2006 East Timorese crisis

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East Timor

This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Timor Leste
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Taur Matan Ruak Xanana Gusmão

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 Atlas Politics portal  v  t  e The 2006 East Timorese crisis began as a conflict between elements of the military of East Timor over discrimination within the military.2 Civil unrest in Dili o 4.1 Change of leadership 6 Consequences 7 Documentary Films 8 References 9 See also Background A pretext for the crisis came from the management of a dispute within the military of East Timor (F-FDTL).3 Protests. in favour of soldiers from the eastern part of the country.2 Malaysia o 3.1 Council of State meeting o 4. centred in the capital Dili. the guerrilla resistance movement . and expanded to a coup attempt and general violence throughout the country.3 New Zealand o 3.4 Portugal o 3.1 Australia o 3. The crisis prompted a military intervention by several other countries and led to the resignation of the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri. Contents          1 Background 2 Violence 3 Intervention o 3. when soldiers from the western part of the country claimed that they were being discriminated against. The Lorosae (Tetum for easterners) formed the largest part of Falintil.5 United Nations and other bodies 4 Continuing violence o 4. allegations and investigations 5 Resolution o 5.

[6] There were political motivations behind the attacks on soldiers and the government.[1] In contrast the Loromonu (Tetum for westerners) were less prominent in the resistance. who wanted to replace Prime Minister and Fretilin leader Mari Alkatiri. what happened. but added that "They are not going to be brought back into the army. joined by 177 more on 25 February. An Australian television report (Four Corners) was used to force the resignation of Prime Minister Alkatiri[8][9] Violence Part of a series on the History of East Timor .[7] This is. José Ramos-Horta. composed of more westerners and even former members of the Indonesian military. after Alkatiri's forced resignation.[5] The Foreign Minister. after final independence in 2002. except on a case-by-case basis when we establish the responsibilities of each individual in this whole incident".which resisted Indonesian authority. and which in turn.[3][4] The soldiers were later joined by some members of the police force. and are less favoured in the present military structure. 404 soldiers. There has also been tension between the military and the police force. Those initiating the violence and killings declared loyalty to the then President Xanana Gusmao.[2] The soldiers were ordered to return in March. in fact. but refused. formed the largest part of F-FDTL. Gastão Salsinha. and were relieved of duty. announced early in April that a panel would be established to hear the complaints of the former soldiers. and were initially led by Lt. deserted their barracks on 8 February 2006.[1] Location of East Timor. out of the regular strength of about 1500. an interim government over 2006–07 and then elections in 2007.

Chronology Early history Portuguese colonization Indonesian occupation Transition to independence Contemporary East Timor Topics Indonesian invasion Santa Cruz massacre Vote for independence 2006 political crisis Overall timeline East Timor portal  v .

Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri described the violence since 28 April as a coup. Reinado made his base in the town of Aileu in the hills south-west of Dili. who fired on the crowd.[3] Violent gangs also roamed the streets of Dili.[5] The rebel soldiers remained in the hills above the capital. Salsinha told him that it was "too late".[12] The civilians who fled Dili camped in tent cities nearby or in churches on the outskirts of the capital. five people were killed. in a town outside Dili.[5] In the evening of 5 May.[13] On 9 May.[12] On 8 May a police officer was killed as a crowd of 1000 surrounded a government complex.[3] On 4 May.[11] There he and the military police guarded the road leading into the mountains.[10] After joining the soldiers. burning down houses and torching cars.  t e Map of Dili and immediate surroundings. The initially peaceful march turned violent when the soldiers attacked a market run by people from the east of the country. mostly unemployed youths. until on 28 April the former soldiers clashed with FDTL forces. the office of a regional state secretary. One Catholic convent alone was providing Red Cross assistance to up to 7000 people. Major Alfredo Reinado. taking with them two trucks full of weapons and ammunition. marched through the streets of the capital Dili in protest. more than 100 buildings were destroyed and an estimated 21. along with 20 military police from a platoon under his command and four other riot police defected and joined the rebel soldiers. On 24 April.[6] The protests continued over the next several days.[5] When Gusmão contacted Salsinha earlier that day in an attempt to prevent the issuing of the declaration. where they engaged in sporadic combat with FDTL forces over the next several weeks. the former soldiers under Salsinha's leadership drafted a declaration calling for President Xanana Gusmão to sack the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri and abolish the FDTL within 48 hours. with "the aim of blocking the .000 Dili residents fled the city. In the resultant violence. the former soldiers and their civilian supporters.

