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Dynamic Loading and Design of Structures
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DynamicLoadingandDesignof Structures
EditedbyA.J .Kappos
LondonandNewYork
Pageiv
First published2002
bySponPress
11NewFetter Lane, LondonEC4P 4EE
SimultaneouslypublishedintheUSA andCanada
bySponPress
29West 35thStreet, NewYork, NY 10001
Spon Press is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group
ThiseditionpublishedintheTaylor & Francise-Library, 2004.
©2002SponPress
All rightsreserved. Nopart of thisbookmaybereprintedor reproduced
or utilizedinanyformor byanyelectronic, mechanical, or other means,
nowknownor hereafter invented, includingphotocopyingandrecording,
or inanyinformationstorageor retrieval system, without permissionin
writingfromthepublishers.
Thepublisher makesnorepresentation, expressor implied, withregardto
theaccuracyof theinformationcontainedinthisbookandcannot accept any
legal responsibilityor liabilityfor anyerrors or omissionsthat maybemade.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A cataloguerecordfor thisbookisavailable
fromtheBritishLibrary
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Dynamicloadinganddesignof structures/editedbyA.J .Kappos.
p. cm.
Includesbibliographical references.
ISBN0-419-22930-2(alk. paper)
1. Structural dynamics. 2. Structural design. I.Kappos, AndreasJ .
TA654.D942001
624.1'7–dc21
2001020724
ISBN 0-203-30195-1Master e-bookISBN
ISBN 0-203-35198-3(OEB Format)
ISBN0-419-22930-2(Print Edition)
Pagev
Contents
List of contributors ix
Preface xi
1 Probabilistic basis and code format for loading
MARIOSK.CHRYSSANTHOPOULOS
1
Introduction 1
Principles of reliability based design 2
Framework for reliability analysis 10
Time-dependent reliability 13
Actions and action effects on structures 19
Concluding remarks 28
References 29
2 Analysis for dynamic loading
GEORGE D.MANOLIS
31
Introduction 31
The single degree-of-freedom oscillator 31
Multiple degree-of-freedom systems 46
Continuous dynamic systems 56
Base excitation and response spectra 58
Software for dynamic analysis 64
References 64
3 Wind loading
T.A.WYATT
67
Wind gust loading 67
Aerodynamic instability 81
Aeroelastic excitation 98
References 105
Pagevi
4 Earthquake loading
ANDREAS J.KAPPOS
109
Introduction 109
Earthquakes and seismic hazard 109
Design seismic actions and determination of action effects 125
Conceptual design for earthquakes 160
References 171
5 Wave loading
TORGEIR MOAN
175
Introduction 175
Wave and current conditions 177
Hydrodynamic loading 186
Calculation of wave load effects 198
Dynamic analysis for design 210
References 226
6 Loading from explosions and impact
ALAN J.WATSON
231
Introduction 231
Blast phenomena 233
Impact phenomena 246
Design actions 253
Designed response 262
Damage mitigation 272
Design codes 276
References 282
7 Human-induced vibrations
J.W.SMITH
285
Introduction 285
The nature of human-induced dynamic loading 286
Methods for determining the magnitude of human-induced loading 291
Design of structures to minimise human-induced vibration 303
References 304
8 Traffic and moving loads on bridges
DAVID COOPER
307
Introduction 307
Design actions 308
Determination of structural response 311
References 322
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9 Machine-induced vibrations
J .W.SMITH
323
Introduction 323
Dynamic loading by machinery 324
Design of structures to minimise machine-induced vibration 331
References 341
10 Random vibration analysis
GEORGE D.MANOLIS
343
Introduction 343
Random processes 344
System response to random input 350
Structures with uncertain properties 363
References 367
Index 369
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Contributors
M.K.Chryssanthopoulos University of Surrey, UK
G.D.Manolis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
T.A.Wyatt Imperial College, London, UK
A.J.Kappos Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
T.Moan Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway
A.Watson University of Bristol, UK
J.W.Smith University of Bristol, UK
D.Cooper Flint & Neal Partnership, London
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Preface
Thedynamical behaviour of civil engineeringstructureshastraditionallybeentackled, for
designpurposes, inan‘equivalent static’ way, essentiallybyintroducingmagnification
factorsfor verticallyappliedloadsand/or byspecifyingequivalent horizontal loads. Todaythe
availabilityof softwareabletodeal explicitlywithdynamicanalysisof realisticstructures
withmany(dynamic) degreesof freedom, aswell astheoutcomeof thevaluableresearch
carriedout inthevariousfieldsincludedunder ‘Dynamics’, makethistypeof analysisapart
of everydaylifeinthedesignoffice.
Therearealsoanumber of goodreasonswhydynamical behaviour of buildings, bridges
andother structuresisnowmoreof aconcernfor thedesigner thanit usedtobe20or 30
yearsago. Onereasonisthat theaforementionedstructurescurrentlyconsist of structural
membersthat aremoreslender thanbefore, andlighter claddingmadeof metal andglassor
compositesrather thanof brickwalls. Thisoffersanumber of architectural advantages, but
alsomakesthesestructuresmoresensitivetovibration, duetotheir reducedstiffness. From
another perspective, therisktoenvironmental dynamicloads, likethosefromearthquakes, has
increasedduetothetremendousincreaseinurbanizationwitnessedinmanycountriessubject
tosuchhazards. Furthermore, theincreasedneedfor buildingrobust andefficient structures
insidetheseahasalsoplacedmoreemphasisonproperlydesigningsuchstructuresagainst
dynamicloadingresultingfromwavesandcurrents.
Dealingwithall, or evensomeof theaforementioneddynamicloadsinanexplicit wayis
clearlyachallengefor thepractisingengineer, sinceacademiccurriculacanhardly
accommodateaproper treatment of all theseloads. Furthermore, thelackof abookdealing
withall typesof dynamicloadingfallingwithinthescopeof current codesof practice, makes
theproblemevenmoreacute.
Themainpurposeof thisbookistopresent inasinglevolumematerial ondynamicloading
anddesignof structuresthat iscurrentlyspreadamongseveral publications(books, journals,
conferenceproceedings). Thebookprovidesthebackgroundfor eachtypeof loading(making
alsoreferencetorecent researchresults), andthenfocusesonthewayeachloadingistaken
intoaccount inthedesignprocess.
Pagexii
Anintroductorychapter (Chapter 1) givestheprobabilisticbackground, whichismoreor
lesscommonfor all typesof loads, andparticularlyimportant inthecaseof dynamicloads.
Thisisfollowedbyachapter (Chapter 2) onanalysisof structuresfor dynamicloading,
makingclear thecommonconceptsunderlyingthetreatment of all dynamicloads, andthe
correspondinganalytical techniques.
Themainpart of thebookincludesChapters3–9, describingthemost commontypesof
dynamicloads, i.e. thoseduetowind(Chapter 3), earthquake(Chapter 4), waves(Chapter 5),
explosionandimpact (Chapter 6), humanmovement (Chapter 7), traffic(Chapter 8), and
machinery(Chapter 9). Ineachchapter theoriginof thecorrespondingdynamicloadingis
first explained, followedbyadescriptionof itseffect onstructures, andthewayit is
introducedintheir design. Thelatter issupplementedbyreferencetothemost pertinent code
provisionsandanexplanationof theconceptual frameworkof thesecodes. All thesechapters
includelonglistsof references, towhichthereader canmakerecoursefor obtainingmore
specificinformationthat cannot beaccommodatedinthisbookthat encompassesall typesof
dynamicloading.
A final chapter (Chapter 10) dealswiththemoreadvancedtopic of randomvibration
analysis, whichneverthelessisindispensableinunderstandingtheanalytical formulations
presentedinsomeother chapters, inparticular Chapters 3and5.
Thebookisaimedprimarilyat practisingengineers, workinginconsultancyfirmsand
constructioncompanies, bothintheUK andoverseas, andinvolvedinthedesignof civil
engineeringstructuresfor varioustypesof dynamicloads. Dependingonthetypeof loading
addressed, anattempt wasmadetopresent codeprovisionsbothfromtheEuropean
perspective(Eurocodes, BritishStandards) andtheNorthAmericanone(UBC, NBC), sothe
bookshouldbeof interest tomost peopleinvolvedindesignfor dynamicloadingworldwide.
Thebookalsoaimsat researchstudents(MScandPhDprogrammes) workingonvarious
aspectsof dynamicloadingandanalysis. WithregardtoMSccourses, it hastobeclarified
that Loadingistypicallyapart of several, quitedifferent, courses, rather thanacourseonits
own(althoughcourseslike‘LoadingandSafety’ and‘EarthquakeLoading’, docurrentlyexist
intheUK andabroad). Thisexplainstoacertainextent thefact that, tothebest of theeditor’s
knowledge, nocomprehensivebookdealingwithall important typesof dynamicloadinghas
appearedsofar. Thepresent bookismeant asarecommendedtextbookfor several existing
coursesgivenbybothStructural SectionsandHydraulicsSectionsof Civil Engineering
Departments.
Thecontributorstothebookareall distinguishedscientists, ratedamongthetopfewinthe
correspondingfieldsat aninternational level. TheycomemostlyfromtheEuropeanacademic
communitybut alsoincludepeoplefromleadingdesignfirmsand/or withlongexperiencein
thedesignof structuresagainst dynamicloads.
Puttingtogether andworkingwiththeinternational teamof authorsthat wasindispensable
for writingabookof suchawidescope, wasamajor challengeandexperiencefor theeditor,
whowouldliketothankall of themfor their most valuablecontributions. Someof the
contributors, aswell assomeformer (at
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Imperial College, London) andpresent (at theUniversityof Thessaloniki) colleaguesof the
editor haveassistedwithsuggestionsfor prospectiveauthorsandwithcritical reviewof
variouschaptersor sectionsof thebook. A warmacknowledgement goestoall andeachof
them.
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Page1
Chapter 1
Probabilistic basis and code format for loading
Morios K.Chryssanthopoulos
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Inthelast 30years, practical probabilisticandreliabilitymethodshavebeendevelopedto
helpengineerstackletheanalysis, quantification, monitoringandassessment of structural
risks, undertakesensitivityanalysisof inherent uncertaintiesandmakerational decisions
about theperformanceof structuresover their workinglife. Thesetasksmayberelatedtoa
specifiestructure, agroupof similar structuresor alarger populationof structuresbuilt toa
codeof practice. Withinatimeframework, thestructuresmaybeat thedesignstage, under
constructionor inactual use. Hence, themethodsmayberequiredtoback calculate
performanceandcomparewithearlier perceptionsandobservations, or topredict future
performanceinorder toplanasuitablecourseof actionfor continuedsafetyandfunctionality.
Clearly, uncertaintyispresent throughvarioussourcesandcanpropagatethroughthedecision
makingprocess, thusrenderingprobabilisticmethodsaparticularlyuseful tool.
Thepurposeof thischapter istosummarizetheprinciplesandproceduresusedin
reliability-baseddesignandassessment of structures, placingemphasisontherequirements
relevant toloading. Startingfromlimit stateconceptsandtheir applicationtocodifieddesign,
thelinkismadebetweenunacceptableperformanceandprobabilityof failure. Thisisthen
developedfurther intermsof ageneral codeformat, inorder toidentifythekeyparameters
andhowtheycanbespecifiedthroughprobabilisticmethodsandreliabilityanalysis. The
important distinctionbetweentimeinvariant andtimevariant (or timedependent)
formulationsisdiscussed, andkeyrelationshipsallowingthetreatment of timevaryingloads
andloadcombinationsarepresented. Insubsequent sections, anintroductiontothetheoriesof
extremestatisticsandstochasticloadcombinationsispresentedinorder toelucidatethe
specificationof characteristic, representativeanddesignvaluesfor different typesof actions.
Thischapter isneither asbroadnor asdetailedasanumber of textbooksonprobabilistic
andreliabilitymethodsrelevant tostructural engineering. A list of suchbooksisgivenat the
endof thechapter. Thereader shouldalsobeawareof recent documentsproducedbyISO
(International Organizationfor Standardization)
Page2
andCEN(EuropeanCommitteefor Standardization)/TC250codedraftingcommittees, which
provideanexcellent up-to-dateoverviewof reliabilitymethodsandtheir potential application
indevelopingmoderncodesof practice(ISO, 1998; Eurocode1.1Project Team, 1996;
EuropeanStandard, 2001). Finally, it isworthmentioningthat manyof thetopicspresentedin
thischapter havebeendiscussedandclarifiedwithintheWorkingPartyof theJ oint
CommitteeonStructural Safety(J CSS), of whichtheauthor isprivilegedtobeamember. The
present chapter drawsfromtheJ CSSdocument onExistingStructures(J CSS, 2001) andin
particular theAnnex on Reliability Analysis Principles, whichwasdraftedbytheauthor and
improvedbythecommentsof theworkingpartymembers.
1.2 PRINCIPLES OF RELIABILITY-BASED DESIGN
1.2.1 Limit states
Thestructural performanceof awholestructureor part of it maybedescribedwithreference
toaset of limit stateswhichseparateacceptablestatesof thestructurefromunacceptable
states. Thelimit statesaregenerallydividedintothefollowingtwocategories(ISO, 1998):
Ɣ ultimatelimit states, whichrelatetothemaximumloadcarryingcapacity;
Ɣ serviceabilitylimit states, whichrelatetonormal use.
Theboundarybetweenacceptable(safe) andunacceptable(failure) statesmaybedistinct or
diffusebut, at present, deterministiccodesof practiceassumetheformer.
Thus, verificationof astructurewithrespect toaparticular limit statemaybecarriedout
viaamodel describingthelimit stateintermsof afunction(calledthelimit statefunction)
whosevaluedependsonall designparameters. Ingeneral terms, attainment of thelimit state
canbeexpressedas
(1.1)
whereXrepresentsthevector of designparameters(alsocalledthebasicvariablevector) that
arerelevant totheproblem, andg(X) isthelimit statefunction. Conventionally, g(X)”0
representsfailure(i.e. anadversestate).
Basicvariablescompriseactionsandinfluences, material properties, geometrical dataand
factorsrelatedtothemodelsusedfor constructingthelimit statefunction. Inmanycases,
important variationsexist over time(andsometimesspace), whichhavetobetakeninto
account inspecifyingbasicvariables. It will beseeninSection1.4.1that, inprobabilistic
terms, thismayleadtoarandomprocessrather thanrandomvariablemodelsfor someof the
basicvariables. However, simplificationsmight beacceptable, thusallowingtheuseof
randomvariableswhoseparametersarederivedfor aspecifiedreferenceperiod(or spatial
domain).
For manystructural engineeringproblems, thelimit statefunction, g(X), canbeseparated
intooneresistancefunction, g
R
( · ), andoneloading(or actioneffect)
Page3
function, gs( · ), inwhichcaseequation(1.1) canbeexpressedas
(1.2)
wheres andr represent subsetsof thebasicvariablevector, usuallycalledloadingand
resistancevariablesrespectively.
1.2.2 Partial factors and code formats
Withinpresent limit statecodes, loadingandresistancevariablesaretreatedasdeterministic.
Theparticular valuessubstitutedintoeqns(1.1) or (1.2)—thedesignvalues—arebasedon
past experienceand, insomecases, onprobabilisticmodellingandreliabilitycalibration.
Ingeneral terms, thedesignvaluex
di
of anyparticular variableisgivenby
(1.3a)
(1.3b)
wherex
ki
is a characteristic (or representative) value and Ȗ
i
isapartial factor. Equation(1.3a)
isappropriatefor loadingvariableswhereaseqn(1.3b) appliestoresistancevariables, hence
in both cases Ȗ
i
hasavaluegreater thanunity. For variablesrepresentinggeometricquantities,
thedesignvalueisnormallydefinedthroughasum(rather thanaratio) (i.e. x
di
=x
ki
± x,
where x representsasmall quantity).
A characteristicvalueisstrictlydefinedasthevalueof arandomvariablewhichhasa
prescribedprobabilityof not beingexceeded(ontheunfavourableside) duringareference
period. Thespecificationof areferenceperiodmust takeintoaccount thedesignworkinglife
andthedurationof thedesignsituation.
Theformer (designworkinglife) istheassumedperiodfor whichthestructureistobeused
for itsintendedpurposewithmaintenancebut without major repair. Althoughinmanycasesit
isdifficult topredict withsufficient accuracythelifeof astructure, theconcept of adesign
workinglifeisuseful for thespecificationof designactions(wind, earthquake, etc.), the
modellingof time-dependent material properties(fatigue, creep) andtherational comparison
of wholelifecostsassociatedwithdifferent designoptions. InEurocode1(European
Standard, 2000), indicativedesignworkinglivesrangebetween10to100years, thetwo
limitingvaluesassociatedwithtemporaryandmonumental structuresrespectively.
Thelatter (designsituation) representsthetimeinterval for whichthedesignwill
demonstratethat relevant limit statesarenot exceeded. Theclassificationof designsituations
mirrors, toalargeextent, theclassificationof actionsaccordingtotheir timevariation(see
Section1.5). Thus, designsituationsmaybeclassifiedaspersistent, transient or accidental
(ISO, 1998). Thefirst twoareconsideredtoact withcertaintyover thedesignworkinglife.
Ontheother hand, accidental situationsoccur withrelativelylowprobabilityover thedesign
workinglife. Clearly, whether certaincategoriesof actions(snow, flood, earthquake) are
deemedto
Page4
giverisetotransient or accidental situations, will dependonlocal conditions. Typically, the
loadcombinationrulesarenot thesamefor transient andaccidental situations, andalsoa
degreeof local damageat ultimatelimit stateismorewidelyacceptedfor accidental situations.
Hence, theappropriateloadclassificationisaveryimportant issueinstructural design.
Intreatingtimevaryingloads, valuesother thanthecharacteristicmaybeintroduced. These
so-calledrepresentativevaluesareparticularlyuseful whenmorethanasingletimevarying
loadactsonthestructure. For material propertiesaspecifiedor nominal valueisoftenusedas
acharacteristicvalue, andsincemost material propertiesareassumedtobetimeindependent,
theabovecommentsarenot relevant. For geometrical data, thecharacteristicvaluesusually
correspondtothedimensionsspecifiedindesign.
Partial factorsaccount for thepossibilityof unfavourabledeviationsfromthecharacteristic
value, inaccuraciesandsimplificationsintheassessment of theresistanceor theloadeffect,
uncertaintiesintroducedduetothemeasurement of actual propertiesbylimitedtesting, etc.
Thepartial factorsareanimportant element incontrollingthesafetyof astructuredesignedto
thecodebut thereareother considerationstohelpachievethisobjective. Notethat a
particular designvaluex
di
maybeobtainedbydifferent combinationsof x
ki
and Ȗ
i
.
Theprocessof selectingtheset of partial factorstobeusedinaparticular codecouldbe
seenasaprocessof optimizationsuchthat theoutcomeof all designsundertakentothecode
isinsomesenseoptimal. Suchaformal optimizationprocessisnot usuallycarriedout in
practice; evenincaseswhereit hasbeenundertaken, thevaluesof thepartial factorsfinally
adoptedhavebeenadjustedtoaccount for simplicityandeaseof use. Moreoften, partial
factor valuesarebasedonalongexperienceof buildingtradition. However, it isnowadays
generallyacceptedthat acodeshouldnot bedevelopedinawaythat contradictstheprinciples
of probabilisticdesignanditsassociatedrules.
Equation(1.2), lendsitself tothefollowingdeterministicsafetycheckingcodeformat
(1.4)
whereF
d
, f
d
anda
d
aredesignvaluesof basicvariablesrepresentingloading, resistanceand
geometrical variablesrespectively, whichcanbeobtainedfromcharacteristic/representative
values and associated partial Iactors, and Ȗ
sd
, Ȗ
Rd
arepartial factorsrelatedtomodelling
uncertainties(loadingandresistancefunctions, respectively).
Ascanbeseen, thesafetycheckingequationcontrolsthewayinwhichthevariousclauses
of thecodeleadtothedesirablelevel of safetyof structuresdesignedtothecode. It relatesto
thenumber of designchecksrequired, therulesfor loadcombinations, thenumber of partial
factorsandtheir positionindesignequations, aswell aswhether theyaresingleor multiple
valued, andthedefinitionof characteristicor representativevaluesfor all designvariables.
Page5
Figure 1.1 Partial factorsandtheir significanceinEurocode1(EuropeanStandard, 2000).
Inprinciple, thereisapartial factor associatedwitheachvariable. Furthermore, thenumber of
loadcombinationscanbecomelargefor structuressubjectedtoanumber of permanent and
variableloads. Inpractice, it isdesirabletoreducethenumber of partial factorsandload
combinationswhile, at thesametime, ensuringanacceptablerangeof safetylevel andan
acceptableeconomyof construction. Hence, it isoftenuseful tomakethedistinctionbetween
primarybasicvariablesandother basicvariables. Theformer groupincludesthosevariables
whosevaluesareof primaryimportancefor designandassessment of structures. Theabove
conceptsof characteristicanddesignvalues, andassociatedpartial factors, areprincipally
relevant tothisgroup. Evenwithinthisgroup, somepartial factorsmight becombinedin
order toreducethenumber of factors. Clearly, thesesimplificationsshouldbeappropriatefor
theparticular typeof structureandlimit stateconsidered. Figure1.1showsschematicallythe
systemof partial factorsadoptedintheStructural Eurocodes.
1.2.3 Structural reliability
Load, material andgeometricparametersaresubject touncertainties, whichcanbeclassified
accordingtotheir nature. Theycan, thus, berepresentedbyrandomvariables(thisbeingthe
simplest possibleprobabilisticrepresentation; asnotedabove, moreadvancedmodelsmight
beappropriateincertainsituations, suchasrandomfields).
Inthiscontext, theprobabilityof occurrenceof thefailureevent P
f
isgivenby
(1.5a)
where, M=g(X) andX nowrepresentsavector of basicrandomvariables. Notethat Misalso
arandomvariable, usuallycalledthesafetymargin.
If thelimit statefunctioncanbeexpressedintheformof (1.2), eqn(1.5a) maybewritten
as
Page6
Figure1.2Limit statesurfaceinbasicvariableandstandardnormal space.
(1.5b)
whereR=r(R) andS=s(S) arerandomvariablesassociatedwithresistanceandloading
respectively.
Usingthejoint probabilitydensityfunctionof X, fx(x), thefailureprobabilitydefinedin
equation(1.5a) cannowbedeterminedfrom
(1.6)
Schematically, thefunctiong(X)=0whichrepresentstheboundarybetweensafety andfailure
isshowninFigure1.2(a), wheretheintegrationdomainof eqn(1.6) isshownshaded.
ThereliabilityP
s
associatedwit\hboxhtheparticular limit stateconsideredisthe
complementaryevent, i.e.
(1.7)
Inrecent years, astandardreliabilitymeasure, thereliabilityindex ȕ, hasbeenadoptedwhich
hasthefollowingrelationshipwiththefailureprobability
(1.8)
where
í1
( · ) istheinverseof thestandardnormal distributionfunction, seeTable1.1.
Thebasisfor thisrelationshipisoutlinedinthefollowingsectiondealingwithreliability
computation.
Inmost engineeringapplications, completestatistical informationabout thebasicrandom
variablesX isnot availableand, furthermore, thefunctiong( · ) isa
Page7
Table 1.1 Relationship between ȕ and P
f
.
P
f
10–
1
10–
2
10–
3
10–
4
10–
5
10–
6
10–
7
ß 1.3 2.3 3.1 3.7 4.3 4.7 5.2
mathematical model whichidealizesthelimit state. Inthisrespect, theprobabilityof failure
evaluatedfromeqn(1.5a) or (1.6) isapoint estimategivenaparticular set of assumptions
regardingprobabilisticmodellingandaparticular mathematical model forg( · ).
Theuncertaintiesassociatedwiththesemodelscanberepresentedintermsof avector of
randomparameters , andhencethelimit statefunctionmayberewrittenasg(X, ). It is
important tonotethat thenatureof uncertaintiesrepresentedbythebasicrandomvariablesX
andtheparameters isdifferent. WhereasuncertaintiesinXcannot beinfluencedwithout
changingthephysical characteristicsof theproblem, uncertaintiesin canbeinfluencedby
theuseof alternativemethodsandcollectionof additional data.
Inthiscontext, eqn(1.6) mayberecast asfollows
(1.9)
wherePf( ) istheconditional probabilityof failurefor agivenset of valuesof theparameters
andf
X|
(x| ) istheconditional probabilitydensityfunctionof Xfor given .
Inorder toaccount for theinfluenceof parameter uncertaintyonfailureprobability, one
mayevaluatetheexpectedvalueof theconditional probabilityof failure, i.e.
(1.10a)
wheref ( ) isthejoint probabilitydensityfunctionof . Thecorrespondingreliabilityindex
isgivenby
(1.10b)
Themainobjectiveof reliabilityanalysisistoestimatethefailureprobability(or, the
reliabilityindex). Hence, it replacesthedeterministicsafetycheckingformat (e.g. eqn(1.4)),
withaprobabilisticassessment of thesafetyof thestructure, typicallyeqn(1.6) but alsoina
fewcaseseqn(1.9). Dependingonthenatureof thelimit stateconsidered, theuncertainty
sourcesandtheir implicationsfor probabilisticmodelling, thecharacteristicsof the
calculationmodel andthedegreeof accuracyrequired, anappropriatemethodologyhastobe
developed. Inmanyrespects, thisissimilar totheconsiderationsmadeinformulatinga
methodologyfor deterministicstructural analysisbut theproblemisnowset inaprobabilistic
framework.
Page8
1.2.4 Computation of structural reliability
Animportant classof limit statesarethosefor whichall thevariablesaretreatedastime
independent, either byneglectingtimevariationsincaseswherethisisconsideredacceptable
or bytransformingtimedependent processesintotimeinvariant variables(e.g. byusing
extremevaluedistributions). For theseproblemsso-calledasymptoticor simulationmethods
maybeused, describedinanumber of reliabilitytextbooks(e.g. AngandTang, 1984;
DitlevsenandMadsen, 1996; Madsenet al., 1986; Melchers, 1999; Thoft-Christensenand
Baker, 1982).
Asymptotic approximate methods
Althoughthesemethodsfirst emergedwithbasicrandomvariablesdescribedthrough
‘second-moment’ information(i.e. withtheir meanvalueandstandard deviation, but without
assigninganyprobabilitydistributions), it isnowadayspossibleinmanycasestohaveafull
descriptionof therandomvector X (asaresult of datacollectionandprobabilisticmodelling
studies). Insuchcases, theprobabilityof failurecouldbecalculatedviafirst or secondorder
reliabilitymethods(FORM andSORM respectively). Their implementationrelieson:
(1) Transformation techniques
(1.11)
whereU
1
, U
2
,…, U
n
areindependent standardnormal variables(i.e. withzeromeanvalueand
unit standarddeviation). Hence, thebasicvariablespace(includingthelimit statefunction) is
transformedintoastandardnormal space, seeFigures 1.2(a) and1.2(b). Thespecial
propertiesof thestandardnormal spaceleadtoseveral important results, asdiscussedbelow.
(2) Search techniques
Instandardnormal space, seeFigure1.2(b), theobjectiveistodetermineasuitablechecking
point: thisisshowntobethepoint onthelimit—statesurfacewhichisclosest totheorigin,
theso-called‘designpoint’. Inthisrotationallysymmetricspace, it isthemost likelyfailure
point, inother wordsitsco-ordinatesdefinethecombinationof variablesthat aremost likely
tocausefailure. Thisisbecausethejoint standardnormal densityfunction, whosebell-shaped
peakliesdirectlyabovetheorigin, decreasesexponentiallyasthedistancefromtheorigin
increases. Todeterminethispoint, asearchprocedureisgenerallyrequired.
Denotingtheco-ordinatesof thispoint by
Page9
itsdistancefromtheoriginisclearlyequal to
Thisscalar quantityisknownastheHasofer-Lindreliabilityindexȕ
HL
, i.e.
(1.12)
Notethat u* canalsobewrittenas
(1.13)
whereĮ=(Į
1
, Į
2
,…, Į
n
) istheunit normal vector tothelimit statesurfaceat u*, and, hence,
Į
i
(i=1,…, n) represent thedirectioncosinesat thedesignpoint. Thesearealsoknownasthe
sensitivityfactors, astheyprovideanindicationof therelativeimportanceof theuncertainty
inbasicrandomvariablesonthecomputedreliability. Their absolutevaluerangesbetween
zeroandunityandthecloser thisistotheupper limit, themoresignificant theinfluenceof the
respectiverandomvariableistothereliability. Intermsof sign, andfollowingtheconvention
adoptedbyISO(1998), resistancevariablesareassociatedwithpositivesensitivityfactors,
whereasleadingvariableshavenegativefactors.
(3) Approximation techniques
Oncethecheckingpoint isdetermined, thefailureprobabilitycanbeapproximatedusing
resultsapplicabletothestandardnormal space. Inafirst order (linear) approximation, the
limit statesurfaceisapproximatedbyitstangent hyperplaneat thedesignpoint. The
probabilitycontent of thefailureset isthengivenby
(1.14)
Insomecases, ahigher order (quadratic) approximationof thelimit statesurfaceat thedesign
point isdesiredbut experiencehasshownthat theFORM result issufficient for many
structural engineeringproblems. Equation(1.14) showsthat, whenusingtheso-called
asymptoticapproximatemethods, thecomputationof reliability(or equivalentlyof the
probabilityof failure) istransformedintoageometricproblem, that of findingtheshortest
distancefromtheorigintothelimit statesurfaceinstandardnormal space.
Simulation methods
Inthisapproach, randomsamplingisemployedtosimulatealargenumber of (usually
numerical) experimentsandtoobservetheresult. Inthecontext of structural reliability, this
means, inthesimplest approach, samplingtherandomvector X toobtainaset of sample
values. Thelimit statefunctionisthenevaluatedto
Page10
ascertainwhether, for thisset, failure(i.e. g(x)”0) hasoccurred. Theexperiment isrepeated
manytimesandtheprobabilityof failure, P
f
, isestimatedfromthefractionof trialsleadingto
failuredividedbythetotal number of trials. ThissocalledDirect or CrudeMonteCarlo
methodisnot likelytobeof useinpractical problemsbecauseof thelargenumber of trials
requiredinorder toestimatewithacertaindegreeof confidencethefailureprobability. Note
that thenumber of trialsincreasesasthefailureprobabilitydecreases. Simplerulesmaybe
found, of theformN>C/P
f
, whereN istherequiredsamplesizeandC isaconstant relatedto
theconfidencelevel andthetypeof functionbeingevaluated.
Thus, theobjectiveof moreadvancedsimulationmethods, currentlyusedfor reliability
evaluation, istoreducethevarianceof theestimateof P
f
. Suchmethodscanbedividedinto
twocategories, namelyindicator functionmethods(suchasImportanceSampling) and
conditional expectationmethods(suchasDirectional Simulation). Simulationmethodsare
alsodescribedinanumber of textbooks(e.g. AngandTang, 1984; Augusti et al., 1984;
Melchers, 1999).
1.3 FRAMEWORK FOR RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
Themainstepsinareliabilityanalysisof astructural component arethefollowing:
(1) definelimit statefunctionfor theparticular designsituationconsidered;
(2) specifyappropriatetimereferenceperiod;
(3) identifybasicvariablesanddevelopappropriateprobabilisticmodels;
(4) computereliabilityindexandfailureprobability;
(5) performsensitivitystudies.
Step(1) isessentiallythesameasfor deterministicanalysis. Step(2) shouldbeconsidered
carefully, sinceit affectstheprobabilisticmodellingof manyvariables, particularlyliveand
accidental loading. Step(3) isperhapsthemost important becausetheconsiderationsmadein
developingtheprobabilisticmodelshaveamajor effect ontheresultsobtained. Step(4)
shouldbeundertakenwithoneof themethodssummarizedabove, dependingonthe
application. Step(5) isnecessaryinsofar asthesensitivityof anyresults(deterministicor
probabilistic) shouldbeassessed.
1.3.1 Probabilistic modelling
For theparticular limit stateunder consideration, uncertaintymodellingmust beundertaken
withrespect tothosevariablesinthecorrespondinglimit statefunctionwhosevariabilityis
judgedtobeimportant (basicrandomvariables). Most engineeringstructuresareaffectedby
thefollowingtypesof uncertainty:
Ɣ Intrinsicphysical or mechanical uncertainty; whenconsideredat afundamental level, this
uncertaintysourceisoftenbest describedbystochasticprocessesintimeandspace,
althoughit isoftenmodelledmoresimplyinengineeringapplicationsthroughrandom
variables.
Page11
Ɣ Measurement uncertainty; thismayarisefromrandomandsystematicerrorsinthe
measurement of thesephysical quantities.
Ɣ Statistical uncertainty; duetorelianceonlimitedinformationandfinitesamples.
Ɣ Model uncertainty; relatedtothepredictiveaccuracyof calculationmodelsused.
Thephysical uncertaintyinabasicrandomvariableisrepresentedbyadoptingasuitable
probabilitydistribution, describedintermsof itstypeandrelevant distributionparameters.
Theresultsof thereliabilityanalysiscanbeverysensitivetothetail of theprobability
distribution, whichdependsprimarilyonthetypeof distributionadopted. Anappropriate
choiceof distributiontypeisthereforeimportant.
For most commonlyencounteredbasicrandomvariables, manystudies(of varyingdetail)
havebeenundertakenthat containinformationandguidanceonthechoiceof distributionand
itsparameters. If direct measurementsof aparticular quantityareavailable, thenexisting, so-
calledapriori, information(e.g. probabilisticmodelsfoundinpublishedstudies) shouldbe
usedasprior statisticswitharelativelylargeequivalent samplesize.
Theother threetypesof uncertaintymentionedabove(measurement, statistical, model) also
playanimportant roleintheevaluationof reliability. Asmentionedabove, theseuncertainties
areinfluencedbytheparticular methodusedin, for example, strengthanalysisandbythe
collectionof additional (possibly, directlyobtained) data. Theseuncertaintiescouldbe
rigorouslyanalysedbyadoptingtheapproachoutlinedbyeqns(1.8) and(1.9). However, in
manypractical applicationsasimpler approachhasbeenadoptedinsofar asmodel (and
measurement) uncertaintyisconcernedbasedonthedifferencesbetweenresultspredictedby
themathematical model adoptedfor g(x) andamoreelaboratemodel deemedtobeacloser
representationof reality. Insuchcases, amodel uncertaintybasicrandomvariableX
m
is
introducedwhere
Uncertaintymodellingliesat theheart of anyreliabilityanalysisandprobabilitybaseddesign
andassessment. Anyresultsobtainedthroughtheuseof thesetechniquesaresensitivetothe
assumptionsmadeinprobabilisticmodellingof randomvariablesandprocessesandthe
interpretationof anyavailabledata. All goodtextbooksinthisfieldwill makethisclear tothe
reader. Schneider (1997) maybeconsultedfor aconciseintroductoryexposition, whereas
BenjaminandCornell (1970) andDitlevsen(1981) giveauthoritativetreatmentsof thesubject.
1.3.2 Interpretation of results
AsmentionedinSection1.2.4, under certainconditionsthedesignpoint instandardnormal
space, anditscorrespondingpoint inthebasicvariablespace, is
Page12
themost likelyfailurepoint. Sincetheobjectiveof adeterministiccodeof practiceisto
ascertainattainment of alimit state, it isclear that anycheckshouldbeperformedat acritical
combinationof loadingandresistancevariablesand, inthisrespect, thedesignpoint values
fromareliabilityanalysisareagoodchoice. Hence, inthedeterministicsafetychecking
format, eqn(1.4), thedesignvaluescanbedirectlylinkedtotheresultsof areliabilityanalysis
(i.e. P
f
orȕ andĮ
i
s). Thus, thepartial factor associatedwithabasicrandomvariableX
i
, is
determinedas
(1.15)
wherex
di
isthedesignpoint valueandx
ki
isacharacteristicvalueof X
i
. Ascanbeseen, the
designpoint valuecanbewrittenintermsof theoriginal distributionfunctionF
x
( · ), the
reliabilityanalysisresults(i.e. ȕ andĮ
i
), andthestandardnormal distributionfunction ( · ).
If X
i
isnormallydistributed, eqn(1.15) canbewrittenas(after non-dimensional-izingboth
x
di
andX
ki
withrespect tothemeanvalue)
(1.16)
wherev
Xi
isthecoefficient of variationandk isaconstant relatedtothefractileof the
distributionselectedtorepresent thecharacteristicvalueof therandomvariableX
i
. Asshown,
eqns(1.15) and(1.16) areusedfor determiningpartial factorsof loadingvariables, whereas
their inverseisusedfor determiningpartial factorsof resistancevariables. Similar expressions
areavailablefor variablesdescribedbyother distributions(e.g. log-normal, Gumbel typeI)
andaregivenin, for example, Eurocode1(EuropeanStandard, 2000). Thus, partial factors
couldbederivedor modifiedusingFORM/SORM analysisresults. Theclassictext byBorges
andCastanheta(1985) containsalargenumber of partial factor valuesassumingdifferent
probabilitydistributionsfor loadandresistancevariables(i.e. solutionspertinent tothe
problemdescribedbyeqn(1.6b)). If thereliabilityassessment iscarriedout usingsimulation,
sensitivityfactorsarenot directlyobtained, though, inprinciple, theycouldbethroughsome
additional calculations.
1.3.3 Reliability differentiation
It isevident fromeqns(1.15) and(1.16) that thereliabilityindex ȕ canbelinkeddirectlyto
thevaluesof partial factorsadoptedinadeterministiccode. Theappropriatedegreeof
reliabilityshouldbejudgedwithdueregardtothepossibleconsequencesof failureandthe
expense, level of effort andproceduresnecessarytoreducetheriskof failure(ISO, 1998). In
other words, it isnowgenerallyacceptedthat ‘theappropriatedegreeof reliability’ should
takeintoaccount thecauseandmodeof failure, thepossibleconsequencesof failure, the
social andenvironmental conditions, andthecost associatedwithvariousriskmitigation
procedures(ISO,
Page13
Table 1.2 Recommendedtarget reliabilityindicesaccordingtoEurocode1.
Reliability class Minimum target value for ȕ
1 year reference period 50 years reference period
RC3 •5.2 •4.3
RC2 •4.7 •3.8
RC1 •4.7 •3.3
1998; J CSS, 2000). For example, Eurocode1(EuropeanStandard, 2000) containsan
informativeannexinwhichtarget reliabilityindicesaregivenfor threedifferent reliability
classes, eachlinkedtoacorrespondingconsequenceclass. Table1.2reproducesthe
recommendedtarget reliabilityvaluesfromthis document. ISO2394(ISO, 1998) containsa
similar table, inwhichtarget relibilityislinkedexplicitlytoconsequencesof failureandthe
relativecost of safetymeasures. Other recentlydevelopedcodesof practicehavemade
explicit allowancesfor ‘system’ effects(i.e. failureof aredundant vs. non-redundant
structural element) andinspectionlevels(primarilyasrelatedtofatiguefailure) but these
effectsare, for thetimebeing, primarilyrelatedtothetarget reliabilityof existingstructures.
1.4 TIME-DEPENDENT RELIABILITY
1.4.1 General remarks
Eveninconsideringarelativelysimplesafetymarginfor component reliabilityanalysissuch
asM =R–S, whereR istheresistanceat acritical sectioninastructural member andS isthe
correspondingloadeffect at thesamesection, it isgenerallythecasethat bothS and
resistanceR arefunctionsof time. Changesinbothmeanvaluesandstandarddeviationscould
occur for either R(t) or S(t). For example, themeanvalueof R(t) maychangeasaresult of
deterioration(e.g. corrosionof reinforcement inconcretebridgeimplieslossof area, hencea
reductioninthemeanresistance) anditsstandarddeviationmayalsochange(e.g. uncertainty
inpredictingtheeffect of corrosiononlossof areamayincreaseastheperiodsconsidered
becomelonger). Ontheother hand, themeanvalueof S(t) mayincreaseover time(e.g. in
highwaybridgesduetoincreasingtrafficflowand/ or higher vehicle/axleweights) and,
equally, theestimateof itsstandarddeviationmayincreaseduetolower confidencein
predictingthecorrect mixof trafficfor longer periods. A time-dependent reliabilityproblem
couldthusbeschematicallyrepresentedasinFigure1.3, thediagramimplyingthat, on
average, thereliabilitydecreaseswithtime. Of course, changesinloadandresistancedonot
alwaysoccur inanunfavourablemanner asshowninthediagram. Strengtheningmayresult in
Page14
Figure 1.3 General time-dependent reliabilityproblem(Melchers, 1999).
animprovement of theresistanceor changeinusemight besuchthat theloadingdecreases
after acertainpoint intimebut, moreoftenthannot, theunfavourablesituationdepictedin
thediagramislikelytooccur.
Thus, theelementaryreliabilityproblemdescribedthrougheqns(1.5) and(1.6) maynow
beformulatedas
(1.17)
whereg(X(t))=M (t) isatime-dependent safetymargin, and
(1.18)
istheinstantaneousfailureprobabilityat timet, assumingthat thestructurewassafeat time
lessthant.
Intime-dependent reliabilityproblems, interest oftenliesinestimatingtheprobabilityof
failureover atimeinterval, sayfrom0tot
L
. ThiscouldbeobtainedbyintegratingP
f
(t) over
theinterval [0, t
L
], bearinginmindthecorrelationcharacteristicsintimeof theprocessX(t)—
or, sometimesmoreconveniently, theprocess R(t), theprocessS(t), aswell asanycross
correlationbetweenR(t) andS(t). Notethat theloadeffect processS(t) isoftencomposedof
additivecomponents, S
1
(t), S
2
(t),…, for eachof whichthetimefluctuationsmayhave
different features(e.g. continuousvariation, pulse-typevariation, spikes).
Interest mayalsolieinpredictingwhenS(t) crossesR(t) for thefirst time, seeFigure1.4,
or theprobabilitythat suchanevent wouldoccur withinaspecifiedtimeinterval. These
considerationsgiverisetoso-called‘crossing’ problems, whicharetreatedusingstochastic
processtheory. A keyconcept for such
Page15
Figure 1.4 Schematicrepesentationof corssingproblem.
Figure 1.5 Fundamental barrier crossingproblem.
problemsistherateat whicharandomprocessX(t) upcrosses(or crosseswithapositive
slope) abarrier or level , asshowninFigure1.5. Thisupcrossingrateisafunctionof the
joint probabilitydensityfunctionof theprocessanditsderivative, andisgivenbyRice’s
formula
(1.19)
wheretherateingeneral representsanensembleaverageat timet. For anumberof common
stochasticprocesses, useful resultshavebeenobtainedstartingfromeqn(1.19). Animportant
simplificationcanbeintroducedif individual crossingscanbetreatedasindependent events
andtheoccurrencesmaybeapproximatedbyaPoissondistribution, whichmight bea
reasonableassumptionfor certainrareloadevents. Notethat randomprocessesarecoveredin
muchgreater depthanddetail inChapter 10.
Another classof problemscallingfor atimedependent reliabilityanalysisarethoserelated
todamageaccumulation, suchasfatigueandfracture. ThiscaseisdepictedinFigure1.6
showingathreshold(e.g. critical cracksize) andamonotonicallyincreasingtimedependent
loadeffect or damagefunction(e.g. actual cracksizeat anygiventime).
Page16
Figure 1.6 Schematicrepresentationof damageaccumulationproblem.
It isevident fromtheaboveremarksthat thebest approachfor solvingatime-dependent
reliabilityproblemwoulddependonanumber of considerations, includingthetimeframeof
interest, thenatureof theloadandresistanceprocessesinvolved, their correlationproperties
intime, andtheconfidencerequiredintheprobabilityestimates. All theseissuesmaybe
important indeterminingtheappropriateidealizationsandapproximations.
1.4.2 Transformation to time independent formulations
Althoughtimevariationsarelikelytobepresent inmost structural reliabilityproblems, the
methodsoutlinedinSection1.2havegainedwideacceptance, partlyduetothefact that, in
manycases, it ispossibletotransformatime-dependent failuremodeintoacorresponding
timeindependent mode. Thisisespeciallysointhecaseof overloadfailure, whereindividual
time-varyingactions, whichareessentiallyrandomprocesses, p(t), canbemodelledbythe
distributionof themaximumvaluewithinagivenreferenceperiodT (i.e. X=max
T
{p(t)})
rather thanthepoint intimedistribution. For continuousprocesses, theprobability
distributionof themaximumvalue(i.e. thelargest extreme) isoftenapproximatedbyoneof
theasymptoticextremevaluedistributions. Hence, for structuressubjectedtoasingletime-
varyingaction, arandomprocessmodel isreplacedbyarandomvariablemodel andthe
principlesandmethodsgivenpreviouslymaybeapplied.
Thetheoryof stochasticloadcombinationisusedinsituationswhereastructureis
subjectedtotwoor moretime-varyingactionsactingsimultaneously. Whentheseactionsare
independent, perhapsthemost important observationisthat it ishighlyunlikelythat each
actionwill reachitspeak lifetimevalueat thesamemoment intime. Thus, consideringtwo
timevaryingloadprocessesP
1
(t),p
2
(t),0”t” T, actingsimultaneously, for whichtheir
combinedeffect maybeexpressedasalinear combinationp
1
(t)+p
2
(t), therandomvariableof
Page17
interest is
(1.20)
If theloadsareindependent, replacingX bymax
T
{p
1
(t)}+max
T
{p
2
(t)}leadstovery
conservativeresults. However, thedistributionof X canbederivedinfewcasesonly. One
possiblewayof dealingwiththisproblem, whichalsoleadstoarelativelysimple
deterministiccodeformat, istoreplaceX withthefollowing
(1.21)
Thisrule(Turkstra’srule) suggeststhat themaximumvalueof thesumof twoindependent
loadprocessesoccurswhenoneof theprocessesattainsitsmaximumvalue. Thisresult may
begeneralizedfor several independent timevaryingloads. Theconditionswhichrender this
ruleadequatefor failureprobabilityestimationarediscussedinstandardtexts. Froma
theoretical point, theruleleadstoanunderestimationof theprobabilityof failure, sinceit is
assumedthat failuremust beassociatedwiththemaximumof at least oneloadprocess,
whereasinrealityfailurecanalsooccur inother instances.
Thefailureprobabilityassociatedwiththesumof aspecial typeof independent identically
distributedprocesses(so-calledFerryBorges-Castanheta(FBC) process) canbecalculatedin
amoreaccurateway, aswill beoutlinedbelow. Other resultshavebeenobtainedfor
combinationsof anumber of other processes, startingfromRice’sbarrier crossingformula.
TheFBC processisgeneratedbyasequenceof independent identically distributedrandom
variables, eachactingover agiven(deterministic) timeinterval. ThisisshowninFigure1.7
wherethetotal referenceperiodT ismadeupof n
i
repetitionswheren
i
=T/T
i
. Hence, theFBC
processisarectangular pulseprocesswithchangesinamplitudeoccurringat equal intervals.
Becauseof independence, themaximumvalueinthereferenceperiodT isgivenby
(1.22)
Whenanumber of FBC processesact incombinationandtheratiosof their repetition
numberswithinagivenreferenceperiodaregivenbypositiveintegersit is, inprinciple,
possibletoobtaintheextremevaluedistributionof thecombinationthrougharecursive
formula. Moreimportantly, it ispossibletodeal withthesumof FBC processesby
implementingtheRackwitz-Fiessler algorithminaFORM/ SORM analysis.
A deterministiccodeformat, compatiblewiththeaboverules, leadstotheintroductionof
combinationfactorsfor eachtimevaryingload. Inprinciple, thesefactorsexpressratios
betweenfractilesintheextremevalueandpoint intimedistributionssothat theprobabilityof
exceedingthedesignvaluearisingfromacombinationof loadsisof thesameorder asthe
probabilityof exceedingthedesignvaluecausedbyoneload. For timevaryingloads, they
dependondistributionparameters, target reliability, FORM/SORM sensitivityfactorsandon
the
Page18
Figure 1.7 Realizationof anFBC process.
frequencycharacteristics(i.e. thebaseperiodassumedfor stationaryevents) of loads
consideredwithinanyparticular combination. Thisisfurther discussedinSection1.5.
1.4.3 Introduction to crossing theory
Inconsideringatimedependent safety margin(i.e. M(t)=g(X(t)), theproblemistoestablish
theprobabilitythat M(t) becomeszeroor lessinareferencetimeperiod, t
L
. Asmentioned
previously, thisconstitutesaso-called‘crossing’ problem. Thetimeat whichM(t) becomes
lessthanzerofor thefirst timeiscalledthe‘timetofailure’ andisarandomvariable, see
Figure1.8. TheprobabilitythatM(t)”0occursduringt
L
iscalledthe‘first-passage’
probability. Clearly, it isidentical totheprobabilityof failureduringtimet
L
.
Thedeterminationof thefirst passageprobabilityrequiresanunderstandingof thetheoryof
randomprocesses. Herein, onlysomebasicconceptsarebrieflyintroducedinorder tosee
howthemethodsdescribedabovehavetobemodifiedindealingwithcrossingproblems.
Melchers(1999) providesadetailedtreatment of time-dependent reliabilityaspects.
Thefirst-passageprobabilityP
f
(t) duringaperiod[0, t
L
] is
(1.23)
where signifiesthat theprocessX(t) startsinthesafedomainandN(t
L
) isthe
number of outcrossingsintheinterval [0, t
L
. Thesecondprobabilitytermisequivalent to1—
P
f
(0), whereP
f
(0) istheprobabilityof failureat t=0. Equation(1.23) canberewrittenas
(1.24)
fromwhichdifferent approximationsmaybederiveddependingontherelativemagnitudeof
theterms. A useful boundis
(1.25)
Page19
Figure1.8Time-dependent safetymarginandschematicrepresentationof vector out-crossing
(Melchers, 1999): (a) inasafetymargindomain, (b) inbasicvariablespace.
wherethefirst termmaybecalculatedbyFORM/SORM andtheexpectednumber of
outcrossings, E[N(t
L
)], iscalculatedbyRice’sformulaor oneof itsgeneraliza-tions.
Alternatively, parallel systemconceptscanbeemployed.
1.5 ACTIONS AND ACTION EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES
1.5.1 Classification of actions
AccordingtothedefinitiongiveninISO2394(ISO, 1998),
‘anactionis
Ɣ anassemblyof concentratedor distributedmechanical forcesonthestructure(direct
actions), or
Ɣ thecauseof deformationsimposedonthestructureor constrainedinit (indirect actions).’
Clearly, theabovedefinitionisderivedbearinginmindtheoriginof actions. For example,
direct actionsmaybecausedbygravity, or canbeforcescausedbyaccel-eration/deceleration
of masses, or byimpact. Indirect actions, ontheother hand, arethecauseof imposed
deformationssuchastemperature, groundsettlement, etc.
Actionscanalsobeclassifiedaccordingtotheir variationintimeor space, their limiting
characteristicsandtheir nature, whichalsoinfluencestheinducedstructural response. Table
1.3summarizestheclassificationsystemswhichareimportant indevisinganappropriate
treatment of actionsfor designpurposes.
Theeffect of anyparticular actiononstructural membersor onstructural systemsiscalled
actioneffect. Examplesof actioneffectsonmembersincludestressresultants(force, moment
onanyparticular beamor column) or stresses, whereas
Page20
Table 1.3 Classificationof actions.
Origin Variation in time Variation in space Limiting value Nature/Structural response
Direct Permanent Fixed Bounded Static
Indirect Variable Free Unbounded Dynamic
Accidental Quasi-static
baseshear andtopstoreylateral deflectionmayrepresent actioneffectsonwholestructures.
Anactionshouldbedescribedbyamodel, comprisingoneor morebasicvariables. For
example, themagnitudeanddirectionof anactioncanbothbedefinedasbasicvariables.
Sometimesanactionmaybeintroducedasafunctionof basicvariables, inwhichcasethe
functioniscalledanactionmodel.
Fromaprobabilisticpoint of view, theclassificationof actionsaccordingtotheir variation
intimeplaysanimportant role, andisexaminedindetail inthefollowingsectiondealingwith
thespecificationof characteristicandother representativevalues. Table1.4presents, in
qualitativeterms, thecriteriafor classifyingactionsaccordingtotimecharacteristics
(Eurocode1.1Project Team, 1996). Thevariabilityisusuallyrepresentedbythecoefficient of
variation(CoV), i.e. theratioof thestandarddeviationtothemeanvalue, of thepoint-in-time
distributionof theaction. Figure1.9showsschematicallythethreedifferent typesof action.
Thedistinctionbetweenstaticanddynamicactionsismadeaccordingtothewayinwhicha
structurerespondstotheaction, theformer beingactionsnot causingsignificant acceleration
of thestructureor structural elements, whereastheoppositeisvalidfor thelatter. Inmany
casesof codifieddesign, thedynamicactionscanbetreatedasstaticactionsbytakinginto
account thedynamiceffectsbyanappropriateincreaseinthemagnitudeof thequasi-static
component or bythechoiceof anequivalent staticforce. Whenthisisnot thecase,
correspondingdynamicmodelsareusedtoassesstheresponseof thestructure; inertiaforces
arethennot includedintheactionmodel but aredeterminedbyanalysis(ISO, 1998).
Table 1.4 Actionclassificationaccordingtotimecharacteristics.
Action Permanent Variable Accidental
Probabilityof occurrenceduring1year Certain Substantial Small
Variabilityintime Small Large Usuallylarge
Page21
Figure 1.9 Schematicrepresentationof time-varyingactions(a) permanent, (b) variable, (c) accidental.
1.5.2 Specification of characteristic values
Permanent actions
Themost commonactioninthiscategoryistheself-weight of thestructure. Withmodern
constructionmethods, thecoefficient of variationof self-weight isnormallysmall (typically
doesnot exceed0.05). Other permanent actionsincludetheweight of non-structural elements,
whichoftenconsistsof thesumof manyindividual elements; hence, it iswell representedby
thenormal distribution(onaccount of thecentral limit theorem). For thistypeof permanent
action, thecoefficient of variationcanbelarger than0.05. Animportant typeof actioninthis
groupwithhighvariabilityisfoundationsettlement.
Page22
AccordingtoISO2394(ISO, 1998) andEurocode1(EuropeanStandard, 2000), the
characteristicvalue(s) of apermanent actionG maybeobtainedas:
Ɣ onesinglevalueGk typicallythemeanvalue, if thevariabilityof Gissmall (CoV”0.05);
Ɣ twovaluesG
k
,
inf
andG
k,sup
typicallyrepresentingthe5per cent and95per cent fractiles, if
theCoV cannot beconsideredsmall.
Inbothcasesit maybeassumedthat thedistributionof G isGaussian.
Variable actions
For singlevariableloads, theformof thepoint intimedistributionisseldomof immediateuse
indesign; oftentheimportant variableisthemagnitudeof thelargest extremeloadthat occurs
duringaspecifiedreferenceperiodfor whichtheprobabilityof failureiscalculated(e.g.
annual, lifetime). Insomecases, theprobabilitydistributionof thelowest extrememight also
beof interest (water level inrivers/lakes).
Consider arandomvariableX withdistributionfunctionFx(x). If samplesof sizen are
takenfromthepopulationof X : (x
1
, x
2
,…, x
n
), eachobservationmayitself beconsideredasa
randomvariable(sinceit isunpredictableprior toobservation). Hence, theextremevaluesof
asampleof sizen arerandomvariables, whichmaybewrittenas
Theprobabilitydistributionsof Y
n
andY
1
maybederivedfromtheprobabilityof theinitial
variateX. Assumingrandomsampling, thevariablesX
1
,X
2
,…,X
n
arestatisticallyindependent
andidenticallydistributedas X, hence
Thedistributionof F
Yn
(y) isthusgivenby
(1.26)
whichcanbewrittenas
(1.27)
Similar principlesmaybeusedtoderivethedistributionof thelowest extreme.
For atimevaryingloadQ thedistributionontheleft-handsideof equation(1.27) canbe
interpretedasthemaximumloadinaspecifiedreferenceperiodt
r
whereasthedistributionon
theright-handsiderepresentsthemaximumloadoccurringduringamuchshorter period,
sometimescalledtheunit observationtimeIJ. Inthiscase, theexponent isequal totheratio
betweenthetwo(i.e. n=t
r
/IJ andn>1). Equation(1.27) maythusbewrittenas
Page23
Figure 1.10 Schematicrepresentationof variableaction: (a) realizationintime, (b) probability
distributions.
(1.28)
wherethesymbol insquarebracketsindicatesthetimeperiodtowhichtheprobability
distributionisrelated. Asmentionedearlier inthissection, theprobabilityof intersectionof
eventscanbeexpressedasaproduct onlyif theeventsareindependent; for timevarying
loadsthismeansthat theunit observationtimemust bechosensothat themaximumvalueof
theloadrecordedwithinanysuchperiodisindependent of theothers. Notethesimilarityof
eqn(1.28) witheqn(1.22), whichisderivedunder similar assumptions.
Figure1.10illustratestheaboveconceptsandshowsschematicallytheprobability
distributionsassociatedwiththemaximumloadindifferent timeperiods; customarilythe
lower of thetwoiscalledthe‘instantaneous’ or ‘point intime’ distribution, whereastheupper
oneisan‘extreme’ distribution. It isclear fromeqn(1.28) that theparametersandmoments
(e.g. meanvalue) of theextremedistributionareafunctionof thespecifiedreferenceperiod.
Thelonger thisis, thegreater becomesthegapbetweenthetwodistributionsshowninFigure
1.10.
Inprinciple, for actionsof natural origin(e.g. wind, snow, temperature) the‘instantaneous’
distributionisdeterminedthroughobservations(i.e. thecreationof ahomogeneoussampleof
sufficient size) andclassical methodsof distributionfitting. However, judgement alsoplays
animportant roleinrefiningandimprovingthestatistical model. Thisisbecausethedirect
number of observationsmaybefairlysmall. Considering, for example, thesnowloadtheunit
observationperiodmaybechosenequal to1year, whichmeansthat it isunlikelythat the
number of datapointsfor anyparticular sitewill bemorethan40or 50, Thedistributionof
annual maximacouldneverthelessbecomparedwiththat obtainedfor different but similar
sites, andthefinal estimatesof thedistributionmayinfact bemadeonthebasisof alarger
sampleinwhichthedatapointsfromsimilar sitesarecombined. Notethat when, througheqn
(1.28), thedistributionof theannual maximumloadistransformedtothedistributionof, say,
themaximumloadin50
Page24
years, further uncertaintiesareintroduced, andshouldbetakenintoaccount asfar aspossible
throughappropriatejudgement. Inthecaseof time-varyingloads, theseuncertaintiesmay
havebothsystematicandrandomcomponents. Theformer canbeparticularlyimportant for
someman-madeloads, suchastrafficloadsonbridges, whereasthelatter mayincludepoorly
understoodenvironmental influencesaswell aspurelyrandomeffects.
Thecharacteristicvalueof atimevaryingloadQk isnormallychosensothat eventsduring
whichtheobservationsexceedthecharacteristicvaluearefairlyrare. Typically, characteristic
valuesinEurocode1areprescribedfor anexceedanceprobabilityp=0.02andareference
periodt
r
=1year (EuropeanStandard, 2000; Eurocode1.1Project Team, 1996). Thus, the
characteristicvalueQ
k
maybeestimatedfrom
Intheabovethedistributionfor theannual maximumisusedandthereferenceperiodisalso
1year. If, for example, thedistributionfor themonthlymaximumwasavailableinstead, then
for thesamecriteria(i.e. 2per cent exceedanceprobabilityduringoneyear) andproviding
monthlymaximaweremutuallyindependent, thecharacteristicvaluecouldbeestimatedfrom
Notethat usingadistributionbasedonobservationsfromashorter timeunit resultsinamuch
higher fractilerequiredfor estimatingacharacteristicvaluebasedonthesamecriteriaas
before. Clearly, manymoreobservationswouldbeneededfor themonthlydistributiontobe
sufficientlywell describedat a99.8per cent fractile, thantheannual distributionat a98per
cent fractile. Ontheother hand, muchlonger (unit andtotal) observationperiodsare
associatedwiththeestimationof thedistributionof annual maxima. Themessageisthat
predictionscannot beimprovedsimplybychangingthebasisof thedistributionused. The
most appropriateobservationperiodshouldbedeterminedonthebasisof thecharacteristics
of theactionbeingmodelledandthecapabilitiesof thedevices/methodsusedfor
measurement.
A useful concept inthetreatment of timevaryingloadsisthereturnperiodT definedasthe
averagetimebetweenconsecutiveoccurrencesof anevent. Againassumingindependence
betweenevents, anddenotingwithp theprobabilityof occurrenceof theparticular event
considered, thereturnperiodmaybedeterminedfrom
(1.29)
that is, thereturnperiodisequal tothereciprocal of theprobabilityof occurrenceof theevent
inanyonetimeinterval. Inmanycases, thechosentimeinterval is1year andp isdetermined
astheprobabilityof occurrenceduringayear, sothat thereturnperiodistheaveragenumber
of yearsbetweenevents.
Page25
Thus, for theaboveexample, thereturnperiodof thecharacteristicvalueof theloadQk
whichrepresentstheaveragetimebetweeneventsQ>Q
k
isgivenby
or
Returnperiodsof 50to100yearsarereasonablefor characteristicvaluesof variableactions
usedinthedesignof ordinarypermanent buildings. For accidental actions, alonger return
periodmight beappropriate, especiallyif ultimateor collapselimit statesareconsidered.
Bearinginmindthenotationintroducedabovefor thereference(t
r
) andunit observation(IJ)
periods, thereturnperiodmaybewrittenas
(1.30)
wherep isdefinedfor areferenceperiodt
r
andn>1. Thelast expressionisasymptotically
correct as(1íp) tendstounity, whichiscompatiblewiththenotionof specifying
characteristicvaluesonthebasisof fairlyrareevents; notethat thereturnperiodbecomes
independent of theunit observationperiodIJ.
Theprobabilitydistributionof extremevaluesisoftencloselyapproximatedbyoneof the
asymptoticextremevaluedistributions(TypesI, II andIII). Thecharacteristicsof extreme
distributionsdependontheinitial, or parent, distributionandonthenumber of repetitions, n.
Ingeneral, distributionsshift totheright withincreasingn. Whichof thethreetypesis
relevant dependsontheshapeof theupper tail of theparent distribution. Of particular
importanceinthecontext of timevaryingloadsistheGumbel or TypeI extremedistribution
for maxima, whichisobtainedif theinitial distributionhasanexponentiallydecreasingupper
tail. It hasthefollowingprobabilitydistributionfunction
(1.31)
whereu
n
anda
n
arethedistributionparameters. Themeanandvarianceof Q
n
arerelatedto
thedistributionparametersthroughthefollowingexpressions
Aninterestingpropertyof thisdistributionisthat thevarianceisindependent of thenumber of
repetitions(i.e. it remainsconstant). Ontheother hand, themeanvalueincreaseswiththe
number of repetitions. AngandTang(1984) present anexpositionof extremevaluetheoryas
appliedtoavarietyof civil engineeringproblems.
Accidental actions
Inprinciple, thecharacteristicvaluesof accidental actionscouldbedeterminedbyextending
theprocedurespresentedabovefor variableactions. Accidental actions
Page26
arecharacterizedbya(usually) randommagnitudeandanoccurrencerate. For many
accidental actions, statistical informationisscarce. Hence, inpractice, nominal valuesare
oftenusedandsometimesvaluesareagreedfor individual projects.
Insofar asseismicactionsareconcerned, thedesignvaluesaredeterminedonthebasisof a
returnperiodof approximately475yearsfor useinultimatelimit statesandareturnperiodof
about 50yearsfor serviceabilitylimit states(seealsoChapter 4).
1.5.3 Other representative values
For variableandaccidental actions(i.e. for thoseactionswhosetimevariationissignificant),
thereisaneedto specifyafewmorerepresentativevalues, inadditiontothecharacteristic
value, for useincodifiedlimit statedesign. Thesearebrieflyreviewedinthefollowingand
areschematicallyshowninFigure1.11.
Combination value (
0
Q
k
)
Thisvalueischosensothat theprobabilitythat theactioneffectscausedbyanyparticular
loadcombinationwill beexceededisapproximatelythesameasbythecharacteristicvalueof
anindividual action. Inother words, thecombinationvalueisintroducedtotakeaccount of
thereducedprobabilityof thesimultaneousoccurrenceof themost unfavourablevaluesof
twoor moreindependent variableactions. Thecombinationvaluemaybeexpressedasa
fractionof thecharacteristicvaluethroughacombinationfactor
0
(<1). Thecombination
valueisusedinloadcombinationspertainingtotheultimatelimit stateor toirreversible
serviceabilitylimit states.
Usingstructural reliabilitytheory, valuesfor thecombinationfactor
0
havebeenderived
for loadcombinationscomprisingtwoindependent variableactionsstartingfromeither FBC
loadprocessesor usingTurkstra’srule. Expressionsfor
0
for different probability
distributionscanbefoundincodedocuments(ISO,
Figure 1.11 Definitionof representativevaluesof avariableaction.
Page27
1998; EuropeanStandard, 2000). Inoperational codes, thevaluesadoptedareusuallybased
onhistorical valueslinkedtosuccessful experience, andareoftensimplifiedinorder tolimit
thedifferent valuesthat adesigner needstoconsider for all thedifferent loadcases.
Frequent value (
1
Q
k
)
Thefrequent valueisusedfor thedominatingvariableactionincombinationsat theultimate
limit stateinvolvingaccidental actions. It isalsousedinreversibleserviceabilitylimit states.
Asinthepreviouscase, it canbeexpressedasafractionof theprincipal characteristicvalue
throughafactor,
1
(< 1). Typically, thefrequent valuemaybeestimatedfromthepoint-in-
time(or instantaneous) distributionof theaction, i.e.
whereq=0.01issuggestedfor buildings(EuropeanStandard, 2000). Thecriterionmayalso
beexpressedasareturnperiod; for example, for roadbridgesthefrequent valueof thetraffic
loadisdeterminedashavingareturnperiodof 1week.
Quasi-permanent value (
2
Q
k
)
Thequasi-permanent valueisusedfor thenon-dominatingvariableactionincombinationsat
theultimatelimit stateinvolvingaccidental actions. It isalsousedinreversibleserviceability
limit statesandinthecalculationof longtermeffectsinserviceabilitylimit states.
Thequasi-permanent valuemayberegardedasaspecial caseof thefrequent valuewith
q=0.5. Thus,
It canalsobedefinedasthemeanvalueof theinstantaneousprobabilitydistribution. In
certaincases(e.g. windor roadtraffic) thevalueof
2
issolowthat it isset equal tozero
(EuropeanStandard, 2000).
Table1.5summarizessomeof the factorsasgivenintheEurocode(EuropeanStandard,
2000). Morecasesarecoveredtherein, andeachcodehasitsownsystemof factors, broadly
basedontheprinciplesoutlinedabove. However, asalready
Table 1 .5 Typical factorsfor buildingsaccordingtoEurocode1.
Action
0 1 2
Imposedload(domestic, residential, office) 0.7 0.5 0.3
Snowload(ScandinaviaandRest of Europefor altitude>1,000m) 0.7 0.5 0.2
Snowload(rest of Europefor altitude<1,000m) 0.5 0.2 0.0
Windload 0.6 0.2 0.0
Page28
mentioned, anumber of pragmaticreasonswill alsoinfluencethefinal selectionof valuesand
all thesearenormallyconsideredbythecodedraftingcommittees.
1.5.4 Duration of actions
Theknowledge, andspecification, of amaximumactioneffect individuallyor incombination
isessential for safetychecking. Insomecases, especiallywherethesustainedliveloadishigh,
thedurationcharacteristics, andinparticular anyintermittencies, mayalsobeof interest. In
suchacase, thecomponentsof thestochasticmodel wouldincreaseandmay, for example,
includeaninterarrival durationdensityinadditiontoavariabledescribingthenumber of
magnitudechanges(e.g. ajumpratewhichquantifiesthenumber of amplitudechangesina
specifiedperiod).
InEurocode1(EuropeanStandard, 2000; Eurocode1.1Project Team, 1996), thefrequent
andquasi-permanent valuesof avariableactionmayalsobedefinedintermsof duration. For
example, thefrequent valuemaybespecifiedasthat whichisexceededfor 5per cent of the
referenceperiodconsidered; thecorrespondingpercentagefor thequasi-permanent valuemay
be50per cent.
1.6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
Structural reliabilitytheoryprovidesarational basisfor thedescriptionandquantificationof
loadsandresistancesinstructural engineering. It enablesconsistent comparisonstobemade
betweenalternativehazardstowhichstructuresareexposedduringtheir servicelife, andisan
indispensabletool for rational decisionmakinginthepresenceof uncertainty. Whether this
uncertaintystemsfromobjective(e.g. futurerealizationsof natural events) or subjective(e.g.
limitedknowledgeof actual material propertiesinanexistingstructure) sources, theuseof
structural reliabilitytheoryandthealliedbatteryof probabilisticmethodshasledtovery
significant contributionstowardsanimproveddesignphilosophyfor structures, bothlargeand
small, ordinaryor extraordinary.
Intheensuingchaptersof thisbook, theloadeffectsarisingfromdifferent natural or man-
madeactionswill bedescribedinsomedetail, withregardtotheir natureandtheir treatment
incodes. Clearly, thebest modelsfor anyparticualr actionanditseffect will havetotakeinto
account theprincipal characteristicsof thegeneratingphenomenon, aswell asthedetailed
featureswhichcomeintoplayastheactioninteractswithdifferent structural typesandforms.
Nonetheless, therearegenericfeaturesassociatedwithactionsandtheir effects, aswell as
their consequences. Thischapter hasattemptedtopresent, withinareasonablelength, these
genericfeatures, howtheymight bemodelledusingprobabilisticconcepts, what istheir
significanceintermsof thewayinwhichthereliabilityof thestructuremaybeestimated, and
finallyhowtheseissuesaredealt withinmoderncodesof practice. Thepresentationherein
hasbeenbrief and, hopefully,
Page29
concise. Thebibliographyprovidedisintendedtohelpthereader exploretheissuesat amuch
greater depth, shouldthisberequired.
1.7 REFERENCES
Ang, A.H.S. andTang, W.H. (1975/1984) Probability Concepts in Engineering Ptanning and Design,
Vols. I andII, J ohnWiley, NewYork.
Augusti, G., Baratta, A. andCasciati, F. (1984) Probabilistic Methods in Structural Engineering,
ChapmanandHall, London.
Benjamin, J .R. andCornell, C.A. (1970) Probability, Statistics and Decision for Civil Engineers,
McGrawHill, NewYork.
Borges, J .F. andCastanheta, M. (1985) Structural Safety, LaboratorioNacional deEngenhariaCivil,
Lisbon.
Ditlevsen, O. (1981) Uncertainty Modelling, McGrawHill, NewYork.
Ditlevsen, O. andMadsen, H.O. (1996) Structural Reliability Methods, J ohnWiley, Chichester.
Eurocode1.1Project Team(1996) Background Documentation for Part 1 of EC1: Basis of Design,
SecondDraft, J anuary1996.
EuropeanStandard, Draft prEN1990(2000) Eurocode: Basis of Design, Final Draft, European
Committeeof StandardizationCEN/TC250, Brussels, February.
International Organizationfor Standardization(ISO) (1998) General Principles on Reliability for
Structures, ISO/FDIS2394(Final Draft).
J oint CommitteeonStructural Safety(J CSS) (2001) Assessment of Existing Structures, RILEM,
Publications, Cachan, France.
Madsen, H.O., Krenk, S. andLind, N.C. (1986) Methods of Structural Safety, Prentice-Hall.
Melchers, R.E. (1999) Structural Reliability: Analysis and Prediction, 2ndedn, J ohnWiley,
Chichester.
Schneider, J . (1997) Introduction to Safety and Reliability of Structures, International Associationfor
BridgeandStructural Engineering(IABSE), Structural EngineeringDocuments5.
Thoft-Christensen, P. andBaker, M.J . (1982) Structural’Reliability Theory and its Applications,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Page30
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Page31
Chapter 2
Analysis for dynamic loading
George D.Monolis
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Thepurposeof thischapter isanalysisof structuresthat aresubjectedtotimevaryingloads.
Despitethefact that themajorityof civil engineeringstructuresarebuilt ontheassumption
that all appliedloadsarestatic, thereareexceptionswhichrequireadistinctionbetweenstatic
anddynamicloadstobemade, asinearthquakeengineering. All loadsinnaturearetime
dependent. Inmanycases, however, loadswill beappliedtoastructureinslowlyvarying
ways, whichimpliesthat staticconditionscanbeassumed. Thetermslowhereisquantified
throughcomparisonwithanintrinsictimeof thestructure, whichisnoneother thanitsnatural
period. Thus, aloadvariesslowlyor isfast onlyinrelationtothetimerequiredfor the
structuretocompleteafull cycleof oscillation.
Thereisgrowinginterest nowadaysintheprocessof designingcivil engineeringstructures
towithstanddynamicloads(Biggs, 1965; Craig, 1981; Bathe, 1982). Asexamples, we
mention(i) structureswhichhousemovingor vibratingequipment, (ii) bridgesunder traffic,
(iii) multistorystructuressubject towindand(iv) thecaseof earthquakeinducedloads
(CloughandPenzien, 1993; Newmark andRosenblueth, 1971). Essentially, dynamicanalyses
focusonevaluationof timedependent displacements, fromwhichthestressstateof the
structureinquestioncanbecomputed(Paz, 1997; ArgyrisandMlejnek, 1991; Chopra, 1995).
Themost basicpiecesof informationneededfor thisarethenatural period, whichisa
functionof thestructure’smassandstiffness, andtheamount of availabledamping(or,
equivalently, theamount of energythat canbeabsorbedbythestructure).
2.2 THE SINGLE DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM OSCILLATOR
Thesimplest dynamicmodel istheSingleDegree-of-Freedom(SDOF) oscillator shownin
Figure2.1(a). It isanexact model for thesimpleorthogonal framewithslender columnsand
astronginflexiblegirder, whereall themasscanbelumped. Threebasictypesof vibrations
canbeconsidered, namelyhorizontal, vertical and
Page32
Figure 2.1 (a) SDOF modellingof asinglestoryframefor (b) horizontal, (c) vertical and(d) rotational
oscillations.
Figure 2.2 Varioustypesof dynamicloads: harmonic, aperiodic, earthquakeandlongduration.
rotational, asshowninFigure2.1(b)-(d). Asexpected, theSDOF oscillator isusedextensively
for modellingstructural systems, but it shouldberememberedthat it isanapproximatemodel
for anythingelsebut thesimpleframepreviouslymentioned. Next, sometypical dynamic
loadsareshowninFigure2.2, wherewedistinguishbetweenperiodic(bothharmonicand
non-harmonic) andaperiodic(bothshort andlongduration) loads.
Page33
Figure 2.3 SDOF oscillator.
WithreferencetoFigure2.3, theequationof motionof theSDOF oscillator is
(2.1)
implyingthat theinertia, dampingandrestoringforcesbalancetheappliedforce. Specifically,
M isthemass(kg), k isthestiffness(N/m), andc isthedampingcoefficient (N-sec/m).
Furthermore, y(t) isthedisplacement (m), ÿ(t) thevelocity(m/ sec), ÿ(t) theacceleration
(m/sec
2
), F(t)=F
1
f(t) theexternallyappliedforce(N) withf(t) itsdimensionlesstimevariation.
Finally, dotsdenotetimederivativesd/dt. Obviously, eqn(2.1) isasecondorder differential
equationthat needstobesolvedfor thedisplacement y(t).
2.2.1 Motion without damping
2.2.1.1 Free vibrations
Theequationof dynamicequilibriumof anSDOF systemintheabsenceof bothdampingand
external forceisgivenbelowas
(2.2)
Thus, theoscillator undergoesfreevibrationsunder theinfluenceof aninitial displacement
y(0)=y
0
and/or initial velocityÿ(0)=ÿ
0
. Thesolutionissimply
(2.3)
andimpliesaperiodic, harmonicmotionasshowninFigure2.4. At thispoint, werespectively
definethecircular frequency, thenatural periodandthefrequencyas
Page34
Figure 2.4 Freevibrationdueto(a) initial displacement and(b) initial velocity.
follows:
(2.4)
(2.5)
(2.6)
2.2.1.2 Forced vibrations
Wefirst lookat thecasewhereanexternal forceF(t) isaccompaniedbyzeroinitial conditions.
Specifically, wehaveaconstant loadF(t)=F
1
appliedat timet=0andsubsequentlymaintained.
Equation(2.1) canbewrittenas
(2.7)
anditssolutionis
(2.8)
WedefineasDynamicLoadFactor (DLF) theratioof thedynamicdisplacement at
Page35
Figure 2.5 DLF for constant loadF(t)=F
1
.
anytimeinstant tothedisplacement producedbystaticapplicationof theloadF(t)=F
1
as
(2.9)
A simplesubstitutionof eqn(2.8) ineqn(2.9) gives
(2.10)
TheDLF isdimensionlessandmeasurestheamount bywhichthedynamicdisplacement in
theSDOF systemexceedsitsequivalent staticone. Figure2.5plotstheDLF for thesuddenly
appliedandmaintainedloadcase, wheredoublingof theresponseisobservedat certaintime
instances.
2.2.1.3 Forced vibrations for various forcing functions
(a) General solution by superposition of impulses
Thegeneral closedformsolutioncanbeobtainedbysynthesisof theSDOF systemresponse
toaseriesof impulses. Assumethat thesystemisat rest andthenacteduponbyaconstant
forceF withinstantaneoustimedurationt
d
. Themassof theoscillator will experiencean
instantaneousacceleration
(2.11)
whichinturnproducesaninstantaneousvelocity
(2.12)
whereI istheimpulsedefinedasforcetimesduration.
All dynamicloadscanbeconsideredasasequenceof impulsesof varyingmagnitude. Thus,
forceF(IJ) at timeIJ andfor theensuingtimeinstanttd impartsaninitial velocitytotheSDOF
oscillator of thefollowingtype:
(2.13)
Page36
Thus, fromeqn(2.3) thesystemexperiencesaninstantaneousdisplacement y(t) equal to
(2.14)
Finally, thecompletedisplacement historyisevaluatedbyintegratingfromtimet=0tothe
present timet as
(2.15)
If thestaticdisplacement duetotheloadmagnitudeF
1
is
(2.16)
then
(2.17)
If wefinallyaddtheeffect of initial conditionsat t=0, thenwehaveagenerel, closedform
expressionfor thedynamicdisplacement of theSDOF systemintheformof Duhamel’s
integral as
(2.18)
(b) Suddenly applied load of duration t
d
Herewehaveacombinationof constant loadf(t)=1until timet=t
d
andfreevibrationspast
t>t
d
withinitial conditionsy(t =t
d
)\hboxandy(t=t
d
). TheresultingDLF factorsare:
(2.19)
(2.20)
wherey
st=
F
1
/k. Figure2.6plotstheaboveresultsfor twocases, whereweobserveanintense
responsewhenthedurationof theloadontheoscillator islarge(td=1.2T). If theloadisonthe
oscillator for ashort time(td=0.1T), thedynamicresponseislessthanthestaticone.
(c) Constant load with rise time t
r
Thetimevariationof thisloadisgivenbyf(IJ)=IJ/t
r
,IJ” tr and f(IJ)=1,IJ• t
r
. TheDLF isevaluated
as
Page37
Figure 2.6 DLF for loadwithdurationtimetd.
Figure 2.7 DLF for loadwithrisetimet
r
.
(2.21)
andFigure2.7plotstwocases, onewitharapid(t
r
=0.2T) andtheother withaslow(t
r
=3.33T)
application. Wenotethat thelatter caseproducesaquasi-staticresponseintheSDOF
oscillator. Finally, inFigure2.8wehavethemaximumvalueof theDLF
max
asfunctionof the
timeratio t
r
/T.
Page38
Figure 2.8 Maximumvalueof theDLF asafunctionof risetimet
r
.
2.2.1.4 Harmonic vibrations
HarmonicloadsassumetheformF(t)=F
1
sin t, althoughthecosinefunctionor the
exponential functionwithanimaginaryargument canbeusedaswell. Withharmonicloads,
thereisalwaysdanger of resonance(i.e. thestructuremayexperiencehighor evenunbounded
vibrationswhenitsnatural frequencycoincideswiththat of theload). Theequationof motion
is
(2.22)
anditssolutionintermsof theDLF (withy
st
=F
1
/k) andfor y
0
=y
0
=0hasthefollowingform:
(2.23)
Weobservethat theoscillationscomprisetwoparts, thefreepart withfrequencyȦ andthe
forcedpart withfrequency . Also, anapproximatemaximumvalueof theDLF isobtained
when and, i.e.
(2.24)
If weignorethefreevibrationpart, themaximumDLF is
(2.25)
Page39
Figure 2.9 DLF for harmonicvibrationswhen
When , wehaveresonanceeffectsand UsingL’Hospital’sruleinthe
limit, weobtainthat when
(2.26)
Thus, thedynamicdisplacement diverges, but onlyafter afinitenumber of oscillations. Also,
Figure2.9plotstheDLF for thecase whereweseethat thetotal factor, despitebeing
thesuperpositionof twoharmonicfunctions, isnolonger harmonicbut onlyaperiodic
functionof time.
2.2.2 Motion with damping
Dampingproducesforceswhichcounteract themotionsof theSDOF oscillator byabsorbing
energy. All dynamicsystemsinpracticeexhibit acertainamount of damping.
Page40
2.2.2.1 Free vibrations
Theequationof motionfor anSDOF systeminthepresenceof dampingis
(2.27)
anditssolutionwithout external loading(F(t)=0) isgivenbelowas
(2.28)
Wealsodefinethecoefficient of dampingandthedampednatural frequencyasfollows:
(2.29)
(2.30)
Therearethreepossibilitiesfor ȕ, namely
(2.31)
whichcorrespondtounderdamped, criticallydampedandoverdampedconditions. If
andeqn(2.28) becomes
(2.32)
Thedisplacement isnolonger aperiodicfunctionof timeandtheoscillator simplyreturnsto
itsoriginal positionwithout executinganyvibrations. Fromthecondition
(2.33)
wemaycomputethecoefficient of critical dampingas
(2.34)
Followingthat, thedampingratioisdefined
(2.35)
It shouldbenotedherethat thecoefficient of dampingȕ isseldomusednowadays, with
preferencegiventodampingratio . Obviously, thetwocoefficientsarerelatedas
Theeffect of dampingonthenatural frequencyisminimal; for instance, a10per cent of
critical dampingratioyields . It israretofindcivil engineeringstructures
exhibitinganythingclosetocritical damping, althoughmanymechanical components(suchas
shockabsorbers) do.
Dampingcanbeexperimentallymeasuredbytracingthelogarithmicdecrement (i.e. thelog
of thedifferencebetweentwoconsecutivepeaksinadisplacement versustimeplot for free
vibrations). Referringto Figure2.10, wehavethelogarithmicdecrement as
Page41
Figure 2.10 Freevibrationwithdampingduetoaninitial displacement.
(2.36)
For instance, when per cent, d isequal to0.2ʌ andtheratioof twoconsecutive
peaksisexp(0.2ʌ)=1.87. Thus, adampingratioof 10per cent reducesthedynamic
displacementsbyafactor of 0.534duringeachvibrationcycle.
2.2.2.2 Forced vibrations
Byanalogytothecaseof forcedvibrationsintheabsenceof damping, wenowhavethat a
dampedimpulseelement is
(2.37)
Thecompleteexpressionintermsof aDuhamel integral canbefoundthroughtime
integrationof theaboveimpulse, towhichtheeffect of initial conditionsissubsequently
superimposed. Thus,
(2.38)
Asaspecial caseconsider F(t)=F
1
; substitutionof thetimefunctionf(t)=1ineqn(2.38) gives
thesolutionfor asuddenlyappliedandmaintainedloadas
(2.39)
ComparingFigures2.5and2.11clearlyshowstheeffect of dampinginreducingthe
Page42
Figure 2.11 Forcedvibrationwithdampingduetosuddenlyappliedandmaintainedload.
Figure 2.12 Dynamicequilibriumof SDOF systemwithCoulombfriction.
amplitudeof thedynamicdisplacementsandinbringingabout, after sometime, quasi-static
conditions.
2.2.2.3 Coulomb damping
Thistypeof dampingisduetofriction; astheSDOF oscillator movesonaroughsurface, a
horizontal force develops, where isthedynamicfrictioncoefficient andg isthe
accelerationof gravity, andactsindirectionoppositetothevelocityasshowninFigure2.12.
Theresultingequationof motionfor freevibrationsisgivenbelowas
(2.40)
andthesolutionfor aninitial displacement isdepictedinFigure2.13.
Page43
Figure 2.13Freevibrationinthepresenceof Coulombdamping.
Weobservethat for everycompletecycleof oscillation(t=T), thetotal dynamicdisplacement
y(t) reducesbyanamount equal to4F
f
/k until all motionceases.
2.2.2.4 Damped harmonic vibrations
Theequationof motionfor thiscaseis
(2.41)
andthepart of thesolutionwhichcorrespondstoforcedvibrationwithfrequency is
(2.42)
whereȖ isaphaseangle. Wementionherethat thefreevibrationpart withfrequencyȦ;
dampensout rather quickly, henceit canbeignored. Sincethemaximumvalueof thesineis
unityandthestaticdisplacement is themaximumvaluetheDLF attainsis
(2.43)
Weobservethat theamplitudeof thevibrationsisnolonger infiniteduringresonance
whentherewasnodamping. Specifically, wehavethat
(2.44)
Figure2.14plotsthemaximumvalueof theDLF asafunctionof theratio . Weobserve
that when theDLF approachesthestaticvalue, whileas
Page44
Figure 2.14 Maximumvaluesfor theDLF inthecaseof harmonicoscillations.
theharmonicloadoscillatestoorapidlyfor theSDOF systemtorespond. Aspreviously
mentioned, thedynamicresponseismost intenseat resonance.
2.2.3 Elastoplastic systems
Whendynamicloadsareintense, therestoringforceintheSDOF oscillator isnolonger linear,
but must beinsteadwrittenasageneralizedfunctionR(y) of thedisplacement sothat non-
linear effectscanbedescribed.
Wewill examinethesimplecasewheretherestoringforceislinear upuntil theelasticlimit
y
el
isreached, past whichit assumesaconstant valueR
m
. AsshowninFigure2.15, we
consider asuddenlyappliedandmaintainedloadF(t)=F
1
,
Page45
Figure 2.15 (a) ElastoplasticSDOF system, (b) restoringforceand(c) loadingfunction.
alongwithzeroinitial conditions. TheSDOF systemresponsewill bedividedintothree
stages. Inthefirst stage, andthusR(y)=ky. Theresponseistherefore
(2.45)
where and . Inthesecondstageweredefinethetimevariableas
, wheretheelasticresponsetimet
el
isgivenbytheequation
(2.46)
Thenewformfor theequationof motionis
(2.47)
under initial conditions
(2.48)
resultingfromthefirst stage. Integratingeqn(2.47) yields
(2.49)
Bytakingthetimederivativeof theaboveequationandsettingit equal tozero, timet
m
during
whichdisplacement y(t) attainsitsmaximumvaluey
m
canbeevaluated, i.e.
(2.50)
Page46
Figure 2.16 Timeresponseof anelastoplasticSDOF systemunder maintainedloadF(t)=F
1
.
Inthefinal stage, weobservethat wehaveharmonicvibrationabout aneutral positionwhich
isgivenby . Redefininganewtime , wehavetheresponse
as
(2.51)
Figure2.16plotsthedynamicdisplacementy(t) for thecasedescribedabove, whileFigure
2.17isanomographfor theductilityratioμ of theSDOF elastoplasticoscillator whichis
definedastheratioy
m
/y
e
l for aloadof magnitudeF
1
anddurationtd. Wefinallyobservethat
inorder for theelastoplasticSDOF systemtobehaveelastically(i.e.μ”1), themaximum
springresistanceR
m
must haveat least twicethevalueof themagnitudeof theappliedloadF
1
.
2.3 MULTIPLE DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS
Thedefinitionof aMultipleDegree-of-Freedom(MDOF) systemisonewhichrequiresa
secondorder, ordinarydifferential equationtodescribethemotionof eachindependent DOF.
A DOF isanactivetranslationor rotationcomponent of motionat agivennodal point of the
structureinquestion. Inthreedimensions, wehaveatotal of sixDOF per node, namelythree
displacementsandthreerotations, whileonthex-y planethereisatotal of threeDOF, namely
twodisplacementsandonerotation. Asasimpleexample, wehavethetwoDOF systemof
Figure2.18(a) withthefollowingcoupledequationsof motion:
Page47
Figure 2.17 Ductilityfactor µ, for anelastoplasticSDOF systemasafunctionof ratiotd/T
(2.52)
Next, Figure2.18(b) depictsasimplerigidfoundationontheground, whichismodelledby
twosprings. Theequationsof motion, assumingsmall foundationrotationangle , are
(2.53)
whereM
t
isthetorqueonthefoundationandI isitsmassmoment of inertia. Weobservethat
theaboveequationsarenot coupled, whichimpliesthat wedonot haveatruetwoDOF
system; rather, wehaveasystemwhichcanexecutetwoindependent motions, namelya
translationy andarotation about itscentreof mass.
