Hydrological Report-Revised (2) | Discharge (Hydrology) | Flood

Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari

3.0 DETAILED ENGINEERING STUDY
3.1 Topographical Survey
Tachometric survey was carried out to prepare the topographical map of the bridge site
area with tachometric survey and leveling. The area covered by the survey was 500m
upstream and 200 m downstream from the proposed bridge axis. Similarly, two
alternative axes are existing there. The concrete pegs on each of both banks are fixed
along the bridge axis.
4.0 HYDROLOGICAL STUDY
4.1 Hydro-Meteorological Data
The Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) has installed a hydrological
station but there is no gauging station in Dattakicha Khola. The stream flow data for this
river are not available. Hence, the estimation of the flow for this river is to be based from
other approaches. The catchment area of the Dattakicha Khola at proposed bridge site
area is 50.00 Km
2
. The rainfall data used in this study is from the arithmetic average of
station at Dharan Bazar (index No. 1311), Chatara (index No. 1316) and Tarahara (index
No. 1320). The data at this station are available from 1998 to 2007. The 24-hour
maximum rainfall data collected from this station and used in the analysis are given in
Annex-1.
The catchment area map of Dattakicha Khola at proposed bridge site is shown in Fig. 1.1.
1
N
Purposed Bridge Site
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
Fig. 1.2: Catchment Area Map of the Proposed Bridge Site
4.2 Rainfall Frequency Analysis
The frequency analysis of the 24-hour maximum rainfall was carried out by Gumbel
Method, log normal and the log-Pearson Type-III distributions. The rainfall for different
return period obtained by these distributions for different return periods are given in
Table-1 below.
Table-1: Rainfall (mm) for Different Return Periods
Return Period(yrs) Distribution
Gumbel Log-Normal Log-Pearson Type-III
5 229.20 207.80 490.28
10
256.80 224.26 666.31
25
291.67 262.75 1309.01
50
317.54 291.06 2076.26
100 343.22
319.06 3196.17
The above table shows that the values obtained by three different distributions are not
close. These are mainly because of using small number of data due to unavailability of
long term data. For proper analysis it is necessary to have at least 25 years of records.
However, in the present study the values obtained from the Gumbel distribution have
been used.
4.3 Estimation of the Design Floods for Different Return Periods
Due to non availability of the stream gauge data of the river under study, the estimation
of design floods for different return periods were carried out by the following empirical
approaches:
• Use of Rational Formula,
• Use of WECS/ DHM Methodology
• Use of Dicken’s Formula
4.3.1 Rational Formula
In the absence of the measured flow data the rational formula is the most widely used
method for estimating the peak flood discharges for small catchments. The method
assumes uniform rainfall within the catchment and has been widely used in predicting
peak flow in the design of urban storm drainage, culvert, check dam and causeway. It is
given by the relation:
Q
T
= CiA/3.6
2
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
Where, Q
T
= Design discharge (m
3
/sec) for T-years return period,
C = Runoff coefficient based on the catchment characteristics
= (0.4 in the present case),
A = Catchment area in km
2
= 25.00 Km
2
, and
i = intensity of rainfall for the duration of at least equal to time of concentration in
mm/hr.
The rainfall intensity I is given by the relation:
i = I*(24/T
c
)
2/3
in mm/hr
Where, I = Average intensity of 24 hrs maximum rainfall in mm/hr
T
c
= Time of concentration in hours
The time of concentration Tc is determined by the relation
T
c
= 0.00034* (L
0.77
/S
0.385
)
Where, L = Length of the catchment measured along the watercourse from the farthest
point of the catchment to the point under consideration in kilometer = 26.00 Km
S = Average slope of the water course up to the point under consideration = 0.046017
The time of concentration in this case is found to be equal to 2.80 hour. Hence, the
discharge has been calculated for the rainfall of duration of 2.80 hour. The rainfall
intensity and the design discharge for different return periods thus obtained are given in
Table-2 below
Table-2: Rainfall Intensity and Design Discharge for Different Return Periods
Return Period (yrs)
Rainfall Intensity, i (mm/hr) Discharge (m
3
/sec)
5
40.08 111.34
10
44.90 124.74
20
49.54 137.61
50
55.53 154.25
100
60.02 166.73
4.3.2 WECS/DHM Method
The Water and Energy Commission Secretariat in collaboration with the Department of
Hydrology and Meteorology has developed a methodology for estimating the
hydrological characteristics of the unguaged locations of Nepal. Based on this
methodology the instantaneous flood discharge for different return periods for Dattakicha
Khola at bridge site (i.e. Jumka Bazar near Shivanagar) have been computed and are
presented in Table-3 below.
Table-3: Instantaneous Flood Discharge Based on WECS/DHM Methodology
Return Period (yrs)
Discharge (m3/sec)
3
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
5 58.223
10 78.572
20
100.613
50
132.938
100
159.999
4.3.3 Modified Dicken’s Method
The empirical formula widely used in northern India and Nepal is Dicken’s formula.
Dicken suggested an empirical formula based on catchment area and snow area in
catchment for the different return periods. After conducting frequency studies on
Himalayan Rivers with snow catchment, Roorkee (1976), he incorporated the effected
snow area in the catchment. It is given by the relation:
75 0
T T
A C Q
.
·
where,
T
Q :
Peak discharge for the return period T years
A : Catchment area in km
2
T
C :
Dicken’s constant which is a function of return period and catchment area
given by the relation
4
P
1185
T 6 0 342 2 C
T
+
,
_