[11] On 25 May. preventing them to function in a way that the only solution would be for national parliament to be dissolved by the President.[14] The United Nations peacekeeping forces left East Timor on 20 May 2005. .[15] The decision came alongside Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta's request to the UN's High Commissioner for Human Rights to investigate allegations of human rights violations by the East Timorese police forces. as the first international forces were arriving. as alleged by Human Rights Watch and the United States Department of State.. the operation involves forces from four countries. as one FDTL soldier was killed and five wounded in a skirmish on 23 May. but on 11 May their deadline was extended at least until June.[18] Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta sent out an official request for military assistance on 24 May. Malaysia and Portugal. to the governments of Australia. and commanded by Brigadier Michael Slater of the Australian 3rd Brigade. Australian forces were standing by in readiness to provide assistance. which would provoke the fall of the Government."[13] However on 10 May Alkatiri announced that government officials had held negotiations with the rebel soldiers. Australia Australian Defence Forces.[19] Intervention Main article: Operation Astute Operation Astute is the name of the international military response to the crisis. New Zealand. and the remaining administrative staff and police at the United Nations Office in Timor Leste (UNOTIL) were scheduled to leave on 20 May 2006.[14][16] On 12 May. some renegade soldiers were moving into Dili and engaging in heavy combat with FDTL and police forces. with the amphibious transport ships HMAS Kanimbla and HMAS Manoora moving to northern waters in preparation. Prime Minister of Australia John Howard announced that although there had not been any formal requests for assistance from the Government of East Timor. with up to 20 people believed to have been killed. Led by the Australian Defence Force.democratic institutions. in which it was agreed that the rebel soldiers would be paid a subsidy equal to their former military wage to assist their families..[17] The violence escalated late in May.

These formed part of the group of 275 military and 200 police personnel who have been put on alert for possible deployment. to introduce themselves as peacekeepers. with the composition of the force and the terms of engagement to be negotiated over the next few days.[11] Australia initially offered between 1. Upon arrival.[20] The deployment to East Timor coincided with the withdrawal of about 260 of the 400 Australian soldiers deployed to the Solomon Islands. three Royal Australian Navy ships (HMAS Manoora and HMAS Kanimbla already stationed nearby. and HMAS Tobruk) along with other support capabilities. Prime Minister of New Zealand Helen Clark requested more information as to exactly what support East Timor would require from New Zealand. Johor (Malaysia).[27] By mid-June.[19] By 26 May it was expected that all Australian forces would have arrived in East Timor by 27 May. saying that "we have much more in our back pocket". however. The 140 remaining would be supported by New Zealand and Fijian forces.000 and 1. a full day earlier than expected. The diplomat enclaves' security is being given utmost priority. there were already 333 Malaysian personnel from both the police and military forces stationed in Dili. East Timorese President Xanana Gusmão had requested Malaysia guard the East Timor-Indonesia border to prevent civilians from fleeing the country.[21] Malaysia had planned to send in a total of 500 personnel earlier. power stations.[28] The Malaysian police had previously trained the local police force four years ago.[29] New Zealand On 25 May 2006.[11] On the afternoon of 25 May. Defence Minister Brendan Nelson said that the deployment to East Timor would not overextend the Defence Force. four Black Hawk helicopters and a C-130 Hercules transport plane landed at Dili airport with the first wave of Australian forces. initially consisted of 219 army paratroopers and commandos. to Dili. arriving on 3 June.[23] According to Radio Televisyen Malaysia. headed by Col Ismeth Nayan Ismail.[22] By 23 June. Malaysia announced a plan to send 250 police officers to East Timor. oil depot and hospitals in East Timor.300 infantry.[26] Malaysia.[24] The troops had been taught the basic Tetum language. and a unit of the army special force from Mersing Camp. the 250-strong police force would leave for East Timor at the end of June. including armoured carriers. refused to do so. Melaka (Malaysia). the spoken language of the locals.The Prime Minister of Australia John Howard announced on 24 May that Australian forces would be deployed to East Timor. port. Malaysian forces secured embassies. before committing any .[25] Earlier.[11] However.[19] Malaysia Malaysia responded by deploying Malaysian troops. The soldiers were drawn from the 10th Brigade Paratroopers based in Camp Terendak.[23] Two Royal Malaysian Navy vessels—KD Mahawangsa and KD Sri Indera Sakti—ferried the equipment of the Malaysian troops.

