Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 11 Core Courses………………………………………………….... Science and Mathematics courses…………………………………... Core Chemistry courses……………………………………………. Section 12 Chemistry Electives…………………………………………….. Section 13 Thesis or Research and Professional Exposure…………………. Section 14 Sample Program of Study………………………………………. Article VI Course Specifications…………………………………………………… General Chemistry…………………………………………………………. General Chemistry 1……………………………………………….. General Chemistry 2……………………………………………….. General Chemistry Laboratory……………………………………... Organic Chemistry………………………………………………………… Organic Chemistry 1 and 2: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry….. Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 Laboratory…………………………….. Analytical Chemistry……………………………………………………….. Analytical Chemistry 1: Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry…….. Analytical Chemistry 2: Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis Analytical Chemistry 1 Laboratory…………………………………. Analytical Chemistry 2 Laboratory…………………………………. Fundamentals of Biochemistry…………………………………………….. Biochemistry Lecture………………………………………………. Biochemistry Laboratory…………………………………………... Fundamentals of Inorganic Chemistry……………………………………... Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory…………………………………… Physical Chemistry………………………………………………………… Physical Chemistry 1: Chemical Thermodynamics…………………. Physical Chemistry 2: Thermodynamics and Kinetics……………… Physical Chemistry 3: Quantum Chemistry………………………… Physical Chemistry Laboratory 1 and 2…………………………….. Thesis and Professional Exposure…………………………………………. Thesis……………………………………………………………… Professional Exposure……………………………………………... Article VII – General Requirements……………………………………………….. Section 17 Program Administration………………………………………... Composition……………………………………………………….. Dean or Department Chair………………………………………… Monitoring of the BS Chemistry Program………………………….
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Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 18 Faculty………………………………………………………….. Qualifications of faculty……………………………………………. Full time faculty members…………………………………………. Teaching load……………………………………………………… Faculty academic load……………………………………………… Faculty Development……………………………………………… Section 19 Instructional Standards…………………………………………. Section 20 Library………………………………………………………….. Policy………………………………………………………………. Library staff………………………………………………………... Library holdings……………………………………………………. Internet access……………………………………………………... Space requirements………………………………………………… Finance…………………………………………………………….. Networking………………………………………………………… Accessibility………………………………………………………… Office hours………………………………………………………... Section 21 Education Technology Centers………………………………….. Section 22 Facilities and Equipment………………………………………... Laboratory requirements…………………………………………… Laboratory staff…………………………………………………….. Laboratory equipment……………………………………………… Section 23 Safety…………………………………………………………… Staff………………………………………………………………… Safety and emergency fixtures and equipment………………………. Staff training………………………………………………………... Safety practices and measures………………………………………. Article VIII – Admission and Retention Requirements……………………………... Section 24 Admissions and Retention………………………………………. Article IX – Transitory, Repealing and Effectivity Provisions ...…………………… Section 25 Transitory Provision...…………………………………………... Section 26 Repealing Clause………………………………………………... Section 27 Effectivity Clause………………………………………………... 46 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53

iii

Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry

LIST OF TABLES No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A1 B1 Title Components of the BS Chemistry curriculum and their corresponding units.. GE courses and corresponding units……………………………………….. Non-chemistry core courses and corresponding units……………………..... List of chemistry core courses……………………………………………..... List of suggested chemistry electives………………………………………... Sample program of study and recommended sequence of chemistry, mathematics and physics courses………... Sample experiments and techniques to be learned for General Chemistry 1 & 2 Laboratory………………………………………………………………... Sample laboratory experiments and mode of delivery for Organic Chemistry 1 and 2 laboratory …………………….…………………………………... Recommended topics and sample experiments for Analytical Chemistry 1 laboratory …………………………………...……………………………. Recommended topics and sample experiments for Analytical Chemistry 2 laboratory…………………………………………………………………. Recommended laboratory topics and sample experiments for Biochemistry laboratory……………………………………………….………………… List of Inorganic chemistry laboratory topics and experiments…………….. List of topics and sample experiments for Physical chemistry laboratory 1 and 2 ……………………………………………………………………… List of support facilities for a chemistry laboratory……………………….. List of recommended instrumentation and the frequency of their use……... Topics for industrial chemistry and recommended number of hours……… List of laboratory chemicals and their incompatibilities……………………. LIST OF APPENDICES Title Appendix A Appendix B Course Descriptions for Some Chemistry Electives…………. Chemical Safety……………………………………………… Page 54 71 Page 5 5 6 6 7 8

14 21 28 29 32 35 41 49 50 55 79

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which overlaps with other fields particularly biology.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry ARTICLE I INTRODUCTION Section 1 Background Chemistry is the branch of the natural sciences that study matter. organic. analytical. Chemistry also has a role of interconnecting other fields and has thus been described as the Central Science. physics and geology. Section 2 Objectives of these Policies and Standards The objectives of the Policies and Standards are as follows: a. State universities and colleges (SUCs). the need for more trained personnel and the significant investment needed to sustain an acceptable standard of chemistry education. and library. 1 . its composition. It is a broad field. any policy designed to upgrade chemistry education at the college level should take into account the diversity of chemistry. The core disciplines of chemistry are inorganic. b. properties and reactions. To set a minimum level of quality for the BS Chemistry program. To enable institutions to produce chemists who can practice the profession under the current global standards ARTICLE II AUTHORITY TO OPERATE Section 3 All private higher education institutions (PHEIs) intending to offer the Bachelor of Science in Chemistry must secure proper authority from the Commission in accordance with existing rules and regulations. It is a science of numerous opportunities. faculty. It is the foundation science for many industrial and agricultural processes that produce useful products that contribute to the improvement of the quality of life. physical chemistry and biochemistry. Chemistry is essential for the continued development of the Philippines. and local colleges and universities should likewise strictly adhere to the provisions in this policies and standards. The main components are: curriculum and course content. equipment and facilities. Chemistry is beneficial to society. Therefore. ARTICLE III PROGRAM SPECIFICATIONS Section 4 Degree Name The degree program herein shall be called Bachelor of Science in Chemistry (BS Chem).

ARTICLE IV COMPETENCY STANDARDS Section 7 Core Competencies The graduate of the BS Chemistry program is expected to possess a wide range of abilities and skills identified in the Euro bachelor1 program. Prepare students for higher studies in chemistry and in other fields. Further training (MS and PhD) would qualify graduates for tenured positions in the academe. With a BS degree and professional license. cosmetics. agricultural sciences.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 5 Program Description 5. A BS graduate can also be employed as teaching assistants in colleges and universities. patents. food science. oil and petroleum.fr/ectn/tuning%20eurobachelor. a graduate can be employed at entry-level positions as analytical or laboratory chemist in private industries and companies that deal with pharmaceuticals. among others. and b. Graduates can also be employed in government agencies with similar lines of concern and in crime laboratories for forensic analysis. Produce graduates who comply with the current qualification requirements for professional chemists for local and overseas employment. mineral and metals. project management. Passing the local Licensure Exams for Teachers (LET) would qualify graduates to teach in high schools. product sales.htm) 2 . pulp and paper. 5. These are divided into three broad categories: 1 2003 Chemistry Eurobachelor program (www.2 Objectives of the program a. The BS Chemistry degree holder can also secure non-laboratory work such as science communication.3 Specific professions/careers/occupations or trades that a BS Chemistry graduate may go into. hospitals. textile. chemical engineering. 5. physics. chemical information services. molecular biology and biotechnology. forensic sciences and environmental science. environmental analysis. quality control.1 Nature of the program The BS Chem program is a unique program designed for students interested in the science of chemistry and the practice of its profession. health and safety. etc. technical writing. Section 6 Allied Fields These following fields are recognized to have specializations in chemistry and their graduates may be considered to teach non board courses in the BS Chemistry program such as: marine science. materials science. pharmaceutical science.cpefr. geological sciences. food and beverage. chemical manufacture. agricultural products research. marketing and management.

This includes the ability to present scientific information in a clear and concise manner and to discuss them intelligently. c. Ability to use computers as information and research tools.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry a. both in writing and orally. e. abilities and skills relating to intellectual tasks. Chemistry-related practical skills. and the systematic and reliable recording and documentation thereof e. and correct use of units d. and c. Communication skills. Skills required in good laboratory practices including safety. Ability to dissect a problem into its key features. order-ofmagnitude estimations. Skills required for the conduct of standard laboratory procedures involved and use of instrumentation in analytical and synthetic work. Numeracy and calculation skills. Skills in the evaluation.g. proper use of sophisticated instrumentation. waste management and record keeping. in relation to primary and secondary information sources. A foundation of physics and mathematics and ability to apply them to chemical problems. ability to assess primary papers critically d. organic. b. by observation and measurement. ability to design suitable alternative procedures and methods 7. Computational and data processing skills. Problem-solving skills. including information retrieval through on-line computer and traditional library searches 3 . relating to chemical information and data. safe handling of chemicals and waste minimization.3b (page 56). Ability to recognise and implement accurate and precise scientific measurements e. covering both written and oral communication. c. Conceptual understanding and problem solving skills in the fundamental chemical sub-fields of analytical. events or changes. of chemical properties. including such aspects as error analysis. i. skills relating to the conduct of laboratory work. Ability to evaluate and interpret data derived from laboratory observations and measurements in terms of their significance. 7. b.1 Chemistry-related cognitive abilities and skills a. Chemistry-related cognitive abilities and skills.e. b.3 Generic skills a. relating to qualitative and quantitative information c. Ability to design experiments and understand the limitations of the experimental approach.2 Chemistry-related practical skills a. Skills in informationretrieval and evaluation. inorganic. biochemistry and physical chemistry. and to draw conclusions from them. b. Skills in the monitoring. Proper use of modern chemical instrumentation as suggested in section 22. and to relate them to appropriate theories f. including analysis of problems and systematic problem-solving. Generic skills that may be developed during the course and which are applicable in many other contexts. The specific skills under each category are: 7. in relation to both organic and inorganic systems d. interpretation and synthesis of chemical information and data.

The principles and procedures used in basic types of classical and instrumental chemical analysis e. conventions and units b. The Policies and Standards makes the recommendations on about 80-85% of the Chemistry curriculum and the content of each course. Chemistry degree. Proper handling of numerical data. including catalysis. The principal techniques of structural determination by spectroscopic techniques g. The principles of quantum mechanics and their application to the description of the structure and properties of atoms and molecules i. The purpose of this is to ensure a common standard for the B. the mechanistic interpretation of chemical reactions k. estimation of error. The kinetics of chemical change. including group relationships and trends within the Periodic Table l.S. Therefore. Chemistry should be built around a welldefined core of subjects that covers the fundamental aspects in sufficient depth and at the same time allow for flexibility to cover areas and applications in the allied disciplines. It should be also emphasized that flexibility is allowed as long as the basic topics are covered. The major types of chemical reactions and the main characteristics associated with them d. All graduates from a BS Chemistry program should be competent in the following topics and skills: a. principles of sampling f. error.S. g. However. biology. The characteristics of the different states of matter and the theories used to describe them h. the curriculum for B. Major aspects of chemical terminology. The principles of thermodynamics and their applications to chemistry j. Study and self-development skills needed for continuing professional development and life-long learning. the individual Chemistry institutions are given the flexibility to offer courses and topics of their preference for the remainder of the curriculum and the course contents that are unspecified. including stereochemistry m. nomenclature. Interpersonal skills relating to the ability to interact with other people and to work in a team. physics. ARTICLE V CURRICULUM Section 8 Curriculum Description Chemistry is a central and essential science and is a fundamental part of many other disciplines. ability to collaborate with other researchers f. information and computational sciences to prepare Chemistry graduates for higher levels of technical expertise. The characteristic properties of elements and their compounds. precision.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry e. The properties and chemical reactivity of organic functional groups 4 . The structure and reactivity of the major classes of organic and inorganic compounds c. The curriculum should also provide the necessary background in mathematics. The structural features of chemical elements and their compounds. Ability to exercise ethical principles and social responsibility in their professional and personal endeavors.

9 Philosophy) 2. FIELDS OF STUDY SPECIFIC COURSES UNITS 1.S. The relation between bulk properties and the properties of individual atoms and molecules. Literature. Section 10 General Education (GE) Courses (51 units) The general education and legislated courses will follow the CHED Memorandum No. polymers and other related materials p. GE courses and corresponding units. 04 series of 1997 (GEC-B. and Chemistry. including catalysis o.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry n. the B. COMPONENTS UNITS General Education Curriculum 51 Core Courses Science and Math Component 13 Chemistry1 48 Electives1 6 Thesis/Professional Exposure1 6 Total 124 1Credited towards the 60-unit board course requirement of the Chemistry Law.g. STS) 3 Technology 5 . including macromolecules (both natural and synthetic). Chemistry degree should fulfill the requirements of the Chemistry Law (RA 754) of 60 units of chemistry and prepare the student to take the Chemistry Licensure Examinations. Understand biological phenomena at the molecular level q. Natural Mathematics 6 15 Sciences and Natural Science 6 Information Elective (e. Awareness of current challenges and ethical issues in science. Components of the BS Chemistry curriculum and their corresponding units. Language and English 6 21 Humanities Filipino 6 Humanities Subjects (e. Ability to think in an integrated manner and look at problems from different perspectives t. Section 9 Curriculum Components The components of the BS Chemistry curriculum are listed in Table 1 below together with the minimum number of units in each component. 51 units). in particular r. Table 2. Basic synthetic strategies in organic chemistry. Mathematics. Ability to learn new chemistry and chemical techniques As a minimum. Art. Information Technology. Understand and practice Chemical safety and waste management s.g. Table1. The list of GE courses is in Table 2. in general.

Family Planning and Population Education.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 2 continued FIELDS OF STUDY 3.1 Science and mathematics courses (25 Units) The BS Chemistry program requires 25 units of non-chemistry core courses. History and the like. Non-chemistry core courses and corresponding units. Social Sciences SPECIFIC COURSES UNITS Consist of subjects such as Political Science. An equivalent combination of lecture and laboratory courses may be offered provided the basic topics and skills in each core area are covered. Philippine Constitution. The minimum number of required units per area is also given in the table below.2 Core Chemistry courses (48 Units) The core chemistry courses are listed in Table 4 and their corresponding minimum number of units. Table 3 lists the non-chemistry core courses that should be taken by students in the program. 12 15 Psychology. List of chemistry core courses. Table 4. 12 units of this requirement are fulfilled by the GE Natural Science and GE Mathematics courses. COURSES General Chemistry 1 (lec/lab) General Chemistry 2 (lec/lab) Organic Chemistry 1 (lec/lab) Organic Chemistry 2 (lec/lab) Analytical Chemistry 1 (lec/lab) Analytical Chemistry 2 (lec/lab) Biochemistry (lec/lab) Inorganic Chemistry (lec or lec/lab) Physical Chemistry 1 (lec/lab) Physical Chemistry 2 (lec/lab) Physical Chemistry 3 (lec or lec/lab) Total 6 UNITS 10 15 UNITS 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 4 4 3 48 . Economics. Life and Works of Rizal (Mandated Subject) 3 Total 51 Section 11 Core courses (73 units) 11. Magnetism and Optics (lec/lab) Mathematics Algebra Trigonometry Analytic Geometry Differential Calculus Integral Calculus 11. Table 3. AREAS COURSES Physics Modern Physics (lec) Mechanics and Heat (lec/lab) Electricity. Anthropology. provided that the following topics are taken up in appropriate subjects: Taxation and Land Reform.

Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 12 Chemistry Electives (6 Units) The BS Chemistry curriculum includes Chemistry electives. Inorganic Chemistry Agricultural Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2. ELECTIVE COURSE PREREQUISITES Advanced Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2 Advanced Biochemistry Biochemistry Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Advanced Analytical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry 2 Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry 2 Polymer Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2. b. Physics and Mathematics courses is given in Table 6 below. the following measures are suggested: a. These electives should be taken towards the end of the student’s course work. ((Thesis = 6 units. In addition. such as a Chemical Engineer in the case of Industrial Chemistry. Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry rather than a superficial enumeration of their chemical aspects. Inorganic Chemistry Computational Chemistry Physical Chemistry 3 Advanced Physical Chemistry Physical Chemistry 2 or 3 Section 13 Thesis or Research and Professional Exposure (6 Units) This component could be a thesis or a combination of thesis and on-the-job (OJT) training. The number of units assigned to the electives is left to the discretion of the institution. these electives should integrate all of the necessary chemical principles so as to provide a coherent overview on the role of Chemistry in these important areas. The treatment of these courses should include an in-depth discussion of all of the relevant principles in Organic. These courses should cover on topics which are relevant to the Philippine situation when possible. Biochemistry Industrial Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2. Biochemistry Food Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2. c. Physical Chemistry 2 Environmental Chemistry Organic Chemistry 1. (Thesis) + (OJT / practicum / professional exposure) = 6 units)) Section 14 Sample Program of Study The sample program of study and the recommended sequence of Chemistry. d. List of suggested chemistry electives. Inorganic. In order to give maximum flexibility and to enable efficiency in the coverage of topics. HEIs shall have the prerogative to choose a mode of implementing this requirement based on the available resources within the institution and opportunities for collaboration with suitable outside organizations. Analytical Chemistry 1 Natural Products Chemistry Organic Chemistry 2. The Chemistry department may wish to emphasize special areas of Chemistry through the electives. Institutions may modify the curriculum 7 . These courses can be enriched by field visits and the participation of relevant experts in the course. and an Agriculturist in the case of Agricultural Chemistry. Table 5.