Page48
Figure 2.18 (a), (b) Multipledegree-of-freedomsystems.
2.3.1 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
Themost general formof theequationsof dynamicequilibriumof anMDOF systemisas
follows:
(2.54)
Inthefreevibrationcasewhere , all DOF havethesame
harmonictimevariationf(t). Specifically, wecanexpressall displacement componentsas
(2.55)
Page49
whereĮ
1
, Į
2
,…istheamplitudeof vibrationof eachDOF. Substitutingthisresult inthe
equationsof motionyields
(2.56)
Fromall theaboveequationswerecover therelation andthus
(2.57)
whereȖ isaphaseangle. Thisimpliesthat eachandeveryoneof then DOF undergoes
harmonicvibration. Substitutingthisresult intheequationsof motionyieldsthefollowing:
(2.58)
Inorder for theabovesystemof equationstohaveasolution, itsdeterminant must beset
equal tozero, i.e.
(2.59)
Uponsolution, werecover N values, Ȧ
1
, Ȧ
2
,., Ȧ
N
, for theeigenfrequenciesof thesystem.
For eachvalueȦ
i
whichisinsertedineqns(2.58), avector of coefficients
resultswhichistheeigenvector correspondingtothat particular
eigenfrequency. Wenormalizeeacheigenvector bysetting , sincetheycannot be
completelydeterminedfromeqn(2.59), andproceedtosolvefor theremainingcomponents
relativetothefirst one. Inthiscase, thenotationusedfor theithnormalized
eigenvector is
2.3.2 Eigenvalue Analysis
A basicpropertyof theeigenvectorsisorthogonalitywithrespect tothemasscoefficients, i.e.
Page50
(2.60)
wheremandn correspondtotwodifferent eigenvectors. Thisfundamental propertyallowsfor
uncouplingtheoriginal N coupledequationsof motionintoN modal equations, eachof which
isadynamicequationof equilibriumfor anSDOF oscillator whosenatural frequency Ȧ
i
comesfromthediscretespectrumȦ
1
, Ȧ
2
,., Ȧ
N
Specifically, thenthsuchequationassumesthefollowingform:
(2.61)
Thesubscript A inaneigenvector denotesthedifferencebetweentwoconsecutive
components(i.e. . A comparisonof theaboveequationwitheqn(2.1) for
theSDOF systemrevealsthat theequivalent mass, stiffnessandloadingcoefficientsfor the
nthmodal equationare
(2.62)
respectively. Thus, eqn(2.61) for thenthmodal displacement A
n
(t) canberewrittenas
(2.63)
Followingthesolutionprocedureoutlinedfor theSDOF systemintheprevioussection, the
modal staticdisplacement A
nst
for thenthequationisgivenby
(2.64)
sincewehavethat . For instance, Figure2.19plotstheeigenvectorsof
atwoDOF oscillator.
Thedisplacement amplitudegivenbythenthmodal equationcanbecomputedas
or as wherethedynamicloadfactorsDLF
dependontheparticular formof theload’stimefunctionf(t) andonnatural frequencyȦn We
notethat DLFsfor variousloadcaseswerepresentedintheprevioussectiononSDOF
systems. Thefinal displacement responseof therthDOF of theMDOF systemisfoundby
superimposingall themodal displacement
Page51
Figure 2.19 Eigenvectorsof asimpletwoDOF system.
amplitudesas
(2.65)
Insum, thereareanumber of methodsfor computingeigenvaluesandtheir associated
eigenvectors, whichcanbegroupedintothreebasiccategoriesasfollows: (i) direct methods,
whichessentiallyfollowtheprocedurepreviouslydescribed, (ii) iterativemethodssuchas
J acobi’smethodand(iii) approximatemethods(e.g. Rayleigh’smethod).
Usingmatrixnotation, theequationsof motionfor anMDOF systemassumetheform
shownbelow
(2.66)
wheresquareandcurlybracketsrespectivelydenoteamatrixandavector. Theorthogonality
propertyof theeigenvectorspreviouslymentionedassumesthefollowingform:
(2.67)
whereoverbarsdenoteadiagonal matrixandsuperscript T denotesmatrixtransposition. If
eqn(2.66) ispremultipliedby[ĭ]
T
andif modal co-ordinatesareintroducedas
, thenwerecover thefollowinguncoupledformfor theequationsof motion:
(2.68)
Page52
Wenotethat theaboveuncouplingprocedure(i.e. dampingmatrix [C] isalso diagonal) will
workonlyinthepresenceof proportional damping(i.e. if , wherea
1
, a
2
areconstants. Infact, [C] canbeexpandedintermsof powersof [M] and[K] andstill
uncoupleeqn(2.66) intoN nodal equations(Bathe, 1982).
2.3.3 Damping in MDOF systems
InanalogywiththeSDOF oscillator, adampingcoefficient ȕ or adampingratio aredefined
(rather arbitrarily, giventhecouplinginherent inMDOF systems) for eachmodal equationas
ȕ
n
or
n
, respectively. Fromapractical viewpoint, thefirst modal equationcorrespondingto
thelowest eigenfrequency(or highest modal period) andwhichapproximatestheresponseof
thesystemtoquasi-staticapplicationof theload, isthedominant one. Thus, it isessential that
correct valuesof dampingareprescribedtothismodeandalsotoafewmoreof thelower
ones. Furthermore, it iscustomarytoassignrather largevaluesof dampingtothehigher
modessoastodampenout unwantedhighfrequencyoscillationsinthesystem.
2.3.4 Time integration methods
Aspreviouslymentioned, theequationsof motionof anMDOF systemneedtobesolvedfor
thedisplacement vector {U} asafunctionof timet. Analternativetomodal analysisdescribed
intheprevioussectionistheuseof timemarchingalgorithms, whichessentiallyintegrate
over timethematrixdifferential equation(i.e. eqn(2.66)). Therearemanytimemarching
algorithmsinusetoday, but theyall fall intotwobasicgroups: (i) direct methodsand(ii)
predictor—corrector methods. Theaccuracyachievedthroughtimeintegrationisakeyissue
andprimarilydependsonthesizeof thetimestepAt used, whichisobviouslyjudgedwith
respect tothemagnitudeof thenatural periodsof thesystem. Timesteppingalgorithmscan
alsobesubdividedintounconditionallyandconditionallystableones. Wenoteinpassingthat
algorithmstabilitydoesnot necessarilyimplyaccuracy. Obviously, timemarchingcanbe
usedinconjunctionwithSDOF systemsaswell. Also, amongthebest knownalgorithmsused
instructural dynamicsarethosebyHoubolt, NewmarkandWilson(Bathe, 1982). Finally,
Table2.1presentsNewmark’smethod, whileFigure2.20comparestheresultsobtainedby
variousalgorithmsfor thesecondstoreydisplacement of atwo-storeyframeunder lateral
loadswhichvaryassinefunctionsintime. Theexact resultswereobtainedthroughmodal
analysisinconjunctionwiththeclosedformsolutiongivenbyeqn(2.23) for eachof thetwo
modes.
2.3.5 Numerical example
WeexamineherethethreestoreyplaneframewithrigidgirdersshowninFigure2.21. In
additiontothevertical staticloads, theframeissubjectedtodynamically
Page53
Table 2.1 Newmark’s method in algorithmic form.
A. Initialization
1. Formation of stiffness matrix K, mass matrix M and damping matrix C
2. Initial values °U °Ü and °Ü
3. Assign values to time step At and to parameters Į. and į. Computation of
the following integration constants:
4.
Formation of the effective stiffness matrix K, where
5.
Triangularization of matrix K,
B. At each time step level
1. Computation of the effective load vector
2. Solution for displacements at time t+At
3. Computation of accelerations and velocities at time step t +At
inducedhorizontal loadsappliedat thestoreylevels. TheframeismodelledasathreeDOF
systemandtheinterstoreystiffnessis k=2(12EI/h
3
), whereEI(=14.67kN m
2
) istheflexural
rigidityof thecolumnsandb istheir clear height. Themasslumpedat eachstoreyisthetotal
staticloadpL, whereL isthespan, dividedbytheaccelerationof gravityg (= 9.81m/sec
2
).
Wethuscomputek
1=
30.7, k
2
=k
3
=44.0andM
1
=141.0, M
2
=132.0, M
3
=66.0for thestiff-nesses
andmasses, respectively, inunitsof (kN/m) and(Nsec
2
/m). Finally, wenotethat thestructure
sownweight isincludedinthevertical load. Theequationsof dynamicequilibriumare
(2.69)
Page54
Figure 2.20 Comparisonbetweenvariouscommonlyusedtimeintegrationmethodsfor atwoDOF
system.
Wefirst focusonthefreevibrationproblem, withf (t)=sinȦt, sothat eqns(2.69) assumethe
form
(2.70)
Theeigenfrequencies, natural periodsaswell asthecorrespondingeigenvectorswhichresult
fromsolvingtheabovehomogeneoussystemof equationsaregiveninTable2.2. Also, a
sketchof thethreeeigenvectorsappearsinFigure2.22. Next, wecontinuewithmodal
analysisalongthelinesdevelopedintheprevioussection; Table2.3presentsall intermediate
computationsplusthefinal staticvaluesof thethreemodal displacementsA
nst
, n=1, 2,3from
eqn(2.64). Thevaluesfor theDLF correspondingtoeachmodal equationdependontherise
timet
r
of theappliedload(seeFigure2.8) andonthenatural periodsT
n
; theyinturnaregiven
inTable2.4.
Maximumvaluesfor thethreemodal componentsof thehorizontal dynamicdis-
Page55
Figure2.21 Three-storeyframestructurewithrigidgirders.
Table 2.2 Eigenvaluesandeigenvectorsof thethree-storeyframe.
Eigenvector Ȧ
2
(rad/sec)
2
T(sec) ĭ
ln
ĭ
2n
ĭ
3n
1 69.3 0.755 +1.00 +1.471 +1.639
2 579.0 0.261 +1.00 í0.146 í1.041
3 1231.0 0.179 +1.00 í2.220 +2.680
placement y3(t) at thethirdstoreylevel aregivenbelowseparately(seeeqn(2.65)) as
(2.71)
Page56
Figure2.22Schematicviewof theeigenvectorsof thethree-storeyframebuilding.
Table 2.3 Eigenvalueanalysisof thethree-storeyframestructure.
Storey Frl M
r
1st eigenvector 2ndeigenvector 3rdeigenvector
1 5,000 141 1.000 5,000 141 1.000 5,000 141 1.000 5,000 141
2 4,000 132 1.471 5,884 286 í0.146 í548 3 í2.220 í8,880 650
3 2,500 66 1.639 4,097 177 í1.041 í2,602 72 2.680 6,700 474
14,981 604 1,814 216 2,820 1265
Thetotal thirdstoreymaximumhorizontal displacement isapproximatelythesumof the
absolutevaluesof thethreemodal contributions(i.e.y
3max
=1.13cm). Thereasonfor thisisthat
theabovemaximadonot occur simultaneouslyintime. Asaresult, anumber of techniques
havebeendevised(Chopra, 1995), for improvement andthevaluequotedhereisobviouslya
conservativeupper bound.
2.4 CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
A continuousdynamicsystemhasaninfinitenumber of DOF andeigenvalues, whilethe
associatedeigenvectorsarecontinuousfunctionsof thespacevariables. All structuresin
realityarecontinuousdynamicsystemsandtheir modellingbySDOF or MDOF systemsis
approximateanddonefor practical reasons.
Page57
Table 2.4 Maximumvaluesof theDLF for loadF(t).
Eigenvector t
r
/T (DLF)
max
1 0.26 1.89
2 0.77 1.28
3 1.12 1.11
Figure 2.23 Theflexural beamasacontinuousdynamicsystem.
2.4.1 Equations of motion for continuous beams
Asexample, wewill examinetheflexural beam, whichisoneof thebasicunidimen-sional
structural elements. Referringto Figure2.23, theequationof dynamicequilibriumof a
continuousbeamelement is
(2.72)
whereEI istheflexural rigidity, m isthemassper unit length, p isthedistributedloadandy(t,
x) isthetransversedisplacement. For freevibrations, wehavethatp(t, x)=0and
(2.73)
whereĭ
n
(x) isthentheigenvector. Theoriginal equationof motioncanbesplit into two,
whichrespectivelygovernthetemporal andspatial variationof thedisplacement y(t, x) as
(2.74)
Thesolutionfor thetimefunctionf
n
(t) andtheeigenvector ĭ
n
(x) aregivenbelowas
(2.75)
(2.76)
(2.77)
Page58
Table 2.5 Eigenvectorsof beamof length/ under varioussupport conditions
Mode (a/b)
n
1 í0.9825 0.8308/
2 í1.0007 0
3 í1.0000 0.3640/
1 í1.0007 0.8604/
2 í1.0000 0.0829/
3 í1.0000 0.3343/
1 í0.7341 0.7830/
2 í1.0184 0.4340/
3 í0.9992 0.2544/
Weobviouslyhaveaninfinitenumber of harmonicvibrationswithfrequencyȦ
n
. Finally, the
integrationconstantsappearingineqn(2.76) dependontheboundaryconditionsof thebeam
inquestionandafewcasesarelistedinTable2.5.
Asinthecaseof MDOF systems, acompleteeigenvalueanalysisisrequiredwhennon-
zeroloadsarepresent. Inthat case, thesolutionfor thetransversedynamicdisplacement is
givenby
(2.78)
whereA
n
(t) istheamplitudeof vibrationof the(uncoupled) nthoscillationcomponent, which
isafunctionof theappliedload, whileĭ
n
(x) isthecorrespondingeigenvector.
2.4.2 Examples of various continuous systems
Asexamples, Figures2.24–2.27present theeigenvaluesandeigenvectorsfor four typical
types, namelythesimplysupportedbeam, thecantilever beam, thefixedendbeamandfinally
thefixedend-simplysupportedbeam.
2.5 BASE EXCITATION AND RESPONSE SPECTRA
Thestandardmethodof analysisinearthquakeresistant designisthroughuseof response
spectra, becauseincivil engineeringpracticewearenolonger interested
Page59
Figure 2.24 Dynamicpropertiesof thesimplysupportedbeam.
Figure 1.25 Dynamicpropertiesof thecantilever beam.
Figure 2.26 Dynamicpropertiesof thefixedendbeam.
Page60
Figure 2.27 Dynamicpropertiesof thefixedendsimplysupportedbeam.
inthetimeevolutionof thestructural response; instead, weareinterestedinthemaximum
valuesattainedbythestructure’srelativedisplacements, relativevelocitiesandabsolute
accelerationssincethosevaluescontrol themaximumstressesthat ultimatelydevelop.
A responsespectrumisdefinedasthemaximumresponse(beit displacement, velocityor
acceleration) of all possibleSDOF oscillators, whichcanbedescribedbytheir natural
frequencyanddampingcoefficient, toagivengroundmotion. Notethat aresponsespectrum
isnot thesameastheDLF for aSDOF oscillator; both, however, canbeusedintheanalysis
of SDOF, MDOF or continuoussystems. InFigures2.28and2.29, werespectivelypresent
spectraresultingfromartificiallygeneratedgroundaccelerationsandthetrue, triple-scale
responsespectrumfor themainshockproducedbytheKalamata, Greece1986earthquake
(Anagnostopouloset al., 1986).
Responsespectracanbeclassifiedaseither elasticspectra, inelasticspectra, sitespecific
spectra, codeprescribedspectraor asdesignspectra. Herewefocusonthefirst type, asbeing
themost relevant toafirst exposureinstructural dynamics, andbecausetheyformthebasis
fromwhichtheremainingonescanbederived. Specifically, andinorder tocompletethe
presentation, welist theequationsof motionof theSDOF oscillator subjectedtoground
displacementsy
s
(t) andtogroundaccelerationsÿ
s
(t), respectively, as
(2.79)
and
(2.80)
where
(2.81)
istherelativedisplacement betweengroundandstructure.
Page61
Figure 2.28 Responsespectraderivedfromartificial accelerograms.
Thefirst stepintheconstructionanelastic, relativedisplacement spectrumS
d
(fromu) isthe
solutionof eqn(2.80) toagivengroundacceleration. Theclosedformexpressionfor u(t) is
Duhamel’sintegral givenbyeqn(2.38) for zeroinitial conditionsandfor y
st
definedasequal
to íÿ
s0

2,
where andthedifferencebetweenȦandȦa ignored. Giventhe
complexityof groundmotion, Duhamel’sintegral iscomputedbynumerical quadrature, and
themaximumvaluerecordedfor agivennatural frequencyandat agivendampinglevel is
stored. Thisprocessisrepeatedfor arangeof frequencieswhichisconsideredadequatefor
designpurposes, andfor dampingratiosupto20per cent. Theother twospectra(i.e. S
a
for
theabsoluteaccelerations(fromÿ) andS
v
for therelativevelocities(fromĤ) arederivedfrom
S
d
usingthefollowingrelationgivenbelow:
(2.82)
Intheabove, Ȧ isthenatural frequencyof theSDOF oscillator. Sinceeqn(2.82) isexact only
intheabsenceof damping, S
a
andS
v
arerespectivelyknownasspectral pseudo-acceleration
andspectral pseudo-velocity. Finally, responsespectraareoftenplottedintermsof thenatural
periodandbyusinglogarithmicscales.
Page62
Figure 2.29 Triplespectrumfor theKalamata, Greece1986earthquake: velocity(cm/ sec) along
vertical axis; acceleration(g) alongleft toright axis; relativedisplacement (cm) alongright
toleft axis; all versusfrequency(Hz). Note: thefivecurvesarefor 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%and
20%damping.
2.5.1 Numerical example
Inthissection, weexamineasimple, one-storeywarehousestructurewhichessentially
supportsaroof loadingandisacteduponbytheKalamata, Greece1986earthquake
(Anagnostopouloset al., 1986). Weemploytheresponsespectrummethodandpresent the
solutioninalgorithmicform. Wenoteherethat designof heavyroof slabswithor without
strongedgebeamsisnot recommendedasgoodearthquakeresistant design. Instead, correct
practiceistodesignfor strongcolumns, weakbeamsand, if possible, light roof slabs.
Page63
(a) Problem description
(b) SDOF system model
(c) Response spectrum computations
FromthetripleKalamata1986earthquakeresponsespectrumgiveninFigure2.29, wehave:
Ɣmaximumrelativedisplacement isu=yíy
s
=1.8cm;
Ɣmaximumvelocityisy=35cm/sec;
Ɣmaximumaccelerationisÿ=0.7g=6.87m/sec
2
;
Ɣmaximumcolumnshear isV=(ku)/4=16,600(0.018)/4=74.7kN; and
Ɣmaximumcolumnshear stressisIJ=V/A=74.7/(0.4
2
)=467kN/m
2
Page64
2.6 SOFTWARE FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
Thereismuchsoftwareavailabletodaythat will, amongother things, performdynamic
analysesof typical structural systemssuchasbuildings, bridges, storagetanks, etc. These
computer programsarebasedontheFiniteElement Method(FEM) for discretizingthe
structuresoastoproduceamathematical model whichcanthenbeusedwithinthecontext of
numerical solutionprocedures. Asoneof theearlier programsthat wasoncepublicdomain
but inthelast 15yearsiscommerciallyavailable, wementiontheStructural Analysis
Program(SAP) (SAP 2000, 1997). Thisprogramisbasedonthedoctoral workof E.L.
Wilsonat theUniversityof California, Berkeleyinthelate1960swhenlargescalecomputer
implementationof theFEM started(Bathe, 1982). Thelist of computer programsisquite
extensive, andtheinterestedreader isadvisedtoconsult current, general informationjournals
incivil engineering(Civil Engineering magazineof theASCE; New Civil Engineer, magazine
of theInstitutionof Civil Engineers) wheresuchsoftwareisadvertised. Inthisrespect, we
mentionNASTRANasoneof thelargest andmost completeFEM packagesavailabletoday,
whileST A AD/Pro, ANSYS, GT-STRUDL, LUSAS, LARSA, ETABS, IDARC-3D, etc., are
someof thebetter knownstructural analysisanddesignsoftwarepackagesinthemarket.
Finally, it ispossibletodownloadspecial purpose, structural dynamicssoftwarefromthe
Internet. Asexample, wementionthenumerical integrationprogramNONLIN (NONLIN,
1997) for theSDOF oscillator, whichiscapableof capturingmaterial nonlinearityand
accessiblethroughtheMSWindowsoperatingsystem.
2.7 REFERENCES
Anagnostopoulos, S.A., Theodoulidis, N.P., Lekidis, B.A., Margaris, B.N. (1986) ‘TheKalamata1986
Earthquake’, Technical Report No. 86–2(inGreek), Instituteof Technical Seismology and
EarthquakeResistant Structures(ITSAK) Publication, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Argyris, I. andMlejnek, H.P. (1991) Dynamics of Structures, North-Holland, Amsterdam.
Bathe, K.J . (1982) Finite Element Procedures in Engineering Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ .
Biggs, J .M. (1965) Structural Dynamics, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
Chopra, A.K. (1995) Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, EnglewoodCliffs, NJ .
Civil Engineering, magazineof theAmericanSocietyof Civil Engineers, 1801Alexander Bell Dr.,
Reston, Virginia, twelvemonthlyissuesper year.
Clough, R. andPenzien, J . (1993) Dynamics of Structures, 2ndedn, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
Craig, R.R. (1981) Structural Dynamics, J ohnWiley, NewYork.
New Civil Engineer, magazineof theInstitutionof Civil Engineers, 1Great GeorgeStreet, London,
twenty-fivebiweeklyissuesper year.
Newmark, N.M. andRosenblueth, E. (1971) Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall,
EnglewoodCliffs, NJ .
Page65
NONLIN(1997) An Educational Program for Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering,
Advanced Structural Concepts, Golden, CO.
Paz, M. (1997) Structural Dynamics, 4thedn, VanNostrand-Reinhold, NewYork.
SAP 2000(1997) Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures, Version6.0,
ComputersandStructures, Berkeley, CA.
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Page67
Chapter 3
Wind loading
T.A.Wyatt
3.1 WIND GUST LOADING
3.1.1 Basic concepts
Thereal windisgenerallyturbulent. Particularlyisthissointheextremestormwindsthat are
theusual focusfor conventional windloads, becausethepassageof thewindover the
irregularitiesof thegroundsurface(terrainroughness) will createsufficient disturbanceto
breakdownanystablestratificationinthewindthat mayresult fromatemperaturelapserate
that islessthantheadiabaticvalue(an‘inversion’). Ontheother hand, additional
contributionstotheturbulencecreatedbythermal instability(convectivegusts) arebroken
down. Thepresumptionisthusaneutral AtmosphericBoundaryLayer (ABL) inwhichthe
gust structureisdominatedbytheeffect of groundroughness. A standarddescriptionis
postulatedfor theprofileof meanwindspeedwithheight, withastatistical descriptionof the
turbulencesuperimposedonit, withprimarydependenceonthegroundroughnessparameter
z

Inpractical termsz
0
isinferredbyrelatingtheobservedmeanspeedprofilenear theground
toatheoretical model. However, atemperaturelapseratelower thantheadiabaticvaluecan
leadtoabnormallysmoothflow, whichmayincreasesusceptibilitytoaerodynamicinstability
inlight or moderatewinds, discussedlater.
Inpractice, evaluationof gust actioniscommonlybasedonclassificationof z
0
inthree
steps: z
0
=0.3for verysmoothsurfacestypifiedbytundraor water (correctionfor seasurface
roughnessispossibleasafunctionof stormstrength), z
0
=0.03for typical UK inland
countryside, z
0
=0.3mfor suburbanhousingandforests. Althoughhigher valuesof z
0
are
possible(e.g. for citycentres), thebasicpresumptionof ageneralizedstatistical patternis
unreliable(seebuffeting, Section3.2.6); anestimateof structural responsebasedonthemodel
for suburbanroughnesswill giveaconservativeestimateof themeanloadandprobablyof the
peak gust response, but mayunderestimatethespecificallydynamicaction. An ad hoc wind
tunnel test will givevaluableadditional informationinsuchcases, but interpretationisbeyond
thescopeof thischapter.
Thebasicmeasureof gust strengthistheroot meansquare(r.m.s.) valueof the
Page68
perturbationof thewindspeedat apoint about themean; thehourlymeanvalueV istheideal
referencefor thelargestormstypical of temperateclimates. If aCartesianco-ordinatesystem
isreferredtothemeanwinddirection, (x alongwind,y horizontal crosswind, z vertical) a
correspondingcomponent system(u, v, w, respectively) canbeappliedtothevelocity
fluctuation. Notationı
u
, etc. isusedtodenotether.m.s. fluctuation, andtheintensityof
turbulenceI=ı
u
/V; ı
u
aswell as V isafunctionof height abovegroundz. The‘equilibrium’
valuesresultingfromaverylongfetchof uniformroughnessarewell establishedtogether
withreasonableevaluationof thedevelopment over changesinroughness(HarrisandDeaves,
1981; Cook, 1985).
TheUK general codeof practicefor windloads, BS6399Part 2includesasocalled
‘directional procedure’ withtabulatedcoefficientsrelatingthelocal meanspeedV(z) and
intensityof turbulenceI(z) tothebasicstormstrength(V
b
inthenotationof BS6399) asa
functionof thelocal terrainandtopography. FactorsS
c
andS
t
giveV andI, respectively, for
locationsinopencountry, asafunctionof distancefromthecoast ineachselectedwind
direction, withthepossibleadditionof allowancefor theinfluenceof groundcontour
(topography, S
b
,). Further corrections(factorsT
c
andT
t
) aregivenfor sitesinurbanor forest
terrain. BS6399continueswithprocedurestoassessthecorrelationof gust actionover the
extent of thestructureasastaticloadprocessandasimplegeneralizedfactor for dynamic
augmentationof response.
Toproceedfurther toaddressthedynamiceffectsof gusts, inthesenseof effects
influencedbytheinertiaof thestructure, themethodologyisextendedbyrepresentationinthe
frequencydomainusingtheFourier integral transformasoutlinedinSection3.1.2. The
Fourier integral (spectral) approachcanalsobeusedinassessingthespacial correlationof
quasi-staticpressures, whichisdominatedbytheactionof frequencycomponentswell below
anyresonant frequencyof thestructure, whereinertial effectsarenegligible. Someof the
approximationsmadeinthedynamicanalysisgiveninthischapter becomequestionableat
lowfrequencies, andthewriter advocatesinsteadadirect approachtothispart of the
windloadproblem, either byformal staticcorrelationanalysis(Wyatt, 1981) or bythe
postulateof acritical gust durationproportional tothequotient of thesizeof theloaded
surfaceinquestionwiththemeanwindspeed(Cook, 1985). Thisso-called‘TVL’ approach
(gust averagingtime, windspeed, loadedlength) isdevelopedinBS6399Part 2.
Thedistinctivecharacteristicsof gust response, bycontrast especiallywithearthquake
effects(seeChapter 4), are:
Ɣ longduration, thestormpersistingnear peakintensityfor durationof order1hour;
Ɣ acoexistent meanload, permittingnoreversal of inelasticdeformations;
Ɣ theforcesarerandomlyspatiallyvariableover thestructure;
Ɣ effectsaresignificant over afrequencyrangeextendingdowntoafewcyclesper hour.
Page69
Anyindividual incrementsof inelasticdeformationmust thereforebekept verysmall, anda
linear structural analysisissufficient, but asophisticatedtreatment of thecorrelationof gust
actionsover theextent of thestructureisessential. Thedurationandrandomnatureof the
processmakesthepower spectrum(seeChapter 10) anattractiveanalytical tool.
Theensuingpresentationconcentratesonthebasicapplicationof spectral analysistothe
gust loadingproblempioneeredbyDavenport (1961, 1962), usingtheneutral ABL model,
althoughthereisincreasingrecognitionof thepotential importanceof convectiveeffects
(Wyatt, 1995). Thisanalysisfurther presumes simple‘quasi-steady’ aerodynamics; the
companionproblemsof dynamiceffectscausedbyflow-patterninstabilitiesor byfeedbackof
structural motiontotheaerodynamicforcesareconsideredunder theheadingof Aerodynamic
Instability, Section3.2.
3.1.2 Spectral description of wind loading
Theturbulent velocitiesaredescribedbyCartesiancomponents(u, v andw) superimposedon
themeanwindspeedV; u isinthemeanwinddirection, w iscommonlyusedfor thevertical
component. It isgenerallypresumedthat theturbulencecomponentscanbetreatedfor
analyticapproximationsassmall comparedto V; theinstantaneouswindspeedV(t) isthus
V(t)=V+u(t), andv andw canbetreatedascausingsmall changesintheinstantaneouswind
direction. Thenotation isusedthroughout thischapter for thevarianceof quantityu, and
correspondinglyfor other input andresponsequantities.
Inaseveretemperate-climatewindstorm, themeanwindspeedandtheassociatedstatistical
descriptionof thegustscarriedbyit remainconstant (‘stationary’ inthestatistical sense) for a
sufficient durationthat analysisinthefrequencydomainusingpower spectraisthepreferred
approach. Providedthegustsaretheresult of surfaceroughnessover alongfetch, rather than
beingsubstantiallyinfluencedbyspecificdiscreteobstaclesintheimmediatevicinity, the
input spectratakeuniversal normalizedforms. Inthisway, thespectrumof eachturbulence
component isfullydefinedbyther.m.s. valueandatimescaleparameter (for normalizationof
frequency), theHarris—vonKarmanalgebraicformulationbeingwidelyaccepted(seebelow,
especiallyFigure3.2a, Section3.1.3) . Cross-spectradescribingthespatial correlationsare
alsocrucial inthisapplication(HarrisandDeaves, 1981; ESDU, 1986b).
Givenstandardalgebraicdescriptionsof theinput spectra, thesubsequent analyticstepsare
straightforwardinapplication, andad hoc numerical Fouriertransformoperationsarenot
normallyrequiredexcept for interpretationof windtunnel dataor full sizemonitoringstudies;
suchspecialist aspectsarenot consideredfurther here. Full descriptionof spectral procedures
canbefoundinsourcessuchasNewland(1993), inwhichthemathematical basisis
developed, cruciallyequations10.20–10.22, and10.71. Attentionisspeciallydrawntothe
discussiongivenwiththeseequations. Generallygoodguidancecanbedrawnfromthe
Page70
simpleconcept that thespectrumdefinesthestrengthof aninfinitenumber of infin-itesimally
spacedsinusoidcomponentswhicharesustainedsothat thesteadystateresponseisattained
for eachcomponent. Theessential randomnessresultsfromtheinfinitecomplexityof thebeat
phenomenabetweensuchcomponents. Themagnitudesaredefinedinmean-squareterms; the
spectrumdescribesthedistributionof thevariance(meansquaredeviationfromthemean) of
theprocessonafrequencyabscissa, andtheordinatesarethusvaluesof (process)
2
per unit of
frequency. Throughout thischapter thenotationı
2
( · ) isusedfor thevarianceof thequantity
indicatedintheparenthesis(inthecaseof windspeed, ı
u
isusedfor ı(u) tofacilitateconcise
presentation).
Windengineeringisexceedinglyfortunatethat thechoicesof spectral definitionand
notationintheseminal presentations(Davenport, 1961, 1962) havebeenuniversallyfollowed.
Thebasicspectrumisusedinthesingle-sidedformwithfrequency(n) expressedinHz,
whichisdenotedS(n) (althoughW(n) hasbecomemorecommonasthenotationfor thisform
inother fields). Thenumerical valuesof ordinatesinthewindengineeringformat arethus4ʌ
timesthevaluesfor thedouble-sidedcircular-frequencyformgivenasS(Ȧ) ineqn10.20. It is
further general inwindengineeringtopresent spectrainthenormalizednon-dimensional
format of nS(n)/ı
2
plottedonalogarithmicscaleabscissan. Notingthat
(3.1)
thispreservesthevisual interpretationof theareaof thespectral plot asthevarianceof the
process. It givesaclear graphical representationdespitetheconsiderablefrequencyrange
present inthenatural windandhasthegreat conveniencethat scalingparametersapplicableto
thefrequencyabscissahavetheeffect onlyof a‘rigidbody’ shift of thenormalizedshape.
TheHarris—vonKarmannormalizedform(Figure3.2a, Section3.1.3) for thealongwind
gust component (u) is
(3.2)
Thefrequencynormalizationfavouredbythepresent author isñ=12nT, inwhichT isthe
timescale, the(one-sided) integral of theautocorrelationfunctionof thewindspeed. Theory
derivedfor HomogeneousIsotropicTurbulence(HIT), whichignoresthedistortionof the
turbulencefieldresultingfromproximitytotheground(wherew must clearlybezero), gives
thenumerical factor as . Thelengthscale
mayal-ternativelybeusedastheinput parameter for frequencynormalization.
Dynamicanalysisisfocusedontheupper tail of thespectrumñ>>1, asdemonstratedlater; in
thisrange
(3.3)
Page71
Table 3.1 ModifiedtimescaleT
s
(seconds).
Referencewindspeed V
b
, 25m/s 32m/s
Location (terrain) Coast Country Town Coast Country Town
Roughness length z
0
(m) 0.003 0.03 0.3 0.003 0.03 0.3
Height above 10 4.4 3.5 2.8 3.6 2.9 2.1
ground, z(m) 20 6.3 6.0 5.4 5.6 5.0 4.2
50 7.3 9.2 10.6 7.0 8.4 8.7
100 7.9 11.0 15.1 7.3 9.8 12.7
200 8.5 12.7 19.4 7.9 11.4 16.6
Stormstrengthisgenerallybest definedbythehourly mean windspeed; a10-minuteaverage
maybesubstitutedwherethisisthebasisof local records, or inclimateswherethestormpeak
isnot stationaryfor thelonger period. Unfortunately, althoughdefinitionof local valuesof V
andı
u
for adefinedsynopticstormstrengthiswell establishedfor thecaseof extremewinds
intemperateclimaticlocations, thisislesstruefor thescaleparameter. Thepreferencehere
for T rather than
x
L
u
reflectsthepostulatethat thedepthof thesurfaceboundarylayer, and
thus
x
L
u
, increaseswithstormstrength. Extensivefurther discussionwill befoundinESDU
Data Items 85020, RevisionE (ESDU, 1990) and86010. Item85020developsamore
complexspectral form, but upper-tail ordinatesmaystill beevaluatedfromthebasic
expressiongivenabove, bysubstitutionfor T of aneffectivetimescaleT
s
, whichisgivenby
intheESDU notation. RepresentativevaluesaregiveninTable3.1
(MaguireandWyatt 1999).
Wherethereisadiscreteobstacleintheupstreamflowof sizecomparabletothestructure
under consideration, theresponsetoturbulencemaybesignificantlyenhanced, evenat
separationsexceeding20timesthewidthof theobstacle, andtheonlysolutionmaybe
specificwindtunnel modelling. For thisreasonno valuesaregiveninTable3.1for citycentre
conditions. Anindicationof responsemaybeobtainedbyapplying‘town’ input parameters,
whicharebasedonextensivesuburbangroundroughness, intheexpectationthat enhanced
turbulencewouldbecompensatedbyreducedmeanwindspeed, but thisisnot necessarily
conservative.
Windloadingisbasedontheconcept of a‘kinematicpressure’ q, givenby ,
inwhichȡ isthedensityof air (about 1.2kg/m
2
at normal altitudes). Theactual pressureona
structural surfaceisobtainedbymultiplyingq byanappropriatecoefficient; cataloguesof
suchcoefficientsaregiveninthevariousdesignguidesandcodes. Thealongwindforce
(‘drag’ P, say) onasimplestructuresuchasasignboardfaceontothewindcanthusbe
writtenP=qACD inwhichA. istheloadedareaandC
D
isthedragcoefficient. For practical
manipulationinthefrequencydomain, thebasicdragforceformulationisfirst linearized, i.e.
(3.4)
Page72
It isthensimplifiedbywriting , sothat
(3.5)
Thecorrespondingspectral relationshipdescribingtheforcefluctuationisthen
(3.6)
or
(3.7)
3.1.3 Structural response: the line-like structure
It hasthusfar beenassumedthat theareaA issufficientlysmall that gust perturbationu can
beassumeduniformover thestructure. Inpractice, however, toevaluatedynamicresponse, it
isalwaysnecessarytomakeallowancefor imperfect spacial correlation. Thebasicanalysis
addressesthecaseof astructurewhoseloadingcanreasonablybedefinedbyreferencetoa
singlecoordinate, suchasheight abovegroundfor aslender tower or achimney, or location
alongacableor abridgedeck. It isfurther assumedthat theforceactingat anypoint isfully
definedbythewindspeedat that locationthat wouldhaveariseninfreestream, sothat the
spacial correlationsof theloadarethesameasfor theincident wind.
Consider amember of lengthHandcross-sectionsuchthat theforceexertedonanelement
of lengthdz canbewrittendp=p dz=qbC
D
dz, inwhichthedragcoefficient reference
dimensionb maybeafunctionof thelocationco-ordinatez. Themodal generalizedforceis
, inwhichμ(z) istheshapefunction. After linearizationasintroducedat eqn
(3.4), thetimevaryingcomponent is
(3.8)
Tosimplifypresentation, thevariationof V withz will initiallybeignored. The
autocovariancefunctionat time-lagIJ(C
p
(IJ) say) isthen
(3.9)
inwhichȖ(:) hasbeenwrittentocomprisethequantitiesvariablewithlocationbut invariant
withtime, inthiscase , andthebrackets< > signifytimeaverage.
InHIT, , andthecross-spectrumof u for these
points, writtenS
uu
(z, z';n), isareal quantity. TheHIT presumptionclearlyalsoimpliesthat it
isafunctionof theseparationdistance , not of z or z' individually, andcan
convenientlybenormalizedbydivisionbythesinglepoint spectrum. Theresulting
‘normalizedco-spectrum’ iscommonlywritten , i.e.
(3.10)
Page73
Figure 3.1 Thenormalizedco-spectrumfunction(HIT).
A solutionfromturbulencetheoryisavailablefor thisfunction(Figure3.1) (Harrisand
Deaves1981, Irwin1979), basedonauniversal normalizedindependent variable
(3.11)
At theresonant frequenciesfor virtuallyall practical structures, nT >0.5, sothat thesecond
termineqn(3.11) isnegligible, makingR
u
(Ȝ,n) auniversal functionof nȜ/J only. Significant
correlationisthenrestrictedtoseparationsthat arecommonlysufficientlysmall by
comparisonwithheight abovegroundtomakeHIT acrediblebasis. Valuesareconveniently
presentedinESDU 86010(ESDU, 1986b). Animportant derivedparameter istheintegral
scalefor frequencycomponent n, whichis . TheHIT
formulationgivesL
n
= V/8.9n, but thisincludesnegativevaluesof R
u
at largeseparations,
whichareprobablyof limitedpractical reality; limitationtopositiveordinatessuggests
L
n
=V/8n for practical evaluation.
Theexact HIT functional relationshipsaredesirablefor interpretationof full-scaleor wind
tunnel measurements, andfor applicationsinvolvingcross-windcomponentsof turbulence,
but for thebasecaseof responseof aconventional structuretothealongwind(u) component,
themuchsimpler formulation
(3.12)
isanacceptableapproximation, withL
n
=V/8n (Figure3.1). Anevensmaller valueisproposed
inAnnexB (informative) of theEurocodeENV 1991–2–4, whichshouldbeviewedwith
caution.
Page74
TheFourier transformof theautocovariance(eqn(3.9)) givesthespectrumof themodal
generalizedforceas
(3.13)
Notingthat themeanvalueis , thisiscommonlyexpressedintheform
(3.14)
inwhichthecorrelationtransfer function, or ‘aerodynamicadmittance’, J
2
, is
(3.15)
(Davenport, 1962; Bearman, 1981; DyrbyeandHansen, 1997, Section6.4.3). Theintegrals
comprisethewholestructure. For auniformslender horizontal structure, Ȗ(:) reducestothe
modeshapefunction.
Theforegoingdevelopment haspresumedhomogeneouswind(V andgust parametersı
u
andT
s
invariant withlocationonthestructure). Variationintheinput windparameters,
generallythecasewithvertical structures, greatly increasesalgebraiccomplexityif
approachedrigorously(Wyatt, 1981), but inpracticeit isusuallysufficient touseconstant
values, evaluatedfor areferenceheight selectedbyjudgement (e.g. three-quartersof the
height of atower or chimney). Inthisevent, Pj for insertionineqn(3.14) shouldbeevaluated
consistently.
Thefull sequenceof thespectral analysisisshownby Figure3.2:
(a) thewindspectrumintheuniversal form(eqn(3.2)), definedonabscissañ=12nT
s
, is
multipliedby
(b) theaerodynamicadmittanceexpressingspatial correlation, reflectingH/L
n
, definedhere
onabscissanH/ V, whereH isthesizeof thestructure(loadedlength); theproduct
(a)×(b)×(2ı
u
/V)
2
givesthespectrumof themodal generalizedforce(normalizedonthe
meanvaluePj);
(c) whichisdividedbythesquareof themodal generalizedstifmess(Kj) andmultipliedby
thesquareof thesteadystatedynamicmagnifier (i.e.
inwhichį isthedamping(aslogdec) andnj isthenatural
frequency(abscissan/nj);
(d) toobtainthespectrumof modal generalizeddisplacement SY.
Thelowest natural frequencyof any givenstructureisbroadlypredictablefromitssize.
Buildingstypicallyhaven
1
=46/H, approximately. Towersandbridgesareparticularlywell
defined, givendefinitionof thestructural formandbasicgeometricproportions(chapter 3in
MaguireandWyatt, 1999). Consider atower of height H=100m, whichislikelytohavea
frequencyof about 0.67Hz. A
Page75
Figure3.2Spectraandtransfer functionsfor windgust responseanalysis.
typical valueof spectral timescale, T
s
=10sec, gives ñ=80, whichisintheextremetail of the
spectrum; anunusuallylowvaluehasbeenadoptedfor clarityof illustrationinFigure3.2. In
windV=25m/sat 10mabovegroundor 32m/sat a‘representative’ height 0.75H=75m, the
scalelengthof the‘resonant’ gust isL
n
=V/8nj=6m. Thus H/L
n
>>1, andsignificant
contributiontothevolume
Page76
Figure 3.3 Thediagonal approximationtotheadmittanceintegral.
integral constitutingthenumerator of J
2
becomesrestrictedtoclosetothediagonal z=z' of the
areaof integration(0<z<H,0<z'<H), sothat thenumerator doubleintegral iswell
approximatedby (Davenport, 1962). ThisapproximationisillustratedbyFigure
3.3, usingfor claritythe‘straight line’ weightingfunction
An‘effectivesize’ H
e
canbedefinedbythequotient of integrals
(3.16)
Page77
leadingtoacorrespondingnormalizedvalue, H
N
=H
e
/L,
n
(Wyatt, 1981). Thesolutionof eqn
(3.15) for uniformweighting(i.e.) inconjunctionwiththesimpleexponential form
for R
u
, whichis
(3.17)
(plottedas Figure3.2b), thenconstitutesanexcellent approximationtoJ
2
for anyweightingin
whichȖ(:) isof uniformsignthroughout thestructure. Thiscoversthefundamental modeof
most cantilever structures(towers, chimneysandtranslational modesof buildings) andother
single-spanstructures; it isnot restrictedtoH
N
>>1. Thelesssophisticatedapproximation
J
2
=2/H
N
remainsapplicablefor anyweightingat largeH
N
, witherror of order 1/HN- For the
examplegiven, withthefirst cantilever modeapproximatedbyy(z)=(z/H)1.5, H
e=
0.64H=64
m, sothat withL
n=
6m, thenormalizedeffectivesizeH
N=
10.7, andJ
2
=20.17.
For whitenoiseexcitation(i.e. Sp invariant withfrequency) thereisaclosedformsolution
for theresponsevariance, i.e. for displacement Yj inmodej,
(3.18)
inwhichnj isthenatural frequencyandį isthedampingexpressedaslogarithmicdecrement.
Asthepeakspectral responseordinatecomprisesdynamicmagnifier , thisimpliesan
effectivebandwidth . For practical valuesof , themagnifier issolarge, andthe
responsebandwidthsosmall comparedtothebandwidthof theinput spectrum, that thisresult
givesanexcellent approximationtotheareaunder theresonancepeak, identifiedas on
Figure3.2(d), i.e.
(3.19)
inwhichYj=Pj/Kj isthemeanvalueof modal displacement. Clearlyther.m.s. value
follows
(3.20)
Thecorrespondingvalueof modal narrowband(quasi-resonant) contributiontoanystructural
loadeffect F (e.g. stressesor stressresultantssuchasbendingmoments) canbeobtainedby
multiplyingthedisplacement bytherespectivemodal influencecoefficient ȕ
Fj
(say), i.e.
. Valuesfor themodal influencecoefficientscannowgenerallybe
obtainedfromthecomputer modal solutionoutput, but if indoubt concerningaccuracyof
modelling, or whenusinghandcomputation, theyshouldbeevaluatedasthestaticeffect of
the
Page78
‘inertialoading’ givenbytheproduct for all massesof massandaccelerationper unit modal
displacement (i.e. Yj=1m), i.e.
(3.21)
inwhichi
F
(z) istheconventional staticinfluencefunctionfor loadeffect F andμ
j
isthemode
shapefunction.
Theresponsetolower frequencyinput componentsiseffectivelyquasi-static, andspace
doesnot permit detailedconsiderationinthisdynamicstext. Ther.m.s. valuefor loadeffect F
iscommonlydenoted , ‘B’ signifyingspectral broadbandof frequencies. It canbe
evaluatedbypurelystaticcorrelationanalysis(Wyatt, 1981), whichisparticularlywell-suited
tocaseswheretheloadonsomepart of thestructurehastheeffect of relievingthenet load
effect. isequivalent tothe‘backgroundfactor’ inDavenport baseddesigncodesand
recommendations, andcanalsobeinferredfromconventional staticresultssuchasthe
detailedmethodof BS6399Part 2. Denotingthecodifiedpeakquasi-staticvalueasFQS
(prior toapplicationof dynamicfactor C
r
) andthehourly mean valueasF, andwriting
, thecrest factor for quasi-staticresponsecanbetakenasgs=4.1–
0.25log
10
H
e
(Wyatt, 1981), for H
e
expressedinmetres. ı
B
(F) isthenreadilyevaluated.
Thestatic(broadband) anddynamic(narrowband) effectsarestatisticallyindependent, and
canbecombinedbyroot sumsquare . Designiscommonlybasedonthe
expectedmaximumvalue ,inwhichg isthe‘crest factor’ (Davenport,
1964) givenbyg=(In2vIJ)
1/2
+0.577/(In2vIJ)
1/2
. Inthelatter, IJ isthestorm-strengthaveraging
time(e.g. 3,600sec) andv istheeffectivefrequency, whichcanbe
takenas . Theupper tail natureof bothspectrumandadmittancefunctionare
suchthat thefirst modedominatesdynamicgust response, but if necessaryfurther mode
contributionscanbeaddedto ı
T
(F) byroot sumsquare.
3.1.4 Further cases of gust load spectra
Inthecaseof alatticetower of significant facewidthcomparedtotheintegral scaleL
n
, the
foregoingpresumptionthat theloadonanyelement isfullydefinedbyasingle-point
windspeedremainsacceptablebut it isnecessarytoallowfor thecorrelationintwo
dimensions(i.e. withreferencetolocationco-ordinatesz
1
andz
2
). Thiscaseisreferredtoas
the‘latticeplate’. Thenumerator of theadmittancefunctionthusbecomesaquadruple
integral. For thecasewhereL
n
issmall comparedtothestructuredimensionsH
1
andH
2
in
twoorthogonal directions, theanaloguetotheapproximation for asingleline
becomes , inwhich . For theexponential
approximationto . For theHIT form, (consideringonlypositive
ordinatesof Ru). Theresultingapproximationtotheadmittance(J) isgiventoagood
approximationbyJ=J
1
×J
2
,
whereJ
1
andJ
2
Page 79
are values for the two dimensions evaluated separately. J
1
is evaluated from the normalized
effective size H
N1
=H
e1
/L
n
(eqn (3.16)) for whichever dimension gives the larger value of H/L
n
,
but the smaller normalized value is reduced for evaluation of J
2
, to H
N2
=(4/5.9)H
e2
/L
n
(Wyatt,
1981).
In the case of a clad structure such as a building, it is empirically established that the
correlation of pressure fluctuation over the upwind face is better than that of the free stream
velocity over the same distances (Cook, 1985). This effect is partly countered by relative
weakening of the effective load fluctuation on the downwind face; the net effect is not
addressed explicitly in Davenport based design formulations. The author’s personal practice is
to apply the lattice plate solution as above, but evaluated taking L
n
=V/6n, an increase of one-
third over the free stream value. This procedure cannot be expected to offer precision
comparable to the line-like or true lattice plate cases, but may be sufficient for decision
whether specialist investigations are necessary, in particular for subjective comfort criteria.
Pressure fluctuations near the corners, especially in ‘glancing’ winds, are likely to be
important for lateral or torsional excitation.
The foregoing discussion has considered only the alongwind (u) component of turbulence.
Crosswind components may also be important, commonly treated in two independent
orthogonal components, v (horizontal) and w (vertical). A number of formulations are
available for spectra and net r.m.s. values. The HIT solution gives the upper-tail ordinates of
S
v
and S
w
as 4/3 times S
u
at the given frequency. This can be used as a practical approximation
to S
v
at frequencies such that L
n
is less than (say) one-fifth of the height above ground, but
becomes increasingly conservative at lower frequencies. Sw can be treated similarly, but with
greater conservatism.
For modal analysis of response the forces are generally required in body axis components.
In the basic case of a vertical structure for which the drag coefficient has constant value C
D
for all directions and the crosswind force coefficient is uniformly zero, which is a reasonable
approximation for many lattice towers, the body axis force perpendicular to the mean wind
direction is . The analysis then follows the alongwind treatment
described above, with (v/V)P replacing (2u/V)P, and thus S
v
(or S
w
) replaces 4S
u
. The HIT
solution for L
n
for the v component on vertical separation (and likewise the w component on
horizontal separation) is, however, twice as large as the value for u, being V/4.43n when
integration extends over the full range, including negative ordinates of Rv or Rw. The
practical validity of this increase remains controversial, and some authorities retain the same
values as for u, a nonconservative assumption. The vectorial analysis leading to generalized
expressions for excitation of an element at an arbitrary inclination is highly complex
(Strømmen and Hjorth-Hansen, 1995). Practical approximations for inclined tower structures
are, however, available (Wyatt, 1992).
For bridges, gust dynamic response is generally dominated by vertical motion with
excitation based on dC
L
/dĮ, in which C
L
is the lift force coefficient and Į is the angle of
inclination of the wind to the deck. The analysis of correlation along
Page80
thedeck(‘spanwise’) followsthemethodologyintroducedabove, but it isusual toincludea
further admittancefactor whichtakesaccount of thewidthof thedeck (‘chordwise’). The
theoretical solutionfor anaerofoil (Sears’ function) serveswell inmanycases(Walsheand
Wyatt, 1983). A comparativesurveyof publishedformulationsisgivenbyHay(1992). Much
moresophisticatedmodelsareavailablefor integrationof gust actionwiththefeedbackof the
effect of structural motionontheforces, asdiscussedinsection3.2.5.
3.1.5 Aerodynamic damping
Thealongwindresponseof skeletal structuressuchaslatticetowersiscommonlysignificantly
reducedbyaerodynamicdamping. Thenarrowbandresponseisessentiallyharmonic
(sinusoidal), modulatedrelativelyslowly, andtherelativevelocity (V+uíy) (wherey=dy/dt is
thevelocityof thestructureinthedownwinddirection) thusincludesasinusoidal perturbation.
For atower of natural frequency n=1Hz, comprisingmembersof widthd=0.3mandinwind
of meanspeedV=30m/s, thereducedvelocityVR=V/nd isof order 100(i.e. thefluidadvance
inthedurationof onecycleof oscillationis100timesthesignificant referencedimensionof
thestructure). Theinducedperturbationof thedragforcewill thereforebecloselyquasi-static
withamplitude(2y/V)P, giventheusual linearization. Examinationof theequationof motion
showsthistobeequivalent toaviscousdamper withcoefficient c=2P/V, thusmakinga
contributiontodampinglogarithmicdecrement
(3.22)
inwhichusehasbeenmadeof thestandardresult . Inmodal analysisthis
becomes
(3.23)
wherep andm arethemeanloadandmassper unit lengthandμj isthemodeshapefunction.
Equation(3.22) canalsobeexpressedintermsof aScrutonnumber (eqn(3.31), Section
3.2.2) andreducedvelocityV
R
=V/nd (whered isthereferencedimensionfor thedrag
coefficient C
D
), i.e.
(3.24)
For acrosswindmotion, thepostulate‘dragcoefficient C
D
constant, crosswindC
L
zero’ gives
dampingone-half of thisvalue(cf. thecomparisonbetweenv andu gust excitation, above).
Toshowthelikelyimportance, consider alatticetower of tubular steel membersof wall
thicknesst, havingtotal mass(M) twicethemassof themembersexposedinonefaceand
total dragcoefficient C
D
=1.2basedontheshadowarea(A) of
Page81
that face. Thisgives
(3.25)
Withmaterial densityȡ
s
=8t/m
3
andillustrativevaluesC
D
=1.2, V=3.2m/s, t=10mmandnj=0.8
Hz, theaerodynamicdamping . A comparabletower of anglesectionmemberswould
giveabout twicethisvalue. For buildings, theconditionsfor thequasi-steadyassumptionwill
belesswell satisfied, but aerodynamicdampingisalsolikelytobemuchlesseffectivedueto
thelower ratioof dragtoweight. For atypical buildingwithdragcoefficient 1.0andmass4
t/m
2
of facearea(massdensity400kg/m
2
andalongwindplandimension20m, say), V=32m/s
andnj=0.8Hz, theaboveformulationgives
Aerodynamicdampingiscommonlyveryimportant for thevertical or torsional gust
dynamicsof bridges. TakingthedeckwidthB asthereferencedimensionfor coefficientsand
reducedvelocity, for vertical motion
(3.26)
Thequasi-steadyassumptionis, however, significantlynon-conservativefor dCL/dĮ . If
specificwindtunnel dataarenot available, thetheoretical solutionfor anaerofoil with
harmonicperturbationgenerallygivesauseful approximation(WalsheandWyatt, 1983). The
effectivevaluedC
L
/dĮ of at practical frequenciesisbetween3and4. Instrongwinds
a
can
besignificantlylarger than
s
; for example, for adeckof widthB=25m, massm=15t/mand
natural frequency0.5Hz (typical for span250m), inawindof 30m/s, . The
aerodynamicdampingof bridgedeckscanalsobeexpressedusingthe‘derivatives’ as
discussedinSection3.3.4.
3.2 AERODYNAMIC INSTABILITY
3.2.1 Introduction
‘Aerodynamicinstability’ isaveryconvenient generictermtocover awiderangeof dynamic
responsestowind, but meanslittlemorethanastatement that theresponseinquestionisnot
sufficientlydescribedintermsof thegust actionconsideredabove. Thereareintrinsicallytwo
distinct mechanisms:
Ɣ flowinstabilityexcitation, or simple‘Vortexshedding’;
Ɣ aeroelasticexcitation.
Intheformer, theflowpatternisunstable, evenwhenthestructureisstationary. Inthe
commonexampleof aslender prismaticstructuresuchasachimney, vorticesassociatedwith
flowseparationfromtheflanksof thestructuregrowuntil theyarecarriedawaybytheflow.
Thelatter resultsfromthechangesof theaerodynamic
Page82
forcesconsequent uponmotionor deformationof thestructure. It isinstructivefirst to
consider thesetwomechanismsseparately, but unfortunatelyinteractionbetweenthemis
commonlycrucial totheseverityof theeffectsonthestructure.
Anyoneencounteringsuchproblemsiswell advisedtoreadtheseminal surveybyScruton
andFlint (1964). Further introduction, particularlyrelevant tobridges, isavailableinWyatt
andScruton(1981). Thebasicintroductiontothestochasticmodel of vortexsheddinggiven
byVickeryandBasu(1984) isalsodesirablepreliminaryreading. Blevins’ ‘Flowinduced
vibrations‘ (1994) iswidelyrespectedfor reference. Thereisaverywiderangeof design
specifications, whichwill beintroducedlater.
3.2.2 Vortex shedding: deterministic representation
Thestartingpoint for thedynamiceffectsof vortexsheddingisthevonKarmanvortexstreet,
illustratedbyFigure3.4. Thisrepresentsacross-sectionthroughtheflowfieldroundalong
prismaticstructure; thecircular sectionhasbeenselectedfor illustrationpartlyonthegrounds
of familiarity, but alsobecauseof thefreedomfromgalloping-typeaeroelasticbehaviour. The
quasi-steadybehaviour of thissectionhasalreadybeenaddressedinthecontext of gust action,
andhasbeenshowntogiveunconditionallypositivedampingof structural oscillation,
increasinginproportiontowindspeed. Thevortexstreet asshownindicatesthat vortex
growthoccursalternatelyonoppositesidesof thestructure. Whenthereisalargeattached
vortexononeside, thewakeisdisplacedlaterallyandthereisalateral component of forceon
thestructure. Whenthisvortexisshedand(inthiscase) replacedbygrowthontheother side,
andtheprocessrepeated, thereisclearlyacycliclateral excitation. Althoughtheactual
variationisunlikelytobesinusoidal, it isusual toextract thefirst Fourier component togivea
coefficient of fluctuatinglift ý
L
; that is, describingforcep(t) per unit lengthof prismas
(3.27)
inwhichn
s
isthefrequencyof theshedding.
Figure 3.4 Thevortexstreet.
Page83
Thevortexstreet provestohaveacharacteristicgeometry, scaledtothediameter D,
irrespectiveof windspeed; for thecircular section, thedistancebetweensuccessivevorticeson
thesamesideisalittleunder 5D. Asthevorticesarecarrieddownstreamat aspeedonly
marginallylessthantheflowV, thisimpliesthat thecycleperiodicity, equal tothetime
betweensuccessivevortexshedding, isabout 5D/ V. Ingeneral, thisisusuallyexpressedin
termsof thesheddingfrequencyn
s
, i.e.
(3.28)
inwhichS
t
isaconstant knownastheStrouhal number, 0.2inthiscase.
Ascritical conditionsarelikelytobeassociatedwithsynchronismbetweensheddinganda
natural frequencyof thestructure, engineeringinterpretationismorecommonlybasedonthe
reciprocal of theStrouhal number (i.e. V/n
s
D). Experimental data, fromwind-tunnel testsor
full size, areappropriatelyrelatedtoanormalisedrepresentationof thewindspeed, V
R
=V /nD,
inwhichn istherelevant natural frequency. Thevelocityat whichresonance(n=n
s
) occurs
maybedenotedV
C
(‘critical’ velocity) sothat
(3.29)
Theterm‘critical’, herecorrespondingtoresonance, must betreatedwithsomecaution.
Althoughmost oftenindeedthecritical condition, significant responsewill occur at somewhat
lower speeds, whichmaybeimportant intermsof humansubjectiveresponse, or evenof
structural fatigue, whenaccount istakenof theincreaseddurationof occurrenceof suchlower
speeds. Themaximumresponsemayactuallyoccur at ahigher speed, asaresult of persisting
resonancedueto‘lockon’, consideredlater.
Theaboverelationshipscanbecombinedtogiveapredictionof thesteady-stateresponse.
For simplicity, a‘rigidbody’ motionisconsideredfirst, typifiedbya‘sectionmodel’ wind-
tunnel test. A rigidmodel ismountedonsprings; if themassper unit lengthism andthe
prismlengthL, thespringstiffnessmust be . At resonance, thesteady
statedynamicmagnifier isʌ/į, whereį isthedampingexpressedaslogarithmicdecrement
(or intermsof proportionof critical damping) sotheresponseamplitude(ǔ, say) isgiven
by
(3.30)
Thisisre-expressedintermsof thenormalizedquantitiesbywriting andthe
normalizeddamping
(3.31)
Page84
givingthenormalizedamplitude
(3.32)
K
s
isknownastheScrutonnumber, andexpressestheenergydissipationbystructural
dampingbycomparisonwiththepotential aerodynamicinput. Thelatter isrepresentedbythe
worktermqDL×y, inwhichq isthekinematicpressure , withtheappropriate
normalizationof V andy.K
s
iswidelyusedasthebasisfor interpretationof scalemodel tests
andother empirical comparisons.
For aflexiblestructure, theaboveresult iseasilyextendedbyamodal decomposition, in
whichonlytheresonant modeislikelytohavesignificant effect. Denotingthemodeshapeas
µ(x), wherex isthelocationcoordinate, withmaximumvalueof μT, theScrutonnumber
shouldbeevaluatedusinganequivalent valueof massper unit length,
. The above expression Ior Ș then gives Ϳ/D for thepoint of
maximumdisplacement. Thenumerator integral istakenover thewholestructure, but the
denominator isevaluatedonlyover thelengthof prismsubject totheresonant excitation.
If m, V andD areconstant (m=m0
,
say), asiscommonfor abridgedeck, or for individual
membersinatruss, m
e
< m
0
; for example, for auniformsimplysupportedbeamm
e
=(ʌ/4)wo,
andthepeakdisplacement is4/ʌ timesthesingledegreeof freedomestimatefor thegiven
valuesof CL andm0. For chimneys, it iscommonpracticetousethemeanvalueof m(x)
takenover thetopthirdof theheight. Thisrollsupinaroughandreadywaytheincrease
givenbythequotient of modal integralswiththeobserveddecreaseof CL near thefreeendof
theprism. Thedegreeof reductionbytheendeffect isbelievedtobeaffectedbychimney
efflux, but thisisill explored. Theeffectsof taper andof thevariationof meanwindspeed
withheight areaddressedlater.
Thenormalizedreductionof thedeterministicresponseequationsisnoteworthy; thereisno
independent mentionof frequencyor modeorder. Thephenomenonof lock-on(seealso
Section3.2.4) causesthevortexstreet toreversephaseat thenodes, sothat eachinternodal
lengthaddsconsistentlytotheexcitation(i.e. theintegral inthedenominator of theequation
for m
e
shouldbewritten Thusif resonanceinmorethanonemodeispossible
withinthepossiblerangeof windspeed, thepredicteddisplacement amplitudeswill besimilar,
subject onlytomarginal correctionaccordingtothemodeshapeintegrals. Theinternal
stressesdevelopedinthestructurewill, however, increase. For alongsimplysupportedbeam,
theshapeof modej isgiven by, sothecurvatureandthusbendingstresses
increaseas j
2
, andabroadlysimilar patternappliestomost flexural structures. For acable, the
structural criterionislikelytobeangular deflectionat theattachments, whichincreases
linearlywithj.
Fortunately, thevaluesof C
L
andK
s
are such that Ș is usually small; values exceeding 0.2
areuncommon. Furthermore, theaerodynamicinput isself-limitingat valuesof y/D lessthan
unity, althoughvaluesat theworst point, suchasthetip
Page85
of acantilever, especiallyinmodesother thanthefundamental, maysomewhat exceedunity,
beingdrivenbyexcitationat sectionswheretheamplitudeislower.
3.2.3 Vortex shedding: slender elements, cables
Inmost casesthefundamental modeof vibrationisthedominant concern, becausethisclearly
givesthelowest critical speed. Particularlyinthecaseof chimneys, thelarge(typically
sixfold) frequencydifferencebetweenfirst andsecondmodescommonlyhastheeffect that
thecritical windspeedfor thesecondmodeisinexcessof themaximumthat mayoccur at the
locationinquestion. At theother extreme, veryslender members, includingcables, mayreach
theresonanceconditionuptoquiteahighmodenumber. Thevertical motionsof thedeckof
thefirst TacomaNarrowsbridgethat persistedfor alargepart of itslife(as opposedtothe
eventual destructivetorsional motion), providingthespectacular filmfootageof vehiclesin
deckwavesinwhichtheyalmost disappearedfromview, wereof thiskind. Theswitching
betweenmodeswithchangeof windspeed, uptoaseven-nodecaseat speed14m/s, clearly
identifiedvortexsheddingandgavenoconcernfor earlystructural failure.
Theoncefamiliar audiblefrequencyvibrationof overheadelectrictelegraphandtelephone
linescomesinthiscategory, andthismechanismhasbeenreferredtoas‘aeolianvibration’ on
thepresumptionthat thiswastheAeolianharpof classical mythology. Consider the
suspenderssupportingthedeckof asuspensionbridge. Thestretchedstringnatural frequency
for acablewithmaterial densityȡ
s
carryingtensilestressf
T
is
(3.33)
in which Ȝ is the internodal length (halI-wavelength). Thusfor f
T
=300N/mm
2
(say) and
, (Hz, munits). For acableof diameter D=50mm, thecritical
windspeedisthus (m/sec, munits). Thecurvatureassociatedwithadefined
displacement amplitudeincreaseswith increasing mode order, inversely as the square oI Ȝ, so
withaspiral laidcable, themodesequencewill becurtailedbyincreasingdampingdueto
interwirefriction. Lowmodesinthiscasewill giveatrivial valueof critical speedand
structural stressing. Thesuspender cablesontheSevernBridge, for example, showed
oscillationover arangeof modesimmediatelyafter construction, prior tofitment of dampers.
Themost seriousobservedresponseof alongsuspender (L=80m) wasconsideredtobethat
withfourteenintermediatenodes, Ȝ=5.3m, n=19Hz, occurringatV
c
=4.8m/s.
It isnormal practicetoprotect suchcables(alsomajor electricitytransmissionlines) by
additional damping, commonlybyStockbridge-typedampers. Thesecompriseasubstantial
mass(18kgfor protectionof theaboveexample, equal toabout 2per cent of thecablemass)
attachedtothecablebyashort lengthof spiral strand. Thelatter isclampedtothecableso
that it actsasacantilever inbending
Page86
withsubstantial dampingderivedfrominterwirefriction; thedeviceisthusasimpleformof
inertial damper, albeit not optimizedasaTunedMassDamper (TMD) for anyonespecific
mode. It isattachednear theendof thecable, acceptingareductionof effectivenessoverall in
order toavoidthecircumstanceof coincidencewithanodeinanyof themodesfor which
protectionisrequired. Suchaugmentationof dampingisonlynecessaryfor suchaheavy
prism(equivalent densityabout 6t/m
2
for steel spiral strand, 3.5t/m
2
typical for composite
steel andaluminiumconductors) becausethestructural dampingat lowamplitudesis
exceptionallylow; valuesaslowaslogarithmicdecrement į=0.003havebeenquoted. The
Reynoldsnumber isalsounfavourable.
3.2.4 Reynolds number, size number, lock-on
Reynoldsnumber Re=VD/v, hasastronginfluenceonvortexsheddingfrommemberswhere
flowseparationtakesplacefromacurvedsurface. Thekinematicviscosityof air
v=1.5×10
í5
m
2
/secunder normal ambient conditions, sotheabovebasicdefinitiongives
R
e
=0.7×10
5
VD. For acircular sectionachangeinthemeanpositionof separationtendsto
occur at about R
e
=3.5×10
5
. For alimitedrangeabovethisvalue, the‘supercritical range’,
vortexsheddingtendstobelesswell organized, givingmuchweaker excitationthaninthe
subcritical range. Wootton(1969) pointedout that substitutingthecritical valueof reduced
velocitytoreplaceV inReynoldsnumber gavea‘sizenumber’ , suchthat theReynolds
number at resonanceisequal tothesizenumber dividedby VRC-With , the
condition islikelytoensurefreedomfromseriousexcitation. It will benotedthat the
cableexamplegivesamuchlower valueof sizenumber; for 19Hz,
Lightingcolumnsandmastsgivelowvaluesof nD
2
inthefundamental mode, and
generallyalsointhesecondmode. Asanindicationof thelatter, a15mmast mayhavea
secondmodefrequencyof 5Hz. Thecrucial diameter for lockonislikelytobearoundthe
mid-height, typicallylessthan0.2m, givingnD
2
<0.2. Chimneys, however, tendtogivemuch
higher values. A concretechimneyof 2:1taper andheight tentimesthebasediameter will
haveanatural frequencyabout 70/h (Hz, givenheighth inmetres). 1.0Hz wouldthenbe
associatedwithheight 70mandthediameter at, for example, 0.8habovegroundwouldbe
4.2m, giving . Inthis‘transcriticaP rangerelativelywell organizedvortexshedding
isagainobserved. havebeenrecommendedfor thesubcritical range, 0.25–0.40
for thetranscritical range.
Thefavourablerangeisof greatest significancefor individual tubular membersmakingup
latticestructures. Thenatural frequencyfor acircular steel tubemember of lengthL canbe
expressedby
(3.34)
inwhicht isthewall thicknessandcf isafixityfactor, equal tounityfor simple
Page87
supports. Thedimensionsmust beexpressedinmetres. For chordmembers, cf iscommonly
not muchgreater thanunity, whereasfor bracingmemberscf istypicallyabout 1.9
(correspondingtoEI/L valuesfor thebracingaroundone-quarter of thevaluefor thechord).
For full endfixity, cf=2.27. Toachieve , theaboveequationgivesthelimiting
slendernessas
(3.35)
For atubular bracingwith mandcf=1.9, thefavourablesizenumber range
correspondsto . Significantlyhigher valuesof L/D thangivenbythisconditionwill
leadtounfavourablesubcritical resonance, whichshouldbeavoidedunlessahighvalueof K
s
isassured, exceeding20or 25.
It haslongbeenappreciatedthat motionof thestructureledtolockingof theshedding
frequencytothestructural frequencyover arangeof reducedvelocityextendingfrom
marginallybelowthevaluegivenbythereciprocal of thestationarybodyStrouhal number to
avaluetypicallysome30per cent larger. Verysmall movementsaresufficient, possiblyas
lowasǔ=0.015D. Asthecoefficient of alternatinglift canbesustainedover muchof this
range, themaximumresponsemaybeincreased, occurringat ahigher speedthangivenbythe
stationarybodyV
RC
.
It isapparent, however, that thiseffect hasanequallyimportant actioninencouraging
coherent excitationinthefaceof contraryfactors, whichincludethevariationof meanspeed
over theheight of avertical or inclinedstructure, taper of thestructure(givingapro-rata
variationof thenominal resonancespeed), gusts(continuallyvaryinglocal speeds) andindeed
theinherent randomnessof theabove-critical separatedflow. A parametricstudyof chimneys
at Reynoldsnumbersupto2×10
6
wascarriedout intheNational Physical Laboratory
compressedair-windtunnel (Wootton, 1969). It wasnotedthat whereasreductionof the
Scrutonnumber from16to8typicallycausedanincreaseof r.m.s. responsetipdisplacement
from0.01Dto0.015D(inlinewithpredictionbythestochasticmodel describedbelow
presumingrelativelypoor synchronizationof sheddingover thelengthof thestructure),
further reductionto K
s
=4causedthedisplacement torisesixfold, tomorethan0.1D.
Thelock-oneffect isof special importanceinpromotingawell organizednet excitationin
turbulent or shearedflow, althoughalarger amplitudemayberequiredtoachieveanequal
result. Notingthat for thefundamental modeof achimney, themajorityof themodal
excitationisderivedfrom(say) thetopthirdof theheight, lock-oniscommonlypresumedto
beeffectiveover thislengthif itstaper doesnot exceedabout 20per cent (±10per cent on
meandiameter). Shear, asrepresentedbythechangeinthemeanspeed, isgenerallylessthan
this(e.g. apower lawwithindex0.15givesavariationof only±3per cent over thetopthird
of theheight.
3.2.5 Stochastic modelling of vortex shedding
Ignoring, for themoment, thefeedbackof structural motion, thedegreeof randomness
inherent inboundarylayer andwakeeffectssuggestsapplicationtothis
Page88
problemof theproceduresdevelopedfor gust responseanalysis. Thishasprovedparticularly
fruitful for circular sectionsinthetranscritical flowregimeandinthepresenceof turbulence
intheincident flow(VickeryandBasu, 1984; ESDU, 1986a).
Thecrosswindforceper unit lengthp(z) isexpressedbythepower spectrum
(3.36)
inwhichq isthekinematicpressurecorrespondingtothemeanwindspeed. Followingthegust
analysismodel, thisisnormalizedtogive
(3.37)
andauniversal shapeispostulatedfor theterminsquarebrackets. FollowingVickery, the
algebraicformof theGaussianprobabilitydensityfunctioniscommonlyused, defininga
bandwidthparameter B
S
suchthat thepeakordinate(at thecentral frequencyn=n
s
determined
fromtheStrouhal number) is
Themethodologyof thegust analysisisfurther followedtowritethevalueof thespectrum
of themodal generalizedforceP at theresonant frequencyn
j
(3.38)
Theaerodynamicadmittanceexpressesthecorrelationof theexcitationalongthelengthof the
prism, anddependsonthenormalizedco-spectrumandthemodeshapefunctionsasbefore.
Intheabsenceof lockon, inthecaseof turbulent incident flow, transcritical Reynolds
number andlowstructural damping, thecorrelationdecaysrapidlywithincreasingseparation
andissufficientlyexpressedfor all practical purposesbytheintegral scaleL
C
of the
normalizedcospectrumof ý
L
(denotedR
CL
); LC isusuallyreferredtoasthe‘correlation
length’. For locationsz andz', R
CL
isafunctiononlyof theseparation (i.e.
TheDavenport ‘diagonal’ approximation
anditsextensionbyapplyingeqn3.17throughtheconcept of aneffectiveheight
isequallyuseful hereasingust analysis. Finally, for thelikelylow
valueof structural damping, thebandwidthof themechanical admittance(frequencyresponse
function) ispresumedsmall comparedwiththebandwidthof theexcitation, andthewhite
noiseclosedformsolutionfor theresponsevarianceisagoodconservativeapproximation, i.e.
(3.39)
inwhichY
j
andK
j
arethemodal generalizeddisplacement andstiffness, respectively. An
approximatequasi-staticloadingfor adesigncheck isreadilydefinedfromthemodal analysis.
Page89
It will benotedthat threeparametersdefinetheeffectiveexcitation: , BsandL
C
. All
arepresumablysensitivetomotionof thestructure, but inanoverall physical visualizationof
lock-on, thedominant effect mayperhapsbest beenvisagedasaconstraint onthephaseof
shedding. Thisisincompatiblewithsimplespectral visualization. Thefamiliar actionin
whichphase, relativetotheelasticforces, iscrucial isdamping, andVickerytherefore
visualizedlock-onasanegativedampingactionsuperimposedonthebasicexcitation, aswell
asthesimpler effect of ensuringauniformcentral frequencyof sheddingover arangeof
height inthepresenceof moderatetaper andmeanspeedprofile. Thisnegativedampingis
normalizedinthesamewayaspositivestructural damping, asamodifiedScrutonnumber,
whichwill benegative. For chimneys, presumingthecritical event tolieinthetranscritical
regimeandturbulencelevelstypical of theneutral stabilityatmosphericboundarylayer,
Vickerysuggests , B
s
=0.3andL
C
=1.ODto1.5D, together withaerodynamic
dampingequivalent to . Theaerodynamic dampingiscombinedwith
structural damping(į
s
) intheresponsevarianceequation(i.e. , withį
a
negative),
sofor astructurewithbasicScrutonnumber K
s
=15, lockonwouldhalvetheeffective
dampingandincreaseresponsebyafactor of 2, but if thebasicvaluewereonly K
s
=7.6, the
responsewouldincreasewithout limit. A termmodellingdampingforcesproportional tothe
cubeof theresponseamplitudecanbeaddedtothelinear dampingwhichleadstosimple
Scrutonnumber normalization, inorder toexpresstheself-limitingnatureof vortexexcitation
at amplitudesof theorder of D(Vickery, 1981).
TheESDU approachcommenceswithevaluationof aso-calledbroadbandformulation, by
whichisdenotedaninput spectrumbroadbycomparisonwiththefrequencyresponse
function, asinVickery’smodel. Thestructural responsewill, however, benarrowband
dominatedbythestructural natural frequency, albeit withabroadlymodulatedamplitude, and
themaximumvalueistakenasfour timesther.m.s. Another spectrallybasedmodel hasbeen
postulatedfor thelockedoncondition, inwhichtheforcebandwidthistreatedasif narrowby
comparisonwiththefrequencyresponsefunction. Althoughoriginatingfromthesameschool
asVickery, thecontinuingapplicationhasbeeninthesedataitems(ESDU 85038, etc.)
(ESDU, 1986a). Inbothformulations andL
c
aretreatedasincreasingwithamplitude,
but inthesecondmodel thebandwidthassumptiongivesreversiontothesamefunctional
formasthebasicdeterministicmodel, withtheadditionof acorrelationadmittance. The
responseinthesecondmodel isdeemedtobeconstant amplitudesinusoidal, givingthepeak
valueas timesther.m.s. Theoutcomeispresumedtobewhichever model givesthegreater
peakresponse.
3.2.6 Other vortex shedding problems: proximity, alongwind and ovalling
excitation
Anystructureplacedinavortexstreet originatingfromanother structurenearbyis
Page90
likelytosuffer stronger periodicexcitationthantheoriginatingbody. Thiscommonlyarises
whereapower station, for example, isservedbytwoor morechimneys. Clearlythisonly
operateswhenthewindiswithinasmall rangeof direction, but extendstoseparationsas
largeas15timesthediameter. Themost unfavourableeffectsoccur whenthechimneysare
identical, asresonant motionof theupwindelement leadingtoenhancedregularityof the
vortexstreet will coincidewithresonanceof theaffecteddownwindelement. For thiscaseit
hasbeensuggestedthat responseof thedownwindelement maybetwicethat predictedfor an
isolatedstackif theseparationis5D, or 1.5timestheisolatedvalueif theseparationis10D
(Vickery, 1981; seealsoinformativeannexC.3.2.3of theEurocodeENV 1991–2–4).
Seriousconsiderationmust begiventothisproblemwhenslender modernstructuresare
locatedinproximitytoexistingstructurescausinggreater disturbancetotheflow. Theeffect
maybetopresent asignificantlyorganizedvortexstreet, changingwithincreasingseparation
togreater resemblanceof anormal turbulencefieldbut withstronglyenhancedstrengthinthe
rangeof frequencieslikelytoembracethestructural resonant frequency. Theterm‘buffeting’
hasbeenexpresslyappliedtothiseffect inUK usage, indistinctionfromitsapplicationto
turbulenceeffectsingeneral intheaeronautical fieldandelsewhere. Theseminal example
wasthedecisiontobuildastiff latticearchbridgeinplaceof theproposedsuspensionbridge
over theMerseyat Runcom, inproximitytothenineteenthcenturythroughtrussrailway
bridge(Scrutonet al., 1955; Grillaudet al., 1992; Bietryet al., 1994).
Twoother resonant potential responsestovortexsheddingshouldbeborneinmind,
althoughgenerallyout of rangeor readilycircumventedwhentheexcitationderivesfromthe
natural wind. Thereisaweakin-lineexcitation, withonecyclefor eachvortexshed, giving
resonanceat one-half of thecross-flowresonancewindspeed. TheScrutonnumber limit to
effectivelyavoidastructural problemisperhapsK
s
=7. Thishasbeenobservedwithwind
excitationonlyinexceptional circumstancessuchasaluminiumtubular membersinaframe
withverylowdamping, but canbeaseriousprobleminwater (e.g. for pilecolumns
supportingajetty). Thesecondphenomenonpossibleat this reducedvelocityisexcitationof
theovallingmodeof thestructural section, whichshouldbecircumventedbyensuringa
sufficientlyhighfrequency, bystiffeningif necessary, sothat resonanceisout of thepractical
windspeedrange.
3.2.7 Vortex shedding: design rules for circular sections
Thewindspeedcorrespondingtoresonanceat theStrouhal frequencyfor astationarystructure
canberobustlyestimated, andif thisexceedsthepractical windspeedfor thesite, nofurther
actionisrequired. If not (asiscommonlythecase), thestressescausedbyresonant response
must bechecked. Lockonmayleadtoaslightlygreater responseat awindspeedperhaps20
per cent greater thanthebasicStrouhal resonance; for transcritical Reynoldsnumber (nD
2
significantly
Page91
exceedingunity) it isarguablewhether suchrefinement isappropriate, giventheinherent
uncertaintyinthisproblem.
BS8100(Latticetowersandmasts) usesadeterministicmodel witharather complex
notationandpresentation. Inthenotationof thischapter, ý
L
=0.3(transcritical Reynolds
number ispresumed) andprimaryresonanceisassumedat V
cr
=5n
j
D. Toallowfor lockonat
higher speeds, acorrectionfactor k
e
ispresentedgraphically; thegraphical presentationis
poor but it isapparentlyintendedthat windspeed1.2V
cr
givesaneffectiveý
L
V
2
about 8per
cent greater thanthebasicvalue
Stochasticmodelscanbeexpectedtogiveasmaller response. Thenegativeaerodynamic
dampingconcept wasimplementedinCommentaryB totheCanadianNational Building
Code(NBC) in1980. Theparameter valuessuggestedbyVickery, asgivenonpage89, are
supplementedbyaformulationfor admittancewhichcanbewrittenas J=J
as
K
AR
, inwhichJ
as
istheDavenport ‘diagonal’ valuefor thecorrelationfactor, andK
AR
combinesallowancesfor
theapproximationthereinandfor theaerodynamiceffect of thefreeend. Thebasicvalue
givenis (but ), inwhichh istheheight of thechimney(or, for
moderatelytaperedchimneys, threetimesthelengthdeemedtohavesheddinglockedon). A
closer approximation(but disregardingtheendeffect) wouldbegivenby (cf
thegust analysis, page77); for atypical first modeshapethiswouldagreeat h/D=12andbe
somewhat smaller thantheCodevaluefor moreslender chimneys.
Thefirst moderesonancesolutionwasexpressedintheNBC Commentarybyanequivalent
staticload(PL, say, per unit length) actingover thetopthirdof theheight. Thisisset equal to
thetheoretical inertial loadintensityat thetopof thechimney, whichwiththeinput valuesfor
normal turbulencewindconditions, expressedinthenotationof thischapter, is
(3.40)
inwhichthemassper unit lengthmisaveragedover thetopthird. Asnotedearlier (Section
3.2.5), thedenominator canbewrittenintermsof theScrutonnumber, emphasizingthe
importanceof thisnormalizedparameter. Thecorrespondingnormalizedtipdeflectioncan
thenbewrittenas
(3.41)
Bycomparisonwiththedeterministicsolutiontakingý
L
=0.3, usingthemodeshape
approximation (whichgivesthemodal integral quotient
, thestochasticresult issmaller byafactor
(3.42)
Page92
For aslender concretechimneywithh=12D andį=0.04(say), thisfactor is
. If furthermoreD/t=40(say) at thereferenceheight for evaluationof K
s
(height z=5h/6issuggested), thenK
s
=12(takingstructural massonly(i.e. unlined)) andthe
givenstochasticestimateis40per cent of thedeterministicvalue.
For lowturbulenceconditions, theCanadiancodegivesdoubledvaluesfor boththebasic
excitingforcecoefficient andthenegativedampingfactor. K
s
must thereforerobustlyexceed
2×7.6=15; theaboveexamplewouldbeunacceptable. Thepossibilityof lowturbulencemust
clearlybeapproachedwithseverecaution, withregardtothefrequencyof occurrence(or
upper limit of co-existent windspeed) of astablystratifiedflowwithtemperaturelapserate
inversion. A deterministiccheckmayparticularlybeadvisable.
TheCICIND(1999) recommendationsfor steel chimneyspresent arather complicated
algebraic Iormulation Ior Ș. This is based on curve Iitting the Ioregoing stochastic model Ior
small amplituderesponse, combinedwithasharplockoneffect asthetipamplitudeexceeds
about 0.01D(r.m.s.) but withaself-limitingreductionof excitationfor amplitudesexceeding
about 0.2D (r.m.s.). Four different parameter setsaregiventocover subcritical and
transcritical Reynoldsnumber andnormal andlowlevelsof turbulence(thresholdspeedsfor
thelatter beingspecified). Thelarger amplituderesponsepredictionsarebasedlargelyon
experienceinDenmarkandinPolandwherechimneyswithveryhighslenderness h/D) have
allowedsurvival of suchamplitudes(cf eqn(3.45)), but it isquestionablehowfar thisshould
beexploitedindesign.
Theguidancefor concretechimneysproducedbytheAmericanConcreteInstitute, theACI
Manual of Concrete Practice part 307(ACI 307–95) isanother elaborationof thisformat. The
analysisremainsessentially unchanged, but manyof theparameterstreatedhithertoassimple
constantsarenowdependent onintensityof turbulenceand/or aspect ratio. Guidanceisgiven
onapplicationtothesecondcantilever mode, andtocombinationwiththeeffect of alongwind
forceswhenthecritical speedisapproachingthedesignwindspeed. Thenet changes
operativeinturbulent windaretypicallymodestlyfavourable, but theproblemsposedbylow
turbulenceappear tobeviewedverylightlyinthisCode.
TheEurocodeENV 1991–2–4informativeAnnexC presentsacompromiseprocedure
developedbyRuscheweyh(1982, seealsoRuscheweyhet al., 1988), supplementedinENV
1993–3–2for chimneys. Thebasicresponseequation(ENV 1991–2–4equationC.4) hasthe
formof thedeterministicmodel; theexcitationisdefinedintermsof acoefficient for ther.m.s.
valueof loadper unit length(denotedc
lat
) anda‘correlationlength’ (denotedL
j
) over which
themodal forceintegral isevaluatedfollowingthedeterministicformat. L
j
isafunctionof the
responseamplitude, but unfortunatelythisparameter combinestheconsiderationof
correlationandthefactor tobeappliedtother.m.s. toobtainadesignvalue. Thegivenvalues
arethusnot readilycomparablewithother procedures; for responseamplitudeslessthan0.1D,
L
j
=6D, but increasesto12D if theresponseamplitudeismorethan0.2D. Thehighthreshold
for theeffect of motiononL
j
Page93
impliesthepresumptionof asubstantial intensityof turbulence. c
lat
isgivenas0.7for
Reynoldsnumber lessthan3×10
5
(nD
2
=0.2), fallingrapidlyto0.2, whichisapplicablefor
1.5<nD
2
<12. Theeventual transcritical valueis c
lat
=0.3onlyreachedat nD
2
=30.
Further reviewof theEurocodeprocedureisgivenbyDyrbyeandHansen(1997), with
extensivecomment onrecent practical experienceanddesigncomparisonswiththeCanadian
recommendations. It isinterestingtonotethat procedureswithbroaddifferencesin
formulationconvergetogivesimilar predictionsfor middleof therangestructures.
3.2.8 Vortex shedding: design impact and countermeasures
It wassuggestedinSection3.2.4that individual structural members maybenefit fromthe
intrinsicweaknessof excitationintherange , whichfor bracingmembersintrusses
withfull continuityconnectionsimplieslimitationof L/D toabout 33, correspondingtoa
structural slendernessratioof 0.7L/r=65. Asamoreslender member iscommonlymore
economicstructurally, explorationof thelimit of thefavourablerangeishighlydesirable. A
sophisticatedextensionof thesimpleReynolds’ number hasbeenpresentedbyESDU (1986a)
takingaccount of small scalecomponentsof turbulenceandthesurfaceroughnessof the
structuretogiveaneffectivevalueR
ee
. Thisisdifficult tointerpret andtocalibrateagainst
existingexperience, especiallywithregardtosurfaceroughness. Thelower limit of the
favourablerangeshouldthereforenot bepresumedsubstantiallybelownD
2
=1 .
A greater L/D impliessubcritical resonance, andtoensurefreedomfromthelockon
enhancement of excitation(andof thecumulativetimeover whichsufficient responseto
causefatiguedamagecouldbesustained) ahighvalueof K
s
iscalledfor; K
s
=25hasbeen
suggestedinguidancefor weldedtubular towersfor serviceoffshorepreparedonbehalf of the
UK Department of Energy(BRV, 1990). For asteel tube, wall thickness t, K
s
canbere-
expressed
(3.43)
Unfortunatelythevalueof į isdifficult topredict. For fullyweldedstructurestheparamount
sourceof dampingistheattachment of non-structural ‘ancillaries’, commonlyinvolving
boltingand/or frictional grips. If amember hasnosuchattachments, dampingmaybevery
low, perhapsaslowas0.15per cent critical (Doucet andNordhus, 1987) or logarithmic
decrement į=0.009. Inpracticethereisoftensignificant dispersionof energythroughthe
structure, givinganenhancedeffectivevalueof K
s
.
Robust expectationof satisfactoryperformancewithį=0.009wouldrequirelimitationof
D/t toabout 14, whichisclearlycontrarytocurrent practice. For compressionmembers,
slendernessratioconsiderationscommonlyencouragemuchhigher valuestowardsthe
constraint imposedbylocal bucklingat
Page94
D/t=0.076E/f
y
,, whichis44for yieldstressf
y=
350N/mm
2.
