinction the question the in np&t1q.

at 41. M 153-158 HO (hereafter 1958. fundamental also a credibility of so 5. Press. discussion Chapter cf. A detailed this stage: Cf. Zur trans. and University Chicago pp. necessity of the final associating end with depend c6 np(xx-c6v does not on this be upheld just alone and could passage as successfuly were Burnet's to be Over the confirmed. Instrumental Critique tr. 28: 1024a29-10294bl Met.1098bl8-20. The Human 39. his in essay this point Sheehan the made reading other. H Arendt. each of and the privilege sufficiency accorded the following be sufficient to establish the link passages would between the final 1098a14. 1974. New MJ O'Connel and others. is favoured interpretation by the of -c6 noiryc6v by Thomson.11. A. and IAQMIBrague by comprehensive articulation Aristotle 229 . Chicago Condition. Verlag GmbH. this interpretation would be premature LHP 243. of Frankfurt Vernunft. 1967. Cf. Jolif do not and to the refer The that I have been developing general reading passage. its is most given but reading ' a such Aristotle Phenomenology. Heidegger's interpretation of to of ways new open serving each complementary. Yet of with the to difficult doubly it be in maintain would question. since disqualifies c6 noiqT6v fulfilling the from role Could of final it be that end. Clarendon. [ATM 291. 1098b2O-22. adopted EngbergPederson it immediately and Bernasconi. difference. Seabury York. The & London.(The Micomachean Joachim Ethics DA Rees. Bernsconi. Press. Main. p-109).1098b15. and of course Surprisingly. end in is However. np&tiq and end. definition of genus. 4. Reason. It is as no means such and one by clear should the that Aristotle's be wary of taking doctrine will text its employs legitimacy has causes in Ch. 36. method are profoundly 'Heidegger. not necessarily question the relative. Oxford. Heidegger's in the source that view experience of making of the four be considered ly" "generical 38. Gauthier perhaps. reading and above condition of selfto Occapi(y in Book X. Burnet and influenced Rackham were in their decision to read the second phrase the "since the process second sentence of as: is always of making to further some to preserve relative end" by the wish the possibility the to the that final relation end may be understood in terms of For if it is the process production? that is relative to of making itself end (in then the further some further a trivial claim). of Part I. 37. that Aristotle np&tiq are and nofncriq claims itself the distinction integrity the different 1140b3. placed Aristotle's Cf. 40. am Instrumentellen der Kritik Horkheimer.248 Cbapter Two his phenomenological and 1. this for its concept granted. ed. 252. Engberg-Pederson 19511. and of Four.

155n: below. here. very well could p.'Vom Wesen des Grundes' in WM (hereafter VWG-WM). SZ 10-11: 30-31. Northwestern of University Press. 53-54. refers essay c1967. und Handeln Frei burg/Muni Heideggers ))Sein undZeit((. Vittorio Main. markedly astute The importance to Heidegger's of the term nphyguTu re-examination between Dasein the is further in relation and things of underlined lecture 1942-43 his to np(xygu course on Parmenides. 124 and Indiana & Indianapolis. and in Old High German. Reasons' Evanston. we are between and distinction genus the words. English French. tr. For our might we own purposes In form? logical the other 'I ie ic do specif within' cases question: to how form. Departing also from the translation. IHA X6yoq the the of atrophy been have VI NE. 1992. South Deutsch. ch. (1913). 65-66. Ch. the texts Time Being in to the of or any and concept of world applied Frankfurt Ding (1936-36). 118. of 2. of Thing? is What tr. the to converse pose er pref 7. 81n. Regnery/Gateway. Klostermann. Bend. The Ideas. Die that am nach period. but does not mention 5. IV. Martinus WR Boyce Niihoff. metaphysical of But to insist in contradistinction to nolquiq on npftiq noincTiq. The latter remain orbit still of metaphysics" the most those the question remains common amongst course addressing including the otherwise Taminiaux. 1969. Alber. This a amount would a touched such upon Volpi Dasein. Vol. Latin. where he refers "the inseparable totality between the originally of relation as Parmenides. Bloomington A Schuwer trans. 1977. Strangely. exclusively that to corresponds which reduced X6yoq the of of for recovery a the need consider writes. @question of activity Erkennen cf. Frage dem Cf. Hague. granted latter? the attached the sense of universality understand 8. 1992 pp. Philosophy Today 36(l) as np&ýxq designation of formal-logical to 10. As Bernasconi 3. in discusses Aristotle 116yoq different forms of he Thus. to the distinction prominence accorded between theory detracts from G Prauss's ultimately practice engagement with in Heidegger. " cf. Klostermann. Metontology Cf. Heidegger Heidegger's 'Metaphysics. p. p. trans. Ideen 6. 32-34. 63-79. E Husserl. Karl 4. pp. 8 Studies Thinking' in Concreteness of the 'On 9. Italian. 1962. (hereafter ID) pp. 1950j London. a pp. Frankfurt Vittorio things man. Gibson. cf. dominance np&tir. T Malick. 'The Essence trans. p. W McNeill 83-94. his where to the in remarks closing possibility by than being of the by oblivion less that is characterized our epoch the that he this means By 2171. 1984. and been have 80. 162n: 97n. Fundamental Ontology. of npftiq. we should 230 . I shall Malick's to this refer essay as 'On the Essence ' Grounds. to ictXvq. 1992 Spring pp. tr. is in the to 1FDP 1291. This description 84 Up. 2. Macmillan. the of structure ontological he suggests book. &V JnrWB Barton trans. GA24 112: 80. The and the in "Simply to ignore the distinction writes: between is to succumb to the and noirlair. also 1925-1935' W McNeill. for thing the word the Greek at all. to Thing' (1950) 'The later the 70. and GA54) Parmenides (hereafter 1982. R Rojecwiez. am Main. and p.

fascination the world a great cannot part of by this from the order text its to portray of exerted stems refusal There in deploying are of course grave problems grounding as simple. for-thebeing its to the itself it Of possibility concerns. 92-94. In 12. for basic such is that else Anything this anything and sort.problems. The same impression of an essentially Heidegger's by repeated is instrumentality based on utility given and the describe to Egeht zurUck] back' 'goes the use of expression .. the its Whilst Being subject of own position. and pp. 1096b24f. Dasein Although ready-to-hand. iii): distinction Heidegger where remarks on the whole and sum. Frankfurt One might that object this precisely has been the aim of the School Habermas and of in particular. between names utility as the within since than 'good' of relation. Indeed.. not that it Dasein being the means dependence to-hand of on of readinessis like an possibility. das it. ihm ferner wie zugrunde : Wozu zurückgeht letzlich alles . interpretations be more original will from which they are drawn. Heidegger's texts the renders source basis Heidegger's this on 'original' the ostensibly 11. of 15. of the X6yor.. to the form of selfthe fundamental characteristic relatedness of movement of Dasein's existence. central of Conc.. compositurn. Cf. Wörum-willen. and Time in direction. Heidegger's from the that in precisely case present moreover. However. in the register of ontological a language activity . But SZ 231 . aber "Die Bewandntnisganzheit selbst totality the But of hat: Bewandnis mehr dem es keine bei zurUck. totum initiative in Dasein's a trace to a of relation This the issue of its there possibility own being? raises of whether is in Dasein is its a residual sense which master over own foundation.wp&kiq. in 'towards-which' to a back involvements ultimately itself goes "Solches. between Dasein being. and in its immersed is Dasein 333: When 381. between preserving being-in-the-world Dasein as characterization of the from its denying separation its and specificity ontological world. way: some Heidegger's in tension This constant a reflects existentiale. facticity the the and receptivity of conscience. in the Heidegger. form relation of generic 16. SZ Cf. arise touch figure translation the Aristotelian on which and wp&tiq of of the the themes relation and actualisation possibility. Dasein. 13. was und 1161. of context at least as an initial to consider the importance 5tep. darauf hat. fact. belongs in to Dasein worldhood.. longstanding and 14. implication Dasein in its of own ground and in the constitution of be ignored. everyday cf. Cf. being the of involvements with the totality of relation of Wozu letzlich ein auf geht Cf. submits it the it equipment is it submits as much as working sake-of-which the itself strict is handles. it is more appropriate. wobei das als liegt. Ch.. oXov and n&-v. IV 4. 84: [SZ involvement" further is there which no Bewandtnis die es Dazu. iii). Could there be 244(n. where strategy the unthought Of uncovering designation 'original' unsatisfactory. towards the finitude urgently presses a different of thrownness. sources Aristotle 288(n.

