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You are on page 1of 14

Introduction

An N-DOF system will have N natural frequencies

Each natural frequency has a natural state of vibration called its normal mode.

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are related to the normal modes

Normal mode vibrations are undamped free vibrations that depend only on the mass and

stiffness distribution in the system.

Damping limits amplitude and forces the free vibrations to decay.

Normal Mode Analysis

Example (5.1.1 pg. 127):

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

mx kx k x x mx kx k x x

mx k x x kx mx k x x kx

&& &&

&& &&

1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2

0

2 0 2

+ + +

+

For normal mode vibration, each mass undergoes harmonic motion at the same frequency,

passing through the equilibrium position simultaneously, leading to the following solutions:

x A t A e

x A t A e

i t

i t

1 1 1

1 2 2

sin

sin

or

or

substituting into the EOMs:

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 2

( )

( )

& &

&& &&

x iA e x iA e

x A e x A e

mA e kA e kA e kA e

mA e kA e kA e kA e

mA kA kA e

mA kA kA e

m

i t i t

i t i t

i t i t i t i t

i t i t i t i t

i t

i t

1 1 2 2

1 1

2

2 2

2

1

2

1 2 1

2

2

1 2 2

1

2

1 2

2

2

1 2

0

2

2 0

2 2 0

+ +

+ +

+

+

( )

( )

2

1 2

1

2

2

2 0

2 2 0

+

+ +

k A kA

kA m k A

or:

2

2 2

0

2

2

1

2

k m k

k k m

A

A

1

]

1

1

]

1

2

2 2

0

2

2

k m k

k k m

if we let then:

2

2

2 2

0

k m k

k k m

or:

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 3

( )( )

( ) ( )

2 2 2 0

4 4 2 2 0

2 6 3 0

3

3

2

0

3 9 6

2

3

2

1

2

3

0 634

2 366

0 634

2

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2

2

1 2

2 2

1

2

1 1

k m k m k

k km km m k

m km k

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

k

m

+

+

_

,

+

_

,

t

t

_

,

,

.

.

.

eigenvalues of the system

2 2

2 366

.

k

m

natural frequencies of the system

From:

( )

( )

+

+ +

m k A kA

kA m k A

2

1 2

1

2

2

2 0

2 2 0

we can form the following relationship:

A

A

k

k m

k m

k

1

2

2

2

2

2 2

_

,

Since this is a 2-DOF system, there are two natural frequencies. Substituting in for each, gives

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 4

the following:

for :

1

A

A

k

k m

k

m

1

2

1

2 634

1

2 634

0 732

_

,

( )

(. ) .

.

for :

2

A

A

k

k m

k

m

1

2

2

2 2 366

1

2 2 366

2 732

_

,

( )

( . ) .

.

If one of the amplitudes is chosen = 1, then the amplitude ratios are normalized. These are called

the normal modes, , or mode shapes for the system:

i

x ( )

1 2

0 732

100

2 73

100

( )

.

.

( )

.

.

x x

'

'

The normal modes are also the eigenvectors for the system, and the normal mode oscillations are

given by:

( )

( )

x

x

A t

x

x

A t

1

2

1

1 1 1

1

2

2

2 2 2

0732

100

2 73

100

'

'

'

'

+

( )

( )

.

.

sin

.

.

sin

The mode shapes can be represented graphically as follows:

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 5

Example (5.1.2 pg. 129):

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 6

Example (5.1.3 pg. 130):

( )

( )

ml mgl ka

ml mgl ka

2

1 1

2

1 2

2

2 2

2

1 2

&&

&&

+

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 7

Initial Conditions

Once we know the modal frequencies and mode shapes, we can determine the free vibration of

the system for any initial conditions as a sum of the normal modes.

1 1

2 2

0 634

0 732

1000

2 366

2 732

1000

'

'

.

.

.

.

.

.

k

m

k

m

For free vibrations in either of the normal modes:

( )

x

x

c t i

i

i i i i

1

2

1 2

'

+

( )

sin ; ,

where:

come from initial conditions c

i i

and

assures that the correct amplitude ratio is maintained

i

For initial conditions in general, both modes are present:

( ) ( )

x

x

c t c t

1

2

1 1 1 2 2 2

0 732

1000

2 732

1000

'

'

+ +

'

+

.

.

sin

.