Units Units Lec Lab Total Lec Lab Total 3 3 3 3 3 2 5 3 3 3 3 (2) (2) (3) (3) 15 2 17 3 2 5 3 3 3 1 4 3 (2) (3) 12 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 15 2 3 3 3 3 12 3 (2) (3) 15 4 4 3 3 3 17 3 3 3 3 12 Year I 1st Semester Courses General Chem 1 Algebra (GE Math 1) Trigonometry (GE Math 2) GE course 1 GE course 2 PE 1 NSTP 1 Analytical Chem 1 Differential Calculus Mechanics and Heat GE course 6 PE 3 NSTP 3 Organic Chem 2 Analytical Chem 2 Physical Chem 1 GE course 8 Physical Chem 3 Inorganic Chem Chem Elective 1 GE course 11 Thesis 1 2nd Semester Courses General Chem 2 Analytic Geometry GE course 3 GE course 4 GE course 5 PE 2 NSTP 2 Organic Chem 1 Integral Calculus Electricity. Institutions may choose to offer certain courses during the summer. Sample program of study and recommended sequence of chemistry. mathematics and physics courses. Analytical Chemistry. Inorganic Chemistry. Biochemistry. Some courses. may be accelerated so that these are finished within the first 2 years. and Physical 8 . for example the mathematics courses.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry to suit their particular requirements and thrusts. Organic Chemistry. Table 6. There are six core courses for the BS Chemistry Program: General Chemistry. Magnetism & Optics GE course 7 PE 4 NSTP 4 Biochem Physical Chem 2 Modern Physics GE course 9 GE course 10 Chem Elective 2 GE course 12 GE course 13 Thesis 2 3 3 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 (2) (2) (3) (3) 17 5 3 4 3 (2) (3) 15 5 5 4 3 2 II 15 2 3 2 3 3 1 3 (2) (3) 12 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 III IV 12 5 17 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 15 15 ARTICLE VI COURSE SPECIFICATIONS Section 15 Core Chemistry Courses The following course specifications apply only to the core courses and indicate the minimum topics to be covered in each area.

d. To introduce the methods and techniques of scientific investigation. To demonstrate how essential chemical principles are applied to rationalize experimental observations and to predict and control the behavior of matter. OBJECTIVES OF SUBJECT AREA a. g. To provide an introduction to the basic concepts and principles that will be needed in the higher chemistry courses. To provide the student with an environmental perspective on the role of chemistry in meeting the needs of society. a greater sense of excitement in discovery. it should also try to sustain or increase the interest of the student in Chemistry. c. It is suggested that the introductory and/or concluding part of each Chemistry course present an informative survey of advances and prospects in this area in order to elicit more interest from the student.1 GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 COURSE DESCRIPTION This is the first part of a two-semester course on the fundamental chemical concepts and principles that covers the structure of matter.1 GENERAL CHEMISTRY INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT AREA General Chemistry is the first required course for the BS Chemistry major. b. atomic structure and chemical bonding. and a stronger commitment to master the fundamental skills. e. both in the lecture and laboratory courses. the energetics of chemical reactions. molecular and atomic structures. and chemical reactions: classification. the BS Chemistry program requires six (6) units of undergraduate thesis and professional exposure. While the course must continue to impart skills to the student. f.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Chemistry. This course should develop a deeper appreciation for Chemistry. leading to the development of research skills that will be needed in the higher chemistry courses. group work. In addition. To train the student to work independently and as an active member of a group. and the equilibrium and kinetic aspects of chemical reactions. stoichiometry and energetics. and where appropriate. There are six (6) units of elective courses. wherein macroscopic properties are understood through microscopic. It is a twosemester introductory course on the fundamental concepts and principles of chemistry. To present the macroscopic-microscopic paradigm of chemistry. 15.1. The topics covered are the structure and properties of matter. To link chemical concepts and principles with practical application and the life experiences of the student. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITE: None 9 . This can be implemented by requiring individual work. 15.

f. electronic affinity. g. Quantum mechanics: Schrödinger equation. Chemical formulas. photoelectric effect. h. c. Ionic bonds. Oxidation-reduction reactions. atomic size. Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions (6 hours) Atomic mass. Valence Bond Theory. Lewis structures: octet rule. Pauli exclusion principle. Bohr theory. chemical properties. Introduction (2 hours) Chemistry: definition and scope. in terms of atoms. Chemical reactions and chemical equations. Ions and Molecules (2 hours) Atomic theory. Limiting reagents. Measurement: units and handling numbers. Describe matter and its structure. Electronic configuration. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (3 hours) Solutions and solubility. Discuss how energy is involved in physical and chemical changes COURSE OUTLINE a. Electronic Structure of Atoms (6 hours) Development of the quantum theory: Planck theory. VSEPR model. titration and volumetric methods. Basic Molecular Orbital Theory. Periodic variation of properties: nuclear charge. atomic number and mass number. Molar mass. Lattice energy. Calculation of empirical formulas. dimensional analysis /factor-label method. Amounts of reactants and products. Structure of the atom: nucleus and electrons. Precipitation reactions. Periodic Relationships among Elements (3 hours) Development of the periodic table. physical and chemical properties. Percent yield of reactions. Quantum numbers. Percent composition of compounds. Atoms. Electronegativity. General properties of aqueous solutions. dualism principle. the student should be able to: a. Hybrid orbitals. Explain and predict the behavior of simple atoms and molecules in terms of their electronic structure and interactions c. multiple bonds. b. Chemical Bonds – Basic Concepts (3 hours) Lewis dot symbols. Electronic configuration. isotopes. ions and molecules b. 10 . Describe quantitatively chemical reactions and perform calculations involving the application of chemical principles d. Ions: cations and anions. Molecules. Atomic orbitals. Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. ionization energy. Periodic classification of elements. Problem solving. Bond strength. e. d. Covalent bonds. Acid-base reactions. Matter: classification and physical states. The scientific method: laws and theories. Bonding and anti-bonding orbitals.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. Aufbau principle. Naming compounds. Chemical analysis: gravimetric methods. Avogadro’s number. Hund’s rule. Chemical Bonding: Molecular Geometry and Molecular Orbitals (6 hours) Molecular geometry.

. Real gases. the student should be able to: a. Colloids. use of models and demonstrations. Avogadro’s law. 5th ed. Davis. Deviation from ideal behavior.Energy changes in chemical reactions: enthalpy. c. Intermolecular forces. Discuss the properties and behavior of metals. Silberberg. Gas laws: Boyle’s law. Thermochemistry: standard enthalpy. 10th ed. heat of vaporization. Stoichiometry involving gases.. McGraw-Hill (or latest edition). including solutions. viscosity.: Dalton’s law of partial pressure. Crystal structure. W. b. Gas mixtures.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry i. (2005) Chemistry – The Central Science.. such as structured exercises.L. and Stanley. nonmetals and the transition elements. R. 3rd ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole (or latest edition). (2005) Chemistry..L.1. Thomson Brooks/Cole (or latest edition). COURSE DELIVERY A combination of the traditional lecture approach. Masterton. Discuss the principles involved in the formation of solutions and describe the properties of solutions. M. T. Boiling points.. and Hurley. Spontaneity of processes. Phase diagrams.S. heat of fusion. Phase changes. Chang. heat of reaction. Explain the kinetics and equilibrium aspects of chemical reactions. 8th ed.. nuclear chemistry and descriptive chemistry of metals. heat of solution. Properties of the liquid state: surface tension.. First law of thermodynamics. Inc (or latest edition). Intermolecular Forces: Liquids and Solids (4 hours) Kinetic molecular theory of liquids and solids. team projects and group discussions. Chemical Thermodynamics (4 hours) Energy. d. k. Peck. R.N. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITE: General Chemistry 1 COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. Melting points. electrochemistry. Charles law. H. j.E. 11 . Brown. Prentice-Hall International. B. and Bursten. (2003) Chemistry – The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. 8th ed. nonmetals and transition elements.E. web-enhanced learning. chemical kinetics.2 GENERAL CHEMISTRY 2 COURSE DESCRIPTION General Chemistry 2 is the second part of a two-semester course on the fundamental chemical concepts and principles. Kinetic molecular theory of gases. chemical equilibria. M. Calorimetry. 15.W. C.. (2004) Chemistry – Principles and Reactions. SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Whitten. computer-aided learning and learner-centered activities. G. K.E. McGraw-Hill (or latest edition). Gases (4 hours) Nature of gases. LeMay Jr. (2004) General Chemistry. Ideal gas law.L. Understand the principles of an electrochemical cell and describe its properties. G..

Standard electrode potentials. Acids and Bases (5 hours) Concepts of acids and bases. Batteries. Electrolysis. Transition elements (4 hours) General properties of the transition elements. Factors affecting solubility. Halogens. Pressure changes. Hydrogen. b. pH. Colligative properties. 12 . Weak acids and bases. Rate laws. pH. Perform calculations involving the application of chemical principles. Colloids. Ionization constants. Carbon. c. The student should be able to relate all of these principles to everyday phenomena and to practical applications. Electrochemistry (5 hours) Redox reactions. Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria (5 hours) Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria. d. pressure. Nonmetallic Elements and Their Compounds (3 hours) General properties of nonmetallic elements. Factors affecting equilibrium: Concentration changes. Effect of concentration. f. Catalysis. Metallurgy and the Chemistry of Metals (3 hours) Occurrence of metals. Band theory of conductivity. h. Chemical Kinetics (5 hours) The rate of a reaction. Galvanic cells. Metallurgical processes. Diprotic and polyprotic acids. Strength of acids and bases. Concentration units. Buffer solutions. Semiconductors. Physical Properties of Solutions (5 hours) Definition and properties of solutions. Practical electrochemistry. g. Nonelectrolytes. Nernst equation. Properties of metals. Coordination compounds: structure and reactions. Oxygen and sulfur. Significance. Cell emf. Electrode reactions. Corrosion. Arrhenius concept. Factors affecting solubility: structure. Solubility and solubility product. Typical acid-base reactions. Calculation. Properties of nonmetals. Alkaline earth metals. Acid-base properties of water. Common-ion effect. OPTIONAL TOPICS: g. temperature. e. Activation energy. Acid-base properties of salts. Hydrolysis. Temperature changes. Collision theory. COURSE OUTLINE a. Introduction to non-aqueous acid and base systems. Apply chemical principles to explain various chemical phenomena. Common ion effect. Bronsted concept. f. i. Electrolytes. Fractional precipitation. Types of solutions. Lewis concept. The solution process. Order of reaction. Nitrogen and phosphorus. Temperature dependence of reaction rates. Alkali metals.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry e. Catalysts. Equilibrium constant. Chemical Equilibrium (5 hours) The concept of equilibrium.

Apply basic statistical methods of analysis in the evaluation of experimental data. waste minimization and proper and efficient use of resources. 15.. and Stanley. Davis.. Inc (or latest edition). Identify safety requirements and perform laboratory exercises safely. It emphasizes the formation of proper practices and habits.S. 8th ed. 3rd ed. Kinetics of nuclear decay. Silberberg. Nuclear fission. Make valid observations and perform reliable and reproducible measurements. Brown. 8th ed.. Nuclear transmutation. McGraw-Hill (or latest edition).. Nuclear Chemistry (4 hours) Nuclear reactions. Prentice-Hall International.E.3 GENERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY COURSE DESCRIPTION The General Chemistry Laboratory 1 & 2 courses introduce the student to the fundamental techniques and skills needed in the Chemistry laboratory.L.. H. M. 5th ed. (2003) Chemistry. Natural radioactivity. Thomson Brooks/Cole (or latest edition). McGraw-Hill (or latest edition). including laboratory and chemical safety. M. 10th ed.E. Develop the techniques necessary to attain accuracy and precision. f. Thomson Brooks/Cole (or latest edition).G. (2004) Chemistry – Principles and Reactions. R. SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Whitten... K. The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change.E. Nuclear stability. C. Nuclear fusion. (2005) Chemistry – The Central Science. LeMay Jr. Analyze experimental data and interpret them correctly applying appropriate chemical principles and mathematical techniques. and Hurley.L.N. Uses of isotopes.W. Chang. W. Peck. T. Exhibit mastery of basic laboratory techniques. Biological effects of radioactivity. Masterton. and the preparation of proper laboratory reports.L.. d. G. R.. and Bursten. (2004) General Chemistry.1. NUMBER OF UNITS General Chemistry 1 Laboratory: 2 units General Chemistry 2 Laboratory: 2 units REQUISITES General Chemistry 1 Laboratory Co-requisite: General Chemistry 1 Lecture General Chemistry 2 Laboratory Co-requisite: General Chemistry 2 Lecture Prerequisite: General Chemistry 1 Laboratory COURSE COMPETENCIES: At the end of the General Chemistry laboratory course series.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry j. (2005) Chemistry. Prepare an accurate record and a proper scientific report of the results of an experiment. c. the student should be able to: a. g. b. B. e. 13 .

Periodicity of properties j. Various topics can be covered by more than one experiment. Acid-base equilibrium. Scientific method: observing and data gathering. Thermochemistry g. Composition of compounds d. Oxidation-reduction reactions i. Apply the principles of ethics and truth in science. data analysis and interpretation. Classification of matter c. making conclusions. Table 7. The experiments may be timed to match the topics covered in the lecture classes. Stoichiometry f. i. and j. RECOMMENDED TOPICS FOR LABORATORY ACTIVITIES a. The other experiments may be done in any sequence. Institutions are encouraged to use microscale experiments and low cost/fabricated equipment. Geometry of molecules k. Rates of reactions h. buffers q. Mole concept e. minimize waste and store and dispose of chemicals properly. Determination of solubility product constant p. Intermolecular forces of attraction l. Sample experiments and techniques to be learned for General Chemistry 1 & 2 Laboratory. colligative properties o. Changes of state: Cooling and heating curves m. Topics Sample Experiments Lab Techniques Involved 1 Introduction / Lab Demonstrations • Handling of hazardous safety and Waste Film showing chemical reagents and Management Exercises wastes Use of MSDS • First aid procedures Proper laboratory attire • Fire and earthquake drills Proper use of laboratory notebook 2 Measurement Density of liquids and • Cleaning glasswares solids • Handling solid and liquid reagents • Weighing / volume 14 . Demonstrate systematic and logical approaches in solving practical problems in chemistry using the principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle n. Properties of solutions.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry h. Exercises on qualitative analysis SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS AND TECHNIQUES Table 7 lists the recommended minimum topics for the course and the techniques to be learned. The first two exercises must be done before the other experiments. b. Make efficient use of the laboratory materials.

continued Topics Sample Experiments 3 Stoichiometry a) Determination of molecular formula b) Volumetric analysis 4 5 Electronic structure Periodic Table Atomic spectra Periodicity of properties of elements 6 7 8 Chemical reactions Thermochemistry Gases a) Reactions between ions b) Redox reactions Heat of reaction Molar mass of a volatile liquid 9 10 Phase changes Solutions Temperature behavior during solid-liquid transition a) Conductance of solutions Lab Techniques Involved • Care and manipulation of the balance Significant figures from measurements and calculations • Reading and recording meniscus a) Weighing b) Titration • Using a crucible • Using a Bunsen burner • Vacuum filtration (Buchner) • Preparing solutions • Handling of burets and other volumetric glassware Flame test or Emission spectroscopy • Microscale techniques / chemical handling • Measurement of acidity and basicity • Conductivity measurement • Microscale techniques of preparing electrochemical cells / Chemical handling • Calorimetry / Microscale Techniques • Weighing • Handling glassware • Water displacement • Venting gases • Temperature reading / Graphical analysis 11 Intermolecular forces a) Conductimetry b) Weighing c) Temperature reading b) Temperature effects on • Preparing solutions solubility / • Use of water bath crystallization • Crystallization c) Cryoscopic method for the determination of molar mass Solubility classification TLC.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 7. paper chromatography 15 .

John-Wiley & Sons.J. continued Topics 12 Chemical Kinetics 13 14 Chemical Equilibrium Acids and Bases 15 Ionic Equilibrium (Acid-Base / Solubility) Electrochemistry Metals Sample Experiments Rate measurements a) Iodine clock reaction b) Iodide-iodate reaction c) Crystal violet oxidation a) Determination of K b) Le Chatelier principle a) Volumetric analysis b) pH measurement c) Standardization using primary standards a) Determination of pK b) Buffers Lab Techniques Involved a) Dilution / graphical analysis b) Colorimetry • Colorimetry a) Titration b) Use of pH meter • Drying using an oven or a desiccator a) Colorimetry / potentiometry b) Potentiometry • Preparation of a buffer solution • Potentiometry (low-cost) / electronics • Handling of chemicals / centrifugation • Filtration • Decantation • Handling of chemicals / centrifugation • Filtration • Decantation a) Colorimetry b) Titration 16 17 Electrochemical cells / Nernst equation a) Reactions of cations b) Qualitative analysis of cations a) Reactions of anions b) Qualitative analysis of anions a) Determination of formula of coordination compounds b) Volumetric analysis 18 Nonmetals 19 Transition elements SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Slowinski.C.A. Brookes/Cole.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 7.L.. Wosley. W... J. USA (or latest edition).2 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY INTRODUCTION The scope of topics proposed here is considered as the minimum requirement for chemistry students to prepare them for a career in chemistry. OBJECTIVES OF SUBJECT AREA The core courses in organic chemistry subject area provide the basic knowledge needed for a wide range of topics. 8th ed. The overall objectives of the subject area include the 16 . W. Beran. (2005) Chemical Principles in the Laboratory. 15. USA (or latest edition). and Masterton. E. (2004) Laboratory Manual for Principles of General Chemistry. 7th ed.

By functional groups: The two courses cover the functional groups sequentially in order of increasing complexity. Use molecular modeling software for conformational analysis and stereochemical analysis of chiral compounds.e. medical and pharmaceutical sciences. Structure and reactivity: The first semester covers organic structure. b. To understand organic structure and its relationship to chemical properties and reactivity. reactivity. d. 17 . b. subtle differences in the three-dimensional structure of organic molecules which affect optical. while the second semester shall focus on chemical properties. and others. b. To gain an in-depth understanding of importance and impact of organic chemistry in industry. There are two approaches that may be used: a. Recognize stereochemical differences. assign the configuration at each chiral center in an asymmetric molecule. all of the topics should have been covered at the end of two courses. use and disposal of organic compounds. chemical properties. To introduce the principles of chemical waste minimization and management as a general principle in the manufacture. agriculture. The structure. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 AND 2: FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION Basic Organic Chemistry is made up of two semesters of lectures. c. reactivity and basic synthesis.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry following: a. nomenclature and spectroscopic analysis. Regardless of the approach. Apply the concepts of organic structural theory to explain and predict the physical properties and chemical reactivity of organic molecules ranging from simple organic compounds to macromolecules and biomolecules. the environment. c. i. NUMBER OF UNITS Organic Chemistry 1: 3 units Organic Chemistry 2: 3 units REQUISITES Organic Chemistry 1 Prerequisite: General Chemistry 2 Lecture and Laboratory Organic Chemistry 2 Prerequisite: Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. stereochemistry. the students should be able to: a. To demonstrate and apply modern theories in the organic chemistry laboratory. stereochemistry. nomenclature. basic synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of each functional group are covered together. physical and chemical properties. to apply the principles of environmental responsibility in particular with respect to organic chemistry.

Relevance to biological activity (e. Understand and practice chemical safety and waste minimization. organic product and/or necessary reagents for chemical reactions that are characteristic of the different functional classes of organic compounds. If possible. e. Identify the organic starting material. and draw the molecular structures of these compounds. ionic vs. IR. a. Lewis and Brönsted-Lowry acids and bases.g. covalent bonds. CHEM3D. elimination. Map out strategies for the synthesis of organic compounds from simpler starting materials. NMR and MS for the analysis of simple organic compounds. rearrangement). addition. give their IUPAC names. b. g. intermolecular and intramolecular attractive forces. f. types of configurational isomers (enantiomers. conformations and conformational analysis. Introduction (12 hours) This includes a review of topics in general chemistry that are necessary for the understanding of organic chemistry: atomic structure. Analyze organic reactions using structural. or PCMODEL may be included to introduce the students to molecular modeling as a tool for the study of stereochemistry. h. and valence bond theory. and j. types of reactions based on net transformation (substitution. use of stereochemical drawings (flying wedge. hybridization and the geometry and shape of simple organic molecules. The lecturer is given the option to arrange the sequence of topics to be discussed. molecular configuration (R and S designations). Internet access is strongly recommended. mechanistic. i.O. COURSE OUTLINE The topics enumerated below are expected to be taken up within two semesters.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry d. film features illustrating the relevance of organic chemistry to everyday life in modern society should also be shown as part of the lecture. oxidation and reduction. Newman and sawhorse projections). Identify organic compounds. 18 . Inclusion of additional topics is left to the discretion of the lecturer. types of reaction mechanisms. Additional topics may include functional groups and the classification scheme for organic compounds. Write out the detailed reaction mechanisms of common organic reactions. Stereochemistry (9 hours) Topics include optical activity and chirality. The following recommended list of topics indicates the number of hours that might be spent on the various topics. drugs. Lecturers should use teaching aids such as molecular models and molecular modeling software in order to stimulate the interest of the students and facilitate learning especially abstract concepts. bond cleavage and reactive intermediates. reaction energetics. types of covalent bonds. thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. Apply chemical methods and spectroscopic techniques such as UV-visible. and meso compounds). diastereomers. A programmed learning module using SPARTAN/SPARTANVIEW. electron accounting and Lewis structures of organic molecules (including isomeric and resonance structures). Fischer. flavor compounds and agrochemicals) and polymer properties (tacticity) should be emphasized. basic M. racemic mixtures. properties of covalent bonds.