cherakterisierten der Fdrsorge die dem und immer das Seink6nnen anderen und in all schon zu The Being-possible selbst. One is tempted -which'" to say that whilst he it. them. and in concern with as we have characterized these. of there to have the theme were good seemed of nature. of place of transcendental and world. Part 911 and Essence 'On the of Grounds' is his contribution slight. the np&tir. it to Dasein's i ty-for-Being and always. goes on to say that is nonetheless account of world and the environment the invaluable to further an of consideration preliminary a §915-18 transcendental SZ that if Moreover. Aristotle and legacies of the to concern contending address transcendence world and Indeed. Kant. EGA26 barely is mentioned Aristotle that Heidegger whereas refers. totality 'go to the for-the-sake-of back' in the same way -which towardsas each 'goes back' to the which Heidegger next? that writes he has "Der Zusammenhang. 59). have and Robinson it has wherever appeared. 262-263. Dasein's being is in the as a mode of of nature midst being Dasein's as be of can only via an account approached adequately VWG-WM Cf. the however.11 Ch. g.. goes ultimately Does the . with another preposition. he has done little may have indicated to explain it. Aristotle's if Yet 11. 'towards' Indeed. passed over that for Nature is this. these in seems presence analyses Kant's to indebted For remaining decisive. Indeed. concerned Does with the term's between ambiguity unidirectional and circumscriptive the cracks between plaster the phenomenological senses over notion of horizon and the Aristotelian sense of purposefulness? E. or the 'for-the-sake-of as such to which -which' 'towards-which' every back " ISZ 86: 118-1191. to expressions particularly suited horizonality.'towards-this' in which as the as that there is an involvement. to intended H15-18 also SZ prepare. die far ihm for its all Heidegger the note. In the remainder of this the instrumental 19. pertains potential towards itself. 20.1. care.. 59): 97(n. is essential umwillen seiner: which Dasein. cf. by Macquarrie translated consistently independently either 'zu' in or its virtue of circumscriptive I UMI is sense. JP Cf. again took up the question nature Heidegger of 'The Fell. of the in each of accounts principal Kan t to itis above aII da t ing f rom the Ia te 1920s and ear Iy 1930s. in theme this to Heidegger. We SJP 23-41. for the sake of itself" ISZ 143: 183 My emphasis]. GA29/30 1929/30 lectures. 3. 17. he adds problem world. "Das Mbglichsein des Daseins wesenhafte betrifft Weisen des Besorgnes der' ))Welt((. especially Early the in Praxis Limits the familiar Strange: the of on and below. der von der Struktur angezeigte der Bewandtnis Sein zum des Daseins führt dem eigentlichen selbst als Worumund einzigen indicated the interconnection willen: by which the structure of an leads involvement to Dasein's being very as the sole authentic 'forthe-sake-of ESZ 84: 1171. such are as in 160(n. we can encounter reasons not something Yet insofar the towards ourselves. as conjunction 18. ' in refer treatment Heidegger's of By way of a prefatory remark. within which we comport or world it thrownness. 232 . to the ways of its for Others pertains solicitude and of the 'world'. of problem his the in of context be this approached within should problematic. whilst nonetheless 21.

and Opctiq alongside cf. 26. of Aristotelian and Kantian thought to a subtle currents of contributes and at times ambiguous treatment transcendence of the problem of. Haus Verlag zum Basel. EM 161-162: 128. dem Logos mit by itself. Anchor Books. Nobc. "Der transzendentele Weltbegriff ist offenbar in auf die übrigen Weise bezogen. EinfUhrung in die Metaphysik Tijbingen. fUr sich allein Orexis Einheit Diese und Nous. tr. nor even concepts mentioned. The same connection had already been but only in @69. ownway. Walter Brogan's excellent reply to Bernasconi's paper. Cf. (1935). pp. drawing The gesture of Volpi In particular. of the ground to common back drawn Creworfenheit-Entwurf are interpretation of Heidegger's ontological Volpi which as regards the least not reading. present this likened may be to an implicit repetition on Heidegger's part of the Aristotelian critique theory in particular. Heidegger's in Politics of Journal Philosophy Faculty faculty. of the inscription of the order within grounds (or activity) of discourse they whose basis As we shall the confluence provide. with only unity ever der in Zufall Kausalitit &pXý. a such There is evidence good des Creschichte Prologomena Zur in Sorge account of given 233 . in is source precedent not without and Befindlichkeit-Verstehen the the couples notes of each way Sorge. Heidegger. 22. pp. Falken. the instance. On the conceptions. 161-162: 128. analyses. den Begriff auch nicht »Welt« a1-9 Konstitutivum der Transzendenz: The transcendental concept of world is evidently in its to the other related. if therefore. own philosophical We should not be surprised. " of und himself is as opetiq man and votq 1942. but with in e. also W McNeill. 1991. An Introduction to Metaphysics. Andererseits eigener keiner der unter erschöpfte 1 bis Begriffe. exhausts concept as a constituent of transcendence" EGA26 180: 2321. hand. seems to have Kant's regarded by what one might marred regard as its Platonism residual thrown into condition by the deeply relief -a Aristotelian hue of Heidegger's formation. 1139b3l-114la9l. much later than the initial made in Being and Time. Graduate to 14(2)-15(l). Arche: Nous ist exists never der Mensch o5pstiq als selbst This of unity i. as constitutive of elements five the is it of one as the given sense contrasted specific with H Weiss: Cf. be This the should vol5r. see. 25. Mannheim. is understood 1139al8-20. where Niemeyer. Max 19831 (hereafter EM). of Plato's of ideas and. the Kantian we discover element of Heidegger's account to be tempered transcendence of and qualified his appropriation of In Aristotle. 131-147.Heidegger philosophy. sense of soul. the other from none of I to 3. for 6ctir. 149-153. and world. GA54 96 especially 'Porosity: Question Violence the and Introduction Metaphysics. in its here rational sense as general is presented it otTaOrjat(. their the 'world' sum. X6-yoc. transR Cf. SJP transcendental thought as 24. Philosophie des Aristoteles. 3 genannten ihre Summe. 183-212. intellectual [1139bl5-17 and virtues ist Uberhaupt nurs besteht "Die sondern Orexis nicht. pp-116-117. von dem in Einheit bezw. New York. 23. to back common terms a differentiated 27. 1961. vobq.

