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CLASSROOM @ H.O.

PILE LOAD TEST BY P.S.BANSOD 3 rd May 2013 21 June 2013

CLASSIFICATION OF PILES ACCORDING TO METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION

DRIVEN PILES (DISPLACEMENT PILES ) BORED CAST-IN-SITU (REPLACEMENT PILES )

DRIVEN PILES
1. Timber, steel, precast concrete, piles formed by driving tubes or shells and then casting concrete 2. Driven piles cause displacement and disturbance of adjacent soil 3. Driving can be done by repeatedly raising and dropping a weight on the pile head or anvil or in favorable conditions vibration can be used.

DRIVEN PILES
DRIVEN TIMBER PILES DRIVEN STEEL PILES DRIVEN CAST-IN SITU CONCRETE PILES DRIVEN PRE-CAST CONCRETE PILES DRIVEN CONCRETE PIPE PILES

Driven Piles

A) timber or precast reinforced concrete, b) steel h pile, c) precast concrete shell pile, d) concrete pile cast as driven tube withdrawn (slip form)

SHAFT CONSTRUCTION
1. Soil removed by boring or drilling to form a shaft 2. Concrete cast in a casing or without casing depends on soil conditions 3. Tip can be expanded by under reaming 4. No disturbance to surrounding soil

Shaft Construction

Craig, 6th Ed.

e) Bored pile (cast in-situ), f) Underreamed Bored Pile (cast in-situ)

Ultimate Load, Qf
Qf = Base Resistance + Shaft Resistance
area of pile tip x pressure at tip area of shaft x frictional resistance of shaft

Qf = qfAb

fsAs

where qf = ultimate bearing capacity of soil at base tip of pile Ab = cross-sectional area of pile at base tip fs = skin friction between pile and soil As = surface area of pile shaft

DRIVEN TIMBER PILES


200MM , 250 MM ,300MM OR 200MM X 200 MM X10 M LONG 250MM X 250 MM X10 - 12M LONG 300MM X 300 MM X12 M LONG Length can be increased by splicing . POPULAR FOR RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION IN SCANDINAVIAN COUNTRIES ,USA

DRIVEN STEEL PILES


DIAMETER RANGE FROM 600mm - 1874mm LENGTHS RANGE FROM 20m - 70 m WALL THICKNESS RANGE FROM 12mm-40mm GENERALLY PREFERRED FOR MARINE STRUCTURES IN MIDDILE EAST COUNTRIES EUROPE, USA ,SOUTH EAST ASIA and some AFRICAN COUNTRIES. USE OF STEEL LARGER DIAMETERS WILL BE POPULAR IN FUTURE .

AFCONS EXPERIENCE IN STEEL PILES .


PARADEEP PORT PROJECT ORISSA -1997- 1998 NAGAPATTINAM JETTY PROJECT(TN) -1999-2000 SHELL HAZIRA PROJECT(GUJRAT) - 2003-2004 MADAGASCAR JETTY PROJECT - 2007-2008 MAURITIUS CRUISE BERTH PROJECT - 2009 SOHAR BULK JETTY PROJECT(OMAN) -2010-2011 LNG JETTY AT DAHEJ(GUJRAT) - 2011-2013

AFCONS EXPERIENCE IN DRIVEN PRE-CAST-CONCRETE PILES


1.ADEN FLOUR MILL PROJECT YEMEN (20042005) 2.PRECAST CONCRETE PILES OF 450mm HAD TO BE MOBILIZED FROM MALAYSIA THESE CANNOT BE DRIVEN IN DENSE SANDS WITH N> 60 OR WITH DENSE GRAVELLY SANDS.

DRIVEN CAST IN-SITU CONCRETE PILES


DIAMETER RANGE FROM -300mm 760 mm LENGTH RANGE FROM -20m -26 m CAPACITIES RANGE FROM -30T-120T VERY FAST CONSTRUCTION POSSIBLE TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION TIME 20-30 MIN/PILE HEAVY CRANE & PILE DRIVING HAMMERS ARE BASIC REQUIREMENTS . GENERALLY PREFERRED IN COHESION LESS SOILS LIKE SILTY SANDS OR FINE SANDS OR GRAVELLY SANDS .