(2003) Organic Chemistry. It is concerned with the formation of proper practices and habits.G. Chemistry of the Different Classes of Organic Compounds (42 hours) The different classes of organic compounds based on their functionality are enumerated below.. e. Oxford University Press. and Boyd. and Heathcock. reactions and mechanisms. 3rd ed.. McMurry. H. and mass spectroscopy and its applications to simple organic molecules. 6th ed. (2003) Organic Chemistry. R. G. C. alkynes and polyenes • Alicyclic and cyclic hydrocarbons • Alkyl halides • Alcohols.. 6th Package ed. Thomson Learning. Streitwieser. W. f. nuclear magnetic resonance. McGraw Hill. 19 .2. and the preparation of proper laboratory reports. Carey. W. waste minimization and proper and efficient use of resources. Brown. 4th ed. Solomons. Thomson Learning. including laboratory and chemical safety. alkenes. Wade Jr. (2001) Organic Chemistry. amino acids and proteins d. Freeman.4th ed. ethers and epoxides • Carboxylic acids and derivatives • Aldehydes and ketones • Benzene and aromatic derivatives • Phenols • Amines • Polyfunctional compounds • Introduction to Biomolecules: fats.. M. F. (1998) Organic Chemistry. uses.. infrared. physical properties. N. R. P. Prentice Hall (or latest edition). Vollhardt. Prentice Hall. Shore. Introduction to Waste Minimization and Management of Organic Chemicals (2 hours) SUGGESTED Textbooks. N. preparation. J. W. carbohydrates. 15. L. 3rd ed. sources. analysis. T.. • Alkanes. C.Freeman & Co Ltd. A. (2004) Organic Chemistry Loudon. (2005) Organic Chemistry. (1999) Organic Chemistry.1 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 AND 2 LABORATORY COURSE DESCRIPTION The Organic Chemistry 1 & 2 Laboratory courses equip the student with the basic laboratory procedures and skills of Organic Chemistry. (1999) Organic Chemistry. G. C. 7th ed. Brown. W.. (2002) Organic Chemistry. and Fryhle. Spectroscopy (9 hours) Lecture topics include basic theory of UV-visible.H.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry c. Morrison. Prentice Hall College Division. Their discussions should include its nomenclature. (1994) Introduction to Organic Chemistry.. H. 5th ed. Synthesis (9 hours) Previously discussed organic chemical reactions are applied to simple multi-step synthesis problems... and Foote. 6th ed.. John Wiley & Sons (or latest edition). USA.

Stereochemistry • Bromination of cis. e. b. Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction. the students should be able to: a. Analyze and identify the structure of simple organic compounds. Extraction Melting Point and Boiling Point Determination Distillation (at least 2 types of set-up) Crystallization Sublimation Chromatography (TLC and Gravity (open) column) Elemental Analysis of Organic Compounds Functional Group Analysis of Organic Compounds Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols • Cyclohexene from Cyclohexanol • Pentenes from 2-Pentanol k. Second Order • Conversion of 1-Butanol to 1-Bromobutane • 1 -Iodohexane from 1-bromohexane l. Isolate and purify organic compounds. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction 20 a. c. i.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry NUMBER OF UNITS Organic Chemistry 1 Laboratory: 2 units Organic Chemistry 2 Laboratory: 2 units REQUISITES Organic Chemistry 1 Laboratory Prerequisite: General Chemistry 2 Lecture and Laboratory Corequisite: Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture Organic Chemistry 2 Laboratory Prerequisite: Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory Corequisite: Organic Chemistry 2 Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the laboratory course. Synthesize simple organic compounds through the application of organic reactions. b. g. Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction. d. Table 8 shows the sample laboratory experiments and mode of delivery. . and d. c. j. f. h. RECOMMENDED TOPICS FOR LABORATORY ACTIVITIES The recommended topics are listed below. Oxidation Reaction • Oxidation of Heptanal to Heptanoic Acid • o-Chlorotoluene to o-Chlorobenzoic Acid o.and trans.stilbene • Diels-Alder Reaction of Conjugated Diene of Eucalyptus Oil n. Practice safety precautions in the laboratory. First Order • Conversion of t-Amyl Alcohol to t-Amyl Chloride Using HCI • Kinetic Study of the Hydrolysis of t-Butyl Chloride m.

.manipulations under inert decompose atmosphere .Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry • Nitration of Methyl Benzoate • Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of p-Dimethoxybenzene p. Mode of Delivery** Experiment* Activities Techniques 1.filtration .g. Orientation.manipulation of air .purification of a . Lab Safety .choosing a good solvent recrystallization system . Sample laboratory experiments and mode of delivery for organic chemistry 1 and 2 laboratory.demonstration by . Condensation Reaction • Aldol Condensation of Acetone and Bensaldehyde • Claisen Condensation of Ethyl Acetate and Benzaldehyde r.Separation of S from .vacuum manifold use allowing sample to . Purification of Solids by Recrystallization (Hands On) .manipulation and .cannula transfer (e. Multiple Synthesis • Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol by Reaction of Methyl Benzoate and Phenylmagnesium Bromide Table 8.solvent degassing .solvent drying and concentration .air sensitive techniques 3.interpretation of NMR spectra Additional knowledge .solubility test compound by .mp determination .as shown in video Overview and Waste video and laboratory Treatment Management in orientation by instructor the Laboratory 2.HPLC using chiral column of two solvent system recrystallization 21 .two solvent system Additional knowledge R enantiomer of a recrystallization (Video only) racemic material by use .extraction and washing purification of known . Video only) sensitive sample w/o .inducing crystallization .transfer without loss of amount of contaminated material material . Ester Formation • Synthesis of Aspirin • Preparation of Isoamyl Acetate q. Transfer and Extraction Technique (Hands on) .

simple distillation .acid catalyzed dehydration of alcohols to cyclohexene 22 . Diels-Alder Reaction Ex. HCl) .use of gradient elution .mp determination .Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 8 continued Experiment* 4. Bromination of cis.bromination of an alkene . of product ratio by GC .determination of product ratio by GC 6.halogenation of alkane Additional knowledge (Video only) .use of GC to analyze samples . Elimination Reaction Ex. Diels-Alder Reaction of Conjugated Diene of Eucalyptus Oil .purification of a mixture of two known liquids by reduced pressure distillation Additional knowledge (Video only) 5.detn.glassware set-up for reduced pressure distillation .running reduced pressure distillation . Purification of Liquids by Distillation (Hands On) Activities Mode of Delivery** Techniques .separating simple mixtures with silica gel column chromatography . Purification by Flash Column Chromatography (Hands On) .Diels-Alder reaction 9.adsorption of a crude mixture on silica gel . Dehydration of Cyclohexanols (2.distillation set-up .and trans-stilbene 8.silica gel column assembly .and 4methylcyclohexa -nol) .TLC analysis .vacuum filtration .separation of a complex mixture of three compounds using gradient elution flash column chromatography .GC technique for separation of isomer .liquid-liquid extraction .use of gas traps (SO2.purification of a mixture of two liquids using distillation .purification of a contaminated compound using silica gel flash chromatography . Halogenation of 1chlorobutane 7.choosing the correct eluent .sample application on silica gel column .mp determination .molecular modeling . Free Radical Substitution Ex. Electrophilic Addition on Alkene Ex.atmospheric pressure and fractional distillation .identification of functional groups by IR .

.liquid crystal property observation .mp determination . 2 Synthesis of t-Butyl chloride (1st order) 11.mp determination .possible combinatorial synthesis -mp determination -recrystallization . purification.recrystallization . Nucleophilic Addition on Carbonyl Group Ex.mp determination . Grignard Synthesis of Triphenylmethanol from Methylbenzoate 12.TLC technique (for monitoring reaction) .synthesis of a liquid crystal . Electrophilic Substitution Reaction Ex.mp determination .no air and moisture technique .sublimation . mp/bp etc.any three or more step synthesis.Grignard synthesis . Synthesis of Cholesteryl Benzoate Ex. Aldol Condensation of a)Benzaldehyde with Acetone b)Acetaldehyde with acetone 16.techniques on separation.reduction of aldehydes and ketones . Synthesis of Aspirin 15.simple distillation .g.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 8 continued Experiment* 10.IR technique . Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Ex.vacuum filtration . Condensation Reaction Ex. Oxidation of Isoborneol to Camphor with Household Bleach 13. learned in preceding experiments .reaction of a 3o alcohol with HCl (SN1) .aldol condensation followed by dehydration of product . Borohydride Reduction of a Benzil to hydroxy benzoin Ex.dying of cloth .recrystallization -recrystallization .drying of solution .synthesis of a pain reliever . Synthesis of Azo Dyes Activities Mode of Delivery** Techniques . Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Ferrocene Ex. peptide synthesis 23 . Multiple Synthesis . spectroscopic identification.acetylation of an aromatic compound -diazotization/coupling 14. e.Williamson ether synthesis (SN2) . Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Ex.oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde or ketone .mp determination .liquid-liquid separation . Ester Formation Ex.IR technique -use of green reagent ..liquid-liquid separation .HNMR technique .1 Synthesis of propyl ptolylether (2nd order) Ex.

. The Eurocurriculum II for Analytical Chemistry emphasized that a sustainable curriculum in analytical chemistry requires orientation towards analytical fundamentals which are based on real-life applications. one solid or one acid. one neutral. COMMENTS The undergraduate Analytical Chemistry curriculum has undergone a number of developments during the past decades.elemental . molecular biology.spectral analysis and derivative synthesis 15.optional UV spectroscopy functional group . To obtain a working knowledge of the applications of statistics in Analytical Chemistry. and others.bp determination and ignition test . Two Unknowns (one liquid. The course outlines for Analytical Chemistry 1 and 2 were based on the recommended content of the compulsory basic parts of Eurocurriculum II for Analytical Chemistry.use of sodium fusion . etc. as well as those that students confront in their lives.observation of physical . medical sciences.3 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY INTRODUCTION Analytical Chemistry 1 and 2 are designed to be problem-driven and emphasize critical thinking. and c.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 8 continued Experiment* 17.mp determination functional group tests .elemental analyzer or elemental analyzer techniques methods . To acquire mastery of the principles and practice of quantitative chemical analysis.NMR spectroscopy analysis.) Mode of Delivery** Activities Techniques . b. as well as in industry. To gain an in-depth understanding of the applications of Analytical Chemistry in industry.elemental analysis by mass spectrometry . Elemental Analysis of Organic Compounds 18. .IR spectroscopy properties. It should be supplemented with topics that are relevant to the practice of chemistry. agriculture.optional GC-MS classification . OBJECTIVES OF SUBJECT AREA The courses covered by the Analytical Chemistry subject area provide the basic methods and skills needed in the more advanced courses.solubility classification. solubility test. The overall objectives of the subject area include the following: a. Functional Group Analysis of Organic Compounds Ex. 24 .mp determination test. The international trend in the teaching of analytical chemistry involves a shift from a superficial and comprehensive coverage of methods to the utilization of selected methods in the context of problem solving and quality assurance.

e. f. To develop critical thinking needed to solve analytical problems. sample preparation. To present various classical and instrumental methods of chemical analysis. activity and activity coefficient. analytical measurements and data analysis. c. role and importance of analytical chemistry in various aspects of life. Steps in a typical quantitative analysis (10 hours) Emphasis on sampling protocol. b. To apply statistics in evaluating the quality of analytical data.5 hours) Classification of types of analysis. Supplementary reading materials on emerging technologies related to the topics should be assigned. Review of concepts of stoichiometry (2 hours) Mole concept. Real-life situations and contextual examples should be incorporated in the discussion of topics. c. d. the student should be able to: a. 25 . concentrations. solubility products. wet chemistry methods. von Weimarn ratio.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 15.1 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 1: FUNDAMENTALS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is designed to give students an understanding of the principles and practice of gravimetric and volumetric methods. factors affecting solubility of precipitates. Review of concepts of equilibria (2 hours) Types of equilibrium constants. Apply statistics in evaluating quality of analytical data. COURSE TOPICS The following topics should be discussed using a combination of traditional lecture and problem-based learning approach as teaching method. Apply chemical principles in solving problems in quantitative chemical analysis. Introduction (1. To develop an appreciation for the role of analytical chemistry in various aspects of human life. ionic equilibria. To introduce the fundamental concepts of sampling in chemical analysis. b. types of precipitates. c. Integrate the use of classical chemical analysis in real-world problems. e. gravimetric calculations and applications. b. Gravimetric analysis (4 hours) General steps in gravimetric analysis. potentiometry and spectrophotometry. a. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITE: General Chemistry 2 Lecture and Laboratory COURSE OBJECTIVES a. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. co-precipitation problems.3. dilution and aliquots d. minimization of co-precipitation problems. To provide a strong foundation of chemical principles which are essential to the understanding of analytical chemistry. statistical evaluation of data.

(2004) Exploring Chemical Analysis 3rd ed. SUGGESTED REFERENCES Harris. Introduction to instrumental methods of analysis (18 hours) • • Potentiometric methods (general principles and applications). USA. (1998) Contemporary Chemical Analysis.H. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: Analytical Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory. W. Christian. 8th ed. Skoog.A. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill. New York..5 hours) Acid-base titrations. instrumentation. Skoog. precipitation titration methods.. T. D. Skoog. complexometric and redox titrations. (1997) Principles of Instrumental Analysis. Freeman. Holler and Crouch.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f... quantitation methods in direct potentiometry.. Visible Spectroscopy (general principle. (2003) Quantitative Chemical Analysis 6th ed.A. Rubinson and Rubinson. Computer aided instruction software packages. the limitations of measurements. problem solving. SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Harris. titration curves. 5th ed. Beer’s Law. D. (2003) Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. Multimethod analysis (solving problems involving combinations of classical methods of analysis) g. Prentice –Hall. Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory OF CHEMICAL 26 . (or latest edition). New York (or latest edition). such as Mathcad and Excel. Brooks/Cole.C. qualitative and quantitative applications). AOAC on CD-ROM and EURACHEM handbook Current analytical chemistry journals OTHER REQUIREMENTS/EQUIPMENT a. (2000) Modern Analytical Chemistry. Volumetric analysis (10. acid-base indicators.3. West. Harvey. West. An Introduction 7th ed.C.J. and Nieman. and the selection of appropriate techniques for specific analytical problems. John Wiley& Sons (or latest edition). Holler. 15.. D. buffers. Applications. F. Brooks Cole (or latest edition). G. Potentiometric titration methods. instrument components. b. applications. Up-to-date laboratory facilities and equipment. Freeman & Co. NJ. Saunders College Publishing. Holler and Crouch. D. H.2 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 2: INSTRUMENTAL METHODS ANALYSIS COURSE DESCRIPTION This lecture course is designed to develop knowledge and skills for analytical separations and instrumental methods of analysis. W. (2003) Analytical Chemistry. Emphasis shall be placed on the principles of instrumentation. (2000) Analytical Chemistry.

(1. electrodeposition. complex formation.3. HPLC and SFC. quality assessment. calculations and applications of preliminary separation methods such as solvent extractions. ion-exchange. COURSE TOPIC a. Develop an appropriate analytical method for a specific problem. b. and d. applications.5 hours) Methods of compositional analysis (3 hours) SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Same as in Analytical Chemistry 1 lecture. c. • Mass spectrometry (3 hours). • Chromatographic methods (7 hours). Identify a variety of analytical separations and instrumental techniques available for chemical analysis. reference materials. 15.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course the student should be able to: a. characteristics of the method (figures of merit). standard organizations and their requirements and introduction to chemometrics. Develop critical thinking skills in the use of scientific theories to solve real world chemical problems. Traceability. b. basic components. laboratory accreditation. Instrumental methods of analysis: Principles and theories. c. NUMBER OF UNITS: 2 units COREQUISITE: Analytical Chemistry 1 Lecture 27 . GC. Analytical separations (7 hours) General principles. (as detectors in GC and ICP) • Molecular spectroscopy (7 hours) (UV-vis and Luminescence methods) • Atomic spectroscopy (6 hours) • Electroanalytical methods (3 hours) d. Introduction to Quality Assurance (6 hours) Quality control.5 hours) Automated analysis. method development and validation. Understand the theoretical basis for each technique. precipitation. • • • Others Radioanalytical and thermoanalytical methods (1. solid phase extraction.3 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 1 LABORATORY COURSE DESCRIPTION This laboratory course is designed to enable the students to master the basic skills required to perform chemical analysis based on absolute and simple instrumental methods.

they will acquire adequate laboratory skills in the utilization of these analytical tools in real analytical problems.10 phenanthroline complex Potentiometric determination of KHP and its acid dissociation constant Acid .4 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY 2 LABORATORY COURSE DESCRIPTION This laboratory course will provide actual practice of modern analytical chemistry. Gather.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. With the exposure of students to the basic techniques of analytical separation and instrumental analysis. the students should be able to: a. Perform chemical analysis using absolute and simple instrumental methods. evaluate and interpret experimental data. Table 9.Base Titration Complexometric Titration Redox Titration Redox Titration Redox Titration Chromatography Absorption Spectrophotometry Potentiometry SUGGESTED TEXTS AND REFERENCES Suggested Textbooks: Same as in lecture 15. c. process. Recommended topics and sample experiments for analytical chemistry 1 laboratory . Topics Sample Experiments Calibration Statistical Treatment of Data Sampling Gravimetric Analysis • • • • • • • • • • • • • Calibration of volumetric apparatus Determination of weight variations in coins Sampling techniques Gravimetric determination of nickel as nickel dimethylglyoxime Moisture and phosphorus analysis in fertilizers Determination of acetylsalicylic acid content of aspirin tablets Determination of calcium carbonate content of chalk by EDTA titration Assay of Vitamin C tablets using iodimetric titration Iodometric determination of copper Determination of available oxygen in manganese ore Determination of calcium by ion-exchange chromatography Colorimetric determination of iron as 1. Write laboratory reports that include literature citations. NUMBER OF UNITS: 2 units 28 . Practice safety and waste minimization in the laboratory. b. and d.3. RECOMMENDED LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS The recommended topics and corresponding experiments are shown in Table 9.

(1984) Chemistry Experiments for Instrumental Methods. RECOMMENDED LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS The recommended topics and corresponding experiments are shown in Table 10. Heineman. complexation. c.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOCHEMISTRY 15. Wiley 15. Perform chemical analysis using modern instrumental methods.M. and Beebe. Digital Circuits and (optional) Microprocessors SUGGESTED TEXTS AND REFERENCES a. ion exchange chromatography. electrochemistry Basic electronic experiments • Operational Amplifiers. process.T. D.. Suggested References: same as in Analytical Chemistry 2 b.Selective Electrode • Voltammetric Analysis of Pb and Cd • Analysis of Ca and Mg in Limestone • Analysis of Ca in food products • Solvent Extraction of Copper Oxinate Voltammetry Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Solvent extraction and spectrophotometry Gas chromatography • Gas Chromatography of Alkanes Liquid chromatography • Liquid chromatography of analgesics Integration of instrumental • Waste analysis methods Metal analysis by AAS (total) Metal speciation and oxidation levels Metal recovery using appropriate techniques: e. Practice safety and waste minimization in the laboratory. Gather. and d. J. Additional Reference: Sawyer. the students should be able to: a.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COREQUISITE: Analytical Chemistry 2 Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course.R. b. W. precipitation. Write laboratory reports that include literature citations.g. evaluate and interpret experimental data. Table 10 Recommended topics and sample experiments for analytical chemistry 2 laboratory.1 BIOCHEMISTRY LECTURE COURSE DESCRIPTION This course covers three major areas namely: (1) the structural chemistry of the 29 .exchange capacity • Potentiometric titration of phosphoric acid • Analysis of Fluoride in Toothpaste using Fluoride Ion .4. Topics Sample Experiment Ion – exchange chromatography Potentiometric analysis • Determination of ion .

and glycoconjugates Nucleotides and nucleic acids Lipids Macromolecular conformation Membranes Supramolecular assemblies Introduction to molecular recognition Introduction to techniques for analysis of biological molecules 30 . To apply the key concepts to examples of recent findings and developments in biochemistry. and biotechnology. c. e. pharmacy. Access. Describe the chemical structures that make up the components of living matter. and (3) the principles of metabolism. • • • • • • • • • Introduction to the cell (1 hour) Cell structure and function Compartmentalization Cell and tissue specialization Structure and functional groups of biomolecules (15 hours) Amino acids and proteins Carbohydrates. d. • • • b. h. b. To develop students’ skills in accessing and evaluating primary sources of biochemical information (including electronic databases). and allied fields. To provide the students with a foundation in the key concepts. To introduce key techniques in the study of biochemistry. the totality of chemical reactions that occur in living matter. Display awareness of major issues at the forefront of biochemistry. Describe the interactions of these components that give rise to the organized supramolecular structures. and processes in biochemistry. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 UNITS PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry 2 Lecture and Laboratory. Analytical Chemistry 2 Lecture and Laboratory COURSE OBJECTIVES a. f. (2) the basic chemistry of the processes involved in the flow of biological information. Explain how organisms store and transmit genetic information to grow and to reproduce accurately. Explain how living organisms extract energy from the surroundings to perpetuate life. c. molecular biology. b. the student should be able to: a. evaluate. COURSE OUTLINE a. d. Explain how chemical reactions are regulated inside living cells. medicine. structures. cells and multicellular tissues. g. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. polysaccharides. and use primary sources of biochemical information.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry components of living matter and how this relates to biological function. i. Apply key concepts in biochemistry to explain its practical applications in the field of agriculture. Use computers as information and research tools in biochemistry.