in order to help displaced civilians. called for an end to the violence. In a meeting with the Foreign Ministers of the European Union. on 27 May as the violence escalated.forces." and "It's also important to be mindful that the Security Council is having consultations as we speak.[32] The chief executive of World Vision Australia.[31] Portugal The Portuguese Foreign Minister Freitas do Amaral announced an initial deployment of 120 Republican Guards on 24 May."[30] On 26 May. New Zealand deployed 42 troops. with a second contingent of 120 troops leaving Christchurch on 27 May. He also expressed concern over reports that one World Vision worker had been killed. announced on 27 May that he would travel to Dili to assess the situation. Reverend Tim Costello. violence continued throughout Dili and other parts of East Timor. The Portuguese Air Force evacuated more than 600 Portuguese citizens residing in Timor. en route to Townsville.[32] Continuing violence Internal displaced people by district Despite hopes that the presence of international troops would quell the unrest. gangs from different parts of the country fought in the streets of Dili.[11] They joined a group of eight high level officers from the Special Operations Group of the Portuguese National Police. The President of the Republic. as well as Prime Minister José Sócrates. machetes and slingshots leaving at least 3 East Timorese . United Nations and other bodies On 25 May. the Foreign Minister further called for members of the EU to denounce the violent acts of the rebels. UNOTIL opened a refugee camp outside Dili expected to house up to 1000 people. the UN announced that they planned to withdraw the majority of their staff from the country. She said that "It's very important not to walk into what is a factional dispute in some respects and be seen to be taking sides.[30] However. destroying cars and houses and fighting with knives. Prime Minister Clark said that the forces would be deployed where needed by the Australian command. Cavaco Silva. On 27 May. Queensland before being sent to East Timor.

and that "We cannot have a situation around the world and particularly in our region where Australia is told to respect the independence of a country and that it's a bully boy if it seeks to express a view or to intervene. Brigadier Slater met with military and civilian leaders in East Timor.[34] On 29 May... with some seeking refuge at the Australian embassy and some going to the airport. to put down .[38] The Council.[36] Australian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson also said that the East Timorese authorities should expand the rules of engagement of the international forces. to give them police powers in order to combat the gangs. saying that "It's clear there needs to be political leadership as far as the policing is concerned .[32] Dili residents continued to flee the city.east against west.[39] The meeting was also attended by Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta (leading to speculation that Ramos-Horta might be appointed as a temporary Prime Minister if Alkatiri were to be sacked). but that the attacks would likely cease as more international troops arrived and completely secured the city. saying "It's basically payback time between the different groups. intervened earlier. everyone against everyone. who was previously the UN representative to East Timor in the leadup to the independence referendum in 1999. soldiers against soldiers. The Australians did not return fire. President Xanana Gusmão held crisis talks with the Council of State. instead discouraging the gangs by advancing towards them and "shouting orders and threats"."[37] Council of State meeting Throughout 29 and 30 May. the Bishop of Dili. police against soldiers. composed of supporters of Gusmão and Ramos-Horta and opponents of Alkatiri."[36] Also on 29 May.[35] The Major commanding the troops said that the gangs were using mobile phones to coordinate their attacks."[32] A Catholic priest similarly described the street violence as ". and had secured the return of FDTL soldiers to their barracks.[34] The rescued civilians were then rushed to the UN compound nearby.[33] Australian troops were attacked as they endeavoured to keep the gangs apart. quote. while they helped civilians escape to safety through back alleys. also containing an AP photographer was attacked after one easterner forced his way into the vehicle and another jumped on the roof while attempting to escape a pursuing mob of westerners. It's total madness.. which has the ability to authorise the President to dismiss the National Parliament. saying that the crisis was possibly more dangerous than the violence following independence from Indonesia in 1999.[39] Gusmão emerged from the meeting in the afternoon of 29 May to urge crowds gathered outside. A UN official expressed concerns that the regionally based conflict in the military was igniting wider regional conflict in the civilian population.hacked to death.. Australian Prime Minister John Howard rejected criticisms that Australian troops had not secured Dili quickly enough."[32] The media were targeted for the first time when an AFP car. but when something goes wrong Australia is then criticised for not having. what we need is a policing strategy across Dili. the UNOTIL representative Sukehiro Hasegawa and United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan's personal representative Ian Martin. was the first meeting between Gusmão and Prime Minister Alkatiri since the escalation of violence in the previous week.. an advisory body composed of community leaders. with two reporters and one photographer inside..