as a radicalization of &pXfl from be differentiated the or should of nP&tLr. exponierten philosophischen der mit Grundproblematik Ontologie Frankfurt in Fundierung zentralen fehlt der Faktizitgt 234 . and the that in Ch. especially (hereafter Main. T of Time. &pXý be subject 28. 1988. GA20 295-297. As Heidegger shown movement "Das remarks. Strictly translate an them together speaking... the two aspects of virtue in of relation a inter-linked least but partially at one another. 111. University Press. Volpi ECP 244-246 and DAP 107114. the community. Aristotle 29. 1988. am M Interpretation 2. rnql 'brutishness' to Elsewhere. is in itself else something a setting opening-for out towards other This be important things" EGA33 101). 7he History tr. [pursuit]. with expression ENE-1: 1102b30-311. also [SZ beyond from "from me" me and yet from isloated by no means are 32. being-an-opening-for does thing not really mean a or a . Kisiel. (hereafter the Concept of trans. of in Being Time call where and Conc. and union Without of votc. VII: 1145al5-181. das Ausgangsein ein etwas ausgeht. 1985. 275. Frankfurt Zeitsbegriffs Vittorio am Main. Ausgangsein für. "Eine eigentliche der.. Klostermann. Part GA61 1. Moreover. to point may be helpful that the &pXý of a present out to be is dynamic in itself.(1925). This of an conception Platonic the from development the soul. "state moral character" of the is that this races. 3. the 'appetitive 1O"pct-tq. from which Rather. of np&Zic.. &pXA-Sein. GA20). regarding analyses are to follow anticipating the it topic. are Chapter Three Heidegger. a of sides and desiderative conscience Heidegger's of account us of sense of spirit. oder sondern ist in für Being-ananderes etwas sich ein Ausgehen zum Anderen: &pXý. the educationally violent. property as it were. may remind to is come said "the conscience" r357. Klostermann. its where in terms Hang Eurgel of characterization Drang [propensity] and description Aristotle's of Opetiq echoes as quyý [flight] and Sfokiq Cf. GA63). Vittorio (1923). excessively and subnormal the beyond degree lesser to those or a greater who are other words. Indiana Bloomington.3201.. Cf.. in considering the extent will Heidegger's thought to which of transcendence. should not nP&t1q[Oqpi6. meint Ding eben nicht gleichsam ein davon Eigenschaft. being-ansomething sets out. 1139a22f. Cf PIA. political of power educative and socialising 30. ' the of part but Aristotle soul' clearly does not places the between faculty rational intermediate 31. Faktizitdt) (Hermeneutik der §§16-26. as a refers He goes on to say ENE. The notion to this of will radicalization no less those the than 5pcttq. non-Greek amongst commonest condition the found be to Greek amongst are also examples although some In the diseased. especially .

The Nicomachean and pp. The description of 'stellen' that qp6vnair. tradition IGA63 751. that a radical phenomenological [PTA 2511. (1924/5). (hereafter 1992. must be de-constructed" subsequent "Diese comment that: AufSabe ist nur zu wenn eine vom Faktizit&tsproblem. response. This if can only one can engage in a concrete interpretation to the problem of Aristotle with regard of facticity. of this Sophistes Platon: Heidegger. pp. SJP also cf. Vittorio Klostermann. its but "die regard work as of Interpretation des Affektiven dberhaupt grundsdtzliche ontologische kaum einen Aristoteles Schritt hat zu tun seit nennenswerten vorwdrts k6nnen: the basic Interpretation life in ontological of the affective has been to make scarcely general able one forward step worthy of [SZ 139: 1781. Of 1143bl5-17. Sophistes truth. given 235 . HDP 136 and Bernasconi. in no of of vision disclosure his fundamental in and of conception vision role played a Frankfurt (1924/5). In anthropology" to Heidegger's known interest in addition the well Nicomachean Ethics. virtues. [4c'cdf disposition rational 7. seems of to became central 4. a purely der "in Wp&tjq words. authentic fundamental lacking" EPIA Heidegger Fragen Tradition an interpretation philosophical 250). is textual for at reading a such support the disposition: scientific than faculty is one more each made up of the inicyxýýLn. Cf. Klostermann. and as a Cestelltsein later 'Gestell' Dasein odd. irj than more in even is X6yoq: in updýiq noch mehr als 1391. Joachim.. calculative and faculty both and croq>foc comprises to decidedly is not This faculty both and c9Xvn. Rhetoric also of as "die Hermeneutik der Ailtdglichkeit systematische erste des Mi teinanderseins: the f irst hermeneutic the systematic of Being ISZ 138: 178). 8. Brogan's 151-153. Note two but there that Heidegger's 6. is. ph4gnomenologischen redikelen her konkrete orienterte der aristotelischen Interpretation Philosophie ist: verfOgbar gemacht task be accomplished. Aristotle" mention since the thereby 'sehen' includes suggesting all citXvrj except . Amongst are that those view share 450-4521 [ENT J01if and Gauthier intellectual and cf. in Heidegger's is. of however. irp&tiq comprises division the as the is TtXvq. Cf during also the remainder section. found course. grounded problematic in centrally facticity of the is writes elsewhere that: "Die Tradition der den Sachquellen philosophischen muO bis zu zurtickverfoigt Die werden. displaced Heidegger that belief despite primacy common of sight: a that doubt is there the primacy favour language. his description Aristotle's cf.V61lig: expressed entirely 3. mup abgebaut The werden: tradition of be traced questioning back philosophical must to its The sources. Platon: Cf. das heipt einer Anthropologie. Vittorio Main. " EGA19 '16yor. (bp6vna-Lc. is not therefore. Heidegger's bewerkstelligen. Main. Similarly. qýp6vqaiq this matter implications of the We on might comment shall suggest. 1992 (hereafter 5. Not only did everydayness of with one another" Heidegger this the first kind. GA19) §11a. X6-yov g6vov. 172-173 Ethics. am for example. Strong 190-215. that virtue say. but 1140b281. Frankfurt am GA19) 95 and §8c.