TheDepartment of Energy
guidance(BRV, 1990) includesresponsepredictionbasedontheESDU (1986a) analysis
whichappearsnon-robust asaresult of veryhighsensitivitytothedampingestimate. It will
beseenthat thenD
2
andK
s
criteriaconflict; for agivenmember capacity, increasingD to
meet annD
2
criterionwill diminishK
s
. Thisquestionremainscontroversial.
For steel chimneys economicdesigncommonlypushesD/t to200or even250. At į=0.03
(cf. ENV, 1991) anunlinedchimneythushas , increasedfor alinedchimneyprorata
tothemass. However, isnot arobust lower boundfor anunlinedchimney, and
countermeasuresshouldgenerallybeapplied. Themost commonaerodynamic
countermeasureisthespiral strake(WalsheandWootton, 1970). Thistypicallycomprisesa
three-start spiral projectingabout 0.1D. It hasthedisadvantageof broadlydoublingthequasi-
staticwindloadinthetranscritical regime, theeffectiveforcecoefficient relatedtothebasic
diameter (D) beingabout 1.4. Strakesarecommonlyappliedtothetopthirdof thestackto
protect thefirst mode. A smaller dragpenaltybut at greater structural complexityisoffered
bytheperforatedshroud.
Analternativeof increasingpopularityistheadditionof adampingdevice. A TunedMass
Damper (TMD) optimizedfor thecontrol of harmonicexcitationcangiveveryhighvaluesof
K
s
. Intheideal casethenominal logarithmicdecrement is , inwhichm
D
isthedamper mass(e.g. . Practical departurefromoptimal valuesof
thedamper parameterswill substantiallyreducethis, andit iscommonto‘overdamp’ the
auxiliarymasstoreducesensitivitytoerror andtoreducethemagnitudeof itsrelativemotion.
‘Sloshingfluid’ dampersarealsoavailableinproprietaryform. Dampershavealsobeen
appliedtosimilar problemswithlightingmasts(includinguseof elastomer insertsinthebase
mounting) andwithguyedmasts(includinghangingchainimpact dampers).
It isinstructivetoconsider thecantilever first modestressinfluencefunction. Thebending
stressat thebasecanbewritten
(3.44)
inwhichD
T
andD
B
arethediametersat topandbottom, respectively, andc
tr
isa
factor takingaccount of thetaper profile. For auniformcantilever ctr=1; it isonlyvery
weaklyaffectedbynon-uniformmass, andonlymodestlybynon-uniformsecondmoment of
areaI. WritingI
B
andI
T
for thevaluesof I at thebottomandtopof thechimney, respectively,
theexpressions
(3.45a)
(3.45b)
giveacloseapproximationfor casesof linear diametral taper, andasatisfactoryworking
approximationfor practical steel chimneyswithtwoor morecylindrical
Page95
sectionsandconical transitions. Thus, for f
B
=25N/mm
2
(say, givingstressrange50N/mm
2
to
limit fatiguedamage) theresponselimit for auniformdiameter chimneyis
(e.g. for h/D=20). For anunlinedstackatD/t=200, the
CanadianformulationthenrequiresK
s
=16(turbulent flow). For lowturbulenceconditions, the
deterministicestimatewithý
L
=0.3(for highnD
2
) andthemodifiedCanadianformulation
bothrequireK
s
=32.
For concrete chimneys, if unlined, . TheAmericanConcreteInstitute
codeACI 307allowspresumptionof 1per cent of critical damping, į=0.063.
ThuswithD/t=40, K
s
=20; a50per cent additiontothemassbyarefractoryliner would
increasethisto30. Thus, Ș valuesarecomparablewiththeabovesteel example. However,
H/D valuesarecommonlylower, andfor anuntaperedmulti-fluewindshieldat (say) h/D=14,
theassociatedstrainswill behigher; Ș=0.03thengivesconcretestress(atE=35kN/mm
2
)
f
B
=9N/mm
2.
A 1:0.6diametral taper, retainingh/D
B
=14andwithI
B
/I
T
=8(say, giving
Ctr=0.70), wouldreducethestressto4N/mm2
.
Greater taper wouldleadtomorethan±10
per cent changeof diameter over thetopthirdandthustoreductionof thepredictedresponse
accordingtotheaboverules.
Thefinal wordof thissectionmust betohighlight theimportanceinall assessmentsof
Ɣ thevalueof structural damping;
Ɣ thepossibilityof lowturbulencewindat thecritical speed.
Theoccurrenceof lowturbulenceconditionsvariesverygreatlyaccordingtolocation, andis
generallyill exploredinengineeringguidance.
3.2.9 Vortex shedding: bridges
Thecaseof TacomaBridgehasalreadybeenmentioned. However, thepursuit of improved
deckcross-sectionprofilestoensurefreedomfromstrongtorsional motiongenerallyalsohas
theeffect of reducingthestrengthof excitationbyvortexshedding. Nevertheless, it isin
practiceimpossibletoeliminateit entirely, andit isnecessarytocheckbothfatigueandthe
subjectivereactionof usersof thestructure. Thesubjectivereactioncriterionincorporatedin
theUK DesignRulesfor AerodynamicEffectsonBridgesBD49/93isanaccelerationvalue,
centredonanamplitudeof 0.8m/s
2
, or 8per cent of theaccelerationduetogravity. The
correspondingstructural stresseswill beabout 8per cent of thestressesduetodeadload;
althoughsuchstressesmight poseasignificant fatiguerisk(dependingonfatiguedetail
classificationandonthefrequencyof thewindconditionfor resonance) thesubjective
reactioncriterioniscommonlymoresignificant.
Theamplitudesthusacceptedaregenerallysufficient for lockonensuringvortexshedding
correlatedover asubstantial part of thespan, especiallyintherelativelylowturbulence
environment typical of longspans(estuarial and/or highlevel valleycrossings). The
deterministicmodel, givingaresponseinversely
Page96
proportional totheScrutonnumber, isthereforeusedfor predictionandscalingof windtunnel
results. Thesectiondepth(d) isgenerallyusedbothfor reducedvelocityandScrutonnumber
definition, revealingasomewhat clearer patternthantheoptionof normalizationonthedeck
width(B). Typically, thereducedvelocityV
RC
=V
c
/nd isgivenbyVRC=64+0.5B/d for sections
withB/d<6, V
RC
=1.5B/d for moreslender sections, but withconsiderablescatter (cf. figure2
inWyatt andScruton, 1981).
Excitationstrengthisverysensitivetodetailsof thecross-section, especiallyat theleading
edge, and(becauseof thefeedbackbylock-on) maybesensitivetodamping. Verylowscaled
windtunnel speedsmayalsocreateproblemsif thefull bridgeismodelled. Thesectionmodel
technique, usingalarge-scalemodel of afractionof thespanwhichisspringbornewith
independentlycontrollablefrequencies anddampingismost stronglydesirablefor this
purpose. Unfortunately, it isthennot possibletomodel atmosphericturbulenceat correct
scale. Theeffectsof turbulenceshouldbethought of ascomprisingtwodistinct actions: the
lower spectral frequencieswhichreflect largesizegustswill beseenasachangeinthe
incident speed, whilethehighfrequenciesareassociatedwithlocalizedmomentumtransfer
affectingtheboundarylayer andtendingtopromotereattachment of separatedflow. The
former maybeoverbornebylock-oninconditionsof modest turbulence, whilethelatter is
generallybeneficial.
Therearemuchlarger numbersof roadbridgesandviaductsinthespanrangeuptoabout
70m, but commonlyinlocationswheremuchgreater turbulenceisthenorm. Inmost cases
thecritical speedissufficient tobeout of range, or at least sufficientlyhightomake
subjectiveresponsetomotionof littlepractical concernandtogiveonlyalowpotential rate
of accumulationof fatiguecycles. Careshouldbetakenthat thehighfrequencycomponents
of turbulencearenot over-representedintesting, suggestingalower target valuefor thetotal
intensity, asillustratedby Figure3.5. Footbridgesmaygivegreater concern, althoughthe
needtoavoidadverseresponsetopedestrianexcitationcommonlyleadstostructural forms
givingfrequenciesover 3Hz or tospecial provisionfor damping. Thedeck may, however, be
thin; for example, adeckd=800mm, B=3,200mmat 3Hz givesacritical speedof 19m/s. At
aheight of (say) 6maboveground, thisgivestheassuranceof ahighlevel of turbulence,
typicallyintensity0.25or more. Nevertheless, robust designassessment maybedifficult.
TheUK rulesBD49werebasedonanextensiveparametricstudy, whichsuggestedthat for
deckswithaslender leadingedgedetail inconjunctionwithasubstantial deckcantilever
beyondthemainfaceof thesupportingstructure, theexcitationfactor couldbetakenas
5.8B/d (seetheRulesfor strict definitionof B, d andlimitstoedgedetails). Recognizingthe
greater potential effect of reattachment onwider decks, areductionfactor
wasthenappliedtoaccount for thebeneficial effect of turbulence(SmithandWyatt, 1981). A
default estimateof threetimesthisexcitationwaspostulatedfor decksnot satisfyingtheedge
cantilever requirement, but thecombinationof asolidedgeparapet withgirder structure
belowthedeck wasexplicitlyexcludedasleadingtomoresevere
Page97
Figure 3.5 Turbulence spectra matching for wind tunnel testing.
excitation. Dampingvaluesaresuggestedof logarithmicdecrement 0.03, 0.04, 0.05for steel,
compositeandconcretebridges, respectively. Experiencewithlonger spanssuggeststhose
valuesmaythenbeoptimistic, especiallyfor cablestayedstructuresusingparallel wire
strands(or assembliesof small strands); spiral laidstrandsmayalsohavelowdampingbelow
alimitingfrictionthresholdamplitude, perhapsadeckamplitudeof span/5,000.
Appliedtothefootbridgeintroducedabove, theScrutonnumber might beabout 80, andthe
deterministicpredictionof amplitude(allowing4/ʌ asthequotient of themodeshape
integrals) givesvaluesof
(3.46)
of 0.01to0.03accordingtotheedgearrangement. Anamplitudeof 0.03dwithd=3mand
n=3Hz givesanaccelerationof morethan8m/s
2
, clearlyintolerable. Evenaconcretedeck
withedgeoverhangingwouldraiseseriousconcern. Theabsenceof adversereportsfrom
structuresof thistypesuggeststhat themuchhigher turbulence, andindeedmoregenerally
disturbedflow, hasagreater beneficial effect thancanyet berobustlyquantified.
Themost significant experiencewithamoderncablestayedbridgeisperhapsKessock
Bridge(ontheMorayFirthnear Inverness) (Cullen-Wallace, 1985). Althoughthecritical
speedisashighas22m/s(d=3.25m, n=0.52Hz, B=7d, V
RC
=13) thewinter conditionof cold
water intheMorayFirthandrelativelywarmwindsledtolowturbulenceconditionsat
resonanceandamplitudesexceeding200m. Tunedmassdamperswerethenadded. This
bridgehasnoedgecantilevers. A similar profileat LongsCreekinCanadahadearlier shown
severeoscillationunder winter conditionsof frozensurfaceandbuild-upof iceagainst the
deck-sidebarriers(Wardlaw, 1981), counteredbyaddinganinclinedfacecladding. However,
theconstant depthtrapezoidal beamvalleycrossingat MilfordHaven(CleddauBridge) was
providedwithatunedmassdamper ab initio onwindtunnel evidenceof strongvortex
sheddingexcitation. Thisbridge
Page98
crossesacurving, steepsidedvalley, andtheinferencefromitsbehaviour inserviceisthat the
resultingdisturbancemight havepresentedseriousresponse, evenintheabsenceof
supplementarydamping(WexandBrown, 1981).
Althoughsolidparapetsarestronglyadverse, porouswindshieldingbarriershaveonly
moderateadverseeffect. Theinitial feasibilitystudyfor theSecondSevernCrossing
suggestedthat withfull length3m/50per cent soliditywindshielding, afull ‘streamlined’
enclosureof thegirder structurewouldbenecessarytoreduceexcitation. Intheevent,
satisfactoryperformancehasbeenachievedbypainstakingwindtunnel optimizationof the
edgedetail supplementedbytwonon-structural longitudinal dividersbelowthedeck. The
criterionfor thisdesignwasanaccelerationamplitudelimit of 0.2n
í1/2
m/s
2
(actual n=0.33
Hz).
3.3 AEROELASTIC EXCITATION
3.3.1 The quasi-steady model: galloping
Theconcept of changeinaerodynamicforcesinresponsetothevector resultant relative
velocityhasalreadybeenintroduced, withrespect toaerodynamicdamping, inSection3.1.5.
Thereare, however, circumstancesinwhichaerodynamicdampingbecomesnegative. If the
net damping(algebraicsumof structural andaerodynamiccomponents) becomesnegative, a
harmonicresponseat thenatural frequencywill develop. Unlessstructural failure(or
enhanceddampingduetoinelasticbehaviour at largeamplitudes) intervenes, theamplitude
reachedwill belimitedbynon-linearityof theforcecoefficient relationshiptoamplitude, but
suchamplitudesmaybeverylarge. Theclassicexampleistheoverheadlinewithice
accretion, inwhichamplitudesof several metreshaveoccurredoncablesof afewcentimetres
diameter, commonlyappearingastravellingwavesandgivingthephenomenonof thegeneric
name‘galloping’.
Thebasiclinear quasi-steadymodel isshowninFigure3.6(a), whichpostulatestheformof
variationof lift forcecoefficient withangleof incidencethat isshownbyrectangular prisms
(i.e. negativeover arangeof incidenceclosetoin-linewiththelonger side, asshown).
A perpendicular motiondownwardsasdrawn, causingtherelativeincidencevector tobe
inclinedupwards, will thusresult inachangeof lift tendingtoreinforcethemotion. For the
caseshown, thedownwardvelocityis . Theapparent angleof incidenceis
thus . For small valuesof a, writing and , thisbecomes
andthebodyaxisforceper unit lengthof theprismis
(3.47)
inwhichC
L
andC
D
arethecoefficientsfor lift anddragforcesasshown, referredtoreference
dimensionD. It will beseenthat thepositivedirectionfor Zopposes
Page99
Figure 3.6 (a) Galloping: definitiondiagram; (b) galloping: constructionof force/displacement loop.
themotion. Theenergyinput tothesystemper cycleisthus U
a
(3.48)
Themaximumvalueof thekineticenergyprovidesasimpleestimateof theenergyof
oscillationper unit lengthof prismU(say). Theenergydissipatedbydampingbycycle is
thus
(3.49)
Theconditionfor instability thusgivesthecritical velocityVc, or the
correspondingreducedvelocity V
RC
,
(3.50)
inwhichK
s
istheScrutonnumber
Page100
Theforegoinglinearizedanalysisisgenerallysufficient for civil engineeringcases, but for
flexiblesystemstolerant of verylargedisplacements, it maybenecessarytoestimatelimiting
amplitudestakingaccount of thefull patternof C
L
(or Cz) asafunctionof incidence. Figure
3.6(b) showsagraphical constructionof theforcedisplacement loop. Startingfroma
postulatedamplitudeǔ, withcorrespondinga, considerationof successivepairsof valuesof ÿ
andy leadstoaplot whichmaycomprisebothenergyinput (continuousshading) and
dissipation(broken-lineshading). Thelimitingamplitudeisfoundbytrial anderror suchthat
thenet input balancesthedissipationbydamping. Closedformalgebraicprocedureshavealso
beenpresented, commencingwithapolynomial curvefit for C
z
(Parkinson, 1965, Novak,
1972). Althoughthedominant parametersarenormalizedinthesamegroupingasfor the
vortexsheddingphenomenon, theresultingbehaviour patternsaredistinct:
Ɣ vortexshedding—critical speedV
RC
fixed, responseamplitudessensitivetoK
s
;
Ɣ galloping—critical speedV
RC
proportional toK
s
, amplitudeslikelytorisetomuchlarger
valuesthantypical of vortexsheddingwhenV
R
>V
RC
Unfortunatelyinteractionsbetweenthesemechanismsof excitationcommonlydistort the
clarityof interpretation. Figure3.7showsthreerectangular prismstestedaspart of the
Department of Transport study(Wyatt andScruton, 1981) undertakentosupport theUK
DesignRules (BD49; SmithandWyatt, 1981). Thefirst case(deckwidthB equal tothedepth
d) showsvortexsheddingat V
R
=
7 andgallopingfairlydistinct at perhapsV
R
=0.5K
s
. Thethird
case(B=3d) showsveryclear vortexsheddingat V
R
=10, but noevidenceof gallopingwithin
therangeof thetests(V
R
<1.5K
s
). Theintermediatecaseclearlyhassomecharacteristicsof
bothmechanisms, stronglymodified. Toshowthesevaluesinperspective, asteel box(e.g. a
bridgegirder duringerection) B=2d, platethicknessd/150(plusallowance50per cent to
masstoallowfor stiffeners, transverseelements, etc.) anddampinglogdec0.03, wouldhave
K
s
approximately20.
3.3.2 Flutter of bridge decks
Anaerofoil, whether aflat plateor aslender smoothoutlineprism, doesnot showthe
‘negativelift slope’ whichisthekeytogalloping. However, violent self-excitedoscillationof
aircraft wingshaslongbeenrecognizedasapotential hazard, under thename‘flutter’.
Analysisbasedontheaerofoil flutter model hasprovedremarkablyuseful for slender bridges.
Thisprovestobeessentiallyacoupling phenomenon, combiningmodesof vibrationwhichin
still air arequitedistinct, anddependent onthedepartureof flowpatternsandresultingforces
fromthequasi-steadymodel. Thisdepartureisnot onlyaquestionof magnitude, but alsoof
phaseshift betweenmotionandforce. A commonmethodof descriptionisbydefining
coefficientsfor theforcecomponentsproportional toinstantaneousvaluesof therateof
changeof thedisplacementsaswell astothedisplacementsthemselves; these‘derivative
coefficients’ arediscussedfurther inSection3.3.4.
Page101
Figure 3.7 Interactionof vortexsheddingwithgallopingexcitation.
For anideal aerofoil thereisananalyticsolution, convenientlywrittenincomplexnumber
notation(Fung, 1955). Thequasi-staticsolutionisaforceequivalent toalift coefficient
(takingthedeckwidthB asthereferencedimension) whichactsat thequarter-
chordpoint (B/4fromtheupwindedge). For thispurposetheapparent instantaneousangleof
incidence(Į
a
) isbasedontheratioof thenet vertical velocityat thethree-quarters-chordpoint
tothefreestreamvelocity. All forcesinharmonicmotion(componentsinphaseandin
quadratureof lift andtorqueassociatedwithbothvertical andtorsional motions) arethen
Page102
Figure 3.8 Ideal aerofoil behaviour: Theodorsen’sfunction.
givenbyscalingthequasi-staticsolutionbyasinglecomplexfactor, generallygivenas
Theodorsen’sfunction, C=F+jG, inwhich. Tablesof F andGareavailableasa
functionof reducedvelocity(e.g. V
R
=V/nB), or itsreciprocal, areducedfrequencycommonly
writtenfollowingaeronautical practiceas k÷Ȧb/J, inwhichȦisthecircular frequencyandb
isthesemichord( ) (Fung, 1955). Thus . Figure3.8showsthevariationof F
andGover therangeof V
R
of practical interest for bridges. Theseverityof departurefromthe
quasi-steadysolution(F=1, G=0) will benoted.
Becausethelift actsat adistanceB/4infront of thecentreline, it actstoincreasetwist,
analogoustoanegativestiffness, andthetorsional natural frequencythusfallswithincreasing
windspeed. Thetorsional natural frequency (nș) of practical bridgestructuresishigher than
thevertical (n
y
), sothedifferential isreduced. Classical flutter istheculminationof this
process, whentheforcesresultingfrommotioncombinetosustainanoscillationcombining
vertical andtorsional motionsat thesamefrequency. Thecritical windspeedisrevealedby
discoveryof acombinationof speed, relativevertical andtorsional amplitudes, andphase
angle, satisfyingtheequationsof motionbut inwhichtheactual responsemagnitudebecomes
indeterminate.
Theideal aerofoil solutionfor thecaseof adeck withexactlymatchingvertical and
torsional modeshapesandr
2=
0.1B
2
(inwhichr isthemassradiusof gyration), undamped, is
giveninFigure3.9. Thesolutionisnot verysensitivetomodal mismatchor ther/B ratio, and
isinsensitivetostructural damping. Theresponsegrowsveryrapidlyif thecritical speedis
exceeded. Theimportanceof resistancetocouplingbyahighfrequencyratioor highinertiais
clear, althoughhighinertiaaloneisnot sufficient if thefrequencyratioisunfavourable.
Selberg(1961) showedthat for awiderangeof practical circumstances, anexcellent
Page103
Figure 3.9 Ideal aerofoil behaviour: critical speedsfor flutter.
approximationtotheideal aerofoil flutter speedis V
fi
givenby
(3.51)
Manyslender bridges, especiallythosewithinclinedwebboxstiffeningstructure, canachieve
agoodapproximationtotheaerofoil behaviour, suggestingdefinitionof an‘aerofoil
efficiency’ of thecross-sectionprofile, Ș (say), definedby
(3.52)
inwhichV
Rf
, V
Ri
arerespectivelythe‘actual’ critical valueof reducedvelocity, andthe‘ideal’
valuefromthechart or approximatedbytheSelbergformula. For sectionssuchastheSevern
BridgeȘ reachesmorethan0.9. Generalizedvaluesfor simpleslender deck shapeshavebeen
proposedbyKlöppl andThiele(1967).
3.3.3 Strong torsional excitation: ‘Tacoma Syndrome’
If thebridgedeckassemblypresentsconsiderablevertical faces, especiallyastheratioof deck
widthtodepthfalls(say, below15:1), it islikelythat theflutter efficiencyconcept will fail to
offer auseful representationof theactual sensitivitytofrequencyratio, withtheeventual
development of strongexcitationof singledegreeof freedomtorsional motion, suchasthe
destroyedTacomaNarrowsin1940. Thisremainspoorlyunderstood, anddesignvalidation
dependsentirelyon
Page104
Figure 3.10 Stabilityenvelopefor bluff sectionbridge.
empirical evidence, mostlyobtainedfromsectionmodel windtunnel testingalthough
‘discretevortex’ computational fluiddynamicsisnowaddingtosuchstudies(Larsen, 2000).
Thecritical speedisalsolikelytoshowincreasedsensitivitytostructural damping, asshown
onFigure3.10.
3.3.4 Comprehensive description of motion dependent forces: Scanlan’s notation
Thecalculationproceduresdevelopedtoevaluateflutter speedsfromtheaerofoil solutionfor
forcescanbeextendedtoaccept empirical valuesof thederivatives. A number of notations
havebeenproposed, withthesystemdevelopedover manyyearsbyScanlan(Simiuand
Scanlan, 1986) gainingwidest acceptance. Thelift (L) andtorsional couple(M) resultingfrom
harmonicvertical motiony androtationĮ (andtheir timedifferentialsÿ, Į) arecommonly
writtenas
(3.53a)
(3.53b)
definingtheeight derivatives and . It will benotedthat anadaptationof
aeronautical notationisused; great careisneededininterpretationof papersonthistopicin
viewof numerical factorsarisingfromtheusageof b or B andsignchangesaccordingto
whether thepositivedirectionof displacement isthesameor opposingthat of therespective
force. If thenormalizedfrequencyistakenasK÷BȦ/J (2k intheaeronautical usagegiven
above) andforcesaretakenpositiveinthesamedirectionastherespectivedisplacements, the
valuesof thederivativesagreewiththosegiveninDyrbyeandHansen(1997).
Theformstakenbythesederivativesintermsof Theodorsen’sfunctionfor thecaseof ideal
aerofoil behaviour areset out infull byDyrbyeandHansen(1997:151), whoalsoprovidea
valuablecritiqueof thisincreasinglyprominent approach. Inthewindtunnel, thederivatives
canbemeasureddirectlyonasectionmodel whichisexternallydriveninharmonicmotion,
but estimatescan
Page105
alsobemadeby‘systemidentification’ techniquesappliedtofreevibrationresponses. The
approachcanbeextended, for exampletoincludealongwind(horizontal) motion, makinga
potential set of eighteenderivatives.
It will benotedthat if theresponseisrestrictedtotorsiononly(or that thepractical
magnitudeof vertical responseistoosmall tohaveasignificant effect throughthecoupling
derivatives and ), correspondstoanaerodynamicdamping
(3.54)
For anaerofoil isunconditionallynegative, givingpositivedamping, albeit fairlysmall.
For sectionssubject totorsional instability replicatesFigure3.10. For simplevertical
motionthecorrespondingaerodynamicdampingis
(3.55)
For anaerofoil noting (F beingthereal part of Theodorsen’sfunction, Figure
3.8), theaerodynamicdampingcommonlysubstantiallyreducesthevertical responsetogusts.
It hasalsobeenfoundthat thisestimateof vertical motiondampingisuseful for arelatively
widerangeof non-aerofoil sections.
3.4 REFERENCES
3.4.1
Books and journals
Bearman, P.W. (1981) ‘Aerodynamicloadsonbuildingsandstructures’, Wind Engineering in the
Eighties, CIRIA, London(chapter 5).
Bietry, J ., Chauvin, A., Redoulez, P. andAugustin, V. (1994) ‘ElornRiver Bridge, windeffects
modellingandstructural analysis; paper givenat ConferenceCableStayedandSuspensionBridges,
Deauville2, pp. 153–62, APFPC Bagneux, Paris.
Blevins, R.D. (1994) Flow-induced Vibrations.
BRV (1990) A Criterion for Assessing Wind-induced Crossflow Vortex Vibration in Wind Sensitive
Structures (supplement totheDepartment of Energy Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design
and Construction), BrownandRoot, London.
Cook, N.J . (1985) The Designer’s Guide to Wind Loading of Building Structures (Part 1),
Butterworths, London.
Cullen-Wallace, A.A. (1985) ‘WindinfluenceonKessockBridge’, Engineering S’tructures 7:
(J anuary).
Davenport, A.G. (1961) ‘Theapplicationof statistical conceptstothewindloadingof structures’,
Proc. Instn. Civil Engineers 19 (August): 447–72.
——(1962) ‘Theresponseof slender, line-likestructurestoagustywind’, Proc. Instn Civil Engineers
23 (November) 389–407.
——(1964) ‘A noteonthedistributionof thelargest valueof arandomfunction’, Proc. Instn. Civil
Engineers 28(J une): 187–196.
Doucet, Y.J . andNordhus, A. (1987) ‘Vibrationmonitoringof aflareboom’, TexasOTC5523,
OffshoreTechnologyConference, Houston.
Dyrbye, C. andHansen, S.O. (1997) Wind Loads on Structures, Wiley, Chichester.
Page106
ESDU (1986a) DataItems85038RevnA and85039RevnA, Circular-cylindrical Structures,
Dynamic Response to Vortex Shedding: Part 1, Calculation Procedures and Derivation, Part 2,
Simplified Calculation Procedures and Derivation, ESDU International, London.
——(1986b) DataItem86010, Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence near the Ground: Part 3,
Variations in S pace and Time for Strong Winds, ESDU International, London.
——(1990) DataItem85020RevnE, Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence near the Ground;
Part 2, Single Point Data for Strong Winds, ESDU International, London.
——(1996) DataItem96030, Response of Structures to Vortex Shedding: Structures of Circular or
Polygonal Cross-section, ESDU International, London.
Fung, Y.C. (1955) An Introduction to the Theory of Aeroelasticity, Wiley, NewYork.
Grillaud, G., Chauvin, A. andBietry, J . (1992) ‘Comportement dynamiqued’unpont àhaubansdans
uneturbulencedesillage’ , J . WindEng. Industrial Aerodynamics 41:1181–9.
Harris, R.I. andDeaves, D.M. (1981) Wind Engineering in the Eighties, CIRIA, London(chapter 4).
Hay, J . (1992) The Response of Bridge s to Wind, HMSO, London.
Irwin, H.P. A.H. (1979) ‘Crossspectraof turbulencevelocitiesinisotropicturbulence’, Boundary
Layer Meteorology 16:237–43.
Klöppl, K. andThiele, F. (1967) ‘Windtunnel testsfor designof bridgesagainst wind-excited
oscillation’, DerStahlbau 36:12.
Larsen, A. (2000) Aerodynamicsof theTacomaNarrowsbridge–60yearslater, Structural
Engineering International (IABSE), 4:243–8.
Maguire, J . andWyatt, T.A. (1999) Dynamics: An Introduction for Civil andStructural’Engineers
(ICE designandpracticeguide), TTL, London.
Newland, D.E. (1993) An Introduction to Random Vibrations, Wavelet and Spectral Analysis, 3rdedn,
Longmans, London.
Novak, M. (1972) ‘Gallopingoscillationsof prismaticstructures’, Proc.ASCE (Engineering
Mechanics Divn.) 98EMI (February): 27–46.
Parkinson, G.V. (1965) ‘Aeroelasticgallopinginonedegreeof freedom’, Wind Effects on Buildings
and Structures, HMSO, London.
Ruscheweyh, H. (1982) Dynamische Windmr kungan Bauwerken, Bauverlag, Wiesbaden.
Ruscheweyh, H. andSedlacek, G. (1988) Crosswindvibrationsof steel stacks—critical comparison
betweensomerecentlyproposedcodes’, J.Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics, 30:173–83.
Scruton, C. andFlint, A.R. (1964) ‘Wind-excitedoscillationof structures’, Proc. Instn. Civil
Engineers 21 (April): 673–702.
Scruton, C., Woodgate, L. andAlexander, A.J . (1955) AerodynamicInvestigationfor theProposed
Runcorn-WidnesSuspensionBridge, Report NPL/Aero291.
Selberg, A., (1961) ‘Oscillationandaerodynamicstabilityof suspensionbridges’, Acta Poly-technica
Scandinavica, Ci: 13.
Simiu, E. andScanlan, R.H. (1986) Wind Effects on Structures, 2ndedn, J ohnWiley, NewYork
(chapter 13).
Smith, B.W. andWyatt, T.A. (1981) ‘Development of thedraft Rulesfor aerodynamicstability’,
Bridge Aerodynamics, TTL, London(chapter 2).
Strømmen, E. andHjorth-Hansen, E. (1995) ‘Thebuffetingwind-loadingof structural membersat an
arbitraryattitudeintheflow’, J.Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics 56: 267–90.
Vickery, B.J . (1981) ‘Across-windbuffetinginagroupof four in-linemodel chimneys’, J.Wind Eng.
Industrial Aerodynamics 8:177–93.
Page107
Vickery, B.J . andBasu, R.I. (1984) ‘Responseof reinforcedconcretechimneystovortexshedding’,
Engineering Structure’s 6:324–33.
Walshe, D.E. J . andWootton, L.R. (1970) ‘Preventingwind-inducedoscillationsof structuresof
circular section’, Proc. Instn Civil Engineers 41:1–24.
Walshe, D.E. J . andWyatt, T.A. (1983) Measurement andapplicationof theaerodynamicadmittance
functionfor aboxgirder bridge, J. Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics 14:211–22.
Wardlaw, R.L. (1981) ‘Someobservationsontheeffectsof turbulenceontheaerodynamicstabilityof
bridgeroaddecks’, Bridge Aerodynamics, TTL, London(chapter 5).
Wex, B.P. andBrown, C.W. (1981) ‘Existingbridgesor newrules—whichisright?’ Bridge
Aerodynamics, TTL, London(chapter 9).
Wootton, L.R. (1969) ‘Theoscillationsof largecircular stacksinwind’, Proc. Instn Civil Engineers
43:573–98.
Wyatt, T.A. (1981) ‘Evaluationof gust responseinpractice’, Wind Engineering in the Eighties, CIRIA,
London(chapter 7).
—(1984) ‘Anassessment of thesensitivityof latticetowerstofatigueinducedbywindgusts’,
Engineering Structures 6 (October): 262–7.
—(1992) ‘Dynamicgust responseof inclinedtowers’, J .Wind Eng. Industrial Aerodynamics 41:2153–
63.
—(1995) ‘Engineeringapplicationsandrequirementsof predictionof extremewindgust effects’, Proc.
Instn Civil Engineers Structures Buildings 110(3) (April): 322–5.
Wyatt, T.A. andScruton, C. (1981) ‘A brief surveyof theaerodynamic stabilityproblemsof bridges’,
Bridge Aerodynamics, TTL, London(chapter 1).
3.4.2 Selected codes of practice
AGI 307–95/ACI 307R-95: Standard practice for the design and construction of reinforced concrete
chimneys, AmericanConcreteInstitute, Detroit, MI.
BD49: Design rules for aerodynamic effects on bridges (part of volume1section3of theDesign
Manual for roadsandbridges), HighwaysAgency, London.
BS6399: Loading for buildings; part 2, Code of practice for wind loads, BSI (BritishStandards
Institution), MiltonKeynes.
BS8100: Lattice towers and masts; part 1, Code of practice for loading; part 2, Guide to background
and use; part 4, Code of practice for loading of guyed masts, BSI (BritishStandardsInstitution),
MiltonKeynes.
CICIND Model Code for steel chimneys (revision1999), CICIND(ComitéInternational des
CheminéesIndustrielles), Zurich.
ENV 1991–2–4: Eurocode 1,Basis of design and actions on structures; part 2–4, Windacfions
(prestandard), CEN, Brussels.
ENV 1993–3–2: Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures; part 3–2, Chimneys (prestandard), CEN,
Brussels.
NBC: National Building Code of Canada (supplement), Commentary B, Wind loads, National
ResearchCouncil of Canada, Ottawa.
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Page109
Chapter 4
Earthquake loading
Andreas J.Kappos
4.1 INTRODUCTION
Earthquakesgiverisetodynamicloadsthat haveahighpotential for disastrousconsequences
for structures, aswell ashumans. Therearedifferent waysinwhichstructuresareaffectedby
earthquakes, thevibrationof thegroundbeingthemost common, but not theonlyone. Other
earthquakeeffects, not specificallyaddressedinthischapter, aregroundfailuressuchas
liquefaction (lossof strengthinsilt or sandlayersduetobuild-upof porewater pressure),
landslidesandmudflows(usuallytriggeredbyliquefaction); further effectsincludeseawaves
(tsunamis) andlakewaves(seiches). Byfar, most of thedamageduetoearthquakesiscaused
bythegroundmotion, but other effectscanalsobequitedevastating, asshown, for instance,
bytheJ uly1998tsunami that hit thecoast of Papua—NewGuinea, causingover 2,000deaths
andcompletedestructionof thevillagesnear thecoast.
Intheremainder of thischapter, followingabrief descriptionof theearthquake
phenomenonandthemethodsof assessingseismichazard, thefocuswill beonthedifferent
waystheseismicactions(loads) canbedefinedinadesignproject, whichstronglydependon
thetypeof analysischosen, andrangefromsimplesetsof horizontal forcestoresponse
spectra(deterministicor probabilistic) or accelerationtimehistories. Thechapter will
concludewithabrief discussionof theprinciplesgoverningthedesignof structurestoresist
earthquakes, touchingonissuesbeyondtheseismicloadingitself (structural configuration,
hierarchyof member strength, systemsfor responsecontrol).
4.2 EARTHQUAKES AND SEISMIC HAZARD
4.2.1 Generation of earthquakes
Earthquakesaregeneratedwherever theaccumulationof strainat geological faults
(discontinuitiesof therock) leadstotheir ruptureandtoslipalongthefault, until anewstable
stateisreached. Fault rupturegivesrisetowavespropagatinginall
Page110
directionsandcausinggroundmovement intheareasaroundthefault. Giventheappropriate
geological conditions, earthquakemotionscanbefelt (andevencauselosses) inareaslocated
several hundredsof kilometresawayfromtheinitial rupture. Thepoint onthefault where
ruptureinitiatesiscalledfocus or hypocentre, whileitsprojectionontheearthsurfaceis
calledepicentre; thedistancebetweenthesetwopointsiscalledfocal depth.
Inthe1960sthemechanismof strainaccumulationat faultswasunderstoodandthetheory
of plate tectonics wasdeveloped, wherebythelithosphere (i.e. theupper part (or shell) of the
earth) includingthecrust aswell aspart of themantle, consistsof several discretesegments,
calledplates, whichmovewithrespect toeachother at therateof afewcentimetresayear;
thisrelativemovement iscausedbyconvectioncurrentsinthemantleof theearth. Thesix
maintectonicplates, aswell asother smaller ones, areshowninFigure4.1; notethat some
continentsareonasingleplate, whereasothersstraddlemorethanoneplate. Theplate
boundariescanbeeither divergent (seafloor spreadingat mid-oceanridges), or convergent;
particularlyimportant inthelatter caseisthephenomenonof subduction (i.e. whenaplateis
pushedbelowtheneighbouringplate). AsseeninFigure4.1, that depictsthedistributionof
epicentresof recent (1960–2000) earthquakes, themost serioustectonicactivitytakesplaceat
theboundariesof theplates(different sizeandcolour of circlescorrespondtodifferent
magnitudeandfocal depth). Earthquakesoccurringclosetotheplateboundariesarecalled
interplate events, whileearthquakesremotefromtheboundariesarereferredtoas intraplate
events; thelatter arefar lesscommonandmuchmoredifficult toexplainthantheformer
(Bolt, 1993; Reiter, 1991).
Althoughearthquakescanbetriggeredbyother phenomena, suchasvolcaniceruptions,
suddenchangesinthestressstateof soil layersduetofillingof reservoirsbehinddams,
‘mine-burst’ (massesof rockcollapsingexplosivelyinmines), or evenundergroundnuclear
explosions(Bolt, 1993), thevast majorityof themareduetofaulting. Thereareessentially
twotypesof faults, thoseassociatedwithhorizontal movement (strike-slip), andthose
associatedwithvertical movement (dip-slip). Fault orientationshaveastrongeffect onthe
resultingearthquakemotion; for instance, reversedip-slipfaultsareusuallytheones
associatedwiththemost catastrophicgroundmotions.
Asmentionedpreviously, fault rupturegivesrisetoseismicwaves. Thesepropagateeither
bycompressionanddilation(likesoundwaves), withthegroundparticlemotioninthesame
directionasthepropagation, andarecalledlongitudinal or P-waves, or byshear (particle
motionperpendicular tothedirectionof thepropagation), andarecalledtransverse or S-
waves; thesetwotypesof wavesarereferredtoas body waves. Thevelocityof shear wavesis
givenby
(4.1)
whereGistheshear modulusof thegroundandȡ itsmassdensity; v
s
isaveryuseful
Page111
Figure 4.1Geographiical distributiontheepicentresof earthquakeswithmagnitudeM>7.0for the
period1960–2000. Theboundariesof thelithosphericplatesarealsoshown.
Page112
quantityfor classifyingthedynamiccharacteristicsof theground(seeSection4.3.3). Sincev
s
islower thanthevelocity Vp of P-waves, thelatter arealwaysthefirst toarriveat astation
recordingtheseismicmotion, followedbyS-waves, whichareassociatedwithlarge
amplitudesof motion.
Whenbodywavesreachtheearthsurfacetheyarereflectedbackintothecrust, anda
vibrationof thesurfaceisinitiated, whichpropagatesthroughsurface waves. Dependingon
thewaythesewavespropagatealongtheearthsurface, theyareclassifiedas Rayleigh waves
or Love waves. Surfacewaves, alongwithS-waves, account for thestrongest part of the
seismicmotion(i.e. thesearetheonesthat maycauselosses). P-wavesaregenerallysmall
amplitudeandof interest totheseismologistsonly; theyusethedifferenceinarrival times
betweenP andS-wavesfor determiningtheepicentreof anearthquake.
4.2.2 Measures of earthquakes
Designingagainst earthquakespresupposesthat thephenomenoncanbeadequatelyquantified.
Therearetwomainwaysfor measuringthesize(or strength) of earthquakes: Onebasedon
instrumental data, andonebasedonobservationof theeffectsof earthquakemotionson
humansandstructures; bothareindispensablefor hazardassessment andseismicdesign.
Therearetwotypesof instrumentsthat canbeusedfor recordingearthquakemotions:
Ɣ Theseismographs, whichrecordthedisplacement of thegroundwithtime. These
instrumentsaredesignedtomagnifyweakmotions, sotheycanrecordmotionscausedby
verydistant earthquakes. Their recordingsareof interest mainlyfor theseismologists, since
theyareusedfor locatingearthquakesandcharacterizingtheir sources.
Ɣ Theaccelerographs, whichrecordtheaccelerationof thegroundwithtime. Until recently
theseinstrumentswererecording(onfilm) whenever theyweretriggeredbyaminimum
level of acceleration(e.g. 0.01g), but moreadvancedinstrumentsarecurrentlyavailable,
whichrecordinadigital formonreusablemedium, hencetheycanoperatecontinuously
andsaveonlyrecordsof interest; thishastheextraadvantagethat theinitial part of the
motionisnot lost. Accelerograms arethemaintypeof earthquakerecordusedfor deriving
designseismicactions.
Magnitude
Themagnitude of anearthquakeisameasureof theearthquakesizeor thesourcestrength;
usually, thoughnot necessarily, themagnitudemeasurestheamount of energy releasedbyan
earthquake. TheRichter magnitudeor local magnitudeM
L
isdefinedasthe(base10)
logarithmof themaximumamplitudeA (inµm) of theearthquake, correctedtoadistanceof
100km; thecorrectionisdonebysubtracting
Page113
fromlogA thequantitylogA
0
, whereA
0
is(arbitrarily) definedastheearthquakethat would
produceanamplitudeof 0.001mmonastandardseismographat adistanceof 100kmfrom
thesource. M
L
isempiricallyrelatedtotheenergy E releasedat thesource(i.e. at thefault) by
theformula
(4.2)
whereE isinergs(1erg=10í
7
joules). It isworthpointingout that aunit increasein
magnitudecorrespondstoanincreaseinenergyby32; hence, amagnitude7event releases
1,000timesmoreenergythanamagnitude5event. ML=5ispracticallythemagnitude
thresholdfor earthquakesthat maycausedamagetostructures.
Theinstrument specificdefinitionof M
L
andthefact that it islimitedtoearthquakes
recordedat distancesof lessthan1,000km, haveledtothedefinitionof other magnitude
measures, themost commonof whichisthesurface-wave magnitude M
s
definedby
(4.3)
whereA istheamplitude, T theperiodof thegroundmotion, and theepicentral distance
(i.e. thedistancefromthesite, inthiscasetherecordingstation, totheepicentre). It isseen
that thisdefinitionisindependent of theinstrument used(noneedfor A
0
). M
s
isdetermined
withrespect totheamplitudeof Rayleighwaveswithaperiodof about 20sec. A similar
definitionexistsfor thebody-wave magnitude mb, determinedbythemaximumamplitudeof
P-wavemotion. Another scaleisbasedontheseismic moment M
0
whichisadescriptionof
theextent of deformationat theearthquakesource; themoment magnitude M
w
isdefinedasa
simplefunctionof logM
0
(seee.g. Reiter, 1991).
Whenever magnitudeisusedfor estimatingseismichazard(seeSection4.2.5), oneshould
beparticularlycareful inidentifyingwhat typeof magnitudeisusedineachearthquake
catalogue, asall thepreviousdefinitionsdo not yieldthesamevalue, especiallyintherange
of largemagnitudes. A notablefeatureisthe‘saturation’ of all magnitudescales, withthe
exceptionof M
w
(i.e. beyondacertainlimit thescalesstopincreasingwithincreasing
earthquakesize). Thereisnoupper or lower limit tomagnitude, however, thelargest sizeof
anearthquakeislimitedbythestrengthof therocksof theEarth’scrust (Bolt, 1993). The
largest earthquakesrecordedinthe20thcenturyhadmagnitudeM
L
§8.9; the1960Chile
earthquakehadanM
L
=8.3, but amoment magnitudeM
w
=9.5. Theproblemof saturationof
waveamplitude-basedscalesisbehindthecurrent trendtousepredominantlyM
w
asa
measureof earthquakes; neverthelessM
s
andevenM
L
arestill widelyusedworldwide.
Intensity
Whereastheuseof measurablequantitiesfor characterizingearthquakesisobviously
desirable, thefact remainsthat theinstrumental recordislessthan100
Page114
yearsold. Sincetherecurrenceperiodof strongearthquakes(includingdesignearthquakes) is
significantlylonger than100years, it isimperativetomakesomeuseof thehistorical record
of earthquakesinseismichazardanalysis. For someregionsof theworld(thebest example
beingChina) historical recordsgobacktomorethanathousandyears, but their completeness
andqualityvarygreatly. Thecritical informationthat canbefoundinsuchrecordsregardsthe
effectsof past earthquakesonhumansandonstructures.
The(macroseismic) intensity of anearthquakereferstothewayanearthquakeisfelt at a
specificsite(i.e. itseffectsonhumans, structuresandtheground). Therefore, theintensityisa
measureof theseverityof groundshakingonthebasisof observedeffectsinacertainarea
(rather thanameasureof theenergyreleaseor theseismicmoment). Themajor advantageof
intensityisthat it canbeestimatedfromthehistorical records, thereforeit isessentiallythe
onlyviabletool inhistorical seismicity, andit canbeestimatedinall affectedareas, including
thosewherenoinstrumental recordsexist; henceit isalsouseful todayasacomplement to
instrumental measurements. Themajor disadvantagesof intensityarethat it varies
significantlywithintheareaaffectedbyanearthquake(notethat anearthquakehasone
magnitudebut several intensities), anditsestimationinvolvessubstantial subjective
judgement.
A major probleminestimatingintensityisthat similar structuresresponddifferentlytothe
sameearthquake, duetoseveral reasonswhosediscussionfallsbeyondthescopeof thisbook.
Hencetheneedfor appropriatelyclassifyingtheeffectsof damage(withat least somerough
allowancefor itsstatistics) andalsofor appropriatelydefiningtheextent of theareasfor
whichauniformintensityshouldbeassumed. Typicallytheseareasshouldcorrespondtoa
villageor arelativelysmall town, or partsof alargecity, but strict rulesaredifficult toset
(EuropeanSeismological Commission, 1998).
Startingfromthelate1800s, several intensity scales havebeensuggested. Theonesmost
commonlyusedtodayaretheModified Mercalli intensity (I
MM
), employedintheAmericas,
andtheMedvedev-Sponheur-Karnik (MSK) intensity (I
MSK
), widelyusedinEurope. Both
scaleshave12degrees, andaregenerallyequivalent (thereisasmall discrepancyat thelower
endof thescalesonly). It usedtobecommontodenotethedegreeswithRomannumerals(I–
XII), primarilytodiscouragearith-metical manipulation, but theneedfor computer processing
of intensitydatahasmadeit commonnowadaystousenormal (Arabic) numerals. Since1992
theEuropeanSeismological Commission(ESC) hasbeendevelopinganupdatedversionof
theMSK scale, calledthe‘EuropeanMacroseismicScale’ (ESC WorkingGroupon
MacroseismicScales, 1998), whichmight beusedextensivelyinthefuture.
All theaforementionedintensityscalesshareseveral commonfeatures, themost important
onebeingthat theyaredescriptive, inthesensethat eachdegreeonthescaleischaracterized
byaset of ‘diagnostics’ referringtospecificeffectsof anearthquakeonhumans, buildings,
objectsandthenatureingeneral. Asanexample, adiagnosticreferringtohumansis‘many
peoplefindit difficult tostand, even
Page115
outdoors’ (intensityVIII), whileatypical diagnosticreferringtobuildingsis‘considerable
damageinmasonrystructuresbuilt towithstandearthquakes’ (intensityIX).
Onceintensitieshavebeenassignedtoseveral areas(definedasexplainedearlier inthis
section), thenisoseismal mapsshowingthedistributionof intensityinalarger areacanbe
drawn. Figure4.2showssuchamapdrawnfor theLosAngelesareafollowingthe1994
Northridgeearthquake(EERI, 1995). Aninterestingfeature, quitecommoninsuchmaps, is
that theepicentreof theearthquakeisnot withintheareawherethemaximumintensity was
recorded.
4.2.3 Strong motions and path effects
However useful intensitymapsmaybe, thedefinitionof seismicloadingfor thepurposesof
structural analysisanddesignrequiresmorerefinedinformationwhichcanbeprovidedby
appropriateprocessingof stronggroundmotions.
Figure 4.2 Distributionof I
MM
intheepicentral regionof theNorthridge1994earthquake(EERI,
1995).
Page116
Strong motion records
Accelerogramsof strongmotions(i.e. timehistoriesof acceleration) arerecordedby
accelerographs; theseinstrumentsrecordsimultaneouslythethreecomponentsof themotion,
twoperpendicular horizontal (longitudinal, for instanceN–S, andtransverse, E–W), andone
vertical. Beforebeingusedfor ‘engineering’ purposes(e.g. for derivingresponsespectra, see
Section4.3.2), therecordsarecorrectedtoremovefrequencydependent instrument response
andambient noise. Anexampleof correctedaccelerogramfromthe1971SanFernando(S.
California) earthquakeisshowninFigure4.3. Althoughthisisnot reallyatypical record, the
observeddifferenceinfrequencycontent betweenthevertical andthehorizontal components
isindeedquitetypical.
Accelerogramsarearguablythemost valuableinformationfor derivingdesignseismic
loadsandit isfortunatethat nowadaysaverylargenumber (several tensof thousands) of
accelerogramsareavailable; ontheother hand, though, thereareseismicareasfor whichthe
number of recordsisverylowor evenzero. Databanksof accelerogramshavebeencompiled
inmanyregions, particularlyintheUnitedStates, J apanandEurope. Oneof thelargest
collectionscontainingover 15,000digitizedandprocessedaccelerographrecordsfromall
over theworld(but mainlyfromtheUS), datingfrom1933–1994, isavailablefromthe
National Geophysical DataCentreinBoulder, Colorado. A number of Americanrecordscan
bedownloadeddirectlyfromthewebsitesof theStrongMotionDataCentreof theUS
Department of Conservation, andfromNISEE (National InformationServiceonEarthquake
Engineering, Universityof California, Berkeley). InEurope, accelerogramsareavailablefrom
organizationssuchastheInstituteof EngineeringSeismologyandEarthquakeEngineering
(ITSAK), Thessaloniki, Greece, andServizioSismicoNazionale(SSN), Rome, Italy.
Themainpurposeof usingaccelerogramsistocharacterizethestronggroundmotion, with
aviewtodefiningappropriatedesignloads. Inthisrespect, thePeak Ground Acceleration
(PGA, or simplyA) (i.e. thehighest valueof theaccelerationtimehistory), isaparameter that
hasbeenextensivelyusedinseismichazardassessment (seeSection4.2.5). It isworth
pointingout, though, that thisismainlyduetoitsconvenience, becauseotherwisethePGA is
oftenarather poor indicator of thedestructivenessof thegroundmotion. ThePeak ground
Velocity(PGV, or simplyV) and/or thePeakGroundDisplacement (PGDor D) arebetter
indicatorsof damagepotential andhavebeenusedinsomestudies. Velocityanddisplacement
timehistoriesof thegroundmotioncanbecalculatedbyintegrationof theaccelerationtime
history, but theyarequitesensitivetothefilteringprocedureusedincorrectingthe
accelerograms. Hence, byfar themost useful informationthat canbeextractedfrom
accelerogramsistheresponsespectra, discussedinSection4.3.2. Onefactor, though, that is
not reflectedinthespectra(whichareplotsof peakresponse) istheduration of themotion.
Thiscanbequitecritical incertaincases, suchasstructuressusceptibletostrength
degradationunder reversedcyclicloading(i.e. changeof thesignof theappliedforceor
moment).
Page117
Figure 4.3 Threecompontsof theaccelerogramrecordedduringthe1971SanFernandoearthquakeat
thePacimasite.
Page118
Attenuation relationships
Astheseismicwavespropagateawayfromthesource, their amplitudedecreases; thisresults
intheso-calledattenuation of thegroundmotion. Attenuationisthereasonwhyeventhe
strongest motionsceasetobedamagingafter acertaindistancefromthesource. Theprevious
statementsshouldnot beinterpretedasmeaningthat thedamagepotential of amotionat, say,
100or 200kmfromthesourceisalwayslower thanat adistanceof say10or 20km. Site
effects(Section4.2.4) canleadtoquitetheoppositeeffect, anotableexamplebeingthat of
the1985earthquakeoff thecoast of Mexicowhosemost catastrophiceffects(includingabout
10,000fatalities) wererecordedinMexicoCity, 400kmawayfromtheepicentre.
Attenuationrelationships(i.e. modelsdescribingthevaluesof strongmotionparametersas
afunctionof distancefromthesource) havebeendevelopedfor magnitude, intensity
(compareFigure4.2), thestrongmotionpeaks(PGA, PGV, PGD), and, morerecently,
spectral ordinates. Themost commonlyusedone, particularlyfor definingseismicloads, is
therelationshipinvolvingPGA. Thetypical formof sucharelationshipis
(4.4)
where , beingtheepicentral distance, andH
0
caneither coincidewiththe
focal depthH, or just beaparameter tobedefinedbyregression, together withthe
coefficientsb
i
,. TheparameterP isintroducedtoaccount for thesignificant uncertainty
associatedwithall attenuationrelationships; P=0if themean(or 50-percentile) of PGA is
sought, whileP=1for calculatingthemeanplusonestandarddeviation(ı), whichisthe84-
percentileif anormal distributionof theresidualsof log(A) isassumed. For designpurposes
either the84-percentileor the90-percentileof A isused.
Aswill beseeninthenext section, attenuationrelationshipsareessential inestimating
seismichazardanddesignseismicloads. Todaythereareseveral suchrelationshipsfor
several regionsof theworld, most of themreferringtotheUS(especiallytheWest Coast),
J apanandSouthernEurope. A comprehensivereviewof theattenuationrelationshipsusedin
EuropecanbefoundinAmbraseysandBommer (1995) whosuggestedthefollowingformof
eqn(4.4) for horizontal PGA inEurope
(4.5)
withH
0
=6km(if theactual H isusedfor H
0
, thecoefficientsaremarkedlydifferent). A
comparisonof eqn(4.5) withamorerecent onesuggestedbyAmbraseysandtherelationship
proposedbyJ oyner andBoore(1988) for westernNorthAmericaisshowninFigure4.4. It is
worthpointingout that differencesamongthepredictionsof thethreeequationsarelessthan
thescatter associatedwiththem. It isalsoseeninFigure4.4that groundmotionattenuationat
relativelylargedistancesismorepronouncedinNorthAmericathaninEurope. Equations
Page119
Figure 4.4 Comparisonof attenuationrelationshipsfor PGA, for EuropeandwesternNorthAmerica
for shallowearthquakesof magnitude5, 6and7(AmbraseysandBommer, 1995).
similar to(4.5) havebeendevelopedfor thevertical PGA (AmbraseysandSimpson, 1996),
whichisgenerallyof theorder of thecorrespondinghorizontal acceleration(Newmarkand
Hall, 1982). However, inthenear field(i.e. at distancesfromthesourcelessthanabout 15
km) theratioof thevertical tohorizontal PGA mayexceedunity, but fallsoff withdistance
(AmbraseysandSimpson, 1996).
Directivity effects
Thesourceof theseismicwaves(thefault rupture) isamovingsource(i.e. thesourcetravels
alongthefault at acertainvelocity). Thedirectionof thefault rupturehasastronginfluence
ontheresultinggroundmotion. If thefault rupturepropagatestowardsaparticular sitethe
motionat that sitewill bestronger thanat anequidistant sitelocatedoppositetothe
propagationof rupture. Thisphenomenoniscalleddirectivity anditseffect istoproducethe
highest amplitudeof motiontogether withtheshortest durationinthedirectionof therupture,
andthesmallest amplitudesbut longest durationintheoppositedirection.
Page120
Directivityeffectshavebeenobservedinseveral earthquakes, arecent examplebeingthat
of theNorthridgeearthquake, wheretheonlyextensiveregionwithaccelerations above0.5g
wastothenorthof theepicentre(seeFigure4.2), consistent withtherupturepropagation
(EERI, 1995). Of particular concernwithregardtotheseismic behaviour of structuresisthe
caseof largeamplitudeandlongperiodpulsesintheaccelerationtimehistorydueto
directivityeffects; thesepulsesareusuallyaccompaniedbylargevelocitiesandcanbequite
catastrophic.
4.2.4 Site and topography effects
Thegroundmotioncanbesignificantlyaffectedbythepropertiesandconfigurationof the
layersunderlyingtheearth’ssurface. Thepropertiesthat most affect theamplitudeof ground
motionaretheresistancetoparticlemotion, calledimpedance., andthesoil damping (or
absorption). For most practical purposestheimpedancecanbedefinedastheproduct ȡv
s
whereȡ isthedensityandv
s
thepreviouslydefined(seeeqn4.1) shear wavevelocity. The
flowof energy(or energyflux) duringthewavepropagationisequal toȡv
s
u
2
; hence, whena
seismicwavepropagatesthrougharegionof decreasingimpedance, theresistanceof soil
particlestomotiondecreases, andtopreservethetotal energy, theparticlevelocityandhence
theamplitudeof motionincreases. It followsthat assumingall other conditionsremainthe
same, theseismicwaveswouldhavehigher amplitudeonsoil (lowȡ, lowv
s
) thanonrock
(highȡ, highv
s
). Ontheother hand, dampingistypicallymuchhigher onsoft soilsthanon
hardrock, thereforeit tendstomitigatetheadverseeffect of lowimpedanceintheformer. As
aresult of theaforementionedeffects, peakaccelerationsaregenerallynot verydifferent on
sitesclassifiedas‘rock’ andas‘soil’ (or ‘alluvium’); usuallypeak accelerationsat thesurface
of soil depositsareslightlyhigher thanonrock outcropswhentheseaccelerationsaresmall
(lessthan0.15g), andsmaller at higher accelerationlevels. Peakvelocities, though, aswell as
displacements, arealwayshigher onsofter soil sites.
Theconfigurationof thelayersunderlyingasite, for example, whether theyareessentially
horizontal or not, andwhether therearevariationsof their propertiesalongthe(horizontal)
length, mayalsosignificantlyaffect theamplitudeof groundmotion. A detaileddiscussionof
thecomplicatedphenomenainvolvedcanbefoundelsewhere(Finn, 1991; Reiter, 1991;
Kramer, 1996). Hereit will onlybepointedout that themost adverseeffect of layer
configurationisresonance, particularlytwo-dimensional onethat canappear inalluvial
valleys. Resonanceoccurswhenever thepredominant periodof thegroundmotionpractically
coincideswiththecharacteristicsiteperiod, whichfor asoil deposit of depth(tothebedrock)
Hisgivenby
(4.6)
A lot of controversyprevaileduntil recentlyregardingtheeffect of non-linear soil response
onthegroundmotion, thegeotechnical engineersarguingthat it is
Page121
significant andtheseismologistsmaintainingthat existingevidencedoesnot support thisview.
Themainimplicationof nonlinearityisthat whenasoil layer becomesstronglyinelasticthe
shear stresscannot increasesignificantly, hencetheamplitudeof motionceasestoincrease.
Thisisobviouslyadesirableeffect regardingtheresponseof structures, but it causes
problemsregardingthereliabilityof data(onv
s
andsimilar quantities) measuredfrom
microtremor or other small amplitudetesting. Quantitativeevidencefromrecent earthquakes
suchasthe1985Michoacan(Mexico) andthe1989LomaPrieta(California), hasclearly
shownthat muchhigher accelerations canberecordedonsitesunderlainbysoft soil layers
(suchastheMexicoCityclayandtheSanFranciscoBaymud), thanonstiffer soil sites.
Figure4.5reportedbyFinn, 1991showsthereductionof theshear modulusG of clays
characterizedbydifferent PlasticityIndices(PI) (notethat thehighest PI correspondstothe
MexicoCityclay). It isclear that for stiffer clays, withPI not exceedingabout 40or 50, G
reducessignificantlyat relativelylowshear strains, henceresultinginreducedamplification
of themotion; similar behaviour isshownbyother soil types, likesands. However, thisisnot
thecasewithhighPI clayswhichremainessentiallyelastic (G/G
max
closeto1) for strainsup
to0.1per cent or evenmore. It isclear, therefore, that at least for thisclassof soils, thenon-
linear characteristicshaveasignificant influenceonthegroundmotionandshouldbe
accountedfor indesign.
Evenmoreimportant thanincreasingpeakaccelerations, siteeffectsarestrongly
influencingtheshapeof theresponsespectrum(seeSection4.3.3).
Figure 4.5 Reductionof normalizedshear modulusfor clayswithdifferent plasticityindices.
Page122
Topography effects
Topographyof thesitecanalsohaveanoticeableeffect onamplificationof groundmotion.
ThestrongmotionshowninFigure4.3wasrecordedonarockyridgeconnectedtothe
PacoimaDam, andischaracterizedbyapeak accelerationof 1.17g, oneof thehighest ever
recorded. Manypeoplearguedthat thiswasmainlytheresult of atopographicamplification,
althoughother interpretationswerealsosuggested(Reiter, 1991).
Themajor parameter of theproblemappearstobethesteepnessof theridges; it canbe
shownthat thedisplacement amplificationat thecrest of anessentiallytriangular hill isequal
to2/v, wherevʌ istheangleformedbytheridges; thereforetheamplificationincreasesasthe
ridgebecomessteeper. Observedamplificationsat thecrest (withrespect tothebase) range
from2to20, whereastheoretical predictionsaregenerallymuchless(3to4), possiblydueto
theinfluenceof three-dimensional effectsandridgetoridgeinteraction. Topographyeffects
arediscussed, amongothers, byFinn(1991) andKramer (1996). Duetothecomplexityof the
subject, it isgenerallyconsideredasnot matureenoughtobeincludedincodeprovisions. The
Recommendations of the French Association for Earthquake Engineering (AFPS, 1990)
appear tobetheonlydocument of regulatorycharacter that hasadoptedrather detailedrules
for thecalculationof thetopographicamplificationfactor.
Spatial variability of ground motion
Whilethesmallest dimensionof commonstructuressuchasbuildingsisusuallysmall enough
that thegroundmotioncanbeassumedtobethesamealongtheentireplanof thestructure, in
elongatedstructures, suchaslongbridgesandpipelines, arather significant variabilityof the
groundmotionmayoccur, particularlywhenever thelargeplandimensionsarecombinedwith
irregularitiesinthesoil profile. Thelocal spatial variationor incoherence of groundmotionis
mainlydueto
Ɣ travellingwaveeffects, whereinnon-vertical seismicwavesreachdifferent pointsof the
structureat different times(timedelayeffect);
Ɣ scattering(reflection, refraction) of seismicwavescausedbyinhomogeneitiesalongthe
travel path;
Ɣ local soil filteringandamplificationof themotion.
Thecoherency of twogroundmotionsisameasureof correlationof amplitudesandphase
anglesat different frequencies. Groundmotionsrecordedbydensearraysof accelerographs
haveshownthat coherencydecreaseswithincreasingdistanceandincreasingfrequencyof
motion(CloughandPenzien, 1993; Kramer, 1996).
4.2.5 Assessment of seismic hazard
Analysisof seismichazard(resultingfromstrongmotions) isthebasisfor definingseismic
loadingfor designpurposes, moreparticularlyfor derivingthedesign response spectrum,
discussedinmoredetail inSection4.3.2.
Page123
If seismichazardistobeestimatedinadeterministicway, anappropriateearthquake
scenariohastobedefined. Thisinvolvesidentifyingthesource(fault) whichwill givethe
most critical motionfor thesiteunder consideration, estimatethemaximummagnitudethat
canbeproducedbythissource, andthenestimatethemaximumPGA at thesiteusingan
appropriateattenuationrelationship(similar toeqns4.4, 4.5). ThisPGA canthenbeusedfor
scalingor ‘anchoring’ afixedspectral shape, withdueallowancefor siteeffects, inorder to
producethedesignspectrum(seeSections 4.3.2, 4.3.4). Suchaprocedure(whereasnot
uncommon) suffersfromvariousdrawbacks. Oneproblemisthedifficultyinidentifyingthe
critical source(different sourcescanproducemotionsthat maybecritical for aparticular type
of structure), another oneisthedifficultyinpredictingthe‘maximumcredibleearthquake’
associatedwithasource. Evenif thisearthquakeisreliablyestimated, it isgenerally
uneconomical todesignstructuresagainst it. Theseandother problemsarethereasonwhy
todayall major seismichazardstudiesarecarriedout usingaprobabilistic approach.
Thevariouscomponentsof a probabilistic hazard analysis are showninFigure4.6(EERI
Committee, 1989). Thefirst stepistheidentificationof all sources, whichcanbepoint
sourcesor linesources(faults), or areasources. Then, for eachtypeof sourcetherecurrence
of earthquakeshastobedefined, mainlyonthebasisof historical data. Despite(or because
of) itssimplicity, themost commonlyusedrecurrencerelationshipistheoneproposedby
GutenbergandRichter backin1944
(4.7)
whereN isthe(cumulative) number of earthquakesgreater thanor equal toagivenmagnitude
M, that areexpectedtooccur duringaspecifiedperiodof time, typicallytakenequal to1year.
Thecoefficients a andb havetobedeterminedfromregressionanalysisof availabledata.
Usuallyanupper boundonmagnitudeisplaced, basedonthecharacteristicsof thesource
and/or themaximumhistorical earthquake.
Designseismicloadsfor astructurearebasedonthegroundmotionshavingadesired
probabilityof exceedanceduringthelifetimeof thestructure(about 50yearsfor usual
buildings, higher for other typesof structures); thisprobabilityiscommonlytakenequal to10
per cent for buildingsof usual importance. Theprobability p of anearthquakeexceedinga
certainmagnitudeM duringthelifetimecanbecalculatedif anappropriatestatistical model is
assumed, asshowninFigure4.6(topleft). For simplicityaPoisson process isassumed,
whereinthevarious‘events’ (i.e. that themagnitudeMisexceededwithinacertaintime) are
independent. Thisisequivalent toassumingthat earthquakeactivityhasnomemory, whichis
not true, but theresultingerror isnot large. Usingthedefinitionof thePoissondistribution,
thisprobabilityis
(4.8)
whereL isthelifetimeof thestructure. Hazardassessment canthenproceedbyselectinga
number of valuesof astrongmotionparameter (e.g. A
i
), calculatethe
Page124
Figure 4.6 Development of thedesignspectrumonthebasisof seismichazardanalysisfor PGA
(EERI, 1989).
correspondingmagnitudeM
i
, fromanattenuationrelationship(seeFigure4.6, topright) and
thenobtaintheannual frequency N
i
of earthquakewithmagnitude•M
i
bysubstitutingM
i
, in
themagnitudefrequencyeqn(4.7). Thecalculatedvalueof N
i
, isthensubstitutedinequation
(4.8) tofindthecorresponding
Page125
probabilityof exceedance. Byrepeatingtheprocedurefor anappropriatenumber of A
i
a
completehazardcurveasshowninFigure4.6(middle) canbederived. Theactual procedureis
somewhat morecomplicatedasthescatter intheattenuationrelationshipisalsoincludedin
theanalysis.
Resultsfromsuchproceduresareusedtoconstruct thehazardmapsusedasabasisfor
seismiccodes. Anexampleof suchamapisshowninFigure4.7; it providesthecontoursof
theeffectivepeakaccelerationcoefficient A
a
for theUnitedStates(FEMA, 1995). Thismap
wasderivedfromsimilar mapsshowingthePGA’switha10per cent probabilityof
exceedancein50years, after convertingPGA toeffectivepeakaccelerationusingprocedures
basedinpart onscientificknowledgeandinpart onjudgement andcompromise. For the
purposeof definingdesignseismicactions, hazardmapssuchasthat of Figure4.7arefurther
simplifiedtoincludealimitednumber of seismic zones withinwhichthevalueof A
a
is
consideredasconstant.
Responsespectrafor atarget annual probabilityof exceedanceP
T
(e.g. 0.2per cent) canbe
constructedbycalculatingthecorrespondingA=a' fromthecurveof Figure4.6(middle) and
thenanchor afixedspectral shapeto a', asshowninFigure4.6(bottom), andfurther
discussedinSection4.3.2. Alternatively, amorecomplexproceduremaybefollowed,
wherebytheattenuationrelationshipsaredevelopedfor spectral ordinates(e.g. thespectral
accelerationS
pa
), rather thanfor PGA. Theseperioddependent attenuationrelationshipsare
thenusedtoconstruct thedesignspectrumperiodbyperiod; thisiscalledahazardconsistent
or uniform hazard spectrum (EERI, 1989; Reiter, 1991).
4.3 DESIGN SEISMIC ACTIONS AND DETERMINATION OF ACTION
EFFECTS
4.3.1 Design situations
Thedesignseismicactionor thedesign earthquake isagroundmotionor aset of ground
motionsdefinedinawayappropriatefor thedesignof engineeringstructures. Dependingon
thetypeandimportanceof thestructuretobedesigned, theseismicactioncanbedefinedin
different ways, i.e. as:
Ɣ aset of (equivalent) lateral forces;
Ɣ aresponsespectrum;
Ɣ apower spectrum;
Ɣ aset of accelerationtimehistories.
Theforegoingcanbedefinedeither onthebasisof aseismiccode(most commoncase), or by
carryingout asitespecificseismichazardanalysiswithdueconsiderationof groundeffects
(seeSections4.2.3–4.2.5). Thescopeof eachprocedurecanbeappreciatedbyconsideringthe
followingfour situationsthat might befacedbyanengineer inpractical design:
Page126
Figure 4.7 Contour for effecitivepeakaccelearationcoefficient A
a
for thecontinental UnitedStates,
fromthe1994NEHRP Prouvisions(FEMA 1995).
Page127
ƔFor manybuildingstructures, andalsofor some‘small-scale’ civil engineeringstructures
(suchassmall bridges, viaducts, etc., andtypical geotechnical structuressuchasretaining
walls), theequivalent lateral force procedurecanbeused. Theprocedureiswell
documentedinmost current seismiccodes, andwill bedescribedinSection4.3.5with
specificreferencetotwomajor codes, the1995Eurocode8(EC8) andthe1997UBC
(Americancode).
ƔFor buildingswithconfigurationproblems(irregular planand/or elevation), for manytypes
of mediumbridges, andfor manyof thestructuresfallingbeyondthescopeof thischapter,
anelasticdynamic analysis hastobecarriedout, typicallyintheformof modal response
spectrumanalysis. Thedefinitionof theelasticspectrum(Section4.3.2), itsmodifications
duetositeeffects(Section4.3.3), anditsreductiontoaninelasticdesignspectrum(Section
4.3.4), aresomeof themost important issuesrelatingtoseismicloading. Specificmention
will bemadeintheaforementionedsectionstotheEC8andtheUBC spectra. In
exceptional situationswhereaprobabilisticapproachiswarranted, power spectra (Section
4.3.8) maybeusedinsteadof ‘normal’ responsespectra.
ƔIncasessuchasthedesignof veryimportant structures, or structuresclearlyfallingoutside
thelimitsof theexistingcodes(e.g. structureswithveryhighfundamental natural periods),
afull time history analysis, typicallyintheinelasticrangemayberequired. Notethat there
isnoadvantageinusingthis procedurefor anelasticanalysisof thestructurewhichcanbe
convenientlycarriedout (at essentiallythesameaccuracy) usingthemodal superposition
approach, theexceptionbeingstructureswhereduetohighlyirregular geometryit is
difficult tocombinethemodal contributions, or whenever thestructural model includes
critical frequencydependent parameters(CloughandPenzien, 1993). Anappropriate
selectionandscalingof natural and/or artificial recordshasthentobemade; akeypoint to
beaddressedisthecorrespondencebetweentheserecordsandthe(code) designspectrum.
TheEC8andtheUBC recommendationswill bereferredtoinSection4.3.7andit will be
madeclear that thistypeof procedureismorecommoninthecaseof assessment of
existingstructureswhichmight not complywithcurrent coderequirements.
ƔAgainfor someexceptional cases, suchasimportant structureswhoseconstructioncost is
particularlyhighand/or theconsequencesof their failureparticularlysevere(atypical
examplebeingnuclear power plants), aswell asinthecaseof constructioninareaswherea
designspectrumor acodeisnot available, asitespecificseismic hazard assessment study
hastobemade, typicallyusingprobabilistictechniques. Althoughnormallythecivil
engineer will not carryout suchastudy, it isimportant that s/herealizesthemain
assumptionsinvolved, and, moresignificantly, iscapableof appropriatelyevaluatingthe
resultsof suchastudyandmakinguseof themfor designpurposes. A brief coverageof
thisprocedurehasalreadybeengivenintheprevious section(4.2.5).
Page128
4.3.2 Elastic spectra
Response spectra
A response spectrum (i.e. aplot of thepeak response(toaninput motion) asafunctionof the
natural period) canbederivedbyanalysingaseriesof SingleDegree-Of-Freedom(SDOF)
systems, asexplainedinChapter 2(Section2.5) and, inmoredetail, intheliterature
(NewmarkandHall, 1982; Gupta, 1990; CloughandPenzien, 1993). Thequantitiestypically
plottedarethespectral pseudo-accelerationS
pa
, pseudo-velocitySpv, anddisplacement S
d
,
whichareinterrelatedthroughthefamiliar expressions
(4.9)
Dueto(4.9) thethreespectral quantitiescanbeplottedtogether onalog—logpaper (see
Figure4.10). It shouldberecalledthatSp
a
andSp
v
arenot theactual responseaccelerationand
velocity, respectively(seealso Section2.5). Nevertheless, Sp
a
ispracticallythesameasthe
actual maximumaccelerationfor reasonable(i.e. not toohigh) valuesof damping, whileS
pv
,
isnearlythesameastheactual velocityexcept intheveryshort andthelongperiodrange
(NewmarkandHall, 1982). For designpurposes, Sp
a
ismoreuseful thantheactual response
acceleration, sincetheformer canbeusedtocalculatedirectlythemaximumforcesonthe
structure, asdiscussedin Section4.3.6.
Anexampleof responsespectra, referringtothelongitudinal (horizontal) component of the
input motionof Figure4.3, isgiveninFigure4.8; for eachspectrumfivecurvesareplotted,
correspondingtodampingratiosfrom0to20per cent. It isfirst notedthat for lower valuesof
dampingthevariationof thespectral valueswiththenatural periodcanbequiteabrupt,
whereasfor highdampingvaluesthespectrabecomemuchsmoother. Animportant pieceof
informationprovidedbyaspectrumistherangeof periodsfor whichtheresponseof a
structureispeaking. TheSp
a
curvesinFigure4.8(a) aretypical inthesensethat thepeaks
occur intheshort periodrange, mainlyfrom0.2to0.5sec; thisisacommonfeatureof
motionsrecordedonrocksites. A secondperiodrangearound1secalsoshowssomeincrease
intheamplification, but significantlylower thanthat intheshort periodrange. However, if
thepseudo-velocityisusedasthebasisfor identifyingcritical periods, it isseeninFigure
4.8(b) that themost critical rangeisthat between0.9and1.8sec; therangeof periods
between0.3and0.5secisalsocharacterizedbylocal peaks, but islesscritical thanthe
previousone. Thisillustratesanimportant probleminseismicdesign(i.e. theselectionof the
parameter whichbest characterizesthedamageabilityof aparticular groundmotion). Many
designersrelymoreonS
pv
whichisadirect measureof theseismicenergyinput, sincefor
negligibledampingtheenergystoredinanoscillator withmass misequal to . Onthe
other hand, recentlydevelopeddisplacement based design andassessment proceduresare
basedonthedisplacement spectrum. Despitetheaforementionedtrends, all current codes
basetheir designforcesonSp
a
spectra
Page129
Figure 4.8 Responsespectrafor thelongitudinal component of therecordof Figure4.3(PacoimaDam
S16E): (a) pseudo-acceleration; (b) pseudo-velocity; (c) displacement.
(directly, or indirectly). Of course, duetoeqn(4.9), S
pv
andSd curvescanalwaysbederived
whenSp
a
isavailable.
Thesignificant differencesintheshapeof responsespectraderivedfromdifferent ground
motionsareillustratedinFigure4.9, whichshowsthe5per cent dampedSp
a
spectrafor three
accelerogramsrecordedinthreedifferent partsof theworld
Page130
(NorthAmerica, Central America, andSouthernEurope). ThePacoimaDam(California)
S16E andtheKalamata(Greece) N10Wrecordsarefromearthquakeswithsimilar magnitude
(6.6and6.2) andveryclosetotherecordingstation(epicentral distancesof 3and15km). It is
seenthat, althoughthemagnitudeof theaccelerationsissignificantlylarger for thePacoima
record(seediscussionof thetopographicamplificationeffect inSection4.2.4), theshapeof
thetwospectraisquitesimilar, withpeaksoccurringintheshort periodrange. Ontheother
handtheMexicoCity1985SCT transversecomponent, recordedduringamagnitude8.1
earthquakeat adistanceof 400km, resultedinasignificantlydifferent spectral shape,
whereinthecritical periodrangeisbetween1.7and2.8sec; theeffect of soil conditions(very
important inthiscase) isdiscussedinthenext section. It isseenthat theMexicoCityrecord
withaPGA of only0.17g, will bemorecritical for highrisebuildingswithT>1.7secthan
thePacoimarecordwithaPGA of 1.17g.
Fourier spectra
Althoughmost engineeringapplicationsinvolvetheaforementionedresponsespectra, abetter
understandingof thegroundmotioncharacteristicscanbeobtainedfromtheFourier
spectrum, definedas
(4.10)
whereü
g
(i) isthegroundaccelerationtimehistoryandȦisthecircular frequencyof a
harmonicforcingfunction. It isthenpossibletoexpressü
g
(t) throughthesuperpositionof a
full spectrumof harmonics(CloughandPenzien, 1993). Commonapplicationsinvolvethe
Fourier amplitude spectrum, definedby
(4.11)
wheret
1
isthedurationof thegroundmotion. Notethat eqn(4.11) doesnotuniquelydefinea
groundmotion(aseqn4.10does) sincethephaseanglesbetweenpairsof harmonicshave
beenlost inthisdefinition.
Fourier spectraarecommonlyusedtointerpret phenomenaassociatedwiththetransmission
of seismicenergyfromthesourcetodistant locations. A useful applicationof thesespectrain
theconstructionof simulatedgroundmotionsisbrieflypresentedinSection4.3.7.
Design spectra
For designpurposes, it isclear that spectrasmoother thanthoseof Figures4.9and4.10are
required, sinceafuturemotionisveryunlikelytobeidentical toapreviouslyrecordedone,
andalsotheexact periodsof astructurearedifficult toassessinpractical situations(e.g. when
stiff claddingor partitionelementsare
Page131
Figure 4.9 5%dampedpseudo-accelerationspectrafor threedifferent groundmotions.
present insteel or concreteframes). A smoothdesignspectrumencompassesafamilyof
groundmotionswiththesameoverall intensitybut possiblydifferinginthefrequencycontent
(particularlywhentwoor moreearthquakesourcesareconsidered) andinsomedetailsof the
timesequencesof motionthat couldcriticallyaffect thestructural response. Smoothspectra
for seismicdesignaregenerallyderivedfromastatistical evaluationof actual spectra, and
several alternativeproceduresarepossible, asoutlinedinthefollowing.
If thestartingpoint isapair (or aset of pairs) of M andR values(seeSection4.2.2), a
number of recordsfromearthquakeshavingcharacteristicsfallingwithinthedesiredrange
canbeselected(whenever feasible, earthquakesfromsimilar sourcemechanismsandsite
conditionsshouldbeused); therecordsarethenscaledtoadesiredintensity(e.g. tothesame
PGA or PGV) andtheir spectraarecalculated. A smoothedrepresentationof thecurve
providingthedesiredpercentile(e.g. 84or 90) of thespectral valuescanbeusedfor design.
Byfar themost commontechniqueusedtodayistheanchoringof afixedspectral shapeto
agroundmotionparameter suchasthePGA, calculatedusingaprobabilistichazardanalysis
(seeFigure4.6). A well knownspectral shapehasbeenproposedbyNewmarkandHall
(1982), whonoticedthat whenspectraareplottedonalog—logscale(seeFigure4.10) they
areessentiallyscalar amplificationsof A, V andD intheir respective(‘short’—‘medium’—
‘long’) periodranges. TheamplificationfactorssuggestedbyNewmarkandHall (1982) are
summarizedinTable4.1for sometypical dampingratios; twovaluesaregivenfor eachfactor,
onecorrespondingtothemedian(alog-normal distributionwasassumed), andonetothe84
percentile(meanplusonestandarddeviation).
UsingTable4.1, thetripartiteelasticresponsespectrumcanbederived. If valuesof PGV
andPGDarenot available, theycanbeestimatedfrom
Page132
Figure 4.10 ElasticdesignspectrumcorrespondingtoaPGA of 0.5g, 5%damping, andonesigma
cumulativeprobability(NewmarkandHall, 1982).
Table 4.1 Relativevaluesof spectrumamplificationfactors(NewmarkandHall, 1982).
Percent of critical damping Amplification factor for
Acceleration (A) Velocity (V) Displacement (D)
2 2.74(3.66)* 2.03(2.92) 1.63(2.42)
5 2.12(2.71) 1.65(2.30) 1.39(2.01)
10 1.64(1.99) 1.37(1.84) 1.20(1.69)
20 1.17(1.26) 1.08(1.37) 1.01(1.38)
* Medianvalue(1ı value).
(4.12)
wheretheconstantsc
1
andc
2
shouldbecalculatedonthebasisof statistical analysisof
appropriatelyselectedaccelerograms. Thecalculatedvaluesof A, V, andD shouldbe
multipliedbythecorrespondingamplificationfactorsfromTable4.1.
Page133
It iscommontouseamplificationfactors at the84percentilelevel withmeanor median
valuesof A, V, andD (CloughandPenzien, 1993).
Theabovemethod, whichhasinfluencedsubstantiallythedevelopment of USandother
codes, hastheweaknessthat it ignoresthefact that thespectral displacement tendstothe
PGDfor veryflexiblestructures(periodtendingtoinfinity). Until recentlythishadno
practical consequences; however, inthecaseof displacement baseddesignprocedureswhich
assumethat structuresrespondwell intotheinelasticrange(hencetheir effectiveperiodscan
bequitelong), anadditional transitioncurvebetweentheamplifieddisplacement lineandthe
constant PGDlinemight benecessary.
AsanalternativetoanchoringafixedshapetoaPGA andother groundmotionparameters,
spectracorrespondingtoauniformprobabilityof exceedanceof their ordinates(uniform
hazardspectra) canbeconstructed, asbrieflydiscussedinSection4.2.5. Theeffort required
for their development issignificantlyhigher thanthat associatedwiththepreviouslydescribed
method.
Code spectra
Seismiccodestypicallyspecifypseudo-accelerationspectraonly, consistingof afixedshape
tobeanchoredtoa(design) PGA. StartingfromthedesignPGA, it haslongbeenarguedthat
thisshouldnot correspondtotheactuallyrecordedpeakacceleration, whichmight be
associatedwithveryshort durationandhighfrequencypulsesof therecord, but shouldrather
berepresentativeof theeffect of theaccelerationonthestructure. Hence, theconcept of
Effective PGA (usuallydenotedasEPA or A
ef
) hasbeensuggested. EPA canbecalculated
fromthe5per cent dampingS
pa
valueintheregion0.1to0.5sec, bydividingtheaverage
ordinatebyanamplificationfactor of 2.5(seeCommentarytoFEMA, 1995). TheEPA isnot
thesameasthePGA, andinfact whenaccelerationpeaksareassociatedwithveryhigh
frequencies, theEPA canbesignificantlylower thanthePGA. The1994NEHRP Provisions
(FEMA, 1995) alsointroducetheconceptsof effectivePGV (denotedasEPV) andthe
correspondingvelocityrelatedacceleration, whichmight control thedesignof longer period
structures.
Anindicationof theuncertaintyintheshape of theresponsespectrumisthedifference
betweenthemedianand84percentilevaluesof theamplificationfactorsgiveninTable4.1;
notethat thecoefficient of variationishigher for S
pv
thanfor S
pa
. It isworthpointingout that
thesehighcoefficientsof variationwerecalculatedfor groundmotionsfromoneparticular
area(WesternUS) (i.e. for essentiallythesamegeological andtectonicconditions).
A typical exampleof acodespecifiedspectrumisshowninFigure4.11, wherethe5per
cent-dampedelasticpseudo-accelerationspectrumof Eurocode8(CEN, 1994a) isplotted.
Thespectrumconsistsof four branches:
(i) Anascendinglinear branch(A
1
B
1
inFigure4.11) describedbytheequation
(4.13)
Page134
Figure 4.11 Elasticresponsespetrrumof Eurocode8(CEN, 1994a).
Page135
where isthedesignPGA correspondingtoa10per cent probabilityof beingexceeded
in50years(or areturnperiodof 475years); S isasoil parameter (seeSection4.3.3); ȕ
0
isthe
spectral amplificationfactor takenequal to2.5(comparethiswiththevalues2.1–2.7inTable
4.1); andȘ isadampingcorrectionfactor givenby
(4.14)
andintendedtoaccount for viscousdampingcoefficientsdifferent from5per cent. The
referencevalueof 5per cent isgenerallyappropriatefor reinforcedconcrete(R/C) structures,
but alower value(3–4per cent) ismoreappropriatefor steel structures, andasomewhat
higher value(about 6per cent) ismoreappropriatefor masonrystructures. However, the
approachadoptedbytheEurocodeisnot tospecifydifferent dampingratiosfor different
materials, but rather toincludetheeffect of thedifferenceindampinginthevalueof theforce
reductionfactor (behaviour factor q) usedfor derivingthedesignseismicactions(seeSection
4.3.4).
(ii) A flat branch(B
1
C
1
inFigure4.11) definedbytheconstant value
(4.15)
(iii) Anexponentiallydescendingbranch(C
1
D
1
inFigure4.11) definedby
(4.16)
Thesuggestedvalueof k
1
is1.0(suchvaluescanbechangedbythecommitteesdeveloping
the‘national applicationdocuments’, whichwill adopt theEurocodeasanational standard).
(iv) A secondexponentiallydescendingbranch(beyondpointD
1
inFigure4. 11) givenby
(4.17)
wherek
2
=2.0. Thevaluesof theperiodsT
B
, T
C
, andT
D
(correspondingtopointsB
i
, C
i
, D
i
in
Figure4.11) dependonthesiteconditionsandaregiveninthenext section.
Thespecificationof twodifferent descendingbranchesisafeatureuniquetoEurocode8
(EC8) andestablishesaonetoonecorrespondencewiththeNewmark—Hall spectrum(the
regionT•T
D
correspondstotheamplifieddisplacement region, seeleft part of Figure4.10).
Furthermore, thisisalsoanattempt todefineauniformhazardspectrumcorrespondingtoa
50per cent probabilityof exceedance. Notethat theforegoingisthealternativeapproachto
theonedescribedintheprevioussection, whereit wassuggestedtousethemeanA in
connectionwiththe84or 90percentilesof spectral amplifications.
Page136
Asmentionedpreviously, thedesignPGA (Į
g
) correspondstoa10per cent probabilityof
beingexceededin50years(or areturnperiodof 475years). Thisisthesuggestedprobability
for usual structures; for important structures, suchascritical facilities, whichshouldremain
operational followingtheearthquake, lower probabilitiesof exceedanceareappropriate. This
istreatedinasimplewayinEC8byspecifyinganimportance factor Ȗ
I
whichmultipliesthe
seismicaction(seeeqn4.29inSection4.3.5). For buildingsȖ
I
rangesfrom0.8to1.4, where
thehighest valuecorrespondstobuildingsof vital importancefor civil protection(hospitals,
power plants, firestations), andthelowest valuetobuildingsof minor importance(e.g.
agricultural).
For thevertical responsespectrum, EC8recommendstheuseof thepreviouslydescribed
spectrumfor thehorizontal motion, withthefollowingmodifications:
Ɣ for periodsT”0.15sectheordinatesof thespectrumaremultipliedbyafactor of 0.7;
Ɣ for periodsT•0.50sectheordinatesof thespectrumaremultipliedbyafactor of 0.5;
Ɣ for 0.15<T<0.50seclinear interpolationisused.
AsmentionedinSection4.2.3, the factor isareasonablevaluefor thevertical to
horizontal PGA ratio, but at distancesfromthesourcelessthanabout 15kmit mayexceed
unity. Thecorrespondingspectral accelerationratiosmayalsoexceedoneinthenear field,
but aretypicallylessthanonefor intermediateandlongperiods(AmbraseysandSimpson,
1996).
TheresponsespectrumspecifiedintheAmerican Uniform Building Code, UBC
(International Conferenceof BuildingOfficials, 1997) issimilar tothefirst threebranchesof
theEurocode8spectrum. Theascendingpart startsfromavalueC
a
, representingthedesign
EPA value, whiletheflat part correspondstoavalueof 2.5C
a
, exactlyasintheEurocode. The
exponential branchisdefinedby C
v
/T, whereC
v
isanEPV dependent coefficient, identical to
C
a
for rocksitesbut higher for soil sites(C
a
andC
v
aregiveninTable4.4of thenext section).