TYPICAL RANGE OF DESIGN LOADS FOR PILES


DIAMETER mm AXIAL LOAD (COMPRESSION ) IN T LATERAL LOAD IN T TENSION LOAD @60% COMPRESSION IN T 300 mm 30 500 mm 60 600 mm 120 760 mm 200 900 mm 360 1000 mm 400 1200 mm 500 1300 1500 mm mm 550 700

18

36

3 70

4 120

5 210

8 240

10 300

12 330

15 420

TYPICAL RANGES OF DESIGN LOADS FOR VERY LARGE DIAMETER PILES


DIAMETER mm
AXIAL LOAD (COMPRESSION ) IN T TYPE OF PILES

1600

1800

2000

2400

2500

3000

450

900

650

750

1000

2000

CONCRETE PILES

STEEL PILES

CONCRETE PILES

CONCRETE PILES

CONCRETE PILES

CONCRETE PILES

TYPICAL EXAMPLES

LNG JETTY COCHIN

SOHAR BULK JETTY

RAJIV GANDHI BRIDGE BANDRA BY HCC

GANGA BRIDGE BAKHTIARPUR BY NEC

MEGHINA BRIDGE BANGLADESH TENDER

MTHL BRIDGE MUMBAI TENDER

BY AFCONS

BY AFCONS

TYPES OF PILE LOAD TESTS


INITIAL LOAD TESTS : ON NON WORKING PILES FOR 2 TIMES X DESIGN LOAD 2.5 TIMES X DESIGN LOAD 3 TIMES X DESIGN LOAD FOR AXIAL LOAD CAPACITY (COMPRESSION) HORIZONTAL LOAD CAPACITY (LATERAL LOAD) UPLIFT LOAD CAPACITY (TENSION)

TYPES OF PILE LOAD TESTS


ROUTINE PILE LOAD TESTS ON WORKING PILES FOR 1.5 TIMES * DESIGN LOAD FOR AXIAL LOAD CAPACITY (COMPRESSION) HORIZONTAL LOAD CAPACITY (LATERAL LOAD) UPLIFT LOAD CAPACITY (TENSION)

TYPICAL COMPRESSION LOAD TEST


Typical Case of 1200mm pile Design Load -400 T Type of Test Initial Test Load 400 T X 2.5 = 1000 T Required reaction load 1000 T+250 T = 1250 T Ground Condition on land

3 WAYS OF CONDUCTING THE TEST


BY KENTLEDGE METHOD UP TO 900 TO 1000 T BY REACTION PILES METHOD FOR HIGHER LOADS BY REACTION ANCHORS METHOD WHERE ROCK IS ENCOUNTERED AT SHALLOW DEPTHS

KENTLEDGE METHOD
Main Requirements 1.Test Girder Primary Girder 2.Load Distribution Girders Secondary Girders 3.Grillage Beams for uniform transfer of loads 4.Concrete Blocks For 1250 T kentledge and for support of girders. 5.Hydraulic Jacks of total 1500 T capacity 6.Dial Gauges 8 nos. of 50mm range and 0.01 mm least count.

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST 1 1. Construct test pile 2. Prepare pile head for test arrangement 3. Erect supports for girders at a distance of 2.5 X dia of pile from center of pile 4. Ensure that surrounding ground is strong enough with SBC of 20-25 T/m2 where concrete blocks for supports are being arranged

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST 2


5.Place required no of hydraulic jacks symmetrically on top of test pile. 6.Place grillage beam on top of hydraulic jacks 7.Arrange supports for primary girder
8.Place primary girder on top of grillage beam, while maintaining a gap of at least 100mm between them

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST -3


9.Arrange supports for secondary girders using timber beams or concrete blocks at required place where ground is strong enough with 25 T/m2 SBC 10.Arrange concrete blocks on top of secondary girders, systematically in a layer by layer manner 11. Follow the methodology/ drawings provided by design department/CPMG while arranging the concrete blocks in layers 12.Arrange datum bars in the vicinity of test pile using brick/concrete pillars or timber blocks 13.Fix 4 nos. of dial gauges on the test pile symmetrically with help of magnetic base clamps

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST-4


14.Arrange power pack at a sufficient distance from the test pile. Connect all the hydraulic jacks to the power pack. Check for leakages at jacks, power pack etc. 15.Conduct the load test as per pre determined loading and unloading sequence 16.Maintain each load for a sufficient time, till rate of settlement of pile drops down to 0.125mm /30min 17.Take readings of settlement of all dial gauges during loading and unloading of pile

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST-5


18.Compile field observations of Load/settlements in a systematic tabular manner. Take signatures of client/consultants representative on all the date recording sheets 19.Prepare a graph of load versus settlement from the field observations 20.From the graph estimate the load corresponding to 12mm settlement and 120mm settlement (if observed in the load test)

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST-6


21.As per IS : 2911( Part 4), safe load is defined as the latest among the following two criteria a. 2/3 of the load at which pile attains a total settlement of 12mm b. of the load at which pile attains a total settlement of 120mm 22. Prepare a systematic report on pile load test incorporating field observations, load Vs settlement graphs and interpretation of test result.