Arnold.G. (2005) Biochemistry (with Biochemistry Now). National Library of Medicine.H. • • • • • The flow of biological information (12 hours) Biochemical unity and introduction to evolution The so-called Central Dogma of molecular biology and its modifications Basics of gene expression and gene regulation Introduction to techniques for gene analysis and manipulation Biological reactions and metabolism (12 hours) Biological catalysts Introduction to enzyme kinetics Allosteric regulation Metabolism and regulation Bioenergetics e.. M.nih.G.M. and Stryer. D. L.org or www. Kaiser. W. the students should be able to: 31 . Voet. (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell.. K. John Wiley and Sons (or latest edition). Raff. Berg. and Walter.nlm. 4th ed.gov 15.M. Brooks Cole (or latest edition). Johnson.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry c.E and Ahern.. Benjamin Cummings (or latest edition). M. (2004) Biochemistry.pubmed.K... • • • • d.A. Freeman (or latest edition). J. J.K. Mathews. Berk. van Holde. C. 3rd ed. Lewis. 5th ed.. P. (2004) Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry.. M. Scott. J. 3rd ed. J. (1999) Biochemistry. K.L. (2003) Molecular Cell Biology. and Farrell.4. It aims to provide a guide to the students in correlating certain principles of biochemistry with experimental facts. J. Garland. Freeman (or latest edition). 5th ed..H. C. A. B. (2002) Biochemistry. Matsudaira. Zipursky. SUGGESTED REFERENCES Alberts. National Institutes of Health USA www. Darnell. P. K. M..2 BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY COURSE DESCRIPTION This laboratory course will introduce the students to common skills and techniques needed to perform biochemical investigations. The National Center for Biotechnology Information.. and Cox. NUMBER OF UNITS: 2 UNITS COREQUISITE: Biochemistry Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the laboratory course. H. 5th ed. D... 4th ed. Campbell.H. S.P. Freeman (or latest edition). and Voet. Tymoczko. Introduction to signal transduction (2 hours) SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Nelson. L. and Krieger..O. M.ncbi. W.. Roberts. Lodish. W.L....

W. RECOMMENDED LABORATORY TOPICS AND SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS The recommended topics and sample experiments are presented in Table 11. Analyze simple biochemical compounds. R. T. plant. J. 3rd ed. Inc. (1994) Basic Laboratory Studies in Biochemistry. protein. D. Sambrook.F. lipids and nucleics acids. etc. A. color reactions. saponification. or 9 microbial sources Column chromatography of proteins (size exclusion or ion exchange) Recommended: gel electrophoresis of proteins 2 Enzymes Effect of pH. G. metabolite databases Viewing 3-D structures of biomolecules SUGGESTED TEXTS AND REFERENCES Recommended Laboratory Manual: Bernas. (1986) Modern Experimental Biochemistry. and Lata. 3rd ed. 9 or microbial sources Colorimetric measurement of sugars Chromatographic analysis and separation of sugars 4 Lipids Characterization of fats & oils. Table 11 Recommended laboratory topics and sample experiments for biochemistry laboratory. Topics Experiments Hours 1 Proteins Isolation of proteins from plant. 9 iodine number. (2001) Molecular Cloning. animal.edu/Ocw 32 . or microbial sources Quantitation of DNA by UV Recommended: electrophoresis of DNA 6 Bioinformatics PubMed and the biochemical literature 3 Introduction to key examples of gene. M. • MIT Open courseware: http://ocw.. and Russell.F. Ysrael. Boyer. R. Isolate and characterize biomolecules such as carbohydrates.. b..com Others: • Laboratory manual(s) developed for the course(s). Oxford University Press.. thin layer chromatography 5 Nucleic acids Extraction and purification of DNA from 9 animal.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry a. Companion site at www. UST Printing Office. free fatty acids. & Bernaldez.L.MolecularCloning. and c. Practice safety precautions in the laboratory.mit. yeast. proteins. G. activators & inhibitors 6 Kinetics 3 Carbohydrates Isolation of carbohydrates from plant.. animal. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Dryer. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (or latest edition). (1989) Experimental Biochemistry. Preparation and analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by GC Isolation & characterization of complex lipids.

Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry

• •

• •

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education (BAMBED, www.bambed,org) A good resource for molecular cloning experiments for the classroom is the Biotechnology Explorer Series of Bio-Rad www.bio-rad.com, look for the Life Science Education link. While the kits are designed for high school and introductory college level, some of the material can be adapted for use by chemistry majors. For the computer lab sessions in biochemistry, www.proteinexplorer.org, developed by Eric Martz and coworkers, is a good starting point for macromolecular structure viewing. For the computer lab sessions, other key resources are the National Center for Biotechnology Information (www.pubmed.org or www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), the Swiss Bioinformatics Institute (www.expasy.org), and many others. For additional computer lab sessions, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (www.hhmi.org) has a number of excellent lab animations.

15.5

FUNDAMENTALS OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

COURSE DESCRIPTION This course focuses on the principles and trends in the chemistry of the elements and on the essentials of structure, bonding, and reactivity of inorganic systems. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units REQUISITES Prerequisite: Physical Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory Corequisite: Physical Chemistry 3 COURSE OBJECTIVES This course shall provide deeper understanding of the theories and principles of bonding and structure of inorganic systems and integrate these into various technological applications. Specifically, this course seeks: a. To build on the principles of basic inorganic chemistry which were encountered in earlier courses, such as atomic structure and bonding, thermodynamics, and kinetics; b. To establish structure and reactivity correlations in inorganic systems; c. To introduce the concepts of symmetry and group theory and their application in understanding molecular behavior and structure; d. To introduce the descriptive chemistry of representative elements and transition elements and their chemical compounds; e. To provide insight into the many applications of the concepts of inorganic chemistry in areas such as agriculture, molecular biology, medicine, and materials; f. To gain enhanced independence in scholarship through active learning exercises; and g. To report new discoveries in the field of inorganic chemistry. COURSE COMPETENCIES By the end of the course, the student should be able to: a. Acquire an in-depth knowledge of a range of topics in advanced inorganic chemistry; b. Critically evaluate articles published concerning inorganic chemistry; and c. Formulate sound opinions in subject areas at the forefront of inorganic chemistry and where controversies may still exist.
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Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry

COURSE OUTLINE a. Basic Inorganic Principles • Atomic Structure (3 hours) o Principles of Quantum Mechanics o Quantum Numbers o Effective nuclear charge, Slater’s orbitals o Periodic Properties of Atoms • Molecular Structure (3 hours) o Valence Bond Theory o Molecular Orbital Theory • Molecular Shape and Symmetry (4.5 hours) o Symmetry analysis and group theory o Applications of group theory to molecular structure and bonding • Reactivity of Inorganic Compounds (6 hours) o Acids and Bases (major acid-base concepts; systematics of Lewis acids and bases; hard and soft acids and bases) o Redox Chemistry (redox stability in water; diagrammatic presentation of potential data) b. • • • c. • • • • d. • • • • • Coordination Chemistry (7.5 hours) Structure, Geometry and Isomerism Bonding theories of coordination compounds Reactions and Mechanisms Inorganic Spectroscopy (4.5 hours) Electronic Spectroscopy of free ion states Electronic spectra of complexes Bonding and spectra of simple metal clusters Vibrational spectroscopy Solids and Materials Chemistry (4.5 hours) Crystal Structures Thermodynamic aspects MO theory of solids and band structure Superconductivity Bonding in Ionic Solids

e. Systematic Chemistry of Main Group Elements (4.5 hours) • Physical properties • Reactivities of the elements and their compounds f. • • • g. • • • • Organometallic Chemistry (4.5 hours) 18-electron rule M-C bonding in organometallic compounds Reactions and mechanisms Special Topics in Inorganic Chemistry (6 hours) Catalysis and important industrial processes Bioinorganic chemistry Inorganic materials Environmental and atmospheric chemistry
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Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry

SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Meissler and Tarr. (2002) Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed. McGraw Hill. Housecroft, C.E. and Sharpe, A.G. (2005) Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall. Shriver, D.F., Atkins, P.W., and Langford, C.H. (1999) Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. Huheey, J.E., Keiter, E.A. and Keiter, R.L. (1993) Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity 4th ed. Harper and Row (or latest edition). Douglas, McDaniel, and Alexander. (1994) Concepts and Models in Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed. Wiley. Cotton, Wilkinson and Gaus. (2002) Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed. Wiley. SUGGESTED REFERENCES Various journals in Inorganic Chemistry 15.5.1 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY LABORATORY (OPTIONAL) COURSE DESCRIPTION The laboratory should complement the lecture portion. Each exercise should involve synthesis as one part, and analysis or characterization of the product as the second part. NUMBER OF UNITS: 1 unit COREQUISITE: Inorganic Chemistry Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the laboratory course, the students should be able to: a. Synthesize, purify and characterize inorganic compounds such as bioinorganic complexes, coordination compounds and solid state materials; and b. Practice safety precautions in the laboratory. RECOMMENDED LABORATORY TOPICS AND SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS The recommended topics and sample experiments are presented in Table 12. Table 12. List of inorganic chemistry laboratory topics and experiments. Topics Suggested Experiments 1 Bioinorganic For example: Amino acid complexes, metal complexes complexes used for DNA cleavage, oxygen uptake of a cobalt complex, haemoglobin, cytochrome oxidases, etc. 2 Coordination For example: [Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3 and compounds [Co(NH3)5)Cl]Cl2; optical resolution of Co(en)3+3, etc. 3 Compounds of the For example: Tin-containing compounds, Main main-group Group Chemistry: Boron and Silicon, etc elements 4 Solid-state For example: Preparation and characterization of compounds some semiconductors: Preparation of a superconductor, etc

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Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry

SUGGESTED TEXTS AND REFERENCES Laboratory manual(s) developed for the course(s). MIT Open courseware: http://ocw.mit.edu/Ocw Tanaka, J. and S.L. Suib. (1999) Experimental Methods in Inorganic Chemistry. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. Girolami, G.S., Rauchfuss, T.B. and Angelici, R.J. (1999) Synthesis and Techniques in Inorganic Chemistry. 3rd ed. Sausalito: University Science Books. Szafran, Z., Pike, R.M., and Singh, M.M. (1991) Microscale Inorganic Chemistry: A Comprehensive Laboratory Experience Pass, G., Sutcliffe, H. (1982) Practical Inorganic Chemistry. Jolly, W.L. (1970) The Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic Compounds. Inorganic Chemistry (Publisher: American Chemical Society) Organometallics (Publisher: American Chemical Society)

15.6

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

OVERVIEW OF SUBJECT AREA The aim of the Physical Chemistry series is to introduce the fundamental concepts and general principles applied to the understanding of the behavior of matter. The series will introduce the theoretical and experimental approaches to the study of the physical properties of chemical systems and their reactions at the macroscopic and atomic/molecular levels. The series will also develop problem solving skills of students in the major areas of Physical Chemistry The scope of the Physical Chemistry series includes the following core topics: a. Chemical thermodynamics b. Dynamics: physical and chemical kinetics c. Quantum chemistry d. Statistical thermodynamics The courses incorporate the following application of the theories in the core areas: a. Electrochemistry b. Surface Chemistry, Macromolecules and Colloids c. Spectroscopy – electronic, rotation and vibration and laser spectroscopy d. Other topics: solid-state chemistry/materials chemistry, photochemistry/atmospheric chemistry. COURSE OBJECTIVES At the end of the physical chemistry series, students should be able to: a. Understand the physico-chemical properties of macroscopic systems and their transformations through the principles that govern their equilibrium properties; b. Gain insight into the behavior of chemical systems at the atomic and molecular levels; c. Understand the assumptions of the various models used to describe chemical systems so students will learn to apply them critically; d. Perform calculations dealing with important physico-chemical phenomena; e. Acquire experience on modern experimental techniques in Physical Chemistry;

36

(2002) Physical Chemistry.C. and Sanctuary.W. Analytical Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory. N. (1993) Physical Chemistry. f. calorimetry (12 hours) d. boundaries. Entropy. thermochemistry. I. processes related math concepts (3 hours) c. work. standard functions. First Law of Thermodynamics applied to different processes. 5th ed. Nature of thermodynamics. 7th ed. c. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory. formalism. Levine. H. McGraw-Hill. Internal energy and enthalpy. W. d. binary and multicomponent phase equilibria of ideal solutions. New York. J. and an introduction to statistical thermodynamics. R. states. McQuarrie.J.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f. Integral Calculus COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. Clausius-Clapeyron for substances. Benjamin Cummings. Acquire the ability to decide on appropriate physico-chemical techniques in solving chemical problems.D. J. related math concepts.. 15. P. (2001) Physical Chemistry. COURSE OUTLINE a. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. Ball. Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics. Introduction to Statistical Mechanics (3 hours) SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS (PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1 AND 2) a. Laidler. e. Oxford University Press. Atkins.. standard functions.. Meiser. calculation of changes in thermodynamic functions. colligative properties of ideal dilute solutions (9 hours) f.6. (2003) Physical Chemistry.1 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS COURSE DESCRIPTION This course provides the foundations in chemical thermodynamics. Ideal and real gases and equations of state. the students must be able to: a. and Simon. heat.A. K. d. Understand the derivation of equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems from microscopic properties. 37 . estimating errors and relating data to models for the systems under study. Apply the laws of thermodynamics to physical and chemical processes. and g. Construct and interpret phase diagrams for substances and mixtures. Brooks/Cole. (1997) Physical Chemistry. and de Paula. A Molecular Approach. J. University Science Books. Learn methods of data collection including computer interfacing and methods for assessing validity of measurements. related math methods (6 hours). Maxwell relations and Gibb’s Duhem equation (12 hours) e. systems. c. B. Mortimer. Apply the models for ideal and real gases to chemical problems. D. b. b. 4th ed. b.G. Phase equilibria. D. physical and chemical equilibria. Gibbs Energy. (2003) Physical Chemistry.

Relate the flow properties of atoms. Mathlab. M. macromolecules and colloids. partial molar properties of solutions (6 hours) b. c. Silbey. Explain the techniques for studying the structure and physical properties of other systems such as macromolecules.. Evaluate parameters related to non-ideal behavior of gases and mixtures such as gas fugacities. equilibrium properties. Characterize surface phenomena in terms of equilibrium and dynamic properties. Wiley and Sons. photochemistry. John Wiley and Sons Inc. (2005) Physical Chemistry. Arrhenius equation. Equilibrium electrochemistry (5 hours) c. multimedia materials. Wiley-Interscience. or equivalent software. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Klotz. mechanisms and applications to enzyme catalysis and photochemical reactions. b. activity coefficients. molecules and ions to the bulk transport properties of gases.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry g.. H. Callen. Relate the thermodynamic properties to the equilibrium constants of electrochemical cells.A. Excel. Chemical kinetics: rate laws. Mathematica. SUGGESTED REFERENCES a. and Rosenberg. Alberty. I. This course will discuss the following topics: thermodynamic properties of chemical systems with emphasis on nonideal systems.M. electrochemistry. surface chemistry. activity coefficients (4 hours) e. chemical kinetics. ionic theories. 4th ed. Thermodynamics. e. AV equipment 15. and Bawendi. transport properties of gases and liquids (5 hours) d.6. R. f. liquids and ions in solutions. Discuss the principles and theories of chemical kinetics including processing of kinetic data and proposing reaction mechanisms.. techniques for fast reactions (10 hours) 38 .2 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 2: THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is a continuation of Physical Chemistry 1. J. colloids and atmospheric photochemical reaction systems. OTHER REQUIREMENTS Computers and mathematical software: Mathcad. Solutions of electrolytes: transport properties of ions and their applications. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITE: Physical Chemistry 1 Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course the student must be able to: a. fugacities. COURSE OUTLINE a. b. (2000) Chemical Thermodynamics: Basic Theory and Methods 6th ed. J. solid state and other applications.. (1985) Thermodynamics 2nd ed. d. activity coefficients and activities of components of mixtures.. R. activity. transport properties. theories of elementary reactions.

Background of Quantum Mechanics. Analytical Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory. adsorption isotherms. multimedia materials. Determine spectroscopic states for the elements. Operators. AV equipment 15. harmonic oscillator. c. eigenvalue problems. and their applications to atomic and molecular spectroscopy. properties of colloids and applications (6 hours) g. d. size. Apply the formalism to simple systems (particle-in-a box. heterogeneous kinetics. two and three dimensions (9 hours) d. Apply the fundamental concepts of statistical thermodynamics to simple systems. Macromolecules and Colloids: thermodynamic properties. Vibrational and rotational spectroscopy (4 hours) f. Special topics (9 hours) SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS AND REFERENCES Same as Physical Chemistry 1 OTHER REQUIREMENTS Computers and mathematical software: Excel. b. Integral Calculus COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course the student should be able to: a. or equivalent software. Statistical Thermodynamics: canonical ensembles and partition functions. e.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f. Approximate methods and application to atoms and molecules. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory. COURSE OUTLINE a. Exactly soluble problems in one.6. Surface chemistry. shape and molar mass of macromolecules. Analytical Chemistry 1 and Integral Calculus. Construct the wave functions for the many electron atoms. surface tension measurements. Solve problems in atomic and molecular spectroscopy. postulates and application to simple systems (6 hours) c. formalism of Quantum Mechanics (6 hours) b. related math methods (9 hours) e. This can be offered independent of Physical Chemistry 1 & 2 provided the student has taken Organic Chemistry 1. application of results of quantum chemistry to calculate thermodynamic quantities (9 hours) SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Same as Physical Chemistry 1 39 .3 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 3: QUANTUM CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION This course shall cover the fundamental principles and equations of quantum chemistry and statistical thermodynamics. rigid rotor) and relate the results to chemical systems.

Prentice-Hall. Atkins.4 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 and 2 COURSE DESCRIPTION The laboratory courses demonstrate the techniques for evaluating physical properties of chemical systems described in the accompanying lecture. Wieder. Levine. L.A.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry SUGGESTED REFERENCES (IN ADDITION TO THE REFERENCES FOR PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1 AND 2) a. b.P. and d. Lowe. (1993) Quantum Chemistry. P. University Science Books. D. Evaluate physical properties of non-ideal systems.W. ed. McGraw-Hill. Hyperchem. 1985). b. 15. f. Relate experimental results to models for chemical systems COURSE OUTLINE The recommended topics and sample experiments are presented in Table 13. (1983) Quantum Chemistry. OTHER REQUIREMENTS (IN ADDITION TO THOSE LISTED FOR PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY 1 AND 2) Computers and recommended software/language for programming and modeling: Fortran. (1973) The Foundations of Quantum Theory. c. S. Apply physical methods in characterizing systems at equilibrium.N. NUMBER OF UNITS Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory: 1 unit Physical Chemistry 2 Laboratory: 1 unit REQUISITES Physical Chemistry 1 Laboratory Corequisite: Physical Chemistry 1 Lecture Physical Chemistry 2 Laboratory Prerequisite: Physical Chemistry 1 Lecture and Laboratory Corequisite: Physical Chemistry 2 Lecture COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the physical chemistry laboratory courses. D. J.. Alchemy. (2000) Statistical Mechanics 2nd rev. (1983) Molecular Quantum Mechanics. (2000) Quantum Chemistry.B. (1935) Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry. the student should be able to: a. d. Pauling. Academic Press. e. g. Spartan & others. c. McQuarrie.A. (reprinted by Dover Publications. I.6. E. and Wilson. 40 . MOPAC. Moby. University Science Books. Oxford University Press. Apply physical methods to kinetic problems. McQuarrie. Academic Press.