Thecorner periods(seepointsB andC inFigure4.11) intheUBC spectrumareT
c
=C
v
/2.5C
a
andT
B
=0.2T
C
.
A uniquefeature, first introducedinthe1997editionof UBC, isthespecificationof near
source factors N
a
andN
v,
giveninTable4.2, whichaccount for thefact that
Table 4.2 Near sourcefactorsin1997UBC, N
a
/N
v
.
Seismic source definition Closest distance to known seismic source
”2km 5km 10km •15km
M
w
•7andSR•5 1.5/2.0 1.2/1.6 1.0/1.2 1.0/1.0
All other cases 1.3/1.6 1.0/1.2 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0
M
w
”6.5andSR”2 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0 1.0/1.0
M
w
: moment magnitude; SR: sliprate(mm/year).
Page137
Figure 4.12 UBC elasticspectracorrespondingtodifferent distancesfromthesource.
groundmotionsaresignificantlystronger near theearthquakesource; thishaslongbeen
recognizedbut not explicitlyaccountedfor inpreviouscodes. It isbelievedthat theseeffects
aresignificant for largeearthquakesonly, hencetheN-factorsof Table4.2areonlyapplicable
tothehighest seismiczoneintheUS. Twotypical UBC spectrafor Zone4(highest) are
showninFigure4.12. Bothcorrespondtofaultscapableof producinglargemagnitudeevents
(M•7) andhavehighrateof seismicactivity(sliprate•5mm/y). However, onespectrum
correspondstoasourcewhichisverynearby(within2km), henceit iscapableof producing
significant near sourceeffects, whereastheother correspondstoasourceat least 15kmaway
fromthesite, for whichnonear sourceeffectsareexpected.
Thevertical component isdefinedinUBC byscalingthehorizontal oneby thefactor, but
wherethenear sourcefactor N
a
>1.0, sitespecificresponsespectrashouldbeused.
4.3.3 Site specific spectra
AsalreadydiscussedinSection4.2.4, thepropertiesandconfigurationof thelayers
underlyingtheEarth’ssurfacecansignificantlyaffect theseismic motion. Aslocal site
conditionsinfluencethefrequencycontent of surfacemotions, their effect isparticularly
important withrespect totheresponsespectrumcharacteristics, i.e. for thesamemotionat the
bedrocksignificantlydifferent spectracanbecalculatedfor themotionsat thesurface,
dependingonthecharacteristicsof thesoil layers. Thegeneral trendisthat asthe
predominant periodof thesiteincreases(i.e. asthesoil becomessofter) thepeak, aswell as
thetransitionfromthe(approximately) flat totheexponential branchof thespectrum
(compareFigure4.11, 4.12) occur
Page138
at longer periods; theseperiodsarecloseto, but not necessarilythesameas, thepredominant
periodof thesite. Referringto Figure4.9, it isseenthat theresponsespectrumfor the
accelerogramfromMexicoCity, recordedat astation(SCT building) underlainbyabout 40m
of soft clay(havinganaverageshear wavevelocityof only75m/sec) hasitspeaksinthe
rangearound2sec, whereastheother twomotionsrecordedonmuchfirmer soilsare
characterizedbypeaksat muchshorter periods(around0.5sec). Until relativelyrecently, it
wasthought that for sitesconsistingof soft tomediumclaystheamplificationof the
accelerationintheshort periodrangetendstobesomewhat lower thanthecorresponding
valuesfor rockandstiff soils(CommentarytoNEHRP Provisions, FEMA, 1995).
Recognizingtheaforementionedtrends, EC8definesthesitespecificelasticresponse
spectrumbymodifyingthebasicshapeof Figure4.11intwoways:
Ɣ byincreasingthecorner periodsTB andTc inthecaseof softer soils;
Ɣ bydecreasingthevalueof S
pa
intheshort periodrangefor softer soils(soil factorS).
Of particular practical importanceisthewaysoilsareclassified(intothreeclassesinEC8),
for designpurposes; classificationmust bepreciseenoughtoavoidambigu-ities, but also
simpleenoughtoavoidtheneedfor costlydetailedgeotechnical investigationsinthecaseof
usual structures. Thebest indicator isprobablytheshear wavevelocityof asoil layer, which
capturestheeffect of bothstiffness(throughtheshear modulusG) anddensity, asshownby
eqn(4.1). Inadditiontothis, thedepthof eachlayer for whichaconstant v
s
canbeassumedis
alsoof importance, whilesiteamplificationisfurther influencedbysoil dampingandthe
geometry(configuration) of thesubsurface.
In situ measurementsof thev
s
profilebyin-hole geophysical methods suchasdown-holeor
cross-holetests(seedescriptioninKramer, 1996) arestronglyrecommendedfor important
structuresand/or highseismicity. Inother cases, empirical correlationsof v
s
withother
geotechnical properties, typicallythecone penetration resistance, maybeused. The
differencebetweenthesmall strainvaluesof v
s
(asmeasuredbyin situ tests) andthestrain
valuesanticipatedduringthedesignearthquakemust betakenintoaccount.
Thebasicvaluesof thesitedependent parameters, alongwiththerest of datarequiredfor
theconstructionof theEC8spectrum(Figure4.11) aresummarizedinTable4.3. Inthefinal
versionof EC8it hasbeenagreedtomodifythevaluesof
Table 4.3 Valuesof theparametersdescribingtheEC8elasticresponsespectrum.
Subsoil class S ȕ
0
k
1
k
2
T
B
(sec) T
c
(sec) T
D
(sec)
A 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.0 0.10 0.20 3.0
B 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.0 0.15 0.60 3.0
C 0.9 2.5 1.0 2.0 0.20 0.80 3.0
Page139
Table4.3inline(thoughnot infull compliance) withtheprovisionsof thenewUScodes,
brieflydiscussedinthefollowing.
Datafromrecent earthquakes, inparticular the1985Mexicoearthquakeandthe1989
LomaPrieta(NorthCalifornia) earthquake, haveindicatedthat accelerationsonsoft soilsare
larger (sometimesmuchlarger) thanonnearbyrocksites; thisisrelatedtothehighlevel of
strainat whichsoft claynonlinearityoccurs, asdiscussedinSection4.2.4. Moreover, soil-to-
rockamplificationfactorsfor S
pa
at longperiodscanbesignificantlyhigher thanthose
adoptedbyEC8andpreviousAmericancodes(Borcherdt, 1994; FEMA, 1995). Asexpected
(duetosoil nonlinearityeffects), thespectral amplificationsarehigher for motionswithlow
PGA andlower for higher PGA.
The1997UBC adoptstherecommendationsinitiallyincludedinthe1994NEHRP
Provisions(FEMA, 1995), that arebasedontheforegoingconsiderations. Theseismic
coefficientsC
a
andC
v
usedfor thedefinitionof theresponsespectrumdependbothonsoil
conditionsandonthelevel of thedesignPGA. Thesiteclassificationschemeadoptedby
NEHRP andUBC isquitesimple, asonlytheshear wavevelocityintheuppermost 30m(the
typical maximumdepthof boringingeotechnical investigations) of thesoil areused. Asan
alternativetov
s
, geotechnical parameterssuchasthestandardpenetrationresistance(for co-
hesionlesssoils) or theuntrainedshear strength(for cohesivesoils) canbeused, but thiswill
usuallyleadtomoreconservativeresults(FEMA 1995, 1997a). Thesitedependent seismic
coefficientsof the1997UBC aregiveninTable4.4, wherethedefinitionof eachsoil profile
typeisalsoincluded; notethat theZ-factor intheTableistheseismiczonecoefficient, which
for practical purposescanbeseenasaPGA value(expressedintermsof g). Theparamount
effect of soil conditionsontheC-values(particularlyonC
v
, whichdefinestheresponse
spectrumat longer periods), isclear fromTable4.4. Notethat themaximumsoil torock
amplificationfactorsfor S
pa
(calculatedastheratioof C-valuescorrespondingtosoilsS
E
and
S
A
) rangefrom4.1to1.3(correspondingtoZ=0.075and0.40, respectively) for theshort-
periodcoefficient C
a
, andfrom4.3to3.0for thelongperiodcoefficientC
v
. Notealsothe
upper boundof 0.36N
a
imposedonC
a
inthehighest seismiczone, for thecaseof soft soils;
thisshouldbeinterpretedasthemaximumaccelerationthat suchsoilsaredeemedtobeable
totransmit (duetonon-linear effects).
ComparisonsbetweenUBC andEC8responsespectrafor varioussiteconditionsshowthat
for both‘intermediate’ (S
C
andS
D
) and‘soft’ (S
E
andS
F
) soilstheUBC spectraresult in
higher S
pa
-valuesthanEC8for PGA’supto0.2g, whereasthisisnot generallythecasefor
0.3g. Ontheother hand, EC8appearstobemoreconservativefor rocksites.
Finally, withrespect tovertical motionresponsespectra, it appearsthat theyareless
influencedbysiteconditions thanhorizontal spectra. Nevertheless, for short periodsboth
horizontal andvertical spectrafor soft sitesarecharacterizedbysmaller amplificationthanfor
stiff sites; theoppositetrendappearsat intermediateandlongperiods(Ambraseysand
Simpson, 1996).
Page140
Table 4.4a SeismiccoefficientsC
a
of the1997UBC.
Soil type v
s
(m/sec) Z=0.075 Z=0.15 Z=0.2 Z=0.3 Z=0.4
S
A
(hardrock) >1,500 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32N
a
S
B
(rock) 760–1,500 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40N
a
Sc (verydensesoil) 360–760 0.09 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.40N
a
S
D
(stiff soil) 180–360 0.12 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.40N
a
S
E
(soft soil) <180 0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36 0.36N
a
S
F
(special
1
) Seefootnote1belowTable4.4b
Table 4.4b SeismiccoefficientsC
v
of theI997UBC
Soil type v
s
(m/sec) Z=0.075 Z=0.15 Z=0.2 Z=0.3 Z=0.4
S
A
(hardrock) >1,500 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Nv
S
B
(rock) 760–1,500 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40N
v
Sc (verydensesoil) 360–760 0.13 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.56N
v
S
D
(stiff soil) 180–360 0.18 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.64Nv
S
E
(soft soil) <180 0.26 0.50 0.64 0.84 0.96N
v
S
F
(special
1
) Seefootnote1
1
Soil withv
s
< 180andlargethickness(S
E
haslimitedthickness); requiressitespecificgeotechnical
investigation.
4.3.4 Inelastic spectra and design spectra
For thevast majorityof engineeringstructuresit isnot economicallyfeasibletodesignthem
towithstandtheseismicactionscorrespondingtoareturnperiodof about 500years(the
designearthquakeinmanymoderncodes, seeSection4.3.2) without developinginelastic
deformations. Thishaslongbeenrecognized(NewmarkandHall, 1982), but the
complicationsarisingfromtheneedtoaccount inasimpleandpractical wayfor theinelastic
responseof astructuretothedesignearthquakewithout carryingout aproper non-linear
analysis, arestill amatter of controversy, aswell asthesubject of current research. The
powerful modal analysisprocedures, althoughstrictlyapplicabletoelasticallyresponding
structuresonly, areneverthelessusedfor analysingstructuresexpectedtodevelopsignificant
amountsof inelasticdeformationwhensubjectedtothedesignearthquake. It isclear that such
aprocedureisnot reallyrigorous, andtherearesituations(particularlyinbridgedesign) that a
full inelasticdynamicanalysisisrequiredbycodes(seeSection4.3.7); however, duetoits
relativesimplicity, this‘equivalent’ modal analysisstill formsthebasisof most current code
procedures. Thebasisof thistypeof analysisistheinelastic spectrum derivedfor nonlinear
SDOF systems,
Page141
Figure 4.13 Elastoplasticresponsecorrespondingtoaparticular ductilityfactor (µ=2).
whichisdiscussedinthefollowingwithaviewtoclarifyingitsroleinseismicdesign.
Inelastic spectra
Thegeneral procedurefor analysingSDOF systemswithelastoplasticbehaviour is presented
inChapter 2(Section2.2.3). Applicationof thisprocedureresultsinthecalculationof the
maximum(inelastic) displacement of thesystemu
max
toaparticular earthquakemotion. This
displacement canthenbeusedtocalculatethe(displacement) ductilityfactor of theSDOF
structure
(4.18)
whereu
y
istheyielddisplacement of thestructure(i.e. thedisplacement correspondingtothe
yieldforceFy=ku
y
(k istheelasticstiffnessof theSDOF system)). Theductilityfactor of eqn
(4.18) isauseful indicator of theamount of inelasticityexpectedtodevelopinastructure
subjectedtoagivenmotion. For instance, aductilityfactor of 3(seeFigure4.13) meansthat
theinelastic(plastic) displacement will beequal totwicetheyielddisplacement. Moreover,
for anelastoplasticsystem, theenergy dissipatedduringafull symmetriccycle(peak
amplitudesof u
max
and–u
max
) isequal to, as canbeinferredfromthegeometryof
theelastoplasticloopinFigure4.13. Givenaset of yieldresistances(F
y
), inelasticresponse
spectracanbecalculatedindicatingtheductilitydemandcorrespondingtoeachvalueof Fy;
thesearecalledconstant strength spectra.
Onthebasisof theforegoingconsiderations, theneedarisestodesignastructureto
respondtoagivenearthquakeexcitationwithinadesiredlevel of inelasticbehaviour (i.e. not
exceedingatarget ductility). It isthereforeparticularlyuseful
Page142
Figure 4.14 Meanelasticandinelasticstrengthspectrafor variousductilitylevels: (a) recordsonrock
sites; (b) recordsonalluviumsites. RecordsarefromearthquakesinGreece, andarescaled
tothemaximumspectrumintensityineachsoil type.
toconstruct responsespectracorrespondingtospecificvaluesof theductilityfactor μ. This
canbedoneeither byinterpolatingbetween(closelyspaced) constant strengthspectral curves,
or byiterativelyadjustingthelevel of Fy (for eachperiod) inorder tomatchascloselyas
desiredthetarget ductilityvalue. Examplesof suchspectracalculatedfor appropriately
selectedsetsof groundmotionstypical of earthquakesinSouthernEuropeareshownin
Figure4.14(Kappos,
Page143
1999), for twositeconditions(‘rock’ and‘alluvium’), andfour ductilityfactors: 1(elastic
behaviour), 2(lowductility), 3.5(mediumductility) and5(highductility). Notethat theshape
of inelasticspectraisgenerallydifferent fromthat of thecorrespondingelasticspectra; they
aremuchsmoother thanthelatter, andsmoothnessincreaseswiththeductilitylevel. For
μ•3.5thestrengthrequirement decreasesmonotonicallywiththeperiod, regardlessof soil
conditions. Inelasticbehaviour appearstobemoreeffectiveinreducingthemaximumelastic
accelerationinthecaseof motionsrecordedonrock, but inall caseselasticforcereductionis
verysignificant inthemediumandlongperiodrange. Alsoof practical significanceisthe
observationthat for μ•3.5inelasticstrengthdemandsarejust slightlyinfluencedbythe
ductilitylevel, for bothrockandalluvium; theimplicationof thisisthat for relativelysmall
changesinthestrengthof mediumandhighductilitystructures, theincreaseintherequired
ductilityissignificant.
Design spectra
Seismiccodesstill relyupontheconcept of inelastic spectrum for specifyingdesignactions
(forces) tobeusedfor elasticmodal analysisof structureswhichareexpectedtorespond
inelasticallytothedesignearthquake. Thisisarather crudeapproximationanderrorstendto
increaseasthelevel of inelasticity(or target ductility μ) andthefundamental natural period
(or thenumber of storeys) increase(Anagnostopouloset al., 1978; Krawinkler andNassar,
1992).
Sincefor designpurposesseveral groundmotionswithdifferent characteristicshavetobe
takenintoaccount, anaverageinelasticresponsespectrumhastobeused, andthiswould
generallyinvolveconsiderablework. Hence, several attemptshavebeenmadetoconstruct
(inelastic) designspectradirectlyfromthecorrespondingelasticspectra, byappropriate
modificationof thelatter. Thetypical waytodothisistodividetheordinatesof theelastic
responsespectrumbyafactor whichdependsonthetypeof inelasticbehaviour (e.g.
elastoplastic, stiffnessdegrading, etc.) andthedamping(typically5per cent isusedfor the
designspectra, asmentionedinSection4.3.2), inadditiontotheperiod; i.e. for agiven
hystereticbehaviour anddampingratio
(4.19)
wherethesubscripts‘el’ and‘in’ refer totheordinatesof theelasticandinelasticresponse
spectrum, respectively. Notethat ineqn(4.19) T isthefundamental periodof thestructure
beforeyielding, oftenreferredtoastheelasticperiod. Thisperiodisnot theeffectiveor the
predominant periodof theinelastically respondingstructure(particularlywhentheplastic
deformationsaresignificant), henceit shouldnot beforgottenthat plottingS
in
asafunctionof
theinitial T ismerelyaconvention.
Page144
Newmark andHall (1982) havenotedthefollowingcharacteristicsof inelasticresponse
spectra:
Ɣ For periodslonger thanabout 0.5sec, thedisplacementsof theinelasticsystemsarevery
closetothoseof theelasticsystems; referringto Figure4.13, it canbeshownthat inthis
casetheyieldforceintheinelasticsystemis Fy=F
el
/μ, whereF
el
istheforceintheelastic
systemcorrespondingtothedisplacement u
max
. Giventhat themaximumforceinan
elastoplasticsystemisitsmasstimesthepseudo-acceleration(F
y
=mS
pa
) thecorresponding
R-factor definedfromeqn(4.19) isinthiscaseconstant (i.e. R=μ).
Ɣ For periodsbetweenabout 0.12and0.5sectheenergystoredintheinelasticsystem(the
areaunder themonotonieF–u curvefrom0tou
max
inFigure4.13) isroughlythesameas
theareastoredbyanelasticsystemwiththesameinitial stiffness(but smaller maximum
displacement); byequatingtheareasunder thetwocurvesit canbeshownthat inthiscase
(4.20)
or
Ɣ For periodslessthan0.03sectheforce(or acceleration) isthesamefor elasticandinelastic
systems(i.e. Fy=F
el
). Thisleavesatransitionrangefrom0.03to0.12sec, whereinalinear
decreasefromF
el
tothevaluegivenbyeqn(4.20) isassumedfor Fy, thisisequivalent toR
varyingfrom1to
FollowingtheNewmark—Hall proposal for inelasticspectraconstruction, anumber of
studies, someof thembasedonmoreextensivedatabasesof records, haveappeared. A review
of most proposalsregardingtheR-factor canbefoundinMirandaandBertero(1994),
wherefromFigure4.15hasbeenreproduced. It isseenthat althoughall proposalsfor theR-
factor followasimilar trend, differencesuptoabout 40per cent canresult betweenthem.
Another critical issueregardingtheuseof designspectraisthefeasibilityof capturingthe
inelasticresponseof aMultipleDegree-of-Freedom(MDOF) systemusingspectrathat have
beenderivedfromSDOF systemanalysis. Morespecifically, thequestionariseswhether an
MDOF systemdesignedfor abaseshear derivedfromaninelasticresponsespectrum
correspondingtoatarget ductilityμ, will developan(equivalent) ductilityof thisorder when
subjectedtoearthquakescompatiblewiththeaforementionedspectrum. Bothearlier (e.g.
Anagnostopouloset al. 1978) andmorerecent (e.g. Krawinkler andNassar, 1992) studies
haveindicatedthat thedanger existsthat theductilityfactorsfor theMDOF systemmay
significantlyexceedthetarget ductility(i.e. theonefor whichtheinelasticspectrumfor the
SDOF systemhasbeenconstructed). Thecritical aspect of theproblemisthetypeof inelastic
mechanismthat formsintheMDOF system, whichdependslargelyonthephilosophy
adoptedfor design(seeSection4.4). If asoft storeymechanismdevelops, theductility
demandsfor theMDOF systemaremuchhigher thanthosefor thecorrespondingSDOF
system; onthe
Page145
Figure 4.15 Comparisionof strengthreductionfactors(R) proposedinvariousstudiesfor ductility
factors: μ=3; (b) μ=5
Page146
other hand, thedifferencesaremuchsmaller whenamechanisminvolvingprimarilybeam
hingingforms. Moreover, theincreaseintheductilitydemandsintheMDOF systemislarger
for increasedtarget ductilityfactorsandfor longer fundamental periods(i.e. for taller
buildings). Theneedthereforearisesfor modifyingthe(inelastic) designspectruminthelong
periodrangetoremedytheprevioussituation. NewmarkandHall (1982) havesuggested
loweringtheexponent (k
1
ineqns4.16, 4.17) of theperioddependent termgivingspectral
accelerationsinthelongperiodrange(T>1sec) from1to ; thishasbeenadoptedbyseveral
seismiccodesbut Krawinkler andNassar (1992) havefoundthat it isonlyvalidfor well-
designedstructures(i.e. thoseformingbeammechanisms).
Code spectra
ThedesignspectruminEurocode8isdefinedbyeqns(4.13–4.17), withthefollowing
modifications:
Ɣ theterm issubstitutedby , wheretheso-calledbehaviour factor q isanalogousto
theR-factor of eqn(4.19).
Ɣ theexponentsk
1
=1.0andk
2
=2.0arereplacedby andrespectively;
Ɣ acut-off valueof for thedesignaccelerationisintroduced.
Theintroductionof thereducedkd exponentsincombinationwiththecut-off of 0.2Į
g
, results
inasubstantial increaseinthedesignforcesfor longperiodstructures, suchastall buildings
or longspanbridges. Thisisgenerallyinlinewiththeremarksmadepreviouslyfor such
structures, althoughnoparticular justificationappearstoexist for specifyingaconstant
minimumseismicforce(thecut-off value).
DesignspectraintheAmericancodesaresimilarlyderivedfromthecorrespondingelastic
spectra(i.e. factorssimilar toq arespecifiedfor reducingtheelasticspectrumordinates
and/or theelasticbaseshear). Theyarecalledresponse modification factors (R) inthe
NEHRP [National EarthquakeHazardReductionProgram] Provisions(FEMA 1995, 1997a),
whereastheyarereferredtosimplyastheR coefficients inUBC. It isdeemedthat theterm
response reduction factor (or forcereductionfactor) offersaclearer indicationof thenatureof
thisfactor, whichplaysaparamount roleinseismicdesign, andisdiscussedinmoredetail in
thenext section. UnlikeEC8, theAmericanUBC specifiesalower boundtothedesignbase
shear equal to90per cent of thevalueusedintheequivalent (static) lateral forceprocedure
(Section4.3.5); thisappearstobemainlyduetohistorical reasons, aslateral forcedesignhas
longprevailed, whereasmodal analysiswastraditionallyrestrictedto‘special’ structures.
SimilarlytoEC8, theUBC specifiesaminimumbaseshear (seeSection4.3.5), lower thanthe
EC8one.
Force reduction factors
Theforcereductionfactor canbedefinedastheratioof theelasticstrengthdemand(i.e. the
strengththat wouldberequiredinthestructureif it weretorespondelasti-
Page147
Table 4.5 Seismicforcereductionfactorsfor highductilityR/C structures.
Symbol Frame Structural wall Frame wall
EurocodeS(ULS) q 5 4–5 4.5–5
UBC
1
(ULS) R 8.5 4.5–5.5 8.5
NZS4203
2
(ULS) μ <6
3
<5
4
<5–6
4
J apan
4
(Level 2earthquake) I/D
s
2.2–3.3 l.8–2.5 2.0–2.9
1
R factor must bereducedbyareliability/redundancyfactor of between1and1.5.
2
Thestructural performancefactor S
p
alsoapplies, inadditiontoμ, hencethevaluesinthetablearetypically
increasedby50%.
3
Dependingonthemechanismof inelasticdeformation.
4
Dependingontheaspect ratioandcoupling.
5
Thefactor D
s
iscalculatedfor eachstoreyseparately, rather thanthebuildingasawhole.
callytothedesignearthquake), totheinelasticstrengthdemand(i.e. thestrengthrequiredin
thestructurefor it torespondbeyondtheelasticrangebut withintheselectedductility(and/or
displacement) limits). If theelasticstrengthdemandisdenotedas F
el
andtheinelastic
(design) strengthdemandasF
d
, it followsthat thereductionfactor
(4.21)
Differencesinthenumerical valuesof theforcereductionfactorsspecifiedinvariouscodes
for thesametypeof structurecanbequitesubstantial. Thevaluesspecifiedfor highductility
R/C framesinfour leadingcodesaresummarisedinTable4.5(Boothet al., 1998); it isseen
that thereductionfactor isequal to8.5inUBC, 5inEC8, and”3.3intheJ apaneseCode
(whoseconceptual basisisgenerallydifferent fromthat of theother threecodes). It shouldbe
noted, however, that if appropriateadjustmentsaremadetothesevaluestoaccount for the
different partial safetyfactorsusedineachcode(for loads, aswell asfor member resistances),
differencesbecomesmaller.
Thevalueof thereductionfactor dependsontheductility of thestructure(whichrelatesto
thedetailingof thestructural members), but alsoonthestrength reserves that normallyexist
inastructure(dependingmainlyonits redundancy andontheover strength of individual
members), aswell asonthe(effective) damping of thestructure; all thesefactorsdirectly
affect theenergy dissipation capacityof astructure. Bertero(1989) suggestedadefinitionof
theforcereductionfactor alongtheforegoinglines, i.e.
(4.22)
whereRμ istheductilitydependent component, R
s
theoverstrengthdependent component,
andR
ȟ
thedampingdependent component of thereductionfactor; thelatter isof interest
mainlyinthecaseof structureswithsupplemental dampingdevices(seeSection4.4.4). A
detaileddiscussionof possibleproceduresfor
Page148
quantifyingRμ andR
s
canbefoundelsewhere(Fischinger andFajfar, 1994; Kappos, 1999).
Theseandother studieshaveindicatedsignificant valuesfor theoverstrengthcomponent R
s
(at least 1.5) for bothR/C andsteel structures. Thisisparticularlyimportant fromthedesign
point of view, sinceductiledetailingrequirementscanberelaxedfor structurespossessing
substantial overstrength.
Theconcept expressedbyeqn(4.22) isnot explicitlyrecognizedinEurocode8.
Nevertheless, if theratioof theEC8elasticspectraof eqns(4.13–4.17) totheinelastic
(design) spectraresultingfromtheaforementionedmodificationsiscalculated, theresulting
R-factor (eqn4.19) isperioddependent (i.e. R<q for bothshort andlongperiodstructures, and
R=q onlyfor theintermediateperiod(fromT
B
to T
C
) structures).
ContrarytotheEC8approach, theAmericancodesspecifyessentiallyperiodindependent
valuesof theR factors, somethingthat hasbeencriticizedinthepast (MirandaandBertero,
1994). Althoughaproposal hasbeenmadebySEAOC (1996) toincludeatwocomponent
(R
μ
R
s
) reductionfactor intheUBC, thishasnot beendoneinthe1997edition, which,
however, doesincludearedundancyfactor (ȡ”1.5), intendedas alower bound, belowwhicha
penalty(anincreaseof upto50per cent) isappliedwithregardtoseismicforcelevelsin
structureslackingredundancy. Someother national codeshaveadoptedexpressionsfor R that
explicitlydifferentiatebetweentheductilityandtheoverstrengthcomponent of R (Fischinger
andFajfar, 1994).
Design displacements
Inadditiontothedeterminationof the‘inelastic’ forcesexpectedinastructure, it isalso
necessarytohaveanestimateof theinelasticdisplacementsunder thedesignand/or the
serviceabilityearthquake; thesearetypicallyrequiredfor checkingthat thecode-specified
drift limitsarenot exceeded. Basedonthepreviousdiscussion, it isreasonabletoassumethat
elasticandinelasticdisplacementsareabout thesame(except for short periodstructures), and
calculatethelatter bysimplyamplify-ingthe(elastic) displacements, calculatedfor the
factoredseismicloading(correspondingto F
el
/R), bythereductionfactor (R) usedfor forces.
ThisisindeedtherecommendedprocedureinEurocode8: Under theserviceability
earthquake(inelastic) driftsarecalculatedas , where isthedrift calculatedonthe
basisof thedesignseismicforces andv isafactor intendedtoaccount for thelower intensity
of theserviceabilityearthquake(for buildings v=2.0to2.5).
ThecorrespondingprocedureintheUBC (ICBO, 1997) istoestimatedriftsunder the
designearthquakeas (i.e. theamplificationfactor for inelasticdisplacementsis30per
cent lower thanthereductionfactor (R) for forces). AlthoughtheUBC backgrounddocument
(SEAOC, 1996) claimsthat thisisabetter ‘average’ valueof theinelasticdrift, thisisapoint
of rather considerablecontroversy.
Page149
4.3.5 Equivalent lateral force procedures
Until veryrecentlyseismic designof most structureswasbasedonastaticanalysisusingaset
of lateral (horizontal) forcesassumedtorepresent theactual (dynamic) earthquakeloading. In
theabsenceof commercial softwareappropriatefor dynamicanalysisof three-dimensional
structures, aswell asof theexpertisefor usingwhatever softwareof thistypewasavailable,
most codesof practiceclearlypromotedthesimpler staticprocedure. However, thelast 10to
15yearsweremarkedbyamassiveintroductionof moreadvancedsoftwarepackages,
runningonincreasinglymorepowerful hardware; thiswasprobablythemainreasonfor a
changeof attitude, bothfromthepractisingengineer’sandthecodedrafter’spoint of view.
Asaconsequence, inmoderncodes, suchastheEC8, dynamic analysis(Section4.3.6) is
adoptedasthereferencemethod, anditsapplicationiscompulsoryinmanycasesof practical
interest.
Thetypical procedureintheequivalent staticanalysismethodisthedeterminationof an
appropriatevalueof thebaseshear intermsof thestructuremassandthedesignearthquake
intensity, properlyreducedfor inelasticeffects, alongthelinesdiscussedintheprevious
section. Thebaseshear isthenusedfor estimatingaset of lateral forcesdistributedalongthe
structurefollowing(moreor less) thefundamental modeof vibration. Sincethebaseshear
itself isalsocalculatedonthebasisof thefundamental period, it isclear that theapplication
of theequivalent lateral forcemethodshouldberestrictedtostructureswhosedynamic
responseisgovernedbythefundamental mode.
The Eurocode 8 procedure
Themethodisreferredtoas‘simplifiedmodal responsespectrumanalysis’, rather thanas
‘equivalent staticanalysis’, andisrestrictedtostructuresthat arenot significantlyaffectedby
higher modesand/or stiffnessirregularities.
Thebase shear (sumof horizontal loads) iscalculatedfrom
(4.23)
whereS
d
(T
1
) istheordinateof thedesignspectrum(seeSection4.3.4) correspondingtothe
fundamental periodT1of thestructure, andW isthegravityloadcon-tributingtoinertial
forces; thisistakenasthepermanent loading(G) andaportion of thevariable(live)
loadingQ. Thefundamental periodT
1
canbeestimatedeither fromaproper eigenvalue
analysis(seeSection2.3.2), or fromRayleigh’smethod, or fromempirical formulaeincluded
inthecode.
Thelateral forces correspondingtothebaseshear of eqn(4.23) arecalculatedassuming
(conservatively) that theeffectivemassof thefundamental modeistheentiremassof the
structure; hence
(4.24)
Page150
whereF
i
isthehorizontal forceactingonstorey i, s
i
, s
j
arethedisplacementsof themassesm
i
,
m
j
inthefundamental modeshape, and Wi, Wj aretheweightscorrespondingtotheprevious
masses. It ispermittedbythecodetoavoidthecalculationof thefundamental modeshape
andassumeinsteadthat it isincreasinglinearlywiththeheight of thebuilding, hences
k
ineqn
(4.24) aresubstitutedby z
k
, theheightsof themassesm
k
. (typicallytheheightsof thestoreys)
abovethefoundationlevel. Theforces F
i
arethenusedfor astandardstaticanalysisof the
building, whichcanbebasedontwoplanar models.
Inorder tocover uncertaintiesinthedistributionof massandstiffness(of ‘non-structural’
elements), aswell asthespatial variabilityof groundmotion, anaccidental eccentricity of the
loads F
i
withrespect tothemasscentreCMof thestoreyhastobeintroducedintheanalysis;
thisisequal to
(4.25)
whereL
i
isthefloor dimensionperpendicular tothedirectionof forceF
i
. Theeccentricitye
1
isadditional toanyexistingeccentricity e
0
betweenthestiffnesscentreCsandthemasscentre
C
M
at anystorey. Insteadof applyingtheforcesat aneccentricityfromC
M
, it isusuallymore
convenient toconsider atorsional moment M
t
=Fi(e
0
+e
1
), or simplyF
ie1
if athree-dimensional
model isused, actingat themasscentre.
Whiletheaforementionedeccentricities e
0
ande
1
arepresent inbothstaticanddynamic
analysis, anadditional complicationariseswhentheformer isused. It isknownthat static
analysisunderestimatesdynamictorsioneffects(Chopra, 1995), henceEC8requires
considerationof anadditional eccentricitye
2
toaccount for thedynamiceffect of
simultaneoustranslational andtorsional vibrations. Appropri-ate(rather complicated)
expressionsfor e
2
asafunctionof thegeometryandthestiffnessof astoreyaregiveninEC8
1–2(CEN, 1994b).
Theload combination involvingtheseismicloadingis
(4.26)
where‘+’means‘tobecombinedwith’, _ impliesthecombinedeffect of several actionsof
thesametype(permanent or ‘dead’ G, variableor imposedQ), G
kj
isthecharacteristic(upper
5per cent fractile) valueof thepermanent actionj, isthe‘quasi-permanent’ valueof
thevariableaction, Ȗ
I
theimportancefactor (Section4.3.2), andEd thedesignvalueof the
seismicaction.
The UBC 1997 procedure
Themethodisapplicabletoall buildingsinthelowseismicityzone(Zone1) andusual
structuresinseismicZone2, regular structureswithaheight upto73m, andirregular
structureshavingnomorethanfivestoreys.
Page151
Thedesignbaseshear is
(4.27)
whereW isthe‘seismic’ deadload, includingthetotal deadloadandapplicableportionsof
other loads(partitionloadof at least 0.5kN/m
2
, permanent equipment, etc.), andthefactors
C
a
, C
v
, I andR, that definethedesignspectrumwerediscussedintheprevioussection. Two
lower boundsto V
b
, areset inUBC
Ɣ For all seismiczones
(4.28a)
Ɣ For seismicZone4(highest)
(4.28b)
Notethat thisistoaccount for near sourceeffects, asdiscussedinSection4.3.2. The
fundamental periodT
1
iscalculatedusingthesameproceduresasinEC8. Thedistributionof
lateral forcesalongtheheight of thestructureisgivenby
(4.29)
It isseenthat thisisthesameasthesimplifiedversionof eqn(4.24), whereintheheightsz
i
replacethemodeshapeamplitudesjy, withtheexceptionthat part of thetotal baseshear is
appliedasaconcentratedforceat thetop, F
t
=0.07T
l
V
b
, whichneednot exceed25per cent of
thetotal baseshear andmaybetakenaszerofor T
1
”0.7sec. ThetopforceF
t
isasimpleway
of accountingfor theeffect of higher modesontheforcepatternandisimportant for tall
buildingsonly.
The0.05L accidental eccentricitydiscussedpreviouslyfor EC8isalsospecifiedinUBC,
but noprovisionsareincludedregardingthe‘dynamic’ eccentricity(e
2
inEC8).
ThefollowingcombinationsinvolvingtheseismicloadingE arespecifiedinUBC (the
notationfor loadshasbeenchangedheretofacilitatecomparisonwithEC8)
(4.30a)
(4.30b)
whereQ
1
istheliveload(itsfactor f
1
istypicallyequal to0.5) andQ
2
thesnowload(f
2
is0.2
or 0.7dependingontheroof configuration). Theloadfactorsineqns(4.30) shouldbe
increasedby10per cent for thedesignof R/C andmasonrystructures.
TheUBC earthquakeloadingE iscalculatedas
(4.31)
Page152
whereE
h
istheloadduetothehorizontal component (correspondingtothebaseshear of eqn
4.27), ȡ istheredundancyfactor describedpreviously, andE
v
istheloadeffect resultingfrom
thevertical component of thegroundmotion, accountedfor byaddinganextrapermanent
load(additional toG), equal to0.5C
a
IG. Thisisaninterestingdifferencebetweenthetwo
codes, sinceEC8requiresconsiderationof thevertical component inspecial casesonly(i.e.
horizontal cantilever members, longspan(>20m) members, prestressedconcretemembers,
andbeamssupportingcolumns); inall thesecasesthevertical component canbeconsidered
locally(for themembersunder considerationandtheir associatedsupportingmembers).
4.3.6 Modal analysis procedures
For thepurposesof seismicdesignthemethodisalmost invariablyappliedincombination
withthedesignresponsespectrum, andistypicallyreferredtoas‘modal response spectrum
analysis’. Itsfieldof applicabilitycoversessentiallyall casesfor whichtheequivalent static
analysisisnot appropriate(i.e. caseswheremodesother thanthefundamental oneaffect
significantlytheresponseof thestructure). Thereareafewcaseswheremodal analysisis not
deemedappropriateandafull dynamic(timehistory) analysisisrequired, anotableexample
beingthedesignof baseisolatedbridgestoEC8Part 2(CEN, 1994c). Detailedpresentations
of themodal responsespectrumanalysiscanbefoundelsewhere(Gupta, 1990; Cloughand
Penzien, 1993; Chopra, 1995).
Review of the procedure
Inmodal analysisinvolvinglumpedmasssystems, the(elastic) forcevector f
n
for thenth
mode, calculatedonthebasisof theresponsespectrum, is
(4.32)
wheremisthemassmatrix, isthenthmodeshapevector, L
n
istheearthquakeexcitation
factor (dependingonthemassdistributionandthecorrespondingmodeshape), M
n
isthe
generalizedmass(seealsoSection2.3.2), andS
pan
isthespectral pseudo-acceleration
correspondingtotheperiodT
n
of thenthmode. Notethat theforcesf
in
areactingonthe
(lumped) massesm
i
; inthecommoncaseof buildingswithfloor diaphragms, m
i
isthemassof
theithstoreyandf
in
thenthmodeforceactingonthismass.
Thecorrespondingmaximumbase shear for thenthmodeisgivenby
(4.33)
Page153
Thedisplacements for thenthmodecanbecalculatedfrom
(4.34)
where isthecircular frequencyof thenthmode. Recall thatS
pa

2
equalsS
d
, the
spectral displacement (Section4.3.2).
Sincetheresponseof astructureresultsfromthecontributionof all modes, andsince
modal maximagenerallydonot occur simultaneously, it iscustomarytocombinetheaction
effectsSi fromtheindividual modesinastatistical way. Themost commonlyadopted
procedureistheSquareRoot of theSumof Squares(SRSS) combinationthat is:
(4.35)
whereS
i
,
max
istheprobablemaximumvalueof theactioneffect (forceor displacement), and
thesubscripts1, 2,3,... refer tothefirst, second, third... mode; asufficient number of modes
shouldbeconsideredinestimatingS
i
,
max
(seecodecriteriainthenext subsections). Notealso
that actioneffectsduetoearthquakeshouldalwaysbetakenwithalternatesign(i.e. bothas
positiveandnegative). Equation(4.35) givesreasonablevaluesinmanypractical cases, but is
generallyunconservativewhentwoor moremodesarecloselyspaced(i.e. their periodsare
closetoeachother); thisisoftenthecaseinthree-dimensional structuressusceptibleto
torsional effects. Inthesecasesmorerefinedcombinationrules, suchastheComplete
QuadraticCombination(CQC) (Wilsonet al., 1981) areappropriate.
A significant shortcomingof modal responsespectrumanalysisisthat it isnot possibleto
defineexactlythesimultaneous valuesof forces, for instancetheaxial loadingcorresponding
tothemaximummoment inacolumnsection, andviceversa. Therefore, inadditiontothe
approximationof modal combination(eqn4.35), it iscustomarytoassumethat theprobable
maximaof thevariousactioneffects(M, N, V) for agivenearthquakeaction(e.g. aresponse
spectruminaparticular direction) occur simultaneously; thisisusually, but not necessarily,
conservative, withregardtodesignof members. Theproblemof combiningmoments
(generallypairsof moments) andaxial loadsinthedesignof columnsfor (biaxial) bending
andaxial force(M
x
,M
y
,N) isdiscussedinmoredetail elsewhere(Gupta, 1990; Penelisand
Kappos, 1997).
The Eurocode 8 procedure
Thebasisof themethodisthedesignresponsespectrumdiscussedinSection4.3.4; thishasto
beappliedalongtwo, properlyidentified, perpendicular axesof thestructure.
Page154
Thecriterionfor therequirednumber of modestobeincludedintheanalysisistwo-fold:
Ɣ thesumof theeffectivemodal masses( , seeeqn4.33) of theconsideredmodes
shouldamount toat least 90per cent of thetotal massof thestructure;
Ɣ all modeswitheffectivemassgreater than5per cent of thetotal massshouldbeconsidered.
Themodal actioneffectsshouldbecombinedusingtheSRSSapproach(eqn4.35), unlessthe
periodsof twoof theconsideredmodesdiffer bylessthan10per cent, inwhichcasetheCQC
approachshouldbeused.
Theaccidental eccentricitye
1
(eqn4.25) couldbeconsideredinbuildingseither by
displacingthelocationof themassof eachstoreydiaphragmbye
1
or (moreconveniently) by
introducinganequivalent torsional moment, exactlyasinthecaseof equivalent staticanalysis.
Thesimultaneousactionof thetwohorizontal componentsshouldbetakenintoaccount;
thisisalsorequiredinequivalent staticanalysis. Sincepeakvaluesdonot occur at thesame
timeinbothdirections(x andy), thesimultaneousactioncanbemodelledeither:
Ɣ byanSRSScombination(compareeqn4.35) of the‘x’ and‘y’ actioneffects; or
Ɣ byconsideringthecombinations
(4.36)
whereS
Ex
aretheactioneffectsduetotheapplicationof theseismicactionalongthe
selectedx-axisof thestructure, andS
Ey
thecorrespondingeffectsfor theseismicaction
appliedalongthey-axis.
Bothproceduresarestatistical ones, andbothintroducesmall errorsonthesafe, aswell asthe
unsafeside(PenelisandKappos, 1997).
Inthecaseof elongatedstructures, suchasbridgesexceedingabout 600m, thespatial
variability of thegroundmotionshouldbegivendueconsideration(seealso Section4.2.4).
Methodsfor accountingfor spatial variabilityaredescribedinthe(informative) AnnexDto
EC8Part 2(CEN, 1994c).
The UBC 1997 procedure
Therearetwodifferencesinthemodal analysisprocedurespecifiedinUBC, comparedtothe
previouslydescribedEC8procedure:
Ɣ Theelastic, rather thanthedesign, responsespectrumisusedfor estimatingactioneffects;
theresultingdisplacements aredirectlyusedfor design. Recall that inEC8displacements
arecalculatedbyscalingthevaluesresultingfromthedesignspectrum(whichincludes1/q)
bytheq-factor.
Ɣ Theelasticforcescalculatedasabovearethenscaleddowntoaccount for inelasticand
relatedeffects. Thisisdonebyadjustingthemto90per cent of
Page155
thebaseshear usedinequivalent staticanalysis(eqns4.27, 4.28) inthecaseof regular
structures, or 100per cent thisbaseshear inthecaseof irregular structures.
Modal combinations, torsional effects, andorthogonal (x andy) effectsaretreatedinthesame
fashionasinEC8.
4.3.7 Time history representations
Timehistoryanalysisisusedfor designpurposesonlyasanexception(seeSection4.3.1), and
almost exclusivelywhenever non-linear effectsaretobeconsideredexplicitly, rather than
throughtheR-factor approach. Whenaccelerationtimehistoriesareusedfor design, it is
imperativethat theyactuallycorrespondtothedesignearthquakefor thesiteunder
consideration, whichmeansthat theenvelopeof theresponsespectraof theaccelerograms
usedshouldreasonablymatchtheelasticdesignspectrumfor thesite(noreductionthroughR-
factors).
Several optionsareavailablefor selectinganappropriateset of designaccelerograms:
Ɣ useof recordsfromactual earthquakes, whichgenerallyhavetobescaledtothedesign
earthquakeintensity;
Ɣ useof artificial accelerogramsgeneratedsoastomatchthe(target) elasticresponse
spectrum; thisissometimesreferredtoasthe‘engineeringmethod’;
Ɣ useof simulatedaccelerogramsgeneratedbymodellingthesourceandtravel path
mechanismsof thedesignearthquake(‘seismological method’).
Eachoptionhasitsownmeritsandlimitations, asdiscussedinthefollowing.
Selection of recorded accelerograms
Thiscanbetheideal solutionwhenever anextensivedatabaseof accelerationtimehistoriesis
available, containingrecordsfromearthquakeswithalargerangeof characteristics. Then, a
selectioncanbemadeof recordsmatchingthesourceparameters(focal mechanismanddepth,
distancefromsource), travel path, magnitude, peakgroundmotionparameters(A, V, D), and
duration, for thesiteunder consideration. Notethat, withthepossibleexceptionof major
projects(suchasthedesignof critical facilities) inareaswhereabundant dataexist, suchas
theUSandJ apan, theforegoingisarather over-ambitiousprocedure, sincenot onlyan
adequatedatabaseof recordsisrequired, but alsoacompletecharactema-tionof theseismic
hazardat thesite.
A morepragmaticapproachwouldinvolvethefollowingmainparameterstobeconsidered
whenselectingnatural records:
Ɣ siteconditions;
Ɣ magnitude;
Page156
Ɣ distancetosource(or epicentral distance);
Ɣ closenesstothesiteunder consideration.
It isbeyondthescopeof thisbooktodiscussindetail theseparametersandtheir relationto
thecharacteristicsof thegroundmotion. Inapractical context, theneedbecomesclear of
usingaminimumnumber of criteria(ideallyonlyone) for selectinggroundmotionrecords
for thepurposeof timehistoryanalysis. Aninterestingproposal inthisrespect istheuseof
theA/V ratio(Zhuet al., 1988), whichisasimpleparameter, easytocalculatefromthe
commonlyavailablevaluesof A(ŁPGA) andV(ŁPGV), andcorrelateswell withtheM–R
relationship, aswell aswithsiteconditions.
Another possiblecriterionistoselect groundmotionrecordswhosespectra(Sp
a
or
preferably S
pv
,) arepeakinginthevicinityof thefundamental periodof thestructureunder
consideration, irrespectiveof their other characteristics, whichisgenerallyaconservative
approach.
Scaling of recorded accelerograms
Whenever acareful selectionof natural accelerogramshasbeenmade, for instanceonthe
basisof (M, R) pairswithinanarrowrange, onemight arguethat thesecouldbedirectlyused
for designpurposes. Infact, if theserecordsareusedfor analysis, significant variabilityinthe
calculatedresponseisfound; Shomeet al. (1998) reporteddispersionsof about 50per cent to
60per cent intheinelasticpeakinterstoreydriftsof mediumrisesteel framessubjectedtosets
of motions, eachcorrespondingtoanarrowmagnituderange(e.g. 6.5–7.0) anddistancerange
(e.g. 50–70km). Thissignificant variabilityisattributedtotheverydifferent characteristicsof
groundmotionsat agivenlocationresultingfromanearthquakeof agiven M, andisaclear
indicationof theeffect of neglectingtheother important parameterscharacterizingtheground
motion. Thispointstotheneedfor scaling(or normalizing) theselectedearthquake
accelerogramsbeforeusingthemfor timehistoryanalysis. Inadditiontotheforegoing
considerations, scalingisalsonecessarywhenever different limit states(serviceability,
ultimate, etc.) havetobeconsidered, sinceit isgenerallyimpractical toselect different setsof
recordsfor eachlimit state.
Themost commonlyappliedscalingprocedureisbasedonthePGA (i.e. all recordsused
for designarescaledtothesamePGA). Unfortunatelythisconvenient procedureisoneof the
most unsatisfactoryones, withtheexceptionof structureswithverylowperiods(not
exceedingabout 0.2sec). AsdiscussedinSection4.3.2, thespectral ordinatesareproportional
tothePGA over theshort periodrangeonly, whereasfor longer periods(coveringmost of the
usual civil engineeringstructures) theyareproportional tothePGV, andfor verylongperiods
(morethanabout 3.0sec) theyareproportional tothePGD. Thepeak groundparametershave
indeedbeenusedasscalingfactors, andsohavetheintegralsof their squaredvaluesandtheir
root-mean-squarevalues(NauandHall, 1984). All thesevalues
Page157
aregroundmotiondependent only(i.e. theyarenot correlatedinanywaytothe
characteristicsof thestructuretobedesigned).
A sensiblechoiceof scalingparametersaccountingfor thecharacteristicsof boththerecord
andthestructure, arethespectral values, either thoseof theresponsespectrumor of the
Fourier spectrum. Sincespectral ordinatesvarywithT, acritical questioniswhichrangeof
thespectrashouldbeconsideredfor derivingascalingparameter. Anearly(1952), but still
quitepopular, proposal isHousner’s spectrum intensity, SI
v
(seeHousner 1970), whichisthe
areaunder theS
pv
spectrum
(4.37)
withT
a
=0.1sec, T
b
=2.5sec, andȟ=20per cent. Thereasonfor selectingtheseperiodlimitsis
that theyweredeemedtorepresent therangeof typical periodsof buildingsat thetime; it is
understoodthat SI
v
isintendedtobeanoverall measureof the‘damageability’ of aground
motionwithrespect toapopulationof structures. Whenever aparticular structureistobe
designedor assessed, acondensationof thelimitssuggestedbyHousner isappropriate.
Kappos(1991) suggestedamodifiedHousner intensitybasedonT
a
=0.8T
1
andT
b
=1.2T
1,
whereT
1
isthefundamental periodof thestructure, calculatedusingtheaverageof theSI
valuesfromthe5per cent and10per cent velocityspectra. Martinez-Rueda(1998) suggested
valuesof T
a
=T
y
andT
b
=T
h
, whereT
y
andT
b
arethefundamental periodscalculatedat yield
andinthepost yield(hardening) range; theseperiodsarerather difficult tocalculatefor actual
structures. Usingadifferent approach, Shomeet al. (1998) havesuggestedscalingof
accelerogramsselectedfor agiven(M, R) pair tothemedianS
a
valuecorrespondingtothe
fundamental periodof thestructureT
1
. All thesedefinitionsmaketheset of recordsstructure
dependent whichisreasonable, but not particularlyconvenient if timehistoryanalysisistobe
performedinseveral designprojects.
Use of simulated ground motions
Inthe‘engineeringmethod’, artificial accelerogramsaregeneratedsoastomatchthe(target)
elasticresponsespectrum, hencetheyaretypicallycalledspectrum compatible motions.
Dependingontheavailabilityof appropriaterecordedmotions, thestartingpoint of the
methodcouldbeeither:
Ɣ A numericallyderivedtimehistorygeneratedbysuperimposingsinusoidal components
withpseudo-randomphaseangles, whicharethenmultipliedbyadeterministicintensity
function(envelopeof thetimehistory) selectedonthebasisof thecharacteristicsof the
designearthquake(seeCloughandPenzien, 1993; CEN, 1994c; Huet al. 1996); or
Ɣ Anactual accelerationrecordhavingthedesiredseismological features.
Page158
TheselectedrecordisthenprocessediterativelybymultiplyingtheFourier amplitudes(see
eqn4.11) bythecorrespondingaverageof theratiosof target S
pv
valuestotheS
pv
values
calculatedfor theinitiallyselectedrecord, withaviewtobetter matchingthetarget spectrum.
Inthe‘seismological method’, simulatedaccelerogramsaregeneratedbymodellingthe
sourceandtravel pathmechanisms. Themethodgenerallyinvolvestwosteps(Huet al.,
1996):
Ɣ definethegroundmotionat thesiteduetoan‘element’ of earthquakesourceor fault
rupture; planar sourcesaredividedintoanumber of elements
Ɣ sumupthecontributionsof motionsduetoall elements, inthetimedomain.
A detaileddiscussionof thismethod, whichislesscommonthanthepreviousone, falls
outsidethescopeof thisbook. Referencestothepertinent literaturecanbefound, for instance,
inCloughandPenzien(1993) andHuet al. (1996).
Code treatment
All theaforementionedtypesof accelerogramsaregenerallyallowedasinput for timehistory
analysisinEC8, which, however, appearstopromotespectrumcompatiblerecords, generated
usingtheelasticresponsespectrumasthetarget. Thedurationof therecordsmust be
consistent withthecharacteristics(M, R, etc.) of theearthquakeunderlyingtheestablishment
of thedesignĮ
g.
A minimumof fiverecordsisrequiredfor timehistoryanalysis, which
shouldbeenoughtoprovideastablestatistical measureof theresponse; additional rulesare
giveninEC8regardingtheallowabledifferencebetweenthemeanspectrumof theserecords
andthecodespectrum.
Whereasspectrumcompatiblerecordsareanattractivechoiceof dynamicinput, inthe
sensethat scalingisnot requiredandcoderequirementsareimposedinarather
straightforwardway, careisrequiredintheir constructiontoavoidover conservatismaswell
asinconsistencies. ReferringtothepreviouslydescribedEC8procedure, it isemphasizedthat
it isthemean of theresponsespectraof artificial motionsthat shouldmatchthedesign
spectrum, rather thaneachindividual spectrum. Inpracticewhat iscommonlydoneisthat the
elasticdesignspectrumisusedasthetarget for all records(i.e. eachspectrummatchesclosely
thedesignone); thisisinconsistent withtheverynatureof thedesignspectrumwhichdoes
not represent aparticular groundmotionbut rather envelopesthespectraof several motions
generatedfromdifferent sourcesandat different distancesfromthesite. AsshownbyNaeim
andLew(1995), designspectrumcompatiblemotionsmayrepresent velocities, displacements,
andenergycontent whichareveryunrealistic; asaresult their useininelastictimehistory
analysismayleadtounreliableestimatesof designdisplacement demands.
Eurocode8alsoallowstheuseof recorded(natural) accelerograms, aswell asof
accelerogramsgeneratedbysimulationof thesourceandtravel patheffects(seismological
method). A minimumof threerecordsisrequired, tobescaledtothedesign
Page159
PGA. Asdiscussedintheprevioussection, thistypeof scaling, albeit convenient, isoneof
themost unreliableones. A moresophisticatedprocedurebasedonmatchingof spectrais
includedinEC8Part-2, Bridges(CEN, 1994c).
The1997UBC recommendstheuseof actual recordedaccelerogramsas input for time
historyanalysis; theseshouldbeselectedfromat least threedifferent events, withdue
considerationof magnitude, sourcedistanceandmechanisms, that shouldbeconsistent with
thedesignearthquake. Inthree-dimensional analysis, pairsof recordsarerequired(i.e. a
minimumof 3pairs). Simulatedtimehistoriesareallowedwhenever threeappropriate
recordedmotionsarenot available(tomakeupthetotal number of recordsrequiredfor
design). For eachpair of recordstheSRSSof the5per cent-dampedsitespecificspectrais
first constructed. Theaccelerogramsarethenscaledinsuchawaythat theaveragevalueof
theSRSSspectradoesnot fall below1.4timesthe5per cent-dampeddesignspectrum, for the
periodrange0.2T
1
to1.5T
1
. Notethat intwo-dimensional buildingmodelsT
3
(thirdmode
period) iscloseto0.2T
1
, while1.5T
1
isareasonableestimateof thepost-yieldperiodof the
structure. If onlythreetimehistoryanalysesareperformedthemaximumresponseparameters
areusedfor design, whileif seven(or more) analysesarecarriedout, theaverageresponse
parameterscanbeused. If theanalysisiselastic, theresponseparameterscanbescaledtothe
designbaseshear level, asinmodal analysis(seeSection4.3.6). If anon-linear timehistory
analysisisperformed, theresultingresponseparameters(forcesanddisplacements) canbe
directlyused.
4.3.8 Power spectrum analysis
Althoughtreatment of thegroundmotionasarandomprocessisaveryreasonableapproach
giventheuncertaintiesinvolvedinseismicwavepropagation, thedifficultiesincalculating
theresponseof MDOF structurestoanon-deterministicinput (particularly whensome
account for inelasticitymust bemade) maketheapplicationof stochasticdynamicsto
practical seismicdesignalmost prohibitive. Infact, amongtheleadingcodes, EC8istheonly
oneincludingsomeprovisionfor thistypeof analysis.
Thebasisof theprocedureisthepower spectrum(i.e. the power spectral density of the
accelerationtimehistorythat isconsideredasarandomprocess). AsexplainedinSection
10.2, if astationaryprocessx(t) haszeromeanvalueandisgaussian, itspower spectral
densityS
x
(Ȧ) completelycharacterizestheprocess, sinceother propertiescanbecalculated
fromit, for instancetheautocorrelationfunctionisrelatedtoS
x
(Ȧ) throughtheFourier
integral. It isoftenassumedfor conveniencethat thegroundmotiondoespossesstheprevious
characteristics, whichsignificantlysimplifiestheanalysis. Modelsfor stationaryprocesses
canbefoundintheliterature(e.g. Huet al., 1996); oneof themost commonlyadoptedfor the
groundaccelerationisthemodifiedKanai—Tajimi model proposedbyCloughandPenzien,
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whosepower spectral densityisgivenby
(4.38)
whereS
0
istheintensityof thegroundmotion, Ȧ itsfrequency, Ȧ
g
andȟ
g
arethefrequency
anddampingratioof thesoil, andȦ
1
, ȟ
1
areparametersselectedtoproducethedesired
filteringof verylowfrequencies(highfrequenciesarefilteredout bythefirst multiplier of S
0
,
knownastheKanai—Tajimi filter). It isseenthat eqn(4.38) describesafiltered white noise
typeof randomprocess.
General procedures, basedonmodal superposition, for calculatingtheresponseof MDOF
structuressubjectedtogroundmotiondescribedbyapower spectrumsuchasthat of eqn
(4.38), canbefoundinCloughandPenzien(1993), whileapresentationof theEC8procedure
for stochasticanalysisof structures, includingsomesuggestedsimplifications, isgivenbyDi
PaolaandLaMendola(1992).
EC8requirestheuseof power spectracompatiblewiththeelasticresponsespectrum
describedinSection4.3.2, within±10per cent over therangeof periodsfrom0.2secto3.5
sec, but providesnosuchspectrum. Someproceduresfor relatingapower spectrumtoa
responsespectrumaregiven, for instance, inHuet al. (1996). A simpleproposal for anEC8
spectrumcompatiblepower spectral densitycanbefoundinDi PaolaandLaMendola(1992).
4.4 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR EARTHQUAKES
4.4.1 Basic principles
Theobjectiveof seismicdesignistoensurethat astructurebehavessatisfactorilywhen
subjectedtoearthquakeloading. Asisthecasewithmost loadingtypes, theanticipated
behaviour or performance levels for thestructurearedifferent for different levelsof the
loading. Ideally, andtakingintoaccount thelargeuncertaintyassociatedwithearthquake
loading, several levelsof performanceshouldbeconsideredindesign, eachone
correspondingtoadifferent probabilityof exceedanceof theseismicloading. Similarlyto
gravityloaddesign, thestructureshouldremainserviceableunder ‘frequent’ earthquakes
(SLS) and‘safe’ under theULSearthquake. Recent events, suchasthe1994Northridge
earthquakeandthe1995Great Hanshin(Kobe) earthquake, haveshownthat whereas
structuresbuilt inindustrializedcountriesawareof theseismicriskareingeneral adequately
safe, thecost of damage inflictedinthesestructuresbyearthquakes, aswell astheindirect
cost resultingfrombusinessdisruption, needfor relocation, etc. canbedifficult totolerate.
Thispointstotheneedtoaddresstheproblemof designingastructurefor aset of
performanceobjectives(limit states), recentlyreferredtoas Performance Based Design
(PBD) (Fajfar andKrawinkler, 1997).
Theintent of current seismiccodesisusuallytoproducebuildingdesignscapable
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of achievingtwoor threeperformanceobjectives: toresist minor earthquakeswithout
significant damage, moderateearthquakeswithrepairabledamage, andmajor earthquakes
without collapse. However, asarule, designchecksareonlyexplicitlyperformedfor one
performanceobjective, typicallyfor theULS(correspondingtoeither lifesafetyor no
collapserequirements). TheEurocodesrecognizeexplicitlytwolimit states(ULSandSLS),
whereas, interestingly, theAmericancode(ICBO, 1997) explicitlystatesthat ‘thepurposeof
theprovisionsisprimarilytosafeguardagainst major structural failuresandlossof life, not to
limit damageor maintainfunction’.
Oneproblemwithall existingseismiccodesisthat their criteriafor evaluatingadequacyof
performancearenot alwaysdirectlytiedtospecificmeasuresof performance. Moreover, the
actionsusedfor checkingthesecriteriaaretypicallybasedononedesignearthquake(theULS
action); of course, asdiscussedinSection4.3.4, inserviceabilityrelatedchecksthelower
intensityof theSLSearthquakeisimplicitlyaccountedfor (v factor inEC8, resultinginthe
SLSdisplacementsbeing1/2to1/2.5theULSdisplacements).
Theintent of PBDistoensurethat structuresperformat appropriatelevelsfor all
earthquakes, andisdeemedtoprovideengineerswiththeabilitytodesignstructurescapable
of providingcontrolledandpredictableperformancefor multipleperformanceobjectives
(Fajfar andKrawinkler, 1997). Thedifficulty, of course, liesinthequantificationof this
attractiveconcept.
Onerecent attempt toquantifyperformancelevelsandcorrespondinghazardlevelshas
beendoneinthenewNEHRP Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation (strengthening) of
Buildings (FEMA 1997b). Thehazardlevelsareexpressedbyprobabilitiesof exceedancein
50years, or thecorrespondingmeanreturnperiodsT
r
; that is:
Ɣ 50per cent/50year (T
t
=72year);
Ɣ 20per cent/50year (T
r
=225year);
Ɣ 10per cent/50year (T
r
=475year) ;
Ɣ 2per cent/50year (T
r
=2,475year).
Structural performancelevelsarequantifiedbothinaqualitativesense(descriptionof thetype
of damageassociatedwitheachone) andinaquantitativesense. At buildinglevel a
convenient global measureof damageistheinter storey drift. Appropriatedrift valuesare
suggestedbyFEMA (1997b) for varioustypesof structural systems; significantlyhigher
valuesareapplicabletoflexibleandductilestructures, suchasframes, comparedtostiffer and
morebrittlestructures, suchaswalls(particularlymasonrywalls). Requirements
(performancelevels) arealsoincludedinFEMA (1997b) for non-structural elements
(partitions, cladding, mechanical andelectrical installations, plumbing, contentsand
finishings). It ispointedout that dependingonthetypeof structuretobedesigned(or
assessed), different combinationsof hazardandperformancelevelswouldbeappropriate. For
anormal structure(e.g. anapartment building) the‘immediateoccupancy’ level would
normallybeassociatedwithanearthquakewitha50per cent/50year probability,
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‘lifesafety’ witha10per cent/50year probabilityearthquake(theusual ‘design’ earthquake
incurrent codes), and‘collapseprevention’ withanearthquakehavinga2per cent/50year
probabilityof exceedance.
Explicit checksof performancecanalsobemadeat local level (i.e. for eachmember inthe
structure), inwhichcaseappropriatelimitsfor local deformationquantities, suchasrotations
of plastichingezonesarerequired; tabulatedvaluesof suchquantitiesfor varioustypesof
memberscanbefoundinFEMA (1997b), but it hastobestressedthat theseissuesarestill the
subject of current research. Local ductilityof members(e.g. plasticrotationcapacityof R/C or
steel beamsandcolumns) isdependent onappropriatedesignanddetailing, but alsoon
qualitycontrol, particularlyat theconstructionphase. Moreover, exceedingtheavailable
ductilitycapacityat oneor evenafewcritical regionsdoesnot necessarilymean(incipient)
collapseof thestructure, particularlywhenthelatter ischaracterizedbyhighredundancyand
abilitytoredistributeloading.
Recent approaches, suchasthosebrieflyoutlinedpreviously, areessentiallydeterministic
procedures, sinceuncertaintyisexplicitlyaccountedfor onlyinthecaseof theseismicinput
(spectral accelerationsareadjustedtothetarget probabilityof exceedanceselectedfor the
performancelevel that isbeingchecked). However, thereal issueisthereliability(or the
probabilityof failure) of thestructurewhensubjectedtoaparticular earthquake. Thisisonly
marginallyaddressedinEC8, whereit isstatedthattarget reliabilities for the‘nocollapse
requirement’ andthe‘damagelimitationrequirement’ shouldbeestablishedbynational
authoritiesfor different typesof structures, onthebasisof theconsequencesof failure.
Unfortunately, thesetarget reliabilitiesarenot given, evenas‘boxed’ (i.e. indicative) values
inEC8or other codes. Inarecent study(Wenet al. 1996) addressingthisissue, suggested
target 50-year probabilitiesrangefrom30per cent to50per cent for theSLSandfrom4per
cent to6per cent for theULS; bothvaluesrefer toaspecificperformancecriterion, i.e.
exceedingadrift limit.
4.4.2 Configuration issues
Theselectionof theconfigurationof thestructure(i.e. of thearrangement of thestructural
systemaswell asof thenon-structural elementsandtheir connectiontotheformer) is
arguablythemost critical stepintheseismicdesignprocedure. It isclear fromthedistribution
of damageinearthquakestruckregionsthat structureswithareasonablyregular and
symmetricconfigurationperformconsistentlybetter thanstructureswithirregular
configuration(ArnoldandReitherman, 1982). Anirregular configurationischaracterizedby
oneor moreof thefollowingproblems:
Ɣ Theplanof thebuildingincludeslargere-entrant angles(L-shaped, C-shaped, H-shaped
plans; seeFigure4.16a).
Ɣ Thedistributioninplanof stiff members, suchaswalls, isnot symmetricwithrespect tothe
masscentre(M inFigure4.16b).
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Figure 4.16 Irregular configurationsinplan(a), (b) andinelevation(c), (d).
Ɣ Thedistributioninplanand/or inelevationof themassof thestructureisnot reasonably
uniform.
Ɣ Theaspect ratio(height tolength) of abuildingishigh(morethanabout 4).
Ɣ Thereareabrupt changesinlateral loadresistancealongtheheight of thebuilding(see
Figure4.16c).
Ɣ Thereareabrupt changesinlateral stiffnessalongtheheight of thebuilding, dueto
terminationof stiff elements(suchaswallsor heavypartitions) and/or duetothepresence
of setbacks; seeFigure4.16c, d.
Thereareseveral reasonsfor avoidingproblematicconfigurations; theyhavetodowith:
Ɣ our inabilitytoaccuratelypredict the(inelastic) responseof irregular structuressubjectedto
strongearthquakes;
Ɣ thetendencyof damagetoconcentrateintheweakest partsof astructure; thisistrue,
regardlessof whether dynamicor other refinedanalysishasbeenusedinthedesign;
Ɣ theincreasedcost requiredfor providingtoanirregular structurethesameseismic
resistanceasinasimilar regular structure.
Someof theproblemsmentionedpreviously, particularlytheonesrelatedtoirregularitiesin
plan, canoftenbetackledeffectivelybysplittingabuildingintosmaller partsseparatedby
seismic gaps, sothat eachindividual part becomesaregular structure. Seismic gapsshould
account for asubstantial part of theanticipated
Page164
relativemovement of theadjacent partsduringtheearthquake, hencetheyaregenerallywider
thanstandardconstruction(expansion) joints.
Whereastheadvantagesof regular configurationshaverelativelylongbeenrecognized,
quantificationof regularityrequirementsisacritical issuethat cannot bedeemedasbeen
resolvedsofar. Animportant considerationisthat most of theirregular buildingsdamagedby
previousearthquakesweredesignedonthebasisof roughmethodsandthelevel of detailing
requiredbythethenapplicablecodeswasquitelow, whilepoor constructionpracticesoften
madeit evenlower. Experimental studiesinvolvingirregular structuressuchasframeswith
setbacksdesignedanddetailedtomoderncodes(Wood, 1992), testedontheshakingtable,
haveclearlyindicatedthat irregular R/C structurescanindeedperformadequately, evenwhen
subjectedtoearthquakessignificantlystronger thantheonetheyweredesignedfor. It hasto
bepointedout, though, that theforegoingtestsinvolvedapplicationof unidirectional
earthquakeinput, hencetheydidnot addresstheproblemof torsion.
Codecriteriafor regularitytendtobeconservativebut theconsequencesof abuilding
beingclassifiedasirregular aretypicallynot grave. IntheUBC thepresenceof irregularities
affectstheanalysisprocedure(compulsoryuseof multimo-dal analysis), but it doesnot affect
thevalueof theresponsemodificationfactor R; incontrast, theEC8q-factor isreducedby20
per cent for irregular structures.
4.4.3 Failure mechanisms and capacity design
If thestructureisallowedtobehaveinelasticallyduringthedesignearthquake(Section4.3.4),
it isobviousthat it will respondevenfurther intotheinelasticrangewhenever astronger
event (havingalower probabilityof exceedance) occurs. Therequirement under suchararer
event wouldnormallybethat thestructuredoesnot collapseand/or doesnot sustaindamage
that wouldjeopardizehumanlife. Giventhat it isveryunlikelythat theresponseof astructure
closetofailurecanbeanalysed(particularlyintheframeworkof apractical design), it has
longbeenacceptedthat themaingoal of seismicdesignshouldbetoensurethat thecollapse
(or failure) mechanismof thestructureisafavouriteone, sothat thestructurecoulddisplace
well intotheinelasticrangewithout fallingdowninpart or entirely.
A typical illustrationof theaboveconceptsismadeinFigure4.17that showstwogeneric
plasticmechanismsfor amultistoreyframe. Inthefirst one(Figure4.17a) thedesignstrength
of all beamshasbeenexceededat acertainlevel of thelateral loading(roughlycorresponding
tothedesignearthquake) and‘plastichinges’ haveformedat thebeamcritical sections. This
isalsothecaseat thebaseof thecolumns, but not inanyother columnsection. Incontrast, the
plasticmechanismshowninFigure4.17bischaracterizedbycolumnhingingbothat thetop
andbottomof thegroundstoreycolumns; thisiscommonlyreferredtoasa‘soft storey’ or
‘weakstorey’ mechanism. It isclear fromthekinematicsof thetwomechanismsthat for the
sametopdisplacement (į
u
) theratioof therequiredplastic
Page165
Figure 4.17 Favourableandunfavourablecollapsemechanismsinbuildings: (a) beammechanism
(favourable); (b) columnmechanism(unfavourable).
hingerotationsisequal totheratioof thetotal height tothestoreyheight (i.e. inthefour
storeystructureof Figure4.17theplasticrotationof thecolumnsinthemechanismof Figure
4.17bisfour timesthat of themembersinthebeammechanism(Figure4.17a)). It isclear that
theductilityrequirements, expressedherebytheplastichingerotations, arehigher inthe
columnsideswaymechanism, andthedifferenceincreaseswiththeheight of theframe. As
discussedindetail intheliterature(for instancebyPenelisandKappos, 1997, for R/C
structures, andbyBruneauet al., 1998, for steel structures), theavailable ductilityof
memberssubjectedtocompressiveaxial loading(columns) islower thanthat of beams, while
thesecondorder (P-ǻ) effectsthat mayleadtophysical collapseof thestructurearealsomore
critical inthecolumnsideswaymechanism. Thesearethemainreasonswhytheplastic
mechanisminvolvingmainlyhingesinthebeamsisconsideredafavourableone, whereasthe
mechanisminvolvinghingesat boththetopandbottomof columnsisanunfavourableone. A
practical waytoavoidtheformationof thelatter mechanismistoensurethat thebeamsat a
beam—columnjoint arestronger thanthecolumns.
Provisionstomaterializethepreviouslydescribedconcept areincludedinmost modern
codesandformpart of theso-calledcapacity design of astructuresubjectedtoseismic
loading. Capacitydesignisessentiallyaprocedurefor imposingonastructurethedesired
member strengthhierarchyandeventuallyachievingafailuremechanisminvolvinginelastic
responseinmembersthat canconveniently(andreliably) bedetailedtodevelopinelastic
deformations. Most seismiccodesrecognizethisprinciple, albeit toavaryingdegreeof clarity,
andthedegreetowhichcapacitydesignisincorporatedineachcodealsovariessignificantly.
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Capacitydesigngenerallydominatestheresponseof structuresthat heavilyrelyonthe
development of inelasticdeformationstoensureasatisfactoryseismicperformance, while
structuresthat aredesignedfor relativelyhighseismicforces, hencearenot requiredto
developsignificant inelasticdeformations, aremuchlesscontrolledbycapacitydesign
considerations. Thisinterrelationshipbetweentherequiredductility(and, inversely, thelevel
of designforce) andthedegreetowhichcapacity designaffectsastructurearealso
recognizedbymost codes.
4.4.4 Passive and active control
Althoughtheconceptsof inelasticspectraandbehaviour factors, coupledwithcapacitydesign
principles, clearlydominatecurrent seismiccodes, it hastobeemphasizedthat theydonot
represent theonlyconceptual frameworkavailablefor seismicdesign. Furthermore, an
engineer shouldfullyrealizethat designingastructureonthebasisof theseconceptsmeans
that under earthquakesof anintensityequal toor exceedingthat of thedesignevent, damage
tothestructurecouldbebothsubstantial andextendingintoalargepart of thestructure.
Perhapsmoreimportantly, formationof afavourablemechanismdoesnot guaranteethat
interstoreydriftsand/or floor accelerationswill belowenoughtoprevent extensivedamageto
thenon-structural elementsandthecontent of thebuilding. Theseandother concernshaveled
tothedevelopment of alternativeconceptual frameworksfor seismicdesign, currently
referredtoas‘passive’ and‘active’ control of theseismicresponseof thestructure. Byfar the
most practical approachispassivecontrol that incorporatesthefundamental ideasof seismic
isolation andprovisionof supplemental damping. Thesewill bediscussedintheremainder of
thissection, followedbyabrief referencetotheideaof activecontrol.
Seismic isolation and passive control
Isolatingastructurefromtheshakinggroundisarather oldconcept, but it isonlysincethe
1970sthat practical isolationsystemshavebeendevelopedandusedfor earthquakeprotection
of buildingsandbridges. Theconcept wasinitiallyreferredtoas base isolation but at present
thetermseismic isolation prevails, inviewof thefact that theisolatingdevicesdonot haveto
bealwayslocatedat thebaseof thestructure.
Therearetwointerrelatedideasbehinddevelopingaseismicisolationsystem: thefirst one
istomakethestructuremuchmoreflexiblethanit is, byalteringthewayit restsonthe
ground, henceshift it tothelongperiodrangeof theresponsespectrumthat istypically
characterizedbyreducedaccelerationsandconsequentlyreducedinertial forces; thesecondis
tointroducesomekindof ‘fuse’ betweenthestructureandtheground, wherebytheamount of
baseshear tobetransferredfromtheshakinggroundtothestructureiscontrolledbythe
strengthof thefuse. Bymakingthestructuremoreflexible, onemight achievelower seismic
forces, but displacementstendtoincrease. It isthereforeessential toalsocontrol the
Page167
amount of horizontal displacement of theisolatedstructureandanefficient waytodothisis
byincreasingitsdamping(refer toFigure4.8for theeffect of dampingonseismicresponse
spectra). Thistypeof structural responsecontrol isreferredtoas passive control.
Currentlyusedisolationsystemsarebasedontheconcept of flexiblesupportswhichcan
either remainessentiallyelastic(linear isolation) or enter theinelasticrange(non-linear
isolation) uponexceedingacertainlevel of horizontal shear (Skinner et al., 1993). Thebasic
elementsincludedinaseismicisolationsystemare:
Ɣ Horizontallyflexiblesupportingdevices(isolators) locatedeither betweenthestructureand
itsfoundationor at ahigher level inthestructure; inbuildingstheflexiblesupportsare
commonlylocatedat thesuperstructure-foundationinterface, whereasinbridgestheyare
locatedat thetopof thepiersandabutments.
Ɣ A supplemental damping device(or energydissipator) for reducingtherelativehorizontal
displacement betweenthesuperstructureandsubstructure(i.e. theportionof thestructure
belowtheisolators).
Ɣ Somemeansfor controllingdisplacementsat servicelevelsof lateral loading(i.e. wind
loadingandSLSor smaller earthquakeloading).
Todaytherearemanytypesof isolatorsincluding, amongothers, rubber (elastomeric)
bearings, roller bearings, slidingplates, rockingstructures, cablesupports, sleevedpiles,
helical springs, andair cushions. Detaileddescriptionsof thevariousisolatingdevicescanbe
foundinthemassiveliteratureavailable, whichincludestworecentlypublishedbooksdealing
exclusivelywiththistopic(Skinner et al., 1993; NaeimandKelly, 1999) andchapterson
seismicisolationincludedinbooksof broader scope(Booth, 1994; Huet al., 1996; Priestley
et al., 1996).
Supplemental damping devices can beof different types, including
Ɣ Hysteretic dampers, whereinenergydissipationistakingplacebyyieldingof metalssuchas
leadandmildsteel, whichhavehysteresisloopsveryclosetoelastoplastic. A popular
isolator that incorporatesadampingdeviceisthelead-rubber bearing, showninFigure
4.18, whichisanelastomericbearing(layersof rubber reinforcedwiththinsteel platesto
increasethevertical stiffness) withaleadcorewhichprovidesbothdamping(after yield)
andresistancetoservicelateral loads.
Ɣ Viscous dampers, suchastheoil damperscommonlyusedinthemotor industry, but also
newer devicessuchasshear panelscontaininghighviscocityfluidsthat haverecentlybeen
developedinJ apan. Thesemechanical devicesareseparatefromtheisolators.
Ɣ Frictional dampersbasedontheconcept of frictionbetweendifferent materials, for
instancestainlesssteel andPTFE (Teflon). Suchsystems haveanumber of advantages, but
(unlikethepreviousones) theyneedtobesupplementedbyarestoringforcemechanism
(i.e. ameansfor returningtheisolated
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Figure 4.18 Twocommonlyusedisolatingdevices: (a) thelead—rubber bearing; (b) thefriction
pendulumsystem.
structuretoitsinitial positionafter astrongearthquake). Anefficient systeminthis
categoryisthe friction pendulum (Figure4.18b), whereintheslidingsurfaceof the
bearingisconcave, hencetherestoringforceisprovidedbythehorizontal component
of theweight of thestructureitself.
Control of displacementsunder servicehorizontal loadingcanbeobtainedinseveral ways.
Speciallymanufacturedelastomershaveahighrigidityat lowstrains, typicallythreetofour
timesthat at higher strains, andsodotheaforementionedlead-rubber bearings. Alternatively,
fuse-typesacrificial elementssuchassteel pinscanbeused, designedtofail at adesirable
level of lateral loading; theseelementsshouldbereplacedafter eachearthquakemotion
exceedingthat level.
Inaseismicallyisolatedstructurethelargest part of thelateral displacement takesplaceat
thelocationof theisolators. Solongasthisdisplacement cantakeplace, thedriftsinthe
superstructurecanremainverylow, hencedamagetobothstructural andnon-structural
elementsisminimal. Failureof suchasystemcanoccur duetorollover (instabilitybyfalling
over) of thebearingsat largedisplacements,
Page169
exceedanceof their shear straincapacity, or bucklingof thebearings(at lowstrains). Special
restrainers(suchassteel angles) canbeprovidedclosetothebearingstoprevent themfrom
topplingover.
A critical point inpassivecontrol systemsisthat whereasisolator dampingisalways
reducingthedisplacementsof thestructurethat arecontrolledbythefundamental mode, it
tendstoincreasefloor accelerationscausedbyhigher modes. Thismight beveryimportant in
structureswhereprotectionof secondarysystems(equipment andnon-structural elements) is
themainreasonfor usingseismicisolation. Seismicattackonsecondarysystemsisfrequency
selectiveandit ispossibletodesignisolationsystemsthat reducetheresponseof such
systemsmorethanthat of theprimarystructural system. A relatedissueisthat innon-linear
isolationsystems(whichareusedinthemajorityof applications), control of theamount of
baseshear throughthestrengthandthestiffnessof theisolatorsdoesnot guaranteecontrol of
thestoreyshear distributionalongtheheight of thebuilding. Whenever higher moderesponse
isnot adequatelycontrolled, ‘bulged’ distributionsof storeyshear canresult andinextreme
casestheshear intheupper half of thestructuremayexceedthebaseshear (Skinner et al.,
1993). Theforegoingareclear indicationsof theneedfor areliabledynamicanalysiswhen
dealingwithisolatedstructures.
Thefirst designguidelinesfor seismicisolationwereissuedinCaliforniain1986, andhave
beensubject toseveral revisions; theywereincorporatedfirst (1991) asanappendixandlater
(since1994) asaformal part of theUBC. A critical reviewof codeprovisionsfor seismic
isolationcanbefoundinNaeimandKelly(1999). Thecurrent versionsof UBC (ICBO, 1997)
andNEHRP (FEMA, 1997a) containprovisionsthat areessentiallyidentical, withthe
exceptionof thedefinitionof designearthquake(seeSection4.3.2). Theseprovisionsinclude
boththeequivalent lateral forceandthedynamicanalysisproceduresfor seismicallyisolated
buildings, but therestrictionsfor theformer aresuchthat inmost practical casesthedynamic
approachhastobeapplied. Twosetsof verificationsarerequired: Thefirst oneisfor the
designearthquake(10per cent/50year probability), under whichthestructureisrequiredto
remainessentiallyelastic. Thesecondoneisastronger event (10per cent/250year
probability) for whichtheisolationsystemshouldbedesignedandtested, whileall building
separationsandutilitiesthat crosstheisolationinterfaceshouldbedesignedtoaccommodate
theforcesanddisplacementsassociatedwiththisseismicinput. Whereassimplifiedmethods
basedontheequivalent SDOF areavailable(see, amongothers, Skinner et al., 1993) andcan
efficientlybeusedfor preliminarydesign, most seismicallyisolatedstructuresarecurrently
designedusingtimehistoryanalysis. Inthecurrent Eurocodepackage, provisionsfor seismic
isolationareonlyincludedinthebridgepart EC82(CEN, 1994c). However, currently(2000)
suchprovisionsarebeingdevelopedfor buildingsandwill beincorporatedinthefinal (EN)
versionof EC8.
Themainreasonwhyisolationisnot widelyusedtoday(particularlyinbuildings) isthe
concernregardinginitial cost of theproject (i.e. that inmost casesaseismicallyisolated
buildingcosts1per cent to5per cent morethanthe
Page170
correspondingconventional one). Suchacomparisonisstrictlynot validasit completely
ignorescost/benefit issuesrelatingtofuturesavingsduetomuchlower level of damageinthe
isolatedstructure, whichcanbesubstantial (Mayeset al. 1990). Onaninitial cost basis,
isolationcanoffer moreeconomical solutionsif thedesignforcelevel ishigh(e.g. important
structuresinhighseismicityareas) or if, asaresult of usingisolationtocontrol damage, the
structureisdetailedfor lessductilitythaninthecaseof conventional buildings; thelatter isan
optionthat isnot explicitlyrecognizedbycurrent seismiccodes. Finally, theisolationsolution
canbecomeattractivewhenit leadstolower cost of insurance(i.e. lower premiumsor no
mandatoryinsuranceagainst earthquakesinhighseismicityareas).
Active control
Whereasinpassivecontrol speciallyprovideddevicesabsorbmost of theenergyinput into
thestructure, thedevicesusedinactive control introduceanenergy(or force) sourceintothe
structure. Activecontrol systemshavebeendevelopedduringthelast twodecadesfor
reducingtheresponseof buildings(particularlytall ones) towindandearthquakeloading.
Inastructuresubjectedtoseismicloadingandincorporatinganactivecontrol system, the
groundmotionand/or thestructure’sresponsehavetobemonitoredwithappropriatesensors
duringtheearthquake. Recordsfromthesensorsarethenfedintoacontroller (computer) that
activatesdevicesfor modifyingthestructure’sresponsecontinuouslyduringitsexcitation.
Thesedevicesareeither hydraulicactuatorsactingagainst massesinadirectionthat opposes
that of theearthquakeforcesor theychangethedynamicpropertiesof thestructureinorder to
reduceitsresponse.
Thisisanattractiveconcept, but whenappliedtomassivecivil engineeringstructuressuch
astall buildings(insteadof mechanical engineeringstructures) several practical problems
arise, for instancetheprovisionof adequatereactionsystemstoresist thelargecontrol forces
producedbytheactuators. Another seriousproblemisthat sinceactivecontrol systems
dependonpower supply, it hastobeensuredthat thissupplywill not beinterruptedduringa
strongearthquake(asit oftenhappens), otherwisethewholesystemwill remainidleexactlyat
thetimethat it will berequiredtofunction.
Currentlyusedactivecontrol systemsincludeactive mass drivers, active tendons (wherein
tensionintheprestressedtendonsisvariedduringtheearthquakeexcitationinawayto
reducethestructure’sresponse), active adjustable stiffness systems (jointsbetweenthebraces
andthestructureareeither engagedor disengagedbyclosingor openingacontrol valve), and
pulse generators (systemsof pneumaticactuatorsandnozzles). Combinationsof theabove
systemshavealsobeensuggested(Soonget al. 1991), offeringsomeadvantages.
Despitetheattractivenessof theconcept andthehighqualityinterdisciplinaryresearch
carriedout over thelast twodecades, thepractical applicationof active
Page171
control systemsstill remainsverylimited, mainlyinfull-scaledemonstrationprojects.
Inadditiontopurelypassiveandpurelyactivecontrol systems, hybrid systemshavealso
beensuggested(Soonget al., 1991), that complement eachother (for instance, apassive
damper canreducetheforcethat hastobereducedbytheactivecontroller), henceproducing
aneffectiveprotectingsystem.
4.5 REFERENCES
AFPS[FrenchAssociationfor EarthquakeEngineering] (1990) Recommendations pour la redaction
de règles relatives aux ouvgages et installations à réaliser dans les regions sujettes aux seismes,
Pressesdel’ENPC, Paris.
Ambraseys, N.N. andBommer, J .J . (1995) ‘Attenuationrelationshipsfor useinEurope: anoverview’ ,
paper givenat 5th SECED Conference ‘European Seismic Design Practice’ Chester, October 1995,
Amsterdam, Balkema, pp. 67–74.
Ambraseys, N.N. andSimpson, K.A. (1996) ‘Predictionof vertical responsespectrainEurope’,
Earthquake Engineering Structural’Dynamics; 25(4): 401–12.
Anagnostopoulos, S.A., Haviland, R.W. andBiggs, J .M. (1978) ‘Useof inelasticspectrainaseismic
design’, journal Struct. Division, ASCE, 104 (ST1): 95–109.
Arnold, C. andReitherman, R. (1982) Building Configuration and Seismic Design, J ohnWiley, New
York.
Bertero, V.V. (1989) ‘State-of-the-art report: Ductilitybasedstructural design’, paper givenat 9th
World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo—Kyoto, J apan, August 1988, Maruzen,
Tokyo, VIII, pp. 673–86.
Booth, E. (ed.) (1994) Concrete Structures in Earthquake Regions: Design and Analysis, Longman,
London.
Booth, E., Kappos, A.J . andPark, R. (1998) ‘A critical reviewof international practiceonseismic
designof reinforcedconcretebuildings’, The Structural Engineer, 76(11): 213–20.
Bolt, B.A. (1993) Earthquakes, W.H. Freeman, NewYork.
Borcherdt, R.D. (1994) ‘Estimatesof site-dependent responsespectrafor design(methodologyand
justification)’, Earthquake Spectra, 10(4): 617–53.
Bruneau, M., Uang, C-M. andWhittaker, A.S. (1998) Ductile Design of Steel Structures, McGraw-
Hill, NewYork.
CEN(1994a) Techn. Comm. 250/SC8Eurocode8, Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of
Structures: Part 1, General Rules—Seismic Actions and General Requirements for Structures (ENV
1998–1–1), CEN, Brussels.
CEN(1994b) Techn. Comm. 250/SC8Eurocode8, Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of
Structures: Part 1, General Rules—General Rules for Buildings (ENV 1998–1-2). CEN, Brussels.
CEN(1994c) Techn. Comm. 250/SC8Eurocode8, Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of
Structures: Part 2, Bridges (ENV 1998–2). CEN, Brussels.
Chopra, A.K. (1995) The Dynamics of Structures: Theory and Applications to Earthquake
Engineering, Prentice-Hall, EnglewoodCliffs, NJ .
Clough, R.W. andPenzien, J . (1993) Dynamics of Structures, 2ndedn, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
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Di Paola, M. andLaMendola, L. (1992) ‘Dynamicsof structuresunder seismicinput motion
(Eurocode8)’, European Earthquake Engineering, 6(2), 36–44.
EERI [EarthquakeEngineeringResearchInstitute, US] CommitteeonSeismicRisk(1989) ‘The
basicsof seismicriskanalysis’, Earthquake Spectra, 5(4): 675–702.