as I am thereby resolved. In simple the opposition an terms. (hereafter QCT). Frage der nach Technik' Kehre' (1955) in VOrtr4ge and 'Die und Aufsdtze. New York. cf. ENT 481-489. "The wise know the conclusions that man therefore must not only follow from his first but also have a true principles. For Heidegger's interpretation of the &cf O'v. arises 74: 102-104. the of vision constitutive of " IGA19 163-165 q)p6vrjcriqq as an "Augenblick. as this resoluteness fact insofar appropriated and accomplished. its Aristotle's history brief of aoq)f(x finds the For Apology 2lb-22e. 236 . n. one might the also remember passage at SZ 333: 381 (cited in Ch. the C"vex(x: makes site of activity by accessible fast the IPIA ou' CVEx(x" We shall p. of counterpart genealogy comprehensive at a term aoq)((x. different the is themselves the first although status principles of Platonic in each case. 1977. Not for the last time. 'The Question Concerning Technology' and in The Question 'The Turning' Concerning Technology Other Essays.thinking Heidegger's of TEXvn. A.. 11. ich vollzogen bin. Pfulligen. a Judaic such being human share clearly views of in each case. and SZ §68al.111-IVI. VA). conception of those 11141al8l. cf. sofern ist die Handlung also entschlossen in ihrer Nupersten Mdglichkeit da: the the elaboration of concrete to situation aims make genuine resoluteness accessible as transparency And insofar is in of the activity. 12. Being and Time of how the as present-at-hand. (hereafter Neske.114lb221. With and to Heidegger's respect use of here. NENI. in der Tat angeeignet und ist. 1143a35f 1142a25f. circumspective of out Heidegger's in account beings apprehending 73ISZ concern between 15. 14. 9. of we are reminded theoretical attitude.569b]. sie geht. Met.. as problem presenting that to fails humanist acknowledge theocentric anthropologies and transcend to our be ability is human an what precisely most may Christian Both and divinity. and W Lovitt. 4. 13. Heidegger'5 consider holding in more vocabulary of and having detail later [Ch. the to in relation has lo(pt(x priority ist: immer schon an ihm selbst. themselves" It interesting to note is principles that Aristotle the same thing says about q)p6vqcriq 1114lbl4. WM 267: 244-245. trans. rechte Entschlossenheit Durchsichtigkeit der als Handlung verfügbar zu Und sofern diese Entschlossenheit machen. However.. Harper Torchbooks. insofern selbst. form to of condition some via a relation however view. "Die des ou holding die Lage des HandeIns (pp6vrjaiq macht irn Festhalten 1196y2glich IOp6vrj(7ir. auf Vorrang "Die den hat cyo(plo( seinsmäßig griechisch das das Seiende. dem es was Blick den aus den Vorrang kommt in Das Seiende hat. Cf. 10. Gunther 1954. 'Die cf. differently it may be articulated ihm Seiende das an bezug in 16. 2591. "Die Ausarbeitung der konkreten Lage die zielt. 2. 15) where Dasein above is said to submit itself to the being for-the-sake-of-which of possibility it is working at any moment. the activity is there in its IGA19 150 My most extreme possibility" emphasis]. 'seeing' his description cf. auf her. 10: 1075al3.

good already (pp6vqatq cannot make us any better As Heidegger than we already are. twist. about reasons dispense of sense altogether. this the of Underlining freedom. an could (pp6vnair. On this already Heidegger basis. significance conception of Mdglichkeit der hinsichtlich Heidegger die "Sofern (pp6vrjaic. is. vollzogen das auf zwar sich ý-vep-Veia der' Vorrang sie der ob erschüttert. upon a certain of (pp6vqaiq Aristotle goes the advantage to be gained as to question so far from Tp6vrjaiq: "but it for? that it seeing that what do we need studies is noble which these things that man. rob the distinction (pp6vncTiq would with In disagreeable. of yet declares that the good only Aristotle appears as such to one who is 11144a331: in short. the correct of the Insofar possibility bezieht: Dasein as menschliche is it that fact the depend to on accomplishment continues of q)p6v9cYir. end. mention 1. ist nicht selbst sie wird. the the treatise to consist in learning being of purpose in not about but rather in actually becoming To this good. In this good" as we were already way. insofar as the to being in itself 237 . cannot make us any insofar as to whole a as existence cement one's relation a changed this As the in the deliberately good. in later cDp6v9aiq of marks bring to 'cause' be former to the latter. that transition for the mentioned. of view (pp6vigoq acts involuntary action between the difference and voluntary represents Aristotelian to linked be therefore 11109b30ffl. accomplished indeed is related it though thereby is even of (pp6vTjaiq overturned. we already (pp6vrjcYir. be to is said By croq)f(x to 1671. human IGA19 Da-sein" contrast. VI is indeed irrelevant. which presumably would it but better than can were. ours whereas virtue the cultivation or modification sense is associated with specifically from the the transition those traits life. writes: daß einem von bleibt.being with it which is concerned has for with regard the Greeks. have found Aristotle short. IGA19 1371. remark its If we recall. priority The being into comes from that which view always is'. apparently orientation an and character depends formation of a certain upon being itself. in Book I he declared with of (pp6vqaiq study. but and good for are the a good man does by Knowing them does not make us any more capable about nature. sofern wir nicht schon gut do thereby better we not come to act sind: ethically. it: i1wir werden dadurch puts nicht besser dazu gebracht. elicits and apparently endorses further several for the priority of cro(picf. itself is it not by an 6ryot06q. in the (bp6vqcTxq consists apprehension the 6ryxe6v nporxt6v. sittlich zu handeln. it or said cannot although to Nonetheless. But account presents quite this the issue between natural passage also raises of the distinction [&pcTý E&pcTý (puaixý] in virtue and virtue some stronger sense xupial 11144bl5f]. the accomplishment because irrelevant here. of which criteria I shall two. 5v. sie ihres darauf Vollzugs angewiesen rechten ist Damit &W06g eigenständig. what that &6 with the deals independent it inasmuch with as is not therefore Dasein and from does above proceed not else all is it that fact The its form existence. the Aristotle in NE. The priority independent. of doing the virtues them. the accomplishment depends form of existence. since 11143b2Of]are qualities First of character" that Aristotle is conflating we might the acquisition of all. good 11095a5l. insofar except EGA19 1671. Natural inheres in the character traits that virtue could loosely be called from in the stronger birth. of contingent upon a specific treated is as EOEG)PETv] form of activity to a specific linked clearly of 1PP6vW1r.

Double 'The of Phenomenology 1988. out. 1991. Cf. 41-57. it Just being is realized' as not because immediately it is noXXo(X&Sq XcV6gcvov. linked engulfs qcwpcc1xoq. XVIII 17. with das Seiende der np&kiq kann je jeweils sein anders und Entsch1up einen im Augenblick das Betrachten verharrt reine des Immerseienden verlan9t. a of this to notion Heidegger's here given response of it no would become to available. indifference to corresponds of the first themselves principles when viewed as such the light of particular pursuits). pp. language to were np&tiq appropriate this of incorporation the limit longer and be a as encountered philosophy of practice and the into finitude structure experience of the is this not that however. with view regard at 1096b34 quoted above. the contrary. way Taminiaux's q on remarks the priority over reservations the ELOF 1751 ensuing RP&tiq and Although in the evident 19. readings as that be a it objected different may Aubenque On demonstrate. of contemplation. manifold isolable in is the in of a region not noted. Heidegger that notes the is for activity most part our broken episodic. pior the the 20. lines two address that the of case and intimately Epp. Pobjet bien de ]a contemplation aussi qui est que de Paction. accessible so the 6ry(x96v be intangibility the itself to its may attributed of have Accordingly. PCýtre il The object pas c'est n'est en qui se r6alise: is not the concept. as of action. and Press. of and pp. GA26 11-18: 9-18. University Indiana trans. Problem the Kant tr. gleichsam dauernden Jetzt: Whereas in einem the being of np&tir. a Heidegger's (that defending I thesis the am central plank of hegemony of the conceptual challenges radicalization np&tiq of a as np6tir. such articulated Aristotelian in theology between and ontology relation Heidegger by and those offered as such philosophy. We see. 2. as is I ENT 47 My emphasis]. Cf. it is being. sense o'rV(x96v an absolute its own. Klostermann. up by the demands [1177a2l. be can always than it is in and other each case requires in a resolution the the pure moment. on are. note. J Churchill. Gauthier orya06v of take and Jolif clearly this to the passage when. das Problem der Metaphysik am Main. Vol. ce le concept. 3-9. 132-1351. Vittorio Frankfurt (1929). "Ce or irp6ttiq. changing situation of the Following Aristotle. must not linked is Kant und SZ 11-15: 32-35. certain way of the accomplishment whereas of aopj(x detachment from precisely those interests mundane that into existence (Such relief. become shall would reduntant. in Research in Philosophy' Concept Bernasconi. Bloomington. GA19 1741. One forget to that the finitude already was differently. 18. observation present being of the perpetual persists in a lasting now" IGA19 1741. of the for articulation thereby nofn(Yiq allows and have description we the determination is Dasein) with at odds of if finitude. Metaphysics. as though intimacy the problem with which of the being. the inconstancy he contrasts of even the least venturesome of lives invariance the "W4hrend of contemplation. GA24 26-27: 19-20. that the they propose "practicable be the object good" of Ociaptor no less than of woinaiq As they point for Aristotle. 238 .towards a demands a throw our the character in not and life. 1962. intrinsically as we already character.