west and east. attributing some of the blame for the crisis directly to Alkatiri. after the Council meeting and following an emergency meeting with his cabinet. Interior Minister Rogerio Lobato and Defence Minister Roque Rodriguez resigned.their weapons and return home.[45] Civil unrest in Dili Security Hot Zones and Hot Spots in Dili. including Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta. and in order to combat the gang violence both internal and international forces would have increased policing powers.[39][40] Late on 30 May.[41] however under the emergency arrangements Alkatiri would remain in office.[42] Gusmão said that the decision to assume control was taken in "close collaboration" with Alkatiri.[46] . Gusmão announced that he was declaring a state of emergency to last for 30 days.[42][43] On 1 June.[44] Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta subsequently took over the Defence ministry. despite some members of the government. would have sole command of both the military and the police forces. saying "If you trust me. and would personally coordinate with the international forces. and urging them not to take security matters into their own hands. embrace each other in your home. Gusmão visited a refugee camp near the United Nations headquarters. while Malaysian Foreign Minister Syed Hamid Albar urged Ramos-Horta to act strongly in his new capacity. Lobato blaming the crisis on opponents to the government resorting to violence rather than political means.[38] Gusmão said that he was taking personal responsibility of both the military and police in order to "prevent violence and avoid further fatalities". telling people "The best thing you can do is go back to your homes". gangs in the capital Dili burned down a market and several houses in arson attacks.[38] There had been some speculation that the Council would advise Gusmão to dissolve the Parliament and sack Prime Minister Alkatiri. albeit with reduced authority. in the interests of achieving political stability. while emphasising that the United Nations should be prepared to resume greater role. be calm and help each other to stay calm". 24 October 2006 On the night of 31 May. On the same day. as Commander-in-Chief. during which time Gusmão.

machetes and slingshots. through the western suburb of Comoro and to the National Parliament and government buildings in the heart of the city. although Australian and Malaysian forces quickly secured the road. violence continued to occur in the suburb of Comoro. instead saying that all "irregular forces" ought to hand in their weapons. a convoy of anti-Alkatiri protestors from the west of the country drove to Dili.[52] In a deal brokered by Foreign Minister RamosHorta to ensure a peaceful protest.[50] Over the next few days. Slater said that he did not ask Reinhado to surrender or participate in negotiations because the situation was not ready for discussions. the convoy consisting of up to 2.[51] Protests. also on 2 June. the unrest had all but ended. A group of East Timorese police who arrived to confront the demonstration were stopped and searched by Australian troops.[52] However.[50] On the night of 2 and 3 June. allegations and investigations On 6 June.[47] Australian soldiers present at the warehouse were unable to prevent the looting due to a lack of police powers.500 people gathered in Tibar outside the Malaysian checkpoint to the west of the airport. the area to the west of the city centre around the road to the airport (also known as Comoro Airfield) where many groups from both the east and the west of the country lived nearby. where the international forces were based. the commander of the Australian forces Brigadier Slater met with rebel leader Major Reinhado. and that he had been cooperating with the military. at his base in Aileu above Dili.[53] . and were accompanied by Malaysian and Australian forces in armoured personnel carriers and an Australian Army Black Hawk helicopter. there was little or no violence accompanying the convoy. several cans of pepper spray. the police. taking computer equipment. the warehouse was practically empty. with over a hundred members each.[49] In interviews.[48] On the same day a crowd of 500 to 600 people protested outside Government House again calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Alkatiri. but Alkatiri rejected the calls. the government. looting and gang violence destroyed another dozen houses in Dili. Reinhado reiterated his calls for Prime Minister Alkatiri to resign. aside from some stones thrown as the convoy passed through Comoro. On 5 June. The convoy consisted of at least thirty trucks.On 2 June. before being separated by Australian troops.[51] However at the same time in the centre of Dili. along with buses and motorbikes. and although they summoned Portuguese police. Slater said that some of the violence seemed coordinated.[48] Meanwhile. where they surrendered any weapons before proceeding through Dili. with commercial areas re-opening and some of the damaged buildings and shops being repaired. which one reporter described as "a very impressive show of people power". and Reinhado in an attempt to find those planning the violence. who confiscated their only weapons. as not all groups were ready to participate. a large crowd of about 1000 people who had waited in vain for several hours for food handouts raided a government warehouse in Dili. indicative of the level of support for the protest. and forced the temporary closure of the main road between Dili and the airport to the west of the city. rival gangs. as part of a policy of removing all weapons from the streets. clashed in the streets armed with spears. furniture and other supplies in order to trade them for food.