EERI (1995) ‘NorthridgeEarthquakeof J anuary17, 1994ReconnaissanceReport-Vols. 1and2,
Earthquake Spectra, Suppl. toVol. 11, April.
ESC (EuropeanSeismological Commission) (WorkingGroupMacroseismicScales) (1998) European
MacroseismicScale 1998 (EMS-98), Vol. 15, CahiersduCentreEuropéendeGeo-dynamiqueet de
Seismologie, Luxembourg.
Fajfar, P. andKrawinkler, H. (eds) (1997) ‘SeismicDesignMethodologiesfor theNext Generationof
Codes’, (paper givenat International Workshop, Bled, Slovenia, J une1997, Balkema, Rotterdam.
FEMA [Federal EmergencyManagement Agency] (1995, 1997a) NEHRP Recommended Provisions
for Seismic regulations for New Buildings (1994, 1997 Edns) : Part 1—Provisions; Part 2-
Commentary, BSSC, Washington, DC.
FEMA (1997b) NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, FEMA-273,
Washington, DC.
Finn, W.D. L. (1991) ‘Geotechnical engineeringaspectsof microzonation’, paper givenat 4th
International ConferenceSeismicZonation, Stanford, CA, pp. 199–259.
Fischinger, M. andFajfar, P. (1994) ‘Seismicforcereductionfactors’, paper givenat 17thRegional
EuropeanSeminar onEarthquakeEngineering, Haifa, Israel, September 1993(Rutenberg, A., ed.),
Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 279–96.
Gupta, A.K. (1990) Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Structures.
Blackwell ScientificPublications, Boston.
Housner, G.W. (1970) ‘Stronggroundmotion’, inR, L Wiegel (ed.) Earthquake Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, NewJ ersey, pp. 75–91.
Hu, Y.-X., Liu, S-C. andDong, W. (1996) Earthquake Engineering. E & FNSpon, London.
International Conferenceof BuildingOfficials(ICBO) (1997) Uniform Building Code–1997
Edition, Vol. 2: Structural Engineering Design Provisions, ICBO, Whittier, CA.
J oyner, W.B. andBoore, D.M. (1988) ‘Measurement, characterization, andpredictionof strong
groundmotion’, givenat EarthquakeEngineeringandStructureDynamics, Geotechnical Division
ASCE, ParkCity, UT, pp. 43–102.
Kappos, A.J . (1991) ‘Analytical predictionof thecollapseearthquakefor R/Cbuildings: suggested
methodology’, Earthq. Engineering Struct. Dynamics, 20(2): 167–76.
Kappos, A.J . (1999) ‘Evaluationof behaviour factorsonthebasisof ductilityandoverstrength
studies’, Engineering Structures, 21(9): 823–35.
Kramer, S.L. (1996) Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Prentice-Hall, EnglewoodCliffs, NJ .
Krawinkler, H. andNassar, A.A. (1992) ‘Seismicdesignbasedonductilityandcumulativedamage
demandsandcapacities’, in: P. Fajfar & H. Krawinkler (eds.) Nonlinear Seismic Analysis and
Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Elsevier AppliedScience, London& NewYork, pp. 23–
39.
Martinez-Rueda, J .E. (1998) ‘Scalingprocedurefor natural accelerogramsbasedonasystemof
spectrumintensityscales’, Earthquake Spectra, 14(1): 135–52.
Mayes, R.L., J ones, L.R., andKelly, T.E. (1990) ‘Theeconomicsof seismicisolationinbuildings’.
Earthquake Spectra, 6(2): 245–63.
Miranda, E. andBertero, V.V. (1994) ‘Evaluationof strengthreductionfactorsfor earthquake-resistant
design’, Earthquake Spectra, 10(2): 357–79.
Page173
Naeim, F. andKellyJ .M. (1999) Design of Seismic Isolated S fractures: From Theory to Practice,
J ohnWiley, NewYork.
Naeim, F. andLew, M. (1995) ‘Ontheuseof designspectrumcompatibletime-histories’, Earthquake
Spectra, 11(1): 111–27.
Nau, J .M. andHall, W.F. (1984) ‘Scalingmethodsfor earthquakeresponsespectra’, J . Struct.
Engineering, ASCE, 110(7): 1533–48.
Newmark, N.M. andHall, J.W. (1982) Earthquake Spectra and Design. EERI, Berkeley, CA.
Penelis, G.G. andKappos, A.J . (1997) Earthquake Resistant Concrete Structures. E & FNSPON
(Chapman& Hall), London.
Priestley, M.J . N., Seible, F. andCalvi G.M. (1996) Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges, J ohn
Wiley, NewYork.
Reiter, L. (1991) Earthquake Hazard Analysis, ColumbiaUniversityPress, NewYork.
SEAOC SeismologyCommittee(1996) Recommended Lateral Force Requirements and Commentary,
Structural EngineersAssociationof California, Sacramento, CA.
Shome, N., Cornell, C.A., Bazzuro, P. andCarballo, J .E. (1998) ‘Earthquakes, records, andnonlinear
responses’, Earthquake Spectra, 14(3), 469–500.
Skinner, R.I., Robinson, W.H. andMcVerry, G.H. (1993) An Introduction to Seismic Isolation, J ohn
Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Soong, T.T., Masri, S.F. andHousner, G.W. (1991) ‘Anoverviewof activestructural control under
seismicloads’, Earthquake Spectra, 7(3): 483–505.
Tso, W.K., Zhu, A.C. andHeidebrecht, A.C. (1992) ‘Engineeringimplicationof groundmotionA/V
ratio’, S oil Dynamic s Earthquake Engineering, 11(3), 133–44.
Wen, Y.K., Collin, K.R., Han, S.W. andElwood, K.J . (1996) ‘Dual-level designsof buildingsunder
seismicloads’, Structural Safety, 18(2–3): 195–224.
Wilson, E.L., Der Kiureghian, A. andBayo, E.P. (1981) ‘A replacement for theSRSSmethodin
seismicanalysis’ (Short Communication), Earthquake Engineering Structure Dynamics, 9(2): 187–
94.
Wood, S.L. (1992) ‘Seismicresponseof R/C frameswithirregular profiles’, journal Structural
Engineering,ASCE, 118(2): 545–66.
Zhu, T.J ., Tso, W.K., andHeidebrecht, A.C. (1988) ‘Effect of peakgrounda/vratioonstructural
damage’, journal Struct. Engineering, AS CE, 114(5): 1019–37.
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Page175
Chapter 5
Wave loading
Torgeir Moan
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Waveloadingisimportant for ships, fixedandcompliant offshorestructures, floatingbridges
andairports. Thefocusherewill beonmarinecivil engineeringstructuressuchasfixedand
compliant platformsandbuoyant bridges, asshowninFigure5.1.
Waveloadeffectsarerequiredfor designchecksof ultimate, accidental andfatiguelimit
states(ISO, 1994). Ultimateandaccidental limit statesareoftengoverningandarebasedon
extremeloadeffects. For structuresinextratropical climates, fatiguemayalsobeanimportant
designcriterionandrequireanestimateof thenumber of stressrangesat different magnitudes
for theservicelife. It isnotedthat themaincontributiontofatiguedamageiscausedbyload
effectswhichareof theorder of 15–25per cent of theextremeloadeffectsintheservicelife
andhencebywaveswithperiodsintherange2to8sec.
Waveloadeffectsfor designarecommonlydeterminedbyquasi-staticanalysismethods
whenthestructuresor structural modeshavenatural periodsinthelower rangeof wave
periods, whileanintrinsicallydynamicanalysisapproachisrequiredfor structureswith
natural periodabovethewaveperiod.
Typical rangesof natural periodsfor somemarinestructuresaredisplayedinFigure5.2.
However, besideswaveloadswithperiodequal tothewaveperiod, intherangeof 2–3to
20sec, thepresenceof certainnon-linear featuresof theloadingmaycausesteadystateloads
withaperiodwhichisafraction , ,…or amultiple2, 3, …of thewaveperiod. Suchsteady
stateloads, aswell aswaveimpact loadsandother transient loads, maycauseinertiaand
dampingeffectswhichneedtobeaccountedfor byusingaproper dynamicanalysis
methodology, alsofor platformswithnatural periodsbelowthewaveperiod. For such
structuresdynamiceffectsonfatigueloadswill bemost important.
For situationswheredynamiceffectsneedtobeconsidered, thelong-termstochastic
character of thewaveloadinganditseffectsisimportant torecognize. At thesametime,
designanalysesshouldbemadeassimpleaspossible, not least toavoiderrors.
Page176
Figure 5.1 Selectedmarinecivil engineeringstructures(Moonet al., 1990).
Page177
Figure 5.2 Natural periodsof marinestructuresandwaveexcitationperiods.
Withthisbackgroundinmind, thepresent chapter addressescharacteristicfeaturesof wave
loadingandassociateddynamicloadeffects, primarilyfor marinecivil engineeringstructures.
5.2 WAVE AND CURRENT CONDITIONS
5.2.1 General
Surfacewater wavesmaybegeneratedbywind, tidal bore, earthquakeor landslides. Internal
water wavesmaybegeneratedat aboundarybetweenwater layersof different densities, and
arenot likelytooccur together withwindgeneratedsurfacewaves.
Thefocushereisonoscillatorywindgeneratedsurfacewaves. Wavesdevelopedinanarea
mayendureafter thewindceasesandpropagatetoanother area–as
Page178
Figure 5.3 Surfaceelevationasasuperpositionof regular waveswithdifferent height, frequencyand
direction.
swell withdecayingintensityandslowlychangingform. Longperiodswell travelsavery
longdistanceaslong-crestedwaves.
Wind-generatedwavesconsist of alargenumber of waveletsof different heights, periods
anddirectionssuperimposedononeanother (Figure5.3). Althoughregular wavesarenot
foundinreal seastheycancloselymodel someswell conditions. Theyalsoprovidethebasic
componentsinirregular wavesandarecommonlyusedtoestablishwaveconditionsfor
design. Regular wavesarethereforefirst characterizedintermsof dynamicpressure, particle
velocityandaccelerationsinSection5.2.2. Then, irregular wavesaredealt withinSection
5.2.3, whiletheir long-termvariabilityisbrieflytreatedinSection5.2.4.
Thecurrent velocity, ingeneral, iscomposedof twocomponents, namely, winddriven
(v
cwi
) andtidedriven(v
ct
) components. Inaddition, coastal andoceancurrentsmayoccur.
Also, eddycurrents, currentsgeneratedover steepslopes, currentscausedbystormsurgeand
internal waves, shouldbeconsidered. Verylittleinformationabout their surfacevelocityand
velocitydistributionisavailable. Thewindcurrent iscommonlyput equal to1.0–2.0per cent
of the‘sustained’ windvelocity10mabovetheseasurface. Thesurfacevalueof thetidal
current v
cto
intheNorthSeamaybeintherangeof 0.2to0.5m/s. Thevariationof current
speedover timeisslowincomparisonwiththenatural periodsof astructure. Hence, the
current velocityistakentobeconstant.
Inother areas(e.g. BrazilianwatersandtheGulf of Mexico), higher current velocitiesmay
beexperienced. If thecontributionfromcurrent velocityonthe(drag) loadissignificant, local
measurementsat theactual offshoresiteshouldbeperformed.
Relevant variationof thecurrent velocityover water depthisshowninFigure5.4.
Waveandcurrent interact. Whenthecurrent is constant intimeandspace, thewave
appearstotravel onthecurrent. InastationaryaxissystemthisresultsinaDoppler shift in
thewaveperiod—wavelengthrelationship.
Page179
Figure 5.4 Current velocityprofile.
5.2.2 Regular waves
General
Basedontheassumptionof aninviscid, irrational andincompressiblefluid, thewaveproblem
maybeformulatedintermsof avelocitypotential ĭ suchthat thevelocityvector isgivenas:
. Thevelocitypotential shouldfulfil theLaplaceequation(see
e.g. Clauss et al., 1991)
(5.1)
andthefollowingboundaryconditions:
1. Kinematic boundary conditions: Noflowthroughtheseabottom:
(5.2a)
wherec/cn denotesthederivativenormal totheseabottom. Indeepwater, analternative
formulationof thisconditionis:
(5.2b)
If abodyispresent, a‘noflowthroughthebody’ criterionmust alsobesatisfied:
(5.2c)
Herevandndenotethevelocityandnormal vector of thebodypresent, respectively. Further,
afluidparticleonthefreesurfaceisassumedtoremainonthefreesurface. Thisisexpressed
inthekinematicfreesurfacecondition:
(5.2d)
where ȗ denotes the instantaneous Iree surIace elevation.
2. Dynamic boundary conditions: Onthefreesurface, thepressureistobeequal tothe
Page180
atmosphericpressure. Thisisexpressedbyuseof Bernoulli’sequation:
(5.2e)
It isnotedthat thefreesurfaceconditionsarenon-linear, andthat theyaretobefulfilledona
freesurfacewhichisnot knownuntil theproblemissolved.
Linear theory
TheAirytheoryisbasedonalinearization(i.e. ĭ issupposedtobeproportional tothewave
amplitude), the wave elevation amplitude ȗ
a
is small (i.e. derivatives oI ȗ arezero) andthe
velocitysquaretermsineqn(5.2e) areneglected. Thisalsomeansthat thefreesurface
boundaryconditionscanbesatisfiedonz=0insteadof z÷ȗ .
Thesolutionof thelinearizedproblem, asobtainedbyseparationof variables (e.g. Clauss
et al., 1991), maybewrittenas
(5.3)
withthecircular frequency:
(5.4)
andthewavenumber:
(5.5)
Thewaveelevationisgivenby:
(5.6)
Equation(5.6) representsawavepropagatingalongthepositivex-axis. Thelinearized
dynamicpressureis
(5.7)
andthevelocitiesandaccelerationsinthex andz directionsare:
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)
Page181
Figure 5.5 Waveelevationandkinematics; (a) Linear theory; (b) wavecrest kinematics.
Thehorizontal velocityandaccelerationareseentohavetheir absolutemaximumvaluesat
crest/troughandwavenodes, respectively. Thewaveelevation, dynamicpressureand
horizontal velocityareinphase, whilethehorizontal accelerationis90° out of phase.
Moreover, it isseenthat thekinematics(e.g. horizontal velocity) at locationshalf a
wavelengthapart isinoppositephase. Thesephaserelationshipsareof considerable
significancefor calculationof waveloadsonstructures(Figure5.5). Further detailsabout the
Airytheorymaybefound, for example, inClausset
Modifications of the kinematics of linear theory
Thelinear theoryisvalidonlyfor small valuesof waveamplitudes. Particlevelocitiesinthe
crest regionwill especiallybesubject tosignificant uncertainties, whichwill affect drag
forces, whichareproportional tovelocitysquared, andother loadswhichdependuponcrest
kinematics. Rather thanextrapolating, for example, theparticlevelocityaccordingtothe
exponential variationof eqn(5.8), variousempirical modificationsof thelinear theoryhave
beenproposedtoimprovetheaccuracy. Onealternativeistousealinear extrapolationor
simplyuseaconstant
Page182
velocityequal tothat at theMeanWater Level (MWL) inthecrest. Linear extrapolationof the
kinematicsaboveMWL isobtainedby, for example, replacingeqn(5.8) by
(5.12)
A moresophisticatedapproachcommonlyusedistheso-calledWheeler stretching(Wheeler,
1970). Thismodificationintroducesanewvertical co-ordinatewhichmovestogether withthe
freesurface. Thevelocitypotential ĭ andthecorrespondingkinematicscanthenbeobtained
byintroducingaco-ordinatez
c
insteadof z ineqn(5.8); with . This
meansthat thekinematicquantitieshavethesamesizeandvertical distribution, onlynow
withthefreesurfaceasstartingpoint insteadof theMWL, asshowninFigure5.5b.
Gudmestad(1993) recentlyreviewedvariousengineeringapproximationstowavekinematics
andcomparedthemwithexperimental results.
A deficiencyof theoriginal andmodifiedAirytheoryisthat it providessymmetricwaves
whileextremewavesareknowntobeasymmetric(i.e. withalarger crest thantrough). Higher
order wavetheorieshavebeenproposedtobetter represent theshapeandkinematicsof the
waves(seee.g. Clausset al., 1991).
Higher order wave theory
Thelinear wavetheoryrepresentsafirst order approximationof thefreesurfaceconditions,
whichmeansthat errorswill becomelargeasthewavesbecomehigher (i.e. as increases),
becauseof theneglectedhigher order terms. Thisdeficiencycanbeimprovedbyintroducing
higher order terms. Commonlythisisdonebymeansof perturbationtheory. Waveelevation
andvelocitypotential arethenexpandedintopower series, withabeingasmall perturbation
parameter, sothat thesignificanceof additional termsdecreaseswiththeir order (seee.g.
SarpkayaandIsaacson, 1981)
(5.13)
(5.14)
Eachindividual potential ĭ
(i)
satisfiesboththeLaplaceequationandthenon-linear boundary
conditionswithsuccessiverefinement. At thefreesurface, thevelocitypotential isexpanded
asaTaylor seriesabout thestill water level toobtainsuccessiveapproximationsof higher
order wavetheories:
(5.15)
Theperturbationparameter (Į) turnsout tobe . Thesecondorder expansion
Page183
of thesurfaceelevationis
(5.16)
wheref
(2)
(z) isafunctionof z (e.g. SarpkayaandIsaacson, 1981). Equation(5.16) showsthat
thecrest becomesmorepeakedwhilethetroughsbecomemoreshallow. Theeffect of higher
order wavetheoryonthekinematicsdependsuponwaveheight (H/(gT
2
)) andwater depth
(d/gT
2
)) parameters. For highwavesindeepwater theAirytheory yieldslarger particle
velocitiesthanStokeshigher order theory.
Alternativewavetheoriesbased, for example, onstreamfunctioninsteadof velocity
potential arediscussed, for example, bySarpkayaandIsaacson(1981).
It isnotedthat theStokestheorystill dependsuponthelimitationof theassumedsmall
non-linearitieswithintheperturbationtheory.
Whenacurrent ispresent, thekinematicscorrespondstoasuperpositionof horizontal
current andwaveparticlevelocities.
5.2.3 Wave kinematics of irregular waves in short-term periods
Linear theory
Duringasuitablyshort-termperiodof time(fromhalf anhour tosomehours) thesea surface
elevation iscommonlyassumedtobeazeromean, stationaryandergodicGaussianprocess
(e.g. Kinsman, 1965). Aninterpretationof thisprocessisalinear combinationof independent
andarbitrarilydistributedrandomdisturbances. Instrongwindgeneratedwavesnon-
linearitiesinthewaveprocesstendtodisturbtheGaussiancharacter. TheGaussianprocess is
completelyspecifiedintermsof autocorrelationfunctionof thesurfaceelevationor thethree-
dimensional wavespectral density. Duetotheuniquerelationshipbetweenwavefrequency
andwavenumber for water waves, atwo-dimensional spectral densitysuffices(seee.g.
Kinsman, 1965; Sigbjørnsson, 1979).
Inthetime domain thewaveelevationmaybedescribedbyasumof longcrestedwaves
specifiedbylinear theory, withdifferent amplitude(a
ik
), frequency(Ȧ
i
), wavenumber (k
i
),
directionrelativetothex-axis (
k
) andphaseangle(İ
ik
) asfollows:
(5.17)
If (eqn(5.17)) expressesanirregular wavepropagatingalongthex-axis. For another
periodof thesameseastate, thecoefficients(İ
ik
) will bedifferent whilethedistributionof a
ik
over Ȧ
i
and
k
will be‘thesame’. Thedistributionof a
ik
over Ȧ
i
and
k
isa‘deterministic’
measureof that seastate, whilethephaseangleİ
ik
appearstobeuniformlydistributedover
(íʌ, ʌ).
Page184
Theamplitudea
ik
maybeexpressedbythetwo-dimensional energyspectrum:
(5.18)
Thetwo-dimensional (directionalityfrequency) spectral density isconveniently
expressedby
(5.19)
whereS
ȗ
(Ȧ) istheone-dimensional spectral densitythat canbeestimatedfromobservations
of ȗ(t) at agivenlocation, byaFourier transformof theautocorrelationfunctionof theȗ(t)
process(seeChapter 10). D( , Ȧ) istheso-calledspreadingfunction.
Variousanalytical formulationsfor thewavespectrumareapplied(asdiscussede.g. by
PriceandBishop, 1974). IndevelopingseastheJ ONSWAP spectrum(Hasselmanet al.,
1973) isrecommendedandfrequentlyused. For fullydevelopedseas, thePierson—
Moskowitz spectrum(seee.g. Gran, 1992) isrelevant. Windseaandswell havedifferent peak
periodsandacombinedseastatemayhaveatwo-peakedspectrum(asproposede.g. by
Torsethaugen, 1996). It shouldbenotedthat muchof thewaveenergyisconcentratedina
narrowfrequencybandclosetothepeak(s) of thespectrum. Moreover thereisasignificant
differenceinthespectral amplitudesfor highfrequencies, impliedbydifferent models.
TheJ ONSWAP spectrumisparameterizedinthefollowingform:
(5.20)
whereH
m0
and arethesignificant waveheight andspectral peakperiod,
respectively, ı=0.07for Ȧ”Ȧ
p
andı=0.09forȦ~Ȧ
p
. Thepeakednessparameter Ȗ depends
upon andvariesintherangefrom1to7.
WhilethespreadingfunctionD( ,Ȧ) generallyisfrequencydependent, it isusually
approximatedby
(5.21)
where
0
denotesthemeanwavedirectionandC isanormalizationfactor toensurethat the
integral of D( · ) over isunity, andn normallyvariesbetween2and8.
Thekinematics(particlevelocities, accelerations, pressures) for irregular wavesarethen
obtainedbysuperpositionof thekinematicsbasedonlinear (Airy) theoryfor eachregular
wave. It isnotedthat thereisnophaselaginthekinematicsinthevertical direction.
Inthefrequency domain thekinematicsaredescribedbyspectral densities. Hence, the
followingcross-spectral densitycanbederivedfromthewavenumber
Page185
spectral density(Sigbørnsson, 1979)
(5.22)
whereȗ
m
andȗ
n
arethewaveamplitudesat points mandn withco-ordinates(x
m
, y
m
) and(x
n
,
y
n
), respectively, and
Theprobabilisticdescriptionof thewavekinematicsintermsof theparticlevelocitiesand
accelerationsiscommonlyachievedbyapplyingtheprincipleof superpositionof independent
andarbitrarilydistributeddisturbancesandtheAirywavetheory. Thenthefrequencycross-
spectral densityof, for example, thewater particlevelocity v
x
maybeexpressedasfollows,
applyingeqns(5.8) and(5.22)
(5.23)
Analogousexpressionsholdfor thefrequencycross-spectral densitiesof acceleration, and
accelerationandvelocity.
Higher order irregular wave theory
Toreducethedeficienciesof thelinear theory, especiallyinpredictingextremevalues, a
consistent second-order or higher order irregular wavetheory, analogoustothehigher order
regular wavetheoriesmentioned, maybeestablished. However, incurrent engineering
practice, improvedkinematicsisobtainedbymodificationof thelinear theory(e.g.
Gudmestad, 1993). It shouldbenotedthat thisformulationdoesnot represent theasymmetry
inwaveelevationnor thenon-linear interactionbetweenindividual wavesinanirregular
waveprocess.
Theseasurfaceelevationisnot aperfect Gaussianprocess(seee.g. LonguetHiggins, 1963;
Haver andMoan, 1983; VinjeandHaver, 1994). Inthesamewayasafiniteregular waveis
not perfectlysinusoidal (i.e. thecrest islarger thanthetrough), therandomseaelevationis
skewedandhasmorekurtosisthanaGaussianprocess. VinjeandHaver (1994) foundthat the
skewnessdependsuponH
m0
andT
p
accordingto andkurtosis
. Non-Gaussiansurfaceelevationmaybegeneratedbyasecondorder
(irregular) wavemodel for instancebasedonStokes’ expansion(seee.g. Longuet-Higgins,
1963), or bytransformationof aGaussianprocessbyaHermiteexpansion(seee.g.
Winterstein, 1988).
5.2.4 Wave kinematics of irregular waves in long-term periods
Thenon-stationaryseastateinalongtermperiod(i.e. of someyearsduration), canbe
assumedtoconsist of asequenceof short termseastates(i.e. stationaryzero
Page186
meanergodicprocesses), eachcompletelydescribedbythespectral density(seedefinitionsin
Chapter 10). For agivenanalytical model of thespectrum(e.g. J ONSWAP or Pierson—
Moskowitz), thespectral parameters H
m0
, T
p
, Ȗ,
0
, etc. completelyspecifytheseastate. By
expressingthemagnitudeof theseparametersandpossiblythecurrent andwindvelocityand
directioninprobabilisticmeasures, thelongtermprocessisdescribed. For extratropical
regions, liketheNorthSea, thejoint probabilitydensityof theparametersisappliedtowards
thisaim(seee.g. Haver, 1980). A Weibull distributionisthencommonlyusedtodescribethe
marginal distributionof H
m0
, whiletheconditional distributionof T
p
givenH
m0
isoftentaken
tobealog-normal distribution. For tropical areassubject tohurricanes, thelongtermwave
climatecanbedescribedbystormsarrivinginasequence(e.g. J ahnsandWheeler, 1972).
Datafor thelong-termmodel of thewavescanbegenerated(i) bydirect observationof
wavecondition; (ii) hindcastingbasedonwinddata.
Theprobabilisticdescriptionof thewave kinematics intermsof theparticlevelocitiesand
accelerationsiscommonlyachievedbyapplyingtheprincipleof superpositionof independent
andarbitrarilydistributeddisturbancesandtheAiryor modifiedAirywavetheory.
5.3 HYDRODYNAMIC LOADING
5.3.1 General
Ingeneral, theeffectsof wavesandcurrentsonmarinestructuresareobtainedasvector
superpositionof all forcesontheindividual structural elements. If relevant, thesubsequent
response(e.g. themotionof thestructure) alsoneedstobeconsidered. Tocalculate
hydrodynamicforces, it isnecessarytointegratethepressurefieldover thewettedsurfaceof
thestructure. Themainforcecomponentsare(Clauss et al., 1991; Faltinsen, 1990):
Ɣ Froude-Krylovforce—pressureeffectsduetoundisturbedincident waves;
Ɣ hydrodynamic‘added’ massandpotential dampingforce—pressureeffectsduetorelative
accelerationandvelocitybetweenwater particlesandstructural componentsinanideal
fluid;
Ɣ viscousdragforce—pressureeffect duetorelativevelocitybetweenwater particlesand
structural components.
TheFroude—Krylov(FK) forceactingonasubmergedbodyinawavefieldmaybeobtained
byintegratingthepressurep onthesurfaceS
(5.24)
whenthebasicsurfaceintegral expression, first, istransformedtoavolumeintegral by
applyingtheGausstheorem, thenEuler’sequationfor anincompressible,
Page187
inviscidandirrotational fluidisintroducedandfinallytheconvectivetermof accelerationis
ignored, ndenotesanormal tothesurface, vistheparticlevelocityof thefluidandȡ denotes
thedensity.
For aslender body, thewater particleaccelerationchangesonlyslightlywithinthestructure
andmaybesubstitutedbytheaccelerationat thecomponent axis, toyield
(5.25)
Thehydrodynamic(added) massforceactingonabodyisobtainedbyintegrationof the
pressurefieldarisingfromtherelativeaccelerationbetweenthestructural component and
fluidover thewettedsurface. Thisforcecanbedeterminedbyacceleratingthebodyinafluid
at rest, andcangenerallybewrittenas
(5.26)
Ingeneral, C
A
dependsupontheflowconditionsandthelocationof thebody. It isfrequency
dependent for bodiesat or closetothesurface, whereasit isindependent of frequencyfor
submerged, slender bodies. Datamaybefound, for example, inClauss et al. (1991). For a
submerged, slender cylinder C
A
isequal to1.0.
Theviscous(drag) forceper unit lengthnormal toamember maybewrittenas
(5.27)
wherev
n
isthevelocitynormal totheaxisof themember withprojectedcrosssectionof A.
Dragcoefficientsmaybefound, for example, inClausset al. (1991).
Theloadformulationapplicabledependsupontheflowcondition, asmeasured, for
example, bytheKeulegan—Carpenter number (KC) andtheReynoldsnumber (Re). KC is
definedasKC=vT/D. (v isthemaximumhorizontal waveparticlevelocity, T isthewave
periodandD isthediameter of thestructure). For KC smaller than2, potential theoryapplies,
whileviscouseffectsshouldbeincludedfor KC larger than2. ReisdefinedasRe=v·D/v,
wherev andD aregivenaboveandv isthekinematicviscosityof water, v=1.11×10
í6
m
2
/s.
For slender structures, F
FK
andF
A
areapproximatedbyasingleinertiaterm, andthe
viscousforcemakesupthedragtermF
D
. Inthiscase, it wasassumedthat thewater particle
velocityandaccelerationintheregionof thestructuredonot differ significantlyfromthe
valuesat thecylinder axis. Thisassumptionisonlyacceptablewhenthediameter, D, of the
structureissmall comparedwiththewavelength, Ȝ (i.e. for D/Ȝ·0.2). Theloadingonslender
membersisfurther discussedinSection5.3.2.
Withlarger structural diameters, theincident waveissignificantlydisturbedbythe
structure. Assuminglinear wavetheory, thesteadystatewavefieldthenresultsfromthe
interferenceof theincident waveandthebody, andmaybederivedfromthesuperpositionof
thepotentialsof theundisturbedincident waveandaninducedwavefieldof thesame
frequency, generatedbyandradiatingfromthebody. Hereviscousforcesareof less
significance, sincetheratioof wave
Page188
height tostructural diameter remainssufficientlysmall. Accordingtopotential theory, the
pressuredistributionandthecorrespondingforcescanbecalculatedfromthevelocity
potential, asdiscussedinSection5.3.3.
Whenthewaveactsuponastructure, thelatter will beset inmotion, whichwill set up
wavesradiatingawayfromit. Reactionforcesarethenset upinthefluidthat areproportional
toaccelerationandvelocityof thestructure, respectively. Theseareinertia(addedmass) and
potential dampingforcesduetowavegeneration. Inaddition, viscous(drag) forcesareset up.
ThisissueistreatedinSection5.3.4. Finally, Section5.3.5dealswithparticular transient
waveloadingphenomenasuchaswaveslammingandringing.
5.3.2 Steady-state loading on slender structures
If thecharacteristicdimension(e.g. thediameter D of acircular structural component) is
small relativetothewavelengthȜ (i.e. D/Ȝ· 0.2), thereislittleal-terationof theincident wave
whenit passesthestructure. Thewavedoesnot ‘see’ suchaslender structure: asdiffraction
andreflectionphenomenaarenegligible, thestructureissaidtobe‘hydrodynamically
transparent’. Withrelativelysmall dimensions, local variationsof particlevelocityand
accelerationintheregionof thestructural element aresmall enoughtobeignored, andvalues
arecalculatedat thepositionof thestructural element asawhole.
For slender memberswhicharefixedtheforceper unit lengthq
n,
normal tothemember, is
most oftencalculatedbytheextended, empirical Morisonformula(e.g. Clausset al., 1991):
(5.28)
whereȡ isthedensityof thefluid, C
M
andC
D
aretheinertiaanddragforcecoefficients,
respectively, andv
n
anda
n
are, respectively, thewaveparticlevelocityandacceleration
perpendicular tothemember. dA. and aretheexposedareaanddisplacedwater of unit
length. For acircular member, withadiameter D,
Thefirst termresultsfromtheFK andhydrodynamicmassforcewhilethesecond
terms ineqn(5.28) isduetotheviscousdragtermanddownstreamwake.
Thev
n
anda
n
for adesignwaveareobtaineddirectlyfromthekinematicsfor aregular
wave. Inthecaseof randomwaves, v
n
anda
n
areobtainedbysuperimposingthekinematics
for all regular wavesthat constitutetherandomwavehistory.
For vartical cylander indeepwater, thetotal integratedforceq
D
andq
I
areequal for awave
height todiameter ratioof about 10.
A crucial issueinapplyingMorison’sequationisthedeterminationof C
D
andC

Extensivedatafromlaboratoryexperimentsindicateageneral rangeof 0.6to1.2for C
D
and
1.2to2.0for C
M
, dependinguponflowconditions(asmeasured
Page189
bytheKC, Renumbers) andsurfaceroughness(SarpkayaandIsaacson, 1981). When
applyinghydrodynamiccoefficientstocalculateloadingonplatformsconsistingof many
members, additional uncertaintiesareencounteredandshouldactuallybereflectedinthe
coefficients.
Under suchcircumstancesthecoefficientsarechosensoastoadequatelyrepresent the
loadinginviewof thewavekinematicsformulationused.
TheAPI (1993/1997) recommendationfor calculatingloadsonjacket platformsmayserve
toillustratethispoint. Thekeypointsinthisprocedurefor calculatingextremeloadeffects
are:
Ɣ regular wavewithappropriateheight (e.g. correspondingto100year returnperiod) and
period;
Ɣ wavekinematicsaccordingtotwo-dimensional Stokesfifthorder (or other Stokestype)
methodsandappropriatecorrectionfactorsfor shortcrestedseasandcurrent shieldingor
blockage(i.e. theeffect of thestructureonthekinematics);
Ɣ theinput current velocityprofile, whichreferstoMWL, ismodifiedbystretchingto
providecurrent velocitiesover thetotal wettedsurface;
Ɣ theeffectivediameter of themember iscalculatedbyD=D
c
+2t, whereD
c
isthecleanouter
diameter andt isthethicknessof themarinegrowth;
Ɣ dragandinertiacoefficientsfor calculationof global loadsareselectedas:
smoothcylinders: C
D
=0.65, C
M
=1.6
roughcylinders: C
D
=1·05, C
M
=1.2
Memberslocated2maboveMWL maybeconsideredsmoothandthosebelowareconsidered
toberough.
Thehydrodynamiccoefficientswerecalibratedtofit in-servicemeasurements(Heideman
andWeaver, 1992).
Therelevant hydrodynamicloadsfor fatigueanalysescorrespondtomoremoderatewaves
(i.e. withsmaller KC numbersthanfor extremewaves). Theimplicationmaybetoapplythe
sameC
D
for smoothcylindersandreducetheC
D
for roughcylindersandincreaseC
M
to2.0
(API, 1993/1997).
Morison’sequationaccountsfor in-linedragandinertiaforces, but not for the‘out of
plane’ (planeformedbythevelocityvector andmember axis) lift force duetoperiodic,
asymmetricvortexsheddingfromthedownstreamsideof amember. Duetotheir high
frequency, randomphasingandoscillatory(withzeromean) nature, lift forcesarenot
correlatedacrosstheentirestructure. Their effect onglobal loadscanthereforebeignored
whiletheymayhavetobeconsideredfor local loads. Morison’sequationalsoignoresaxial
FK, addedmassanddragforces, whichwill beof increasingimportancewithincreasing
diameter tomember length.
For (dynamic) spectral or timedomainanalysisof surfacepiercingframedstructuresin
randomGaussianwavesanduseof modifiedAiry(Wheeler) kinematicswithnoaccount of
kinematicsfactor, thehydrodynamiccoefficientsshould, inabsenceof moredetailed
documentation, betakentobe(NORSOK N-003, 1999) C
D
=1.0andC
M
=2.0.
Page190
Figure 5.6 Effect of phaseangleonforcesinregular waves.
Thesevaluesapplybothfor stochasticanalysisof extremeandfatigueactioneffects. It is
notedthat theincreasedvalueof especially C
M
istoaccount for thenon-symmetryof wave
surfaceelevationinseverewaveconditions.
Thepresenceof acurrent will changethewaveheight (and, hence, thespectral densityfor
theseaelevation), thetypeof floworbits(and, hence, inprinciplethewaveforcecoefficients)
aswell addacontributiontotheseaparticlevelocity(SarpkayaandIsaacson, 1981). Inmany
cases, theeffect of current isimplicit inobservedwavedata. Insuchcases, theeffect of
current onwaveheight shouldnot beconsidered. Thecurrent velocityisaddedvectoriallyto
waveparticlevelocities. Witha100year surfacecurrent velocityof theorder 0.5to2.0m/s,
andamaximumwaveparticlevelocity(ina30mhighwave) of theorder 7to9m/s, the
current contributessignificantlytothehydrodynamicloading, duetothequadraticformof F
D
.
Thecycliccharacter of wavesimpliesthat thereisaphaseanglebetweenthewaveforces
ondifferent members, asillustratedinFigure5.6.
5.3.3 Steady-state loading on large volume structures
AsmentionedinSection5.3.1, theaccuracyof Morison’sequationwill diminishwhenD/Ȝ
increasesbeyond0.2.
Consider, for instance, avertical cylinder withadiameter D=2R, restingontheseabedand
piercingthesurface. Theincident potential ĭ
0
, givenbyeqn(5.3), isknown.
Theradiationpotential ĭ
7
issolvedfromaboundaryvalueproblemintermsof theLaplace
differential equationinthefluiddomainandappropriateboundaryconditions. Theboundary
conditionsconsist of theconditionsat theoceanbottom, thefreesurfaceandthesurfaceof the
structureaswell asaradiationconditionfar fromthestructure. It isdemonstrated, for
example, inClausset al. (1991) that ĭ
7
Page191
canbeexpressedinapolar co-ordinatesystembyaproduct of afunctioninz andafunction
inr (radial co-ordinate).
Oncethevelocitypotential ( ) isknown, thepressureonthesurfaceof the
structurecanbecalculatedfromthelinearizedBernoulli’sequation( ) andthe
horizontal andvertical forcesmaybedeterminedbyintegratingthepressure.
For avertical cylinder withdiameter D=2R, aclosedformsolutionoftennamedthe
MacCamyandFuchs(1954) approach, canbeobtained.
Thehorizontal forceq inthex-directionper unit axial lengthof thecylinder iscomputed
as:
(5.29)
where , arethe
derivativesof first order Bessel functionsof thefirst andsecondkind, respectively. isthe
volume( )of thecylinder per unit length. Thehorizontal forcemaybeexpressedinterms
of aneffectiveinertiacoefficient C
M
andahorizontal water particleaccelerationcomponent
a
x
at thecentreof thesectionof thecylinder andat anelevationz correspondingtotheinertia
termof theMorisonequation. Hence, a
x
isgivenbyeqn(5.10). It isnotedthat thehorizontal
waveforceisphase-shiftedwithrespect totheacceleration. It isseenthat
(5.30)
AsshowninFigure5.7, C
M
isapproximatelyequal totheslender bodyvalueof 2.0for
kR”0.1.
Figure5.7Effectiveinertiacoefficient versusdiffractionparameter for alargediameter vertical
cylinder, piercingthewater surface.
Page192
It isnotedthat thediffractioneffectswill significantlyreduceC
M
whenwaveswithaperiod
of, say, 5secact uponcolumnswithadiameter that exceeds8m. Thisissueisimportant
whenthestructurehasnatural periodsaround5sec.
Analytical solutionstoseveral other casesof simplegeometryfor offshorestructurescanbe
developed(seee.g. Gran, 1992). Thesegenerallyrequirethat themember befar removed
fromaboundary, particularlythefreesurface. Someof thesemembersincludespheres,
horizontal cylinders, bottomseatedhemispheresandbottomseatedhalf-cylinders. For more
complexcasesnumerical methods havebeenproposedtoobtainwavediffractionsolutions.
Thesemethodsincludeboundaryelement, finitefluidelement, conformal mapping, and
hybridtechniques. Thesolutionshavereceivedmanyexperimental verificationsandpractical
applications(seee.g. Clausset al., 1991, andFaltinsen, 1990).
Wavediffractionsolutionsdonot includeviscousactions. Whenbodymembersare
relativelyslender andhavesharpedges, viscouseffectsmaybeimportant andshouldbe
addedtothediffractionforcesdetermined.
Waveloadsonstructurescomposedof largevolumepartsandslender membersmaybe
computedbyacombinationof wavediffractiontheoryandMorison’sequation. Partsof the
structuremaybemodelledbothbyboundaryelementstorepresent thepotential
hydrodynamicloadsandbeamstorepresent theviscousdragloads. Themodificationsof
velocitiesandaccelerationsaswell assurfaceelevation(waveenhancement) duetothelarge
volumepartsshould, however, beaccountedfor whenusingMorison’sequation. This
situationmayariseinconnectionwithcaissonsof gravitystructures, stronginteraction
betweenlargecolumns, non-vertical sidesnear thewater planeandother features. Theresults
fromboundaryelement methodsshouldbecarefullycheckedfor surface-piercingbodiesto
ensurethat irregular frequenciesareavoided. Moreover, estimatesof loadsfor novel
structural shapesneedtobecheckedbymodel tests. Model testshavealsobeencarriedout
systematicallytoestablishMorison-typeformulationfor inertiaforcesongravitystructures
(seee.g. Moanet al. 1976).
5.3.4 Effect of motions
Asmentionedabove, whenthestructuremoves, asaresult of excitationforces, inertia(added
mass) andpotential dampingforcesaregenerated. If thestructuremoves, thetotal inertia
forceactingonaslender member of thestructure, maythenbeestablishedasthesameFK
forceasthat actingonafixedstructure, together withtheaddedmassforceassociatedwith
therelativeaccelerationbetweenfluidandstructure. Thedragforcemaybeestablishedby
replacingtheparticlevelocityineqn(5.28) withtherelativevelocity. Hence, theforcenormal
totheaxisof themember maybewrittenas
(5.31)
Equation(5.31) isparticularlyrelevant inconnectionwithanalysisof motionsof
Page193
floatingstructuresandstructural dynamicsof bottomsupportedstructures. Inthelatter case
therelativevelocitytermineqn(5.31) shouldbeusedwithcaution. Theamplitudeof the
structuresmotionneedstobeequal tothemember diameter toset upthefluidflowfor which
eqn(5.31) isvalid. Otherwise, usingeqn(5.31) mayoverestimatethedampingandhencelead
tonon-conservativeloadeffects.
Analogousconsiderationsapplytolargevolumestructures(largecross-sectiondimension
relativetothewavelength). However, inthat casetheFK andaddedmassloadsbothneedto
bedeterminedbyanalytical or numerical methods, asmentionedinSection5.3.3. Theadded
massanddampingcontributionsarethendeterminedbyintroducingapotential ĭ
j
for eachof
thesixrigidbodymodesaswell aspossibleflexiblemodes.
For thestructuresconsideredhereinwavekinematicsiscommonlydeterminedwith
referencetotheinitial positionof thestructure. Whenmotionamplitudesbecomelarge(i.e. of
theorder of thewaveamplitude), thepositionof thestructuremaybeupdated, when
excitationforcesaredetermined.
5.3.5 Non-linear wave loading
Slender bodies
ThedragforceinMorison’sequation, eqn(5.31), isnon-linear inparticlevelocity. The
particlevelocityisproportional towaveheight accordingtolinear theory. Moreover, thefact
that thedragforceisnon-linear will introducehigher order harmonicsintheforceassociated
witharegular, periodicwave. Thedragandinertiaforceon, for example, ahorizontal
member causedbyaregular wavewithparticlevelocityv
x
=sin(Ȧt) andacceleration
a
x=
cos(Ȧt) (Mo, 1983; MoandMoan, 1984) are:
(5.32)
(5.33)
Whenaharmonicwaveof finiteheight passesastructure, forcesonahorizontal or asegment
of avertical member inthe‘splashzone’ mayvaryintimeasindicatedinFigure5.8. Clearly,
byexpandingtheseforcesinFourier series, it isobservedthat therewill behigher order
harmoniccomponentsintheoverall excitationof thestructure. Thiseffect will bemore
pronouncedwhendragforcesarepredominant becausetheyattaintheir maximaat maximum
andminimumwaveelevation. Also, dragforcesaremoreimportant inanextremeseaway
thaninamoderateone.
Toillustratethispoint moreexplicitly, consider acylinder piercingthewavesurface. When
thevelocityisassumedtobeconstant abovetheMWL andequal tothevelocityat theMWL
(vertical extrapolationinSection5.2.2), thedragand
Page194
Figure 5.8 Schematicforce-timehistoryfor ahorizontal member or segmentsof avertical member
aboveandbelowthemeanwater level.
inertiaforcescanbeshowntobe(Mo, 1983):
(5.34)
(5.35)
whereH[ · ] istheHeavisideunit functiondefinedby H[x] : (0for ; 1for
x>0). Thisfact will alsobereflectedintheprobabilisticdescriptionof thecompleteMorison
equation.
Moreover, if acurrent velocity v
c
isaddedvectoriallytothewaveparticlevelocityineqn
(5.28), thenatureof the(drag) forcewill beaffected. Consider, for simplicity, twowave
componentswithvelocityamplitudesof v
x1
andv
x2
, respectively, together withacurrent v
c
.
Thedragforceduringthat part of thewavecyclefor whichthedragforceispositivemaybe
obtainedas:
(5.36)
inwhichȕ
i
isȦ
i
t+İ
i
; andİ
i
isa(random) phaseangle.
Clearlythis(drift) expansion can be extended to comprise all Irequencies Ȧ
i
intherandom
sea.
Thisexpressionshowsthat apparent waveforcefrequencieswill havetheoriginal
Page195
wavefrequenciesenhancedbythecurrent, resultinginforcecomponentswithfrequencies
equal toadifference, sumanddoublefrequenciesof thewavecomponents.
Componentscontainingthedifferencefrequenciesleadtolongperiodforceswhichmaybe
critical for rigidbodymodesof behaviour. ThetermswithȦ
1
·Ȧ
2
leadtohighfrequency
forces, whichmaycausedynamiceffectsinbottomsupportedplatforms.
Thenon-linearityinMorison’sequationmaybelinearizedtofacilitateefficient response
analysis. Linearizationmay, for instance, beachieved:
Ɣ deterministicallybyrequiringthat thesameenergybedissipatedper wavecyclefor the
linear andnon-linear model;
Ɣ stochasticallybyassumingthat theparticlevelocityfollowsaGaussiandistributionand
findingthelinearizationthat minimizestheexpectedmeansquareerror.
Linearizationbyconsiderationof energydissipationfor asinglewave-component
correspondstotakingthefirst termintheFourier expansion, eqn(5.32), andignoringhigh-
frequencyterms(seee.g. chapter 2, Almar-Næss, 1985). Stochasticlinearizationof
yields whereı
v
isthestandarddeviationof v(t) (seee.g. Leira,
1987). Stochasticlinearizationyieldsaccurateestimatesof loadswhenusedtodetermine
responsevariance, whichisrelevant for fatigueanalysis, but needstobeusedwithcautionin
estimationof extremevalues.
Asmentionedinsection5.2.3, particlevelocitiesandaccelerationsareGaussianprocesses
inthetimedomain. Inthefrequencydomainthekinematicsisdescribedbyspectral densities
(e.g. eqn(5.23)). Theforces(eqn(5.28)) onslender membersmayalsobeexpressedinthe
frequencydomainbythecross-spectral densityof theloadintensityat twolocationsm andn.
ThistopicisthoroughlytreatedbyBorgman(1972). It isseenthat thespectral densityhas
peaksat thewavefrequencyaswell asat multiplesof thewavefrequencyasdisplayedbythe
Fourier expansion, eqns(5.34), (5.35).
Clearly, alinearizationof eqn(5.36), whichyields:
(5.37)
wherec isaconstant, ignoresthehigher order components.
Large volume structures
Higher order termsinthepotential theorytoaccount for finitewaveelevationalsocausetime-
variant sumandfrequencyforcesonlargevolumestructuresin(irregular) waves. For instance,
thesecondorder termof thesurfaceelevation(ine.g. eqn(5.16) for thedeterministicwave)
andthequadraticvelocitytermsinBernoulli’sequation(eqn(5.2e)) basedonthefirst order
potential will contributesecondorder forcecomponents. TheterminBernoulli’sequationis
somewhat analogoustothevelocitysquaredtermintheMorisonequation.
Page196
Thepurposeof thehigher order theoryistoapproximatemoreaccuratelytheboundary
conditions(i.e. thezeronormal flowconditionat theinstantaneouspositionof thebodyand
thepressureconditionat thefreeboundary). Suchhigher order excitationforcesare
commonlyderivedbyaperturbationmethod, withthefollowingassumptions: variables, x
suchaswaveheight, velocitypotential, dynamicpressuresandmotionsof thestructureare
expandedinaseriesof asmall perturbationparameters a.
(5.38)
wherex
(0)
representsthestillwater conditionandx
(1)
correspondstothefirst order (linear)
approximation. It isnotedinparticular that thedifferent termsof quadraticvelocitypotential
arequadraticfunctionsof thefirst order potentials
. Eachof thequadraticpotentialsmust satisfytheLaplacedifferential
equationandtheboundaryconditionsat thefreesurfaceseabottomandfar fieldmentionedin
Section5.2.2.
First order waveforcesarethenexpressedbyfirst order velocitypotentialsandfirst order
motions, takencareof bytheequationof motion. Secondorder waveforcescanthenbe
explicitlydeterminedonthebasisof thesecondorder velocitypotentialsandfirst order
potentialsaswell ashydrodynamicpressuresandmotions.
EatockTaylor andHung(1987) calculatednumericallythecompletesecondorder forces
onacylinder.
Non-linear (secondandhigher order) waveforcesgenerallyareanorder of magnitudeless
thanthefirst order (linear) forces. However, if theperiodof thewaveforcecoincideswitha
natural period, theeffect of suchforcescanbelarge.
High-frequencyhorizontal forcesontowersmadeupof slender membersandvertical
forcesontensionlegplatformhullsmaybeof importance. Low-frequencyhorizontal (and
vertical) forcesmaybeof importancetothemotionsof floatingstructuresandtension-leg
platforms.
Ringing loads
Steep, highwavesencounteringstructural componentsextendingabovethestill water level
maycausenon-linear transient loadsandloadeffects. Figure5.9showsameasuredirregular
waveprofileandthecorrespondinghorizontal forcesfor ashort timesampleinvolvingasteep
wave. It isobservedthat atransient highfrequencyloadoccurs. Itsamplitudeis
approximately20per cent of thesteadystateamplitude. Structural responsestotheseactions
may bedynamicallyamplifiedandcauseincreasedextremeresponse(ringing). Suchtransient
nonlinear actionsmaybeimportant for structuresconsistingof largediameter shaftsand
havingnatural periodsintherangeof 2to8secandstartedtoreceiveseriousattentionin
connectionwithmonotower, gravitybaseandtensionlegplatformsat thebeginningof the
1990s. Ringingloadsdependonthewaveshapeandparticlekinematicsclosetothewave
surfaceandarehighlynon-linear, andit isgenerallydifficult todistinguishimpact/slamming
phenomenafromhigher order
Page197
Figure 5.9 Measuredhorizontal forceonavertical cylinder piercingthewavesurface(Krokstadet al.,
1996).
ones. However, it isagreedthat theringingloadisaninertia-typeloadingthat canbe
describedbypotential theory.
Variousmodelsfor ringingloadshavebeenproposed. Theymaybedividedinto: slender
bodyanddiffractiontheories. Thesimplest slender bodytheoryisbasedonMorison’s
equationandincident wavekinematics. Wavediffractionduetoarelativelylargediameter
structure, maybeaccountedfor byusingtheMcCamy—Fuchstheory(seee.g. Farneset al.,
1994). Rainey(1989) improvedMorison’sequationfor thesubmergedpart of thecylinder as
well asaparticular slammingtermfor theregionwherethefreesurfaceintersectsthecylinder.
Thisslammingtermappearslikethedragforceterm(eqn(5.27)); however, thecoefficient C
D
isreplacedbyacoefficient whichdependsonwavesteepness. Kinematicshasprimarilybeen
calculatedbytheWheeler modificationof Airytheory, but other theories, suchasthesecond
order irregular wavekinematicsmodel, maybeapplied. Figure5.10showshowhigher order
wavecomponentscanaffect theshapeandespeciallythelocal steepnessof thewave. While
thesecondorder component canincreasecrest height by10–15per cent, theeffect of third
order componentsseemstobeless.
However, sincecontributionsfromthesecondorder potential ĭ
(2)
areignored, theaccuracy
of theslender bodytheoryislimited.
For thisreasoneffortshavebeendevotedtodevelopingconsistent ringingloadmodels
basedondiffractiontheory. Faltinsenet al. (1996) (FNV method) includednon-linear
contributiontothelinear diffractionpotential (MacCamy—Fuchstheory) andforce
componentsuptoandincludingfifthorder effects. A further development isreportedby
Krokstadet al. (1996) andMarthinsenet al. (1996). Inthisapproachloadsfromacomplete
secondorder diffractiontheoryarecombined
Page198
Figure 5.10 Contributionsfromlinear, secondandthirdorder wavecomponentstowaveelevationof
asteepwave(Stokka, 1994).
withthirdorder loadsfromtheFNV theory. Themethodyieldsanimprovedrepresentationof
secondorder forces. Althoughdiffractionmodelsyieldestimatescloser tomodel test results
thanMorison-typeformulations, currentlyavailablemethodsaregenerallyamenableto
screeninganalysisof theringingphenomenon. Inthisconnectionit isanadvantagethat
diffractiontheoriesseemtoyieldconservativeloadestimates. For platformswithmultiple
columns, thephenomenonistodaybest quantifiedbymodel tests.
5.4 CALCULATION OF WAVE LOAD EFFECTS
5.4.1 Dynamic models
Variousdynamicmodelsof marinestructures, likethoseinFigure5.1, areenvisagedinthis
section, rangingfromsimple‘stickmodels’ asshowninFigure5.11tosophisticatedfinite
element modelsof thestructureandfoundation.
Excitationisduetowaveloadingandthestructure, soil andwater maycontributestiffness,
massanddamping, dependingonthesupport conditionsof thestructure.
Global modelsof, for example, platformsandbuoyant bridgesarecommonlybasedon
beammodels. However, thecaissonof gravityplatformsisusuallymodelledasarigidbody.
TheP-ǻ effect for platformswith‘large’ motiondisplacement couldbetakenintoaccount by
linearizednegativesprings. Possiblecatenary
Page199
Figure 5.11 Simplifieddynamicstickmoddof tower platforms.
Page200
mooringlinesmaybemodelledbyasimplespring-damper, or byafiniteelement model of
theline. Particular attentiontothemodellingof theleg-deckconnections(SNAME, 1994) in
jack-upsisrequired. Pilefoundationsmaybemodelledbybeammodelsandtakingthe
interactionbetweenpileandsoil intoaccount byacontinuummodel of thesoil; or by
representingthepile-soil behaviour byasimplespring-damper. A simplifiedmulti-degreeof
freedomboundaryelement methodof thepileandsoil, referredtoasdisk-conemodel, has
proventobecomputationallyefficient (Wolf, 1994andEmami Azadi, 1998). Mat or gravity
foundationscannormallybewell representedbyaspring-damper model.
Whilethestructureisnormallyassumedtohavelinear elasticpropertieswhenloadeffects
for component ultimateandfatiguelimit statesaredetermined, it maybenecessarytoaccount
for non-linearityinsoil behaviour. However, whendynamicbehaviour uptosystemcollapse
istobedetermined, non-linear material andgeometriceffectsbothof thestructure, foundation
andsoil wouldnormallyberequired.
Mass iscontributedbystructural andcontainedmassaswell astheaddedhydrodynamical
mass. For aslender cylinder thelatter massisusuallytakentobethat of thedisplacedwater.
Theaddedmassfor largevolumestructures(e.g. caissonsof floatinggravitystructures,
floatingbridges) hastobedeterminedbypotential theoryfor therelevant modesof behaviour.
Particular attentionshouldbepaidtostructural componentswhichareclosetothesurface,
relativetotheir size. Ogilvie(1963) andVugts(1970) givedatafor aninfinitecylinder
movinghorizontallyat acertaindistancebelowthewater surface. Yeung(1989) determined
addedmassfor avertical cylinder, andaninfinitecross-sectionshapedlikeashipmovingin
thewater surface. Theaddedmassisfrequencydependent.
Damping may becontributedbythestructure, water andsoil (rock) andissubject to
significant uncertainties. Structural damping(BarltropandAdams, 1991) inaweldedsteel
structuremaybeof theorder of 0.2–0.5per cent of critical, andfor concretestructureswhich
arestressedsothat microcracksoccur, it maybeof theorder of 0.5–1.5per cent (Langenet
al., 1997). Structural dampingof platformsor submergedbridgesmaybeabout 1per cent
withpurestructural modesof vibration.
Hydrodynamicdampingstemsfromgenerationof waves(radiationdamping) aswell as
fromfrictiondragdamping. Thefirst sourceisdeterminedfrompotential theoryandisgiven
for thespecial casesmentionedaboveinOgilvie(1963), Vugts(1970) andYeung(1989); it
exhibitsstrongdependenceonfrequencyandsubmergence. For significant dragdampingto
occur, vortexsheddingmust takeplace. Thedragdampingwill besmall if theKC number is
below, say, 2. Hence, dragdampingwill besmall for largediameter vertical columnsin
platformsandsubmergedbridges. Thecorrespondingdampingratiomaybelessthan0.1per
cent. Similarly, potential (radiation) dampingisfoundtoberelativelysmall comparedwith
dragdampingfor platformstructuresconsistingof slender members. For floatingbridges
wavedifferencefrequency(slowdrift) excitationmaybeof importance. Bothdragdamping
andsecondorder (slowdrift) potential dampingarequitesmall at theexcitationfrequencies.
Page201
If thesoil or rockisactivatedduringthevibration, it will contributeradiationandhysteretic
(material) damping. Soil dampingfor (embedded) plateandpilefoundationsisdiscussed, for
example, byMoanet al. (1976), BarltropandAdams(1991), Wolf (1994). Soil damping,
especiallyinrockingmotion, isfrequencydependent. If anon-linear soil model isused, the
hystericdampingwill beimplicitlyincludedintheanalysis.
If thedampingof thestructureor thesoil isgivenwithreferencetoapurestructural or
foundationmodeof vibration, thedampingshouldbeappropriatelymodifiedwhenit is
includedinaninteractionmode. It is, for instance, shownbyMoanet al. (1976) that the
contributionfromthestructural dampingratio(ȟ
s
) tothedampingratioȟ for thefirst modeof
asimpleflexibletower rockingonsoil
(5.39)
whereȦ andȦ
s
arethenatural frequenciesof atower onflexibleandrigidsoil, respectively.
Similarly, thedampingratio(ȟ
wet
) referredtoawet system(includingtheeffect of added
mass) canbeexpressedbythedampingratioof thestructure(ȟ
dry
) asfollows
(5.40)
wherem* andȦ* arethe(generalized) massandnatural frequencyof therelevant mode.
Stiffness isalsocontributedbythestructure, water andthesoil (rock). Linear elastic
structural modelsareusuallyapplied, except for possiblecatenarymooringlines. Water
providesbuoyancythat will influencethestiffnessof abridgesupportedbypontoons, but
wouldbenegligiblefor bottomsupportedplatforms. Thesoil isof importancefor bottom
supportedplatformsandmaybemodelledbyequivalent linear propertiesor byamorerefined
non-linear material model. Evenif soil stiffnesspropertiesarefrequencydependent thelow
frequencyof water loadingimpliesthat thedynamicstiffnessisclosetothestaticvalues.
Themass, dampingandstiffnesspropertiespresentedaboverefer toultimateandfatigue
limit statecriteria, basedprimarilyonlinear elasticglobal models. However, if predictionof
theultimateglobal capacityisrequiredinconnectiontosurvival checkinaccidental limit
states, modelsthat account moreproperlyfor non-linear effectsneedtobeapplied.
Under suchcircumstancesframedstructuresandpossiblepilesaremodelledwithbeam
elementsincludingstrainhardeningnon-linear material andgeometrical effects. Plasticity
mayefficientlybeincorporatedwithplastichinges. Pile—soil interactionmaybemodelledby
non-linear springelementsalongthepileswithcyclic(hysteric) behaviour. Structural
dampingfor elasticbehaviour andradiationdampinginthesoil shouldbeexplicitly
incorporated, whilehystericlossinthestructureandsoil areimplicitlyincludedbythismodel.
Further detailsabout thisnon-linear modellingmaybefoundinStewart (1992), Søreideand
Amdahl (1994), Hellan(1995), NadimandDahlberg(1996) andEmami Azadi (1998).
Page202
Inparticular theassessment of dampingandsoil stiffnessissusceptibletosignificant
uncertainties. Hence, in-servicemeasurementsareuseful tojustifytheassumptionsmadein
designanalyses. Hoenet al. (1991, 1993), for instance, showthat the(total) modal damping
ratiosareabout 2per cent for thefirst threemodesof gravityplatforms. Karunakaranet al.
(1997) foundtotal dampingratiosbetween0.6and1.5per cent for ajacket withnatural
periodsaround1sec. Thesereferencesalsoprovideinformationabout assumedversus
observedsoil stiffness.
5.4.2 Equations of motion
Equationsof motionmaybeformulatedinthetimeor frequencydomain(seee.g. Cloughand
Penzien(1993)). Thechoiceof formulationdependsespeciallyonpossible
Ɣ frequencydependence
Ɣ non-linearities
of thedynamicproperties. A fairlygeneral versionof thedynamicequationsof motion(inthe
timedomain) canbewritteninmatrixformintermsof thedisplacementsr andtheir time
derivatives Ě andĜ, asboththemassanddampingmatricesMandC arefunctionsof time:
(5.41)
Non-linearitiesinr, Ě andĜ areassumedtobesmall andaretreatedintheexcitationload, Q(·).
Theconvolutionintegralsareduetothepossiblefrequencydependenceof massanddamping
properties. For thecasewhenQ=Q(t), eqn(5.41) followsasaninverseFourier transformof
thefrequencydomainequation(5.45) givenlater. Themass, dampingandstiffnessmatrices
aremadeupbycontributionsfromthestructure(st), water (w) andsoil(s). Inthefrequency
domain, M, CandKare:
(5.42a)
(5.42b)
(5.42c)
Thecontributiontothestiffnessbywater isduetohydrostaticeffects.
SinceM(t) andC(t) ineqn(5.41) forIJ>t andIJ<0arezero, theintegrationlimit ( ,) in
that equationcouldbechangedto(0, t).
If thepropertiesarefrequencyindependent, eqn(5.41) takesonthewell knownform
(5.43)
whichismuchsimpler tosolve. Equation(5.43) will beareasonableapproximationif oneof
twoconditionsarefulfilled:
Page203
(1) theretardationtimefor massandfor dampingaresoshort that thetimedependent
propertiesareDiracdeltafunctions;
(2) theresponseisnarrow-banded.
Inpracticethefrequencydependent massanddampingpropertiesarechosentobethevalues
correspondingtothepeakfrequency Ȧ
p
of thewavespectral density. Langen(1981) found
that theerror intheresponseof floatingbridgesbyapproxi-matingmassanddampingbytheir
valuesat thewavespectral peakwaslessthan5to6per cent.
Theresultingequilibriumequation, eqn(5.43), iscommonlywritteninincremental form
for computational purposes:
(5.44)
whereM, C andK
I
aretheincremental mass, dampingandstiffnessmatricesvalidwithin
eachtimestep, AĜ(t), AĚ(t), Ar(t) andAQ(t) arethecorrespondingincrementsof response
acceleration, velocity, displacement andloadvector.
It hasbeenfoundconvenient tocast thedynamicequilibriumequationsinaformsuchthat
thecoefficientsontheleft handsidearekept constant andthenon-linearitiesaretransferredto
theright handside.
Non-linearitiesinloadprocesses(e.g. duetotherelativemotiontermof Morison’s
equationandvariationsinaddedmass) areconvenientlyhandledontheright handside, and
calculatedbyusingthestructural velocityintheprevioustimestep. Thisapproachis
acceptablewhenAt islessthan0.25sec, but maynot besoif larger timestepsareapplied.
Also, theeffect of non-linear springsduetoacatenarymooringsystemmaybehandledonthe
right handside. However, theaddedmasstermuptotheMWL, shouldbetreatedontheleft
handsideof theequation. Otherwise, manyiterationsmayberequiredtohaveconvergence,
or noconvergenceat all maybeexperienced.
TheNewmark methodandtimestepsAt=0.2–0.25arecommonlyusedtodetermine
loadeffectsinvolvingloadswithperiodswith3secor more(e.g. Langen, 1981; Mo, 1983;
Farnes, 1990; Karunakaran, 1993). Alternatively, animprovedNewmark method, theso-
calledĮ-HHT method(Hilber et al. 1978), isapplied. Equilibriumiterationsmaybenecessary
toprevent drift-off inthesolution.
If non-linear structural or pile—soil interactionsareincluded, therelevant partsof the
systemmatricesshouldbeupdated. A predictor—corrector approach, basedontheĮ-HHT
method, canbeadoptedtoprevent largedrift-off fromtheyieldsurfaceinelastoplastic
problems.
Analternativeapproachfor systemswithlinear andlinearizedsystemmatricesisthe
frequencydomainapproach, whichisveryefficient for representationof thefrequency
dependent massanddampingterms. Thetransformedequilibriumequationthenbecomes
(5.45)
whereQ(Ȧ, ), C(Ȧ) andM(Ȧ) aretheFourier transformsof thelinearizedversion
Page204
of thetimedomaincounterpartsineqn(5.41). Thefirst termmayberegardedasacomplex
transfer functionrelatingforceamplitudetowaveamplitudeȗ(Ȧ, ) for aharmonicwavewith
frequencyȦ andamainwavedirection .
5.4.3 Time domain analyses
TimeDomainAnalysis(TDA) isonlyof interest when, for example, non-linearitiesmakea
linearizedfrequencydomainapproachinaccurateor whenaFrequencyDomainApproach
(FDA) whichincorporatesthenon-linear featuresisverytimeconsuming. TheTDA isnot
attractivecomparedwiththeFDA whenthebehaviour islinear. Thisisbecauseit impliesa
samplinguncertaintywhichwill not bepresent intheFDA. Moreover, TDA ismoretime
consumingthantheFDA especiallywhenfrequencydependent dynamicpropertiesneedtobe
accountedfor accordingtoeqn(5.41). TDA maybeperformedwithdeterministicor
probabilisticmodelsof waveloading, asfurther discussedinSection5.4.5.
Thepresent discussionreferstoTDA of systemswithnon-linear behaviour subjectedto
stochasticloading. Ingeneral, theloadeffectsneedtobecalculatedfor all or representative
seastatesover alongtermperiodfor eachseastatedescribedbyawavespectrum(eqns
(5.19) and(5.20)). Equation(5.43) isthensolvedbyapplyinganumber of loadprocess
sampleswhicharegeneratedbyMonteCarlosimulation.
For short-crestedseas, thesea-elevationprocessat alocationx=[x
1
, x
2
]
T
canbe
approximatedbyadiscretesumas
(5.46)
wherea
ik
istheamplitudeof frequencycomponent i withdirection
k
; k
i
, isthewavenumber
correspondingtofrequencyȦ
i
. Thisamplitudeisheretakenasadeterministicvaluefromthe
autospectral densityandspreadingfunctionof agivenstate. Thefrequenciesanddirections
areequidistant betweenspecifiedupper andlower limits, whilethephaseangles İ
ik
are
independent andrandomwithauniformdistributionbetween0and2ʌ. Expression(5.46) is
effectivelyevaluatedbytheFFT technique(seee.g. Newland, 1984). Animprovedsimulation
procedure, especiallyfor problemswheresubharmonicsareof concern, maybeobtainedby
takinga
ik
asaRayleighdistributedvariableinȦ, withastandarddeviationof
.
Expressionssimilar toeqn(5.46) alsoholdfor water particlekinematics(i.e. velocityand
acceleration). Themodificationsrequiredareintroductionof aproper depthattenuationfactor
pertainingtoaspecificwavetheory. Furthermore, phaseshiftsof thecos(·) argument must be
introducedtoaccount for differentiationwithrespect totime. Thehydrodynamicforcetime
seriesarethenobtained(e.g. byapplicationof Morison’sequation). Theresponseiscomputed
inthefollowingmanner:
Page205
Ɣ generatetimeseriesfor thewavekinematicsat discretepointsalongthestructurebyFFT;
Ɣ calculatecorrespondingloadsbytheMorisonequation, andequivalent nodal forces;
Ɣ performstepbystepintegrationof dynamicequationsof motion, usingmethodsmentioned
inSection5.4.2.
Finally, havingobtainedtheresponsehistories, andproperlyeliminatedspuriousstart
transients, statistical inferenceandestimationof relevant responsequantities(variances,
extremes) canbecarriedout. Filteringof theresponsemaybeconsideredespeciallyincases
wherethewaveloadingcausesacombinationof steady-stateandtransient response, andthe
transient part isdeterministicwhenit hasbeeninitiated.
Limitedsamplingsizeintroducesuncertainties, whichmaybequitesignificant for extreme
values. It isparticularlynecessarytoextrapolatefromalimitedsamplesize(say, half anhour)
toextremevaluesinashort-termperiodof, say, 3–6hours. Theoretical resultsareavailable
for thedistributionof individual responsemaximaof singlecylinderswithstaticresponseto
non-linear loadsassociatedwithdragforcesandsurfaceelevation(e.g. Brouwersand
Verbeek, 1983). For multi-DOF systemswithdynamicbehaviour onlyempirical studiesof
best fit canbemade. A three-parameter Weibull distributionor aWeibull tail method(seee.g.
Farnes, 1990) or Hermitemodels(seee.g. Winterstein, 1988) arefrequentlyappliedfor this
purpose.
5.4.4 Frequency domain analysis
FDAsoutlinedinthefollowingarebasedonlinearizationof thesystemmodel. Likethe
surfaceelevationvariation, loadeffect processesarethenimplicitlyassumedtobeGaussian.
Thedistributionof individual peaksor stressranges, andexpectedmaximainagivenshort
termperiodmaythenbeachievedfor singleresponsequantitiesaccordingtowell known
theory, seeChapter 10. Parameters, suchasvarianceandspectral width, canbeobtainedfrom
theresponsespectrumS
r
(Ȧ) for theresponser ineqn(5.45).
Theresponsespectral densitymatrixS
r
of theresponsevector r maybeobtainedas
(5.47)
where isthetransposeof thecomplexconjugateof
H(Ȧ) andS
Q
(Ȧ) istheloadspectral densitymatrix S
Q
(5.48)
wherethehydrodynamic‘quasi’-transfer functionF(Ȧ) is:
(5.49)
Page206
andS
ȗ
(Ȧ) is the autospectral density oI the sea elevation. F(Ȧ) isobtainedbyintegratingthe
hydrodynamicloadintensityover pairsof finiteelementstoproducepairsof nodal forcesand
addingthemtotheglobal spectrummatrix.
Havingestablishedresponsespectral densities, thecorrespondingvariances () are
computedbyintegrationover thefrequencyrange. Thevarianceof aloadeffect s whichisa
linear combinationof r
i
andr
j
inther vector is
(5.50)
(5.51)
where
(5.52a,
b)
5.4.5 Environmental load models for design calculations
A completedescriptionof thedynamicloadeffect x under waveloadingmaybeobtainedby
accountingbothfor short termvariationof waveloadingbasedontheGaussianrepresentation
of thewaveprocesswithameandirection aswell asfor longtermvariability(e.g. interms
of thejoint densityfunction of H
m0
, T
p
, ) andpossiblyother sea-state
parameters.
ThelongtermdistributionfunctionF
x
(x) of x maybeobtainedbythetotal probability
theoremas
(5.53)
where istheconditional distributionfunctionfor individual maximafor a
givenseastate; w(h, t) isaweight functionthat accountsfor thefact that thenumber of
maximaper timeunit varyandmaybeapproximatedbytheexact formulafor narrowband
response:
(5.54)
wherev
+
(h, t, ) isthezeroupcrossingfrequencyinagivenseastate. Byintroducingthe
weight function, theprobabilitydistributionfunctionF
x
(x) isdefinedasthenumber of
maximalessthanx dividedbythetotal number of maxima.
Inpracticeeqn(5.54) iscalculatedbyusingadiscreteset of seastatesanddirections.
Extremevaluetheorycanthenbeappliedtodeterminethecharacteristicsof themaximumin
a100year (with, say, N=5×10
8
maxima) or anyother referenceperiod.
Insomecaseswewouldneedtoknowthejoint probabilisticcharacteristicsof several
randomresponsevariablesx. For instance, thestrengthcheckof asteel member subjectedto
anaxial loadN=x
1
andabendingmoment M=x
2
isac-complishedwithanon-linear
interactionformula, for instance, of thetype:
(5.55)
Page207
whereN
u
andM
u
aretheultimatestrengthunder pureaxial forceandbendingmoment,
respectively. N
E
istheEuler bucklingload.
Theextremevaluesrequiredfor adesigncheckcanthenmost convenientlybebasedonthe
short-termstatisticsof individual maximaof theprocessI(x
1
, x
2
) obtainedbysimulation(see
VideiroandMoan, 1999).
Obviously, thelong-termapproachdescribedbyeqn(5.53) involvessubstantial effort when
significant non-linearitiesneedtobeconsideredandalternativeprobabilisticloadmodels
thereforeneedtobeused. Extremeloadeffectswith, say, anannual exceedanceprobabilityof
10í
2
maybeestimatedbasedonalimitedset of seastates.
Theoverall aimof thedesignseastateconcept istoestimateload(effects) correspondingto
aprescribedannual exceedanceprobability(e.g. 10í
2
or 10í
4
) without havingtocarryout a
full long-termresponseanalysis.
Anappropriateformulationof thedesignseastateconcept istousecombinationof
significant waveheight andspectral peakperiodlocatedalonganiso-probabilitydensity
curveof fH
m0Tp
(h, t), denotedacontour lineintheH
m0
andT
p
plane. Suchcontour linescanbe
establishedindifferent ways. Thesimplest waytoestablishthe10í
2
contour line, isfirst, to
estimatethe10í
2
valueof H
m0
together withtheconditional meanof T
p
. Thecontour lineis
thenestimatedfromthejoint model of H
m0
andT
p
asthecontour of constant probability
densitygoingthroughtheabovementionedparameter combination. Alternativeapproachesto
obtainthecontour linearedescribedbyHaver et al. (1998). Anestimateof the10í
2
action
effect isthenobtainedbydeterminingaproper extremevaluefor all seastatesalongthe
contour lineandtakingthemaximumof thesevalues.
If contour linesareused, thevariabilityof theshort-termextremevalueneedstobe
artificiallyaccountedfor toobtainaproper long-termextremevalue. Thismaybeachievedin
alternativeways, for example, bymultiplyingtheexpectedmaximumloadeffect calculated
for agivenseastatewithapredeterminedfactor, typicallyintherangeof 1.1to1.3, or by
calculatingtheloadeffect asapredetermined, highfractilevalue, typically90per cent (see
NORSOK N-003, 1999). Contour linemethods, therefore, wouldhavetobecalibrated.
Alternatively, linearizedanalysesmayfirst beappliedtoidentifytherangeof seastatesthat
contributetotheextremevalue. Then, thecompletenon-linear short-termapproachisusedto
determinetheexpectedmaximumfor relevant seastatestoobtainthelargest one, whichis
takentobethedesiredextremevalue.
Insteadof usingadesignseastate, adesignwavespecifiedbythewaveheight H, thewave
periodT anddirectionmaybeusedtodeterminetheextremeloadeffect. Loadeffectswith,
for example, annual exceedanceprobabilityof 10í
2
canbedeterminedinasimplified,
conservativemanner bythedesignwaveapproachfor preliminarydesignof fixedplatforms
(NORSOK N-003, 1999). For fixedplatformswithstaticbehaviour, maximumactioneffects
occur for thehighest waves. Therelevant waveheight H
100
isthentakentobethat withthe
10í
2
exceedanceprobability. H
100
maybetakentobe1.9timesthesignificant waveheight
H
m0
, correspondingtoanannual exceedanceprobabilityof 10
í2
, asobtainedfromlong-term
statistics, whenthedurationof theseastateis3hours.
Page208
TheperiodT usedinconjunctionwithH
100
shouldbevariedinthefollowingrange:
Thedesignwavetobeusedindetaileddesignfor platformsinarelevant areashouldbe
establishedbyspecial studies. If dynamiceffectsaremoderate, theycanbetakenintoaccount
byapplyingequivalent inertialoadscalibratedbystochasticanalyses, asdiscussedinSection
5.5.2.
5.4.6 Stress ranges for fatigue design check
Therepetitiveloadeffectsfor fatiguelimit statesof weldedstructuresaredescribedbythe
distributionof stressranges, S (seee.g. Almar-Næss, 1985). For basic(rolled, cast) material
thejoint distributionof meanstressandstressrangeisalsorequired. Thestressmaybe
expressedbyanominal hot spot or hot spot notchvalue. Thelatter stressincludesthenotch
effect of weldgeometry. Thefatiguestrengthisdescribedbythenumber, N, of stressranges,
S
,
tofailure(SN). It iscrucial that theSN-curvesappliedarebasedonstressesthat aredefined
inaconsistent manner.
Fatiguedesignrequiresadescriptionof thelongtermvariationof local stressesdueto
wave—aswell aspossiblesum-frequencywaveactions, variablebuoyancy, slamming—or
current-inducedvortexshedding. Theeffect of local (pressure) andglobal actionsmust be
properlyaccountedfor.
A simpleexpressionfor cumulativedamagecanbeobtainedbyassumingthat theSN-curve
isdefinedbyNS
m
=K andthenumbern(s) of stressrangesisgivenbyaWeibull distribution
(5.56)
wheren
0
=number of cyclesasdefinedinrelationtothestressranges
0
, isthe
scaleparameter (P[S•s
0
]=1/n
0
) andȖ istheshapeparameter
ThedamageD inaperiodIJ withn
IJ
cyclesisthen
(5.57)
Equations(5.56), (5.57) canbeusedtoexpressthecumulativedamageinalong-termperiodIJ
intwoways, namelybyapplyingeqn(5.57) inconjunctionwiththestressrangedistribution
for
Ɣ eachseastateseparatelyandsummingupthecontributionstothelong-termD;
Ɣ thelong-termperiodanddeterminingD directly.
Thenarrow-bandresponseinasingleseastate(i) canbedescribedbyaRayleighdistribution
whenthestressistakentobetwicetheamplitude. Thiscorrespondstoa
Page209
Weibull distributionwithȖ=2andisthe varianceof theresponse). Inalong-term
periodIJ, thenumber of (narrow-band) cyclesassociatedwithseastatei, isn
i
=IJp
i
v
i
, wherep
i
isthelong-termprobabilityandthenumber of cyclesper timeunit, respectively, of thissea
state. HencethecumulativedamageinIJ is
(5.58)
whereȡ
i
isacorrectionfactor toaccount for wide-bandand/or non-Gaussianloadeffects.
Stressrangesduetowide-bandGaussianor non-Gaussianresponseprocessesshouldbe
determinedbyanappropriatemethodof cyclecounting(e.g. therainflowmethod, seechapter
4of Almar-Næss, 1985). Simple, conservativemethodsfor combininghighandlow
frequencyresponsesmaybeapplied. Fatiguedamagemaybecalculatedbyassumingthat the
number of cyclesisdeterminedbythezero-upcrossingfrequencyandthat thedistributionof
stressrangesfollowaRayleighdistribution. WirschingandLight (1980) establishedan
empirical correctiontothefatiguedamagedeterminedbythenarrow-bandassumption.
Extensiveevaluationsof variousempirical, closedformmethodsfor correct-ingthefatigue
damageobtainedbythenarrow-bandapproach, showthat Dirlik’s(1985) methodyieldsthe
best estimates. J iaoandMoan(1990) analyticallyderivedacorrectionfactor whichyields
reasonableestimates.
Leiraet al. (1990) demonstratethat accuratefatigueestimatescanbeobtainedfor cases
withnon-linear effectsbyestablishingaquasi-transfer functionH(Ȧ) that isusedtocalculate
theresponsefor all seastates, andisdefinedby isobtainedby
calculatingS
x
(Ȧ) usingtimedomainsamplesof responsefor aseastatewithspectral density
Sȗ(Ȧ). Thesignificant waveheight of thisseastateisgivenby
(5.59)
wheremistheexponent intheSN-curve, p
i
istherelativefrequencyof aseastatenumber i
andw
i
isaweight function Davbeingtheaveragediameter of
loadedstructural members. Evenif thestatistical uncertaintyislessfor theresponserelevant
tofatiguethanfor extremeresponse, asufficient sampletolimit thisuncertaintyshouldbe
used. TheloadeffectsaredescribedbyaWeibull fit tothestressrangedistribution. The
locationandscaleparametersareexpressedbythestandarddeviation(FarnesandMoan,
1994). Hence, therelevant locationandscaleparametersfor other seastatescanbeobtained
whenthevarianceisdeterminedfromthefrequencydomainresults.
Equation(5.57) appliedfor aperiodIJ withn
IJ
=n
0
cyclesisconvenient asabasisfor
discussingthesensitivityof fatiguedamagetovariousparameters. Theshapefactor Ȗ of the
Weibull distributionthendependsonenvironmental conditions,
Page210
relativemagnitudeof dragandinertiaforcesandpossibledynamicamplification. For aquasi-
staticresponseinanextratropical climate, liketheNorthSeawith‘continuous’ storms, Ȗ may
bearound1.0whileȖ may beaslowas0.4–0.6for Gulf of Mexicoplatformssubject to
infrequent hurricanes(Marshall andLuyties, 1982). For structureswithpredominantlydrag
forces, Ȗ will besmaller thanfor predominantlyinertiaforces. Note, for instance, that if u is
Rayleighdistributed, F
1
=c
1
u
2
will followanexponential distribution(Ȗ=1), whilefor F
2
=C
2
u,
u will beRayleighdistributed(Ȗ=2).
Dynamiceffectsmaystart toaffect loadeffectsrelevant for fatiguewhenthenatural period
exceeds2.0sec. Asillustratedby Marshall andLuyties(1982), increasingthenatural period
from2secto4sec, may, for example, increaseȖ from0.7to1.1andfrom0.9to1.3for Gulf
of MexicoandNorthSeastructures, respectively. Theimplicationisafactor of theorder of
10onfatiguedamage. Odland(1982) indicatedsimilar resultsfor jack-upplatforms.
Thestressrangelevel that contributesmost to Dcorrespondstothevaluethat yieldsthe
maximumfatiguedamagedDthat isproportional tof
s
(s)s
m
. Thisstressrangeisfoundtobe
, implyingthat fatiguedamageisprimarilycausedbystress
rangeswhichtypicallyareof theorder of 10to20per cent of s
0
.
5.5 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR DESIGN
5.5.1 Dynamic features of offshore platforms
Thedynamicbehaviour of platformsmaybeillustratedbyconsideringtwoSDOF models
withreferenceto Figure5.11. Inbothmodelstheloadingisassumedtobeproportional tothe
waveparticleaccelerationandhencewrittenas:
(5.60)
wheretheco-ordinatez' referstotheseabedlevel andthemassconsistsof adeckmass M and
auniformlydistributedmassm.
Otherwise, thetwomodelshavethefollowingproperties:
PlatformA (fixedplatform) PlatformB (compliant tower)
Stiffness Soil kȥ Uniformbuoyancy
Damping Soil cȥ anduniformdamper c Uniformdamper c
Model A will typically have a natural Irequency above Ȧ while the natural Irequency Ior
Model B isbelowȦ. Thedynamicequationof equilibriumfor thisstickmodel isestablished
byassumingthat themotionisarotationȥ about thesupport ontheseabed. Thehorizontal
displacement isthen Theequationof dynamicequilibriumisobtainedbymoment
considerationandresultsinaSDOF versionof eqn(5.43).
Page211
Basedonthesolutionof eqn(5.43), withtheintegratedexcitationforce , the
relativemagnitudeof generalizedforces: inertia, dampingandelastic/restoringforce
comparedwiththeexcitationforcecanbecalculated.
whereİ isthephaseangleand
Frequencyratio: (whereȦ isthenatural frequency)
Theratioof themaximumvaluesof eachforcecomponent isthen:
whereQ
0
, Q
I0
,Q
D0
andQ
s0
denotetheamplitudeof theforces Q(excitationforce), Q
I
, Q
D
and
Q
s
, respectively.
Byassumingafrequencyratioof, say, and2.0–3.0for platformsA andB,
respectivelyandadampingratioof and0.05, it isevident that elasticforcesare
predominant andbalanceexcitationandinertiaforcesinplatformA, whilethedynamic
equilibriumfor platformB isachievedbyinertiaforcesthat balanceexcitationforcesand
elasticforcesasillustratedinFigure5.12.
TheexcitationandreactionforcesinplatformB yieldasignificantlysmaller shear force
andbendingmoment inthecolumnthantheydoinplatformA. It isnotedinthisconnection
that if theexcitationforcefor platformB isbalancedbytheinertiaforceinthedeckonly, the
bendingactionduetoexcitationforceswill essentiallybeasfor acolumnsimplysupportedat
bothends; thisbehaviour isillustratedinBlazy et al. (1971). Ontheother hand, themotions
of platformB aremuchgreater thanthosefor platformA.
Variouslayoutsof offshoreplatformsareenvisaged. In Figure5.13thebasictypesof
offshoreplatformaredisplayed. Typical natural periodsfor thestructuresareindicatedin
Figure5.2. Asacantilever beam, thefixedtower will experienceasignificant overturning
moment andshear forceduetowaves. Also, thefundamental natural periodof vibration
increaseswithincreasingwater depthandapproachestherangeof waveperiodsassociated
withsignificant energy. Thisfact impliesthat theresponsewill bedynamicallyamplifiedto
anincreasingextent withincreasingwater depth. A better platformdesignfor deepwater is,
therefore, tostiffenthetower asshowninFigure5.13by‘rigid’ inclinedmembers(which
formatriangular truss). Thebendingmoment inthecentral columnwill thenbereduced, as
thetower essentiallybecomesabeamsupportedat bothends. However, theinclinedmembers
alsoneedtobesizedadequately. Sincethesemembersaresubject tosignificant lateral loads,
thedesignmaynot beverycost-effectiveafter all. A modified
Page212
Figure 5.12 Schematicillustrationof dynamicequilibrium.
tower maythenbeacompromise(seeFigure5.13). Themaximummoment inthecentral
tower issignificantlyreduced, andthe‘truss’ islessexposedtolateral loads, whenit is
locatedat alarger water depth.
Analternativeapproachwouldbetosupport thetower bycatenarymooring(e.g. asinthe
guyedtower). Themaintower isthenlet freetorotateontheseafloor andthelowrestoring
forceprovidedbycatenarymooringmakesthetower compliant (i.e. it followsthewave
motion). Thisisastructurewhereexcitationforcesarebalancedprimarilybyinertiaforcesas
ȕ wouldbelarger than1.0(similar toplatformB inFigure5.12). Theshear forces(and
moments) alongthetower becomesmall becausethedominant forces q
w
andq
I
(seeFigure
5.13) counteract eachother.
Catenarymooringmaybepartiallyor fullyreplacedbybuoyancy, whichtypicallyis
locatedintheupper part of theplatform. Buoyancycontributesstiffness, massandadded
massandexcitationforces. Thebuoyancytank will commonlyresult inanincreased
fundamental natural period. Thelocationof thebuoyancytankshouldbechosensothat the
natural periodof thesecond(flexural) mode(Figure5.14) isnot increasedandthat excitation
forcesfor thismodearenot increased.
Theglobal flexibilityof guyedandarticulatedtowersareachievedbypivotingthebaseof
thestructure. Inlargewater depthsit maybepossibletodesignatower structuretobepiledto
theseabedandyet withsufficient bendingflexibilitytohavethefundamental natural period,
say, above30sec. Suchplatformsarecalledflexibletowers(seee.g. Mauset al. 1996).
Yet another alternativewouldbetouseaTLP, whichbehaveslikeapendulumwhere
gravityisreplacedbybuoyancy. Their vertical mooringelements(tethers) arekept
pretensionedbyprovidingexcessivebuoyancyinthehull. Thelinearizedstiffnessfor
horizontal andvertical motionof aTLP isT/l andEA/l·ȡgA
w
, respectively. T andEA arethe
total pretensionandaxial stiffnessof thetethers, respectivelyandA
w
isthewater planearea.
Thecorrespondingnatural periods
Page213
Figure 5.13 Plateformconcepts.
Page214
Figure 5.14 First twomodesof vibrationof compliant tower.
areaboveandbelowthoseof waveperiods. Hence, theforcesareinertiadominatedinthe
horizontal directionandstiffnessdominatedinthevertical direction.
Fromtheabovediscussion, it followsthat wave-inducedforcesaresmaller incompliant
structuresthanstructures‘rigidly’ connectedtotheseafloor. Ontheother hand, the
displacements/motionsarelarger incompliant platforms. Whilemaximumdisplacementsin
extremeseasfor ‘fixed’ platformsmaybe0.5–1.0m, theyareof theorder of thewave
amplitudefor compliant structures. Thisfact implies that thepipes(risers) fromthedeckof
compliant platformstotheseafloor andsubsoil reservoir must becarefullydesignedtoavoid
excessivestressesimposedbydeformations.