) Topic Sample Experiment Ideal Gas • Gas density and MW • Viscosity of gases • Thermal conductivity of • Gases Real Gases • Joule Thomson coefficient of gases • Enthalpy of combustion of substances Thermochemistry • • Heats of solution Phase Equilibria 1 component system 2 component system 3 component system Solutions Partial Molar Properties Colligative Properties Electrochemistry • Vapor pressure of a liquid • Liquid-Solid Equilibrium • Liquid-Vapor Equilibirum • Ternary System • • • • • Partial Molal Volume Partial Molar Enthalpy of Mixing Freezing point depression Boiling Freezing point elevation Determination of activity and activity coefficients from cell emf • Electrochemical cells with liquid junctions • • MW of polymers from viscosity of solutions • Constant of Ionization from Conductivity Measurements • Transference Numbers by Hittorf Method • Saponification of ethyl acetate by conductivity measurements • Inversion of sucrose • Surface tension of solutions • Adsorption isotherms Transport Properties and Applications Macromolecules Ions in Solutions Chemical Kinetics Rate Law: Order of Reaction Temperature Effects Surface Properties Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure Electronic Spectroscopy • UV-VIS spectrum of a conjugated dye 41 . (At least one experiment from each topic listed below must be done.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 13. Other applied physical chemistry areas are also recommended. List of topics and sample experiments for physical chemistry laboratory 1 and 2.

and Yamazaki. W. Mc-Graw Hill (or latest edition). R. Viscometer j. D. Glassware which may be fabricated: Dumas bulb or long neck Florence flask. Thermal conductivity cell c. capillary for surface tension b. W. and Lou.. and Nibler. Techniques and Experiments.. A. Suggested Texts and references (Laboratory Manuals) a. Hori.W. P. Halpern. Foresman and Co.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table 13 continued Topic Vibrational and Rotational Spectroscopy Molecular modeling/computer based exercises Sample Experiment • Infrared spectrum spectrum of HCl • Molecular modeling.J.A.edu/Ocw f. Analytical balances s. closed tube Hg manometer. (1971) Experimental Physical Chemistry. Software for PC t. curve fitting methods. J.. Electrodes: glass and calomel e. Dewar flask g. Bomb calorimeter h. Garland. Scott. FT IR spectrophotometer (with gas cell) o. (1990) Physical Chemistry: Methods. and Reeves. Yu. g. e. UV-vis spectrophotometer (scanning) n. MIT Open courseware: http://ocw.. d. EQUIPMENT a. Saunders. (1998) Experimental Physical Chemistry: A Laboratory Textbook. Sime. Surface tension apparatus: tensiometer k.J. Laboratory manual(s) developed for the course(s). Saunders College Publications (or latest edition). J. Polarimeter q. (1998) Computational Chemistry Experiments. Abbe refractometer p. Pycnometer i. 5th ed.W. b.B. (1998) A Brief Guide to Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemical Calculations. Contact angle goniometer r. h. Klunzinger. Conductivity Bridge/cell d. H. F.E. Hehre. c. (1989) Experiments in Physical Chemistry. K. gas viscometer. Hittorf Moving Boundary Apparatus 42 . S. C.P. L. M. Boiling point apparatus m. Schoemaker. root seeking methods.. Bettelheim.mit. J. Vacuum pump l. pH meter f.

and kinetics. Mass Spectrometry. or b. Examples of PC-based software for Computer Modeling Exercises in the lab include HyperChem. this will free up lecture time that can be devoted to other topics. If the instructor feels that there is not enough time to cover the topics during the lecture session.7 THESIS AND PROFESSIONAL EXPOSURE INTRODUCTION These courses will provide students with the opportunity to apply their knowledge and skills in solving research (thesis) and real-world problems (professional exposure). Institutions have the following options: a. NMR. each includes a routine for energy minimization plus a variety of viewing options (e. Many schools offer Spectroscopy as a separate course and it is often covered as part of Organic and Analytical Chemistry. electrochemistry. Thus. Thesis (6 units). It is also a good time to recapitulate the interdependencies of the traditional divisions of chemistry.g. MOPAC. interfacial phenomena. d. Examples of these would be topics in molecular spectroscopy. anyway. Analytical Chemistry discusses spectroscopy as part of instrumentation (different spectrometers. Alchemy. This may be alleviated by directly collaborating with the Math department so that similar problems might be introduced in the Math courses. and others. MathLAB. Mathematica. stereo images) options. These topics need not take up a large chunk of the lecture time. c. the treatment of spectroscopy in Physical Chemistry should focus on its quantum mechanical bases. etc. it is suggested that some of the topics be discussed during the laboratory session. discusses spectroscopy as applied to elucidation of organic chemical structures (UVVis.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry NOTES ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LECTURE AND LABORATORY a. 15. The Physical Chemistry teacher should be given the freedom to develop the sequence of the topics as long as the essential topics are covered. f. It is suggested that Electrochemistry be included as an integral part of the Physical Chemistry curriculum because most economically feasible Physical Chemistry experiments involve electrochemical apparatus. etc. g.) and quantitative measurement (Beer-Lambert’s Law-type of discussions). e. or the broadening of the NMR or IR bands can be explained as resulting from the inherent Heisenberg uncertainty principle. and Moby. In the recommendations for the laboratory section. on the other hand. For example. Phy Chem calculations and graphing may be done using any of the following: MathCAD. the experiment titles are given only as suggestions for a given topic. etc. Coverage of Electrochemistry should be coordinated with the General and Analytical Chemistry courses to improve continuity and minimize overlap. Organic Chemistry. IR. Combination of thesis and professional exposure (6 units total) 43 . as usually is the case.. the BeerLambert law in Physical Chemistry should be discussed in terms of the coupling of the dipole transition moment and the electric field component of light. Other experiments may be substituted. A lot of time in the lecture is often taken up by mathematical computations because of the poor background of the students in differential and integral calculus. Excel. overlapping of low energy transitions. b.). but in-depth quantitative (computational) treatment may be incorporated in the laboratory experiments.

better morale and improved teaching. the student should be able to: a. the topic may be basic. Demonstrate problem-solving skills by applying classroom knowledge and laboratory skills in a research environment. f. COURSE DESCRIPTION Independent active research to be conducted under the guidance of a senior faculty adviser or mentor. and to be able to present the work in a seminar. i. leading to increased enthusiasm. An active research program is also a means of attracting external funding and attracting and keeping talented faculty. It develops traits in the student that will result in personal and professional growth. 44 . NUMBER OF UNITS Undergraduate Thesis 1: 3 units Undergraduate Thesis 2: 3 units PREREQUISITE: Advanced Chemistry Laboratory series. b. 15. h. c. g. d. persistence and creativity and a strong work ethic. Develop technical writing skills not only in the preparation of the laboratory notebook and progress reports for the mentor. This is a 4th year level course and the student must have completed most of the core Chemistry courses. Demonstrate a spirit of open inquiry. Use and care for equipment. At the same time.1 THESIS OVERVIEW Undergraduate research is an indispensable part of a world-class undergraduate degree program in chemistry. Work independently but also as a part of a team with a supervisor. COURSE OBJECTIVES This course aims to train the student to do independent research in chemistry. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. and j. This course description is benchmarked against the current American Chemical Society (ACS) guidelines for the conduct of undergraduate thesis research. Gather and critically assess relevant literature. Communicate effectively through well-written research reports and oral presentations. Interpret results and draw conclusions from the experiments or calculations. e. it requires the faculty to remain up-to-date in his/her field.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry NUMBER OF UNITS: 6 units in total PREREQUISITES: Student must be of senior standing. Design experiments to test a scientific hypothesis and to make observations where the outcome is unknown. The ACS Committee on Professional Training strongly encourages making research available to undergraduates as an advanced course option because it “unifies and extends the ACS-approved core chemistry curriculum”. Practice ethical principles in the conduct of scientific research. applied or theoretical in nature.7.

c. progress reports and thesis manuscripts. ARTICLE VII GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION 17 Program Administration 17. and other materials needed for research. DC. The output can be presented in conferences.M. (Ed) (1997) The ACS Style Guide. The university should have an intellectual property (IP) policy which covers patentable inventions.chem. and Ethics in Science (Prof. http://www. students will acquire additional skills and insights on the application of chemistry in solving real-world problems. (1988) The Basics of Technical Communicating. Regular supervision by. Through this experience. d. Washington. The adviser should emphasize and practice research ethics. E. Bauer. There are a number of references which are available on ethics. COMMENTS This course assumes the availability of instrumentation. devices. [JC1] 15. DC. publication in a peer-reviewed journal. and if appropriate. The adviser should pay careful attention to the conduct of the experiments or calculations and the interpretation of results.chemistry. and consultations with the adviser are essential. The IP rights of the student and faculty adviser should be protected. Cain. d. ACS Professional Reference Book American Chemical Society. (1985) Writing the Laboratory Notebook. Washington. Kanare.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS AND REFERENCES a.S Chemistry Program shall be administered by a/under a Chemistry department or institute headed by its own chair or director and having its own set of full-time faculty.7. facilities. RECOMMENDATIONS a.2 PROFESSIONAL EXPOSURE OVERVIEW This will enable the student to obtain experience in the practice of chemistry in various settings such as private. S. industry and academe laboratories. Washington. government. H. Dodd. Some examples include: Chemist's Code of Conduct (American Chemical Society. American Chemical Society.org). chemicals. 45 . b. etc. J. The supervisor should carefully evaluate data quality. H. DC. B. It will also strengthen the link between the study and practice of chemistry. and research institutions. http://www.edu).1 Composition The B. b.vt. c. American Chemical Society.

D.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 17. Teaching hours per day should not exceed the equivalent of 6 lecture hours. 18. projects. and other relevant information. at any time. a.2 Full time faculty members a. At least 50% of the teaching staff in the BS Chemistry program must be full-time faculty members. Faculty with only undergraduate degrees must be actively pursuing graduate degrees in chemistry. For this purpose. Dean The dean of the college administering the BS Chemistry program must possess a master’s degree in a discipline offered within the college. teaching. review the BS Chemistry program. theses. At least one of the full-time faculty must have an earned Ph. At least 60% of the full-time faculty must have graduate degrees in chemistry. In no instance should the aggregate teaching load of a faculty member exceed 30 units per semester (inclusive of overload and teaching loads in other schools). 18.2 Dean or Department chair A Higher Education Institution (HEI) offering a science program shall have a full-time Dean or Department Chair. For faculty.4 Faculty academic load The regular fulltime load of a chemistry faculty member shall be defined as the total 46 . evaluation.3 Teaching Load Teaching load requirements for BS Chemistry shall be as follows: a. b. c.3 Monitoring of the BS Chemistry program The CHED may. b. this shall include courses. Section 18 Faculty 18. and other relevant information. All faculty members handling chemistry courses required for the licensure examination for chemists must be a registered chemist. c. 17.1 Qualifications of faculty All faculty teaching in the BS Chemistry program must have the minimum of a MS degree in chemistry or any allied field cited in Section 6. degree in chemistry and at least two with an MS degree (with [JC2]thesis) as their highest degree. For students. b. research and outreach activities. this shall include their faculty load. the HEI should keep a complete faculty and student file. Department chair The head of the Chemistry department or institute offering a BS Chemistry program must at least be a MS Chemistry degree (with thesis) holder or allied fields (with thesis) and a registered chemist. 18. examinations. Full time faculty members should not be assigned more than four (4) different courses/subjects within a semester.

It should encourage the faculty to: a. d. Definite and valid system of evaluating student class performance. Keeping the number of students in a regular lecture class to not more than forty (40) except when provisions are made for a larger class. symposia and seminars. Travel grants which could include conference registration. Adoption of textbooks and other instructional materials that are up to date (ideally not older than 5 years) in content and not violative of Philippine laws. and e.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry academic load. f. g. and e. accommodation and transportation for academic development activities such as special skills training and attendance in national/ international conferences. 47 . h. Only faculty members with graduate degrees by research should be assigned as thesis advisers. dedication to work and integrity) of the teachers by students. c. scholarly outputs.5 Faculty development The institution must have a system of staff development. The allotment of a research load to the faculty with corresponding compensation is highly encouraged. e. Pursue graduate studies or post-graduate training. Periodic evaluation of the chemistry curriculum at least every 5 years. b. research capabilities. 18. The institution must provide opportunities and incentives such as: a. Use of modern techniques and technology for improving teaching and learning quality. Give lectures and present papers in national/international conferences. symposia and conferences for continuing education. System of awards and recognition for outstanding faculty and student performance. Provision and maintenance of adequate laboratory facilities. d. c. Provision of at least one laboratory instructor for every 25 students. peers and the chairman of the department. Be active members of recognized professional associations. Attend seminars. symposia and seminars. Section 19 Instructional Standards HEIs shall at all times maintain a high standard of instruction through: a. which is an aggregation or combination of teaching. research and administration The regular academic load of PhD/MS Faculty should include research and/or development projects and outreach. Study leave with pay. Awards & recognition. Tuition subsidy for graduate studies. b. c. b. d. and i. Undertake research activities and to publish their research output. Deloading to finish a thesis or carry out research activities. Periodic evaluation (including teaching competence.

20. maintenance and staff development. 20. 48 .000 students and 2) a ratio of 1 librarian to 2 staff / clerks should be observed. For the BS Chemistry program.9 Office hours The library should be open to serve the needs of the users. 2) be a registered librarian. 20.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 20 Library 20. 20. the libraries must provide 5 book titles per professional course found in the curriculum at a ratio of 1 volume per 15 students enrolled in the program. 20.2 Library staff The Head Librarian should: 1) have an appropriate professional training.4 Internet access Internet access is encouraged but should not be made a substitute for book holdings. furniture and fixtures.6 Finance All library fees should be used exclusively for library operations and development for collections. equipment and facilities.3 Library holdings Library holdings should conform to existing requirements for libraries. shelving areas. office space for staff and reading area The library must be able to accommodate 5% of the total enrollment at any one time. The library should be: 1) staff with one full time professional librarian for every 1. and communications and connectivity portals. The HEI is likewise encouraged to maintain periodicals and other non-print materials relevant to environmental science to aid the faculty and students in their academic work. 20. CD-ROMs could complement a library’s book collection but should otherwise not be considered as replacement for the same.1 Policy Libraries service the instructional and research needs of the staff and students making it one of the most important service units within an HEI.5 Space requirements At least 126 m2. or approximately 2 classrooms shall be required for the library.7 Networking Libraries shall participate in inter-institutional activities and cooperative programs whereby resource sharing is encouraged. 20. It should include space for collections. and 3) have a Master’s degree. stockroom. qualified staff. It is for this reason that libraries should be given special attention by HEI administrators by maintaining it with a wide and up-to-date collection. 20. These titles must have been published within the last 5 years.8 Accessibility The library should be readily accessible to all.

In general.S. The proper training of the Chemistry student requires that the essential equipment is available in the laboratory.S. Support facility Comments Water purification Essential. Biochemistry and Inorganic Chemistry. heat and other inappropriate conditions. The laboratories used for the following courses should have fume hoods: General Chemistry. Chemistry laboratory courses. Used primarily for Analytical Chemistry. “The National Building Code of the Philippines” and Presidential Decree 856. Chemistry program. osmosis) unit Ion-exchange unit (for Optional. operation and maintenance of the equipment. protection from dust. in particular: stability of electricity. Section 22 Facilities and Equipment 22. List of required and recommended equipment are listed in each of the course requirements above. the simpler. “Code of Sanitation of the Philippines”). 49 . presentation and viewing of audio-visual materials to support instruction. The hood area should be sufficient to accommodate the number of students who are doing the laboratory.1 Laboratory requirements Laboratories should conform to existing requirements as specified by law (RA 6541. water purification) Biochemistry. The Chemistry department must see to it that the conditions for proper operation and maintenance of the instrument are adequate. access to emergency and first aid equipment. There should be faculty and/or staff who are adequately trained and knowledgeable in the principles. Table 14 lists the support facilities required for the laboratory courses. Capacity should be sufficient to supply distilled (distillation or reverse water for all chemistry laboratories. among others (See Appendix B). Organic Cupboard Chemistry. Analytical Chemistry. List of support facilities for a chemistry laboratory.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Section 21 Educational Technology Centers The institution should provide facilities to allow preparation. the purpose of the instruments is mainly instructional. The following points should be emphasized: • • • • • • The Chemistry department must see to it that the condition in the laboratory considers human safety such as proper ventilation. The list of instruments is intended for undergraduate B. As such. Students should have reasonable access to the instruments. Adequate instrumentation and support facilities are crucial to the quality of the B. Students should be properly trained/informed about proper disposal of chemical waste. and Physical Chemistry Fume hood/ Essential. The students should be properly trained in the principles and operation of the various equipment. more robust models are preferred. Table 14.

High Performance Liquid Chromatograph. and other exigencies. gas Chromatograph.2 Laboratory Staff a. Org=Organic Chemistry. Phy=Physical Chemistry. (Abbreviations used: Gen=General Chemistry. chemical accidents. thin layer plates Chromatograph. Thermogravimetric Analyzer. Bomb Cell. thermal conductivity cell Centrifuge Chromatograph. Table 15. analytical (0. Voltammetric Autoclave Balance. electronic Balance. magnetic Balance. Thermogravi-metric Analyzer. Each department with laboratory/ies shall assign at least one personnel as the laboratory safety officer /chemical waste manager available at all times to respond to emergencies such as fire. Each department with laboratory/ies shall have full-time properly trained laboratory technician/s to maintain laboratory facilities. Conductivity Bridge Cell. top loading Barometer Beakers Boiling point apparatus Burner Calorimeter Capillary for surface tension Calorimeter. analytical Balance. b. Inorg=Inorganic Chemistry. FREQ=Frequency. 22.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 22.0001 g sensitivity) Balance. earthquakes. List of recommended instrumentation and the frequency of their use. Ana=Analytical Chemistry.3 Laboratory equipment Table 15 lists the required instrumentation for each of the laboratory subjects. The rightmost column ("FREQ") summarizes the number of courses that requires the particular instrument and is an indication of its importance. basic gas Chromatograph.) Instrument Aerator (large fish tank aerators will do) Analyzer. first aid needs. Thin Layer Plates & Developing Tank Closed tube Hg manometer Colorimeter Dewar flask Dialysis bag Dumas bulb or long neck Florence flask 50 Gen Org Ana Bio Inorg Phy FREQ x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 1 1 3 2 1 4 1 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 4 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 .

Fourier Transform Infrared (with gas cell) x 1 Spectrophotometer. buchner x 1 Funnel.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Instrument Electrodes: glass and calomel x 1 Electrophoresis w/ power supply x 1 Electrophoresis. Ultraviolet Visible x x x x x 5 Spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Visible scanning x x 2 Suction Flask x 1 Tensiometer. vacuum x x x x x 5 Pycnometer x 1 Refractometer x x 2 Refractometer. conductivity x x x 3 Meter. drying x x 2 Oven. gel x 1 Flasks x 1 Funnel. separatory x 1 Funnels x 1 Furnace x x 2 Gas cylinders for nitrogen gas x 1 Gas viscometer x 1 Goniometer. for water filtration x 1 Pump. laboratory x x x x x x 6 Pipettes x 1 Pipettors x x x 3 Polarimeter x x x 3 Polymerase Chain Reaction apparatus x 1 Pump. Fourier Transform Infrared x x x x 4 Spectrometer. Surface tension apparatus x 1 51 Gen Org Ana Bio Inorg Phy FREQ . Abbe x 1 Rotary evaporator x x 2 Shaker. pH x x x x x x 6 Meter. Atomic Absorption x x 2 Spectrophotometer. vortex x 1 Oven x 1 Oven. Infrared x 1 Spectrophotometer. Ultraviolet Visible x x 2 Spectrophotometer. temperature-controlled water bath x 1 Soxhlet Extractor x 1 Spectrometer. Volt-ohm x 1 Micro centrifuge x 1 Microscope x x 2 Mixer. contact angle x 1 Ground Glass Joint Kit for Organic Chemistry x 1 Hittorf Moving Boundary Apparatus x 1 Hot plate x 1 Hot Plate & Stirplate x 1 Melting point apparatus x x x 3 Meter.