¸
¸
× · log ) . log( .
( )
( )
100
6
5000
×
1
1
]
1

¸

+
·
<
A
A
P
S
A
S
Snow Area in km
2
5000
A
<
Area below 5000 m elevation in m
Based on this methodology the instantaneous flood discharge for different
return periods for Dattakicha Khola at Jumka Bazar bridge site have been
computed and are presented in Table-4 below.
Table-4: Instantaneous Flood Discharge from Modified Dicken’s Method
Return Period (yrs)
Flood Discharge (m3/sec)
5 65.879
4
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
10 79.227
20
92.576
50
110.222
100
123.571
4.3.4 Computation of Peak Flood Discharge
In order to compute the peak flood discharge at the proposed bridge site on Dattakicha
Khola at Jumka Bazar, cross section survey at an interval of 100m, upstream and
downstream of the bridge axis have been surveyed out along with the flood marks during
the field survey with its plan. Based on the catchment area and the metrological data of
neighborhood station, the computation of the peak flood by various methods are
presented in Table-5.
Table-5: Summary of Flood Estimates at Bridge Site Using Various Methods, m
3
/s
Return period,
yrs (T)
Rational
Method (3)
WECS/DHM
(4)
Dickens
Method (5)
Adopted
Flow (6)
5 111.34 58.223 65.879 58.223
10 124.74 78.572 79.227 78.572
20 137.61 100.613 92.576 100.613
50 154.25 132.938 110.222 132.938
100 166.73 159.999 123.571 159.999
4.3.5 Development of Rating Curve
For developing the rating curves at the proposed bridge site, the corresponding discharge
at different elevations are determined by using FLOWMASTER software which also
determine the cross-sectional area, wetted perimeter and hydraulic radius.
By using the above data rating curve for Dattakicha Khola at purposed bridge site is
determined after plotting the elevation verses discharge. The values are presented in
Table-6 and the rating curve is shown in fig 1.2.
Table-6: Rating Table for Dattakicha Khola at Jumka Bazar Bridge Site
S.No.
Elevation
(m)
Area(m
2
) Perimeter(m)
Hydraulic
Radius(m)
Average
velocity
(m/s)
Discharge
(m
3
/s)
1 96.80 1.52 4.81 0.32 0.66 1
5
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
2 97.13 3.46 7.26 0.48 0.87 3
3 97.34 5.02 8.57 0.59 1.00 5
4 97.69 8.31 10.66 0.78 1.20 10
5 97.96 11.18 12.20 0.92 1.34 15
6 98.19 14.20 14.39 0.99 1.41 20
7 98.50 18.68 15.56 1.20 1.61 30
8 98.77 22.67 16.39 1.38 1.76 40
9 99.26 38.32 19.23 1.99 1.95 60
10 99.65 45.35 21.52 2.11 2.09 80
11 99.99 55.35 23.47 2.36 2.20 100
12 100.29 52.05 25.19 2.07 2.31 120
13 101.18 80.65 44.44 1.82 1.98 160
14 101.36 88.13 46.22 1.91 2.04 180
15 101.43 91.17 46.92 1.94 2.19 200
16 101.50 94.68 47.72 1.98 2.32 220
Elevation = 2E-07* Discharge
3
- 0.0002*Discharge
2
+ 0.0437*Discharge + 97.145
R² = 0.9925
96.50
97.00
97.50
98.00
98.50
99.00
99.50
100.00
100.50
101.00
101.50
0 50 100 150 200
Elevation (m)
Discharge (m3/s)
Rating Curve for Datta Kicha River at the Bridge Axis, Sunsari
District
Rating Curve Trend Line
Fig. 1.2: Rating Curve for Dattakicha Khola at Bridge Axis
4.4 Recommended Design Discharge and the corresponding level
The comparison of the design discharges obtained from two methods described in section
4.3.4 are nearly close, where as the discharge obtained by rational is higher than the