It shouldbenotedthat windforcesmaycontributesignificantlytothemotionsof
(compliant) platformswithfundamental natural periodsof 30secor more. Sincethewind
velocityspectrumcontainsenergyinthisrangeof periods, dynamicwindeffectswouldalso
normallybeof importancefor suchplatforms. For compliant towerswindloadsmayalso
affect structural forces.
Amongthedynamicfeaturesdiscussedearlier inthissection, thenatural periodis
particularlyimportant. It isclearlydesirablethat natural periodsfor fixedplatformsareas
small aspossible, whilethenatural periodassociatedwith‘rigidbody’ modesandflexural
modesof thecompliant towers(guyedtower, articulatedtowers, buoyant tower, flexible
tower, etc.) shouldbeashighandlowaspossible, respectively. Duringdesigntheaimis
normallytokeepnatural periodsoutsidetherangeof 5to30sec. Thismaybedifficult,
especiallyfor flexural modes. If natural periodsthenexceed5sec, it isparticularlyimportant
toreduceglobal waveloadsinthisrangeof periods.
Sincetheintensityof waveloads(e.g. accordingtoMorison’sequation) islargest inthe
surfacezonewhereparticleaccelerationsandvelocitiesarelargest, theloadsandloadeffect
maybeminimizedbymakingthestructureinthe‘splashzone’ aswavetransparent as
possible. Moreover, thephaselag, for example, betweenthewaveloadsonvariousvertical
memberscanbeutilizedtoachievecancellationof
Page215
thetotal waveloads. For instance, for aregular waveof lengthȜ cancellationoccursfor
memberswithadistanceȜ/2. For identical vertical memberswithadistanceof 40m,
completewaveforcecancellationindeepwater thenwouldoccur for awavelengthof 80m,
or awaveperiodof 7.2sec. Thismeansthat it ispossibletoobtainaverybeneficial
cancellationof forcesfor waveswithaperiodclosetothenatural periodof flexural vibration.
5.5.2 Calculation of extreme load effects for ULS check
Moderndesigncodesrequireenvironmental designloadeffectstobedeterminedbasedon
characteristicloadswhichcorrespondtoanannual exceedanceprobabilityof, say, 10
í2
and
appropriateloadfactors(API, 1993/1997; NORSOK N-003, 1999), usingappropriatemodels
of sealoading, structureandsoil. Modelsof different refinement areusedat different design
stages—conceptual, pre-engineeringanddetailedengineering—withabalanceof probabilistic
andmechanicsfeatures.
Thesimpleglobal behaviour (like‘stick’ modelsof platforms) usedinearlydesignphases
arerefinedtowardsdetaileddesign. At thisstageadetailedfiniteelement model (Figure5.15)
of thestructureisrequiredtodeterminetherelevant loadeffectsfor eachstructural
component.
Designanalysesfor fixedplatforms, likejackets, gravityplatformsandjack-upsare
commonlybasedonaregular (design) wave. Whendynamiceffectsareof concern, an
improvedmodel—recognizingthestochasticfeaturesof waves—isnecessary. It isthen
important toensurethat therefinedmodel isproperlybasedoncurrent designpractice. This
means, for instance, that astochastic analysisapproachshouldbeconsistent withthedesign
waveapproachfor structureswithquasi-staticbehaviour. Moreover, dynamiceffectsshould
preferablybeconsideredbytheir additional forcesascomparedwiththeir quasi-staticones.
Toillustratethesetwoissuesconsider waveloadeffectsobtainedfor athree-leggedjack-up
platform(Karunakaranet al., 1994). Withtypical member diametersintherangeof 0.15to
0.8m, dragforcespredominateinextremeseastates. (Thisfact isobservedinTable5.1which
showsthat loadeffectsareproportional toC
D
.)
Thestructural dampingwastakentobe2per cent andhydrodynamicdragdampingwas
includedbytherelativevelocityterm. A non-linear soil-structuremodel for thespudcan
foundationwasused. Thefirst natural periodis5.7secat extremeloadlevels. Instochastic
analyses C
D
andC
M
weretakentobe1.0and2.0, respectively. C
D
for thedesignwaveis0.7.
A Gaussianandnon-Gaussianmodel for surfaceelevationareconsidered. Thenon-Gaussian
model isbasedonasecondorder Stokesexpansion. ThekinematicsisbasedontheWheeler
modification. Theregular designwaveismodelledbyaStokesfifthorder theory.
TheresultsinTable5.1showthat thequasi-staticanddynamicloadeffectsincreaseby
introducingsecondorder (non-Gaussian) waves.
Thecomparisonbetweenquasi-staticloadeffectsobtainedbythestochastictimedomain
andadesignwaveapproach(intermsof thefactor R
QS
) showstheimportanceof consistent
definitionof thetotal procedurefor calculatingloadeffects. In
Page216
Figure 5.15 Finiteelement moddel of offshorestructures.
Page217
Table 5.1 Extremeloadeffectsinthree-leggedNorthSeajack-upinaseastatewithH
m0
=14.8mand
T
P
=16sec, anddesignwaveof H=27mandT=14.5sec(Karunakarenet al., 1994).
Load effect a
Base shear Overtuning moment Deck displacement
R
QS
DAF R
QS
DAF R
QS
DAF
C
D
=1.0intimedomainanalysis:
Gaussianwaves 1.07 1.14 1.04 1.29 1.04 1.25
Non-Gaussianwaves 1.26 1.13 1.33 1.24 1.33 1.20
C
D
=0.7intimedomainanalysis:
Gaussianwaves 0.76 1.14 0.74 1.29 0.74 1.25
Non-Gaussianwaves 0.92 1.13 0.96 1.24 0.95 1.20
a
For eachloadeffect twocharacteristicsaregiven:
(1) theratioR
QS
of theexpectedmaximumloadeffect obtainedbystochasticanalysisandtheloadeffect
obtainedbydesignwaveapproachwithnodynamicsaccountedfor;
(2) DAF obtainedastheratioof theexpectedmaximumloadeffect obtainedinstochasticanalysisbasedona
dynamicandquasi-staticmodel, respectively.
particular, atimedomainstochasticapproachbasedonWheeler kinematicsandC
D
=1.0is
seentoyieldslightlylarger loadeffectsthanthedesignwaveapproachthat hasbeen
commonlyused. A C
D
of 0.8usedinconjunctionwiththesecondorder theorywouldyield
similar results.
Dynamiceffectsaremeasuredbydynamicamplificationfactors. Dynamiceffectscanthen
beaccommodatedintheloadeffectsusedfor designby:
Ɣ astochasticdynamicanalysisbasedonarefineddynamicmodel;
Ɣ astochasticanalysisbasedonasimplifieddynamicmodel tocalibrateinertialoadingtobe
usedwitharefinedstructural model
Thedirect calculationof extremedynamicloadeffectsisbasedonthemethodsoutlinedin
Section5.4. Todeterminedesignvaluesof loadeffects, loadfactorsȜQaregenerallyapplied
onloadswhile‘expectedvalue’ of mass, dampingandstiffnesspropertiesareapplied(e.g.
ISO2394, 1998). ThisapproachcausesaproblemwhentheMorisonequationwiththe
relativevelocityformulation(eqn5.31) isused. Thistermimpliesbothanexcitationanda
dampingterm. Applicationof loadfactorsgreater than1.0ontherelativevelocitytermwill
thenimplicitlyincreasethedampingbeyondits‘expectedvalue’. Thisproblemcanobviously
beresolvedbyapplyingtheloadfactor ȜQonloadeffectsrather thanonloads.
Asanalternativetothisdirect determinationof stochasticdynamicloadeffectsusingthe
relevant refineddynamicmodel, asimplifieddynamicmodel maybeusedtoexpressthe
dynamiceffectsbyequivalent inertiaforces. A relevant model for atower-typeplatformmay
thenbeasimplestickmodel torepresent themass, stiffnessanddampingproperties. However,
it isimportant todeterminetheloadsbyproperlyincludingthephaselagondifferent
components. For thisreasonit is
Page218
convenient toincludeelementsinthemodel whichareonlyusedtointroduceloadsproperly.
Thiskindof model isindicatedfor theguyedtower inFigure5.15. Thefirst stepisto
determinetheDAF, astheratiobetweenthedynamicextremeresponseandthequasi-static
extremeresponse. It isimportant todeterminetheseresponsesfor representativeseastates,
andtoperformtimedomainsimulationssuchthat statistical uncertaintiesdonot affect the
resultstoomuch(Karunakaranet al., 1993). Dynamicamplificationwill varyalongthe
structure. For ajacket withafundamental natural periodof about 4sec, theDAF for the
overall bendingmoment mayvarybetween1.2and2.5fromtheseabeduptothemeanwater
level. Inparticular, thequasi-staticbendingmoment inducedbywaveloadsinthestructure
abovetheseasurfaceiszero. Thedynamicamplificationfactor DAF=M
dyn
/M
stat
, for that part
of theplatformwill actuallybeinfinitelylarge(seemoment diagramindicatedfor thesample
tower inFigure5.13).
Thedynamiceffectsaretherefore, ingeneral, most convenientlysimulatedbyapplying
inertialoads(mass×accelerations) onthedeckandtower structuremasses. Sincethemasses
aregiven, theaccelerationfieldistunedsuchthat theDAF for thebaseshear andoverturning
moment arefairlyaccuratelyrepresentedfor theextremewavecondition.
Obviously, themethodoutlinedinthissectionisexpectedtoyieldaccurateestimateswhen
thedynamicresponseisdominatedbyasinglemode, theresponseisnarrow-bandedandthe
dynamicresponseisassociatedwithwaveperiodswell separatedfromthosethat causequasi-
staticresponse. Thisapproachis, for instance, adoptedindesignapproachesfor jack-ups
(SNAME, 1994).
Thebehaviour of compliant towersismorecomplexsincedynamiccontributionsstem
fromtwomodes, withnatural periodsoneither sideof thedominant waveexcitationperiod.
Thismeansthat theinertiaforcesinthefirst modebalanceexcitationforceswhiletheinertia
forcesinthesecondmodeaddtotheexcitation. However, Vugts et al. (1997) showthat fairly
accurateresultscanbeobtainedbycalibratingaquasi-staticapproachwithinertialoadsfor
thiskindof platformsaswell.
Themagnitudeof theloadfactor shouldreflect uncertaintiesinvolvedinthedetermination
of loadeffects(seee.g. Moan, 1995). It isnotedthat steady-statewave-induceddragloads
normallyaresubject tomoreuncertaintythaninertialoads. Thisisbecausethedragforceis
moreempirical innatureandalsobecauseit ismorecriticallydependent onthekinematics
model for thesplashzone. Nodesigncodecurrently reflectsthisdifferenceinuncertainty
level byloadfactorsdependent ontherelativemagnitudeof dragandinertiaforces.
Ringingandother higher order waveloadsaresubject toevenlarger uncertainties.
Uncertaintiesassociatedwithlackof knowledgeareoftencompensatedbyusingconservative
approaches. Actuallyloadmodel uncertaintiesmaybesolargethat experimentsarerequired
todeterminethecharacteristicloadeffects, asdiscussedinSection5.5.5.
Whentheinertiaanddampingforcesareinducedbytheloading, uncertaintiesassociated
withthesereactionforcesaddtothoseintheexcitationforces. Whendynamiceffectsare
representedbyanequivalent inertial loadpatternasmentioned
Page219
above, uncertaintiesmayaddtothoseinthewaveloadsthemselves. Themainsourceof
uncertaintyisassociatedwithdamping. API (RP2A-LRFDAPI, 1993) specifiesanadditional
load Iactor Ȗ
D
oninertiaforces, beforetheloadfactor Ȗ=1.35for waveloadsisappliedonthe
excitationforcesandfactoredinertial forces. Thetotal loadfactor ondynamicload
contributionsisthereforeabout 1.7. Thisfactor wasdetermined(Moses, 1985) basedonan
estimateof theadditional uncertaintyassociatedwithdynamicloads. Thisapproachislimited
tojackets. Noother codesfor jackets, jack-upsandother fixedplatformsincludethiskindof
additional loadfactor Ȗ
D
. It isimportant toconsider theloadfactor Ȗ
D
inviewof thepossible
conservatismbuilt intotheprocedureusedtoestimateloadeffects, andespeciallythe
dampingmodel assumed. Extremedynamicloadeffectsinfixedplatformsaresensitiveto
equivalent dampingvaluesbelow1.0per cent of thecritical value(Karunakaran, 1993). By
conservativeestimateof thedampinginthat range, noadditional loadfactor wouldbe
required. If theequivalent dampingismorethan1per cent, thesensitivitytodampingisso
small that noȖ
D
isrequireddespitethelargeuncertaintyinestimatingthedampingratio. This
isoftenthecaseinpractice.
5.5.3 Calculation of stress ranges for FLS check
FatiguedesigniscommonlybasedonresistancedataspecifiedbySN-curves. Inspecial cases,
fracturemechanicsapproachesmaybeapplied. Stressrangesarebasedonexpectedlong-term
distributionsof stressranges, without anyloadfactor. Moreover, thedesigncriterionisbased
onlinear cumulativedamage, suchastheMiner—Palmgrenlaw, typicallyallowingdamage
intherangeof 0.1to1.0. Thesignificant uncertaintiesinfatigueloadsandresistanceimplya
highfailureprobability. Acceptablesafetyishenceensuredbyaproper inspection,
maintenanceandrepair strategy. For thisreasonsimplifieddesignanalysesmayalsobe
justified.
Fatigueestimatesmaybebasedonalternativeapproaches—inahierarchyof procedures
withincreasingaccuracyandcomplexity. Here, threemainalternativesareconsidered:
Ɣ Assumethat stressrangesfollowatwo-parameter Weibull distribution, obtainedby
estimatings
0
correspondingtoanexceedanceprobabilityof 1/n
0
; andassumeȖ accordingto
guidance—includingtheeffect of dynamics—mentionedinSection5.4.6. Calculationof s
0
andselectionof Ȝ obviouslyneedtobeconservative.
Ɣ FDA for eachseastate(i) todetermineresponsevarianceandassumenarrowbandresponse,
implyingRayleighdistributionof stressranges. Moderatenon-linearities maybeaccounted
for bydeterminingaquasi-transfer functionbasedontimedomainanalysis, or another
linearizationapproach. Factorsmaybeintroducedtocorrect for widebandor non-Gaussian
response.
Ɣ TDA combinedwithrainflowcountingof cyclesfor arepresentativeset of seastatesthat
arefound(e.g. byfrequencydomainanalysis) tocontributemost tothefatiguedamage.
Page220
Screeninginorder toidentifyjointswithhighdynamicstressesandstressconcentration,
whichrequiremoredetailedfatigueanalyses, maybeundertakenbyusingthefirst approach.
s
0
maybebasedonthenominal member stressfor theextremeevent andanappropriatestress
concentrationfactor, andtheshapeparameter Ȗ couldbeobtainedbygeneral guidance.
Detailedfatigueanalysesshouldbeperformedusingconservativedeterministicmethodsor
frequencydomaintechniquesand, inparticular situations, byTDA. Stochasticapproaches
shouldbeappliedfor dynamicsensitivestructures. For linear systems, frequencydomain
techniquesareefficient.
Morecompletetimedomainapproachesmayespeciallybenecessaryincaseof strongnon-
linearities(e.g. associatedwithlocal splashzonebehaviour), at least tocalibratesimpler
methods.
5.5.4 Non-linear system assessment for ultimate or accidental limit states
Current ultimatestrengthcodechecksof marinestructuresarecommonlybasedonload
effects(member andjoint forces) that areobtainedbyalinear global analysis while
resistancesof themembersandjointsareobtainedbyexperimentsor theorywhichaccount
for plasticityandlargedeflection. Thismethodologythenfocusesonthefirst failureof a
structural component andnot theoverall collapseof thestructure, whichisof mainconcernin
viewof thefailureconsequences. Theadvent of computer technologyandthefiniteelement
methodhavemadeit possibletodevelopanalysistoolsthat includesecondorder geometrical
andplasticityeffectsandtoaccount for possibleredistributionof theforcesandsubsequent
component failuresuntil thesystem’scollapse.
Ultimatestrengthanalysisaimsat providingamorerealisticmeasureof theoverall strength
of aplatform, byusingmethodstoaccount for global andinelasticfeatures(e.g. torepresent
redistributionof loadstoalternativepaths).
Initiallysuchmethodsweredevelopedfor seismicanalysisandfor calculatingtheresidual
strengthof systemswithdamage(e.g. accordingtotheaccidental limit statechecks). More
recently, suchmethodshavealsobeenappliedtoreassessment of ageingstructuresto
determinetheultimatecapacityof theintact systemaswell astheglobal strengthafter
fatigue-inducedfractureof membersinconnectionwithinspectionplanning.
Modelswhichhavebeenusedtoidealizestructural membersincludephenomenological
modelsandvariousfiniteelement-typemodels(seee.g. Hellanet al., 1994; Hellan, 1995;
Nichols et al., 1997). Cost-effectivesolutionsareobtainedbyusinglargedeformationtheory
for beamelementsandspecial displacement functions(e.g. Livesley‘stability’ functions) and
concentratingthematerial nonlinearitiesinyieldhingesat predefinedlocationsor at locations
wheremaximumstressoccurs. Yieldhingemodelsaredevelopedwithdifferent refinements,
fromyieldhingeswithzeroextensionalongtheelement tomodelsthat account for the
extensionof theyieldhinge; withelastic—perfectlyplasticor gradual plastification
Page221
Figure 5.16 NorthSeajackandsealoadhistory, (a) Finiteelement model of eight-leggedNorthSea
jacket; (b) sampleof waveandcurrent loadhistoryfor cyclicanalysis.
of thecross-section, strainhardeningandtheBauschinger effect. Thejoint behaviour maybe
modelledbyaplasticpotential, withinteractionbetweentheaxial force, in-planebendingand
out of planebending. Formulationshavealsobeenpublishedthat account for bracetobrace
interactionbyadding‘beam’ elementsbetweenthebraceends.
Fixedplatformanalysesarecarriedout bymodellingthepile—soil behaviour by equivalent
linear or non-linear concentratedspringsor distributedspringsalongthepiles, or bythe
continuum(finiteelement) model (Horsnell andToolan, 1996; LacasseandNadim, 1996). As
demonstrated, for example, byMoanet al. (1997) thechoiceof pile—soil model canaffect
theloaddistributioninthestructureand, hence, thefailuremodeandcorrespondingultimate
strength. Themost important issueis, of course, that apurelinear pile—soil model wouldnot
represent apossiblesoil failureandhenceoverestimatethesystemstrengthif thepile—soil is
thecritical part of thesystem. For thejacket inFigure5.16(a) withpluggedpilesthepile—
foundationisnot critical. Yet thedifferenceinjacket failuremodewhenusingalinear instead
of anon-linear model resultsinanultimateloadwhichisabout 15per cent smaller for the
former case(Figure5.17).
Determinationof theglobal ultimatecapacitybymonotonicallyincreasingwaveloading
hasbecomeawell establishedapproach(seee.g. API RP2A (API, 1993/ 1997)).
Page222
Figure 5.17 Staticload-deformationcharacteristicof jacket for different pile-soil models, (a) Broad
sideloading; (b) endonloading(Moanet al., 1997).
Utilizationof thetrueultimatelimit of thestructural systemmayimplyinelasticdeformations.
Cyclicwaveor earthquakeloadingmaycausedegradationof thestrengthandleadtofailure
at loadamplitudeswhicharelessthanfor monotonicallyincreasingloading(Hellanet al.,
1991; Stewart et al., 1993).
Thedynamicbehaviour of fixedplatformsunder loadlevelsthat ensurelinear elastic
behaviour isstiffnessdominatedandinertiaforcesamplifytheresponseasdiscussedin
Section5.5.1. However, astheultimatestrengthof thestructureasa
Page223
Table 5.2 Ultimatecapacityof aneight-leggedNorthSeajacket withpluggedpiles(Figure5.16a)
usinganon-linear pile-soil model (Moanet al., 1997).
Limit state Static load capacity factor: (100-
year load)
Cyclic dynamic load capacity factor:
(static capacity)
End on loading Broad side
loading
End on loading Broad side loading
First member
failure
1.94 1.79 — —
Ultimate limit 2.89 2.73 1.12 0.96
wholeisapproached, thestiffnessdecreasesandthesystembecomesinertiadominated. In
thissituationtheexternal forcesarepartlybalancedbyinertiaforcesandtheultimatestrength
of thesystemincreases(Stewart, 1992; BeaandYoung, 1993; Schmucker, 1996; Emami,
1995). Theultimatestrengthof theplatforminFigure5.16(a) iscalculatedusingthetypical
loadhistoryshowninFigure5.16(b). It isseenfromTable5.2that theultimatecapacityunder
dynamiccyclicloadsislarger thanthepushover capacityfor endonloading, whilethe
oppositeoccursfor broadsideloading. Thisisbecausetheinertial resistanceeffect near
ultimatefailureislarger for endonloadingthanfor thebroadsideloadingcaseduetoamore
ductileload-deformationcharacteristic(Figure5.17).
Varioussimplifiedmethods, basedonthemonotonie(static) load-deformation
characteristics, toestimatethedynamicrelativetothestaticglobal capacityareassessedand
comparedwithresultsobtainedfromanalysesof completejacket—pile-soil systemsby
Emami Azadi (1998).
5.5.5 Ringing load effects for ULS design check
Toillustratetheringingphenomenon, consider thedynamicresponseof themonotower
platformshowninFigure5.18whichwasanalysedbyFarneset al. (1994). Theplatform/soil
systemhasafundamental natural periodof 5sec. Calculationof thehigher order loading
associatedwithsurfaceelevationisverycomplex. Farneset al. (1994) usedaverysimple,
Morison-typeapproach, whichincludedtheMacCamyandFuchsdiffractioneffects, usingthe
Wheeler modificationof wavekinematics. Thecontributionfromthedragtermwasfoundto
benegligible. Thedynamicresponsewasobtainedbyatimedomainapproach.
Thewaveprofile, linear quasi-staticoverturningmoment andtheadditional moment from
non-linear waveloadsareshownfor anextreme, steepwaveinFigure5.18. Theadditional
non-linear waveloadhastheshapeof adoubletriangular impulsewiththetopclosetothetop
of thewavewherethelinear waveloadsarezero. Theminimumof theimpulseappearsbefore
theinstant wavesurfaceisequal totheMWL. Theimpulsehasdiminishedwhenthelinear
waveloadachievesitsextrememinimum. Theimpulseistoosmall togiveanextreme
maximumloadinthewavecrest or increasetheextrememinimumof thetotal
Page224
Figure 5.18 Ringingbehaviour of monotower. (a) Platformlayout; (b) waveprofileandoverturning
moment (Farneset al., 1994).
loadwhenit issuperimposedonthelinear waveload. Hence, small non-linear waveloads
havenoeffect ontheextremevaluedistributionof aquasi-staticsystemandtheresponsemay
beconsideredGaussian.
Theinertiaof adynamicallyrespondingsystemdelaysandamplifiestheresponse. The
delayandamplificationaredependent ontheratioof theloadperiodandthenatural period.
Withaȕ of about 0.3for thesteady-statewaveload, theDAF isabout 1.1. Thedurationof the
non-linear waveloadimpulse(whichisabout 5.5secinFigure5.18(b)) isclosetothenatural
periodandimpliesaDAF of about 1.4accordingtoelementaryresultsfor aSDOF system.
Theresponsefromtheimpulseis, hence, delayedandamplifiedmorethantheresponsefrom
thelinear load. Therelativedelayof theresponsefromtheimpulsecomparedwiththelinear
part shiftstheminimaresponsesfromthetwocomponentscloser together intimeandthe
non-linear responsecontributesconsiderablytothetotal extrememinima. Thisisshownin
Figure5.18b. Theresponsefromtheimpulsewill continuetooscillatewiththenatural period
andit israther unlikely, except for someparticular waveperiods, that amaximumin
proceedingoscillationwill increasethefollowingmaximuminthelinear response. The
distributionwill, hence, beskewedupwave.
Page225
Significant impulsesfromthenon-linear waveloadingwill, bytheir nature, onlybe
inducedbylargewaves. Theresponsefromtheimpulsewill usuallybedampedout well in
advancebeforearrival of thenext wavethat islargeenoughtoinduceanewimpulse. The
dampingandscatteredappearanceof largewavesindicatethat thenon-linear amplificationis
larger for theextremesthanfor thestandarddeviationof theresponse.
Farneset al. (1994) alsocomparedcalculationswithtest results, basedonatuneddynamic
model andwavesurfaceelevationaccordingtotest samples. Theaccuracywasquitegood.
However, later workonother structures(gravityplatforms, TLPswithmorecomplex
geometry) werenot asencouraging. AsmentionedinSection5.3.5thereisnosatisfactory
theoretical methodfor calculatingringingloads. Designloadswouldthereforehavetobe
obtainedprimarilybymodel tests, however, supportedasmuchaspossiblebyanalyses.
Loadsor loadeffectsfor final designshouldbeestablishedbyrecognizingthat combined
steadystateand(transient) ringingeffectswithanannual exceedanceprobabilityof 10
í2
and
10
í4
for ultimateandaccidental collapselimit stateschecks, respectively, areaimedat. Some
guidanceonthedeterminationof ringingloadsbytheoretical andexperimental methodsare
presentedbyDNV (1995). Ringingisknowntobecausedbyrandomlongcrestedwavesin
seastatescorrespondingtoasteepness of approximately0.03–0.05andH
m0
•10m. It isimportant tohaveasufficient number of ringingeventswithinthetimeseriesof
observationsinorder toestablishestimatesof extremevalues. Thisfact implieslongtime
series.
It isimportant toseparatethesteadystateandringingresponsebyfilteringandtocompare
theobservationswithpredictions. Closeagreement betweenexperimental andtheoretical
valuesfor steadystateloadsisexpected. Theanalysismethodfor theringingcontribution
maybeappliedtotunetheanalysismodel, whichcanbeusedfor other predictionsand, hence,
provideanadditional referencefor judgingtheuncertaintiesinvolved.
Loadfactorsareappliedtocover uncertaintiesintheenvironmental conditionused, and
loadestimationprocedure, andwould, hence, dependonwhether loadsareobtainedbytests
or analysesor acombination. Anuncertaintyassociatedwithselectingseastatesfromthe
longtermdatabasisisthat critical conditionscouldbeomitted. Tolimit thisuncertainty,
analyses—despitetheir uncertainty—canbeusedwithout toomucheffort toscreenimportant
conditions. Uncertaintiesinmodel testsmay, for instance, beconcernedwithscalingeffects,
model simplifications, non-uniformityof waveelevationacrossthebasin, finitedimensions
causingwavereflectionstheanddataacquisitionsystem. Themainuncertaintyinthe
theoretical model isconcernedwiththekinematicsandhydrodynamicmodel, whichin
general havebeencalibratedagainst experimental resultstosomeextent. Statistical
uncertaintiesarepresent inbothexperimental andtheoretical analyses.
Under thesecircumstancesit isclearlynot possibletoset ageneral level of safetyfactors
for theringingcomponent. It must rather beset onthebasisof the
Page226
possibleconservatismbuilt intotheprocedureandtheresultingrandomuncertaintiesfor the
relevant case.
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Page231
Chapter 6
Loading from explosions and impact
Alan J.Watson
6.1 INTRODUCTION
Commonly, blast andimpact loadsareof subseconddurationandmagnitudetensof times
larger thananyother loadsinthedesignlifeof thestructure. Themaximumpositiveor
reboundnegativepeaksof stressor displacement arecritical for thestructure’ssurvival and
subsequent vibrationswill onlybeimportant if theloadsarerepetitive. For someindustrial
structuresblast andimpact forcesarerepeatedin-serviceloadsandtheresponsemust be
checkedasaserviceabilitylimit stateincludingcracking, vibrationandfatigue.
Thedesignandconstructionof structuresagainst accidental or deliberateimpact or
explosionsisnowoftenconsideredapart of normal designintheever increasingimportance
of safetyagainst industrial andtransportationaccidentsor terrorism. RonanPoint (1968),
Flixborough(1974), Chemobyl (1986), Piper Alpha(1988), Peterborough(1989), Oklahoma
City(1995), andEschede(1998) all hadaprofoundeffect ondesignphilosophy. These
accidentshighlight thefact that safetyisamulti-disciplinaryactivityandhaveshownthat
structural designchangeswouldbebeneficial without enormouslyincreasingthecost. If solid
abutmentshadbeenusedinsteadof columnsinthedesignof theEschedebridge, or if therail
lineshadbeengivenagreater clearance, thebridgewouldhavebeenmorerobust. If
compartmentalizedconstructionandmoment frameshadbeenusedintheOklahomaFederal
Building, increasingthetotal buildingcost by2per cent, theextent of theprogressive
collapsewhichfollowedtheexplosionwouldhavebeenreduced. Thepublicinquiryintothe
collapseof RonanPoint (Griffiths et al., 1968), revealedthat thegasexplosionproduceda
peaklateral pressureonthewallsof about 42kN/m
2
for afewmillisecondswhich, aidedby
theupwardexplosivepressureontheslababove, displacedthetopof thewall removingall
support fromthefloor slabof theflat above. Collapseprogressedupwardsandimpact from
thecollapsingfloor slabsthencausedcollapsetoprogressdownward. RonanPoint hadlittle
restraint against rotational or translational displacementsbetweenfloor andwall slabsandthe
blast pressurehadbeenenoughtofail thejointsdesignedonlyfor modest windpressures. A
subsequent riskassessment showedthat RonanPoint, with110flatsandadesign
Page232
lifeof 60years, hada2per cent riskof oneof theflatshavingastructurallydamaging
explosionin60years.
Thematerial andhumanconsequencesof suchincidentsaresoseverethat lowriskisnot
anadequatereasonfor ignoringthedanger. Secondaryconsequencessuchaslossof publicor
businessconfidencecanbeequallycostly.
6.1.1 Philosophy of design
SinceRonanPoint collapsed, thestabilityof all buildingsover four storeysintheUK must be
checkedwithkeyelementsdesignedfor 35kN/m
2
staticloadinginthecritical direction, or
withcontinuitytolimit theareaof collapseif akeyelement fails. The35kN/m
2
staticload
hasnostatistical significanceasanimpulsiveload, either fromblast or impact.
Thelimit statephilosophyfor structural designuseselasticresponsefor serviceloads,
plasticresponsefor ultimateloadsandpreventionof overall collapsedisproportionatetoa
local failure. Manybuildingshavebrittleor non-structural elementssuchaswindowsand
suspendedceilingsthat areextremelyvulnerabletoblast pressureandproducehazardous
debris, bothwithinandoutsideabuilding.
Theresistanceof thefixingsandsupportsof external claddingonabuildingaswell asof
thepanel itself determinestheblast or impact resistanceandtheinteractionwiththe
characteristicsof theblast loadingfunction, but thereislittleblast designguidanceavailable
for claddingfixings.
Claddingfixingsareoftenhardtoinspect but someindicationof damagecanbeobtained
fromtheresidual deformationsinframesandcladdingpanels(EPSRC, 1997; PanandWatson,
1996).
Structuresmust havesafeandserviceablepathsfor all loads, includingextremeloads.
BritishStandardCodesof Practicesince1972haverecommendedthat byusingnominal
peripheral andhorizontal tiesbuildingswouldbemorerobust toresist extremeloads.
Explosionsandimpact loadsmaydiffer inbothmagnitudeanddirectionfromstaticdesign
loadsandproducelocal damagesuchascrateringof concreteelementsor local bucklingof
steel elementsthat wouldreducethemoment or shear capacitylocally. Deflectionsarevery
similar for structuresunder distributedstaticor dynamicloadsbut not whentheloadis
concentrated(WatsonandAng, 1984).
6.1.2 Diagnosis of extreme loads
Thedamagetostructural elementsfromextremeloadscanbeback analysedtofindtheload
parameters, suchasthe35kN/m
2
equivalent staticloadingfromRonanPoint (1968). Froman
analysisof damagedlamppostsat Flixborough(1974), RobertsandPritchard(1982)
estimatedthepeakdynamicpressureproducedbytheexplosion. Sadeeet al. (1976) estimated
overpressure-distancecurvesfromobservationsof damagetobrickworkandconcrete
structures. ThecasestudyinSection6.4usesthedamagetobuildingsfromanexplosionto
evaluatethedynamicloadsandsoassessthecauseof damagetoother buildingsonthesite.
Page233
A compressionwavefromanexplosioninair expandsasathree-dimensional blast wave
propagatingat maximumvelocitieswell abovethat of lowamplitudesoundwaves. It reflects
andrefractsfromsolidsurfaces andfromatmosphericdiscontinuities.
Explosionsalsoproducehightemperatures, whicharemorelocallyconcentratedthanthe
pressureanddecayrapidly, andalsoproducehighvelocityfragmentsfromanyconfining
structure, whichmayimpact withasurfacebeforetheblast wavearrives. Thesynergistic
effectsof blast andfragment impact arenot well understood.
If anexplosionoccursincontact withasolidit producesstressof thesameorder of
magnitudeastheelasticmodulusof thesolid. Theair pressureproducedat closerangehasan
initial peak, whichisordersof magnitudelarger thannormal atmosphericpressure, but
decreasingwithdistancetravelled. Behindthepeakthepressureisstill aboveatmosphericbut
decreasingwithtimeandfallsbelowatmospheric. Thepotential of thisunderpressureto
producestructural damageisnot certainandinpart dependsonsynchronizationwiththe
reboundof thestructure.
Animpact producesalocalizedapplicationof pressureonthesurfaceof thestructure,
whichcanonlyspreadintothestructurefromthepoint of application. Thisisincontrast to
explosionswheretheblast pressuresrapidlyengulf theentiresurfaceof thestructure. The
important parametersof animpact, for diagnosticor forensicpurposes, aretheshape, velocity
andmassof theimpactor, andwhether or not theimpactor deformed.
Whenpressureisappliedveryrapidlytothesurfaceof astructurethenstrainwavesare
generatedwhichtransfer thelocal dynamicsurfacedeformationsintooverall structural
deformations. Ananalysisof thetransient stressstateisnecessarywhentheappliedpressure
changesmorerapidlythanthetimetakenfor thestrainwavestotravel betweenthe
boundariesof thestructureandestablishastateof equilibriumbetweenoverall structural
resistanceandappliedpressureeffects. Duringthistransitionperiodthetransient strainand
stressconditionsmayproducelocal failuresthat aredecoupledandof different shapefromthe
failuresthat canoccur duetooverall structural deformation.
Thestrainwavespropagateat characteristicvelocitiesfor thematerial andtransfer
momentumintothestructurebydynamicdisplacementsof theboundarysurface. Theratesof
strainandstressthat areproducedlocallyinthematerial areordersof magnitudegreater than
thoseproducedintheoverall structural deformation, whichareagainordersof magnitude
greater thanunder slowlyappliedloading. Most constructionmaterialshaveenhanced
propertiesat thesehighratesof strain.
6.2 BLAST PHENOMENA
6.2.1 Explosive sources
A detonationwavetravelsthroughhighexplosivesat 5,000–10,000m/s. At afreeair
boundarythegaseousproductsexpandat highvelocity, pressureandtemperature
Page234
Figure 6.1 Typical overpressure(aboveatmosphericp
o
) at afixeddistancefromtheexplosion.
Figure 6.2 Typical overpressureat afixedtimealongaradial linefromtheexplosion.
toproduceashockwavewithaninfinitesimal risetime, producingrapidfluctuationsinair
pressureandadynamicwindasit travelsfromtheexplosion(Figures 6.1and6.2).
Air—gasmixtures, dust andvapour cloudsreleaseenergybyaprocessof rapidburning
knownasdeflagration. Air shockfromadeflagrationpropagatesmoreslowlyandhasa
longer risetime.
For vapour cloudsthedegreeof confinement iscritical indeterminingwhether or not there
isadetonationor adeflagration. Variousformsof organicdust canalsoproduceanexplosive
reaction. Propane, butaneandsimilar gasesinstoichiometricconcentrationswill explodeif
thereisasourceof initiation.
Page235
Figure 6.3 Spherical shockwave.
6.2.2 Shock wave parameters
Most explosions, after propagatingashort distance, produceaspherical shockwaveof
surfaceareaA=4ʌr
2
(Figure6.3).
Thecharacteristicsof thespherical air shockareasfollows:
(a) Theenergyof theshockfront/unit surfaceareadecreaseswithr
2
(inversesquarelaw).
(b) Thepeakoverpressurep
s0
decreaseswithdistancer fromtheexplosionandeventually
reducestoasoundwave(Figure6.4).
(c) Thevelocityof theshockfront u isgivenby:
whereu
s
=340m/sisthesoundvelocityinair for normal conditionsat sealevel and
atmosphericpressurep
0
=0.1N/mm
2.
Thedifferent unitsusedfor pressureare1
N/mm
2
=1MPa=145p.s.i.=10bar.
(d) t
dp
isthepositivedurationof theshockwavewhichincreaseswithdistancefromthe
explosionbecausehigher pressurestravel faster (Figure6.5).
(e) p
s
istheoverpressurewhichdecayswithtimeat afixedlocationdependingonp
s0
andt
dp
(Figure6.6).
(f) v isthevelocityof theair particlesbehindtheshockfront astheymoveradiallyawayfrom
theexplosionduringthepositivephase(e.g. for p
s0=
3p
0
thenv=300m/s) andtowardsthe
explosioninthenegativephase.
(g) p
d
isthedynamicpressure whereȡ÷air density.
Page236
Figure 6.4 OverpressureanddynamicpressureversusrangefromaI-MT explosion(Biggs, 1964).
6.2.3 Comparing explosives
TheTNT equivalenceof anexplosiveistheweight of TNT whichproducesapressurewave
inair withoneof itscharacteristicsequal tothat of theshockwaveproducedbytheexplosive
at thesamedistance. Thepeakpressureor impulsedefinetheshock wavebut itsshapeisalso
distinguishedbytherisetime, decaytime, positivephasedurationor negativephaseduration.
All of thesecharacteristicsvarywiththedistancetheshockwavehastravelledinair.
Theequivalent weight of TNT isbasedonpeakpressureor impulseandislarger for peak
pressurethanfor impulse.
Explosivesdiffer intherateat whichtheydetonateandtheheat producedandthese
influencethecharacteristicsof theshockwaveinair.
6.2.4 Shock wave sealing
Theparametersof theshockwavefromoneexplosivechargecanberelatedtotheparameters
of theshockwavefromasimilar shapedchargeof thesameexplosive, but of adifferent size.
(1) Principle of similitude
If for twochargesof thesameshapeandthesameexplosiveall thedimensionsof the
Page237
Figure 6.5 Overpressureanddynamicpressurepositivephasedurationversusrange(Biggs, 1964).
first arek timesthoseof thesecond, thenthepeak pressurep
s0
measuredat anydistanceR
fromthecentreof thefirst chargewill beequal tothosemeasuredat distancekR fromthe
centreof thesecondcharge. The+veimpulse, energyanddurationof thesecondwill bek
timesthecorrespondingquantitiesfor thefirst at theserelateddistances.
Thecharacteristicsvarywiththesizeof theexplosivechargeandit isexperimentally
observedthat if twospherical chargesaremadefromthesameexplosive, thenthepeak
pressuresintheair blast wavesproducedbythesechargeswill beequal at distancesthat arein
thesameratioasthecuberoot of theweight of eachchargewhentheatmosphericpressures
arethesameinthetwocases. Thiscuberoot scalingallowsempirical chartstobepublished
fromtheresultsof experimentsusingawidevarietyof chargesizes.
(2) Cube root scaling
Sincedensitiesarepresumedtobeequal for thetwochargesof thesameexplosive, if oneisk
timeslarger initslinear dimensionsthenitsmasswill bek
3
timesgreater andtheprincipleof
similitudecanbestatedusingthecuberoot of themassasthescalingfactor.
If themassesof twogeometricallysimilar chargesof thesameexplosiveareM
1
andM
2
thenthepeakpressuresat distancesproportional to(M
1
)
1/3
and(M
2
)
1/3,
respectivelywill be
equal andaresaidtooccur at homologoustimes(i.e. correspondingbut not necessarilyequal
times).
Page238
Figure 6.6 Overpressureanddynamicdecaycurves(Biggs, 1964).
Thepositiveimpulses, durationsandenergywill beproportional to(M
1
)
1/3
, (M
1
)
1/3
,
respectivelyat thosedistancesandtimes. That is:
Page239
wherep, I, t
d
arepeakpressure, +veimpulseandduration, respectivelymeasuredat R fromW
kgof explosiveandf, F, Ø areunspecifiedfunctions. Cuberoot scalinghasbeenverifiedby
experiment but doesnot describethedecayof peakpressurewithdistance.
(3) Application of scaling laws
Inpracticescalinglawsareused:
1. toobtainshockparametersfor anysizeof explosivechargefromthoseof astandardof the
explosive;
2toproduceastandardchargeusingexperimental methods.
Example 1:
Cuberoot scalingindicatesthat if asimilar chargeof massM
2
hasadiameter d
2
=kd
1
thenp
s0
occursat R
2
=kR
1
; that is:
then
and
Page240
That is, thescaledparametersfor cuberoot scalingare:
that is, pressureandvelocityarethesamefor theprototypeat homologoustimes.
Example 2
Usecuberoot scalingtocomparetheshockwavefroma300kgexplosivechargewith
theshockwavefroma300gchargeof thesameexplosivetypeandshape.
that is, thesamepeakoverpressureandshockwavevelocityoccursat 100mfromthe
300kgchargeasoccursat 10mfromthe300gcharge, but the+vedurationt
d
and
impulseI aretentimesgreater.
Page241
Figure6.7Weakblast wavereflection.
6.2.5 Interaction of shock waves with plane surfaces
(a) Reflection of weak shocks
Spherical shockwavesof lowoverpressurereflect fromaplanesurfaceasif thereflected
shockwaves(Figure6.7) camefromanimaginarysourceequidistant, andonthesame
perpendicular, fromthesurfaceasthereal sourcebut ontheoppositesideof thesurface. The
reflectedwavespropagatewiththesamevelocityastheincident waves.
Influenceof surfaceproperties:
1. If theplanesurfaceisarigidprotectivewall, thenat (0, t
1
), theparticlevelocityv=0and
thepeakpressurep
r
islarger thanp
s0
. At t
2
thereal shockcoversacircular areaof the
surface, radiusOA. Peak pressurep
s0
(t
2
) isincreasedaroundthecircumferenceof thecircle
of effect byreflection. ProvidingAXO”35°, p
s0
hasthesamemagnificationbyreflectionas
whenAXO=0°.
2. If theplanesurfaceistheexternal wall of anormal building, it islessthanrigidandat (0,
t
1
) thesurfaceisacceleratedandhasavelocityandadisplacement. Thesurfacecontinues
toaccelerateaslongasanoverpressurep
s
existsononeside. Thereflectedpressureisof
lower amplitudethanfor therigidsurface.
Thesurfacemaynot exceedthelimitingelasticdeflectionif thereflectedoverpressureislow
or +vedurationisshort. For greater overpressureor longer +veduration, plasticdeformation
andpossiblycollapsemayoccur.
If the+vedurationof theshockwaveismuchlonger thanthenatural periodof thesurface
thensurfaceresponseissimilar tothat of aspringinstantaneouslyloadedwithaconstant load.
Page242
Figure 6.8 Spring-massmodel.
That is, thesurfaceovershootstheequilibriumposition, isrestoredbythespringforcebut
oncemoreovershootsandvibratesabout equilibriumpositionat thenatural frequencyof the
spring(Figure6.8).
If the+vedurationof theshockwaveismuchshorter thanT
n
thenoverpressurereducesto
zerobeforeanysignificant deflectionoccursandhardlyanyspringresistanceisdeveloped
duringthe+vephase.
Assumingconstant forceP andaccelerationÿ.
Hencepeakoverpressurep
s0
determinestheresponseof anon-rigidsurfacebarrier toshock
waveswitharelativelylong+vedurationand+veimpulseI determinestheresponsetoshock
waveswitharelativelyshort +veduration.
(b) Reflection of strong shocks
Spherical shockwavesof highoverpressure(p
s0
>>pv) reflect fromrigidor non-rigidplane
surfacesinamorecomplicatedwaythanweakshocks, becausethereflectedshocksare
advancingintoair withpressure, densityandvelocityverydifferent fromnormal atmospheric
conditions(Figure6.9).
At timet
1
, shockwaveI
1
reachesthesurfaceat O andreflects. Boundaryconditionsare
v=0andpeakpressure>2p
s0
(t
1
).
Thevelocityof thereflectedshockfront R isnot constant andsoR cannot bedrawnon
concentricspheresfromanimaginarysource.
At t>t
1
, theintersectionof theincident waveI(t) andreflectedwaveR(t) isnolonger onthe
surfaceandanewshock surfaceM (Machstem) connectstheringof intersectionpointsof I,
R, M (triplepoint) tothesurfaces.
TheshockwavesystemdependsonthedistanceOX (e.g. if OX=0noseparatereflections
areformed, andthereisonlytheMachwave).
Page243
Figure 6.9 Strongwavereflection.
6.2.6 Blast loading effects on buildings
Consider thebuildingh×b×l withaplaneshockwavenormal tothewall F. Theblast loading
fromthepositiveoverpressureis(Figure6.10).
1. Initial diffraction: theincident wavereachesF at t
0
andisreflected. Resultant pressure
>p
s0
(t) over aclearingperiodt
c=
(3S
c
)/u whereh•S
c
”b/2(i.e. after t
c
reflectioneffectsno
longer act).
Figure 6.10 Blast onbuildings.
Page244
Figure 6.11 Pressurevariationsp
s
, p
d
onfront wall F.
Figure 6.12Total reflectedpressurep
r
onfront wall F.
2. General overpressure: actsfor aslongasthefront wall F andtheback wall B aresubjected
todifferent overpressures.
3. Dragloading: Theparticlevelocity v of theair behindtheshockfront producesadynamic
windpressure andadragpressureC
d
p
d
whereC
d
=appropriatedragcoefficient.
Thenegativephaseof theshockwaveisoftenneglectedinassessingblast effects(Figures
6.11and6.12).
Althoughp
d
decayslessrapidlythanp
r
at afixeddistancefromtheexplosion, it decays
morerapidlywithdistanceandt
dd
>t
dp
(Figures6.4and6.5).
Sidewallss, backwall B, roof R all havenegativedragcoefficients.
Back faceB reachesasteadystatepressureat t=(4S
c
)/u after theshock wavereachesthe
backface.
Theexternal wallsandroof of abuildingreceivetheshockwavefirst fromanexternal
explosion. Therewill bealeakageof pressureintothebuildingthroughopeningsfor aslong
asthereisapositivedifferencebetweenexternal andinternal
Page245
pressure(P– P
j
), dependingontheareaof theopeningsA
0
andthevolumeof thestructureV
0
.
Theinternal pressure, P
i
, varieswithintheinternal spaceandis highest closetotheleak. For
structureswhereA
0
/V
0
issmall andP<10bar, theaverageinternal pressureincrementǻP
i
, in
timeǻt msecis:
whereC
L
istheleakagepressurecoefficient giveninTM5–855–1(1986).
Whenanexplosionoccursinsideabuildingthenit istheinterior surfaceof thewallsand
ceilingof thebuildingwhicharefirst loadedbythepressureof theshock wavethat reflects
andincreasesthepressure. If thereareopeningsinthewallsor ceilingthentherewill be
ventingof pressureout of thebuildingfor aslongasthereisanegativedifferenceinthe
external andinternal pressure(P– P
i
), andtheinternal pressurewill decrease. Internal
reflectionsbecomesocomplicatedthat for preliminaryanalysisre-reflectedshocksare
neglected. Arrival timesof re-reflectedshockscanbecalculatedif amoreexact analysisof
loadingisrequired. Reflectionsarealsosimplifiedintonormal incidencebut slant distances
areusedindeterminingthereflectedpressure. Inadditiontothereflectedblast loading,
internal explosionsproduceaquasi-staticpressurewhichdependsonthechargeweight to
roomvolumeratiofor peakvalueandontheventingfor thequasi-staticdecaycharacteristics.
Withinternal explosionsthetransmissionof blast waveswithinthecorridorsandconnected
roomsmust beanalysed. Inexperimental workusingtunnelsandducts, thefollowing
observationsaregiveninTM5–855–1:
(a) Anincreaseinoverpressureoccursif thecrosssectional areaof thecorridor decreases.
(b) A decreaseinoverpressureoccursif thecorridor hassharpturnsor bends. Thepeak
pressureP
n
after n bendsof 90° whenfrictionandpressureattenuationbetweenbendsis
neglected, isgivenasP
n
=P
s0
(0.94)
n
whereP
s0
isthepeak overpressurebeforethefirst bend.
(c) Overpressurealsodependsonfrictionlossesalongthetunnel walls, theviscosityandthe
rateof decayof theshockfront.
(d) Overpressureattenuateswithdistanceintoasmoothcorridor. It dependsonthecharge
weight andthedistancefromtheexplosiontothetunnel entrance, but doesnot dependon
thedimensionsof thenormal corridor.
(e) Overpressureattenuatesasalongdurationpulsegoesfromonecorridor intoanother of
larger areaA
2
, accordingtotherelationships:
Page246
6.3 IMPACT PHENOMENA
6.3.1 Introduction
Theindependent variablesof impact loadingincludethemass, shape, velocityvector,
structureandmaterial propertiesof theimpactingstructure. Incivil engineeringtheimpacted
structureisusuallystationaryandthemagnitudeof averyshort durationimpact loadisless
critical thantheimpulseor kineticenergyof theimpactor whichmust beabsorbedby
deformation. Temperatureeffectsof impact areoftenignoredbut mayalter thematerial
properties. Impactorscanbeof lowmassandhighvelocity, suchasbulletswithvelocitiesup
to1,000m/secandfragmentsof damagedstructures, or of largemassandmuchlower velocity
suchasvehicleswithvelocitiesnearer to10m/sec. Thelarger themassthemorelikelyit is
that theimpact will cover alargeareaof contact. Thegreater theimpulsethemoreenergy
thereistoabsorbandtheareaof contact determinesthedistributionof surfacepressure,
overall structural displacementsandlocal deformations.
Local damageincludespenetrationandperforationby theimpactor, crateringor depression
ontheimpact face, scabbingor bulgingonthedistal face, radial or cir-cumferential cracking,
punchingandshear failure, Amdeet al., 1996. At highratesof loading, stresswavesfromthe
impact andthehighstrainratepropertiesof thematerial determinethelocationandtypeof
damage(WatsonandChan, 1987). Figure6.13showsimpact onaconcretebeamwiththe
cracksformedat 1msecafter impact.
Overall deflectionfromanimpact or astaticloadat thesamelocation, maybesimilar but
initiallytheinertiaof thestructureproduceshigher modesof
Figure 6.13 Cracksformingunder animpact loadonaconcretebeam.
Page247
Figure 6.14 Transient deformationof aconcretebeamafter impact at midspan.
deformationcausingimpact damagesuchastopfacecracking, whichisnot typical of static
loading, Figure6.14(WatsonandAng, 1982).
Theimpact velocitydeterminesthestrainrate, modeof responseandthetypeof damage
(Zukas et al., 1982). Velocitiesproducingstrainratesof about 10
0
donot enhancethe
propertiesof concreteandstructural responseisprimarilyelasticwithsomelocal plasticity.
Structural responsetimesaremeasuredinmsecintheconcretebeam, Figure6.14wherethe
rigidmassof 1.8kgimpactedat 16m/sec, andthelocal andoverall structural responsedidnot
occur coincidentally. Velocitiesover about 500m/secproduceloadingandstructural response
timesmeasuredinµsec. Thelocal responsedependsonmaterial propertiesaroundtheimpact
area. Thephenomenarequiresastresswaveanalysisandthestrainrateandmaterial
constitutiverelationsaresignificant influencesontheplasticflowandfailurecriteria. Inthis
velocityregimeoverall global responsebecomessecondaryandisdecoupledfromthelocal
response. Impact velocitiesabove2000m/secarecharacteristicof shapechargeimpact and
producepressureswhichexceedthematerial strengthsbyseveral ordersof magnitudesothat
solidsbehaveasfluidsat theearlystagesof impact. Table6.1(CEB, 1988) showsthestrain
ratesfromdifferent typesof impact.
Alternativelythekineticenergydensityof animpactor, definedasthekineticenergyper
unit areaof contact, canbeusedtodeterminethedamagingcapability
Page248
Table 6.1 Typical strainratesfor typesof impact loading.
Type of loading Strain rate (sí
l
)
Traffic 10
í6
–10
í4
Piledriving 10
í2
–10
0
Aeroplaneimpact 5(10
í2
)–2(10
0
)
Hardimpact 10°–5(10
1
)
Hypervelocityimpact 10
2
–10
6
of aprojectilebypenetrationof thetarget. Thisparameter isconsideredtobeameasureof the
impact shear stressproducedandSmithandHetherington(1994) list thetransitionzones. This
isadifficult parameter todefinewhentheprojectileisirregularlyshaped.
If theimpactor hasthehigher dynamicyield, thenmuchlessplasticdeformationwill occur
intheimpactor andthisisahardimpact. If theimpactor hasthelower dynamicyieldthen
plasticdeformationwill bemuchgreater intheimpactor andthisisasoft impact.
6.3.2 Modelling impact
Analysisof amassdroppedontoanundampedspringmasssystemof stiffness k showsthat
theratiobetweenthedroppedmassm
1
withvelocityv
1
andthetarget massm
2
issignificant in
determiningtheresponse. If thedroppedmassissmall relativetothetarget massandbothare
elastic, thenthemassmayreboundimmediatelyafter it impacts. If thedroppedmassis
relativelylargethenthetwomassesmaymovetogether after impact. Thetwomassesmay
alsomovetogether, regardlessof relativesize, if theimpact surfacesareinelastic. Using
conservationof momentumat theinstant of impact andconservationof energyfor motion
after impact, themaximumdeflectionof thespringwhenm
1
andm
2
movetogether is:
Inpracticem
2
istheeffectivemassof animpactedstructure, andk isdeterminedbyits
boundaryconditions, structural andmaterial properties. Thepositivesigngivesthemaximum
downwarddeflectionof thestructure, andnegativegivesthemaximumupwardor minimum
downwarddeflectionof thestructure.
Theimpulseonthestructureisgivenbytheareaunder theimpact force—timerelationship
andisequal totherateof changeof momentumof theimpactingmass:
Page249
At theinstant of impact whentheimpactor rebounds:
After impact if themassisinharmonicfreevibrationat itsnatural undampedfrequency
x=X sinȦt andx÷XȦcosȦt
whereX istheamplitudeof vibration.
At theinstant of impact t=0, andx=XȦ=Impulse/m.
Theequationof motionwhenthepositivedirectionof displacement isthesameasthat of
theimpulsegivingthedeflectionx at anytimet is:
6.3.3 Low velocity impact by low mass projectiles
Claddingof compositesandwichconstructioniscommonlyusedonbuildingsandisexposed
toimpact bysmall massprojectilesat lowvelocity:
(1) Determinationof themagnitudeanddistributionof surfacepressurewhenanisotropic
solidisimpactedat normal incidenceandlowvelocitybyaspherical impactor.
Zukas et al.
,
(1982) assumetheimpactor andthetarget arelinear elasticandthedurationof
theimpact islongrelativetostresswavetransit times. Onimpact, thetarget andimpactor
remainincontact andcompressfor atotal distanceaat arateof compression
wherev
1
, v
2
aretheapproachvelocitiesof theimpactor andtarget respectively. Assumingthat
theHertz lawof contact P=nĮ
3/2
appliesduringimpact, themaximumdeformationis:
(6.1)
wher:
andv isPoisson’sratio, R isradiusof spherical impactor, E isYoung’smodulus, mismass
andsubscripts1and2denoteimpactor andtarget parameters, respectively.
Themaximumcontact forceisthen:
(6.2)
Page250
Assumingthat whenasphereimpactsaflat surface, withaforceP, theradiusof theareaof
contact a, isgivenbytheHertz equationfor theareaof contact whentheloadP isstatic:
(6.3)
(6.4)
TheTimoshenkopressuredistributionover theareaof contact is:
(6.5)
whereq
0
=pressureat thecentreof thecontact areax =y=0, at theboundaryof thecontact area
x
2
/a
2
+y
2
/a
2
=1, q
x
,
y
=0, andsummingthepressureover theareaof contact andequatingthisto
P:
(6.6)
Fromeqns(6.2), (6.4)—(6.6) andusingpolar co-ordinater, themagnitudeanddistributionof
thesurfacepressureisobtainedas:
(6.7)
Thispressureproducesinternal stressestocomparewiththelimitingstressesproducing
failuremodesinthetarget:
(2) Determinationof thedynamicforce, areaanddurationof contact whenaflexiblecladding
panel isimpactedbyaspherical impactor at normal incidenceandlowvelocity.
Whenthepanel isflexiblethenlocal andoverall deformationwithout punchingfailureis
likelyat lowvelocityimpact. Zukaset al., (1982) present ananalytical methodfor
determiningtheresponseof isotropicandanisotropiclaminatedpanelsimpactedbya
spherical impactor. Thelocal deformationĮ istheHertziancontact deformationdetermined
bytheforce—deformationrelationship: . Platebendingdeflectionįp isdetermined
bytheforce—deflectionrelationship: , wherekp isthestiffnessof theplateandisa
functionof theelasticconstantsandtheboundaryconditions. For acircular, isotropicplateof
radius R, thicknessh, Young’smodulusE
r
andPoisson’sratio=v
r
withsimplysupported
boundaries,
Page251
Figure 6.15 Freeboundaries.
Assumingimpact byarigidimpactor onastationaryplateat anapproachvelocityv =v
1
, the
kineticenergyof impact equalstheworkdoneontheplateinlocal andoverall deformation.
(6.8)
Solvingtheequationfor P at agivenembedv withknownpropertiesof theimpactor and
compositeplate, showsthat P increaseslinearlywithv but at areducingratewithh, whether
theplatehassimplysupportedor fixedboundaries. Withfixedboundariestheeffective
masseswill bedifferent anddynamicforceisgreater at agivenimpact velocitythanwith
simplysupportedboundaries, Figures 6.15and6.16.
For agivenimpact velocitythedynamicforceP andareaof contact decreasebut the
contact durationincreasesasthetarget flexibilityincreases(i.e. platethickness h decreases).
Page252
Figure 6.16 Fixedboundaries, Zukaset al., (1982).
6.3.4 Empirical formulae for low velocity impact on concrete
Thepenetration, perforationandscabbingof reinforcedconcreteimpactedbyflat faced
cylindrical missileswasinvestigatedbyBarr et al. (1980) usingexperimental andanalytical
techniques. ComparisonsweremadewiththemodifiedNDRC (USNational Defense
ResearchCommittee) empirical formula(Kennedy, 1976), andtheCEA/EDF (FrenchAtomic
EnergyCommission) empirical formula(Berriaudet al. 1978).
ThemodifiedNDRC formulaefor asemi-infinitetarget are:
(6.9a)
and
(6.9b)
wherex inmetres, d inmetres, M inkgandv inmsec
í1
, aremissilepenetrationdepth,
diameter, massandvelocity, respectively, andD=M/d
3
iscalibre
Page253
density, andı
c
isconcretecompressivestrength, inPa. Theperforationthicknesse canbe
obtainedfrom:
TheCEA/EDF formulagivestheperforationvelocityas:
(6.10)
wherep istheconcretedensityandtherangeof applicabilityis:
flat nosedcylindrical missile.
TheNDRC formulaewerewithin30per cent of thepenetrationvelocitymeasuredinthe
experimentsfor different massanddiameter missilesandthicknessandstrengthof concrete.
TheCEA/EDF formulaewerewithin100per cent of thepenetrationvelocitybut the
reinforcement andconcretestrengthsusedintheexperimentswereoutsidetherangeof
validity.
6.4 DESIGN ACTIONS
Concept definitionandresistancerequirementsspecifythedesignparameters, andextreme
loadsset theupper boundactionsfor theultimateaccidental limit state.
Accident loadcasesfor thedesignof adoubleskinconcretecontainment structure
surroundinganuclear reactor pressurevessel, took theupper boundascatastrophicfailure
requiringtheevacuationof peoplelivingoutsidethereactor site(Eibl, 1993). Thestructure
wasdesignedtoresist quasi-staticinternal pressures, fast dynamicinternal pressures, fast
dynamicexternal forcesandhightemperaturefromtheheat generatedinacoremelt accident.
Theouter wall thicknessof thecontainment was1.8mtoresist a20tonnemilitaryaircraft
crashingat 215m/sec. Theinner concretebarrier, 0.7mthick, wasdesignedasafragment
shieldagainst highvelocitymissilesfromburstingplant andequipment andfromanassumed
hydrogendetonationpressurewave. Theinner concretebarrier hasanouter metal plate, which
alsoservesasthenecessaryconcrete
Page254
reinforcement of thiscompositestructural member. Thedesignmethodutilizedthestrainrate
sensitivityof theconcreteinaHugoniot curveof hydrostaticpressureagainst volumetric
concretestrain.
Toobtainastatistical basefor characteristicblast pressuresthedamagetostructural
elementsfromanexplosioncanbebackanalysed. Analysisof theRonanPoint gasexplosion
producedtherequirement toanalysekeyelementsfor 35kN/m
2
equivalent staticloading. The
1974Flixboroughvapour cloudexplosiondamagedmanystructuresandfromananalysisof
lamppostsRobertsandPritchard(1982) estimatedthedynamicpressureproducedbythe
explosion. Sadeeet al. (1976) estimatedtheoverpressure—distancecurvefromobservations
of thedamagetobrickworkandconcretestructures. Inmanycases, becauseof theunknowns,
sophisticatedanalytical techniquesarenot justified.
After agasexplosionthat destroyedabuildinginPeterborough, 1987, asurveyof the
surroundingdamagetowindows, trafficsignsandlampposts, andthedistancetravelledby
debris, wasusedtoestimatethecharacteristicsof theexplosion(Watson1994). A surveywas
madeof theframedimensionsandglassthicknessfor all thewindowsexposedtothedirect
blast wave, andwhether or not theglasshadbeenbroken. Eyewitnessaccountsindicatedthat
windowpanesmight havebrokeneither inwardor outward.
Theresistanceof glasstoblast pressuredependsupontheedgeconditions, dimensions,
thicknessandultimatetensilestrengthof theglass. Dragosavic(1973) analysedarectangular
paneof glass, assumingsimplesupportsonall four sidesanduniformpressureonthepane,
givingtheultimateresistanceq (kN/m
2
) as:
(6.11)
wheref
kb
=ultimatetensilestrengthof glass, assumedtobe84kN/mm
2
; d, b= thickness(mm)
andshort sidelength(mm), respectively; ȕ=afunctionof thesidelengthsL, b.
Becauseof thevariabilityinthestrengthof glass, andinthedegreeof fixitytotheframe,
thecalculatedresultsprobablydonot predict theactual ultimateresistancebybetter than±50
per cent (Mainstone, 1971).
Thecalculatedresistanceq (kN/m
2
) for eachwindow, isplottedagainst r, thedistancefrom
theexplosion, Figure6.17, showingwhether or not theglasswasbroken. Theresistanceof
brokenandunbrokenpanesgivesanestimatefor theblast overpressureat variousdistances
assumingnormal incidence. Upper andlower limitsfor thisblast overpressureareindicatedas
(UL) and(LL). Windowspossiblybrokenbyeffectsother thanoverpressureareidentifiedbut
not used, for example, thosethat couldhavebeenbrokenbyflyingdebris.
A lower boundestimateof peakoverpressureisplottedinFigure6.17. Thissmoothed
curvehasnobrokenwindowsaboveit if a50per cent reductionismadeonthetheoretical
resistanceof thebrokenwindowsandthereareonly10unbrokenwindowsbelowit if the50
per cent toleranceisused.
Page255
Figure 6.17 Explosivepeakover pressureestimatedfromawindosurvey.
Page256
Metal postsclosetotheexplosionprovidedsimpleelementsfor analysis. Nonehadany
damagethat couldbeattributedtotheexplosionandtheanalysiswouldthereforebeanupper
boundestimateof thepressure.
Theresponsetoblast pressuredependsuponthedurationof theblast t
d
relativetothe
fundamental natural periodof vibrationof thepost, andbysimplemeasurement, T=0.4sec. If
t
d
<<T it respondstoimpulseandtopeakpressureif t
d
>T. Betweentheselimitsit respondsto
both. Thedurationt
d
wasestimatedbyassumingatriangular pressuretimecurvewithpeak
pressurep
m
. Thepost hadnovisibledamage, indicatingthat it hadnot exceededtheelastic
limit. UsingtheanalysisgivenbyBiggs (1964), andassumingalinear resistance—deflection
curve:
(6.12)
whereR
m
ismaximumelasticresistance(kN), T isnatural period(sec), A isareasubjectedto
theblast pressure(m
2
), p
m
ispeakblast pressure(kN/m
2
).
Analysingapost at 60mfromtheexplosionfor first modedeformation, andusingP
m
=7.5
kN/m
2
fromFigure6.17, gives t
d
=0.18sec. WhenBiggs’ analysisisappliedtoanundamaged
post at 16musingapeak pressureof 30kN/m
2
extrapolatedfromFigure6.17, thedurationof
theblast pulset
d
is0.093sec. Asexpectedit islessthanat 60m.
Thepeakpressurepredictedissensitivetotheassumedshapeof thepressurepulse. If the
pulsehadarisetimeof 16per cent of thedecaytimethenp
m
iscalculatedtobe150kN/m
2
whichfitsreasonablywell withtheextrapolatedpeakoverpressurelinefromthewindow
survey. Thebuildingat thecentreof theexplosionwascompletelydestroyed.
Eyewitnessaccountsandpressphotographsindicatedthat debrisfromtheexploded
buildingwasthrownupto200mfromthecentreof theexplosion. Thedebristhrowdistance
wascomparedtothat of TNT usingananalysisbyKinneyandGraham(1985). Thisshowed
that 11kgof TNT wouldhavethrowndebris100mand88kgTNT wouldhavethrownit 200
m. Theoverpressuresproducedbythesequantitiesof TNT at different rangesareplottedin
Figure6.17, andareverysensitivetorangeat lessthan25m.
6.4.1 Idealization of high rate dynamic loads
Designloadsor actionsareusuallycomputationallymanageableidealizationssuchasthe
pressure—timeidealizationfor fragment impact, Figure6.18, andfor ahydrogenpressure
wave, Figure6.19(Eibl, 1993). ChenandChen(1996) givealoadidealization, for impact on
shallowburiedplates. YangandYau(1997), haveidealizedimpact loadsfromvehicles
movingover simpleandcontinuousbeamsusingimpact formulas. Theyclaimthat current
codesspecifyimpact factorsthat maysignificantlyunderestimatethebeamresponse.
Themaincharacteristicsof anidealizedimpulsiveloadsuchasthoseproducedbyimpact
or blast loading, arethepeakpressure, riseanddecayfunctionsandthe
Page257
Figure 6.18 Fragment impact pressure.
Figure 6.19 Idealizedhydrogendetonationpressure.
total duration. Theresponseof thestructurethendependsonhowtheseloadparametersrelate
totheparameterschosentomodel thestructure. For highratesof loadinganundamped
springs-masssystemisfrequentlychosentomodel thestructureandseveral authors, for
exampleCraig(1981) haveusedthisasauseful model toshowhowloadandstructural
parametersinteract.
A potentiallydamagingconditionimposedonastructurebyanyformof loading, is
displacement, whether it islocal strainor overall structural deflection. If that part of the
structure, whichwill displacethemost, canbeidentified, thenaSingleDegreeOf Freedom
(SDOF) model canbeconstructedasanequivalent
Page258
structurewheredisplacement at thecritical point onthestructureisgivenbytheextensionof
thespring. Toeasecomputationthemodel maybeundampedbecausedampingdoesnot
significantlyalter themagnitudeof thefirst peak of oscillationandit isthisdeflectionwhich
determineswhether or not thestructuresurvivesextremeloadsfromexplosionsor impact.
6.4.2 Influence of load characteristics on the response of an elastic spring-mass
SDOF system
Thepeaktransient deflectionof astructureunder aspecifiedloadingconditionisthesameas
theequivalent SDOF model that canbemoreeasilyanalysed(Craig, 1981). Theresult givesa
responsefunctionor dynamicloadfactor:
For instancethesuddenreleaseof themassminanSDOF systemcausesaforceP
0
=mg toact
ontheunstretchedspringof stiffnessk, producinganideal steploadwithrisetimet
r
ĺ0and
durationof loadt
d
ĺ ’ (Figure6.20).
ThissetstheSDOF systemintoelasticvibrationandthedynamicdeflectionu(t) varieswith
R(t) asthemassovershootstheequilibriumposition.
After several cyclesof vibrationwherethemaximumdynamicdeflectionhasreachedtwice
thestaticdeflection(Figure6.21), thedampedSDOF systemcomestorest atR(t)=1. Onthe
first cycle, themaximumvalueof R(t) issimilar for boththedampedandundampedsystems
andsowithonlyasmall error, anundampedsystemcanbeusedtodetermineR(t)
max
which
occursat t=T
n
/2where istheundampednatural period.
A rectangular pulseloadwitht
r
ĺ0but setstheSDOF t
d
<<’ systemintoforcedvibration
over thetimet
d
, andit thencontinuesinfreevibration(Figure6.22).
Thedeflectionof themassduringtheforcedvibration0” t” t
d
isthesameasthat for an
ideal steploadand0” R(t)”2(Figure6.23).
If t
d
•T
n
/2themaximumdeflectionoccursat t=T
n
/2whenR(t)=2. If t
d
”T
n
/2thenR(t)<2in
therange0” t ” t
d
. Whent >t
d
thenthemassisin
Figure 6.20 Ideal stepload.
Page259
Figure 6.21 Responseratiofor ideal stepload.
Figure 6.22 Rectangular pulseload.
Figure 6.23 Maximumresponseratiofor arectangular pulseload.
freevibrationandCraig’sanalysisshowsthat themaximumdeflectionisgivenbyR(t)
max
whentheSDOF systemisundamped.
Page260
Figure 6.24 Rampload.
R(t)
max
• 1duringthefreevibrationwhen , andduringthe
forcedvibrationwhent
d
/T
n
•0.25(i.e. themaximumdynamicdeflectionexceedsthestatic
deflection).
R(t)
max
=2inthefreevibrationerawhensin(ʌt
d
/T
n
)
=
1(i.e. t
d
/T
n
=0.5), or intheforced
vibrationerawhentd/T
n
• 0.5maximumdynamicdeflectionreachestwicethestatic
deflection).
A ramploadof finiterisetimet
r
anddurationt
d
ĺ’ isshowninFigure6.24.
WhenthisactsonanundampedSDOF systemCraig’sanalysisshowsthat thedeflectionof
themassdependsuponthedurationof therisetimeandtheratioof risetimetothenatural
periodof thesystemT
n
.
FromFigure6.25R(t)
max
=2whent
r
=0(i.e. anideal stepinput); as t
r
/T
n
increases, the
overshoot reducesandsmall oscillationsoccur about R(t)=1; andif t
r
>3T
n
thenloadcanbe
treatedasstaticanddynamiceffectsignored.
6.4.3 Elastoplastic response of an SDOF system
Inall thecasesconsideredabove, thespringintheSDOF systemistakentobelinearlyelastic.
If, however, theloadcausesthestructuretobecomeplastic, thenit canbemodelledusingan
undampedSDOF systemwithanelastoplasticspringwiththestiffnessfunctionshownin
Figure6.26.
ThiselastoplasticundampedSDOF systemhasbeenanalysedbyBiggs(1964) toobtainthe
elastic, plasticandrecoverydeflectionfor anideal steploadt
r
ĺ0; t
d
ĺ ’. Themaximum
deflectionu
m
will havetosatisfythelimitingductilityfactor u
m
/u
1
. If thesystemsurvivesthe
plasticdeflectionthenit will partiallyrecover andvibrateabout aresidual deflectedposition.
DesignchartshavebeenproducedfromBiggs’ solution; oneexampleisgiveninFigure2.17
of thisbook, showingthemaximumdeflectionof anelastoplasticundampedSDOF system
for astepload .
Page261
Figure 6.25 Responseratiofor arampload.
Figure 6.26 Elastoplasticspringstiffnessfunction.
Page262
6.5 DESIGNED RESPONSE
6.5.1 Principles of design for high rate dynamic loads
Extremeactionsduetohighrateloadingsuchascomefromimpact or blast, producea
responseinthestructurewhichdependsonhowtheparametersof theloadandthestructure
relatetoeachother (seeSection6.4). A varietyof analytical methodshavebeenproposedto
predict thisstructural responseandsoallowcomparisonstobemadewiththeperformance
limitschosenbythedesigner for deflectionor rotation.
Theseanalytical methodscanbeindependent of therateof loadingbut highrateloading
acceleratesthemassof thestructureproducinginertiaforces, alterstheconstitutivestress—
strainrelationshipfor manyconstructionmaterialsandproducesstrainwavescausinglocal
concentrationsof stress. For analysisunder dynamicloadthereal continuousstructureisoften
convertedintoanequivalent spring—masssystemwithlumpedmassessupportedbyelastic
or elastoplasticspringsthat model theresistance—displacement functionof thereal structure.
Thenumber of springsequalsthenumber of degreesof freedomthedesigner hastoconsider
toaccuratelydefinethemodesof deformation. Vibrationsof thissystemaredampedbyan
energyabsorbingfunctionthat relatestothedampinginthereal structure.
For blast andimpact designaSDOF isoftenassumedfor thestructural element whichis
thenmodelledasanundampedsystemof asinglelumpedmassonaspring. Thisonlygives
deflectionat thecentreof loadingonthestructureandsoimpliesadeformedshape, and
assumesthat onlythefirst peakamplitudeof vibrationissignificant andthat dampingdoes
not essentiallyalter thisvalue. Sincemassrelatesaccelerationtoinertiaforce, thesinglemass
of themodel must beequivalent tothedistributionof accelerationonthefull massof thereal
structureandtheresistanceof thespringinthemodel dependsuponthestiffnessof thereal
structurefor theparticular loadarrangement.
Thefollowingsectionreviewssomeof theanalytical methodsavailableintheliteratureof
dynamicdesign, includingsomecontinuousmassmodels.
6.5.2 Methods of design for extreme dynamic loads
6.5.2.1 Elastic impact factor method
Thismethodfor concept designassumesstructural resistanceisthat of amasslesslinear
elasticspringof stiffness k, therearenoinertiaforces, theforce-deflectionrelationshipis
linear for bothstaticanddynamicloadsandenergyisconserved.
A staticforceW producesdeflectionu
s
=W/k andimpact forceF producesadeflection
Page263
(i) If forceF isproducedbymassM fallingfromheight h andstaticforceW=Mg thenby
conservationof energyof thefallingmassandassumingthat all KE istransferredintostrain
energy:
bysubstitutingfor F andsolvingthequadraticequation:
where isanimpact factor ondeflectionandforce.
(ii) If W moveshorizontallyandimpactsat velocityv then strainenergy
andbysubstitutingfor F:
wheretheimpact factor
Inconcept designF isusedasanequivalent staticloadandu
d
ischeckedagainst the
ductilityratio.
6.5.2.2 Equivalent systems
A morerigorousdesignconvertsthestructureintoanequivalent spring—masssystemwith
lumpedmassessupportedbyelasticor elastoplasticspringsthat model theresistance—
displacement functionof thereal structure. Thenumber of springsequalsthenumber of
degreesof freedomthedesigner hastoconsider andalthoughmost structural elementshavea
largenumber of degreesof freedomtheir responsetodynamicloadingcanbeapproximated
byasingledegreeof freedomequivalent system. Whencheckingwhether thestructurecan
survivethefirst cycleof responsetoextremeblast or impact loading, dampingof theSDOF
systemisoftenneglected.
Consider theresponseof asimplysupportedbeamunder atimevaryingload/unit lengthof
beamw(t) andassumethat thedeflectedshapeof thebeamisthesameasproducedbythe
staticapplicationof theload(Baker et al., 1983) (Figure6.27).
for y
0
=maximumdisplacement at midspanandy
max
=(5wL
4
)/(384EI):
Page264
Figure 6.27 Elasticdeformation.
If thebeamistoberepresentedbyanundampedSDOF model withamasslesslinear spring,
Figure6.28, thenfor equivalencey
0
isequal inthebeamandthemodel.
Figure 6.28 Equivalent SDOF model.
Page265
External WD=Wy
0
; Internal strainenergy; equatingWD, UandKE
for thebeamandmodel gives:
Thesefactorstransformanelasticstructureintoanequivalent SDOF model andarederived
andlistedbyBiggs(1964), for several beamsandslabswithdifferent support andloading
conditions. Baker et al. (1983) haveshownthat thesetransformationfactorsdonot change
significantlyif thebeamdeformstothefirst modeshapethusthehigher modescontainedin
thestaticdeformedshapecanbeneglected.
Inresistingextremeactionsfromimpact andblast it isuneconomictodesignthestructure
usingonlytheelasticresistance. A considerableresistanceisobtainedfromtheplastic
behaviour. If thesimplysupportedbeamunder atimevaryinguniformlydistributedloadw(t)
hasaplastichingeformedat midspanthentheelasticdeformationcanbeneglectedby
assumingthat thebeamhasarigidplasticresistancedeformationfunction(Baker et al.
,
1983)
(Figure6.29):
Figure 6.29 Plasticdeformation.
Page266
For theequivalent systemwithplasticbehaviour, onlystrainenergydiffersfromthe
equivalent elasticSDOF. StrainenergyU=Ryo for theequivalent plasticSDOF systemwhere
R=theplasticresistanceof thespring(i.e. yieldforce).
Notethat KL, K
m
changewhenyieldingoccurs.
EquivalencebetweenthestructureandtheSDOF systemisbasedondeflection, not force
or stressanddynamicreactionsarenot givenbythespringforce. AnanalysisbyBaker et al.
(1983), for asimplysupportedbeamunder atimevaryingUDL=w(t), usesthemodel shown
inFigure6.30.
Usingafreebodydiagram, for theelasticdeflectionwherea=distancefromLHsupport to
thepoint of actionof theresultant of theinertiaforce:
tofindthevalueof a
,
themoment of elemental inertiaforcesabout theleft-hand
Page267
Figure 6.30 Dynamicreactionmodel.
support isequatedtothemoment of theresultant inertiaforce
For theelasticdeformedshapeunder staticload
andthedynamicreactionwhenthebeamremainselasticuptothemaximumloadis:
Whenyieldingoccursat themaximumloadthenassumingthebeamstill hasitselasticshape
curveandsubstitutingM
p
for M
x=L/2
that is, V
max
occurswhen wL ismax.
6.5.2.3 Structural response diagrams
Themaximumdeflectionof anequivalent SDOF systemloadedbyblast or impact canbe
obtainedfromthesolutiontotheequationof motion. Suchresponse
Page268
Figure 6.31 Responseratiofor asinusoidal forcingfunction.
diagramscanbereplottedaspressure-impulsediagramsandusedwhenit isalimit stateand
not thetimehistoryof thestructureunder transient loads, that isof interest.
For example, theresponseof anundamped, linear elasticSDOF system, stiffness k, massm,
toasinusoidal forcingfunction isplottedinFigure6.31onaxes:
whereR=Responseratio=dynamicloadfactor andcircular frequency
UsingBaker’smathematical approximationFigure6.32for anair blast wave, P(t)=P
0
e
–t/T,
wheresincee
–t
/
T
never reacheszero, T isusedasanequivalent durationof loadingtosolve
theequationof motionmÿ+ky=P
0
e
ít/T
for boundaryconditionsy=0, ÿ=0, t=0,
Figure 6.32 Approximateair blast wave.
Page269
Figure 6.33 Responseratiofor approximateair blast wave(Baker et al., 1983).
usingdy/dt=0, thetimeȦt
max
at whichy(t)=y
max
isfoundbytrial anderror for specificvalues
of ȦT andtheanalytical solutionisplottedgivingy
max
/(P
0
/k) asafunctionof ȦT (Figure6.33).
Sincetwostraight lineasymptotescanbeusedtoapproximatetheanalytical solution,
Baker identifiesthreedifferent loadingregions:
1. Quasi-staticregionwhenandthestructural responsey
max
= (P
0
/k) dependsonthepeakload
P
0
andstiffnessk, but not onthemassor durationT. Sincetheduration , the
appliedloadP(t) dissipatesverylittlebeforey
max
isreachedandthedisplacement isgiven
bythequasi-staticasymptote
2. Impulsiveregionwhen andthedisplacement isgivenbytheimpulsive
asymptote: whereP
0
T=ImpulseI therefore
isdirectlyproportional toI=P
0
T andalsodependsonthestiffnessk and
themassm. Theappliedloaddropsto0beforey
max
isreachedsincethedurationof load
3. Transitionregionwhen andthedisplacement
Page270
Figure 6.34 Responsetothepressure-impulseof anair blast wave.
y
max
/(P
0
/k) dependsonP
0
, k, I, m. Theloadandresponsetimeisof thesameorder of
magnitudeandy
max
dependsontheentireloadinghistorysincethedurationof load
Figure6.33isconvertedintothepressure—impulse(P—I) diagramof Figure6.34by
manipulationof theasymptotes. For anundampedlinear elasticSDOF systemtheordinale
andabscissaarerespectively:
Therectangular hyperboliccurveof theP—I diagramisanisodamagecurvedefiningcritical
combinationsof P
0
, I whichproducethedamagingdeformationlimit y
max
inanundamped
linear elasticSDOF specifiedbyk andm, equivalent toaspecificstructure:
Page271
Figure 6.35Responseof arigid—plasticsystem.
Ɣ deformationwill belarger thanthethresholddamageif (P
0
, I) movestotheregionabove
andtotheright of thecurve;
Ɣ changesinI, but not changesinP
0
, will move(P
0
, I) combinationsoff theimpulsive
asymptote;
Ɣ onlychangesinP
0
will move(P
0
, I) combinationsoff thequasi-staticasymptote.
Therigid—plasticSDOF systemshowninFigure6.35usesaCoulombfrictionelement to
model thestructural retardingforcef wherethedeformationy=0if P
0
” f.
Anenergybalancegivestheequationtothequasi-staticandimpulseasymptotes,
respectively, as:
6.5.2.4 Isodamage curves
Structural responsetotransient loadcanbeimpulsiveor quasi-static, andPíI diagramscanbe
usedfor different levelsof damage. Damagethat occursat a
Page272
specificdisplacement y
max
canbecausedbyimpulseor bypeakpressureandtherectangular
hyperboliccurveisthenanisodamagecontour.
UsingthefollowingprocedureaPíI diagramcanbeconstructedfor anequivalent elastic
SDOF systemwherek andm areknown, for example:
(1) Onlog-logpaper marktheordinateasreflectedpressureP
0
(kPa) andtheabscissaasthe
reflectedimpulseI (kPa-msec).
(2) Plot curvesof distancev explosivechargeweight usingpressureandimpulsevaluesfrom
atableof air blast parameterssuchasthecurvesfor TNT hemi-spherical surfaceblast from
KingeryandBulmash(1984).
(3) Drawtheimpulsiveasymptoteof theisodamagecurvefor themodeof damageoccurring
at y
max
; for example, for y
max
=200mmtheimpulsiveasymptote:
(4) Drawthequasi-staticasymptoteof theisodamagecurvefor themodeof damageoccurring
at y
max
=200mm:
(5) If thetransitioncurveisomitted, theasymptotesthengiveaconservativeestimateof the(I,
P
0
) combination, whichproducesthespecifiedmodeof damage.
6.6 DAMAGE MITIGATION
6.6.1 Energy absorbing crush-up materials
Shockattenuatingmaterialsareusedtoreduceboththepeakpressureandtheimpulse
transmittedtostructuresfromair or groundborneshockwaves. Whenthematerialsare
appliedtotheexternal surfacesit isknownas‘backpacking’ andstresswavesareattenuated
beforereachingthestructure. Thestrengthandthicknessof thestructurecanthenbereduced,
soreducingitscost.
External shockmitigatingmaterialsmust havealowcompressivestrengthwithahigh
compressibilityandenergyabsorption. Materialswithanelastoplasticstress-straincurvesuch
asrigidpolystyrene, polyurethanefoamsandcellular concreteareusedasshockmitigators.
Soalsoarematerialswithaplasto-elasticstress-straincurvesuchasfoamedrubber, expanded
clay, shaleandslag.
Anexternal ShockMitigating(ESM) systemdescribedbyMuszynski andRochefort (1993)
usesemptyplasticbottlestoconfineandentrapair inalow-
Page273
densitycementitiousmatrix. Another systemusesepoxiedhollowceramicbeadstoformfoam.
Staticcompressiontestsonthesematerialsdemonstratetheimportanceof confinement onthe
stress—straincurve. A dynamictest wasperformedusinggroundshockeffectsof close-in
detonationsagainst aconcretebasement wall. BothESM systemsreducedthetransmitted
stressonthewall byabout 90per cent of thepeak freefieldstress. Theimpulsewasreduced
byat least 12.5per cent.
HultonandMacKenzie(1998) useaqualitativeenergyanalysistoexplainwhysomeESM
systemsapparentlyincreasethevulnerabilityof awall insomecircumstances. It was
concludedfromexperimentsusinghighexplosiveair blast against wall panelsof lightly
reinforcedconcrete, that whenresponsewasintheimpulsiverange, damagetothewall was
increasedwhenanESM cellular steel panel wasusedthat absorbedenergythroughplastic
crushingof thecells. Experi-mentallyit wasobservedthat theESM reducedthereflected
pressureonthewall fromtheblast wave. If thiscorrespondswithareductionintheimpulse
onthewall, therewill beareductioninthekineticenergytransferredtothewall anddamage
shouldbereduced. Damage, however, wasincreasedintheimpulsiverange(i.e. whenthe
positivedurationof theblast wasmuchlessthanthenatural periodof thewall). Considering
theoverall energyit wasarguedthat areductioninthereflectedimpulseimpliesareduction
intheenergyreflectedfromthewall whichimpliesanincreaseintheenergyabsorbedbythe
wall andanincreaseindamageasobserved.
ZhaoandGary(1998) testedtwotypesof aluminiumhoneycombsinthethreeorthogonal
directions X
1
, X
2
andX
3
, under staticloadingandat impact velocitiesof 2, 10, 28m/sec. The
minor cell diameterswere4.7mmand6.2mmanddensitieswere130kg/m
3
and100kg/m
3
,
respectively, beforetesting.
Therewerenovisibledifferencesbetweenthestaticandimpact loadedhoneycombsfor X
1
andX
2
in-plane, lateral loading, but for eachdirectionthefailuremodewasdifferent. Under
X
1
loadingthemeanpressurewas0.09MPaat all ratesof loadingandthePresssure-Crushper
cent curveswereideal plasto-elasticcurves. Under X
2
loadingthePressure—Crushper cent
curveisideal elastoplastic, andthemeanpressureisclosetothestaticvalue. IntheX
3
out of
plane, axial loadingteststherewasa40per cent differenceinthemeancrushingpressure
betweenstaticandimpact loading. Themeanimpact crushingpressurewasconstant at 5.4
MPaandthePressure-Crushper cent curvewasideal elastoplasticfor all impact loads.
Wierzbicki (1983) givesthemeancrushingpressurep
m
asafunctionof theflowstressof
honeycombfoils, h thecell wall thickness, andS theminor cell diameter:
(6.13)
Theobservedenhancement of thecrushingstrengthislikelytodependmoreonstructural
inertiaandlessonthestrainratesensitivityof aluminiumfoils.
Thespecificenergyabsorbed(J /cm
3
) vs. normalizeddeformationof highdensitymetal
honeycombsat initial strainratesfromquasi-staticto2,000/sechasbeen
Page274
obtainedexperimentallybyBaker et al. (1998). Thehoneycombswerealuminiumwitha
density32per cent that of solidaluminiumandstainlesssteel withadensity37per cent that
of solidsteel. Thestainlesssteel honeycombabsorbedalmost doubletheenergyabsorbedby
thealuminiumhoneycombat similar deformation. Strainrateeffectswereobservedonstress
inbothmetals. Aluminiumtype5052, isnot expectedtobestrainratedependent andtherate
effect observedinthesetestswasconsideredtobesolelycausedbyachangeincollapsemode
asthestrainrateincreased. Post-test inspectionof thealuminiumhoneycomb, however, did
not showadistinct differenceinthepermanent deformationbetweenthequasi-staticand
impact tests. Thestainlesssteel honeycombislikelytohavecombinedmaterial andcollapse
rateeffects. It wasobservedthat deformationwasdistributedmoreuniformlyalongthelength
of thequasi-staticspecimenbut propagatedfromtheimpact endinthedynamictest.