Laboratory safety officers shall be familiar with the emergency features of the laboratory and shall know the emergency procedures in cases of fires. electronic Ultraviolet lamp Viscometer Vortex mixer Water bath Section 23 Safety 23. c.3 Staff training The Chemistry department should hold special training and instruction for the staff and students and periodically hold drills involving staff and students. earthquake. g. 23. f. and chemical spills. 23. easily accessed when needed and maintained regularly. including fire. Chemical safety Maintenance of equipment and other chemistry facilities Chemical inventory First aid Emergency measures. d. 23. instructed and equipped to oversee the various safety measures including waste disposal system.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Instrument Test tubes Thermometer Thermometer.1 Staff The Chemistry department should appoint qualified staff as a safety officer to take charge of the following: a. Chemical waste must be disposed properly and in accordance with local environmental laws and regulations. Safety measures are described in detail in Appendix B.2 Safety and emergency fixtures and equipment The Chemistry department must see to it that appropriate safety and emergency fixtures and equipment are available. earthquakes.4 Safety practices and measures The Chemistry Department must implement at all times safety practices and measures in the laboratory. 52 Gen Org Ana Bio Inorg Phy FREQ x x x 1 1 x x 3 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 . accidents. b. Schools shall ensure that safety officers undergo regular retraining and upgrading. They shall be familiar with basic first aid procedures. e. and others Security Chemical waste disposal The safety officer shall be properly trained.

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product development. e. Organic Chemistry II Lecture and Laboratory. selection. pulp and paper. To discuss the impact of the chemistry profession on industry and society. fats and waxes. f. b. food products. Advanced Spectroscopy Retrosynthesis Pericyclic Reactions Carbanion and Carbocation Chemistry Chemistry of Natural Products Heterocyclic Chemistry INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION Learning Objectives a. petrochemicals. b. market evaluation. soaps and detergents. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: General Chemistry II Lecture and Laboratory. c. Analytical Chemistry I Lecture and Laboratory. To gain a rudimentary. polymer industry. patents. research and development. the sugar and polysaccharide industries. flavors and food additives. and the pharmaceutical industry. and quality assurance systems. The course aims to equip the student with the fundamentals of the chemical industry. d. working knowledge of the following: unit operations. environmental protection and waste management.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry APPENDIX A COURSE DESCRIPTIONS FOR SOME CHEMISTRY ELECTIVES ORGANIC CHEMISTRY III. LECTURE COURSE DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry II Lecture and Laboratory COURSE OUTLINE The following are suggested topics that can be included in a third semester lecture course on Organic Chemistry: a. To give an overview of commodity products such as: agrochemical. c. e. oils. chemical process design. Inorganic Chemistry Lecture 54 . To gain a firm understanding of the process of transfer of technology from the chemical laboratory bench to the actual commercial production of the chemical commodity. d. and economics.

R & D. Krieger Pub. Blackie Academic. F. D. D. 2. 2. & Employment.. H. Topics for industrial chemistry and recommended number of hours. Co. 5. 2nd ed. Selected case studies: commercialization of chemical commodities. Emerson. 10. 8. Rodman. Chapman & Hall.L. and Operation Product Development and Market Evaluation Quality Assurance Systems. (1992) The Chemical Revolution: A Contribution to Social Technology vol. *Based on a 15-week. and Anderson. D. N. 3. E. and Clow. A. D. the ISO. B. 3.. (1994) Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries Handbook. flavors and food additives Oils. Prichard. Crone. N. CRC Press. W. Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Patents and Chemical Jurisprudence Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agrochemical Food products. Routledge. 9. American Chemistry Society.S. (1991) Guide to the Chemical Industry: Technology. (ed. 55 . (1995) Career Transitions for Chemists. 7. A. SUGGESTED TEXTS AND REFERENCES III. (1995) Quality in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. A-C.. J.. Cambridge University Press. Selection. Heaton. 11. Owens. C. and Ayres. Marketing. Chemical Process Design. 4. and seaweed polysaccharide industries Pulp and paper Wood Chemicals Fermentation Industry The Polymer Industry Petrochemicals Pharmaceutical industry 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 1. fats and waxes. starch.) (1994) The Chemical Industry. Economics. 7. 5. 6. Case Studies and Plant Visits 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 x Alloway.. The Chemist as a Professional in Industry 1. Topic Est. 6th ed. 6. (1993) Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution. Gordon & Breach. 4. three credit-hour course. 8.D. American Society for Quality Control (1988) Quality Assurance for the Chemical & Process Industries: A Manual of Good Practices. the coconut oil industry Soaps and detergents The sugar. Clow. 2. ASQC Quality Press. 8.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE OUTLINE Table A1. The Chemical Process Industries The Industrial Organizational Set-up Basic Chemical Data Research and Development Unit operations. McGraw-Hill. 103. Basta. II. Hours* I. (1986) Chemicals and Society: A Guide to the New Chemical Age. Plant visits. Bly. John Wiley. Drake (1992) Chemical Industry: Friend to the Environment? Vol. 1.

4th ed. Organic Chemistry II Lecture and Laboratory. Elementary Statistics 56 . Shreve. The Chemical Economy: A Guide to the Technology & Economics of the Chemical Industry. Chemicals in Livestock Production • Feed additives • Pharmaceuticals c. McGraw-Hill.. Books on Demand.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Rueben. (1977) Chemical Process Industries. emphasizing statistics. The objectives of the course are: a. • • • Chemicals used in Agriculture Fertilizers Pesticides in crop production Plant growth regulators b. undated. To understand the basic principles and applications of biotechnology to agriculture. b. Agricultural Biotechnology: Principles and Applications ADVANCED ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION This course describes the practice of Analytical Chemistry as an information science. B. L. N. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 PREREQUISITES: Analytical Chemistry 2. G. Inorganic Chemistry Lecture COURSE OUTLINE a.A. J. AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION Learning Objectives The course aims to provide a basic understanding and an appreciation of the role of chemistry in agriculture. M. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: General Chemistry II Lecture and Laboratory. and Bursall. To enable the student to recognize the main groups of chemicals used in agriculture and relate their physiological and agronomic effects to their molecular structure and action. introductory chemometrics and quality assurance. Analytical Chemistry I Lecture and Laboratory. R. and Brink Jr.

Determine and interpret the figures of merit for a method of chemical analysis. and d. Principles of calibration (6 hours). Figures of merit. d. liquids and solids. COURSE TOPICS a. and g. Modes of calibration. Formulate an appropriate sampling plan for an analytical problem. Absolute methods. Employ quality control and quality assurance procedures. Standardization of methods. Outliers. b. c. Importance of sampling. Principles of measurement (6 hours). To provide a deeper understanding of the principles and methods involved in the different phases of the analytical process. The analytical process. d. Sampling design: site. Statistics of measurements. Methods of chemical analysis (3 hours). Statistical evaluation of data (6 hours). Apply pattern recognition and other nonparametric data analysis for obtaining information from the results of chemical measurements. Instrumental methods. calibration and evaluation of the analytical data. Sampling methods for gases. To build mastery of the statistical methods which are used in the evaluation of the quality of analytical methods. and their application in chemical measurements. Quality control methods. e. Principles of sampling (6 hours). Stoichiometric calculations. size. Requirements for calibration. e. Optimize the measurement parameters in a chemical analysis. f. measurement. b. Basic concepts. number. Apply a number of statistical tests for the evaluation of the results of a chemical analysis. Terminology.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE OBJECTIVES This course aims: a. Proficiency testing. b. . COURSE COMPETENCIES: By the end of the course. f. To introduce the principles and techniques of chemometrics. Frequency of 57 Philosophy of instrumentation. the student should be able to: a. Control charts. c. To present the principles and methods of quality assurance in the analytical chemistry laboratory. Uncertainty. Analysis of variance. Analytical problems. Make a valid experimental design for the development of a method of chemical analysis. Statistical considerations. such as sampling. Error analysis. c. Selection of analytical methods. Quality Systems. Introduction (3 hours) Philosophy of analytical chemistry. Significance testing – the Student t and F tests.

Prentice-Hall. E. To understand the origin and classification of natural products. M.. g. Journal of Chemical Education. E. Wedclawiak. Mermet. B. Calibration uncertainties. Standard addition method. Springer-Verlag. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units COURSE OBJECTIVES The objectives of the course are: a. Pattern recognition. SUGGESTED TEXTBOOKS Miller. H.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry calibration. Hadjicostas. It also includes the laboratory skills and techniques needed in the conduct of natural products chemistry research.. W. John Wiley & Sons. Traceability. as well as their biological properties. To appreciate the role of chemical structure in physiological function of natural products and their derivatives. INTRODUCTION TO THE CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL PRODUCTS COURSE DESCRIPTION This course covers the different classes of natural products and their importance in health and commerce with emphasis on how chemical structures influence their physiological activities. Optimization of experiments. This course aims to impart to chemistry students an understanding of their chemical structures and the way they are assembled by living organisms. (Eds). h. Analytica Chimica Acta (Netherlands). and for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals or extracts.M. Kellner. and. Confidence and certainty. J. b. B. and Widmer. Neidhart.. Valcarcel. John Wiley & Sons.. Analytical Chemistry (ACS). J. (2004) Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry. 4th ed. W.. Statistical design of experiments. Modes of calibration. Springer-Verlag. Otto. Linearity tests. (2001) Quality in Chemical Measurement. Chemometrics (6 hours).N.M. Reference methods and validation. and Miller. Design and selection of standards. Actual examples and case studies will be discussed. (Eds).C. Parameter estimation. SUGGESTED REFERENCES Review papers from the following journals may be used: Analyst (UK). M. 58 . Koc. Method development. Univariate and multivariate calibration. (1995) Quality in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory. J. Experimental design (6 hours). (2004) Analytical Chemistry: A Modern Approach to Analytical Science. Pritchard. The course introduces the students to the applications and importance of natural products development for food. for perfumes and cosmetics. and Weigscheider. R. (2001) Statistics and Chemometrics for Analytical Chemistry. traditional uses and commercial potential..

• o o • o o o • Introduction to Natural Products Chemistry (3 hours) Sources Terrestrial sources Marine sources Micro-organism sources Animal Sources Production by tissue culture and cell free systems Other Sources Metabolic pathways and major classes of natural products (30 hours) Acetate derivatives: fatty acids and polyketides (6 hours) Shikimate derivatives: flavonoids and polyphenols (6 hours) Isopentenyl pyrophosphate derivatives: terpenes and steroids (9 hours) Amino acid derivatives: Alkaloids (9 hours) Methods of Natural Products Analysis (6 hours) Separation techniques Characterization and identification techniques Bioassays Special topics (6 hours) The value of natural products Interactions mediated by natural products Bioactivities of natural products Natural Products: Its Applications and Development as Renewable and Sustainable Resources Medicine: pharmaceuticals. medicines. classes and value of natural products: 59 . To introduce the applications and potentials of natural products as renewable and sustainable resources for food. b. b. PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry 2. Basic Biochemistry COURSE TOPICS a. • • • • d. • o o o o o o c. microbial transformations Food: nutraceuticals. • • • e. cosmeceuticals. Utilize appropriate techniques in the separation and identification of natural products. and d.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry c. and agriculture. nutrigenomics Alternative applications: biocides Application of molecular biology and biotechnology to natural products. Recognize the different classes of natural products. Identify the major precursors of the different classes of natural products. c. Introduction to Secondary Metabolism (3 hours) SUGGESTED REFERENCES Introduction. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. the students are expected to be able to: a. Give and discuss applications and development of natural products as renewable and sustainable resources.

NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units COURSE OBJECTIVES a. (1987) Secondary Metabolism. with emphasis on the atmosphere. Oxford Science Publication. and some of the ways that chemistry connects to other disciplines. Websites for Applications: http://biotech. Choudhary. h. Have a good overview of the chemicals of concern. water. f. Environmental chemistry aims to provide the student with a better understanding of the important chemical concepts that are involved in environmental processes. and Thomson. contains interesting information on natural product compounds which are used in chemotherapy. hydrosphere. d. climate change.I. J. Gain a global perspective on environmental issues e. Oxford Science Publication. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Dewick. A... Harwood Academic Press. 2nd ed.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Mann. (1994) Chemical Aspects of Biosynthesis.very useful. J. M. d. JB. Chapman and Hall. 2nd ed. and soil environment. (2001) Bioassay Techniques for Drug Development. Amsterdam. P.and links from this. the critical role chemistry plays in environmental issues.ars-grin. 60 . (1997) Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach.icmb. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry Journal of Natural Products Natural Products Reports Phytochemistry Phytochemical Analysis Phytochemistry Reviews Planta Medica Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.g.J. e. with searchable database Journals a.edu/botany/ . and environmental catastrophes.M. Rahman. Understand the basic principles of the behavior of both organic and inorganic compounds in the environment based on their chemical structure and reactivity. stratospheric ozone depletion. http://www. c. g.. USA ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION The course introduces the student to the scientific principles and processes that govern the behavior of chemical species in the air. Methods of natural products analysis Harborne. c.. Mann. (1984) Phytochemical Methods.gov/duke/index. b. and soil environments and the influence of human activities on these processes.html . Understand fate and transport of chemicals in the environment. W. b.utexas.

properties. uses). Photochemical smog (origin. Chemistry of the troposphere (trace gases. ozone. • The biogeochemical cycles (C. toxic organic substances. nitrogen dioxide. c. N. global warming predictions. • Other stratospheric chemical processes.5 hours) • Pesticides. CFCs and their replacements. Apply basic chemical principles to environmental processes. toxicology and health effects of PCBs. Acid rain.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. cyclopentadienes). PREREQUISITES: Organic Chemistry 2. dioxin contamination and sources). organochlorine insecticides (DDT accumulation and fate. methane. Introduction (3 hours) • Definition and overview of environmental chemistry. indoor air pollution and health effects (formaldehyde. global warming by other substances (trace gases. toxic organic waste disposal. greenhouse gases. P and the hydrologic cycle) • Unique properties of water b. S. green chemistry. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). tobacco smoke. toxaphenes. dioxins. • PCBs (structure. and furans. nitrous oxide. b. ozone formation. the student should be able to: a. O. carbamates. fuels and energy sources. CFC replacements). • The Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol e. herbicides (triazine herbicides. • Stratospheric chemistry and the ozone layer (photochemistry principles. particulate matter. • • • • Tropospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution (3 hours) Gas concentrations (interconversion). Use critical thinking skills in evaluating environmental issues. • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (structure. outdoor air pollution and health effects. asbestos). Integrate social awareness and ethics in dealing with environmental issues. Analytical Chemistry 2 COURSE OUTLINE a. Toxic Organic Chemicals (7. DDT analogs. modern insecticides (organophosphates. systematics of stratospheric chemistry c. occurrence and reduction of smog). • Radioactivity from radon d. carbon monoxide. phenoxy herbicides. water chemistry. principles of reactivity). organic herbicides. PAHs as pollutants) 61 . Greenhouse Effect & Climate Change (3 hours) • Mechanism of greenhouse effect. • Role of chemicals in ozone destruction (catalytic and noncatalytic ozone destruction. aerosols). The Chemistry of the Atmosphere (3 hours) • The nature & composition of the atmosphere (regions of the atmosphere). natural insecticides).

J. S.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f. T. and Duffy. physical methods of waste treatment. ultimate disposal of wastes. natural gas. lead. nitrites.5 hours) • Management of toxic waste. DC. sampling vapors and gases. M. • • • Green Chemistry (3 hours) The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry.T.W.. chemical treatment. 3rd ed. New York (2004) SUGGESTED REFERENCES Spiro. W. 2nd ed. New York. binding of heavy metals to soils. Hazardous Wastes: Reduction. nitrosamines). recycling. (1994) Environmental Chemistry. waste water treatment g. W. A Global Perspective. atmospheric monitoring. anaerobic decomposition.fuel of the future (storage. classical methods. (1998) Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice. oxidants. 62 . direct spectrophotometric analysis of gaseous air pollutants k. Oxford University Press. and Connely. G. Lewis Publishers. and Stigliani. leachate and gas emissions. carbon monoxide. Anastas. (2003) Chemistry of the Environment. nitrogen oxides. and Cann. The Chemistry of the Lithosphere (4.. thermal treatment. Oxford University Press. analysis and remediation of contaminated sediments) h. purification of municipal water supplies. Washington.H. The Chemistry of the Hydrosphere (7. Hydrogen. 6th ed.M. heavy metals in soils. Treatment and Disposal (4. preparation of wastes for disposal. Nuclear energy (fission and fusion reactors) j.E. C. M. (2000) Real World Cases in Green Chemistry. and Warner. dissolved oxygen. alcohol fuels). Prentice Hall. sewage and sediments (soil chemistry. Freeman and Company. production).C.. • Analysis of water samples.J. P. nitrogen compounds (nitrates.. Manahan. • Water pollutants. instrumental methods. (2000) Environmental Chemistry. waste reduction and minimization. methods of analysis (sulfur dioxide. • • • Energy and the Environment (3 hours) Liquid and gaseous fuels (gasoline. S. Cann.5 hours) • The chemistry of soil. hardness index).C.G. • Toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (mercury. Application to industrial chemicals Case studies SUGGESTED TEXTBOOK Baird. Van Loon. alkalinity indices. M. arsenic). soil microbial chemistry. American Chemical Society. in-situ treatment i. photolytic reactions. cadmium. hydrocarbons. land treatment and composting. (2004) Environmental Chemistry.5 hours) • The properties and composition of natural waters: the CO2/carbonate system (acidbase equilibria. water supplies and their contamination.H. biodegradation. Environmental Chemical Analysis (6 hours) • The role and importance of environmental chemical analysis. particulate matter).

and whose microstructure and properties are largely affected by the size of the molecule. S. which is distinct from Chemistry or Physics because the former is largely themed on the concept of 'microstructure'. there is a separate Materials and Engineering program. or (b) incorporation of special topics in the foundation courses of Chemistry.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COMMENTS It is highly recommended that case studies be developed and used in the lecture. and/or for course-related research. Materials Science and Technology. electronics and semiconductors industry often hire B. 2006). for discussions and debate. Acquire an overview of the different processes in the production of materials and their present-day applications. The general aims of the Materials Science subject area are for the student to: a. This subject is also not required in the B. Polymer Chemistry specializes in the study macromolecules that are either synthetic or natural. plastics (polymers).org/ (accessed May. Chemistry curriculum but is already offered by many universities in the country as a 3-unit elective (Table 1). W. and composites. MATERIALS SCIENCE OVERVIEW OF SUBJECT AREA Polymer and Materials Science are two interdisciplinary fields that are strongly founded in Chemistry. b. because of their increasing importance in emerging disciplines such as nanotechnology. separate elective courses in Polymer Chemistry and Materials Science. c. Acquire a clear understanding of the basic structure and properties of materials such as polymers. These fields have increasingly become important in industry because of their broad application in the high-tech industry and in many common-day products such as plastics and electronic devices. semiconductors. ceramics. However. Materials Science (Materials Science and Engineering. What it the Future Direction of Undergraduate Education in Materials Departments? In http://www.3 it is highly recommended that the BS Chemistry graduate has significant exposure in these fields either through: (a) preferably. Be able to distinguish the different levels of structure-property relationships as applied to understanding the properties and function of materials. A separate Polymer Chemistry (or Polymer Science) course is presently not required in the B. and in research and development in industry. Chemistry program and is more commonly offered as a basic course for engineering students or as an elective for Chemistry students at the graduate level. or Materials Chemistry) is a broader field.mrs. 3 In the Philippines. and their composites. However. semiconductors.2 OBJECTIVES OF SUBJECT AREA: These courses are not foundation courses for Chemistry and they need not be required in the basic curriculum for BS Chemistry. Cramb. 2 63 . Chemistry graduates in their technical laboratories. which specializes in the study of metals. S. S. The fact that these fields deal with something 'chemical' imply that the chemist is poised to make significant contribution in these fields. major industries such as the paint and resins. Many developments in these fields also factor in nanotechnology. metals. and this is in fact the case. A. ceramics. packaging.