10: 1052a3. Brogan's also. One 429al7l. his Lehre By contrast. E). with associated 23. (oi) 'Ei hAls-Was-BestimmungenO des Ansprechens seine auf etwas auf ihm selbst an was die 6'(Si(xfPEVX. to the term voi5(. commentators and a number of the Trendelenburg (of which and Teich-MOIler out) are moderns are singled the functions to have drawn no distinction between and qualities said Die J Walter.. including commentators. The qualities the 1qualit6es habituelles) represent ou 6tats of Most of the ancient the functions. the ist: genuine explikabel weiter nicht nicht auseinandernehmbar'. final of the in chapter the to remark could also point thinking" faculty the of total to "blindness of is absence a akin Heidegger essentially makes [Met. Jena. like De Anima is that thinking perceiving. as passage above in many subsequent Walter's Jolif influence detect the reading of Ross. and Heidegger's to consider later 1142a25f. IDA-111: is thinkable. that GA29/30 Ch. 313-335) is said and (5). X6you. in von der of study voiSq. l. reading and senses qualities of vobq only confound Gauthier des intelligence in the and principes. Gegenstdndliche ist 66(vet) des er was votc. to is sensible" what sense as that E) Met. 1922 the the in same point Weise die X61YOU ohne das. vocabulary 239 . VI: NE. that of (pf)air. DA 430b28) vernimrnt: X(rc& -civoc. which cannot 258. of We shall have occasion Cf. 2041.. is to be what I E Aristotle "Mind that related must adds . p-250(nl)]. also Heidegger is 24. that &SI(xiPcTa. Gauthier lines these the following 5371: and Jolif by various senses (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) the relate commentators.For a sense all of (Yo9i(x and the question in the absence of any the sense of totality to of readings given they distinguish part. that may be Intellect Intellect Intellect Intelligence Intelligence between here lies structured wide variety For their attributed FA CUL TE: FONCTION: QUALITt: sp6culatif pratique des principes des valeurs morales concr6tes istsic. GA33 cf. (4) to vol5c. cf.. without it 0-rvcu that perceives is which objectiveness of vobr. as it emerges above EM Ch.to Cfcro(PI(Y. of nature gradually evolved in VWB. into this 22. transformation. der Vernunft in greichischen prektischen the functions between to have distinguished (pp. 1874. accorded in aoq)f(x reflects interest that Dasein and something 21. here Aristotle's Pursuing in 25. The problematic Cf. which previously reference ao(pi(x. Philosophie. holding having. 1143a35f. 6. also cf. " Des genuin 'Introduction'. [ENT The only discontinuity conspicuous is raised as a whole as it of beings to X6-yoq. remark to preserve a desire its exceeds own existence Heidegger's between a relation ISJP 1521. the 'determination-as-something': its addressing [PIA longer explicable" is no be in itself contrasted. thinking conjecture of probably the analogy.

power rather of than as a manner the Megarics 8bvcxgtq as a being. of it is still to tempting that Aristotle's discussions suppose of movement and Heidegger fruitful insofar offered change more reading. in unto Death' Fear and Trembling Unto Death. 257(n47). whereas by 33. even the interpretation Heidegger exceptional when one considers gave of treatment Aristotle's time in Physics IV 10-14. Ch. 28. stehen &tp-ye-Lcy to following Cf. xivqatc. 30. also PIA 263. cf. 27. Aristotle. of Heidegger's reading basis the of is quoted at above. the not influence only on Heidegger's As a conjuntion of anxiety. is said 16f'CCXtq1 11048bl8-35). for of this Physics. cf. being. that the latter noting problematic was only in the wake of the advances possible Indeed. issue is at movement what precisely 251: 354. p. also complete. Cv9pVci(x and thereby Aristotelian life being. 31. 2: 1026bl. 1960. seen as a state to having the than as a state move: as with movement. tend to view rather below. 1961. this moved critique. 240 . Heidegger is sense in which the source 57. with commentary interested reading WD in Ross above all. Aristotle's time. and The Sickness trans W Lowrie. Oxford.1177a12-25. Significantly. 1VWB-WM 282: 2561. p. describes voj$q However. Heidegger's and of of reading 32.1V 8. Jersey. here. be translations ofev9pycia: 2201. made by the former. sein. 537. 26. it to a radicalization abysmal amounts of a 'Cartesian' that be rooted tendency may itself in the same notion of purity to the Greek experience attached In addition. Cf. New Princeton U P. Cf.1178a9f for Aristotle elsewhere moot. Aristotle's Clarendon. Although temporality it the analysis seems that of movement gave way to that as to a more fundamental of formulation or profound of it is worth the problem. a5 they directly impinged the on the themes of 8bvcYgiq. the in Aubenque passage 34. of account to as movement to intended is win access of the now as transition 919 GA24 Cf. IGA33 is Am-WerkeIm-Werkincomplete -ins-Zeug-legen p. (1936). ed. esp. of eccapfof. one might Kierkegaard's think description of also of the self as "the relation itself to its that " 'The Sickness relates own self. Heidegger the offers Sich-ans-Werk-machen.3 Met. Cf. E. 1178a6. from which Because is Sibvoegir one must move. This is the GA33 especially Met. also he offers interpretation the Moreover. 4. as what the point is is most human this is sure. To be and 1179a25-27. conception of hermitic revelation and dissolution. 146. of both conception and divine 29.