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST-7


23. Remove dial guages ,hydraulic jacks, power packs from the test site . 24.Remove concrete blocks systematically from top to bottom ,remove secondary girders . 25.Remove primary girders . 26.Remove supporting concrete blocks . 27.Back fill the excavated pit around test pile and restore the ground to original condition .

STEPS IN CONDUCTING LOAD TEST-8


28. Store hydraulic jacks and power packs ETC ,in well maintained condition in stores . 29. Store primary girders ,secondary girders and grillage beams in neatly arranged manner in stores . 30. Store concrete blocks ,wooden sleepers and other accessories in neatly arranged manner in stores .

ADVANTAGES OF PILE LOAD TEST


1. Being used in India for last 60 years 2. Being used all over world for last 80 years 3. Sequence of loading simulates real life loading behavior of piles 4. One of the best way of assessing load displacement behavior of pile 5. Confirms the design of pile 6. A tool for ensuring quality assurance of pile construction

LIMITATIONS OF STATIC LOAD TEST


1. Large space requirement (Approx. 12m X 12m in plan) 2. For kentledge method setting time 10 days 3. For reaction pile method setting time 30 days 4. For reaction anchors method setting time 30 days 5. Special fabrication of girders required 6. Quite a large cost involved

Alternative Methods to Static Load Test


1. High Strain Dynamic Pile Load Test 2. Osterberg Load Cell Test

LOAD TEST PHOTOS OF NAD AL SHEBA RACE COURSE, DUBAI

Load test by Kent ledge method

Load test by Kent ledge method

Nad Al Sheba Race Course, Dubai,

Load settlement curve for TP2


LOAD SE TTLE ME NT CURVE FOR INITIAL PILE LOAD TE ST (TP2 M DN-1A) ON 1200m m DIA TE ST PILE AT NAD AL SHE BA RACE COURSE , DUBAI Applie d Load in Tons

0 0.00 -0.40 -0.80

200

400

600

800

1000

Observed Settlement of Pile (mm)

First Cycle

-1.20 -1.60 -2.00 -2.40 -2.80 -3.20 -3.60 -4.00


1. TOTAL SE TTLE ME NT = 1.54mm 2. NE T SE TTLE ME NT = 0.06mm 3. E LASTIC RE BOUND = 1.48mm

Second Cycle Third Cycle

RESULTS OF THREE CYCLES

Load settlement curve for TP4


LOAD SETTLEMENT CURVE FOR INITIAL PILE LOAD TEST (TP4 MDN-3) ON 1200m m DIA TEST PILE AT NAD AL SHEBA RACE COURSE, DUBAI Applied Load in Tons

0 0.00 -0.40 -0.80


Observed Settlement of Pile (mm)

200

400

600

800

1000

First Cycle

-1.20 -1.60 -2.00 -2.40 -2.80 -3.20 -3.60 -4.00


1. TOTAL SETTLEMENT = 3.74mm 2. NET SETTLEMENT = 0.07mm 3. ELASTIC REBOUND = 3.67mm

Second Cycle Third Cycle

RESULTS OF THREE CYCLES

Nad Al Sheba Race Course, Dubai, SUMMARY OF PILE LOAD TESTS

Test No. TP-2 TP-4

Pile Length

26.0m 17.55m

Total Net Elastic Test Load Settlemen Settlemen Rebound t t 922.4T 1.54mm 0.06mm 1.48mm 930.3T 3.74mm 0.07mm 3.67mm

MARINE PILE LOAD TEST-3 USING SAMRAT JACKUP AT DAHEJ SITE

MARINE PILE LOAD TEST-3 USING SAMRAT JACKUP AT DAHEJ SITE


PILE DIAMETER PILE DIAMETER PILE TOP LEVEL TEST PLATFORM LEVEL PILE TOE LEVEL DESIGN AXIAL LOAD TEST LOAD 1422MM (OD) 1358MM (ID) +16.7 M C.D +13.2 MC.D -43.5 M C.D 8000 KN 12000 KN

MARINE PILE LOAD TEST-3 USING SAMRAT JACKUP AT DAHEJ SITE


HIGHEST WATER LEVEL LOWEST WATER LEVEL DEPTH OF WATER SEA BED LEVEL SCOUR DEPTH CURRENT AT TEST LOCATION +10.5 m C.D - 1 m C.D 19.7 M (-14.6 M C.D) -26.6 M C.D 6 KNOTS

LOAD TEST RESULTS OF BARRAPULLA DELHI

Applied Load (T)


0 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200

1ST TO 4TH CYCLE

5TH CYCLE

6TH CYCLE

SETTLEMENT (mm)

4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00

7TH CYCLE 8TH CYCLE

9TH CYCLE

LOAD Vs SETTLEMENT OF 1200 DIA PILE AT BARAPULLA

10 TH CYCLE

Barrette pull out test at Chennai central

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENT HEARING AND ATTENTION .