and be able to differentiate classes of materials in terms of their mechanical properties. and electronics packaging industry. mechanical properties of materials. paints and coatings. measurement techniques. molecular weights of polymers. examples of synthesis of polymers: radical polymerization/condensation polymerization. e. dislocations. electrical and optical properties. and volume defects. Learn the basics of mechanical properties in terms of stress-strain relationships. Acquire an overview of the advances in materials engineering and technology and nanotechnology. and composites. defects in solids. RECOMMENDATIONS One way of introducing materials science in the curriculum is by incorporating topics in appropriate core courses.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry d. and understand defects structures: point. and these chapters may be used with additional supplementary topics from the more specialized textbooks. e. kinetics of crystallization. Be familiar with the crystalline state and their lattices. FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTION The course aims to provide the students a fundamental background on the structure and properties of materials. 64 . refractive index. b. Learn the phase diagrams of materials and their use in processing such as alloying of metals and synthesis of ceramics. assign Miller indices. diffusion in solids. and f. Inorganic Chemistry COURSE OBJECTIVES See “OBJECTIVES OF SUBJECT AREA” above. plastics (polymers). Topics include structure of amorphous and crystalline solids. c. the basic chemical composition of different polymeric materials and their typical uses. For example. the student should be able to: a. Gain an overview of synthesis methods applied to polymeric materials such as those used in the packaging industry. phase equilibria. NUMBER OF UNITS: 3 units PREREQUISITES: Physical Chemistry 1. Most modern textbooks in the foundation courses in Chemistry already incorporate a chapter related to Polymers or Materials. Xray diffraction. and other techniques for probing atomic and microstructure of solid materials. Gain experience in the measurement of materials properties such as viscosity. semiconductors. ceramics. d. Gain an overview of X-ray diffraction. and electrical conductivity. Gain a clear understanding of the basic structure and properties of metals. and materials processing & design. the following topics can be introduced in Organic Chemistry: macromolecular structure. microscopy. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the semester.

electrical. and general structure-property relationships as applied to the design and understanding of the functional properties of different materials.. Amorphous solids: structure and properties (6 hours) e. COURSE TOPICS a. Gain an overview of polymeric structures and their viscoelastic properties. b. B. X-ray diffraction. and h. and magnetic properties (9 hours) i.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f. as well as other chemistry courses. optical. and Warner. corrosion. Introduction / Overview of Materials Science & Engineering. Effects of environments on materials properties. Thermal properties (3 hours) j. conducting polymers. creep.. Intrenational Student ed. Gain an overview of composites. W. phase diagrams (3 hours) f. fracture. H. John Wiley and Sons. Composites (3 hours) k. Saxena. LECTURE AND LABORATORY (OPTIONAL) COURSE DESCRIPTION This is an introductory course in polymer science and technology. magnetic and thermal properties of materials and the measurement techniques. J. Inc. (1995) The Science and Design of Engineering Materials. Kinetics of crystallization (3 hours) g. Solid transformations in solids. viscoelastic properties. S. D. Bravais Lattices. D. optical. semiconductor structure.. T. electronic properties and device applications. P. Linear Defects and Plastic Deformation in Solids (3 hours) d. Point Defects and Diffusion (6 hours) c. classes of polymers and their polymerization reactions and kinetics. A. A term paper or report is recommended to integrate all of the topics discussed in this course. Crystal Structures. S. (1997) Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction. 4th ed. viscoelastic properties (3 hours) h.. g. Miller Indices. their design and properties.. The course should use key and recent technical publications to ensure that it is up-todate with developments in the field. INTRODUCTION TO POLYMER CHEMISTRY.. environmental impact (3 hours) l. Materials synthesis and design (3 hours) m. Irwin. (or latest edition) Callister Jr. amorphous and crystalline polymers. Introduction to Nanotechnology REFERENCES Schaffer. mechanical and 65 . Survey of electrical. and sample applications. Mechanical properties of solids: deformation. Atomic Scale Structures (2 hours) b. (or latest edition) COMMENTS a. Antolovich. Topics include: molecular weight and distribution. fatigue. Sanders Jr. Gain an overall understanding of the interplay between composition and microstructure..

and gel permeation chromatography. LABORATORY (OPTIONAL): 1 OR 2 UNITS COURSE OBJECTIVES See Subject Area for Materials Chemistry. optical. and h. polymer processing technologies. PMMA synthesis by cationic polymerization 66 .Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry thermal testing of polymers. NUMBER OF UNITS: LECTURE: 3 UNITS. i. Gain an overall understanding of the interplay between composition and microstructure. Gain an overview of polymer processing methodologies such as molding and extrusion. cationic and anionic polymerization (3 hours) Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers: mechanical and physical testing. the student should be able to: a. kinetics (4 hours) Ionic polymerization: living polymers. Gain an overview of the classes of polymers and their polymerization techniques. e. Learn the different methodologies for characterizing the molecular weights of polymers such as light scattering techniques. structureproperty relationships (9 hours) Thermal properties and characterization (5 hours) Survey of Specialty and Engineering Polymers (4 hours) Overview of Polymer Processing Technologies (3 hours) Polymer Degradation and Stability. PREREQUISITES: Physical Chemistry 1 (may be a co-requisite). Organic Chemistry 2 COURSE TOPICS (NUMBER OF HOURS): a. recycling. polymerization techniques. Gain an overview of the methods to characterize polymers: molecular weight. polymerization. and be able to relate the viscous and elastic response to the structure of the polymers. g. Learn the basics of mechanical properties particularly the viscoelastic nature of polymers materials. k. e. d. d. Introduction and overview (2 hours) Structure of polymers: classes. stability and degradation and environmental impact of plastics. colligative properties. mechanical. Be familiar with the amorphous and crystalline states polymers. specialty and engineering polymers. their molecular weight distributions and be able to calculate average molecular weights. f. and general structure-property relationships as applied to the design and understanding of the functional properties of polymeric materials. stereochemistry. and kinetics (4 hours) Step-growth polymers: classes. and electrical properties. h. c. and environmental impact. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the semester. morphology (5 hours) Polymer Molecular Weight: Calculation and Measurement (4 hours) Radical Polymers: classes. learn the functional properties of engineering polymers. Gain a clear understanding of the basic structure of macromolecules. stability. and other related issues. j. b. stepgrowth polymerization. thermal. g. the kinetics of various polymerization techniques such as radical polymerization. f. Environmental Impact (3 hours) LIST OF SOME SUGGESTED EXPERIMENTS: a. c. their degradation. ionic polymerization. and copolymerization. their modeling. b. PMMA synthesis by solution radical polymerization b.

Karo. Cowie. 1991 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY INTRODUCTION During the past 50 years. Synthesis of Polyaniline. Young. Polymer Synthesis Characterization: A Laboratory Manual. Chapman and Hall. structure and energy correlations. Measurement of viscosity molecular weight f. 1/e. Infrared spectroscopy of polymers h. Computational chemistry includes electronic structure calculations and simulation methods using Monte Carlo or Molecular Dynamics Techniques. Mechanical Properties: Creep and Stress-relaxation SUGGESTED REFERENCES Latest editions of: a. J. A. 1998. But there have also been instances where the results of such theoretical techniques predicted phenomena prior to experimental confirmation. NMR characterization of polymer i. and E. 1996. Miller. Physical Properties of Polymers: Prediction and Control. Thermal Characterization of Polymeric Materials. Oftentimes.. Rosen. c. b. In a few years. these techniques have provided extra support for hypotheses that are a result of experimental data. S. Plastics: Materials Processing. f. Pearce. Crosslinked PMMA synthesis d. A. John Wiley & Sons. d. knowledge of these techniques will not only be considered an extra tool. these theoretical and computational techniques have reached a level of predictive accuracy. Miller. Measurement of glass transition temperature by differential scanning calorimetry k. 67 . John Wiley. G. Lovell. e. J. M. Fundamentals of Polymeric Materials.. Examples of such properties are minimum energy structures. and spectroscopic quantities. Odian. Principles of Polymerization. and incorporates them into computer programs to calculate the structures and properties of molecules in order to solve real chemical problems. Dynamic mechanical properties of polycarbonate m. many theoretical techniques in quantum and statistical mechanics have been developed and made into standard computational procedures. 1999. 1993. Computational chemistry uses the results of theoretical chemistry. Thermogravimetric analysis l. W. Introduction to Polymers. Tury (eds. Sandler. Modification of Biopolymers (Cellulose and effect of crosslinking) n. Polystyrene synthesis by cationic polymerization e. These help elucidate the explanation of chemical phenomena. 2/e. Askadskii. Measurement of polydispersity index by gel permeation chromatography g. A. Academic Press. dipoles. Gordon and Breach. a Conducting Polymer p. 3/e. but a necessary one within the scientific method of explaining natural phenomena. L. 1997. such as the Schrodinger Equation. R. A. R. A. Academic Press. h. J. Prentice Hall. Brent Strong. Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials. In all cases.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry c. S. Chapman and Hall. 2/e. g. G. Emulsion polymerization j. vibrational frequencies. Bonesteel. E.. 1991. and P.). M. 1991. 2/e. charges. Condensation Polymerization (phenol-formaldehyde) o.

CBS) 68 . An overview of computational techniques and algorithms. Fundamental equations of forces and potentials. or be divided into a 2-unit lecture course and 1-unit computer laboratory course.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry COURSE DESCRIPTION This course focuses on the basic principles of computational chemistry. Install. COURSE OBJECTIVES This course aims to provide the student with enough knowledge of the basic techniques in computational chemistry in order for them to use these techniques as an additional tool to their research work. and c. From ab initio to molecular mechanics. the student should be able to: a. NUMBER OF UNITS: This may be delivered as a 3-unit lecture course. A general survey of the important techniques will be presented. Optional topics may be covered. Ab Initio calculations (3 hours) Review of Quantum Mechanics The Born-Oppenheimer Assumption The Slater Determinant The Hartree-Fock Equations and the Self-Consistent Field Approach Basis Sets Electron Correlation Optional topics: Configuration interaction Many-body perturbation theory Coupled-cluster methods Valence Bond Theory Extrapolation methods (G2. a. COURSE COMPETENCIES At the end of the course. • • • • • • c. This course is a stand-alone three-unit course with 2 units of lecture and 1 unit of lab. Apply the appropriate technique appropriate to a problem. • • • • b. PREREQUISITES: Physical Chemistry 3 COURSE TOPICS (NUMBER OF HOURS): Depending on the availability of time. Understand different computational techniques. G3. b. The importance of assumptions. There are enough topics in this outline to fill two semesters with a lecture-laboratory combination. • • • • • Introduction to Computational Chemistry (3 hours) Newton’s equations of motion. Both molecular mechanical and quantum mechanical models are covered. set-up and run computational programs using the Linux operating system. followed by theoretical and practical aspects of some of the more important techniques.

5 hours) Introduction to Functional Theory The Density Matrix The Kohn-Sham Equations The Basic Functionals Used in DFT Lecture and Laboratory Exercises using HF and DFT (6 hours) Single-point energy calculation Geometry optimization Potential energy surface determination Normal mode analysis Electrostatics Thermodynamic properties Transition State Theory Comparison of the different techniques A Survey of Semi-Empirical Methods: (3 hours) Assumptions Advantages and disadvantages of each technique Multi-level techniques e. PM3 and SAM1) • Hückel and Extended-Hückel Theory • Quantum mechanics of the solid state h. • • • Basis set superposition error Density Functional Theory (1. • • • • • • • • g.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry • d. • • • i. Installing Linux. • • • • • • • • • • • Molecular Mechanics and Force Fields (3 hours) Interatomic and intramolecular potential energy functions Survey of the more popular force fields Energy minimization methods Molecular Dynamics (6 hours) Newton’s equations of motion Integration Boundary conditions Cut-offs and neighborhood lists Electrostatics: The Ewald summation Constraint dynamics Equilibration Simulated annealing Statistical thermodynamics Radial distribution functions Introduction to correlation functions 69 . • • • • f. GAMESS. and GHEMICAL-GMS (3 hours) Optional topics: • Solvation models • Differential overlap treatment (From ZDO to MNDO) • Improvements to DO (AM1.

COMMENTS Computer laboratory requirements a.. One good startup cluster can be purchased from Tyan (Typhoon PSC (B2881) Dual AMD Opteron System. • • • • Laboratory exercises using AutoDock (3 hours) Optional topics: Drug design and chemoinformatics Quantitative structure-activity relationships Combinatorial libraries REFERENCES Leach. 2nd ed. c. The student should have a basic knowledge on how to use a computer. (2004) Essentials of Computational Chemistry: Theories and Models. John Wiley and Sons Inc. The student’s performance should be based on examinations and a computational project. b. No prior knowledge of LINUX is required. (2001) Molecular Modelling: Principles and Applications. F. 70 . This course requires a computer lab. Jensen. 2nd ed. A good background in biochemistry is desirable but not necessary b. AutoDock and AutoDockTools (1. It would also be ideal for a computer cluster where students can submit their computation jobs. Monte Carlo (1.com/products/html/typhoon_b2881.J. Laboratory exercises using molecular dynamics (6 hours) • Setting up a molecular dynamics calculation • PDB file system m. A.R. C.5 hours) n. http://www. (1998) Introduction to Computational Chemistry.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry j. Cramer. Prentice Hall.html).5 hours) • Installation • Input File System l. The topics are to be agreed upon by the professor and the student (group). Preferably. John Wiley and Sons Inc. RECOMMENDATIONS a.5 hours) • The Monte Carlo algorithm • Comparison with molecular dynamics k. The projects will be submitted by the end of the semester. GROMACS or NAMD (1. which may be done individually or as a group with no more than four students per group. Docking (1. Some of the sessions will be held in the classroom. while others will be held in the computer laboratory. the topic should be closely related to the current thesis topic of the student (for the seniors). ideally with one computer per student..tyan.5 hours) • Installation • Input file system o.

All benches and tabletops must be impervious to chemical spills. Merck Co..08 23 November 2006 APPENDIX B CHEMICAL SAFETY INTRODUCTION Safety is a prime concern in the chemical laboratory. Basic Safety Requirements a. Gas cylinders should be stored in appropriately ventilated cabinets or in open storage areas.This section covers recommendations on proper laboratory techniques and procedures. New Jersey. 5. b. The laboratory must be adequately ventilated. The following references were used for this set of recommendations: 1. Laboratory Supervision 1.) 13. In addition. 11. General Laboratory Design 1. 7. Inc. Compressed gas cylinders should be strapped or chained to the wall or stable table and placed out of the main traffic flow. c. Adequate lighting is essential for a safe laboratory and efficient performance.A. No chemicals. special attention and consideration should be given because students are often not aware of the precautions that must be observed in the chemical laboratory. U. and should not be used in large amounts in a confined area. 2. 2. Provide sufficient shelving or cabinets. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES d.This section covers guidelines on design of the laboratory and other safety features. Clear access to showers and eyewashes should be maintained at all times. These Guidelines are divided into the following parts: a. 10. There should be sufficient workspace available for each student.. Safety with Merck. A large numbers of common substances present acute respiratory hazards. please consult handbooks on chemical safety. Laboratory safety is the responsibility of the institution. Laboratory Chemical Hygiene Program-Health and Safety Training Program. Each chemistry . 3. Fire extinguishers should be strategically placed and clearly marked. BASIC SAFETY REQUIREMENTS .Draft version 1. 12. Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains should be placed at easily accessible locations. They should be dispensed and handled only when there is adequate ventilation. b. 6.S. Allow proper storage space for flammable and waste materials. Fire exits should be strategically located and be clearly marked. Building maps showing location of fire exits should be clearly posted in various places. There should be a sufficient number of chemical fume hoods.. 9. 8. CHEMICAL STORAGE AND DISPOSAL For further information. 4. Fermical. SAFE LABORATORY PRACTICE . Do not place extension cords on the floor or across aisles. (It must be possible to open fire exits from inside the building without a key. apparatus or equipment should be stored or placed on the floor.

7. other workers. 3. They should be familiar with basic first aid procedures. allowing at least 20% free space. 9. Keep workspace uncluttered. Students doing advanced laboratory courses (for example. 2. Stands bearing heavy loads should be firmly attached to a bench top. and chemical spills. If a hood sash is not available. avoid or minimize the use of concentrated reagents. Set up clean. Choose sizes that can properly accommodate the procedure or operations to be performed. Be sure that your glassware and equipment are free from flaws such as cracks. Safe Laboratory Practice a. where they may use diffuse to a distant burner or ignition source. Management of Work Space and General Equipment Set-up 1. The attached water hoses should be secured with wire or a clamping device. volatile solvents. chips. Whenever such chemicals are to be used. Heavy vapors can settle on the bench top or floor. They are particularly necessary when working with flammable vapors with a density greater than air. 5. Close the hood sash to provide a shield. Wherever possible. A pan properly placed under a reaction vessel or container can confine spilled liquids in the event of glass breakage. 4. Use a hood when conducting a reaction that can result in an explosion or when using a vacuum system. Proper eye and face protection. 3. Separatory funnels should be properly supported and oriented so that the stopcock will not be loosened by gravity. which may implode. Laboratory supervisors should be familiar with the emergency features of the laboratory and should know the emergency procedures in cases of events such as fire. 8. department / institute should appoint a safety officer whose responsibility it is to oversee the various safety measures. 10. mists or fumes are likely to be evolved. dry apparatus. Fume hoods are recommended for all hazardous operations or whenever hazardous gases. toxic and other dangerous chemicals. Chipped or cracked glassware should be repaired or discarded. Laboratory teaching courses should have an adequate supervisor: student ratio. firmly clamped and well back from the edge of the lab bench.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 2. 4. thesis projects) should not be allowed to work alone. and their equipment. Laboratory supervisors should be familiar with the experimental procedures and chemicals being used. and obvious defects. earthquake. extra precaution should be observed. Hoods should be operating properly and must be free from any obstacles that prevent proper air movement. vapors. Equipment racks should be securely anchored at the top and bottom. Have due regard to the proximity of reagent bottles to burners. 5. 6. All laboratory activity should be properly and adequately supervised. Apparatus attached to a ring stand should be placed such that the center of gravity of the system is centered over the base with adequate provision for removing burners or baths quickly. Condensers should be properly supported with securely positioned clamps. A retainer ring should be used on the stopcock plug. including goggles and a face 72 . Glass stopcocks in burets and separatory funnels should be freshly lubricated prior to use. use a standing shield stabilized with weights or fasteners.

and experiments. condensers or scrubbers to minimize release of material in the environment.. Avoid direct contact with any chemical. safety shower and first aid kit. Use appropriate traps. 7. If a burner is to be used. drink. do not allow burners. Confine long hair and loose clothing. arms and face before leaving the work area. switches. Do not perform unauthorized work. Clean up all spills. Full lab gowns made of cotton are preferred to aprons. Some substances now considered to be non-hazardous may. fire escape. Chemicals can also enter the body. and clothing. ensure that its temperature is maintained below the autoignition temperature of the chemicals being handled or likely to be released. 3. Never engage in pranks or other acts of mischief. distribute the heat with ceramic wire gauze. Prior to heating a liquid. broken glassware. All containers of chemicals must be clearly labeled. and by contamination of the hands. Follow prescribed directions. Many substances are readily absorbed through intact skin and inhalation. Chemicals can also be transferred to the eyes from the hands. smoke. Always know the hazards and physico-chemical properties of the chemicals used. c. Keep your hands and face clean. face.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry shield must also be worn even when using a standing shield to a hood with a closed sash. 2. 11. This should be done even if gloves are used. 12. use electrical heaters instead of gas burners. Do not use or handle any chemical until you have read and understood the label and Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for that chemical. Always wash hands. Do not use any substance from an unlabeled or doubtfully labeled container. If a hot plate is used. use medication. 5. Personal Safety 1. Do not eat. The set-up should allow for quick removal of heat. Make sure somebody is around especially when handling hazardous substances. Chemicals should only be heated in a ventilated area or hood. 9. Use a thermometer in a boiling liquid if there is a risk of an exothermic decomposition. sandals or slippers. b. You should know the location of the fire extinguisher. 11. flammability. reactivity. Never work alone in the laboratory. Whenever possible. etc. corrosiveness. Jewelries and similar accessories should be removed when working in the laboratory. Wash thoroughly with soap and warm water 73 ..g. or apply cosmetics in the chemical laboratory or storage areas. Wear proper eye protection. be found to cause illness. Wear appropriate protective clothing and footwear. through the mouth. in the future. 3. It is especially important to keep chemicals away from hands. Contact lenses should not be worn. 1. If in doubt. Lab gowns should be removed when outside the laboratory. ask you instructor. Follow hazard precautions. place boiling stones in reaction vessels that cannot be stirred. 8. preparations. 4. 2. immediately. unshielded motors or other ignition sources in the vicinity. Do not wear high-heeled shoes. 6. General Precautions for Handling Chemicals All chemicals are potentially harmful. 13. including shoes. and/or toxicity. When working with flammable gases or liquids. e. 10.