--. The Greek in is: Xit-ye-con question In its gt: v IL&Xiacof xupfwc. the but more usual also uses to wish a Vernp6gen reflects Kraft that the suspects over of choice character distance secondary or the from passive residual a account translates the If the selection Greek 5. Juillet-septembre 2. 3. form. 1976. contrary. Logik: die Frase der Wahrheit (1925/26).59. d'Aristote: Dynamis le regard et 66nergeia sous ttudes in Les Philosophiques. Heidegger of his in is not consistent Kraft for opts he indicates. Scott. the complexity and of Aristotle's testifies ambiguity own text to his the awareness of involved. it is inadequately thought through. "wahrlich nicht as v Xprlafgrl o16 lig: brauchbar this of particular of -sense to construct basis seems a somewhat an opposition arbitrary on which brauchbar). [useful dienlich serviceable] and -sui is precisely ndtzlich first that this the enquiry into claims sense 1924 the to edition dienlich Ross's for follows. 353-372. the As Sbv(xýLiq. the impulse problems to ivtpyciof elevate beyond change the interpretations sanctions reductive that of Aristotle the are target real of Heidegger's reading. translation 6. generally the subtitle of course one [potentiality). xuptoq may to "having It " applied that persons power or authority. to 'usef uI' the (wh i ch is of senses amongst also Heidegger [applicable] possible a as also verwendber offers [usefulterms ndtzlich alternative as such and rejects expressly he the On table]. A Greek Lexicon. we are not that arguing it is but rather that mistaken as such. " 241 . For an 'Heidegger excellent lecteur this reading of Pierre Rodrigo. Vittorio Klostermann. Frankfurt nach am Main. primary Liddell or most essential meaning. 1951 (ninth edition). it seeing as the clearest in Aristotle expression the conception of truth of as Cf. any doubt remains. Heidegger brauchbar. by Aristotle's above all For whilst successors. der' Menschlichen Freiheit (1930). &R HG Cf. 1982. may be Heidegger draws this its transfering the on element of meaning. and Volpi. mitigating some way going same fashion as Heidegger. Frankfurt Vittorio Klostermann. Clarendon. Verni6ýgen (power]. am Main. Vom Wesen unconcealment. to its in the and Scott language refer use context of as indicating "in the However. and commentary what the "not to most in "not the chooses preference suitable" most the in the problem " thereby towards useful. tendency towards theological a the of resolution problems of ontology is intrinsic to Aristotle's in and philosophy may be taken some respects as a mark of its If distinction. passage. 4. HA 172-182. the noted already. pp. Heidegger importance attached great to this chapter.Chapter Four 1. As we have ph6nom6nologique' 1990. is indeed adverbial taken to narrow the sense xupiwq generally to its of the verb Thus.913c. Oxford. be proper sense-" as an adjective. Liddell proper or correct. cf. 'holding that in question to suggest the connotation of sway' sense is merely the the most but most not necessarily common or prevalent.

die vorhandenen xorc& -xivr1criv sind Kr4fte. that the of such a reading was already decided orientation is evident from the Leibniz in GA26. Ausgang zur iv9p-Veicx libergang xotT& xivtlacwq xOfT6f xivnaiv. to it the by make the genitive falls form stands one enables sense or E). Whatever of esp. xuiý& xfvncriv are the present-at-hand powers that we speak of kind thing in any of when we encounter [GA33 55-561. in Heidegger's 1939 as presented are and jlop(pti The being. Ross. out sets Abschnitten ivtpyciot zur Mglichkeit. possibility of of ways intepretation the on rests reading Heidegger that terms in of movement nXgov die dap der Gang in on paper essentially Aristotle's dynamic 7. Power) Heidegger that the point is to have [1047a241 precisely happened ihm "Mit achievement: Aristotle's the of Picks pinnacle out as Antike der Erkenntnis Idiesem die ist Satz] philosophische grdflte folgenden 242 . real. between Verm6gen does Kraft and not seem to have arisen directly from his interpretation Metaphysics. movement" himself Aristotle this warns against to the way mistake. 95. Moreover. 551. pointing had that been described in movement consistently terms negative (otherwiseness. account the broader strategic Heidegger's of choice his distinction significance of terms. Aristotle that . interpretation However.6vcxgtq x(xTdf xtvtlG6wq xIvtlaE(jq. e. thereby of as xivýcrstjr. the by the inability 111. Ultimately.the term with potentiality associated character that -a derive may the privilege from in part to actuality given as a determination of is 'genuinely ' Ultimately. a bvag xocxdf f Iq into rom the following outset stages: ivitp-yetof to x(X'E& transition development ivtp-Vcjo( to xofT6f xfvqc7iv. significations ontological iv9PYCI(x ini 10. Bonitz. g. it is by no means without to follow. echoes &pXý Sbv(ygir the the determination (1019al5l. Sbvagiq the that linking this in to is perspective account of shift In Physics basis. Heidegger what develop will his further in the company of Nietzsche. conclusion lapses. Heidegger's is introducing the essentially way of ontological into Aristotle's difference However. geht: von 86vagic. von denen Bewegtes irgendwelcher wenn uns sprechen wir Art begegnet: the 86vulisir.209. category under any other 8. of u'Xrl illustration. GA33 167. "Es bleibt an such of 86vagic. IACM 2411. 8 as such and x(xxdf xivýacoar . of Aristotle's as he often uses the two in terms conjunction with one another or as interchangeable. Metaphysics in the issue of problems at 9. "Die Si6vulicir.. Fortgang 8bv(xjiiq der Ausgang xa-c& x! vrj(T-Lv. it account of movement. and of here.1-2 frustrated Aristotle is of clearly Heidegger's his to disposal such and movement as grasp categories at that to trajectory does the questioning of a use of point genitive introduction the however. By way Phys i cs. Aristotle have of may welcomed. IGA33 to 9. suggests f01 lowing Ross calls (which Sbvofglq introducing definition of later the he calls (which sense the earlier the into of Potentiality) account this believes he which the at point Significantly. that unequalness. zur : divided is the that path the There possibility 'X(xTdf xivýcrccaq: remains xivnaiv. The expression does not appear in Met. non-existence) it is as evidence thing nor a a quality neither nor indeed anything such as would fall 120lb2O-301. I.

tiv(x say. 50. by the cause precedes [Ursachel (causa). was aus einer folgt: der Erfolg. Heidegger on being later that notes it came to be understood "Das Ergebnis as a result. consequence by the circumstance about that [Sachel it. ihm durch die Ursache (causa). und auf einer actio Das Wirkliche ist jetzt das Erfolgte. London. p. Geschichte d. Paris. A204 B249. in Being an ancient "Der as Heidegger points out and Time: Schritt im Verstdndnis des Seinsproblems erste philosophische besteht darin. suggesting cause of the thing made" the that from far is clear it Nonetheless. for model even paternity. Das Wirkliche jetzt ercheint im Lichte der Kausalit. Seiendes Seiendes durch RUckfuhrung als nicht auf ein anderes Seiendes in seiner Herkunft Sein den zu bestimmen. N Kemp Smith. is to in 'telling that in not not . As 243 . trans. adds even here. 161. 12. knowledge has neither evaluated nor understood" der Vernunft reinen tr. e. Reason. those of and of causes are predominantly the the efficient in of case is that notable of paternity exception the a in "or maker general Aristotle though cause. Discussing the alteration in meaning by the term Epyov undergone translated into Latin. PsychL6. see would the to events and the efforts reconstruct cosmology of contemporary its the the both and of power of science of earliest a sign universe philosophical poverty. erz9hieng. h. a story' to defining in their by tracing them back origin entities as entities Being had the character some other of some possible entities. voraufgeht. The in the light real appears the now of the causality of causa " 'Wissenschnaft efficiens. 1992. Critique Pure of 1983. the this that remains 11013a3l]. Heidegger Presumably. Galil6e. into of grounds for the first link in the causal a search chain modern version of -a tale. Sophist ESZ 6: 261. " Does one invent un enfant?: a child? escape precisely that might Derrida this P-14.Erkenntnis. philosophical our first step consists SinyeTa0on. is from Plato. 4t der causa efficiens. tenor of the general is compatible with to child relation of father Derrida's essay Aristotle's note. or exceed 14. as if 242c. i. eine aushresprochen. The citation also entity" theory big bang in Fhaedo 98c-99c. Der Erfolg durch wird Sache einer die erbracht. die bis I Kant. as an example raises is sighted not the end insofar as the schema of production. A result is that which follows follows out of and upon the an actio: the consequence. nicht hkeine gb66v Tivof SiqysTafti. heute in der Philosophie gebleiben ist: it [this proposition] knowledge of Ancient times. gleich als h9tte Charakter Seienden: If the to understand eines m6glichen we are in not gbMv problem of Being. Macmillan. p. above all Frankfurt am Main. in VA. the his 15. the question regards is transformed ontology. und Besinnung' 'Science and Reflection' in QCT. On a more contemporary account. Kritik Suhrkamp. The examples illustrate of to account used by Aristotle The building four 5culpture. (1781). Cf. cf. und unverstanden unausgewertet to the voice gives greatest to that this day philosophy [GA33 2191. ist das. 13. the possibility of 'L'invention de J'autre' a consideration prefaces "Invente-t-on the question with Of inventing new radically something 1987. [Erfolg] The is outcome that rea I now has followed which as The is brought consequence.