UNOTIL representative Sukehiro Hasegawa. Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha. before peacefully dispersing again. arm civilians". He's very transparent. they are further being detained. He also claimed that on 28 April."[55] The convoy completed a loop around the inner city. He insists that truth should be known."[58] The leader of the group.The crowd chanted for the resignation of Prime Minister Alkatiri.[52] On 7 June. referred to as Commander Railos. said that they had instructions to kill all of the rebel soldiers. reiterated the claims of Commander Railos. but after losing five of the group in armed combat in Dili came to "appreciate that the cost of arming civilians was bloodshed and deaths on all sides" and was prepared to surrender to President Gusmão."[54] He was said to be in tears at times.[60] The United Nations announced on 12 June that they would hold an inquiry into the crisis.[60] On 9 June. saying that "We are detaining people.. what happened.[59] Alkatiri strenuously denied the claims. soldiers loyal to Alkatiri had shot and killed 60 civilians. said that Alkatiri was "agreeable to the investigations to be carried out. Australian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson said that the East Timorese judicial system was beginning to deal successfully with the problem of violent street gangs.. then. we are bringing them before a magistrate. saying that Lobato had distributed 200 rifles stolen from the police armoury to civilians. and were allegedly armed with "18 assault rifles. and if they are found guilty. recruited and armed a civilian militia to "eliminate" opponents of Alkatiri.[61] .000 round sic of ammunition. Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta also said that he found it "very hard to believe that our own Prime Minister would. the original leader of the rebel soldiers. but that they would not investigate the allegations made against Lobato and Alkatiri. before burying them in a mass grave outside Dili. 6. The group consisted of about thirty civilians. saying that his government had not armed any civilians.. Gusmão later addressed the crowd from atop a car outside his office. claims emerged that former Interior Minister and Alkatiri ally Rogerio Lobato (who had resigned a week earlier). while also expressing support for President Gusmão. saying "Let me bring peace to East Timor and then we will resolve others matters.. and guns shooting. the same day as the clash between the military and rebel soldiers that sparked the crisis. acting on Alkatiri's instructions. two vehicles and uniforms."[57] On 8 June. Alkatiri agreed to a United Nations investigation into allegations that he was responsible for several incidents in April and May which sparked the crisis. having met separately with Alkatiri and rebel leaders including Tarak Palasinyar and Reinhado."[56] Meanwhile. and said "The priority now is to stop people burning.

Australia was allowed to retain command over the joint military task force.[66] Five days later.[64] by 21 June he was under house arrest in Dili. the Council adopted Resolution 1704 creating the new United Nations Integrated Mission in TimorLeste (UNMIT). including several M16 rifles. as international peacekeepers continued to secure the city. the East Timorese Prosecutor-General issued an arrest warrant for Rogerio Lobato for arming Commander Railos and other civilians. Resolution Change of leadership On 22 June.[62] At camps in Gleno and Maubisse. despite sporadic outbreaks. extending UNOTIL's mandate until 20 August and expressing support for the existing international peacekeeping effort. unable to reach agreement. in exchange for protection from the international military forces.[65] On 20 June. Although there was initially some speculation as to whether Lobato had fled the country. saying that he would resign as President the following day if Prime Minister Alkatiri did not resign. which were then sealed in a shipping container. and in his broadcast said that "Fretilin . By 16 June. at a ceremony in the city of Gleno on 5 July.[65] A controversy ensued as to whether the military component of the next UN mission would be under UN or Australian command. rebel soldiers were ready to hand in their weapons. extended the mission for an additional five days on 20 August. although the UN Secretary-General and Security Council will revisit this question by 25 October. and the Security Council. but said that the presence of international forces around the rebel bases "will enable them to confidently enter into negotiations with the president and other members of the government. Brigadier Slater expressed doubts that all weapons would be handed in. following more than a week of negotiations. the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 1690."[63] On 20 June. President Gusmão delivered an ultimatum on a national television broadcast. Meanwhile the violence in Dili appeared to be subsiding. rebels including Alfredo Reinhado surrendered weapons.Rebel soldier Major Tara (left) hands over his weapon to Lieutenant Colonel Mick Mumford. He had earlier told Alkatiri that he had lost confidence in him.