.

sin

Note that there are four constants and two equations. The four constants are:

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 8

c c

1 2

1 2

,

,

describe the phase relationships

We can differentiate to get two more equations:

( ) ( )

&

&

.

.

cos

.

.

cos

x

x

c t c t

2

2

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

0 732

1000

2 732

1000

'

'

+ +

'

+

We can then let t = 0 and solve the four equations for the four unknowns.

Example (5.2.1 pg. 132):

x

x

x

x

1

2

1

2

0

0

2 0

4 0

0

0

0

0

( )

( )

.

.

& ( )

& ( )

'

'

'

'

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 9

Coordinate Coupling

The equations for a 2 DOF system, in general form are:

m x m x k x k x

m x m x k x k x

11 1 12 2 11 1 12 2

21 1 22 2 21 1 22 2

0

0

&& &&

&& &&

+ + +

+ + +

or:

m m

m m

x

x

k k

k k

x

x

11 12

21 22

1

2

11 12

21 22

1

2

0

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

&&

&&

If the mass matrix is non-diagonal then mass or dynamical coupling is present.

If the stiffness matrix is non-diagonal then stiffness or static coupling is present.

If principle (normal) coordinates are used then neither type of coupling is present. This is

always possible for an undamped system, but not always for a damped system.

The following system is coupled through the damping matrix:

m

m

x

x

c c

c c

x

x

k

k

x

x

11

22

1

2

11 12

21 22

1

2

11

22

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

1

]

1

1

]

1

&&

&&

&

&

Example (5.3.1 pg. 135):

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 10

The choice of coordinates has an effect on the coupling.

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 11

Example (5.3.2 pg. 136):

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 12

Forced Harmonic Vibrations

For a general 2 DOF system, with a sinusoidal forcing function, the equations of motion are:

m m

m m

x

x

k k

k k

x

x

F

t

11 12

21 22

1

2

11 12

21 22

1

2

1

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

&&

&&

sin

by assuming a solution of the form:

x

x

X

X

t

1

2

1

2

'

1

]

1

sin

and substituting into the equations of motion, we get:

k m k m

k m k m

X

X

F

11 11

2

12 12

2

21 21

2

22 22

2

1

2

1

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

or:

[ ] z

X

X

F

( )

1

2

1

0

1

]

1

1

]

1

The normal mode frequencies are the eigenvalues of : [ ] z( )

( )

( )

1 2

11 22 22 11 12 21 21 12

11 22 12 21

2

,

+ t

k m k m k m k m R

m m m m

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 13

where:

( )( )

R

k m k m k m k m

k k m m k k m m k k m m k k m m

k k m m k k m m

m m m m k k k k

+ + +

+

+

_

,

12

2

21

2

21

2

12

2

11

2

22

2

22

2

11

2

12 21 12 21 11 12 21 22 12 22 11 21 11 21 12 22

21 22 11 12 11 22 11 22

11 22 12 21 11 22 12 21

2

4

it can also be shown that the amplitudes are given by:

( )

( ) ( )( )

[ ]

( )

( ) ( )( )

[ ]

X

k m F

m m m m

X

k m F

m m m m

1

22 22

2

1

11 22 12 21 1

2 2

2

2 2

2

21 21

2

1

11 22 12 21 1

2 2

2

2 2

Vibration Absorber

( )

( )

( )

( )

m x k x k x x F t

m x k k x k x F t

m x k x x

m

m

x

x

k k k

k k

x

x

F

t

X

k m F

m m

1 1 1 1 2 1 2 0

1 1 1 2 1 2 2 0

2 2 2 1 2

1

2

1

2

1 2 2

2 2

1

2

0

1

2 2

2

1

1 2 1

0

0

0 0

&& sin

&& sin

&&

&&

&&

sin

+ +

+ +

1

]

1

1

]

1

+

+

1

]

1

1

]

1

1

]

1

( )( )

2 2

2

2 2

ME 535 - Vibrations

Systems with Two or More DOF

Page 14

We can tune the system such that which will make .

k

m

2

2

2

x

1

0

Note: From the following figure, it is clear that there are resonant frequencies on either side of

.

Example (Problem 5.7 pg. 152):

Determine the natural frequency of the torsional system shown, and draw the normal mode curve.

G X 115 10

6

. psi

k

GI

l

I

l

;

4

32

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