with ertragen tolerate) (endurable. raises and these material questions causality. 119-136. an interrogation that. extensioque nil aliud quam jam id est resistentis praesuuppositae nitentis renitentisque substantiae diffusionem dicit. affirms nothing other the continual reiteration or preusposed propagation of an already that is. or accomplishment 23. ' in 16. activity mark than of substances. heideggerienne L'interpr6tation ' in Heidegger et Aristote. and or of Ertragsamkeit is cognate (to endure. Regarding Sbv(xgic. cf. extension alone. pp. the in 6-1-3 Met. also characterizes Heidegger's 'on the Origin of the Work of Art. of concept with the halts body of heavy that movement The fact a extensiowith agere. substance. as way. determination fact it in on which "holding as 21. Heidegger from Leibniz's quotes "Quando writing on dynamics: est agere character substantiarum. 43-66. and extended of world as an aggregate this the means replacing connection resistance. ready Fertig However. 'L'C-toile le et sillon: de I '6tre et de la nature chez Platon I 'id6e de ]a ph6nomenologie. GA33 Scribner's 120 Sons. in Leibniz: Selections ed. if one Derrida's in essay an implicit sees interrogation the limits of of language the of potentiality and actuality. extension on the contrary. pp. and p. All from quoted further passages in be Heidegger's reproduced them will intepretation of translation. the science of Heidegger there essence of speaks totality the what of of the in the midst uncertainty one's of ground is" RR 12: 473. is rarely this though ackowledged. the experience production. [SZ Time Being the in and worldhood of world to original more a Cartesian the indifference metaphysics exposes of depends. could 244 . of description thereby foregoing the to it relating TEXV(l of translation a as Fer-tiSkeit Indeed. translated as be Fertigkeit could potentiality. et F ed. mean can this to use have I chosen Fertigkeit be taken as readiness. ut facere Since is the characteristic substantiam. effort and counter-effort. The root Ertrag ertrdglich denotes yield thereby linking Ertragsamkeit to output. tantum ipsammet continuationem sive abest. Wiener. tolerable). Mattei. 17. interest Derrida's emerges as more than a passing coincidence. course. and resistant therefore 'Specimen itself.In this the future advance. way. terms in inexplicable be of body would a smaller versa vice an not his in of In this analysis Heidegger. that to [Streben] introduction the of of of striving concept for is also the basis view of on the Cartesian resistance an attack In inert the natural matter. that of by my rendition followed own translation of context Heidegger's skill. PP The 96. Volpi. Heidegger GA22 13. 22. argues Heidegger 5§19-211. 20. and VWB-WM 271-289: others in his 1926 248-261. opened by act is not one's own there is discontinuity a sense and of found not in production. 1951. " cannot possibly constitute substance Charles Dynamicum' New York. possit. Jean-Frangois Cf 18. 19. Heidegger later offers thus and prepared or (P-1871.

The 425. Section picture However. interthe in the fundamental precisely of 9CWPOXý. and the discussion passage. [GA33 in view of such movement" such movement and ' 'withdrawal. we as involve discovered have already 245 . also use of Fertigkeit in his of cvTeX6Xciot at the end of GA33 §22. ' 'resoluteness. 249(n. better than the negative plainly more the disqualify use not Heidegger's interpretation of (y. will what also we in in the this translation in ivtPYcla. would by treatment aTtpnaiq of detailed For 'privation. reference Aristotle relief "The the begins: activity of that sensible the object and of is one and the same activity sense percipient and yet the distinction being their " Heidegger's between remains. 46-52. Ross sees as it of the event that follows this it. shall Of course. the which kinetic of the Heidegger character on often plays been has withdrawn what of the significance positive also preserves ' That said. limbs By contrast.Cj:pncr1r. p. is Heideggerian a typically The difference gesture. relation of Sf)v(xRlq Tof) noleiv 1151. 1101. simply 28. reading of this passage focus their his interpretation on surely unity. also cf. 26. die thing. power of the but essence of only of specific powers the key 30. in Ross between Heidegger and is brought approach on this into point Ross's by to De Anima 425b25-426a3O. the iep-yov argument. would of truth as the ground for the subjective providing unconcealment and objective is described here. This to designate that is no longer x(xcdf x1vnaiv said expression in the is observation of a moving apprehended which potentiality deren diejenige. but ' 'privation. of this it Heidegger that to distance wishes himself seems from the sense of towards lies $movement what that ahead' is by conveyed the Ziel [goal] the stem of Streben. esp. EGA33 iality" _Tede is potentiality a-potent in is un-power Every power desselben: in Bezug auf dasselbe und geM60 true is not This III]EGA33 itself" to to relation and according itself. Heidegger twice out what picks "In occasion: each differently on 1046a28f. ist: hin Bewegung her Bewegung verstanden solche auf is with given is that 8f)v(xli Ic X(xc& xfvrlc)riv structure essential whose . 'privation. 46).sense later definition view of Heidegger's use of Fertigwerden Cf. Heidegger's passage. could simply as 'singlemindedness' or However. from phrase he as regards 29. pp. in see the complete IV. ist Sibv(xgir. phenomenon from it is understood and Tob 716(aXeIv. as evidence of how distinct two fundamentally phenomena can appear as one. Zielstrebigkeit be taken 24. "Sondern xotT6( x1vr10'1v Wechselbezug in dem der gcTo(poXý. of with conjunction Accordingly. it translating slightly Kr-aft jegliche ist desselben Gemaßheit in Bezug dasselbe und auf thing each the same with in Unkraft: to conformity In relation and Unkraft ist Krgft . I Zielstrebegkeit have translated as 'purposefulness' in the hope of the sense of having 'in one's a goal preserving ' sights. in the context even discussion. Cf. oIc er 8()vcxgiq von 5h mitgegeben lt&aXeiv und cob von 'cob nOISIv Rather. 27. 294-301: Heidegger VWB-WM. cf.431-438. ' a more of PEA Aubenque 264-269. also Entzug mean can latter. Wesenbau in dem Grundph9nomen eben ist. 25.