Sierakowski andRoss(1993) demonstratedthat thepropertiesof novel thermoplastic
honeycombstructuresmanufacturedfromhighimpact polystyrene, polycarbonateandsurlyn,
werestrainratesensitive. Thecompressivedynamic/staticstrengthratiofor thematerials
testedinasplit Hopkinsonbar, at strainratesof approximately230/sec, wasbetween1.40and
1.47for thepolycarbonateandpolystyreneandwas3.72for thesurlyn. Strainat peakstress
decreasedwithincreasingstrainrateandtherewasnoincreaseinenergyabsorptionfor anyof
thesematerialsat highstrainratebut thehoneycombstructurehasconsiderablepotential for
energyabsorption. Thelongitudinal wavespeedinthepolycarbonatewasmeasuredtobe500
m/sec.
Harriganet al. (1998) demonstratedtheinertiaeffectsintheperformanceof energy
absorbingmaterialsandstructures, bothexperimentallyandcomputationally. Duringthe
dynamicinternal inversionof metal tubesof uniformthickness, inertiaproducedaninitial
peakforceinexcessof thesteadystateforceandreducedthesteadystateforcecompared
withitsquasi-staticvalue. Peaksinthecrushingforceof ESM systemsincreasetheshockon
thestructure. For cellular aluminiumhoneycombs, inertiamakesthecrushingstresssensitive
toimpact velocityandmodifiesthecrushingmechanismsat thecell wall, increasingtheinitial
crushingstressandtheplateaustress. Thestaticloaddisplacement characteristicsof the
aluminiumhoneycombspecimensaregiveninFigure6.36. Somespecimenswerepre-
crushedtoinitiateinelasticdeformationandsomewereuncrushed.
Toassessthedynamicpropertiesof aluminiumhoneycombs, cylindrical specimensonthe
endof aninstrumentedHopkinsonpressurebar wereimpactedat velocitiesof 20m/secupto
300m/sec. Thedynamicforcepulsewasmeasured, givingtheinitial peak stressandthe
energyabsorptioncharacteristics.
Thequasi-staticuniaxial load-displacement curvesareelastoplasticwithaninitial peak
stressfor thepre-crushedspecimenstypically60per cent of that for theinitiallyuncrushed
specimens. Theplateaustresswasthesamefor crushedanduncrushedspecimensat
approximatelytheinitial peakstressof thepre-crushedspecimens. All specimenshada
lockingdisplacement andthespecificenergy
Page275
Figure 6.36 Thestaticload-displacement characteristicsof analuminiumhoneycomb.
absorptioncapacitywas determinedfromtheareaunder theload-displacement curves. If
lockupoccursbeforesufficient energyhasbeenabsorbed, thentheESM systemmayact to
increasetheshockloadingonthestructure. Theratioof dynamictostaticinitial peakcrushing
stressandplateaustress, increasesignificantlywithimpact velocityandwouldneedtobe
evaluatedwhendesigninganESM system. It isbeneficial that theenergyabsorptionincreases
significantlywithincreasingimpact velocity.
Densityandstrainratedependenceinfluencetheyieldor peakinitial stress, theplateau
stressandthelock-upor compactionstraininpolyurethanefoamsandcanhaveimportant
consequenceswhentheyareusedfor ESM systems. Beneficial effectsoccur whenthe
changesincreasetheareaunder thestressstraincurvesoincreasingtheenergyabsorption
capacity. Theeffectsaredetrimental if lock-upoccurs, soincreasingthetransmittedload. The
strainratesensitivityof polyurethanefoamsof different densityhasbeenreportedby
KuennenandRoss(1991). Theseexperimentshaveshownthat thereisatendencyfor the
lock-upstraintodecreaseasstrainrateincreases. A reductionof 10to30per cent was
discernedat strainratesabove10
3
/sec. Polyurethanewithdensitybetween0.16and0.48g/cc
testedat strainratesfrom2×10
3
to3×10
3
/sechad, respectively, dynamicyieldandplateau
stressfrom1.5to2.0timesgreater thanthestaticstressat 15per cent strain. Thestaticand
dynamiccompressivestress—straincurveshadthecharacteristicelastoplasticcompaction
shape.
Fujimotoet al. (1991) testedESM systemsfor undergroundstructuresbyimpactingthe
surfaceof sandor bentoniteclaycoveringabeam. Thiswasprotectedfromthesubsurface
shockbyanESM systemof either apaper honeycombof threedifferent strengths, or
polyethylenefoam. Thegroundshockwasdeterminedbymeasuringtheflexural stressinthe
beamat midspan. The
Page276
staticcompressivestrength—displacement curvesfor thepaper honeycombwaselastoplastic
withnocompactioncurve, but waselasticwithacompactioncurve, for thepolyethylenefoam.
Thepaper honeycombwasthemost successful ESM andreducedthestressat midspanto
about 30per cent of thevaluewithnoESM. ThePolyethylenegavehardlyanystress
reductioninthebeam, probablybecauseit compactedearlyinthedeformation. Without an
effectiveESM thebeamwouldneedmuchgreater hardnessor depthof earthcover tolimit
thestressinthebeam.
Shockmitigatingsystemsdonot havetobeappliedtotheexternal surfaceof an
undergroundstructuretoreducethedamagingeffectsof groundshock. Krauthammer et al.
(1995) reportedthat atrenchfilledwithsoft material reducedthepeakstressfrom5.7MPato
2.75MPafromanundergroundexplosion.
If asubsurfaceexplosionproducesfragments, soft materialsthat mitigatethegroundshock
will beineffectiveinstoppingthefragments. Anderson et al. (1995) testedconcreteslabsby
impact froma7.62mmarmour piercingbullet. A surfacelayer withpolystyrenebeads
replacingsomeof theaggregate, waseasilyperforatedalthoughit didreducetheconcrete
crater. Most successful wastheuseof slurryinfiltratedconcrete(SIFCON) cast asasurface
layer onaconcreteslabwithconventional aggregates, Andersonet al. (1992).
6.7 DESIGN CODES
6.7.1 General principles of design codes for dynamic loading
Codesof Practicehaveanimportant functionof reassurancetothegeneral public. Theyare
theinterfacebetweenthedesigner, constructor, researcher andmanufacturer andgive
legislativecontrol over thestandardsof thebuildingandconstructionindustry. It isthrough
thecodesof practiceandbuildingregulationsthat Governmentsbringabout changes. After
theRonanPoint collapsein1968, changestoimprovetherobustnessof buildingswere
introducedbyanamendment totheBuildingRegulations1970andthentoCodesof Practice
from1972.
Damageresultingfromthefailureof anelement shouldnot spreaddisproportionately, a
robustnessthat RonanPoint clearlydidnot possess. Vulnerablekeyelementsandsubframes,
must bedesignedtoresist extremeloadsandif thisisimpractical, thenthestructuremust be
providedwithwaystolimit thecollapsefollowingthefailureof theelement.
Thissectiondealsonlywiththerecommendationsprovidedinstandardcodesof practiceto
improvetherobustnessof constructedfacilities. Theycanberegardedasaminimum
requirement andit ispossiblethat noother actionneedstobetakenagainst extremeloads
whenthereisonlyaremotepossibilityof themoccurring. Facilitieswhichareat risk, or
wouldhavetoprovideessential recoveryservicessuchashospitals, bridgesandpublic
utilities, shouldbedesignedfor theextremeloading.
Page277
6.7.2 Accidental and extreme loading
BS8110: Part 1:1997, Part2:1985
TheseCodesof Practicefor thestructural useof concreterecommendwaystoimprove
robustnessandstructural integrity. Dynamiceffectsincludewindloadsandvibration, special
hazardsfor flourmillsandchemical plantswhichcouldincludeexplosions, andshockloading
onprestressedconcretebeamswhichcouldincludeimpact. A structureisrobust if it isnot
disproportionatelysusceptibletotheeffectsof accidental loadingincludingunexpectedand
extremedynamicloading.
Tomakeit morerobust, reinforcingbarstiethestructuretogether toresist anotional
horizontal load. Thisloadisappliedsimultaneouslyat eachfloor or roof level andat each
level hasthevalueof 1.5per cent of thecharacteristicdeadweight of thestructuretomid-
height of thestoreyaboveandbelow. Thisnotional loadactslikewindloadingor an
equivalent horizontal forceasaresult of framesway, andsodoesnot alter thedeformedshape
of thestructurefromthat under normal designloads. Dynamicloadingfromimpact and
explosionsproducesadifferent responsetothat fromthenormal designloadsof gravityand
wind. Thesedynamiceffectscaninclude:
Ɣ support reactionsinthesamedirectionastheshockload;
Ɣ shockloadsoppositeindirectiontogravityor windloads;
Ɣ achangeinthematerial andstructural propertieswithrateof loading;
Ɣ achangeinthemodeof flexural andlongitudinal deformation;
Ɣ rapidchangesinthedistributionof theloadacrossthestructural element.
Structural integritydependsonhavingaloadpathfor all loadsincludingaccidental, to
transfer themfromthepoint of applicationtoafoundationandtheground. Extremeaccidental
loadsmight sever theloadpathandsoredundancyisneededtoprovidealternativeloadpaths.
Thecodesdonot relaterobustnessor structural integritytoanyparticular loadinganda
concretestructureof morethanfour storeysisassumedtohaveadequaterobustnessagainst a
general arrayof accidental actions.
A flowchart of thedesignprocedurefor ensuringrobustnessandtheempirical designof
tiesusingpartial loadfactorsonloadsandmaterial propertiesisgiveninPart 2of thecode.
Theloadfactor takesintoaccount possibleincreasesinload, andtheeffectsof exceptional
loadscausedbymisuseor accident, combinedwithdeadloadandaproportionof thewind
andliveloads. For theseaccidental loadcasesthepartial safetyfactorsfor loadsȖf=1.05and
materialsȖm=1.3for concreteinflexureand1.0for steel reinforcement, arelessthanthose
usedindesignfor thestandardstaticloads, althoughtheuncertaintyof theloadandof the
material strengthisunlikelytobelessfor accidental loadcases. If theloadsareappliedat a
rateof strainingabove10/sec, thesteel andconcreteyieldstrengthwill beenhancedand
possiblyoffset uncertaintyinthedesignload. Thedesigner couldchangetheȖ factorsonload
toachievethesameeffect.
Page278
Internal tiesarereinforcingbarsspreadevenlywithinthefloor slabsor groupedinwallsor
beams, andmust becontinuousandwell anchored. Thetiecrosssectional areaisdetermined
fromaprescribedtensileforce, calculatedfromthetotal characteristicloadsappliedtothe
floor, thenumber of storeysinthestructureandtheeffectivespanof theslabinthedirection
of thetie. Flexural reinforcement mayalsobeusedtocomplement thetiesteel. Theflexural
steel isassumedtobeactingat itsdesignstrengthandthetiesteel at itscharacteristicstrength.
Curtailment of flexural longitudinal reinforcement tomatchthebendingmoment diagram
must not reducethetiesteel at anysection.
Peripheral tiesaredesignedtoresist anominal tensileforceF
t
, that dependsonlyuponthe
number of storeysfor buildingsuptotenstoreys, andisconstant at 60kNfor buildingsabove
tenstoreysandcontinuousaroundtheedgeof thebuilding. Theyresist theforceinthe
internal tiestoprovidethemwithadequateanchorage.
Columnsandwallsaroundtheperimeter of abuildingaretobeanchoredtothestructureat
eachfloor androof level. Thehorizontal tiemust haveatensileresistancebasedonthe
number of storeys, thefloor toceilingheight or thetotal designloadinthecolumnor wall.
Thebenefit of havingthisreinforcement isclear but it canbeomittedif theperipheral tieis
withinanexternal wall andhorizontal tyinganchorstheinternal tiestotheperipheral ties.
Corner columnsmust betiedintwoapproximatelyorthogonal directionsat eachstorey.
Vertical tiesineachcolumnor wall must becontinuousfromthelowest tothehighest level.
Keyelementsinbuildingsover four storeysaredesignedfor anultimateloadof 34kN/m
2
appliedfromanydirectionontheprojectedareaof themember, andonanyhorizontal
member providingessential lateral support tothekeymember, andonanyattachedelement
suchasacladdingpanel, supportedbythekeyelement. Anallowancecanbemadefor the
strengthof theattachedelement anditsconnection.
Inbuildingsover four storeys, beamor slabelementssupportingthemaximumdesign
ultimatedeadandimposedload, must bedesignedtobridgetheincreasedspanwhena
supportingvertical element onthestoreybelow, isremoved. Catenaryactionmaybeutilized
for thiswhenthenecessaryhorizontal reactionsareprovidedat theadjacent supports.
A wall isabletoprovidelateral restraint if it iscapableof resistingtheperipheral tieforce
F
t
kNappliedhorizontallyoneachmetreheight of wall.
Under extremeloadingfromimpact or explosionstheserviceabilitylimit stateswouldbe
exceededandthefeasibilityof carryingout repairswouldhavetobeassessed.
Duringconstructiontheriskof imposingextremeloadsispresent whenliftingelementsby
craneandincollapseof thepartiallyconstructedframe.
Toprovidecontinuoustiesinprecast concreteconstruction, part of thelengthof eachbar in
anelement, islappedor splicedwithanchoredbarsfromthesupports. Suchconnectionsare
toppedwithin situ concreteandthestaticloadinthetiegivesthebondor thebearingstress.
Theoverall stabilityof thebuilding
Page279
duringconstructionor after accidental damageislikelytodependontheseconnections.
ENV 1993–1–1:1992 Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures
Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings
Thisrecent codeismoreexplicit thanmanyof theBScodesinrequiringthat astructureshall
resist explosions, impact, or theconsequenceof humanerrors, andavoiddisproportionate
damage. Tolimit thepotential damage, designerscould:
Ɣ avoid, eliminateor reducethehazardstowhichthestructureisexposed;
Ɣ select astructural formwhichhaslowsensitivitytothehazards;
Ɣ select astructural formanddesigntosurvivetheaccidental removal of anindividual
element;
Ɣ tiethestructuretogether.
Theserequirementsaremet bychoosingsuitablematerials, byappropriatedesignand
detailingandbyspecifyingcontrol proceduresfor their production, constructionanduse. The
National Application Document for useintheUK withENV 1993–1–1:1992, statesthat
substantial permanent deformationof membersandconnectionsisacceptableinachieving
theserequirements.
Thegeneral recommendationsfor structural integrityareverysimilar tothosein
BS8110:1997for reinforcedconcretebuildings. Internal ties, columnties, edgetiesand
peripheral tiesareall requiredat eachprincipal floor androof level tolocalizeaccidental
damage. Thesetiesmust haveadesigntensileresistancenot lessthan75kNat floorsand40
kNat theroof. Tiesinthefloorsof multi-storeybuildingsdependuponw
f
thetotal design
loadontheslab, s
t
themeantransversespacingof theties, andL
a
thegreatest distanceinthe
directionof thetiebetweencentresof adjacent linesof support. Theforcemust be:
Ɣ for internal ties, 0.5w
f
s
t
L
a
;
Ɣ for edgeties, 0.25wf s
r
L
a
;
Ɣ for peripheral ties, thegreater of theseor 75kN at floorsand40kN at theroof, or 1per cent
of thedesignvertical loadinthecolumnat that level;
Ɣ columnlengthsmust havespliceswithadesigntensileresistancenot less thanof the
designvertical loadappliedtothecolumnfromthefloor belowthesplice.
EC3differsfromBS8110inspecifyingthat if asinglecolumnisremoved, theremust benot
morethan70m
2
or 15per cent of theareaof thestoreythat collapsesunder persistent floor
loadsfactoredbytheȥ factors.
Page280
Keyelementsarethosesupportingmorethan70m
2
or 15per cent of theareaof thestorey,
andtheir essential lateral restrainingelements. Theseelementsmust not fail whenloadedby
anaccidental loadA
K
not lessthan34kN/m
2
factoredbyȖA=1.05, appliedintheappropriate
directions. Thereactionsfromother buildingcomponentsattachedtothekeyelement and
subjectedtoA
K
must alsobeincludedbut limitedbytheultimatestrengthof thecomponents
or connections. Thevalueof A
K
isnot limitedto34kN/m
2
but dependsupontheimportance
of thekeyelement andtheconsequencesof failure. Thisaccidental loadisassumedtoact in
combinationwiththedeadandimposedloadsusingacombinationfactor.
EC3isalimit statecodeandstructural elementsmust bedesignedfor ultimatelimit states
whensubjectedtoimpact or blast definedasaccidental actions. Structuresunder smaller
impact loadsappliedcyclically, for instancebysomeindustrial machinery, must bechecked
fromfirst principlesfor theserviceabilitylimit stateof vibration. Actionsareclassifiedby
their variationintimeandimpact andblast, althoughshort relativetoother formsof loading,
canoftenbetreatedasanequivalent staticloadif thedurationislongrelativetothenatural
periodof thestructural element. Actionsarealsoclassifiedbytheir spatial variationandthis
maychangerapidlywhenconfinedblast pressuresareapplied, or fromacloserange.
Characteristicvaluesfor impact andblast aremost likelytobespecifiedbytheclient and
thedesigner but needtosatisfytheminimumA
K
=34kN/m
2
specifiedbythecode. Thedesign
valueof theaccidental actionisA
d
÷Ȗ
A
A
k
whereȖ
A
isthepartial safetyfactor for accidental
actions.
Material propertiesarecharacteristicvalues, whichallowfor variabilityinasamplefrom
variationsinmanufacture. Theuseof twocharacteristicvaluesisuseful whenanaccidental
actionisdynamicwithavariablerateof loading. Manymaterialsusedinconstructionhavean
increaseinstrengthandstiffnessat highstrainrates. Toneglect thisincreasemaybe
conservativefor checkingtheresponseof theelement but not for checkingtheresponseof its
connections. Thedesignmaterial propertyisX
d
=X
k

M
, whereȖ
M
isthepartial safetyfactor.
Thedesignrequirement for safetyof astructureisthat theultimatelimit statedesign
capacityisat least equal totheaccidental actions:
whereG
k, j
, Q
k,1
andQ
k,I
arethecharacteristicvaluesof thepermanent actions, themain
variableactionandanyaccompanyingvariableactionsrespectively. Thevalues Ȗ
Gj
, Ȗ
GA,j
and
Ȗ
QI,
arethepartial safetyfactorsfor thepermanent actions, thepermanent actionsinaccidental
designsituationsandthevariableactionrespectivelyandaretakenasequal to1.0. Thefactors
ȥ
1,1
andȥ
2,I
givethequasi-permanent fractionof thevariableactionsQ
k,I
andQ
k,I
. This
designvaluecanbeusedafter anaccidental event for checkingtheremainingdesigncapacity,
inwhichcaseA
d
=0. Whenconsideringanaccidental situation, thedirectionandpositionof
theaccidental actionsmaybedifferent fromthepermanent andvariableactionsarisingfrom
thenormal useof thestructure.
Page281
ENV 1991–2–7:1998 Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures.
Part 2–7: Actions on structures—Accidental actions due to impact and explosions
Thethree-year periodof experimental applicationfor thiscodebeganinAugust 1998, during
whichperiodit isonlyapprovedfor provisional applicationandopenfor comment.
Accidental impact forcesfromroador rail trafficunder bridgesor other structuresandfrom
vehiclesonthebridgearegivenfor thedesignof structural elementsor their protection
systems. Forcesfor shipimpact aregiven, andfor heli-copter emergencylandingimpact when
thelandingpadisontheroof of abuilding.
Accidental explosionsareconsideredtobeof thedeflagrationtypefromair—gasor air—
dust mixtures. Thepressureriseisslowrelativetodetonationsandthereisaconstant gas
pressurephasefollowingthepeak. Thedurationisusuallylonger thanthat of detonations.
Impact andexplosiveactionsarecategorizedintermsof injuryanddeathtopeople,
unacceptablechangetotheenvironment, andlargeeconomiclossto thecommunity. When
theconsequencesarelowtomediumthestaticequivalent forces, or prescriptivedesignand
detailing, canbeadoptedfor designof thestructural elementsandprotectivesystems. A more
advancedanalysisisindicatedfor themost seriousconsequences. Theacceptablerisklevel
andseriousnessof theconsequenceshastobedeterminedcasebycaseandbypublicreaction
tothecost anddisturbanceof installingsafetymeasuresandreactionafter anaccident. A
structureisconsideredtobeat riskfromanaccidental actionwhentheprobabilityof the
actionexceeds10
í4
per year. Thenecessarystatisticsarenot oftenavailableandnominal
designvaluesaregivenfor useinpractice.
Horizontal staticequivalent designforcesduetovehicleimpact onthesupporting
substructureof abridge, suchaswallsandcolumns, aretabulatedfor thetypeof roadand
vehicle. Themaximumforceis1,000kNinthedirectionof normal travel for atruckona
motorwayandtheminimumis40kNfor acar inaparkinggarage. Thenominal forces
perpendicular tothedirectionof normal travel varyfrom500kNto25kN for thesecases.
Theseloadsarespreadover prescribedimpact zones. Nohorizontal forcesneedtobe
consideredonoverheadelementsunlesstheclearanceislessthan6m. If it isless, thena
prescribedhorizontal forcedeterminedbytheclearanceisappliedtovertical surfacesanda
forceinclinedat 10°tothehorizontal actsontheundersideof thebridgeover thetrafficlane.
Horizontal staticequivalent designforcesduetoimpact of rail trafficonoverheadbridges
or nearbystructures, arealsospecifiedparallel andperpendicular tothetrackdirection. The
maximaare10,000kNand3,500kN, respectively, dependingonthespeedof thetrainand
act onaspecifiedarea. Impact forcesonthesuperstructureof thebridgearenot specified.
Staticequivalent designforcesfrom22,000kNto4,000kNarespecifiedfor accidental
actionscausedbyshipimpact. Thebowimpact zoneisdimensionedaboveandbelowthe
water linebut couldbealteredbytheliftingof thebowonimpact
Page282
withacolumnfoundationblock. Modificationfactorsareusedonthestaticequivalent forces
for sternandsideimpactsandbowimpact byashipoff course.
Equivalent staticloads, or prescriptivedesignanddetailingrulesarealsospecifiedfor the
designof structural elementsandprotectivesystemsunder accidental actionsproducedbyan
explosion. A full dynamicanalysisisonlyrecommendedfor categorythreeconsequences.
Typical pressuresfor air—gasandair—dust deflagrationsaregivenas1,500kN/m
2
and
1,000kN/m
2
but will dependonthesize, shapeandventingof theenclosure. Thenotional
accidental staticpressurefor thedesignof akeyelement incategory2is20kN/m
2
fromany
directionwithanaddedreactionfromanattachedbuildingcomponent subjectedtothesame
pressure. Thiscontrastswiththe34kN/m
2
usedinBritishStandardcodes.
6.8 REFERENCES
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turbinemissileimpact’, ASCE J.Struct. Engineering, 122(1), p. 99.
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Evaluation , Elsevier ScientificPublishing.
Barr, P., Brown, M.L., Carter, P.G., Howe, W.D., J owett, J ., Neilson, A.J . andYoung, R. L. D. (1980)
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onDesignof Chemical andNuclear Installationsagainst Impact fromPlant GeneratedMissiles,
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(in-corporatingA mendment 1).
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Page285
Chapter 7
Human-induced vibrations
J.W.Smith
7.1 INTRODUCTION
Human-inducedforcescanbecritical inthedesignof certaintypesof structure. Significant
dynamicloadingisgeneratedbyquitenormal activitiessuchaswalking, running, marching
anddancing. Light or flexiblestructures, for examplefootbridgesandlightweight floors, are
particularlysusceptibleandcanbemadetovibratewithunacceptableintensityunder the
motionof asinglepersoninsomecases. Theproblemmaybeevenmoreseriouswhenlarge
numbersof peoplejump, danceor swayinunisonasat popconcertsor sportsevents.
Designersshouldgiveparticular attentiontothepossibilitiesof vibrationwhendesigningthe
following: footbridges, longspanlightweight officefloors, lightweight staircases, dancehalls
or gymnasiums, andgrandstandsor other auditoria.
Therearethreeimportant elementsinthedesignof structuresfor humanloading. First, the
overall loadinganditsdynamiccomponentsmust beassessed. Thisisnot easybecausethe
behaviour of humanbeingsisnotoriouslydifficult toquantify. Designguidanceisavailable
for footbridges, light floorsandgrandstandsbut numerical informationisgenerallylimitedto
conventional structural forms. Great careshouldbetakenwithunusual structuresparticularly
if largenumbersof peoplearelikelytobeinvolved.
Secondly, theanalytical model of thestructureandloadingmust beconsidered. Relatively
simpleclosedformsolutionsaregenerallypossiblefor longspanfloorsthat arerectangular in
plan. Simplesolutionsarealsoavailablefor footbridgeswithsimplestructural configurations.
However, inrecent yearstherehasbeenatrendtowardsfootbridgeswithambitiousstructural
forms. Somehavebeenbuilt inbusyurbanenvironmentswithincreasedriskof dynamic
crowdloadingandexistingdesignrulesareinadequateinthesecircumstances. Simplified
modellingisnot satisfactoryandrecoursetofiniteelement procedureswill berequired. An
important factor isthat humanloadingishighlymobile, andfor important structuresawide
rangeof loadcasesandpositionsshouldbeconsidered. Modal analysisbyfiniteelementswill
generallyberequiredfor grandstandsbecauseof their geometry. Theconsequencesof
collapseof agrandstandareveryseriousand
Page286
everyeffort shouldbemadetoensurethat anextensiverangeof loadingscenarioshavebeen
consideredandaccuratelyanalysed.
Finally, thedesigncriteriahavetobeconsidered. Detrimental consequencesof human
inducedvibrationmayincludeover stressof thestructureor perceptiblemotionthat is
unpleasant for humanusers. Rhythmicloading, suchasmarchingor dancing, canresult in
largedynamicamplificationthat mayresult instructural damageor collapse. A famous
exampleof thiswasthecollapseof acast ironbridgeat Broughtonin1831under the
resonanceof 60soldiers(Tillyet al., 1984). Thisledtothecustomof troopsbreakingstep
whenmarchingover bridges. A morerecent examplewasthecollapseof part of atemporary
grandstandat Bastia, inCorsicain1992, whichwasthought tohavebeentriggeredby
exuberant crowdmotionandresultedintragiclossof life. Ontheother hand, thevibrationof
astructuremaybeunacceptablesimplybecauseof thesensitivityof humanstotheperception
of motion. Thisisanunserviceabilitylimit statethat isneverthelessveryimportant. Thereare
casesonrecordof footbridgesthat werefoundtobetoolivelywhenbuilt andrequired
remedial treatment intheformof additional dampingtoreducethealarmingintensityof
motion(Brown, 1977). TheLondonMillenniumFootbridgeisanevenmorerecent example.
Vibrationof light floors, causedbyfootfall innormal usage, canbedisturbingtooccupantsof
buildingsparticularlyif theyaretryingtodosensitivework.
7.2 THE NATURE OF HUMAN-INDUCED DYNAMIC LOADING
7.2.1 Vertical loads due to walking
Vertical loadunder apersonwalkingwasstudiedinitiallybyHarper et al. (1961). Human
locomotionisacomplexphenomenonbut fromthepoint of viewof vertical loadinga
relativelysimpledescriptionsuffices. It ischaracterizedby‘heel strike’ followedbyastiff
leggedactionastheupper bodypassesover thefoot incontact withtheground, andfinally
‘toeoff at theendof thestride. Thereisabrief periodwhenbothfeet areincontact withthe
groundwhenthe‘heel strike’ and‘toeoff becomeadditiveresultinginasharpimpact. During
thismotionthecentreof gravityof theupper bodyrisesandfallsbyabout 50mmresultingin
avertical accelerationandcorrespondingperiodicinertiaforceat thepacingfrequency.
Assuminganormal walkingfrequencyof 1.6to2.0Hz asimplecalculationshowsthat the
vertical forcewill haveanamplitudeof betweenabout 150Nand200N.
Accuratemeasurementsof thevertical forcesduringwalkingweredeterminedwiththeaid
of anorthopaedic‘gait’ machinebySkorecki (1966). Force-timecurvesgivingthevertical
component of typical foot impactsareshowninFigure7.1. Twopeaksoccur
characteristicallyunder ‘heel strike’ and‘toeoff’. Thesizesof thepeaksincreasewithspeed
of walking. Whenapersonruns, ‘toeoff’
Page287
Figure 7.1 Force-timecurvewalking(vartical component): (a) normal walk; (b) fast walk; (c)
combinedvartical force.
Page288
dominatesandthereisalsoamoment whenthepersonisactuallyinflight andneither foot is
incontact.
Furthermore, it shouldbenotedthat asapersonwalksacrossastructure, thepoint of
contact changeswithtime. If thespanislongcomparedwiththestridelength, amoving
periodicforcemayrepresent theforcingfunctionsufficientlyaccurately. Thisforcemaybe
determinedbyaddingthevertical contributionsof bothfeet asshowninFigure7.1c. The
result isaperiodicforcingfunction, whichmaybedecomposedintoitsFourier series
components. Thefirst harmonicisthelargest andBlanchardet al. (1977) recommendeda
magnitudeof 180N. Thisisparticularlyimportant inthecaseof footbridgesandlongspan
floors, whichmaybeexcitedsignificantlybyasingleperson.
LenzenandMurray(1969) proposedthe‘heel drop’ test, whichconsistsof apersonof
averageweight risinguponhisor her toesandthendroppingsuddenlyontheheels. A typical
force—timecurveisshowninFigure7.2a. The‘heel drop’ test wassuggestedfor assessing
thevibrationsusceptibilityof lightweight officefloorsunder randomwalkingloads. This
impulse, whichlastsabout 1/20of asecond, not onlysimulatesheel strikebut isalso
consideredtoberepresentativeof other miscellaneousimpactsinanofficeenvironment (e.g.
droppedobjects). Typical vibrationunder ‘heel drop’ isshowninFigure7.2b. Inprinciplethe
locationsof impactsarerandombut thegreatest effect will occur whenapersonisinthe
vicinityof midspanof afloor. Recent studiesbyEllis(2000) haveindicatedthat individual
heel strikesdominatetheresponseof floorswithhighdamping, but that resonancewiththe
Fourier componentsof thevertical walkingforceisthemost important factor for lightly
dampedfloors.
Loadingonstaircasesissimilar but moreintensethanfloor loading. Thisisbecausepeople
oftenrunupanddownstairsresultinginveryhighheel strikeinthelatter case. Thisisnot
generallyaproblemfor conventional reinforcedconcretestaircases. However, therehave
beeninstancesof staircaseswithlight or unusual supportingstructures, designedfor
architectural effect, that havebeenfoundtovibrateexcessivelyunder dynamicloading.
7.2.2 Rhythmic excitation
Dancing, aerobicsandcertaingymnasiumexercisesarerhythmicinnature. Theyoften
involvejumpingandmaybeco-ordinatedbymusicor other sourceof regular prompting. This
isusuallyreferredtoas‘dance-type’ loadingandbecauseit isperiodicit isparticularly
important fromthepoint of viewof resonancewiththenatural frequencyof thefloor structure.
If themeasuredperiodicforcingfunctionunder dance-typeloadingisdecomposedinto
component frequenciesit isfoundthat themost important frequenciesarebetween2and3Hz
althoughsignificant frequenciesashighas5Hz canbegenerated. HeinsandYoo(1975)
investigatedadancehall inwhichthefloor hadanatural frequencyof approximately3Hz
andthevibrationsduring‘rock’ dancesweredistinctlyunpleasant.
Thedynamiceffect of crowdloadingisimportant. Under normal circumstances,
Page289
Figure7.2Heel droptest: (a) averageforce/timecurvefor heel impact; (b) vibrationcausedbyimpact
(fromLenzenandMurray, 1969).
thecombinedeffect of thedynamiccomponentsof largenumbersof peopleisnot significant
becauseof randomnessintheir movementsandalackof co-ordination. Hence, astaticload
representativeof theweight of closelypackedpeoplewill besatisfactory. However, aswith
dance-typeloading, theco-ordinatingeffect of musicmaygiverisetolargeperiodic
excitationandtheriskof resonance. Irwin(1981) reportedextremeconditionsat apop
concert whenco-ordinatedjumpingof thedenselypackedcrowd, intimewiththebeat of the
music, generatedadynamicresponsefactor of 1.97at apredominant frequencyof 2.5Hz. A
similar
Page290
problemmayoccur insports stadiaor grandstandswhensportsfansswaytoandfro
rhythmically, hencegeneratingsubstantial horizontal forces, but generallyat alower
frequencythanthevertical (Ellis et al. 1994). A further problemmayoccur duetohuman
psychological interactionwiththefeedbackfromthemotionof astructure, asoutlinedbelow.
7.2.3 Interaction between the structure and human body
Humaninducedforces, suchasvertical loadsunder pedestrians, cannot betreatedinisolation.
Thisisbecauseof interactionbetweenthemotionof thestructureandthehumanbodythat is
itself acomplexmechanical system. ThisisillustratedinFigure7.3inwhichahumanbodyis
representedby asystemconsistingof masses, springsanddampingelements, whilethe
structureinthiscaseisasimplebeamwithappropriatemassandstiffness. J i andEllis(1997a)
showedthat whenapersonisstationarys/heactslikeaspring—mass—damper attachedto
thestructureandaffectsitsvibrationcharacteristics. However, whendancingor jumpinga
persondoesnot appear toaffect thestructureinthesameway. It isasif thetwosystems
behaveindependently. It isalsoclear that ahumanbodynever actssimplyasadeadweight.
For thisreasonthefrequencyanalysisof floorsor bridgesshouldbebasedontheunloaded
massof thestructure. Inthecaseof crowdloadingof stadiumstructuresthismatter isnot so
clear. Reidet al. (1997) recommendthat themassof spectatorsshouldbeincludedwhen
calculatingthehorizontal frequenciesbut that somejudgement maybeusedinthecaseof
vertical frequencies(Reidet al. discussion, 1998).
Figure7.3Mechanical model for humanstructureinteraction.
Page291
A further complicationarisesfromthepsychological responseof apersonexperiencing
feedbackfromthemotionof thestructure. Thishasbeennotedinthecaseof excessively
livelyfootbridges. Fujino et al. (1993) notedthat crowdsof peopleusingafootbridgeof
flexibledesigntendedtoget intostepwiththehorizontal motionof thestructure. This, of
course, increasedthehorizontal vibration. Thereasonfor thisphenomenonisthought tobe
thehumanbody’ssubconsciousdesiretominimizeenergyusageinwalking. Brown(1977)
madesimilar observationsbut notedthat if themotionbecameextremeit interferedwith
pedestrians’ abilitytowalknormally, hencecausingthemtostop, slowdownor get out of
resonance.
Thehumanbodyishighlysensitivetomotionandit isusuallythecasethat peopleona
structurewill noticethevibration, andevenfindit unpleasant, well beforethereisanyover
stressof thestructural membersthemselves. For thisreasonmuchresearchhasbeencarried
out todetermineacceptablelimitstovibrationfromthepoint of viewof humanusers
(GuignardandGuignard, 1970; Irwin, 1978; Irwin, 1983). Accelerationof thefloor during
dynamicmotion, whether it bevertical or horizontal, isacceptedasbeingthebest parameter
bywhichtomeasurehumansensitivitytovibration, althoughat highfrequenciesvelocityisa
useful measure. DesigncriteriaareprovidedinaBritishStandarddocument (BS6472, 1984).
Thistakesintoaccount therelativesensitivityof humansindifferent environments. For
example, peopleinresidential propertiesarehighlysensitivetovibrationwhereas
manufacturingworkersinafactorycantoleratehigher amplitudesof vibrationbefore
becomingconcerned.
A basecurverepresentingthethresholdof perceptionfor vertical vibration, asgiveninBS
6472(1984), isshowninFigure7.4together withcurveswithhigher weightingfactorsfor
different tolerancecriteria. Thecurvesindicatethat peoplearemost sensitivetothe
perceptionof vibrationinthefrequencyrangefrom4to8Hz. Above8Hz sensitivityfollows
aconstant velocitycurveandit canbeseenthat between8and15Hz humantolerance
doublesintermsof perceivedacceleration.
Examplesof theweightingfactorsaregiveninTable7.1. Theseshowthat peopleareless
tolerant of vibrationif theyareengagedinanactivityduringwhichmereperceptionof
vibrationisanuisance, suchassleepingor workrequiringconcentration. However, peopleare
moretolerant of infrequent or intermittent vibration. Ontheother hand, at popconcertsor
somesportingeventspeopleareeither not concernedat all bythefeelingof motionof a
structureor theyactually enjoyit andmayattempt toget inresonancewithit. Inthesecases
structuresshouldbedesignedtoresist collapseunder resonant excitation.
7.3 METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE MAGNITUDE OF HUMAN-
INDUCED LOADING
7.3.1 Footbridges
Blanchardet al. (1977) proposedthat theworst conditionsoccur whenapedestrianwalksin
resonancewiththenatural frequencyof abridgewithastridelengthof
Page292
Figure 7.4 Humansensitivitytovertical motion.
Table 7.1 Weightingfactorsabovethethresholdof perceptionfor acceptablebuildingvibration.
Place Time Continuous or intermittent
vibration and repeated shock
Impulsive shock with several
occurrences per day
Critical workingareas Day 1 1
(e.g. hospital
operatingtheatre)
Night 1 1
Residential Day 2–4 60–90
Night 1.4 20
Offices Day 4 128
Night 4 128
Workshops Day 8 128
Night 8 128
Page293
Figure 7.5 Simulatedpedestrianloadingof afootbridge.
0.9m. Thepacingfrequencyof normal walkingliesbetweenabout 1.5and3.0Hz, whereas
frequenciesabove3.0Hz arerepresentativeof runningor jogging. It isdifficult toexcitea
footbridgewithafrequencyabove4Hz.
Thepedestrianforcingfunctionmayberepresentedbyaseriesof point loads, eachwitha
force-timecurveof theformshowninFigure7.1, appliedat successivetimeintervalsequal to
theperiodof vibrationT, asshowninFigure7.5. Hence, theloadingonthebridge, appliedby
thenthpace, isgivenby
(7.1)
andthepositionof thenthpacex
n
isgivenby
(7.2)
Evidentlythereisnoanalytical solutiontothisforcingfunction, evenfor simplysupported
beams. Blanchardet at. (1977) usedanumerical methodtoanalysefootbridgeswithsimple
configurationsunder theactionof theabovedynamicloading. Theyfoundthat thedynamic
deflectioncouldbeexpressedconveniently
Page294
Table 7.2 Configurationfactor.
Configuration a/L K
— 1.0
1.0 0.7
0.8 0.9
<0.6 1.0
1.0 0.6
0.8 0.8
<0.6 0.9
intheform:
(7.3)
whereu
st
isthestaticdeflectionunder theweight of apedestrianat thepoint of greatest
deflection, K isaconfigurationfactor for thetypeof structureasgiveninTable1.2, andȥ isa
dynamicresponsefactor. Bridgedampingwasincludedintheanalysisof thestandardcases
andthedynamicresponsefactor ȥ wasfoundtovarywithmainspanlengthL, and
logarithmicdecrement duetodampingį, asshowninFigure7.6.
Blanchardet al. (1977) proposedasimplifiedloadingfunctiontopermit analysisof bridges
of moregeneral configuration. AsmentionedinSection7.2.1, it consistedof apulsatingforce
movingacrossthespanwithavelocityof 0.9f m/secandinresonancewiththebridge, wheref
isthenatural frequencyof thefundamental modeof thebridge. Themagnitudeof the
pulsatingforcewasobtainedbysuperimposingtheindividual left andright foot vertical
forcesasshowninFigure7.1. It wasfoundthat theamplitudeof thismovingpulsatingforce
wasapproximately25per cent of thestaticweight of apedestriantoproducethesame
responseastherigorousmethod. Hence, themovingforce, inNewtons, isgivenby
(7.4)
Themost important criterionfor dynamicdesignof footbridgesisthat theyshouldnot vibrate
somuchthat userswouldbedisturbedor alarmed. Thisisahumanresponsecriterion, as
discussedinSection7.2.3. TheUK bridgecode(BS5400, 1978) recommendsamaximum
accelerationof footbridgedecksof whenonepedestrianwalksover themain
spaninstepwiththenatural frequency, f. This‘onepedestrian’ test wascalibratedagainst
somereal bridgesthat wereknowntobeonlyjust acceptable. It hasbeenconfirmedby
Matsumotoet al.
Page295
Figure 7.6 Dynamicresponsefactor.
(1978) andWheeler (1982) that the‘onepedestrian’ test isrealisticasaserviceability
criterion. It ispossiblefor twopedestrianstowalkinstepwiththenatural frequencyof a
footbridgewiththeassistanceof ametronomeandamplitudesareapproximatelytwicethe
singlepedestriancase(Tillyet al. 1984). However, suchaconditionisdifficult tomaintain.
Ontheother hand, Pimentel (1997) haswarnedthat dynamiceffectsof crowdloadingon
footbridgesshouldbeconsidered, especiallyfor bridgesinbusyurbanenvironments. Fujino
et al. (1993) measuredsignificant lateral vibrationof acongestedpedestrianbridgeadjacent
toalargesportsstadium. Crowdloadingwill beconsideredinSection7.3.5.
Thehorizontal component of pedestrianloadingisnot normallyimportant becausemost
bridgesarestiffenedlaterallybytheir deck structures. However, thelivelyresponseof the
LondonMillenniumFootbridge, together withtheobservationsof Fujinoet al. (1993),
showedthat thiscomponent shouldnot beignoredfor bridgeswithflexiblelateral structures.
Themechanicsof horizontal loadduetowalkingisdifferent fromthevertical component
for anumber of reasons. Thelateral forceiscausedbytheswayof thebodyfromsidetoside
at eachstep. However, theleft andright feet producehorizontal forcesinoppositedirections,
incontrast tothevertical forces. Hence, thefrequencyisapproximately1.0Hz, beinghalf that
of thevertical forcingfunction. BachmannandAmmann(1987) estimatedthat theamplitude
of thefirst Fourier component of thehorizontal forcewas23N. Thisismorethan10per cent
of thevertical amplitudegivenbyeqn(7.4), but at half thefrequency.
Page296
Animportant psychological factor alsoinfluenceshorizontal loading. Fujinoet al. (1993)
reportedlargehorizontal vibrationsof alongspanfootbridgethat oftencarriedasmanyas
2,000pedestriansreturningfromsportingeventsat aboat racestadium. Theyshowedthat an
amplitudeof 23Nappliedby45pedestriansinstep(to allowfor randomphase) wasnot
sufficient tocausetheobservedvibration. Theyobservedthat whenthemotionhadbuilt up,
pedestrianstendedtosynchro-nizetheir stepwiththefrequencyof thebridge, asmentionedin
Section7.2.3. Thisresultedinmanymorepedestriansbeinginphasethanwouldbethecase
for randomwalking. Theyestimatedthat 10%couldbefullysynchronizedwiththebridge.
Furthermore, duringsynchronizedwalkingpedestrianstendedtoswaymoreandthe
horizontal forceamplitudeincreasedby afactor of two.
7.3.2 Foot impact on light floors for offices and dwellings
Perceptiblevibrationscanbeinducedinlightweight floorsbyavarietyof normal activities.
Polonsek(1970) consideredtheeffectsof normal walking, childrenplaying, domestic
appliances, door slamandother sourcesof vibration. Of these, asinglepersonwalkingwas
themost frequentlyoccurringandalsotheactivitythat gaverisetothegreatest nuisance
overall. Especiallysusceptiblearetimber floors(Whale, 1983) andlongspanlightweight
concretefloorssupportedonsteel joists(PernicaandAllen, 1982).
Thevibrationof floorsunder foot impact ishighlydependent ontheir span, natural
frequencyanddamping. Wyatt (1989) proposedthat lowfrequencyfloors, whicharealso
generallyof longspan, shouldbeanalysedfor possibleresonancewiththeFourier
componentsof footfall loading. Ellis(2000) showedthat floorswithfrequenciesashighas12
Hz maybeexcitedinresonancebythefourthor evenfifthFourier component. Inthecaseof
lowfrequencyfloorsof longspanit wouldbepossibletoapplyamethodsimilar tothat used
for footbridgesasintheprevioussection. However, Wyatt (1989) suggestedasimpler
calculationbasedontheassumptionthat if tenor morepaceswereappliedinthevicinityof
midspan, themaximumresponsewouldbenearlyasgreat asthesteady-stateresponsetoa
resonant sinusoidal force(seeChapter 2, eqn2.44). Hence, heproposedthat thedisplacement
amplitude, u
i
, under theithFourier component might beevaluatedfrom:
(7.5)
where
F
i
=magnitudeof ithFourier component of footfall function
k=effectivestiffnessof floor loadednear midspan
ȟ=critical dampingfactor.
Inthecaseof floorswithhighdamping, vibrationunder heel strikedecaysrapidlyand
resonancedoesnot occur. Thisisparticularlynoticeablefor highfrequencyfloors. Structural
dampinginthefloorsof buildingsishigher thaninfootbridges
Page297
becauseof theformsof constructiontogether withtheaddedflooringandceilingmaterials.
Hence, inmanycasesit issufficient toanalysetheresponseof afloor toanindependent
impact andthencheckthat theensuingaccelerationresponseisnot disturbingtothebuilding
occupants(Section7.2.3).
The‘heel drop’ test of LenzenandMurray(1969) wasdescribedinSection7.2.1. They
recommendedatriangular impulsevaryingfrom2.7kNtozeroin1/20secondtorepresent
foot impact loadingfor designpurposes. Thisloadshouldbeappliedtomidspanof asimply
supportedfloor or totheplaceof maximumdeflectionof anirregular floor. Usingthetheory
of aSingleDegreeof Freedom(SDOF) systemsubjectedtoageneral forcingfunction, it is
thenpossibletocalculatethemaximumresponse(seeChapter 2, Section2.2.1.3).
AllenandRainer (1976) derivedanevensimpler analytical method. Accordingto
Newton’ssecondlawtherateof changeof momentumof amassisequal totheappliedforce.
Thus
(7.6)
wheremistheequivalent massof thefloor, treatingit asaSDOF system, andF(t) isthe
triangular forcingfunction. Thusthechangeinmomentumover abrief interval dIJ, brought
about byaninstantaneousforceF(t), isgivenby:
(7.7)
Inthiscasethetriangular forcingfunctioncanbetreatedasanimpulseI, whichwouldbethe
integral under thecurveshowninFigure7.2(i.e. 70N-sec). Hence:
(7.8)
Thisisequivalent tothevelocityof thefloor u
0
causedbytheimpulse. Assumingsimple
harmonicmotionof theensuingvibration, thecorrespondingmaximumaccelerationisgiven
by:
(7.9)
ThismethodhasbeenadoptedbytheCanadiancodefor steel structures(CSA, 1984) inwhich
afactor of 0.9hasbeenappliedtoeqn(7.9) toallowfor thelossof amplitudeduetodamping
inthefirst half cycle. It shouldalsobenotedthat m hasbeenreferredtoasthe‘equivalent
mass’ of thefloor. Thereasonfor thisisbecauseastructurewithdistributedmassand
stiffness, suchasabeamor floor, doesnot oscillatewithitsfull amplitudeover itsentire
lengthor area. For example, thedisplacement at thesupportsiszero. Thisisillustratedin
Chapter 2withanumber of examplesinFigures2.24–2.27. Hencemuchof thestructureis
participatingonlypartiallyinthevibration. Onthebasisof testson42floorstheCanadian
coderecommendstheequivalent masstobetakenas0.4×thetotal distributedmassof the
floor.
Page298
Figure 7.7 Dynamicloadingonastaircase.
7.3.3 Staircases
Staircasesarenormallydesignedtocarrythesamestaticliveloadsasthefloorstowhichthey
giveaccess. Thisisnearlyalwayssatisfactoryfor staircasesof heavyreinforcedconcrete
construction. However, theintenseloadingthat occurswhenpeoplerunupor downstairs
shouldbeconsideredfor light staircasestructureswhichmaybesusceptibletovibration.
It waspointedout inSection7.2.1that thehumanbodycangenerateverysubstantial
dynamicoverloadschieflyduetoheel strike. Energeticwalkingcangiverisetoapeakloadof
uptotwicethestaticweight of aperson, G. Intheheel droptest of Figure7.2thepeakloadis
roughly4×G. Similarlylargeimpactsmayoccur whenapersonrunsupor downstairs. Some
experimentswerecarriedout bySmith(1988) usinganorthopaedicforceplatefittedintoa
short flight of stairs. Examplesof thevertical component of foot impact areshowninFigure
7.7. Whenrunningupthepeakloadisgeneratedbytoeoff andisabout 2.5×G. Whenrunning
downthepeakloadoccursunder heel strikeandisgenerallyabout 3–4×G. Staircase
structuresthat maybesusceptibleshouldbeanalysedunder theseforcingfunctions. Inthe
absenceof anyother simpler methodof analysisthe‘heel drop’ test isrecommended.
7.3.4 Floors subjected to dance-type loads
Theimportanceof consideringtheeffectsof dance-typeloadshasincreasedinrecent years
withthewidespreaduseof light formsof constructionfor largespanfloors.
Page299
Theco-ordinatingeffect of musicresultsinaperiodicloadingthat isintimewiththebeat.
Rhythmicactivitiessuchasdancing, aerobicsandmilitarydrillingarethebest examples.
Largedynamicmagnificationor resonancecanoccur if theforcingfrequenciesarecloseto
thefloor natural frequencies. Theconsequencesmayaffect bothserviceabilityandsafety.
Forcingfunctionsandmethodsof analysisfor structuressubjectedtodance-typeloadshave
beenproposedbyBachmannandAmmann(1987) andPernica(1990). Theanalytical
procedurewasdevelopedfurther byJ i andEllis(1994) andisset out below.
Initsmost severeform, ‘dance-type’ loadingconsistsof jumpingintimetomusic. It is
characterizedbyahighdynamicforce, similar to‘toeoff whenrunningupstairs, followedby
abrief moment whenthefeet leavethefloor andtheloadiszero. Finally, thepersoncomes
downandthecycleisrepeated. Theformof loadingissimilar tothat producedbyrunning
andconsistsof aseriesof half-sinepulseswithgapsinbetweenwhenthepersonisairborne.
Thisisgivenby
(7.10)
whereG=staticweight of theperson
K
p
=F
max
/G=impact factor
F
max=
peakdynamicload
t
p
=contact duration
T
p
=periodof dancingloador timebetweensuccessive‘toeoff.
Thecontact ratio, Į, dependsonthenatureof thedanceandisdefinedby
(7.11)
It hasbeenobservedthat themeanvalueof anyformof dynamichumanloadingisequal to
theweight of thepersonor peopleengagedintheactivity. Hence, integratingtheforceover
theperiodof contact
(7.12)
fromwhichtheimpact factor canbeevaluatedasfollows
(7.13)
It isfirst necessarytodeterminewhat valuesof contact ratioa, areappropriatefor various
activities. EllisandJ i (1994) reviewedanumber of experimental studiescarriedout inCanada,
includingthosebyAllen(1990) andPernica(1990), andonthebasisof these, proposedthe
valuesfor contact ratioshowninTable7.3.
EllisandJ i (1994) demonstratedthat thesefactorsgavegoodagreement withthe
experimental observationsandtheyhavenowbeenadoptedintheUK loadingcode, BS6399
(1996). It shouldbenotedthat thevalueof , recommendedfor pedestrianmovements, is
actuallyapplicabletoonefoot onlysinceindividual
Page300
Table 7.3 Valuesof afor variousactivities.
Activity Contact Ratio Į Impact Factor K
p
Pedestrianmovements, lowimpact aerobics 2/3 2.4
Rhythmicexercises, highimpact aerobics 1/2 3.1
Normal jumping 1/3 4.7
Highjumping 1/4 6.3
footfallsoverlapfor pacingfrequenciesbelowabout 3Hz. For assessingtheperformanceof
floorstopedestrianmovementsit isprobablybetter tousethemethodoutlinedinSection
7.3.2.
Theloadingmodel expressedbyeqn(7.10) isnot inthemost convenient formfor general
designcalculations. Inorder toobtainananalytical solutionit ismoreuseful toexpressthe
loadfunctionintermsof aFourier series. Hence:
(7.14)
Thecoefficients, r
n
, andthephaselags, Ø
n
, maybeevaluatedandareasfollows:
(7.15)
When ; n=1, 2, 3…thena
n
=0and; else
(7.16)
and
(7.17)
Thisanalytical model of dance-typeloadsisshowninFigure7.8together withtheseparate
half-sineimpactsof eqn(7.10). TheFourier seriesmodel of eqn(7.14) isshowntakingthe
first threeandthefirst sixterms. It isclear that agoodapproximationisachievedusingonly
thefirst threeterms.
J i andEllis(1994) usedtheFourier seriesformof theloadingmodel todeterminethe
responseof asimplysupportedrectangular floor. Theloadingwasintendedtosimulatea
groupdancingactivityandthereforewasassumedtobeuniformlydistributedover theentire
areaof thefloor. Theyderivedequationsfor thesteadystateresponseof afloor under this
loadingandshowedthat onlythefundamental modeof vibrationof thefloor neededtobe
includedtoachieveanaccuratesolution. Theresponseof thefloor consistsof thestatic
deflection, under meanload, plusadynamiccomponent. Thedynamicmagnificationof the
fundamental modecanbeobtainedbysummingthedynamicmagnificationfactorsof each
Page301
Figure 7.8 Forcingfunctionfor dance-typeloading.
Fourier component usedintheloadingmodel. Thesearegivenby
(7.18)
where and fp
Goodagreement wasobtainedbetweentheanalytical solutionandtheresultsof laboratory
tests. Theloadmodel wasappliedtofloorswithsimpleboundaryconditions. For more
general shapesit wouldbenecessarytocarryout amodal analysisof thefloor.
Whenassessingtheperformanceof alargespanfloor inabuilding, anumber of practical
pointsshouldbeconsidered. First, thenatural frequencyof thefloor shouldbecalculated
excludingtheweight of peopleinvolvedinthedancingactivity(J i andEllis, 1997a). The
valueof dampingshouldbechosenconservatively(e.g. 2per cent of critical) sincemodern
formsof constructionarenotoriouslylightlydamped. If thefloor tobeassessedwasfor a
sportshall inabuildingwhichincludesoffices, it wouldbeadvisabletodoaserviceability
check assumingthat asmall number of peoplefrequentlyusethefloor for highimpact events.
If thenatural frequencyof thefloor isinor near therangeof loadingfrequenciesthen
resonancemayoccur andit will benecessarytoconsider theultimatelimit state.
It shouldbenotedthat at resonancefp=f andeqn(7.18) impliesverylargemagnification
(D
n
=25r
n
for ȟ=0.02). Thisconditionwouldprobablyoccur onlywhendancersarespaced
well apart andthat thereforethestaticloadwouldbesmall. However, it demonstratesthe
importanceof keepingthefloor frequencyawayfromresonance.
Page302
7.3.5 Dynamic crowd loading: concert halls, grandstands and bridges
Insection7.3.4theimportanceof rhythmichumanloadsco-ordinatedbymusicwas
consideredandit wasshownthat theperiodicnatureof theseloadsmaygiverisetoverylarge
dynamicresponsefactorsandpossiblyresonance. Specificallyunder considerationwereloads
duetodancingor aerobicsthat involvejumpingat aset frequency. Inthesesituationspeople
areusuallywell spacedandthereforeit islikelythat thedistributedloadwill beverymuch
lessthanthenormal floor designload. However, therearecrowdevents, suchaspopconcerts
andfootball matches, at whichthespectatorsmaybedenselypacked. Ellis et al. (1994)
suggestedthat sixpeopleper squaremetre(4.8kN/m
2
) isreasonable. Reidet al. (1997)
suggested2kN/m
2
for crowdswithfixedseating. Thecorrespondingdesignliveloadsof 5
kN/m
2
and4kN/m
2
respectivelyarethought tobesufficient toincludelimiteddynamic
effectssuchaspeoplerisingtotheir feet whenagoal isscored. However, co-ordinated
rhythmicmovement sometimesoccursandmaybeveryintense, especiallyat apopconcert.
Thequestionariseswhether full co-ordinationispossiblefor averylargecrowd, say
numberinginhundredsor thousands. ThisproblemwasstudiedbyJ i andEllis(1993).
Startingwiththeformulafor dance-typeloads, eqn(7.14), theyintroducedarandomphase
lagtotakeaccount of thedifferenceinco-ordinationbetweenoneindividual andanother.
Thisphaselagmayliebetweeníʌ and+ʌ Assumingthat it wasnormallydistributedwitha
meanof zero(fullycoordinated) andastandarddeviationof ʌ/30or 1.0, theyevaluateda
dynamiccrowdfactor of 0.68for 100peopleand0.63for 2,500people. Usingexperimental
observationsEbrahimpour andSack(1992) obtainedavalueof 0.64for 40people. TheUK
code(BS6399, 1996) recommendsafactor of 0.67totakeaccount of thelackof co-
ordinationof alargecrowd. Thecrowdfactor shouldbeappliedtothedynamiccomponent of
eqn(7.14).
Insection7.3.4theimportanceof avoidingresonancewaspointedout sincethedynamic
magnificationcouldbeasmuchas25or possiblymore. Thiswouldbeequivalent to
exceptionallyhighstaticliveloadevenallowingfor thecrowdfactor andthereducedpartial
factor of 1.0permittedbyBS6399inthiscase. At thepresent timethereisapaucityof
experimental dataregardingdynamiccrowdloading. It isquestionablewhether alargecrowd
wouldbeabletomaintaincoordinatedjumpingfor asmanyas30or 40jumpsthat wouldbe
requiredtoreachthesteadystateamplitudeat resonance. Furthermore, it requiresinput of
energytomaintainthesteadystateamplitudetobalancetheenergylost indamping. Asyet
thereisnofirmevidencethat thismaximumtheoretical loadfactor canbeachievedinpractice.
Thelargest dynamicmagnificationactuallyobservedis1.97measuredbyIrwin, 1981.
Thedesignof sportsstadiumstructuresmust takeaccount of dynamiccrowdloading
(ScottishOffice, 1997). Thishasarisenbecauseof well publicizedcasesof crowdexcitation
andevenfailures. It isrecognizedthat themost severedynamic
Page303
loadingarisesduringpopconcertsandsincefootball stadiumsareoftenusedfor suchevents
it isadvisabletodesignthemaccordingly. Themost severevalueof contact ratioinTable7.3
( ) isthereforesuggested. Reidet al. (1997) discussedtherangeof frequenciesover
whichastructuremay besusceptible. BS6399recommendsthat thevertical frequencyshould
begreater than8.4Hz toavoidresonance, basedonthreetimesthemaximumobserved
coordinatedjumpingfrequencyof 2.8Hz. Thisshouldbebasedonthemassof theempty
structurebecauseof theindependenceof themassof thecrowdandthemassof thestructure
duringintensejumpingactivity.
Horizontal dynamicloadduetoswayingisanimportant component of football crowd
loading. BS6399(1996) recommendsthat thehorizontal frequencyof susceptiblestructures
shouldbegreater than4.0Hz toavoidresonance. Thismaybedifficult toachieveand
thereforesomeguidanceisrequiredonthemagnitudeof horizontal dynamicloadtoconsider.
TheCEB (Euro-international ConcreteCommittee) guide(1991) notesthat swayloadsmay
occur at frequenciesbetween0.4to0.7Hz andsuggestsahorizontal loadfactor of 0.3for
swayat 0.6Hz. Reidet al., (1997) suggest alower valueandBS6399(1996) recommends
that horizontal loadsshouldbe10per cent of thevertical. Thereissomeuncertaintyover
whether themassof thecrowdshouldbeincludedwhencalculatingthenatural frequencyof
horizontal vibration. Thisisbecausepeoplewill still beincontact withthestructurewhenin
swayingmode. Thereisaneedfor moredatafromfull scaletests. Thehorizontal component
of pedestriancrowdloadingonbridgeswasmentionedinSection7.3.1.
7.4 DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO MINIMIZE HUMAN INDUCED
VIBRATION
It hasbeenfoundthat it isoftendifficult toavoidthecritical frequencyrangeof human
induceddynamicloading. Thisisparticularlythecasefor largesportsstadiums. Reidet al.
(1997) analysedanumber of stadiumsincludingMurrayfieldandMiddlesbrough. Theyfound
that frequenciesintherangeof 1to3Hz werenot unusual. Sometimesthefirst modemaybe
dominatedbythecantilever roof andisthereforenot important. However, special
considerationshouldbegiventocantilevereddecksof seatingthat couldbeexcitedby
vertical jumping. Sidetosideandbacktobackmodesshouldbeconsideredfor horizontal
loading.
Themainoptionsavailabletothedesigner aretoincreasestiffnessanddamping. J i and
Ellis(1997b) havesuggestedanefficient wayof arrangingthebracingfor steel frameworksin
order toincreasethestiffness. Theyshowedthat stiffnesscouldbedoubledcomparedwiththe
most inefficient system, without additional steel. ThisisillustratedinFigure7.9. Dampingis
notoriouslydifficult tointroduceintoastructure. Steelworkwithcompositeconcretedecksis
generallylightlydamped. Theadditionof claddingwill helpbut thereislittlespecificdata
available(OsborneandEllis, 1990). Heavyreinforcedconcretepermanent struc-
Page304
Figure 7.9Bracingsystemsandnormalizedstiffness.
turesarelikelytoperformthebest. Ontheother hand, temporarygrandstandsareverylight
anduncladandtheonlyapproachopentothedesigner isthroughincreasingthestiffnesswith
bracing. Theperformanceof floorscanbeimprovedbyensuringthat thereisgoodtransverse
distribution(Whale, 1983). Thiswill havetheeffect of increasingthenumber of longitudinal
joistsor stringersthat contributetothestaticstiffnessandwill alsoincreasetheproportionof
thefloor massparticipatinginthemodal response(seeeqn7.9).
Footbridgeswithspansof over 25musuallyhavenatural frequencieswell withinthe
pedestrianexcitationrange(Pimentel, 1997). It isgenerallyimpractical toincreasetheir
natural frequenciestoavoidresonance. Fortunately, footbridgeloadingunder asingle
pedestrianisnot trueresonancebecauseof thevaryingpositionof theload. Withtheaddition
of dampingit isoftenpossibletokeeptheamplitudewithinacceptablebounds. Brown(1977)
installedasimplefrictiondamper at oneabutment of alivelybridgewheretheangular
movement couldbeutilizedtoabsorbenergy. J ones et al. (1981) installedtunedmass—
spring—damper vibrationabsorbersintotwolivelyfootbridgeswithmost satisfactoryresults.
However, crowdloadingmarchinginstep, asobservedbyFujino et al. (1993), iscapableof
introducingsubstantial dynamicenergythat maybeverydifficult toabsorbwithsimple
dampingdevices.
7.5 REFERENCES
Allen, D.E. (1990) ‘Floor vibrationfromaerobics’, Canadian J. Civil Engng. 17(5): 771–9.
Allen, D.E. andRainer, J .H. (1976) ‘Vibrationcriteriafor longspanfloors’, Can. J. Civil Engng.
3:165–73.
Page305
Bachmann, H. andAmmann, W. (1987) Vibration in Structures Induced by Man and Machines,
Structural EngineeringDocument No. 3e, International Associationof BridgeandStructural
Engineers, AIPC-IVBH, Zurich.
Blanchard, J ., Davies, B.L. andSmith, J .W. (1977) ‘Designcriteriaandanalysisfor dynamicloading
of footbridges’, SymposiumonDynamicBehaviour of Bridges, paper 7givenat TRRL
Supplementary Report 275, Transport andRoadResearchLaboratory, Crowthorne.
Brown, C.W. (1977) ‘Anengineer’sapproachtodynamicaspectsof bridgedesign’, paper 8givenat
SymposiumonDynamicBehaviour of Bridges’, TRRL SupplementaryReport 275, Transport and
RoadResearchLaboratory, Crowthorne. BS5400(1978) Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges:
Part 2, Specification for Loads, BritishStandardsInstitution, London.
BS6399(1996) Part 1, Codeof Practicefor DeadandImposedLoads, BritishStandardsInstitution,
London.
BS6472(1984) Guide to Evaluation of Human Exposure to Vibration in Buildings (1 Hz to 80 Hz),
BritishStandardsInstitution, London.
CEB (1991) Vibration Problems in Structures, Bulletind’Information209, section1.4, August,
ComitéEuro-International duBéton.
CSA (1984) Steel Structures for Buildings, CanadianStandardsAssociation, CAN3-S16.1-M84.
Ebrahimpour, A. andSack, R.L. (1992) ‘Designliveloadsfor coherent crowdharmonicmovements’,
J . Struct. Eng., ASCE, 118(4): 1121–36.
Ellis, B.R. (2000) ‘Ontheresponseof longspanfloorstowalkingloadsgeneratedbyindi-vidualsand
crowds’, The Structural Engineer, 78(10), May, 17–25.
Ellis, B.R. andJ i, T. (1994) ‘Floor vibrationinducedbydance-typeloads: verification’, The Structural
Engineer, 72(3): February, 45–50.
Ellis, J i, andLittler (1994) ‘Crowdactionsandgrandstands’, paper givenat IABSE Symposium,
Placesof AssemblyandLongspanStructures, Birmingham, 201–6.
Fujino, Y., Pacheco, B.M., Nakamura, S. andWarnitchai, P. (1993) ‘Synchronizationof human
walkingobservedduringlateral vibrationof acongestedpedestrianbridge’, Earthquake Engng
Struct. Dynamics, 22(9): 741–58.
Guignard, J .C. andGuignard, E. (1970) Human Response to Vibration: a Critical Survey of Published
Work, ISVR Memo. No. 373, Instituteof SoundandVibrationResearch, Southampton.
Harper, F.C., Warlow, W.J . andClarke, B.L. (1961) The Forces Applied to the Floor by the Foot in
Walking. Part 1, Walking on a Level Surface, National BuildingStudiesResearchPaper 32, HMSO,
London.
Heins, C.P. andYoo, C.H. (1975) ‘Dynamicresponseof abuildingfloor system’, Building Science,
10:143–53.
Irwin, A.W. (1978) ‘Humanreponsetodynamicmotionof structures’, The Structural Engineer,
56(A): 237–44.
Irwin, A.W. (1981) Live Load and Dynamic Response of the Extendable Front Bays of the Playhouse
Theatre during The Who Concert, Report for LothianRegionArchitectureDepartment.
Irwin, A.W. (1983) Diversity of Human Response to Vibration Environments, UnitedKingdomGroup
HRV, NIAE/NCAE, Silso, UK.
J i, T. andEllis, B.R. (1993) ‘Evaluationof dynamiccrowdeffectsfor danceloads’, paper givenat
IABSE Colloquium, Structural Serviceabilityof Buildings, Goteborg, pp. 165–72.
Page306
J i, T. andEllis, B.R. (1994) ‘Floor vibrationinducedbydance-typeloads: theory’, The Structural
Engineer, 72(3): February37–44.
J i, T. andEllis, B.R. (1997a) ‘Floor vibrationinducedbyhumanmovementsinbuildings’, inP.K. K.
Lee(ed.) paper givenat 4thInternational KerenskyConference, HongKong, StructuresintheNew
Millenium, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 213–19.
J i, T. andEllis, B.R. (1997b) Effectivebracingfor temporarygrandstands. The Structural Engineer,
75(6): March, 95–100.
J ones, R.T., Pretlove, A.J . andEyre, R. (1981) ‘Twocasestudiesof theuseof tunedvibration
absorbersonfootbridges’, The Structural Engineer, 59(B): 27–32.
Lenzen, K.H. andMurray, T.M. (1969) Vibration of Steel Beam Concrete Slab Floor Systems, Report
No. 29, Department of Civil Engineering, Universityof Kansas, Lawrence, KS.
Matsumoto, Y., Nishioka, T., Shiojiri, H. andMatsuzake, K. (1978) ‘Dynamicdesignof footbridges’,
Proc Int. Assoc. Bridge Struct. Engng. P-17/78(August): 1–15.
Osborne, K.P. andEllis, B.R. (1990) ‘Vibrationdesignandtestingof alongspanlightweight floor’,
The Structural Engineer, 68(10): May, 181–6.
Pernica, G. (1990) ‘Dynamicloadfactorsfor pedestrianmovementsandrhythmicexercises’,
Canadian Acoustics, 18(2): pp. 3–18.
Permica, G. andAllen, D.E. (1982) Floor vibrationmeasurementsinashoppingcentre, Can. J. Civ.
Engng. (CDN, 9:149–55.
Pimentel (1997) ‘Vibrationperformanceof pedestrianbridgesduetohuman-inducedloads’, PhD
dissertation, Department of Ci vil andStructural Engineering, Universityof Sheffield.
Polonsek, A. (1970) ‘Humanresponsetovibrationof woodjoist floors’, Wood Science, 3:111–119.
Reid, W.M., Dickie, J .F. andWright, J . (1997) ‘Stadiumstructures: aretheyexcited?’ The Structural
Engineer, 75(22): November, 383–8. ‘Discussion’, The Structural Engineer, 76(3): J uly1998.
ScottishOffice(1997) Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds, TheScottishOfficeandDepartment of
National Heritage, HMSO, London.
Skorecki, J . (1966) ‘Thedesignandconstructionof anewapparatusfor measuringthevertical forces
exertedinwalking: agait machine’, J .Strain Analysis, 1(5).
Smith, J .W. (1988) Vibration of Structures: Applications in Civil Engineering Design, Chapmanand
Hall, London. ISBN0-412-28020-5.
Tilly, G.P., Cullington, D.W. andEyre, R. (1984) ‘Dynamicbehaviour of footbridges’, Int. Assoc.
Bridge Struct. Engng. 194; 259–67.
Whale, L. (1983) Vibration of Timber Floors-A Literature Review, ResearchReport 2/83, Timber
ResearchandDevelopment Association, HighWycombe.
Wheeler, J .E. (1982) ‘Predictionandcontrol of pedestrianinducedvibrationinfootbridges’, J .Struct.
Div.,ASCE, 108(ST9): 2045–2065.
Wyatt, T.A. (1989) Design Guide on the Vibration of Floors, SCI Publication076, TheSteel
ConstructionInstitute, Ascot.
Page307
Chapter 8
Traffic and moving loads on bridges
David Cooper
8.1 INTRODUCTION
Inthischapter weshall consider theeffectsof highwaytrafficloadingonroadbridges.
Becauseweareprimarilyinterestedindynamicresponse, thislimitsour primaryconcernto
theshorter bridgespans. Asbridgespansincrease, thestaticeffectsof vehicleconvoysbegin
todominatedesigns. However, it will beappropriatetoincludeadescriptionof someaspects
of theassessment of longspanbridgeloadeffects.
Thefirst UK national standardfor highwaybridgeloadingwasintroducedbytheMinistry
of Transport in1922. Thiscomprisedastandardloadingtrainof vehicles, witha50per cent
allowancefor impact (Henderson, 1954).
In1932theMinistryof Transport LoadingCurvewasintroduced. Theimpact allowance
wasreducedinviewof theimprovementsbeingmadeinvehiclesuspensionsystems, andit
wasalsoreducedfor longer bridgespans. Thetheoretical justificationfor theseallowancesfor
dynamiceffectsisunknown.
In1954, theimpact allowancewasreducedto25per cent, whichwasonlytobeaddedto
theeffectsof asingleaxle. Thisvaluehadbeenobtainedfromsomeexperimental
observations. IntheUSA at thesametime, anoverall allowanceof 30per cent wasmade.
Duringthelate1970s(Department of Transport, 1980), theshort spanbridgeloading
provisionsof thestandardtraffic‘HA’ (highwaybridgeloadingtypeA) loadingmodel inthe
UK bridgedesignstandard, BS153(BSI, 1972), wererevised. Anallowancefor impact
effectswasderivedfromstudiesbytheTransport andRoadResearchLaboratory(Page,
1976). Thiswasbasedonvehiclesuspensionforces: measuredbymeansof asystemof
electrical resistancestraingaugesandaccelerometersattachedtotherear wheelsof atwo
axledrigidheavygoodsvehiclewhiletraversingsome30motorwayover-andunder-bridges.
Themeasuredimpact factorsvariedbetween1.09to1.47for underbridges, and1.16to1.75
for overbridges. Oneresult, of 2.77, wasdescribedasa‘freak’, andoccurredover asevere
stepintheroadsurface. A valueof 1.80wasselected, tobeappliedtotheaxlecausingthe
worst loadeffect. Thisallowancewasincludedwithinthestaticdesignloadmodel. Sinceit
onlyappliedwhenasinglevehicleeffect governedthecodifieddesignloadmodel, it only
appliedtospansbelowabout 15m.
Page308
Commontoall of thesemodelsare:
Ɣ Thedifferencebetweentheeffectsof movingandstationaryvehiclesarereferredtoas
‘impact’ effects, andthereislittleif anyreferencetobridgedynamicresponse.
Ɣ Theimpact allowanceswereselecteddeterministicallytorepresent atypicallylargeeffect
that wouldapplytoall bridges.
Designcodeshavebecomemoreprescriptiveinrecent decades, anddesignershavehad
decreasingfreedom(andlessneed) toconsider theloadsontheir structuresfromfirst
principles. However, changesinprocurement practicesmaybegintoreversethistrend, as
centralizedgovernmental procurement isreplacedbytheprivatesector. Privateservice
providersmayneedtobalancesafety, cost andpotential liabilityinadifferent manner. It may
becomemorecommonfor procurement authoritiestospecifyperformancecriteriarather than
tospecifythemeansof meetingthosecriteriaandmanymoredesignerswill needtoconsider
theloadsontheir structuresfromfirst principles, rather astheydidduringthenineteenth
century.
8.2 DESIGN ACTIONS
8.2.1 Probabilistic principles
Whatever meansareusedtoproduceloadmodelsfor design, whenastructureisfacedwitha
complexrandomloadingprocessit will not bepossibletocater for all conceivable
eventualities. Designersmust makesomerational judgement about therelationshipbetween
safetyandcost of their structures. Indeed, thisisrecognizedunder theUK’sHealthandSafety
at WorkAct whichrequiresrisktobekept ‘AsLowAsReasonablyPracticable’ (theso-called
ALARP principle).
Sincewecannot predict futureeventswithprecision, wecannot calculateactual costsof the
risktosafety, but must content ourselveswithcalculatingprobablecosts. That impliesthat
engineersshouldconsider probabilisticmodelsfor structural capacitiesandfor staticand
dynamicloadeffects.
Suspicionhasgrowninrecent yearsthat typical allowancesfor dynamic(or ‘impact’)
effectsareunnecessarilyonerous, andthat real structuresmight well not respondfullytothe
fluctuatingappliedloadsthat havebeenmeasured. Thedevelopment of newbridgedesign
codes, includingUK bridgeassessment documents(HighwaysAgency, 1997) andEurocodes
(CEN, 1994), haveledtorenewedinterest inbridgedynamicresponse, andthemeansof
allowingfor it indesign.
IntheUK at present, theHighwaysAgencymemorandumBD37/88(HighwaysAgency,
1988) definesdesignloadsfor bridges. A reviewof itsderivationisprovidedbyFlint (1990).
Page309
8.2.2 Long span bridges
Longspanbridgesaregovernedbytheweight of closelyspacedconvoysof vehicleswhich,
observations(RickettsandPage, 1997) confirm, impliesthepresenceof stationarytraffic. It is
conceptuallynot unreasonabletotreat sucheffectsasthoughtheycanbemodelledas
stationaryrandomvariables. Thus, it isassumedthat thepeaktrafficloadeffect ispotentially
thesamedayafter day, sinceit iscausedbytherandomassociationof alargenumber of
events(providedthat nonrandomfactorssuchasdeliberatesabotageareneglected).
Therefore, alongspanbridgeloadmodel maybebasedonstatistical analysisof theeffects
of convoysof traffic. Usually, theseeffectswill besimulated, usingconvoymodelsbased
either onautomatically measuredrecordsfromlargenumbersof vehicles, or onmodels
regeneratedfromstatistical modelsof vehiclesandtrafficcomposition.
Thecurrent UK bridgedesigncode(Flint andNeill Partnership, 1986), aswell asEurocode
1(CEN, 1994) definesmost actions(loads) andresistances(capacities) inrelationto
‘characteristic’ values, wherethecharacteristicvalueisconsideredtobetheupper 5
percentilefor loads, andthelower 5percentilefor capacities. Thedesignrulesfor longspan
bridgesareintendedtoprovideloadeffectsthat haveapproximatelya5per cent probability
of exceedenceinanominal structural lifeof 120years. Thisiscalculatedmorerationallyby
takingaonein2,400probabilityof exceedenceper year. For bridgeassessment, thismight be
derivedfrominformationabout current traffic, whereasfor designpurposesit might be
necessarytoconsider foreseeablefuturechangesintrafficlegislationor growthinvolume.
TheBS5400trafficloadmodel approximatesto1/1.2timesthecharacteristic. Thus, the
partial factor of 1.5ontrafficloadingeffectivelyprovidesafactor of 1.25onthecharacteristic
loadeffect.
TRL (Transport ResearchLaboratory) Contractor Report CR16(Flint andNeill Partnership,
1986) describesthederivationof thepresent longspanbridgeloadingrules. Muchof the
document referstothemanner inwhichamodel of futuretrafficwasdeveloped, sinceat the
timeof collectionof thebackgrounddatatherewasa32tonneweight restriction, and38
tonnevehicleswereabout tobelegalized.
Sincethepublicationof that report, advancesincomputer speedhaveallowedmuchmore
extensivetrafficloadeffect simulationstobeundertaken. Wherever possible, thisauthor
believesthat it ispreferabletousereal trafficrecords(obtainedbyweigh-inmotionsensors)
insuchsimulations, rather thantoattempt tomathematicallymodel trafficandthento
regeneratedata(aswasperformedfor the38tonnevehiclesintheCR16models).
Therearestill relativelypoor datatodescribethespacesbetweenvehiclesinlongtraffic
convoys. TRL describetheresultsof analysisof relativelyrecent videotaperecordsof traffic
behaviour, includinglaneselectionandthebehaviour of trafficconvoys, inRickettsand
Page’s(1997) report, andit isrecommendedthat theseobservations(or actual site
observations) shouldbeusedrather thanthemodelswhicharedescribedinCR16.
Page310
8.2.3 Short span bridges
Short spanbridgeloadeffectspresent moredifficulties. Peak loadeffectsarecausedbythe
joint extremeof thecombinedstaticanddynamiceffectsfromall individual vehicles, moving
muchmorequicklythanjammedtraffic. Ontheshorter spanbridgesonanyparticular route,
therewill beaverymuchlarger number of loadeventsof potential concernthanonthelonger
bridges. Furthermore, thehighest loadeffectsontheshortest bridgesarelikelytobecaused
byunusual andpossiblyillegallyconfiguredvehicles, whoseexistencemight not be
predictablebystatistical analysisof measuredtrafficdata. Thebridgeowner must decide
whether suchvehiclesneedbeconsidered.
Thepresent UK designrulesfor theeffectsof normal trafficloadingonshort spanbridges
arederivedfromadeterministicassessment of theenvelopeof loadeffectsthat wouldbe
producedbyall vehiclesthat conformtothecurrent UK ConstructionandUseRegulations.
Deterministicallowancesareincludedfor impact andfor overload(Department of Transport,
1980).
Therulesusedfor assessment of short spanbridges(HighwaysAgency, 1997; Cooper and
Flint, 1997), unlikethedesignrules, arebasedonprobabilisticprinciples. However, theywere
‘calibrated’ against thecurrent designrules. Theyareintendedtoprovideadjustmentstocater
for different typesof trafficandroadsurfaceroughness, whilst retainingreliabilitiesthat are
consistent withthoseof current designsof similar dimensionsandconstruction, usedin
oneroussituations.
8.2.4 Determination of design action
Whether or not aprobabilisticmethodisusedtodeterminetherelationshipbetweenpotential
loadsanddesigncapacities, it will benecessarytoderiveamodel of theeffectsof traffic
loadsthat will cater for staticanddynamiceffects.
Thestaticdesignmodel maybebasedondeterministicor probabilisticassessment of
extremeloadeffects, determinedfromthetrafficweight andclassificationdata: asdescribed
for ‘longspanbridges’ inSection8.2.2. Then, anydynamicamplificationtosuchstatic
effectsisusuallyconsideredseparately, tobecombinedlater.
8.2.5 Dynamic amplification factor
Thedynamicamplificationfactor isusuallydefinedtobetheratiobetweentheeffectsof
movingtrafficonbridgestotheeffect of stationarytraffic. Thus: if themaximumresponseto
stationarytraffic(or slowlymovingtraffictraversingtheentirelengthof thebridge)=R
s
and
themaximumresponsetomovingtrafficcrossingthebridge=R
d
Then:
(8.1)
whereDAF=DynamicAmplificationFactor.
Page311
Valuesof R
s
maybederivedfromanalysisof thetypesandweightsof vehiclewhichuse
thebridge, asindicatedabove. However, derivationof theappropriateDAF isthennecessary.
8.3 DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE
Intheory, bridgeresponsecannot beseparatedfromthevehicleloading(theaction), sincethe
movement of areal bridgeaffectsthewheel loadsthat initiatetheoriginal response. Therefore
aniterativeanalysisisrequiredat eachtimesteptoensurecompatibilitybetweenthe
suspensionandbridgedeflectionsandinteractingforces. A number of theoretical studieshave
beenperformedfor roadvehiclesandrail vehicles(AEA Technology(Bailey, 1996; Greenet
al., 1995)) inwhichmulti degreeof freedomvehiclemodelshavebeenusedinconjunction
withtheoretical roadsurfaceprofilesandelasticbridgemodelsinorder tomodel the
interactionsbetweenbridgesandvehicles, andthustoobtainthebridgeresponses. These
methodsappear tobemost useful inveryspecificapplications, for example:
Ɣ whenrefiningthedesignof vehiclesuspensions(wherethevehiclemodelsareunder the
direct control of theanalyst);
Ɣ inmilitarybridgingdesign(wherevertical deflectionscaneasilybethreeor four times
larger thanthesuspensiontravel of atypical vehicle).
However, theypossessdrawbackswhenusedinmoreconventional bridgeassessment. In
particular:
Ɣ theyrequiretheuser tohaveaccesstorealisticmodelsof manydetailsof vehicle
suspensiondesign: knowledgewhichislikelytobecommerciallyconfidential tovehicle
manufacturers;
Ɣ roadsurfaceprofilesat bridgesitesarenot stationaryrandomvariables, andtheycannot
reliablyberecreatedfromfrequencydomain(spectral analysis) models;
Ɣ analysisisslow, andrequiresrelativelycomplexinput. It isdifficult toanalysesufficient
casestobuildupalargeenoughset of resultsfromwhichgeneralizedconclusionscan
confidentlybedrawn.
Incivil applicationsthefeedbackeffect frombridgeresponsetosuspensionresponseis
normallysmall, sincehighwaybridgesareusuallysomuchstiffer thanvehiclesuspension
systems. Inrecent studiessponsoredbytheUK HighwaysAgencyandundertakenbyTRL
(RickettsandPage, 1997), axleweightswererecordedduringheavygoodsvehicletransits
over asmall number of bridgeswhichwereequippedwithstrainanddeflectionmeasuring
equipment. It wasfoundthat thebiggest vertical deflectionduringthetransit of a38tonne
articulatedtruckover arelativelyflexible10metrespanbridgewasjust over 1mm, which
wouldhavenegligibleeffect onsuspensionforces.
Page312
Figure 8.1 Typical relationshipbetweenfrequencyandtheamplitudeof variationof effectivetotal
weight.
8.3.1 Vehicle dynamic forces
Variousworkershaveinvestigatedtheinteractionbetweenvehiclesandroadsurfaces. In
particular, theUK Transport ResearchLaboratory(RickettsandPage, 1997) hasinstrumented
individual vehiclesandbridgesinorder tomeasurethevariationsinloadingimposedby
vehiclewheelsontoroadsurfaces.
A frequencydomainapproachmight appear toprovideauseful meansof characterizingthe
loadmodel, andTRL usedtheFast Fourier Transformproceduretoobtaintherelationships
betweenwheel loadmagnitudesandfrequencies. Theyobservedthat vehicledynamic
behaviour canbeseparatedfor practical purposesintotwodistinct parts. Thereisthe
oscillationof themassof thewholevehicleonitssuspension: theso-called‘heave’ or
‘bounce’ response; andtherearetheoscillationsof individual axles, respondingtoroad
roughnessanddiscontinuities: the‘wheel hop’ response. Typically, theheavemodehasa
frequencybetweenabout 2and3Hz, whereaswheel hopfrequencyisbetweenabout 12and
16Hz.
Figure8.1showstherelationshipbetweenthefrequencyandamplitudeof oscillationof the
total weight of amodernfive-axledarticulatedair suspensionheavygoodsvehicle. The
‘bounce’ modehasafrequencyof 1.6Hz.
Figure8.2showsatypical plot of thevariationof thesumof all wheel forcesof a38tonne
articulatedvehicleagainst time, for transit speedsof 40mph(17.9ms
í1
) and10mph(4.5ms
í1
).
Thepeakdynamicincrement inthevehicleweight isverynearly8tonnesforcefor the40
mphtransit, but lessthan2tonnesforcefor the10mphtransit.
Correlationcoefficientsmaybecalculatedbetweenthevariouswheel loads. Table8.1
showsaset obtainedbyanalysisof thewheel loadrecordobtainedat 40mphfromthesame
five-axledvehicleasreferredtoabove.
Page313
Figure 8.2 Typical variationof effectivevehicleweight withdistancefor different vehiclespeeds.
Table 8.1 Wheel loadcorrelationcoefficients.
a b c d e f g h i J
a 1 0.82 0.34 0.34 0.10 0.18 0.22 0.18 í0.21 í0.18
b 1 0.32 0.41 0.14 0.21 0.23 0.20 í0.22 í0.16
c 1 0.81 0.39 0.31 0.24 0.11 í0.03 í0.04
d 1 0.35 0.46 0.22 0.16 í0.07 í0.03
e 1 0.77 0.29 0.15 0.14 0.11
f 1 0.21 0.18 0.02 0.07
g 1 0.72 0.06 0.07
h 1 0.00 0.02
i 1 0.79
j 1
Wheel pairsat eachaxlearea-b, c-d, e-f, g-h andi-j. Thesteeringwheelsarei-j, driving
wheelsareg-h, andtheremainder arethetrailer wheels. Therelativelyhighcorrelations
betweenthepairsof wheel loadsoneachaxle(enclosedinboxesinthetable) contrast with
thelowcorrelationselsewhere.
A mathematical model basedonsuchfrequencyanalysiswouldappear tobeattractiveas
thebasisfromwhichstatistical loadmodelsmight begenerated. However, bridgespecific
roadprofilessuchasthosewhichoccur at movement joints, or duetoapproachroad
settlement, wouldstill needtobeincludedwhenassessingresponse.
Thiscomplicatestheprocessof creatingloadmodels, andit wouldappear tobepreferable
tousereal measurementsobtainedat real sitesasmuchaspossible. Thentherewill beno
needtotransformmeasureddataintoamathematical model simplyinorder tousethat model
toreproducetheoriginal values.
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8.3.2 Vehicle and structure interaction
Dynamiceffectsduetomovingloadsonbridgesareof most concernat shorter spans. They
areessentiallytransient effects. Themagnitudeof theforcingfunctionwill bechangingwith
timeandwill haveadefinitebeginningandend. Therefore, it ismoreconvenient toanalyse
bridgedynamicresponseinthetimedomainbyperforminga‘timehistory’ analysisrather
thanbyusingaspectral analysisapproachinthefrequencydomain. Furthermore, it is
preferabletouserecordedwheel datarather tomathematicallycharacterizeit andregenerateit
usingaMonteCarlosimulationapproach. Regenerationof continuousrecordsfromfrequency
domainspectral analysisdatahasbeencriticizedbecauseit ‘tendstoproducetoomanypeaks’
(Elnashai, 1995).
Variouscommercial FiniteElement Method(FEM) programsareavailablewiththeability
toperformtimehistorycalculations. It isnot alwayseasytomodel multipleloadswhichare
changinginspaceandtime, andit isuseful toconsider moreeconomical andsimpler
alternatives. Thesemayalsoprovidemeansof obtainingresultsfor avarietyof structures
relativelyquicklyandeconomically.
It ispossibletoanalysethestructural responsetoaparticular loadinghistoryindependently
ineachof anumber of independent modesof vibration, andusetheprincipleof mode
superpositiontocombinethem. Thiswouldrequireprior analysis(usingFEM or classical
theory) toobtaintheelasticpropertieswhichdefineeachmodeof vibration(modeshapes,
frequencies, masses). Chapter 2(Section2.3) describesmodal analysismethods.
8.3.3 Flexural response
Thedynamicresponsecharacteristicof asimplebeambridgethat islikelytobeof most
concernisthat inbending. Thefrequenciesof themodesof vibrationof asimplebeamare
givenby(seealso Section2.4.1):
(8.2)
where: n=Modeof vibration(1, 2, 3…)
L=Spanlength
m=Massper unit length
EI=Flexural rigidity
(Ȧ÷Circular frequency(rad/sec).
For most bridgeconstructiontypes, it hasbeenestablishedthat acrudemathematical model
of thefrequencyof thefirst modeof vibrationisgivenbytheform: f=82L
í0.9
Hz (Paultreet al.