[70] The next day. and indeed announced to the protestors that he would fulfil his constitutional duties. apparently indicating that he would not resign. he said to the media "Please. mobs in the streets of Dili began to celebrate rather than protest.[72] On 27 June. believing that all militants and sympathisers of Fretilin will understand and support this position.[74] Consequences The crisis has had an impact on the political landscape of East Timor. [72] After the announcement. Australian Prime Minister John Howard said he was pleased with the resignation. with two or three thousand assembled by the afternoon of 23 June. 26 June up to eight more ministers threatened to resign. the law and democracy. and was appointed Prime Minister on 8 July 2006 by President Gusmão. Ramos-Horta withdrew his resignation to contest the prime ministership. a meeting of Fretilin leaders confirmed Alkatiri's status as Prime Minister.[68] After Gusmão's broadcast. On 11 May 2006. considering that above all interests are the interests of our nation. I declare I am ready to resign from my position of Prime Minister of the government of RDTL. the leader of the Democratic Party. after answering it. about the sacrifices of the state. and Ramos-Horta was beginning a press conference discussing his resignation when he received a phone call. who would have in fact governed in his place. —Mari Alkatiri. according to his spokesperson. prosecutors suggesting that Alkatiri may also be charged over allegations about his role in the matter. imploring that he not resign. and on 25 June.has to choose. Alkatiri announced his resignation. You are invited to go to the residence of the Prime Minister. Alkatiri was issue with a summons to appear in court in order to give evidence relating to the accusations that Rogerio Lobato armed a group of civilians. Gusmão did not in fact resign that day. ask Mari Alkatiri to take responsibility for the major crisis. saying: Having deeply reflected on the present situation prevailing in the country. . insofar as it was "part of the process of working out the difficulty. The reports indicated that a plan had been developed which would see Alkatiri remain officially as Prime Minister for another month.[73] Following Alkatiri's resignation. resolving the impasse". recognising that the people of Timor deserve to live in peace and tranquillity. Foreign Minister Jose Ramos-Horta suggested that Fernando Lasama. several thousand of his supporters began protesting in Dili. determined not to contribute to any deepening of the crisis.[69] Alkatiri said that he would only resign if his party Fretilin wanted him to. but that two deputies would be appointed. the President of the Republic. Foreign and Defence Minister José Ramos-Horta resigned from office "because the government is not functioning properly". so as to avoid the resignation of His Excellency."[67] The announcement followed reports the preceding day originating from Alkatiri's office that Alkatiri had intended to step back from an active role as Prime Minister on the morning of 22 June. In response. assuming my own share of responsibility for the crisis affecting our country."[71] There. we cancel our press conference because it is irrelevant anyway now. He wants to make an announcement.

was able to escape from Becora Prison. . scare or threaten the people will not be chosen by the people in the 2007 elections. troops had withdrawn from some points of the country and the rebels' leader.[76][77] Documentary Films  Breaking the News (2011) 53 mins. Breaking the News gets behind the upheaval of 2006–2010 in East Timor to reveal the high cost of being a truth-seeking journalist at the centre of the country’s turmoil. in Dili. On 2 October 2006. calling "on all parties to know that those who want to spread disunity.had encouraged the unrest. and Defence Minister Roque Rodrigues and Defence Force Chief Taur Matan Ruak acted illegally in transferring weapons to civilians during the crisis. He also warned other parties not to exploit the violence and unrest for electoral gain. the United Nations Independent Special Commission of Inquiry made a number of recommendations including that several individuals be prosecuted."[75] By August 2006. it found that Interior Minister Rogerio Lobato. Alfredo Reinado. Notably.

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