5. When carrying large bottles of corrosive. Always add a reagent slowly. To avoid violent reactions and spattering while diluting chemicals. which is comparable to our normal room temperature.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry whenever a chemical contacts your skin. 6. 13. or flammable liquids. while stirring. Use an aspirator bulb or a loose-fitting hose attached to an aspirator. Never look down the opening of a vessel. 2. Do not use diethyl ether in the presence of an open flame. Keep a breaker under the funnel in case the stopcock fails. Study the experimental procedures beforehand. on the floor -. instead.even temporarily. When using a separatory funnel with a ground glass stopcock. 6. 7. Work spaces and storage areas should be kept clear of broken glassware. Use a stirring rod to direct the flow of the liquid being poured. Smoking. Constantly watch the tip of the pipette and do not allow it to draw air. Wait a few moments before adding more. Wear gloves and tap the neck of the container lightly to loosen the stopper or lid. Work neatly. 1 gallon) with both hands. Swirl and observe what happens when the first small amount is added. some reactions take time to start. 14. taking medication. 8. Never use mouth suction to fill a pipette. 5. Keep drawers and cabinets closed while working. eating. materials and apparatus to be used.g. leftover 74 . Do not add water to concentrated acids as this may cause splattering. Many by-products of chemical reactions can be very hazardous. Never taste a chemical. Diethyl ether boils at around 36°C. into water or into less concentrated solutions to allow any heat evolved to dissipate. Use a funnel when pouring liquids or powders into a small neck opening. 4. 11. use impact resistant transport containers to protect them from breakage and to contain spillage. and applying cosmetics is forbidden in chemical work or storage areas. ensure that the stopcock has been freshly lubricated and is closed. 15. Wear a face shield or splash goggles. Always wash you hands and arms before leaving the work area. drinking. Do store materials. especially chemicals. 4. serve as vehicles for the rapid transport of other substances into the skin. Some solvents. Carry large bottles (e. d. Familiarize yourself with the chemicals. 9. cautiously waft a handful of vapor toward the nose. Large flasks must always be supported both at the neck and at the base during use. If it is necessary to smell the chemical. do not hold than by the neck alone. When adding liquids or powders. Do not allow solutions to contaminate the aspirator bulb. 3. add the acid to the water. such as when heating with a Bunsen burner. always pour concentrated solutions slowly. electric heaters are preferred to gas burners. 10. In case a stopper or lid is stuck. Planning for the handling and control of these toxic by-products should be part of the experimental procedure. 12. 16. Always wear impervious gloves when handling such materials. In general. Safe Laboratory Techniques 1. point the opening of a container away from yourself and away from others. such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). toxic. using extreme caution when opening the container.

For rubber stoppers. 8. Place your thumbs on the tubing opposite the nick and push out the tubing. stirring rods and glass tubing. stoppers. hold the tubing against a firm support and make one quick firm stroke with a sharp triangular file or glass cutter. Rubber or cork stoppers should fit so that 1/3 to 1/2 of the stopper is inserted into the joint. 7. Avoid accumulating too much glassware in the clean-up area. 19. does not fit the inserted tube snugly. one size smaller than that which will just slip over the tube to be inserted. dry and lightly lubricated. and only when wearing proper protective equipment. All glass tubing and rods should be fire polished before use. Allow ample time for cooling to prevent burning the skin. Glass stoppers and joints should be clean. 17. chronic acid. 5. Be careful in cutting a short piece from a long piece of tubing because the long end may whip and injure a nearby person. unless specifically instructed to do so. e. or if it leaks. Dewar flasks and large vacuum vessels should be taped. 6. Any sizable non-spherical glass equipment to be evacuated. biological wastes and solvents. Use hot water (if available) and soap or other detergents if necessary. Preparation of glass tubing: To cut glass tuning. When drilling a stopper. paper. Cleaning glassware: Clean glassware at the laboratory sink or in laboratory dishwashers. cylinders and bottles of chemicals. boxes and waste receptacles. Use brushes of suitable stiffness and size. drill only part way through. 3. sinks should have rubber or plastic mats on their bottoms but not over the drains. Unpolished cut glass is sharp and can lacerate the skin. with the nick centered between the hands. Use the required procedure for the proper disposal of chemical wastes. should be heavy walled. Keep aisles free of obstructions such as pallets.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry chemicals. use a sharp borer. Avoid using strong chemical cleaning agents such as nitric acid. Avoid slipping hazards by keeping the floor clear of ice. Thermos bottles. 4. such as suction flasks. glass rods and spilled liquids. make a fresh sharp file scratch in the same place and repeat the operation. glass beads. The workspace around the sink is usually limited and piling of glassware lead to breakage. Use of Glassware 1. When available. ground glassware is preferable. lubricate with water or glycerol. If the tubing does not readily pull apart. is cracked. Discard a stopper if a hole is irregular. Preferably. Protect your hands with cloth or leather gloves when inserting glass tubing and rods. soft glass is used only in some reagent bottles. dirt and debris. measuring glassware. Generally. 2. 75 . 18. sulfuric acid. strong oxidizers or any chemical with "per" as a prefix in its name such as perchloric acid and ammonium persulfate. and then finish by drilling from the opposite side. and can cut into stoppers and rubber hoses. except for special experiments that use UV or other light sources. otherwise screened or contained in metal jackets to prevent flying glass resulting from an implosion. Cover the tubing with cloth and hold the tubing with both hands. Borosilicate glassware is recommended for all laboratory glassware. carts. To minimize breakage of glassware. with thin walls are not to be substituted for Dewar flasks.

Store cylinders in appropriately ventilated cabinets or in open storage areas. Use of Compressed Gases 1. Tubing materials such as copper and some brass alloys form explosive acetylides. empty or full. 5. Do not bleed cylinders completely empty. 12. Use only the correct type of tubing with gaseous acetylene. 18. Immediately alert fellow workers and supervisor. Some small cylinders such as lecture bottles are not fitted with rupture devices. Never use cylinders that cannot be identified positively. An explosion can result. always store upright. Individually restrain cylinders of all sizes. Acetylene cylinders are partially filled with acetone. 7. iii. by straps. strap them to properly designed wheeled carts to ensure stability. When storing or moving cylinders. v. force or tamper with cylinder valves. Close the main cylinder valves tightly when not in use. 4. Never exceed the pressure limit indicated by the warning red line of acetylene pressure gauze. Some rupture devices on cylinders will release at about 650°C. Do not extinguish a flame involving a highly combustible gas until the source of the gas has been shut off. chains or cradles to prevent falling. It may also build up a static charge that can ignite a combustible gas. Do not put oil or grease on the high-pressure side of an oxygen. The skin must be washed with 76 . 6. modify. Never lubricate. Do not expose cylinders to temperatures higher than 500°C. 2. chlorine or other cylinder of oxidizing agent. Be aware that rapid release of a compressed gas will cause an unsecured gas hose to whip dangerously. 10. 15. Emergency Procedures a. 13. flammable or reactive gases only in fume hoods. Ensure that the outlet line of an acetylene cylinder is protected with a flash arrestor. Avoid skin contact and minimize inhalation. 3. Handle cylinders of compressed gases as high-energy sources and therefore as potential explosives. iv. Wear safety glasses when handling or using compressed gases. 8. Use the appropriate regulator on each gas cylinder. Observe the following special rules when working with acetylene cylinders: i. 11.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry f. All contaminated clothing must be removed immediately to prevent skin penetration. Do not use an acetylene cylinder that has been stored or handled in a nonup right position. 2. 17. 16. have the protective caps securely in place to protect the valve stems. 9. and many explode if exposed to high temperatures. otherwise it can re-ignite and cause an explosion. Use toxic. Never direct high-pressure gases at a person. Adapters or homemade modifications are not advisable. General Procedures for Spills 1. Keep it in an upright position for at least 30 minutes prior to use. Do not use compressed gas or compressed air to blow away dust or dirt. When moving large cylinders. 14. Leave a slight pressure to keep contaminants out. ii.

flush immediately with water for 15 minutes or more. and if applicable. flammable or toxic material is spilled. 5. If any metal on the skin becomes ignited. use an absorbent material that will neutralize the liquids (trisodium phosphate. HF) with silica-containing materials such as sand or vermiculite. If a volatile. b. 4. Do not leave paper towels or other materials used to clean up a spill in open trashcans in the work area. Spills of Specific Type of Chemicals Acids and other Acid Materials Use calcined absorbent products. Mercury spilled into floor cracks can be made non-volatile by amalgamation with zinc dust. 11. Check the MSDS to determine whether any delayed effects should be expected. Domestic vacuum cleaners must not be used because they will only re-disperse mercury aerosols and spread contamination. Dispose of the residue properly. Clothes should be laundered separately from the other clothing before reuse. Remove any clothing or jewelry adjacent to the spilled area to facilitate removal of any residual materials. 12. 15.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 3. flush the skin with cool water and remove adhering phosphorous. but care must be exercised to avoid reactive combinations. Mercury Because of the high toxicity of mercury vapor. and protective gloves should be worn. If a delayed reaction is noted. Flush the skin quickly with cool water. and mop it dry. 10. 13. soap and water. 77 . If any white phosphorous is splattered on the skin. 6. Many small liquid spills (<100 mL) can be absorbed with paper towels. sodium thiosulfate for bromine. Clean the contaminated area with soap and water. Do not clean-up hydrogen flouride (hydrofluoric acid.). White (Yellow) Phosphorous A spill of white phosphorous should be blanketed with sand or wet absorbent. A dustpan and brush should be used. etc. and there is no fire hazard. If the spill is on the floor. Continue flushing the skin with water for 15 minutes or more. 8. spilled mercury should be cleanedup immediately and thoroughly using an aspirator or a vacuum device. 9. has a low order of toxicity. sand followed by sodium bicarbonate solution (powder for acids). To facilitate cleaning up of liquids. Avoid contact with skin. 14. some absorbent should be sprinkled on the spot to prevent slipping. paper towels are not suitable for cleaning up flammable spills. warn everyone immediately to extinguish flames and turn off spark-producing equipment. Alkali Metals A spill of alkali metal should be smothered with powdered graphite and removed to a safe location where it can be disposed of by reaction with a long chain primary alcohol such as n-butyl alcohol. Most solid spill can be brushed up and disposed of in appropriate solid waste containers. Particles of alkali metal splattered on the skin should be removed immediately. For spills covering a small amount of skin. However. proceed clean-up operations as directed in the MSDS. sand or an absorbent. 7. deluge it with cold water immediately. If the material is not particularly volatile. Shut down all equipment and vacate area until it is decontaminated. Chemicals on the Skin 1. Dispose them properly. Sodium-potassium alloys present even greater hazards than either sodium or potassium alone. Strict observation of supplier's recommendations must be followed.

jewelry. Use caution when removing shirts to prevent contamination of the eyes. Call for emergency medical assistance at the first opportunity. Eyeballs should be rotated so that all surfaces are rinsed. or especially into the eyes. Get medical attention as soon as possible. Immediately flood the affected body area with cool water for at least 15 minutes. and checking for and removing contact lenses at once. Forcibly hold the eyelids open. F2 Chlorine. 3. Do not store liquids above waist level. 78 . PCl3 Phosphorous oxychloride. 4. quickly remove all contaminated clothing. Chemicals that react with water should be stored away from water sources. PBr3 If you plan to work with any of these chemicals. and store in an approved flammable liquid storage cabinet or room. remove the clothing quickly.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry seek medical attention immediately. For larger spills. preferably in a tray adequate to contain spills and leakage. Resume if pain returns. Instead. c. 2. I2 Arsine. These include the following: Fluorine. while using the safety shower. It may be better to cut the garments off. do not remove safety goggles until all chemicals are washed from the hair and face. CH3NCO Phosgene. POCl3 Phosphorous tribromide. Incompatibles should not be stored in close proximity with each other. Chemicals in the Eyes For chemical splashes. Releases of Acutely Toxic Vapors and Gases Some vapors and gases can be permanently disabling or lethal when inhaled even at low concentrations. AsH3 Stilbine. shoes. HF Hydrogen Sulfide. Chemical Storage and Disposal a. the following are recommended: flushing of the eye for a minimum of 20 minutes. Do not attempt to wash off chemicals from contaminated clothing. the alternative is to place the glass container inside a metal container. first aid and handling procedures before you begin working with the chemical. etc. if necessary. COCl2 Phosphorous trichloride. flushing the eye with copious amount of water. Do not use creams or lotions. They should be stored on a low shelf. HCN Other Cyanides Methyl isocyanate. d. H2S Hydrogen cyanide. Cl2 Bromine. Unless the eyes are affected. Corrosive materials should not be stored above waist level. Non-flammable safety cans are to be provided for quantities of flammable solvent larger than one gallon. SbH3 Hydrogen fluoride. Be careful not to spread the chemical on the skin. aqueous chemicals and fire sprinklers. consult the MSDS and obtain additional guidance on emergency. no time should be wasted because of modesty. If chemical purity requirements preclude the use of metal containers. Br2 Iodine. 2. Storage of large reagent containers should be kept to a minimum. Storage of Chemicals 1.

double packaged if possible. Storage of oxidizers and flammable chemicals in refrigerators constitutes a unique hazard since various control switches and defroster heaters can spark and ignite flammable materials resulting in an explosion or fire. and should be emptied daily. Chemicals may be put down the drain only if the laboratory supervisor has approved this method of disposal. place each container of solid and liquid chemicals in its own specially marked container. peroxides. copper. 6. Old chemicals should be disposed or after a specified storage period. List of Incompatible Chemicals (see Table B1) Table B1. Broken mercury thermometers and manometers may contain mercury in the fragments. the following procedures should be observed: 1. labeled with the name of the material and the date placed in the refrigerator. Refrigerators. To minimize disposal problems and waste. keep different classes of waste chemicals in a separate disposal containers. If it happens accidentally. The combustible waste should be treated as chemical waste. 5. mercury 79 . 4. notify the laboratory supervisor. Chemicals should be purchased in the appropriate amounts in practical container sizes. Dispose as waste mercury. Solutions of acids or bases should be neutralized before disposal. Incompatible chemicals spilled together on a bench or placed into the same disposal container can cause a violent chemical reaction. based on hazard class compatibility. Place broken plastic apparatus in a marked waste container different from the broken glass container. permanganates Acetylene Chlorine. Close these containers after each use. Food should never be stored in a refrigerator used for chemical storage. Domestic refrigerators should never be used for storage of volatile chemicals. Chemical Incompatible with Acetic Acid Chromic acid. and the name of the person who stored the material. These refrigerators should be clearly labeled "No Food. always specify the smallest practical quantities in laboratory experiments. List of laboratory chemicals and their incompatibilities. silver. i.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry 5. separate from chemical wastes. ethylene glycol. perchloric acid. fluorine. Disposal of Chemicals Government and local environmental regulations should govern the disposal of laboratory wastes. place the paper in a specially labeled. 3. combustible waste container with a self-closing lid. such as paper towels used to clean up a spill. In the absence of such guidelines. and the chemical is determined to be non-hazardous and non-polluting. Storage of chemicals over long periods should be avoided since this increases the hazards of chemical accidents and is wasteful. ii. c. 2. If the paper is contaminated. and can cause environmental damage. Do not pour water-insoluble chemicals into the sink or down a drain." b. nitric acid. For discarded and unused chemicals. bromine. Place non-hazardous waste in a wastepaper basket. Broken glass and glassware should be place in designated sharp waste container. Chemicals pour into the sink can damage plumbing and sewer systems. A current inventory should be maintained. hydroxyl compounds. When disposing chemicals. Chemicals stored in refrigerators should be sealed.

amines Silver. mercury Oils. methane. chlorine. hydrofluoric acid (anhydrous) Acids. flammable liquids and gases. finely divided metals. wood. alcohol. benzene) Hydrocyanic acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen sulfide Hydrochlorites Iodine Mercury Metals of Groups I and II and powdered Group III metals Nitrites Nitric acid (concentrated) Nitroparaffins Oxalic acid Oxygen Perchloric acid Peroxides. hydrogen peroxide Any reducing agent Acids See chlorine Water Calcium hypochlorite. flammable liquids.g. methane. hydrocyanic acid. naphthalene. oils Acids (organic or mineral). acetylene. aniline. calcium hypochlorite. store cold Air. continued Chemical Acetone Ammonia gas (anhydrous) Ammonium nitrate Aniline Arsenical materials Azides Bromine Calcium oxide Carbon (activated) Chlorates Chromic acid chromium trioxide Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Copper metal Cumene hydroperoxide Cyanides Flammable liquids Fluorine Hydrocarbons (such as butane. hydrogen. ammonia Water. fulminic acid. alcohol. bromine. powdered metals. hydrogen sulfide Acetylene. all oxidizing agents Ammonium salts. copper. bismuth and its alloy. halogens Acids Acetic acid. butadiene. brass. propane. alkalis. benzene. flammable liquids Acetic anhydride. halogens All other chemicals Fluorine. chromic acid. phosphine. acid. alkali Ammonia (aqueous or anhydrous) Fuming nitric acid. finely divided organic combustible materials Nitric Acid. oxygen. avoid friction. sodium peroxide Nitric acid. hydrogen. organic Phosphorous (white) and Incompatible with Conc. Chlorine. bromine. any heavy metals Inorganic bases. nitric acid and sulfuric acid mixtures Mercury (e. hydrogen peroxide. activated carbon Acetylene. chromic acid. reducing agents 80 . grease. ammonia (aqueous or anhydrous).Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table B1. flammable liquids in general Ammonia. nitric acids sodium peroxides. iodine. propane (or other petroleum gases). grease. paper. hydrogen peroxide Acids (organic or inorganic) Acids Ammonium nitrate. hydrogen sulfide. chlorate. carbon tetrachloride. turpentine Ammonia. glycerol. finely divided organic or combustible materials Acetic acid. in manometers). hydrogen Acetylene. sulfur. oxidizing gases Acids. nitrates. camphor.

water Sulfuric and other acids Sulfuric and other acids Glycerol. carbon disulfide. benzaldehyde. ethylene glycol. benzaldehyde. acetic anhydride.Commission on Higher Education Policies and Standards for BS Chemistry Table B1. carbon dioxide. continued Chemical Potassium metal Potassium chlorate Potassium perchlorate (see also chlorates) Potassium permanganate Selenides Silver metal Sodium metal Sodium nitrite Sodium peroxide Sulfides Incompatible with Carbon tetrachloride. water Ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts Ethyl or methyl alcohol. tartaric acid. ammonium compounds. fulminic acid Carbon tetrachloride. glacial acetic acid. carbon dioxide. sulfuric acid Reducing agents Acetylene. ethylene glycol. ethyl acetate. oxalic acid. glycerin. furfural Acids 81 .

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