1992). Thusa15mbridgebeamwill typicallyhaveanatural frequencyinitsfirst modeof
vibrationequal toapproximately7Hz, whereasitssecondmodefrequencywill be28Hz.
However, it shouldberememberedthat real bridgesdecksareprimarilytwo-dimensional
surfacesthat maybeexcitedinmanydifferent modesintheir third
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(out of plane) dimensionbyhighwaytraffic. Thefirst torsional modemayhaveaverysimilar
frequencytothefirst bendingmode, sincethestrainedshapeof theprincipal elementswill be
similar. However, therewill bemanyother vibrationmodes, most of whichwill havemuch
higher natural frequencies.
Thecontributiontoresponsefromthelowest modeswill bemuchgreater thanfor higher
modes, sinceroadvehicleexcitationfrequenciesarenot muchinexcessof 16Hz.
Eachmode’scontributiontostresseffectsisproportional tothesquareof theresponse
frequency, sothecontributionof eachhigher modetomomentswill bemoresignificant than
itscontributiontodeflections.
8.3.4 Time intervals
A stepbysteptimehistoryanalysisbasedonlinear relationshipsbetweendisplacement,
velocityandaccelerationwithineachtimestepisonlystablewhenthetimestepissufficiently
small. Typically, thevibrationperiodsmust beintheorder of 5to10timestheintegration
period(seeChapter 2). Therearemethodsof stabilizingtheanalysis, but thehighest mode
responsesmayhavelittlephysical meaning. Whentheratioof excitationtoresponse
frequencyfallstowardszero, thedynamicmagnificationapproachesunityandstaticanalysis
will suffice.
Sincea15mspanbridgewill haveafirst modeperiodintheorder of 7Hz, thetimestep
must beapproximately1/100secor less.
8.3.5 Shear response
Stressesthat aredominatedbyshear loadingseldomif ever appear tobediscussed. Theyare
not referredtoinanyof thesummariesof findingsthat appear inthe1992paper byPaultre,
Chaallal andProulx. Shear deflectionsarenormallysosmall that thehighstiffnessleadsto
veryhighnatural frequenciesof vibration. Theresult isthat shear sensitiveelementswill tend
torespondindirect proportiontorapidchangesinappliedforce. Therefore, dynamicanalysis
of structural responseisnot needed, andanalysisof thepossiblevariationintheappliedforce
duetotheresponseof thevehiclesuspensionsystemtoroadirregularitieswill suffice.
Thisdiscussionconcentratesontheeffectsof roadvehicles. Thesehavepneumatictyres,
whichprevent veryhightransient loadsfromoccurring. Theeffectsof railwayrollingstock
areverydifferent, andthereisanecdotal evidencethat damagedwheelsmaycauseloadspikes
that areasmuchassixtimesgreater thantheaveragerollingload. Suchveryhighfrequency
spikesarequicklyattenuatedinmost structures, althoughtheydocauseseriouslocal
problemssuchasprematurefatiguedamageandfracturesinrailwaylines.
Dynamicmagnificationof shear effectsduetowheel loadsrunningonor off bridgeswill
besmall. However, theremight well besignificant dynamicamplificationof endreactions
duetobendingresponses. If theshear vibrationmode
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shapesaretobeconsideredinamulti-modal vibrationanalysis, averylargenumber of modes
of vibrationwill needtobeconsideredbeforetheycansum(evenmoderatelyaccurately) to
thecorrect shape, andthedynamicamplificationinthesehigher modeswill benegligible.
8.3.6 Effect of influence line shapes
Whenconductingatimehistoryanalysisof responseinanyonemode, theforcingfunction
will beobtainedbytakingthesumof theproducts, at eachinterval of time, of the
instantaneousvalueof wheel loadandamodal influencecoefficient. Thisinfluence
coefficient isequal tothelocal magnitudeof thenormalizedmoderesponseshape, whichis
obtainedfromthestructure’seigenvectorsintheusual manner (seeChapter 2).
If it astaticanalysissolutionistobecomparedwithadynamicanalysis, it isimportant to
noticethat thestaticinfluencelinefor midspanbendingof asimplysupportedbeamis
triangular, whereasthefirst flexural modeshapeisapproximatelysinusoidal. Therefore, even
if thereisnodynamicamplificationof themode1response, thetimehistoryanalysiswill
appear togivealarger response. Theprecisionof theresultscantheoreticallybeimprovedby
increasingthenumber of modesconsideredintheanalysis, but thisleadstopractical
analytical problems.
A pragmaticapproachistoarbitrarilyassumethestaticanddynamicinfluencelineshapes
tobeidentical. Theabsolutevalueof responsewill not beobtainedexactly, but it will allow
thedifferencebetweendynamicandstaticresponsetobefound.
8.3.7 Use of bridge strain measurements
A number of workershavereportedanalysesof recordedvaluesof bridgestrains, inwhichthe
higher frequencyoscillationsareattributedtodynamicresponse, andlower frequency
oscillationstostaticresponses.
If abridgespanis, say, 30m, atypical transit timewill beintheorder of 2sec. Themode1
frequencywill beintheorder of 3.8Hz (eqn8.2), sotherewill beintheorder of eight full
oscillationsinmode1. Sincethestaticeffect of thevehiclewill onlycauseapproximatelyone
half oscillation, it isconceptuallyreasonabletoconsider separatingthetwoeffects.
However, evenwhenthereappearstobenosignificant vibration, theloadeffectsmaywell
bestronglyaffectedbyoverall roadprofileeffectscausedbythebridge’sbeinginadipor on
ahump. Sucheffectsarelikelytobeat least asimportant asanydynamicvibrationresponse.
Figure8.3illustratesstraingaugereadingsobtainedat 1/100secintervalsfromthelower
flangecentreof asteel beamfromacompositebeamplusreinforcedconcreteslabbridgewith
a10mspan. Thepeak40mphstrainsareactuallylessthanthe10mphstrains, but thereis
littlesignof periodicoscillationoneither trace(theunevennessseemslargelytobedueto
signal noise). Thedifferences
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Figure 8.3 Comparisonbetweenmidspanbendingstrainsin10mspanbridgedueto10mphand40
mphtransits.
Figure 8.4 Envelopeof momentscalculatedfromaseriesof theoretical transitsof a10mspanbridge
at 10mph. Maximum=47; minimum=38; mean=42; standarddeviation=0.84; peak
potential dynamicamplificationfactor=1.12.
appear tobecausedbytheunevenroadprofile, andnot byvibrationresponseof thebridge.
TheDAF ishereactuallylessthanunity, althoughbridgevibrationswereverysmall.
Figure8.4illustratesanenvelopeof the‘pseudo-static’ effectscausedbyvariationsin
loadingcausedbyvertical accelerationof vehiclemassduetounevenroadsurfaces,
excludingdynamicresponseof thesupportingsurface. Theplottedvaluesarepotential load
effectsderivedfor all possiblelocationsof a10mmidspanbeambendinginfluenceline
relativetotheentireset of all wheel loadmeasurementsfor a15secperiodduringa10mph
passageof thesame5-axledair
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Figure 8.5 Envelopeof momentscalculatedfromaseriesof theoretical transitsof a10mspanbridge
at 40mph. Maximum=55; minimum=31; mean=42; standarddeviation=3.2; peakpotential
dynamicamplification==1.31.
suspensionarticulated38tonneheavygoodsvehicle. Themaximumpossibleamplificationof
thestaticmoment duetothemeasuredvariationsinwheel loadsfor thisperiodwasequivalent
toaDAF of 1.12, but the‘characteristic’ (upper 5percentile) valuewasapproximatelyaDAF
of 1.03.
Figure8.5showsthesameplot for approximately8secondsat 40mph. ThepeakDAF was
potentially1.31, andthecharacteristicwasapproximately1.12.
8.3.8 Trial time history analysis
Sometrialswereperformedinorder toestablishthevalidityor otherwiseof possibleanalysis
methods, andvaluesof dampingparameters. Theapproachwhichwaschosenwastousethe
Duhamel integral method(CloughandPenzien, 1993). Thismaybeconveniently
implementedinacomputer spreadsheet andisdescribedintheformof ahandanalysis
spreadsheet intheearly(1975) editionof CloughandPenzien.
Theresponseequationthat isusedisgivenbythefollowingconvolutionintegral. The
responseisobtainedbyintegratingaseriesof harmonicvibrationresponsesduetoaseriesof
short durationimpulses. Thus(seeeqn2.38):
(8.3)
where:
v(t)=Displacement at timet
IJ=Timeat eachimpulse
ȟ=Dampingratio
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p(IJ)=Impulsiveforceat timeIJ
Ȧ
D
=Modal natural frequency
Theappliedloadfunctionp(IJ) isobtainedbysummingtheproductsof eachof the
instantaneousvaluesof thevehicleaxleloadsandamodal influencecoefficient at eachtime
step. Thus:
(8.4)
where:
p(IJ)=Impulsiveforceat timeT
L=Spanof bridge
x=Positionalongspan
f(x, IJ)=Forcesappliedat locations x at timeIJ
Ø(x)=Valueof mode1vibrationshapeat locationsx
Asexplainedabove, sincedynamicresponseisonlycalculatedinMode1, andthemode
shapeisnot identical tothestaticinfluencelineshape, it isconvenient toassumethat the
modal influencecoefficient andstaticinfluencelinesarebothsinusoidal, andhaveequal
maximaat midspan. (Themaximumvalue=0.25L, sincethat istheinfluencelinemagnitude
for midspanbendingduetoacentral loadonabeam.)
At aparticular timeT, therefore, thestaticloadeffect ismerelygivenbyp(T). TheDAF is
thengivenby:
(8.5)
where:
where:
p(x)=Impulsiveforcewhenvehicleisat locationx
L=Spanof bridge
x=Positionalongspan
f(x)=Average(static) axleloadsat positionsx
Ø(x)=Valueof mode1vibrationshapeat locationsx
Figure8.6comparesthestatic‘Input’ anddynamicresponse‘Response’ fromatime-
historyanalysisconsideringmode1responseona10mbridgespanduringa10mphtransit,
superimposedonaplot of thelower flangestrains‘MeasuredStrain’ duringtheperiodof the
vehicletransit.
Thefirst flexural modenatural frequencyfor a10mspanfor asimplebeamfromeqn(8.2)
is(approximately) 10Hz. Mode2wasomittedsinceit hasnocurvature
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Figure 8.6 ModeI responsedueto10mphtransit: Dampingratio=0.10.
or deflectionat midspan. Thethirdmodesnatural frequencywouldbe90Hz, whichissofar
inexcessof thevehicle’sexcitationfrequencythat it, too, wastobeignored.
8.3.9 Effect of damping
Structural dampingmust beobtainedbyobservation. Indynamicanalysis, it isusually
expressed as the ratio, ȟ to the critical dampingvalue. Structural engineersoftenfindit
convenient toobservetheratiobetweentwosuccessivepeakvaluesof anoscillationasit
decaysfollowingsometest excitation. Thelogarithmof theratiobetweensuccessivepeaksis
knownasthelogarithmicdecrement (‘logdec’ seealsoSection2.2.2) į, where:
(8.6)
which, for small dampingbecomes:
(8.7)
Inthetrial analyses, thebest matchbetweenpredictedandmeasuredresponsewas found
whenusingadampingratio, ȟ, of 0.10. Greenet al. (1995) report ȟ valuesintestsof 0.045.
Thepeakmoment calculatedfor the40mphtransit wassomewhat lessthanthat for the10
mphtransit, owingtotheformof local roadprofile. (Thiseffect alsoappearsinthestrain
gaugereadingsplottedinFigure8.3.) The‘Input’ linerepresentsthechangingstaticmidspan
moment takingaccount of thevariationineffectivevehicleweight that appearsinFigure8.2.
The‘Response’ lineincludesbridgedynamicresponseinthefirst flexural mode. Bothlinesfit
themeasuredstraingaugechangesalmost equallywell, whichimpliesthat
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Figure 8.7 ModeI responsedueto40mphtransit: Dampingratio=0.10.
(providedthat measuredwheel loadswereavailable) dynamicresponseanalysiswasnot
necessaryfor thisstructureunder thisload.
Figure8.7suggeststhat (at least for thistypeof compositesteel beamplusconcreteslab
structure) apseudo-staticanalysiswhichtakesaccount of thechangeineffectivevehicle
weight but whichdoesnot concernitself withdynamicresponseof thebridgewill be
adequatefor all practical purposes.
8.3.10 Interpretation and implementation of dynamic analysis
Practical bridgedesigncodesusuallyprovideloadmodelswhichwill provide‘nominal’ load
effectswhichhavesomepre-determinedprobabilityof exceedence.
If theloadmodel hasbeenderivedseparatelyfor staticanddynamiceffects, thereremains
theproblemof combiningthetwoanalysisresultsintoasingledesignmodel, whichisrelated
insomepre-determinedmanner tothestatisticallydeterminedextremeof thejoint effectsof
staticanddynamicloading.
It doesappear that, for most practical structures, dynamicmagnificationor reductionof
staticloadeffectsiscausedmainlybytheeffectsof unevenroadprofile. Toafirst
approximation, therefore, theDAF isaunique(althoughuncertain) propertyof eachbridge
(or, at least, of thetransit of eachindividual typeof vehicle).
Thus, theextremestaticloadeffect will beafunctionof thelifetimeexposureof thebridge
totraffic, but theextremedynamicloadeffect will beapropertyof thebridge. Whenthe
HighwaysAgency’s(1997) assessment rulesweredeveloped, it hadtobeassumedthat there
weregenerallynositespecificstrainrecords, andtheuncertaintyinDAF wastreatedasa
structural property. After muchconsideration, theruleswerefinallybasedonreviewing
variationsinstaticloadeffectsderived
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fromalargenumber of continuouswheel loadmeasurementsfromaset of vehicleswhich
wasbroadlyrepresentativeof thetypesof vehicleincommonuseintheUK.
8.4 REFERENCES
AEA Technology Program VAMPIRE, Internal report, Derby.
Bailey, S.F. (1996) ‘Basicprinciplesandloadmodelsfor thestructural safetyevaluationof existing
roadbridges’, ThesisNo. 1467, EcolePolytechniqueFédéraledeLausanne. BSI (1972) BS153:
Part 3A, Specification for Steel Girder Bridges, BritishStandardsInstitution, London.
BSI (1980) BS5400, Code of Practice for Steel, Composite and Concrete bridges, BritishStandards
Institution, London.
CENTechnical Committee250(1994) Eurocode1, Basis of Design and Actions on Structures-Part 3,
Traffic Loads on Bridges (ENV 1991–3), CEN, Brussels.
Clough, R.W. andPenzien, J . (1975, 1993) Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
Cooper, D. I andFlint, A.R. (1997) ‘Development of short spanbridge-specificassessment live
loading’, inP.C. Das(ed.) Safety of Bridges, Institutionof Civil Engineers, London.
Das, P.C. (ed.) Safetyof Bridges, T. Telford, London1997.
Department of Transport, BESDivision. (1980) Revision of Short Span Loading. Unpublished.
London.
Elnashai, A.S. (1995) Institutionof Civil EngineersLecture, February, London.
Flint, A.R. (1990) ‘Current UK bridgeassessment rulesandtrafficloadingcriteria’, inP.C. Das(ed.)
Safety of Bridges, Institutionof Civil Engineers, London.
Flint andNeill Partnership. (1986) Interim Design Standard: Long Span Bridge Loading. TRL
Contractor Report CR16, TRL, Crowthorne.
Green, M.F., Cebon, D. andCole, D.J . (1995) ‘Effectsof vehiclesuspensiondesignondynamicsof
highwaybridges’,J. Struct. Engng.ASCE. 121(2).
Henderson, W. (1954) ‘Britishhighwaybridgeloading’, paper givenat ICE Proceedings, Road
EngineeringDivisionMeeting: RoadPaper No. 34, 2March.
HighwaysAgency(1988) Design Manual for Roads andBridges. Vol. 1Section3Part 6BD37/88
Loadsfor HighwayBridges, HA, London.
HighwaysAgency(1997) Design Manual for Roads and Bridges. Vol. 3Section4Part 3BD21/97
Chapter 5Loading, HA, London.
Page, J . (1976) Dynamic Wheel Load Measurements on Motorway Bridges, TRRL LaboratoryReport
LR722, TRL, Crowthorne.
Paultre, P., Chaallal, O. andProulx, J . (1992) ‘Bridgedynamicsandamplificationfactors: areviewof
anaytical andexperimental findings’, Canadian J. Civil Engng. 19.
Ricketts, N. J , andPage, J . (1997) Traffic Data for Highway Bridge Loading, TRL Report 251, TRL,
Crowthorne.
Acknowledgement
I wishtoacknowledgetheassistanceof theUK HighwaysAgencyandTransport Research
Laboratorywhorespectivelysponsoredandcollectedthebridgeandvehicleresponsedata
uponwhichtheanalysisof UK bridgeresponsesisbased.
Page323
Chapter 9
Machine-induced vibrations
J.W.Smith
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Manyindustrial processesgiverisetolargedynamicforces. Theunbalancedmassesof large
rotatingmachinesgenerateoscillatingforces, whileforgehammersandrockcrushersapply
transient shocksandimpacts. Rotatingor reciprocatingmachinesgenerallyoperateat fixed
frequencies. It isessential todesignthefoundationsor supportstoavoidresonance. Periodic
forcingfunctionswill alwaysinducedynamicresponsesandtheseshouldbeevaluatedto
ensurethat theydonot damagethefabricof theenclosingbuildings, themachinesthemselves
or other sensitiveprocessesnearby. Thevibrationduetotransient shocksandimpactsshould
alsobeevaluatedfor thesamereason. Furthermore, humanbeingsareverysensitiveto
vibrationsandtheamplitudesshouldnot causediscomfort topersonnel workingnearbyor to
other occupantsof buildingsthat containmachines.
Therearefour important stepsinthesuccessful designof machinefoundations. First, the
dynamicforceshavetobeassessedaccurately. Thisisthetaskof themechanical designer of
themachineryitself, andlargelyconsistsof forcesexertedbytheinertiaof themovingparts.
Thesegenerallyoccur at harmonicsof machinespeed. Other forcesarisefromcylinder
ignition, rockcrushing, impact fromhammers, andcertainfault conditionssuchasshort
circuitsinelectrical machinery. Secondly, thegroundconditionshavetobeassessed. This
requiresageotechnical investigationwiththeaimof determiningreliablevaluesof the
effectiveelasticresistanceprovidedbythefoundationmaterial. A balancehastobeachieved
betweenthecost of adetailedsurveyandthevalueandimportanceof theproject. Therewill
inevitablybeconsiderableuncertaintyabout thenumerical valueseventuallyadoptedfor the
designcalculationsandthedesigner needstobeconfident about theupper andlower bounds.
Thirdly, thenumerical model of thesystemshouldbesuitablefor thepurpose. Manymachine
foundationsconsist of largemassconcreteblocks. Theseareeffectivelyrigid, andreliable
designcalculationscanbedoneusingquitesimplemethodsof analysisbytreatingthesoil
foundationasanelasticsupportingmedium. However, inprinciplethegroundisanon-linear
solidwithinfiniteboundaries. Vibrationof amachineblockresultsinwave
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propagationwithinthesoil radiatingawayfromthecentreof disturbance. Thisshouldbe
reflectedintheanalytical modellingfor major projects. Advancedanalysisusingfinite
element andlayeredhalf spacemethodsmayberequired. Finally, thepredictedvibration
shouldbecomparedwithcriteriachosentoensurethat personnel arenot discomfitedandthat
equipment performanceisnot impaired. Somedesignrulesexist but onlyfor limitedtypesof
industrial machinery. Informationoftenhastobeobtainedfromexperiencewithinthe
relevant industryor fromresearch.
9.2 DYNAMIC LOADING BY MACHINERY
Thedynamicloadingfromindustrial machineryderivesprincipallyfromtheinertiaeffectsof
movingparts. Everymachinebehavesdifferentlyandit isusuallytheresponsibilityof the
manufacturer tocalculatetheforcesthat will beimposedonthesupportingstructure. The
rotationspeedsor frequenciesat whichmachinesoperatearealsoimportant andshouldbe
specified.
9.2.1 Reciprocating engines
Largemulti-cylinder diesel enginesareoftenusedtoprovidetheprimarymotivepower for
electrical generatingplant inremoteregionslackingindigenousfossil fuelsor wherethereis
noaccesstoother formsof energyproduction. Thereciprocationtogether withthecylinder
ignitionsequencegiverisetoperiodicforces.
A typical arrangement of diesel engineandalternator mountedonafoundationblockis
showninFigure9.1. A crank—pistonlinkageisshowninFigure9.2wherethemassesof the
crank, connectingrodandpistonarem
1
, m
2,
andm
3
respectively. Enginespeedsarenormally
quotedinrevolutionsper minute(r.p.m.) inwhichcasethecrankshaft rotationfrequency ȍis
givenby:
(9.1)
whereN istheenginespeed. It isevident that therewill beoscillatoryinertiaforcesduetothe
movingmasses m
1
, m
2
andm
3
. Thefirst twowill havevertical andhorizontal components
whilem
3
will haveavertical component only. Themagnitudeof theseforcesmaybe
evaluatedif thevariousmassesandlengthsareknown. For example, it canbeshownthat the
inertiaforceduetothepistonwill be:
(9.2)
Thisisnot asimpleharmonicexcitationbecauseof thesecondterm. Therefore, inadditionto
theprimaryengineforcesappliedat enginespeed, therewill behigher harmonicsappliedat
integral multiplesof theenginespeed. Themechanical designer of theengineshouldevaluate
theseforces.
Inmulti-cylinder enginesit ispossibletobalancemost of theinertiaforces, dependingon
thenumber andarrangement of thecylinders. However, therewill
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Figure 9.1 Diesel engineandalternator.
Figure 9.2 Crank-pistonlinkage.
alwaysbesomeresidual unbalancedforcesduetotolerancesonweightsandgeometry.
Furthermore, ignitionof acylinder will createadynamicmoment about thecentreof gravity
of theengine, asmaybeseeninFigure9.1. Inafour-strokeenginethiswill result ina
pitchingmoment whosefrequencywill be:
(9.3)
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Figure 9.3 Rotatingunbalancedmass.
wheren isthenumber of cylinders. Thefiringorder isselectedtominimizetheeffect of this
moment.
9.2.2 High speed rotating machines
Turbines, centrifugal pumps, fansandelectrical generatorsareexamplesof highspeed
rotatingmachinery. Eventhoughconsiderablecareistakentobalancetherotatingparts,
residual imbalanceswill alwaysexist. Aninertiaforceisgeneratedbytheeccentricitye of an
unbalancedmassm about thecentreof rotationasindicatedinFigure9.3. Strictlyspeaking,
thisforceactsradiallyandrotateswiththeshaft. But it will haveoscillatoryvertical and
horizontal componentsthat mayexcitethecorrespondingmodesof vibration. Thishappensin
everydayexperiencewithadomesticspindryer. It shouldalsobenotedthat thespeedsof
turbinesaremanytimesgreater thanthoseof reciprocatingenginesof similar power and
thereforetheout of balanceforcewill besignificantlyamplifiedbecauseof thefrequency
beingsquared(mȍ
2
e).
9.2.3 Transient torques in electrical machines
Therearetwoimportant casesof transient dynamicloadingthat occur withdrivenelectrical
generators. Thefirst isknownasshort circuit torque. Consider anelectrical alternator being
drivenbyanengineasinFigure9.1. If afault occurred, whichhadtheeffect of creatinga
short circuit intheoutput of thealternator, averylargecurrent wouldbedemanded(for a
fractionof asecond, perhaps). Thiswouldbeexperiencedasasuddenlyappliedloador brake
onthesystem. Asaresult theenginewouldapplyatorqueabout theaxisof thedriveshaft.
Thesecondcaseisknownas faulty synchronizing torque. Thisoccurswhenanengine
generator systemstartsupandfeedspower intothenational grid. If theoutput of the
generator isnot synchronizedwiththea. c. waveformof thenational gridabrakingeffect, or
torque, isex-
Page327
periencedbythegenerator until suchtimeasit isinphase. Thiswill haveasimilar effect to
short circuit torque, inthat asuddentorqueisappliedtothealternator whichhastobereacted
bythemachinesupports. Thedynamiceffect of asuddenlyappliedloadistwicethestatic
effect. Thesameappliestoasuddenlyappliedtorque. Themachinemanufacturer should
providethemagnitudeanddirectionof transient torquesthat mayoccur duringoperationof a
machine.
9.2.4 Gyratory rock crushers
Inthequarryingindustrythereisaneedtocrushexcavatedrockintostonesof varyingsize
for different enduses. Therawexcavatedrockisofteninverylargepieces(perhapsinexcess
of onemetreacrossandweighingacoupleof tons), whereastheendproduct mayberequired
for highwaychippingsof 20mmsizeor less. Gyratorycrushersareusuallyusedinmodern
quarriestoprocesstherock.
Thereareseveral designsinexistencebut oneof themost commonisthebasesupported
conecrusher. Theprincipleof operationisillustratedinFigure9.4. Thefixedpartsof the
machineconsist of adrum, hopper andbowl (inverted). Uncrushedrockisloadedintothe
hopper andontothefeedplateof thecrushinghead, whichensuresthat therockfallsintothe
spacebetweenthebowl andthemantleof thecrushinghead. Thecrushingheadisdrivenina
gyratorymotionby
Figure 9.4 Cross section of a gyratory cone crusher.
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Figure 9.5 Schematicdiagramof transient forceduetostonecrushing: (a) forcingfunction; (b)
directionof dynamicforce.
themainshaft whichisseatedintheeccentricshaft at anangledesignedtoachievethe
desiredsizeof stoneafter crushing. Notethat thegapbetweenthecrushingmantleandthe
bowl variesaroundtheperimeter of thebowl. Theeccentricshaft isdriventhroughagear
mechanismbyanelectricallypoweredcounter shaft. Crushingisachievedwhenlumpsof
rockaretrappedbetweenthebowl andmantleandthencrushedwhenthegapdiminishes
duringarevolutionof theeccentricshaft.
It will beappreciatedthat anumber of dynamicforceswill occur duetorotationof the
movingparts(Szczepanik et al. 1990). Thelargest will becausedbythegyratorymotionof
themantleandmainshaft duetotheir eccentricity. Therewill alsobetheunbalancedcounter
shaft force, whichisusuallyat twicethefrequencyof themainshaft, andvibrationof the
springsholdingdownthehopper andbowl.
However, themost important dynamicforcesaretransient shocksarisingfromthecrushing
actionitself. Smith(1993) showedthat thedynamicloadwhenastoneiscrushedconsistsof
animpulseasthepower of thedrivemotor compressestherockbetweenthebowl andmantle,
followedbyasuddenreleaseasthestonefractures. Thepeakvalueof theforcecouldbeas
muchastwoor threetons, accordingtothesizeof thecrusher, andisshownschematicallyin
Figure9.5a. Thereisaneedfor experimental dataonthemagnitudeof thetypical crushing
force, but initsabsenceanestimatecanbemadefromknowledgeof themotor torqueandthe
mechanical advantageavailablebetweenmotor andmantle. Thedurationof theimpulseis
basedontheassumptionthat typicallyfour stonesarecrushedper revolution. Theforceis
appliedinadirectionnormal tothefaceof themantle, whichisusuallyabout 45°, but could
occur inanydirectioninthehorizontal planebecauseof therotationof thepinchpoint of the
crusher (seeFigure9.5b). Theseforcesaretransient andrandom, asrocksarefedintothe
machine, but mayoccur several timesper revolutionof theeccentricshaft.
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It hasbeenfound(Szczepanik et al. 1990) that vibrationof thecrushingmachineonits
foundationleadstodynamicstressesinthearmsof thesupportingframethat holdsthe
eccentricshaft andheadinposition. Ultimately, fatiguecracksmayoccur inthearms, causing
breakdownof themachine. It isimportant that thesupportingfoundationissufficientlystiff to
minimizethisvibration.
9.2.5 Hammers
Therearemanyindustrial processes, typicallyimpact forging, whichrequiresingleor
repeatedblowswithahammer. Kineticenergyisgiventothehammer headeither bysome
external sourceof power suchassteam, compressedair, or moreusuallybygravity. Velocity
isimpartedtotheanvil andworkpiecebytransfer of momentum. A schematicarrangement
for adrophammer isshowninFigure9.6. Themassof thehammer head, or tupasit iscalled,
isdenotedbym
0
theanvil by m
2
andthefoundationbym
1
. Somekindof elasticlayer, often
hardwood, isinter-posedbetweentheanvil andthefoundationblock. Theblockiseither
supportedelasticallybythefoundationmaterial or byspeciallydesignedspringstominimize
thetransmissionof vibrationtonearbybuildings. Thusthesystemhastwodegreesof freedom.
Figure9.6Schematicarrangement for adrophammer.
Page330
Thevelocityof thetupbeforeimpact isgivenby:
(9.4)
Inthecaseof pneumaticor steampowereddrophammersBarkan(1962) foundthat, in
practice, thisshouldbereducedbyanempirical factor of 0.65toallowfor frictionandthe
resistanceof exhaust air or steam.
Followingthemethodof Barkan(1962), conservationof momentumcanbeexpressedby:
(9.5)
where(– v') isthereboundvelocityof thehammer headandv
0
isthevelocityimpartedtothe
anvil. Therelativevelocityafter impact dependsontheelasticcharacteristicsof thecolliding
bodiesandisobtainedfromtheexpression:
(9.6)
whereC
r
isthecoefficient of restitution. Thisconstant variesbetween0(fullyplastic) to1
(perfectlyelastic). Thusthevelocityof theanvil after impact maybeobtainedfromeqns(9.5)
and(9.6) andisgivenby:
(9.7)
whereμ
0
=m
2
/m
0
. Thisvelocitymaybeusedasaninput totheequationsof motionof atwo
degreeof freedomsystem(seeSection2.3). It ispossiblethat thehammer might strikethe
anvil eccentrically, thusimpartingarotational component. Thisconditionshouldalsobe
considered.
NovakandEl Hifnawy(1983) haveverifiedthat theaboveprocedureissatisfactory
providedthat thedurationof theimpact ismuchshorter thanthenatural periodof the
foundation. Thismaynot besoif thefoundationsupport isverystiff (e.g. piles). It wouldthen
benecessarytotakeaccount of theforce-timefunctionof theimpulse.
9.2.6 Vibrating screens
Theseareusedextensivelyintheminingandquarryingindustriesfor washing, separatingand
gradingprocesses. Rock ispassedover ahorizontal screenthat issupportedat itsends, as
showninFigure9.7. Thescreenisvibratedverticallyandhorizontallybymotor driven
eccentriccranksor cams. Stonesthat aresmall enoughpassthroughthescreenandare
collected, whilelarger stonespassover theslopingupper surfaceandcontinuetothenext size
of screen. Sinusoidal inertiaforcesarethusappliedtothesupportingframestructureandto
thefoundations. Inthequarryingindustryrockisgradedintodifferent sizesbypassingover a
sequenceof vibratingscreens. Theseareusuallyhousedinasinglelargebuilding, whichis
thereforesubjectedtocontinuousdynamicloadingwhilein
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Figure 9.7 Schematicdiagramof avibratingscreen.
operation. Theframeof thebuildingshouldbestiff enoughtoprevent unacceptablevibration
amplitude.
9.2.7 Rolling mills
Inprocessessuchasrollingof steel sections, theshapingisachievedbypassingahot bloom
or billet throughtheshapingrollerswhicharedrivenbyad.c. motor. Asabillet entersthe
rollers, theinitial resistanceactslikeasuddenlyappliedtorquetotheshaft of thedriving
motor. Theresultingdynamiccoupleappliedtothefoundationblockisanalogoustothe
‘short circuit’ torqueinelectrical generators. Thetorquecanbeestimatedbyknowingthe
speedandpower of thedrivingmotor.
9.3 DESIGN OF STRUCTURES TO MINIMIZE MACHINE-INDUCED
VIBRATION
9.3.1 Dynamic response of supporting structure and foundation
Most typesof heavyindustrial machinesareprovidedwithoneof thefivetypesof supporting
foundationshowninFigure9.8. Thesearemassconcreteblocks, box-typefoundations, wall
foundations, reinforcedconcreteframesandtabletopfoundations. Thechoiceof foundation
isinfluencedbythetypeof machine, themagnitudeof thedynamicforcesandtheaccess
requiredaroundthemachine.
Power generatingsets, comprisinglargediesel enginesandalternators, areoftenmounted
onmassconcretefoundationblockswhichdistributetheloadover thebaseareatothe
supportingsoil or rock. Piledfoundationswouldbepreferredwherethegroundconditionsare
poor. Theblockmaybeanythingfromtwiceto
Page332
Figure 9.8 Foundationsystemsfor industrial machinary.
Page333
Figure 9.9Simplifiedmodel of rigidfoundationblockrestingonelasticsupports.
fivetimesthemassof themachinery. Theperformanceof block foundationswasdiscussed
fullybySmith(1989). Theidealizedstructural systemconsistsof alargerigidmassrestingon
asemi-infiniteelasticmediumwithdynamicforcesandmomentsappliedtothemass. Thisis
anexampleof groundstructureinteractionfor whichthemathematical analysisisrelatively
advancedandinconvenient for general designpractice(Arnoldet al. 1955). Variousattempts
havebeenmadetoderivesimplifiedformulaeincludingHsieh(1962) whoproposedan
equivalent massrestrainedbyelasticelements, thesystemhavinganappropriateamount of
dampingderivedfromsemi-infiniteelastictheory. Thetheoryof groundstructureinteraction
isdiscussedbrieflyinSection9.3.2.
Themethodof analysisinmost widespreaduseat thepresent timeoriginatesfromthework
of Barkan(1962). HissimplifiedsystemisshowninFigure9.9wherethesoil stiffnessis
representedbyvertical andhorizontal springs. Providedthat thecentreof gravityof themass
coincideswiththecentreof stiffnessof thesoil, vertical vibrationcanbetreatedasasingle
degreeof freedommass—springsystem. Inthecaseof horizontal vibration, slidingmotion
will beaccompaniedbyrocking, resultinginatwo-degreeof freedomsystem. Other motions
that shouldbeconsideredincludepitchingandhorizontal motioninaplaneperpendicular to
theoneshown, andalsoyawingmotionabout avertical axis. Barkan(1962) believedthat the
participatingsoil massdoesnot makeasufficient differencetothecalculationof thenatural
frequencyandcouldbesafelyneglected. Furthermore, providedthat themachinefrequencyis
sufficientlydifferent fromthenatural frequencyof thesystem, amplitudesof forcedvibration
maybecalculatedwithreasonableaccuracybyignoringdamping. Full detailsof the
analytical procedureareprovidedintheCodeof Practicefor Foundationsfor Machinery(BSI,
1974). Informationandmethodsfor calculatingthestiffnessof thefoundationmaterial
whether it besoil, rockor pilesisprovidedby Skipp(1966). Onthebasisof
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experienceof theperformanceof averylargemachine, Smith(1989) hascommentedthat the
BSI (1974) methodof calculation(whichisbasedonBarkan, 1962) isgenerallysatisfactory
for machineswithverystiff bases. However, industrial practiceismovingtowardslighter and
moreflexiblebasesfor whichtheflexingof thebaseshouldbeconsidered.
Inaneffort toreducethecost, andalsotoprovideaccesstoequipment, box-type
foundationsmaybeemployed. TheBSI (1974) methodmaybeadoptedfor analysisbut
considerationshouldbegiventothepossibleflexingof thestructure, especiallywhen
designingfor largemachines. Wall foundationsareparticularlyuseful for machineswhich
requireequipment suchasconveyorsbeneaththem. Themachinemaybefixeddirectlytothe
topsof thewallsor supportedonsteel bearersthat spanbetweenthewalls. Thiskindof
foundationispotentiallyveryflexibleandparticular careshouldbetakeninthedesign. For
example, it maynot bewisetoassumethat thefoundationslabisrigidsincetransverse
vibrationof thewallsmaybeaccompaniedbyflexingof theslab.
Turbinesandother highspeedrotatingmachinesareoftenmountedonreinforcedconcrete
framesandslabs(SrinavasuluandVaidyanathan, 1976). Inthiscasethesupportingstructure
cannot betreatedasarigidblockandanalysisof itsdynamiccharacteristicsmayrequire
numerical computation. The‘tabletop’ arrangement issimilar totheframetypeof supporting
structure, asshowninFigure9.10inwhichaturbineandalternator aremountedonaslab,
whichinturnissupportedbycolumns. Inorder toconfinethevibrationcausedbythe
machinerytotheslab, theslabitself ismountedonisolatingspringsanddampersat thetops
of thecolumns. Thestiffnessanddampingof thesespring—damper unitsmust bechosento
minimizetransmissionof thevibrationtothecolumns. Theslab/ machinesystemhastobe
checkedfor all possiblemodesof vibrationincludingflexural motionof theslab.
9.3.2 Ground-structure interaction
Theabovemethodsarehighlysimplifiedtheoretically, andtakenoaccount of theinfiniteor
semi-infiniteextent of thegroundthat issupportingamachinefoundation. Thesesimple
methodshavebeenusedextensivelyfor most types of foundationsfor general industrial
machinery, includingquitelargegenerator sets. However, inthecaseof verylarge, important,
expensiveor safetycritical projectsit maybenecessarytocarryout morerigorousanalysis
usingadvancedtheory. For example, nuclear installationsinseismiczonesshouldbeanalysed
takingfull account of ground—structureinteraction. Theprinciplesarediscussedbriefly
below.
Anidealizedmodel of afoundationblock supportedonsoil or rock isshowninFigure9.11.
Themassconsistsof theconcreteblocktogether withthemachinery. Thegroundisasemi-
infiniteregionof layeredelasticmedia. Thelayersrepresent different soil or rockstrataand
wouldhavedifferent densityandelasticcharacteristics. Dynamicforcesareappliedtothe
blockasaresult of theoperationof the
Page335
Figure 9.10 Tabletopsupportingstructurefor turbineandalternator system.
machine. Generallythesewouldbeperiodicforcesarisingfromtheout of balancemasses.
Althoughthegroundprovideselasticresistance, whichmaybeevaluatedbythetheoryof
elasticity, thelackof boundariesmeansthat vibrationinasteadystatemodeshapedoesnot
occur. Instead, vibrationof theblockresultsindisplacement of thegroundintheformof
wavesthat propagateawayfromthesourceof disturbance. Themost important wavesoccur
at thefreesurfaceandareanalogoustoripplesonapondradiatingintheformof concentric
ringsincreasingindiameter withtime. Theenergyof motionat theblockisconfinedtoa
small volumeof soil whereasit isspreadover amuchlarger volumeafter sometimewhenthe
ripplehaswidened. Thus, energyof vibrationisradiatedawayfromthesourceof
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Figure 9.11 Idealizedmodel of afoundationblocksupportedonsoil or rock.
Figure 9.12 Dynamicpoint loadonsurfaceof anelastichalf space.
disturbance. Evenif frictional dampinginthesoil isignored, thislossof energyduetothe
propagatingwavesisalwayspresent andiscalledradiation damping. Thissurfacewave
effect isof great importancewhenevaluatingthevibrationof structuressupportedby
unboundedmedia.
A preliminarystepintheanalysisistoconsider adynamicpoint loadonthesurfaceof an
elastichalf spaceasshowninFigure9.12. Themost basicloadingfunctionisasteadystate
periodicforcegivenby:
(9.8)
notingthat e
iwt
=cosȦt+i sinȦt.
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Thedisplacement responseof thesurfacey(t) isof asimilar form
(9.9)
Evenif therewasnomaterial dampinginthesoil, thedisplacement amplitudecouldnever go
toinfinityat resonance, asinthecaseof structureswithboundaries(seeeqn2.42andFigure
2.14). Thisisbecausethesurfacewavestravellingawayfromthesourceof disturbance
absorbenergyandgiverisetoapparent dampingor radiationdamping. A further featureof
thebehaviour of wavemotioninelastichalf-spacesisthat thereisacharacteristicfrequency
belowwhichwavemotionwill not occur.
If eqns(9.8) and(9.9) aresubstitutedintoanequationof motionsuchaseqn(2.27) givenin
Chapter 2, it canbeshownthat:
(9.10)
wherey isthedisplacement andȗ istheeffectivecritical dampingratio(seeeqns2.33, 2.34
and2.35). Theterm[k(1+2ȗi)–Ȧ
2
M] isreferredtoasthedynamicstiffnessandisafunction
of frequency. Thisrelationshipalsoholdsfor multi-degreeof freedomsystemsfor whichthe
equationof motionisgivenby:
(9.11)
where{u} isthevector of displacementsof all thedegreesof freedomand{P} istheload
vector. [S] isthedynamicstiffnessmatrixandisgivenby:
(9.12)
It isgenerallyeasier toobtainsolutionsfor periodicloadingusinganalysisinthefrequency
domainasabove. Notethat thedynamicstiffnessmatrixisfrequencydependent. Analysisof
general forcingfunctionscanalsobysynthesizedfromfrequencydomainsolutionsusing
Fourier transforms.
Wolf (1985) hasprovidedadetailedtreatment of ground-structureinteractioninthe
frequencydomainfor earthquakeanalysisof largestructures. Heproposedasystemusing
substructures, suitablefor finiteelement analysis. ThisisillustratedinFigure9.13wherethe
structure—soil systemisreducedtotwosubstructures, onebeingthemainstructureandthe
other beingthesurroundingsoil of infiniteextent. Thedynamicstiffnessmatrixof themain
structure, [S], hasanorder equal tothenumber of degreesof freedominthefiniteelement
model. It maybeevaluatedbyconventional finiteelement methods. Thedisplacement vector
maybedecomposedintosubvectors{u
s
} and{u
b
}. Thesubscript b denotesall thenodesat
theinterfacewhiles denotestheremainingnodesof thestructure, asshowninFigure9.13.
Similarly, thestiffnessmatrixmaybedecomposedintothesubmatrices [S
ss
], [S
sb
] and[S
bb
].
Hence, theequationof motionof thestructuremaybeexpressedas:
(9.13)
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Figure 9.13 Finiteelement model of structureembeddedinanunboundedregionof soil.
Figure 9.14 Referencesubsystemsfor thestructureandexcavatedground.
whereP
s
aretheloadsappliedtonodesof thestructureother thanat theinterfacewhereit is
assumedtherearenoexternal loads.
Inorder toobtainthedynamicstiffnessmatrixof thesoil structuresystem, it isnecessaryto
addthedynamicstiffnessmatrixof theexcavatedground. ThisisshowninFigure9.14and
theequationof motionof thesystemwill become:
(9.14)
wherethesuperscripts s andg denotethestiffnesssubmatricesbelongingtothe
Page339
structureandtheground, respectively. It shouldbenotedthat thestiffnessmatrixof the
excavatedground inprinciplerepresentsthedynamicstiffnessof generalizedspringsand
dashpotsjoiningthenodesb toadjacent fixedvirtual nodes. Theytakeaccount of thedensity
andstiffnessof thegroundmaterial together withradiationdampingduetothewavemotion.
Thisstiffnessmatrixisnot easytoobtainbecauseit isasemi-infiniteregionof irregular
shape. However, it canbeobtainedbysubtractingthestiffnessmatrixof theexcavatedsoil
fromthat of theinterfacenodesinthefreefield asfollows:
(9.15)
Hence, theequationof motionbecomes:
(9.16)
maybeinterpretedasthedynamicstiffnessmatrixof thestructure, withthe
stiffnessmatrix of theexcavatedsoil subtracted. Thelatter maybeevaluatedbyconventional
finiteelement methods.
Thefreefielddynamicstiffnessmatrix must beevaluatedusingthetheoryof semi-
infinitelayeredmedia. Thisrequiresadvancedmathematical treatment that isbeyondthe
scopeof thisbook. Wolf (1985) hasderivedanumber of useful special casesfor two-
dimensional andaxi-symmetricfoundationsusingGreen’sfunctions. Moreover, themethod
hasbeendevelopedfurther for analysisinthetimedomain(Wolf, 1988). Wolf andParamesso
(1992) solvedapractical exampleof ahammer foundationwithuplift of theanvil. Thiswasa
non-linear probleminwhichtheyusedalumpedparameter model for arigidcylindrical
foundationembeddedinasoil layer.
9.3.3 Design criteria
Theprimaryrequirement of themachine/foundationsystemisthat resonanceis avoidedat the
operatingmachinefrequencies. It issometimesrecommendedthat for important installations
anynatural frequencyof thesystemshoulddiffer fromsignificant operatingfrequenciesbya
factor of 2.0(BSI, 1974). Thefactor isreducedto1.5for installationsof lesser importance. If
thisdegreeof separationof natural frequenciesanddrivingfrequenciescanbeachieved, no
further analysisisgenerallyrequired. Inpracticethisusuallyrequiresacompromisebecause
thedynamicsystemwill havenumerousnatural frequenciesof vibrationwhilethemachinery
maygenerateharmonicsinadditiontotheprincipal operatingfrequency. Morerecent
specificationsallowthefrequenciestobeevencloser (DIN 4024, 1988).
Inthecaseof aninstallationwheretheforcingandnatural frequenciesareclose, the
maximumamplitudesof thefoundation/structuresystemshouldbeevaluated
Page340
under theprincipal forcingfunctions. Thesewouldinclude: periodicloadingfromunbalanced
rotatingmasses; transient loadssuchasshort circuit torque; andshockor impulseloadsfrom
industrial processes.
Therearethreeprincipal concernswhenconsideringwhether thepredictedvibrationsare
acceptableor not. First, thevibrationsinthevicinityof themachineryshouldnot belarge
enoughtodisturbpersonnel workingnearby(e.g. maintenanceor control roomstaff). Human
beingsaresurprisinglysensitivetovibration. A vibrationof small amplitudecanbedisturbing
or annoyingespeciallyif it iscontinuous. It canimpair concentration, causefatigueandother
physical symptoms, includingheadachesandsicknessinextremecases. Humanresponseto
vibrationwasdiscussedinChapter 7. Secondly, excessivevibrationof thesupportsof a
machinemayresult inover stressof componentsof themachineitself. Anexampleof thisis
thesupportingframeworkfor theeccentricshaft of agyratoryconecrusher (seeFigure9.4). If
thissteel frameworkissubjectedtocontinuousvibrationinducedstressesit maybe
susceptibletofatiguedamage(Szczepanik et al. 1990). Thefoundationshouldbestiff enough
toprevent themachinevibratingexcessivelyonitsmountings. Bearingsof turbinesand
enginesmaybeadverselyaffectedbyexcessivevibration. Thirdly, transmissionof machine-
inducedvibrationtothestructureof thebuildinginwhichthemachineryishousedmaybe
undesirable. Thevibrationmaybedisturbingtopersonnel workinginthesameor adjacent
buildings. Electroniccontrol equipment isoftenhousedinboxesor panelsandfixedtothe
floors, columnsor wallsof enclosingbuildings. Possibledamagetosuchequipment by
continuousvibrationshouldbechecked. A goodgeneral principleistokeepthefoundations
of themachinesandthebuildingseparate.
Thereisascarcityof codeprovisionsdealingwithmachine-inducedvibrations. Plant
manufacturersoftenworktotheir ownstandardsandbydefault set thestandardsfor the
relevant industry. Suppliersof sensitiveequipment mayspecifylimitstotheacceptable
environment inwhichtheir equipment operatessatisfactorily.
Informationonlimitstothevibrationenvironment of rotatingmachinesmaybefoundin
Moore(1985). Theacceptableoperatingamplitudedecreaseswithfrequencyandalimit is
oftenspecifiedintermsof velocityof vibrationat thebearingsof themachine. A vibration
velocityof lessthan2.0mm/secwouldbeexpectedtoprovidesmoothrunningconditions
whereasover 16mm/sectheoperationof themachinewouldprobablybeveryrough. The
BritishStandardfor rotatingelectrical machines(BSI, 1987) recommendsalimit of about 2.5
mm/secr.m.s., althoughthisisintendedfor relativelysmall machines. Inthequarrying
industryintheUK alimit of 0.36mm/secisgenerallyrecommendedfor thefoundationsof
crushers.
ThevibrationlimitsrecommendedintheBritishcodeof practicefor foundationsfor
machinery(BSI, 1974) areactuallyhumantolerancecriteria. Theyarewidelyusedfor
applicationsother thanfoundationsfor reciprocatingengines. Further informationonhuman
tolerancecriteriaisprovidedinChapter 7. Intheabsence
Page341
of other information, theapplicationof humantolerancecriteriawill oftenhelptominimize
other adverseeffectsof vibrations.
9.4 REFERENCES
Arnold, R.N., Bycroft, G.N. andWarburton, G.B. (1955) ‘Forcedvibrationsof abodyonaninfinite
elasticsolid’, J. Applied Mech. 22: Trans. ASME, series E. 77:391–400.
Barkan, D.D. (1962) Dynamics of Bases and Foundations, McGraw-Hill, NewYork.
BSI (1974) Code of Practice for Foundations for Machinery: CP 2012: Part 1, Foundations for
Reciprocating Machines, BritishStandardsInstitution, London.
BSI (1987) BS4999, General Requirements for Rotating Electrical Machines: Part 142, Specification
for Mechanical Performance Vibration, BritishStandardsInstitution, London.
DIN4024(1988) Machine Foundations:Part 1, Elastic Foundations for Rotary Machines, Deutsches
Institut für Normung, Berlin.
Hsieh, T.K. (1962) ‘Foundationvibrations’, Proc. ICE, 22:211–26.
Moore, P.J . (ed.) (1985) Analysis and Design of Foundationsfor Vibration, Balkema, Rotterdam/
Boston.
Novak, M. andEl Hifnawy, L. (1983) ‘Vibrationof hammer foundations’, Int. J. Soil Dyn. Earthqu.
Engng 2:45–53.
Skipp, B.O. (ed.) (1966) Vibration in Civil Engineering, Butterworths, London.
Smith, D.G. E. (1989) ‘Foundationfor diesel generatingset inNaval Dockyard, Gibraltar’, Proc. ICE,
86: Part 1, February, 109–37.
Smith, J .W. (1993) Vibration of Cliffe Hill Quarry Crusher Foundations, Report bytheUniversityof
Bristol toM.J .CrowsonandAssociates, No. UBCE/J WS/93/03.
Srinavasulu, P. andVaidyanathan, C.V. (1976) Handbook of Machine Foundations, TataMcGraw-
Hill, NewDelhi.
Szczepanik, A., Roy, I. andKuhnell, B.T. (1990) ‘Vibrationandstressanalysisfor condition
monitoringof Symonconecrushers, Trans ASME, J. Vibn. Acoustics, 112:268–73.
Wolf, J .P. (1985) Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction, Prentice-Hall, Inc., EnglewoodCliffs, NJ .
Wolf, J .P. (1988) Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis in Time Domain, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Cliffs, NJ .
Wolf, J .P. andParamesso, A. (1992) ‘Lumped-parameter model for arigidcylindrical foundation
embeddedinasoil layer or rigidrock’, Earthquake Engng Struct. Dynamics, 21(12): 1021–38.
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Chapter 10
Random vibration analysis
George D.Manolis
10.1 INTRODUCTION
Thischapter servesasanintroductiontothefieldof randomvibrations, whichinrecent years
hasfoundextensiveapplicationsinstructural dynamics, machinevibrations, earthquake
engineering, aswell asinnon-destructivetestingandidentification. Essentially, it isan
extensionof Chapter 2, whichfocusedondeterministicstructural dynamics. Wenotethat the
conceptsof randomvariablesandrandom(or stochastic) processes, thelatter beingfunctions
of bothspaceandtimeintheir most general form, appear inmost of theinterveningchapters.
For instance, wind, water waveandearthquake-inducedgroundmotionsareloadingsof
randomnature. Specifically, theformer twotypesof loadscanbeviewedascomprisinga
rapidlyfluctuatingpart superimposedonaslowlyvaryingmeanvalue. Theycanbeclassified
asstationaryrandomloadsinthesensethat thereisacertainperiodicity(andhencesome
predictability) inthefluctuatingpart. Earthquakeloadsarefullyrandomandclassifiedasnon-
stationary, atermthat will beexplainedlater on. Finally, thereissomemildstochasticity
inherent intrafficinducedloads, simplybecausethemovement of vehiclescannot befully
controlled.
Thepresentationof suchavast subject withintheconfinesof asinglechapter isby
necessitybrief. Thus, it isassumedthat thereader isfamiliar withthebasicideasand
conceptsunderlyingprobabilitytheoryandelementarystatistics. Thisway, thepresent
chapter servesadual purpose, namelytorefreshthereader’smemoryonthesubject of
stochasticprocessesandthentomoveontoanelementary, yet basicreviewof random
vibrations. Thechapter isstructuredasfollows: First, welookat randomfunctionsof time
andof frequency. Intheinterest of brevity, alist of referencesat theendincludesseveral
excellent textbooksonprobabilisticmethods, randomvibrationsandnumerical methodsfor
stochasticproblems(Augusti et al., 1984; Crandall andMark, 1963; GhanemandSpanos,
1991; Klieber andHien, 1992; Nigam, 1983), whichthereader maywant toconsult. The
secondpart of thiswork examinestheresponseof bothsingleandmultipleDegreeOf
Freedom(DOF) structural systemstostochasticinput. Bothtimedomainandfrequency
domaintechniquesarecovered, asisthecaseof non-linear systems. Inanalysingmultiple
DOF systems, theFiniteElement Method(FEM)
Page344
isoftenusedinthenumerical modellingof acomplicatedstructural system, although
alternativemethodssuchastheBoundaryElement Method(BEM) arebecomingincreasingly
popular. Next, asimpleexampleservestoillustratetheconceptsandmethodologiespresented
herein. Finally, somematerial ispresentedonstructureswithuncertainproperties, soasto
introducethisveryimportant sourceof stochasticitythat stemsfromrandomnessinthe
material propertiesandinthegeometry, asopposedtorandomnessintheappliedloadsonly.
10.2 RANDOM PROCESSES
10.2.1 General remarks
If theoutcomeof a(conceptual) experiment istoassignareal valuetovariablex, thenx is
knownasarandomvariable. Furthermore, if x assumesonlyafinitenumber of values, it is
calledadiscreterandomvariable. Finally, if x assumesacontinuousrangeof values, it is
calledacontinuousrandomvariable.
Probabilitiesassociatedwitharandomvariableareconvenientlydescribedbyadistribution
functionsuchthat theprobabilityof xassumingavaluelessthanX isP(x”X). Notethat
and wherezerodenotesimpossibilityandunitydenotes
certainty. Theprobabilitythat x liesintheinterval (a, b) issimply:
(10.1)
Fromtheaboveequationit isseenthat if b•a,P(x”b)>P(x”a) andhencethedistribution
functionisamonotonicallynon-decreasingfunctionof X. Figure10.1showsthedistribution
functionfor bothdiscreteandcontinuousrandomvariables.
BydifferentiatingthedistributionfunctionP(x”X) intheregionswherethederivative
exists, weobtaintheProbabilityDensityFunction(PDF) as:
(10.2)
Inthecaseof adiscreterandomvariable, thePDF canberepresentedbyaseriesof impulses
or Diracdeltafunctionsat thelocationof eachjump, asshowninFigure10.2(a). Each
impulseisof areaequal tothemagnitudeof thecorrespondingjumpinP. Theprobabilitythat
isthenapproximatedas Figure10.2(b) finallyshowsthePDF
correspondingtoacontinuousrandomvariable.
10.2.2 Random time functions
Consider arandomprocessthat generatesaninfiniteensemble(or collection) of sample
functions(or records) x(t). Anexampleof thiswouldbeall possible
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Figure 10.1 Distributionfunctionfor (a) discreteand(b) continuousrandomvariables.
Figure 10.2 Probabilitydensityfunctionfor (a) discreteand(b) continuousrandomvariables.
Page346
Figure 10.3 Ensembleof recordsx(t).
accelerationrecordsat agivenlocality, or windpressurereadingsintall buildingsinacity.
Wethenproceedtodefineprobabilitiesfor suchanensemble. For example, at anytimet, a
first order distributionfunctionandafirst order PDF maybedefinedacrosstheensemble(i.e.
inthehorizontal directionof Figure10.3) asalimitingprocessintheform:
(10.3)
Similarly, ajoint PDF canbedefinedas:
(10.4)
withthefollowingproperties:
(10.5)
whereX
1
canbereplacedbyx
1
andsoforth, if thereisnodanger of confusion. Lower order
joint PDF (index m) canbefoundfromhigher order ones(index n), wherem<n, by
integratingacrossx
m+1
,…,x
n
asineqn(10.5). Also, ajoint PDF whichisinvariant toshiftsin
thetimeaxisissaidtobestationary, that is:
p(x
1
, t
1
, …, x
n
, t
n
)=p(x
1
, t
1
,+T, …, x
n
, t
n
,+T)
(10.6)
Sinceit isnot possibleinpracticetodeterminethejoint probabilitiesnecessaryfor completely
definingarandomprocess, onehastosettlefor afeweasilyobtain-
Page347
ableaverageswhichpartiallyspecifytherandomprocess. At first, themean(or statistical
averageor ensembleaverage) of x(t) is:
(10.7)
whereE (or <>) isknownastheexpectedvalue(or expectation) of x(t). Of particular interest
isaset of averagescalledcentral moments:
(10.8)
wheren isaninteger. Intheabove, subscript t servestoemphasizethat theaveragesrefer toa
particular instant of time. Inthecaseof azeromeanrandomprocess, thecentral momentsare
simplyreferredtoasmoments. Thesecondcentral moment isveryimportant inmany
applicationsandisknownasthevariance , that is:
(10.9)
Inthestationarycase, theaboveaveragesdonot varywithtime.
Theoperationof findinganexpectedvaluewasshowntoinvolveanaveragingacrossthe
ensembleof samplefunctionsx(t) of arandomprocess. Wemayalsoformtimeaverages
alongaparticular member of theensemble. Wethereforehavethat:
(10.10)
wheretheoverbar indicatesatimeaveragedvalue. If thetimeaveragesandtheensemble
averagesareidentical, therandomprocessisergodic. Obviously, thispropertyholdsfor
stationaryprocessesonly, becauseinanon-stationaryprocesstheensembleaveragewill vary
intime. Ergodicityisaverydesirablepropertyandastationaryprocessinrandomvibrations
isassumedtobeergodicunlesstherearestrongreasonstothecontrary.
Thecorrelationcoefficient ȡ
xy
betweentworandomvariablesx andy withjoint PDFp(x, y)
isdefinedas:
(10.11)
It iscommonpracticetonormalizebothx andy suchthat their meansarezeroandtheir
variancesareequal tounity. Insuchcases, ȡxy÷ȡyx÷ȡ÷E[xy{, whereȡ istheslopeof a
straight linethat best fits(byminimizingthemeansquareerror) thedataof anormalized(x,y)
scatter plot, asshowninFigure10.4. Also, ȡ”1andintermediatevaluesmeasurethedegreeof
linear statistical dependencebetweenx andy.
For arandomprocessx, wemayexpressthecorrelationbetweenx(t
1
) andx(t
2
) throughthe
autocorrelationfunction:
(10.12)
Page348
Figure 10.4 Correlationcoefficientȡ for ascatter of samplevalues.
Inthestationarycase, onlythetimedifferenceIJ betweent
1
andt
2
isimportant, that is:
(10.13)
wheret isarbitrary. Alsonotethat:
(10.14)
Intheergodiccase, R
x
canbefoundbyaveraginganysamplefunctionof theensembleacross
timeas:
(10.15)
Thecorrelationbetweentwosamplesfromrandomprocessesx(t) andy(t) isdescribedbythe
cross-correlationfunctions
(10.16)
(10.17)
Asbefore, inthestationarycase, , and
. It isobservedthat althoughtheautocorrelationisanevenfunctionof IJ, the
cross-correlationfunctionsarenot.
Usingthefact that differentiationandexpectationarelinear operatorsandassuchcommute,
thetimederivativesof theautocorrelationfunctioninthestationarycaseare:
(10.18)
Page349
and
(10.19)
wheredotsindicatederivativeswithrespect tot. Theabovetwoequationsindicatethat the
secondderivativeof theautocorrelationfunctionof x isthenegativeof theautocorrelation
functionof x. Finally, bothR
x
(IJ) andR
xy
(IJ) tendtozeroasIJĺ ’, providedx doesnot have
anyperiodiccomponents.
10.2.3 Spectral analysis
TheFourier Transform(FT) (Zayed, 1996) of theautocorrelationfunctionfor astationary
processisthePower Spectral DensityFunction(PSDF) S
x
(Ȧ), that is:
(10.20)
Also, theinverseFourier transformationgives:
(10.21)
Intheabove, Ȧ isthefrequency, i
2
=í1andthefactor 1/2ʌ maybeassociatedwitheither
member of theabovepair or maybeevenlysplit betweenthem. SinceR
x
(IJ) isareal andeven
function, Fourier cosinetransformsmaybeusedinlieuof theexponential transformshown
above. ThePSDF isalsoknownasthemeansquarespectral densitybecause:
(10.22)
Thisimpliesthat S
x
(Ȧ) aȦ canbeinterpretedasthepower or meansquaredensitycontained
inaninfinitesimal bandof complexexponentials(sinusoidsandco-sinusoids) intowhichthe
randomfunctionisresolved. ThePSDF isapositive, real valuedfunctionandiseveninȦ.
Sincephysical meaningcanonlybeassignedtopositivefrequencies, anexperimentally
obtainedspectrumisplottedbyhalvingthemeasuredS
x
(Ȧ) at eachfrequencyandplottingthe
result for bothpositiveandnegativeȦ. A spectrumS
xy
(Ȧ) for thecross-correlationfunction
R
xy
(IJ) canalsobedefinedfor thestationarycaseasineqns(10.20) and(10.21).
Asexpected, thePSDF of anergodicprocessandtheFT of asamplefunctionx(t) of the
randomprocessarerelated. Whenx(t) isanon-periodicfunction, itsFT X
T
(Ȧ) isgivenas:
(10.23)
wherex(t) isassumedtobezerobeforet=0andafter t=T. Anenergydensity
Page350
spectrumfor x(t) is:
(10.24)
andthepower densityspectrumis:
(10.25)
Thepower densityspectrumisnowarandomvariabledependent onbothx(t) andT. Although
it canbeshownthat:
(10.26)
themanner inwhichthepower densityspectrumapproachesthePSDF needstobe
investigatedineachcase. For anormal (or Gaussian) process, it isknownthat thevarianceof
S
x
(Ȧ, T) doesnot approachzeroasTĺ ’, andhencemeasurementsof S
x
(Ȧ, T) provide
questionableestimatesfor thePSDF.
10.3 SYSTEM RESPONSE TO RANDOM INPUT
10.3.1 Single Degree-Of-Freedom systems (SDOF)
Consider anSDOF linear system(HurtyandRubinstein, 1964) describedby:
(10.27)
wherethenatural frequencyis , thedampingratioisȗ=c/2mȦ
0
, andf(t) (or f(t))
istheforcingfunction. Notethat t
0
istakenasequal toor greater thanzerotoavoidhavingan
SDOF systemoperatingat negativetimes. Also, m, c andk aretheusual mass, dampingand
stiffnessconstants, whilex(t) isthedisplacement responseof thesystemtoaGaussian
stochasticinput f(t), whichisamember function(or sample) of astochasticprocess{f(t)}.
Eqn(10.27) isaccompaniedbyinitial conditionsof theform:
(10.28)
Ingeneral, theprobabilitylawfor arandomprocesscannot befullydeterminedsolelyfrom
knowledgeof themeanandcovarianceof that process(Augusti et al., 1984). Theexceptionto
thiscomeswhenthefunctional formof theprobabilitylawisknownandutilizesparameters
whicharesimplyrelatedtothemeanandcovariance, asinthecaseof anormal (or Gaussian)
distribution. Inwhat follows, it isassumedthat theinput processineqn(10.27) isGaussian,
andsoistheoutput process. Typical representationsof SDOF systemsareshowninFigure
10.5.
Page351
Figure 10.5 SDOF representations.
Themeansquare(aswell asthedeterministic) responseof theSDOF systemisGivenby
(10.29)
where
(10.30)
Functionh(t) isreferredtoastheunit impulseresponseof alinear SDOF system. Themean
m
x
(t) of theoutput processisobtainedbyaveragingacrossthe
(10.31)
For asystemwithinfiniteoperatingtime, t=’ and:
(10.32)
ThecovarianceK
xx
(t
1
, t
2
) of theoutput process, whichistheautocorrelationfunctionof eqn
(10.12) takenabout themean, isgivenas:
(10.33)
Page352
whereachangeof variablestakesplaceintheform and . Asbefore,
theupper limitsarereplacedby+’for asystemwithinfiniteoperatingtime. Furthermore, the
variance of theoutput processisobtainedbysettingt
1
=t
2
=t intheexpressionfor the
covariance(i.e. ). Finally, givenanormal or Gaussianinput, thePDF of x(t) is
givenas:
(10.34)
sothat theprobabilityof x lyingintheinterval (x, x+dx) at timet isgivenby p(x) dx. Note
that theabovedevelopment wasfor non-stationaryprocesses. For stationaryprocesseseqns
(10.32) and(10.33) still holdtrue, but theaveragesemployednolonger varywithtime.
10.3.2 Multiple Degree-Of-Freedom systems (MDOF)
Consider nowtheresponseof anMDOF systemtonon-stationaryrandominput. The
development followsalongthelinesof theSDOF system, expect for theintroductionof
matrixnotation. At first, thegoverningequationof motionof anMDOF systemis:
(10.35)
Intheaboveequation, [M], [C] and[K] aresymmetric, N×N matrices, while{x} and{ f } are
N ×1 columnvectorsdenotingtheinput andoutput processes, respectively. Inparticular, the
massmatrix [M] ispositivedefinite, whilethedamping[C] andstiffness[K] matricesare
non-negativedefinite. Also, {f(t)} isavector of Gaussianrandomvariableswhosemeanand
covariancematrixaregivenby:
(10.36)
respectively, withsuperscript T denotingtransposition.
Wefirst focusonthecasewherethesystemof eqn(10.35) possessesreal eigenvectors, else
knownasclassical (or normal) modes, whichwasthecasepresentedinChapter 2. Thus, the
matrixof normalizedeigenvectors[A] definesaset of modal co-ordinates:
(10.37)
theemployment of whichresultsinanuncoupledsystemof governingequationsof motion
givenby:
(10.38)
Intheabove, [I] istheidentitymatrixand[C] and[M] arediagonal matrices. Takingtheith
row(i=1, 2,…, N) of theaboveequationgivestheSDOF-likeequation:
Page353
(10.39)
for theithmode. Asbefore, Gaussianinput resultsinGaussianoutput that isalinear
combinationof Gaussianvariables. Finally, thetransformationof co-ordinatesdefinedbyeqn
(10.37) isknownasacongruent transformation.
Themeansquare(anddeterministic) responseof theMDOF systemisgiveninmodal co-
ordinatesas:
(10.40)
where[U] and[H] arediagonal matriceswithelements:
(10.41)
Revertingtothephysical co-ordinatesviathetransformationdefinedbyeqn(10.37) gives:
(10.42)
Giventheabovesolutionfor themeansquare(deterministic) response, thestochasticmeans
aregivenby:
(10.43)
whilethecovariancematrixisgivenbythestochasticaverageof theouter product of thezero
meanresponsevector evaluatedat twodifferent times, that is:
(10.44)
Page354
Finally, thePDF for theithcomponent of theresponse{x(t)} isgivenby:
(10.45)
wherevariance istheithdiagonal component of thecovariancematrixevaluatedatt
1
=t
2=
t
(i.e.=Kii(t, t)).
If thecomponentsof theinput {f} arejointlynormallydistributed, soarethecomponentsof
theoutput {x} withajoint PDF givenby:
(10.46)
Asbefore, for stationaryprocessesall statistical averagesaretimeindependent.
If thedampingandstiffnessmatricesarenon-symmetric, thentheclassical normal mode
approachfailsandamoregeneral approachmust besought. Thisoccurswhendampingisno
longer of theproportional kind. Thekeyideahereistoconvert thesecondorder matrix
differential equationof eqn(10.35) intoafirst order matrixdifferential equationbydefining
(10.47)
Bycombiningtheaboveequationwiththematrixequationof motionwhichhasbeen
premultipliedby[M]
í1
, thefollowing2N×2N matrixdifferential equationisobtained:
(10.48)
whereand
(10.49)
with{z(tít
0
)}={z
0
} asinitial condition. It isassumedthat theinput vector {b(t)} isGaussian
withmean{m
b
(t)} andcovariance[K
bb
(t
1
, t
2
)].
It iswell known(CoddingtonandLevinson, 1955) that for anyreal valuedmatrix[B] there
existsasimilaritytransformation[T] that will reduceit toanupper diagonal (J ordan
canonical) form[J]. Byletting:
(10.50)
andsubstitutingineqn(10.48), weobtain:
(10.51)
alongwith{y
0
}=[T]
í1
{z
0
} asinitial condition. Themeansquare(deterministic) solutionof the
aboveequationisgivenby:
(10.52)
Page 355
In the case where [J] is strictly diagonal:
(10.53)
where Ȝ
i
, i=1, 2,…, 2N, are the eigenvalues of [B]. By making the substitution ȟ÷t–IJ and
reverting to the physical co-ordinates {z}, we obtain:
(10.54)
Given the above solution to eqn (10.48), the vector of stochastic means of {z(t)} is:
(10.55)
and the matrix of covariances is (ignoring the initial conditions):
(10.56)
For Gaussian input, the output process is completely specified in terms of the above means
and covariances. The individual and joint PDF may be obtained by using eqns (10.45) and
(10.46), provided {z(t)} is decomposed according to eqn (10.47).
10.3.3 Application of Fourier transforms
AswasshowninSection10.2.3, FTsplayacentral roleintheanalysisof stationaryrandom
variablesbyrelatingtheautocorrelation(or autocovariance) tothePSDF andviceversa.
Theserelationscanbeextendedtonon-stationaryprocessesfollowing(Lampard, 1954).
Consider f
T
(t) tobeamember of areal valued, non-stationaryprocess. First, define:
(10.57)
Page356
Next, assumefor simplicitythat f(t) isazeromeanprocessandsubsequentlydefinetheFT of
f
T
(t) (seeeqn(10.20)) as:
(10.58)
Usingthedefinitionof eqn(10.57) for f
T
(t), theaboveequationcanberecast as:
(10.59)
Finally, useof theinverseFT (seeeqn(10.21)) gives:
(10.60)
Sincef
T
isareal function, it isequal toitscomplexconjugate sothat:
(10.61)
Equations(10.60) and(10.61) cannowbeusedinconjunctionwithdefinitionof the
covarianceof f
T
, that is:
(10.62)
Thecovarianceof f(t) isgivenby:
(10.63)
where
(10.64)
isthegeneralizedPSDF for therandomprocessf(t). ApplyingtheinverseFT toeqn(10.62)
yields
(10.65)
For alinear systemwithinfiniteoperatingtime, theresponsex
T
(t) canbedeterminedas:
(10.66)
Page357
whereh(ȟ) istheunit impulseresponseof eqn(1030). TakingtheFT of theaboveequation
yields:
(10.67)
where
(10.68)
isknownasthecomplexfrequencyresponseof anSDOF system. If eqn(10.67) ismultiplied
byitscomplexconjugate, that is:
(10.69)
thenthegeneralizedpower spectrumof x(t) is:
(10.70)
Theaboveequationmayberegardedasthegeneralizationof theequationgivenbelow,
namely:
(10.71)
that holdstruefor stationaryprocesses. Asbefore, theinverseFT givesthecovarianceof the
output processas:
(10.72)
Finally, thevarianceof theresponseis:
(10.73)
10.3.4 Non-linear systems
Non-linearitiesindynamicsystemsareusuallyexhibitedbythestiffnesstermsand, toalesser
extent, bythedampingterms. InthissectionwefocusonaSDOF systemthat isgovernedby
eqn(10.27) andhastheinitial conditionsof eqn(10.28), except that thestiffnessterm
isreplacedbythegeneral restoringforceg(x), that is:
(10.74)
Page358
Figure 10.6 Restoringforces: (a) linear pluscubic(Duffingoscillator) and(b) sinusoidal (pendulum
type).
Figure 10.7 Non-linear resonanceplot for (a) hardeningspringand(b) softeningspring.
Invariably, g(x) isasinglevalued, oddfunctionof theresponseandrepresentseither a
hardeningspringor asofteningspring, asshowninFigure10.6. Thepresenceof anon-linear
springinaSDOF systemresultsinaperiodT that isamplitude-dependent. Also, under steady
statevibrations, thepeak responseamplitudeversusfrequencyof theexcitationplot exhibitsa
backboneat theresonant peak, whichismanifestedat thenatural frequency Ȧ
0
of thelinear
case. Thisbackbonepointsbackwardsinthecaseof ahardeningspringandforwardsinthe
caseof asofteningspring, asshowninFigure10.7.
A particular casefor whichthereisconsiderableinformationregardingtheresponsex(t) of
anon-linear SDOF systemiswhentheexcitationisideal whitenoise(i.e. whenthePSDF of
theinput f(t) isSff(Ȧ
1
, Ȧ
2
)=S
0
, aconstant). Inthat case, thejointdistributionof x andx at time
t isdescribedbythejoint conditional PDF p=P(x0, x0, x, x, t) that diffusesintimefroma
Diracdeltafunctionat t=t
0
towardsasteadystateconditionat largetimes. Thisdiffusion
processis
Page359
governedbythewell knownFokker—Planckequation(Caughey, 1963):
(10.75)
whichislinear inpandhasvariablecoefficients. Althoughclosedformsolutionstotheabove
equationdonot exist at present, thestationarycasewhichisobtainedastĺ ’(and )
hasauniquesolutionintheform:
(10.76)
whereconstant C isdeterminedfromthenormalizationrequirement:
(10.77)
andG(x) dependsonthetypeof non-linearityexhibitedbytheSDOF system. Thisresult
impliesthat x andx arestatisticallyindependent andthatx hasaGaussiandistributionwith
variance . Also, x doesnot haveaGaussiandistributionunlessg(x) islinear.
Thetwomost prevalent techniquesfor anapproximatesolutionof anon-linear SDOF
systemaretheperturbationmethodandtheequivalent linearizationmethod. Thekeyidea
behindtheformer approachisexpansionintermsof asmall parameter İ. Inparticular, the
stiffnessisdecomposedintoapredominant linear part andasmall non-linear part g
0
(x) as:
(10.78)
andtheresponseisexpandedinpowersof İ as:
(10.79)
Suchasolutionisassumedtosatisfytheequationof motion(10.74) identicallyinİ sothat the
coefficientscorrespondingtoeachpower of İ vanishseparately. Therefore, are-arrangement
intermsof powersof İ givesthefollowingsequenceof linear equations:
(10.80)
whereaTaylor seriesexpansiong
0
(x) about x
0
hasbeenused. Notethat intheabovesystem
of equations, thenonlinearityhasbeenshiftedtotheright-handsideinasequenceof
equationsinvolvingthesamelinear operator. Therefore, theexcitationfor theithsolution
involvesanon-linear combinationof all previous i–1, i–2,…, 0solutions.
Page360
Equations(10.80) aresolvedthroughuseof theunit impulseresponseh(t) givenbyeqn
(10.30). Inparticular, for thecaseof infiniteoperatingtime:
(10.81)
Theabovesolutionappliesirrespectiveof f(t) beingadeterministicexcitationor arandom
process. Inthelatter case, eqn(10.81) givesthecomponentsof themeansquaresolution
whichissynthesizedaccordingtoeqn(10.79). For azeromeanprocess, thenext statistical
averageof interest isthevarianceof theresponsegivenby:
(10.82)
For afirst order perturbationonly, thefirst twotermsof eqn(10.82) needtoberetained, that
is:
(10.83)
Inprinciple, theaboveexpressionsapplytobothstationaryandnon-stationaryprocesses. In
practice, it maynot bepossibletoevaluatetheexpectationsontheright-handsideof eqn
(10.83) unlesstheexcitationprocesshasspecial propertiesandthenon-linear functiong
0
(x) is
of asimpleform. WhentheexcitationisastationaryGaussianprocessand g
0
(x) isanodd
polynomial inx, thenx
0
(t) isalsoaGaussianprocesswithautocorrelation
(10.84)
Also, theexpectationbetweenx
0
andg
0
consistsof evenorder momentsof x
0
W(Crandall,
1963). For example, if g
0
(x)=x
3
(Duffingoscillator), then:
(10.85)
Page361
For thisspecial case, thefirst order perturbationapproximationof eqn(10.83) canbe
completelyevaluated.
A secondtechniquethat hasbeenextensivelyusedfor non-linear systemsisequivalent
linearizaton(Caughey, 1971). Webeginbyintroducingalinear termȜx tobothsidesof eqn
(10.74), that is:
(10.86)
whereparameter A isunknownbut will bechosensoastooptimizethelinearizationprocess.
Notethat theaboveequationnowdescribesalinear systemthat issubjectedtoanon-linear
forcingfunction . Therefore, thevarianceof theresponseof thissystemto
stationaryrandomexcitationwithspectral density S
ff
(Ȧ) isgiven(seeeqns(10.67) and
(10.71)) as:
(10.87)
Ingeneral, it isimpossibletochooseaparameter Ȝ sothat ĭ will beidenticallyzero. Since
thesimplest statistical measureof themagnitudeof ĭ isitsvariance, anatural optimizationis
achievedbychoosingaȜ that minimizesE[ĭ
2
]. Thisrequiresthat:
(10.88)
wheretheterm2E[g
2
] goestozerosinceg(x) isanoddvaluedfunction. Theaboveequation
gives:
(10.89)
andall that remainsistoeliminateȜ betweeneqns(10.87) and(10.89). Theresult is
invariablytoocomplicatedtopermit anexact algebraicsolution, but it providesastarting
point for aperturbationexpansion. For thesimplecaseof ideal whitenoise, whereS
ff
(Ȧ)÷S
0
,
theintegral ineqn(10.87) yields:
(10.90)
sothat eliminationof A betweeneqn(10.89) andeqn(10.90) gives:
(10.91)
Thisresult wasencounteredintheearlier part of thissectioninconjunctionwiththeFokker—
Planckequation. If therestoringforceg(x) issplit intoalinear andanonlinear part according
toeqn(10.78), then:
(10.92)
andaperturbationtechniqueneedstobeemployed.
Page362
10.3.5 Example: non-stationary case
Asanexample, consider thesimplecaseof aSDOF systemwithafiniteoperatingtimet
0
=0
subjectedtoastationaryrandomprocess. Althoughtheinput isstationary, theoutput isnot,
byvirtueof thefact that thesystemhasafiniteoperatingtime. Consider thereforeeqn(10.27)
under zeroinitial conditionsandwhereinput f(t) isamember functionof azeromean
stochasticprocesswhichisstationary, ergodicanddescribedbyaPSDF equal toS
ff
(Ȧ). First
wehavethat theoutput processx(t) alsohasazeromean, ascanbeseenbyrecoursetoeqn
(10.32). Next, thevarianceof x(t) is(seeeqn(10.33)):
(10.93)
Sincef(t) isstationaryand thisautocorrelationfunctionis
relatedtothePSDF viatheWiener—Khinchinerelation(Caughey, 1963, 1971) as:
(10.94)
whereit isassumedthat S
ff
(Ȧ) aȦ<0. Usingeqn(10.94) ineqn(10.93) gives:
(10.95)
Sincetheintegralsinvolvedintheaboveequationareconvergent, theorder of integration
maybereversed. Usingthedefinitionof h(t) ineqn(10.30) andcarryingout theintegrations
gives:
(10.96)
where|H(Ȧ),
í2
canbefoundbyrecoursetoeqn(10.68) as:
(10.97)
As tĺ ’ ineqn(10.96), asexpected. Furthermore, astĺ ’,
, aresult inagreement withharmonic(i.e. steadystate)
analysisof theSDOF systemthat wasalsorecoveredinconjunctionwitheqn(10.87). Finally,
acommonapproximationfor alightlydampedSDOF systemistoset S
ff
(Ȧ)÷2S
0
/ʌ, asshown
inFigure10.8. Inthat case,
Page363
Figure 10.8 RandomSDOF systemresponse.
, aresult for stationaryconditionsthat canbefoundinmanyreferences
(Hinch, 1991).
10.4 STRUCTURES WITH UNCERTAIN PROPERTIES
10.4.1 Static analysis
Sofar, wehaveexaminedthecasewhereastructureisdeterministicanditsexcitationis
random. Wewill nowlookat aFEM formulationfor stochasticcaseswhererandomnesscan
beexpressedinthegeneral form , withz
0
beingthedeterministicvalueof a
material property(suchastheelasticmodulus) or astructural component (suchasthemoment
of inertiaof amember) andȖ beingarandom, zeromeansmall fluctuationabout z
0
. Following
(Vanmarkeet at., 1986), wewill utilizetheFEM stiffnessapproachwhichgivesthefollowing
systemof algebraicequationsfor thestaticcase:
(10.98)
Asbefore, [K] istheN×N stiffnessmatrixand{x} and{f} areN×1columnvectorscontaining
thenodal displacementsandforces, respectively. Theimportant distinctiontobemadehereis
that theuncertaintyinthestructureisreflectedinthestiffnessmatrixand, uponsolution, on
thenodal displacements. Also, sincethecaseof randominput wasexaminedintheprevious
sections, {f} isassumedtobedeterministichere.
Thestiffnessmatrixcannowbeexpandedabout theuncertaintyusingTaylor seriesas:
(10.99)
Page364
wheren denotesthetotal number of randomparametersȖ
i
. Asbefore, superscript denotesa
deterministicquantity, whilethenext twotermsintheexpansionrespectivelydenotefirst and
secondratesof changewhichareevaluatedbydifferentiating[K] withrespect totherandom
parameters Ȗ
i
. Notethat theuseof commasindicatespartial differentiationwithrespect tothe
subscript that follows.
Thesametypeof expansioncanalsobeusedfor thedisplacements, that is:
(10.100)
wheretherangeof thesummationindicesisomittedfor reasonsof notational convenience.
Substitutionof theabovetwoexpansionsineqn(10.98) andasubsequent perturbation-type
orderingof thetermsgivesthefollowingsystemof equations:
(10.101)
Thestructureof theabovesystemof equationsissimilar tothat of eqn(10.80) whichwas
obtainedfor non-linear systemsinSection10.3.4usingperturbations. Thus, all unknown
displacement termscanbeobtainedsequentially, startingfromthedeterministicsolution{x
0
}
andsubstitutingthenewlyfoundtermsintheright-handsideof thenext equation. Asaresult,
thedeterministicstiffnessmatrixneedstobeinvertedonlyonce, resultinginanefficient
solutionscheme. Also, thenon-zerotermsin[K]
;i
and[K],ij arerelativelyfewsothat the
right-handsidescanbequicklyformed. Thesameapproachcanbeusedfor problems
involvinglackof fit instructural membersbyintroducingtheconcept of initial strains, aswell
asfor structuresonanelasticfoundationwithuncertainfoundationmodulusbyintroducing
thefoundationreactionmatrix. Finally, uncertaintyintheboundaryconditionscanbe
accountedfor byinsertingvirtual springsat theboundariesandtakingthespringconstantsas
uncertain.
Followingthedisplacement solution, theunknownstresstensor onanypoint withinafinite
element canbefoundafter thestressterms{ı
0
}, {ı},
i
and{ı},
ij
havebeenevaluatedinthe
usual wayfromtheir correspondingdisplacement terms {x
0
}, {x},
i
and{x}
ij.
Thus, thefinal
expressionfor thestresstensor is:
(10.102)
Basedontheaboveequation, theexpectationandvarianceof thestressesare:
(10.103)
Page365
and
(10.104)
respectively. Thesecondmomentsof therandomvariables Ȗ
i
arerelatedtothepower
spectrumS
ȖȖ(k)
viatheWiener—Khinchinerelation(Lampard, 1954) as:
(10.105)
wherer isthedistancebetweennodal co-ordinatesandk denotesthewavenumber.
Sincelocal changesinastructural parameter causenon-linear changesinthestructural
response, asecondorder Taylor seriesexpansionsuchastheoneusedhereisnecessaryto
cover suchnon-linearities. Thirdorder expansionsarepreferable, but computationbecomes
prohibitivelyexpensivesincesixthmomentsof therandomvariables Ȗ
i
arenecessaryfor
compatibilityinthecomputationof stressvariances.
10.4.2 Dynamic analysis
Asafirst step, weconsider theeigenvalueproblem:
(10.106)
where[M] isthemassmatrix, Ȝ aretheeigenvaluesand{ij} aretheeigenvectors. Asbefore,
uncertaintyinthestiffnessandmassmatricesfilters, uponsolution, totheeigenpropertiesof
thestructure. Webegin(Liuet al., 1986) byexpandingbotheigenvaluesandeigenvectorsina
Taylor seriesabout therandomnessȖ as:
(10.107)
and
(10.108)
respectively. Substitutionof theabovetwoexpressionsineqn(10.106) alongwitheqn(10.99)
andasimilar expansionfor themassgives, after theusual perturbation-typeordering, the
followingsystemof equations:
Page366
(10.109)
Bytakingadvantageof symmetryin[H
0
], Ȝ
,i
canbecomputedfromthesecondof eqns
(10.109) as:
(10.110)
Determinationof {ij}
i
fromthesecondof eqns(10.109) isnot, however, feasiblebecauseof
thesingularityof [H
0
]. Toovercomethisdrawback, areductionintherank of [H
0
] is
necessary. Thesamesituationholdsfor theevaluation{ij},
ij
of sinceonlytheright-handside
of eqns(10.109) changes. Aswiththestaticcase, eachneweigenvaluesolutiondependson
thepreviouslyobtainedeigenproperties.
Asfar astimehistoryanalysesareconcerned, themost rational approachistogotoa
modal co-ordinateenvironment andassumethat propertiessuchasthemodal dampingratiosȗ
areuncertain. Althoughthisignoresthefact that uncertaintyisfirst manifestedat thephysical
co-ordinatelevel intermsof uncertainstiffnessandmass, theconvenienceof decoupled
modal equationsistootemptingtoignore.
Theanalysisat themodal co-ordinatelevel isessentiallythesameastheperturbation
approachusedinSection10.3.4for anon-linear SDOF systemunder randominput. In
particular, themodal dampingratioiswrittenas:
(10.111)
wherei isamodal DOF, whilethemodal co-ordinatey
i
isexpandedas
(10.112)
wheresuperscripts(1), (2) ony respectivelydenotefirst andsecondorder perturbationterms
whicharerandomprocesses. Substitutionof theabovetwoexpansionsintheithuncoupled
equationof motion(seeeqn(10.39)) givesthefollowingsystemof equations:
(10.113)
Page367
Numerical integrationof theabovesystemcanproceedwithout difficulties. Following
solutionfor all expansiontermsof y
i
(t), onemayreturntophysical co-ordinates(seeeqn
(10.37)) andapplythestatistical averagingusingtheexpectationtofindtheresponsestatistics.
10.5 REFERENCES
Augusti, G., Barrata, A. andCasciati, F. (1984) Probabilistic Methods in Structural Engineering,
ChapmanandHall, London.
Caughey, T.K. (1963) ‘Derivationandapplicationof theFokker-Planckequationtodiscretenonlinear
dynamicsystemssubjectedtowhitenoiseexcitation’, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
35(11) : 1683–92.
Caughey, T.K. (1971) ‘Nonlinear theoryof randomvibrations’, Advances in Applied Mechanics
11:209–53.
Coddington, E.A. andLevinson, N. (1955) Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations, McGraw-Hill,
NewYork.
Crandall, S.H. (1963) ‘Zerocrossings, peaks andother statistical measuresof randomresponse’,
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 35(11): 1693–9.
Crandall, S.H. andMark, W.D. (1963) Random Vibration in Mechanical Systems, AcademicPress,
NewYork.
Ghanem, R. andSpanos, P.D. (1991) Stochastic Finite Elements: A Spectral Approach, Springer-
Verlag, NewYork.
Hinch, E.J . (1991) Perturbation Methods, CambridgeUniversityPress, Cambridge.
Hurty, W.C. andRubinstein, M.F. (1964) Dynamics of Structures, Prentice-Hall, EnglewoodCliffs,
NJ .
Klieber, M. andHien, T.D. (1992) The Stochastic Finite Element Method, J ohnWiley, NewYork.
Lampard, D.G. (1954) ‘Generalizationof theWiener—Khintchinetheoremtononstationary
processes’, Journal of Applied Physics 25:802–3.
Liu, W.K., Belytscko, T. andMani, A. (1986) ‘Randomfieldfiniteelements’, International Journal
for Numerical Methods in Engineering 23:1831–45.
Nigam, N.C. (1983) Introdution to Random Vibrations, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Vanmarke, E., Shinozuka, M., Nakagiri, S., Schueller, G.I. andGrigoriou, M. (1986) ‘Randomfields
andstochasticfiniteelements’, Structural Safety 3:143–66.
Zayed, A.I. (1996) Handbook of Function and Generalised F unction Transforms, CRC Press, Boca
Raton, FL.
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