R Bennington and G trans. we act in desire" 1433al-21. circumpsective and thereby to relation IGA33 1281. esp. of the constitutive its reserve all with association full a Regrettably. or opcýtq 11139b5l. p. The 246 . as either opexrix6r. Human being. further comment. vis-A-vis determination his in of equivocal role the in Dasein passage Whereas of it is presented as characteristic feature animal of becomes it a lectures. themes of having. "[Dlie Bewegung immer ist die Fliehenden Verfolgenden (9u*yfi bzw. when the mind us pursue or avoid something. Cf. vital for the hermeneutics of facticity 31. with regard being-towards-death. GA33 138-148. modification impetus for does not come from the mind pursuit or avoidance for "even does command and thought bids as such. Being in important theme where and an the to in relation often circumspective absorbed a non-thematic Dasein das kannn Vertrautheit "In dieser totality. Cf. GA24 149-154: 106-109. In turn. most immediate above and this in account. these and cases are generally to 'coming before the counterposed a something' associated with to authenticity [Eigentlichkeit]. 1987. 35. das aber in Schutz bringen bedeutet. 1161. Cf. the in notion itself' 'lose the fact Dasein that can also the Heidegger by characterizes [Benommenheit] which of fascination interestingly its an in plays concern of absorbtion world of the self the Dasein animal. 1929/30 in the quoted above. VI. 2: 1139a21. De in Derrida's this matter on remarks Spirit. sometimes no movement is produced. and have discerned regard loytag6q: something. Chicago Chicago. also EGA29/30 Dasein life from it that distinguishes ]a Heidegger et Vesprit. 'Of 85. Paris. and decision" choice 32. ). umsichtige liberlegung bezogen und damit Entscheidung: Wahl [Elniaýgq: und to understand auf oneself with to to know something. "[ýInicrrýgrj: sich verstehen auf etwas. Bowlby. taking deliberation account. haben. and the Note way 1989. 33. invites that topic clearly a work. vol5c. 76: ISZ it" fascinated with within-the-world and be the they. the appropriation. DA. the in large part a to play continue Of authenticity and selfhood. sich equipmental bennomen ihm Begegnende sein: das innerweltlich von und an verlieren it in itself lose In this encounters Dasein familiarity what can from Aside 1071. etwas kennen und erkannt Xoyicrg6q: Berechnung.regarding (our primary &6v(xgiq concern will prove here). pp. question. Dasein is Time. 75-90. accordance with as one who Siofvorycixý is described chooses. of is what with be to preoccupied that that cease one ao(pi(y requires Ep. the present bounds of the beyond is critical consideration those accordingly and However. 3: 4323b28f. This is 34. ii. vor in etwas Besitz sich Movement bringen is flight vor etwas: always (q)uyý or or pursuit bring Slwtiq). something" the to fleeing that and avoidance throughout many references Being occur to disposition [Befindlichkeit) particularly and Time. before oneself something or into bring before oneself possession [GA33 1501. to safety which means. sich bzw. Heidegger the Question. University London. also Press. Galil6e. The conception the self of is authenticity. NE. oder eines Stwttc. §§58-601. implicit 36.

V-VI. [AMC the capacity" it to have is said which has that philosophy Ancient in this definition point as a high 247 . Physics Kosman. This is Met. 40. is for (not If being something work potentiality a simply actual). whereby it makes no sense to speak of them as at rest either. cf. and p. In so rendered as 5etting-to-work. kurz. "Das Ausschlaggebende das Verständnis und für und die Auslegung Übersetzung ývcpicTv des ganzen Kapitels Leitende ist die des energe. Note Heidegger's GA33 55. is engaged in the production of that then we say that something only a potentiality. heißt: (nicht Wenn ein am Werke sein einfach: wirklich sein). the premissed on Aristotle's view of world physical as determined essentially by By movement. expression The of sense for something. translated as Im-Stand-sein-zu. d. e. bei der Herstellung dessen. particular. Note Phronesis Vol. such critique. questions over the order of the account. 'actualizes itself'" possible 86vo%Liq the concerned that the of essence of account to 86vugic. Section IV below. figures geometrical contrast. assumes considerable inasmuch by Heidegger. where 39. X6yov C(pov the c-Xov. The Ross edition "And a runs: that of of the actuality having its in if there impossible is nothing Heidegger praises 2411. With explanation back on ourselves we turn and the rejoin the discussion Heidegger at point where was concerned to establish the possibility of discrimination that belongs to 6bv(xg1q gcT& X6you [cf. This and is problematic passage the In indication. Cf. 166-167. esp. of Dasein. pp. 20: 1022b3-10. here should be taken as a rough only also being-in-place-to. p. dem nur Mögliches war: sich was vor etwas Decisive in the of the as a guide understanding and interpretation ývcpycTv is the translation whole means: being at chapter of energe. 3f)v(Y1itq of primarily gcx& be an as beings that read Consequently should account with souls. 45. &. the passage is quoted in full. Vermögen 'am Werke ist'. 38. lZeU91tool Werk] and Eer-gon.. Heidegger's of work own conjunction doing something of is thing capable 45. it articulates not cited as.205-206. IA 42. form the pertaining X&Vou.remainder philosophical question. pp. 188-1901. for which it is I at work. cannot move. in the being idea condition conveys of Sich-insthe in phrase is implies this reflected concerted effort I have which and translates energeia Zeug-legen Heidegger by which of taken advantage have I doing. they are not explicitly from sources Heidegger which some measure brought to light. Whilst in Placed developed thereby this 37. in these concepts are the for ground preparing of the the thesis. zu etwas Vermögen ist. There are several in the present points this at which passage study importance. 40-62. 41. wozu es wir sagen 'verwirklicht' das. what was previously [GA33 1671. denn. Conc. Cf. being human the as account essence of of in Motion' Definition of 'Aristotle's 43. the offered version translate to 44. although that an ambiguity Heidegger in his treatment explores 92-93. Cf. 258(nl). beschäftigt. XIV 1969 pp. ' i. h.

47. the has and him a garment between too who them there is a making: so then.. 49. 20. Pp. is worth noting 'Sich-in-Fertigkeit-halten. him describe xtvý(Tctjr. A. 248 . Aristotle. in Heidegger's Umschlag. of what we it is to be possible to have the having "'Having' 2. gcxofpoXý or. 63. 205-206.and even misunderstood unsurpassed remained throughout the whole of the history 'EGA33 2191.. having. 243(nll). This of having. equivalent it Heidegger's translation in GA33 of ivccXtxci(Y ' The for preference Fertigkeit lend] more fully the term's reflects link with instructively Indeed. 1441. as x(rcdc 'as Thus the the actuality Conclusion kind (1) ['stiq] a means 1. halten' sich and 'Sich-in-dertheit-und-Dastehendheit-Hal Hergestell ten' in GA31 69. Cf. 1ý is intended to pick out movement such' T1 xoioiSTov] (as opposed to the actuality of potentiality as of what is capable but not necessarily the potentiality in of accomplishing). Whereas it the way most be thought to commentators might ivEsXtXei(x the is that indicate movement of the potentiality of x to it do y or to become z. thing one and For makes one when action or movement. one could determination compare Heidegger's ývxcXtXci(x that the with of now in GA24 §19. translation. may be understood more fundamentally as an is at issue that it is potentiality insistence and not as such that This lead to to. to on go the for will have.1022b6-10: like an has he something haver the and of what of activity of between is made. Here too there of is a full from to one of transition. the the a would potentiality of x specific simply itself the focussed formal definition change of on event of movement have that to the that seen already we perspective would correspond [p. Cf. 86v(xRiq. is Ende [readiness) over sbv(xg Iq48. is sort has there he a garment which if infinity. it as essentially to ývtpyctcx. Heidegger recognizes that. a sense of presence that move is. p. 6. p. of metaphysics By contrast it is in this identifies Ross that to maintain a failure passage distinct senses of Cf. Heidegger also offers and 'Sich-ins-Werke-machen' 'in der Werkhaftigkeit [GA33 2201.. p. 249(n32). believe. process evidently we cannot " have. Met. 'Am-Werke-sein' 46. AMC 241 and p.

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