others. However rational method is highly applicable for the catchments having area less
than 50 Km
2
. The Dattakicha Khola is a rainfed, intermittent river and discharge in this
river are contributed mainly due to surface runoff. WECS/DHM method was developed
6
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
from the analysis of the stream gauge data and it is very much reliable for the estimation
of the peak flood discharge.
Discharge predicted from Dickens methods is close to that obtained from WECS/DHM
method and has been considered as design discharge. Hence, for the present study the
result from WECS/DHM method has been considered as design flood and the value has
been taken for further analysis. The 50 yrs and 100 yrs peak flood for Dattakicha Khola
at Jumka Bazar bridge site was 132.938 and 159.999 m
3
/sec respectively. The
conveyance capacity of the river around bridge axis was found low and hence it is
necessary to increase conveyance capacity through various river training works like
construction of levees, guide bund, channel modifications etc. in order to pass the design
discharge safely.
4.5 Calculation of Linear Waterway
The river at the proposed bridge site is in regime condition and water way width at 100
years return period is about 60 m.
However it is proposed that the bridge width be limited to 25 m.The water way
should be confined to 25 m by providing the levees, guide bund etc.at the existing
bank.
4.6 Afflux and Vertical Clearance
The afflux is calculated from Molesworth formula below
H = (V
2
/17.88+0.015)*((A/a)
2
– 1))
Where, V= normal velocity of flow; = 1.98 m/sec
A= unrestricted water way area in m
2
= 80.65 m
2
(i.e. Area corresponding to peak discharge = 159.999 m
3
/s and HFL = 101.18 m)
a = restricted waterway area in m
2
= 66.91 m
2
(i.e. Restricted area corresponding to the sectional width = 25 m)
H = ((1.98
2
)/17.88+ 0.015)*((80.65/66.91)
2
– 1) = 0.106 m
Level of afflux HFL = 101.18 m+0.106 m= 101.286 m
But this is higher than the HFL indicated by the local people at site.
According to IRC-1985, cl 1062.1, for discharge 262.387 m
3
/sec, vertical clearance
should be minimum 1500 mm.
So, the minimum level of bearing = 101.286+1.5 = 102.786 m
4.7 Scour Depth Calculation
7
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
Mean water way width = 60 m
Mean channel width provided = 25 m
A) According to IRC Special Publication 13,
Normal Scour depth for quasi alluvial stream =D=0.473(Q/f)
0.33
Where, Q = Discharge in m
3
/sec = 159.999 m
3
/s
f = Silt factor =2.0
D = 0.473*(159.999/2)
0.33
= 2.00 m from HFL
Scour depth after contraction D’ =2.00*(60/25)
0.61
= 3.41 m
Maximum scour depth for abutment = 1.27*3.41 = 4.33 m from HFL
ANNEXES
8
Hydrological Analysis of Dattakicha Khola, Sunsari
ANNEX-1
24-hours maximum rainfall (weighted average of Dharan Bazar (index No. 1311),
Chatara (index No. 1316) and Tarahara (index No. 1320)) in Dattakicha Khola at
Shivanagar.
Year Annual Maximum Rainfall (mm)
1998 229.2
1999 142.9
2000 93.00
2001 189.00
2002 120.00
2003 142.00
2004 146.30
2005 256.80
2006 112.30
2007 102.40
9

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