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HEEP: AN OVER VIEW Over the years, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited has emerged as world class Engineering

and Industrial giant, the best of its kind in entire South East Asia. Its business profile cuts across various sectors of Engineering/Power utilities and Industry. The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring in the "Fortune International-500" and is ranked among the top 12 companies in the world, manufacturing power generation equipment. BHEL has now 14 Manufacturing Divisions, 8 Service Centres and 4 Power Sectors Regional Centres besides a large number of project sites spread over India and abroad. The Company is embarking upon an ambitions growth path through clear vision, mission and committed values to sustain and augment its image as a world class enterprise. VISION World-class, innovative, competitive and profitable engineering enterprise providing total business solutions. MISSION The leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and services in the fields of energy, transportation, infrastructure and other potential areas. VALUES Meeting commitments made to external and internal customers. Foster learning creativity and speed of response. Respect for dignity and potential of individuals. Loyality and pride in the company. Team playing. Zeal to excel. Integrity and fairness in all matters.

HEAVY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLANT (HEEP) At Hardwar, against the picturesque background of Shivalik Hills, 2 important manufacturing units of BHEL are located viz. Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) & Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). The hum of the construction machinery woke up Shivalik Hills during early 60s and sowed the seeds of one of the greatest symbol of Indo Soviet Collaboration Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant of BHEL. Following is the brief profile of Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant:-

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ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES: Established in 1960s under the Indo-Soviet Agreements of 1959 and 1960 in the area of Scientific, Technical and Industrial Cooperation. DPR prepared in 1963-64, construction started from October '63. Initial production of Electric started from January, 1967. Major construction / erection / commissioning completed by 1971-72 as per original DPR scope. Stamping Unit added later during 1968 to 1972. Annual Manufacturing capacity for Thermal sets was expanded from 1500 MW to 3500 MW under LSTG. Project during 1979-85 (Sets upto 500 MW, extensible to 1000/1300 MW unit sizes with marginal addition in facilities with the collaboration of M/s KWU-Siemens, Germany. Motor manufacturing technology updated with Siemens collaboration during 198487. Facilities being modernized continually through Replacements / ReconditioningRetrofitting, Technological / operational balancing. INVESTMENTS: Gross Block as on 31.3.95 is Rs. 355.63 Crores (Plant and Machinery Rs. 285.32 Crores). Net Block as on 31.3.95 is Rs. 113.81 Crores (Plant & Machinery Rs. 76.21 Crores). CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL: Hardwar is in extreme weather zone of the Western Uttar Pradesh of India and temperature varies from 2oC in Winter (December to January) to 45oC in Summer (April-June); Relative humidity 20% during dry season to 95-96% during rainy season. Longitude 78o3' East, Latitude 29 o55'5" North. Height above Mean Sea Level = 275 metres. Situated within 60 to 100 KMs of Foot-hills of the Central Himalayan Ranges; Ganges flows down within 7 KMs from the Factory area. HEEP is located around 7 KMs on the Western side of Hardwar city.

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COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION: Telegraphic Code "BHARAT TELEC, HARDWAR" TLX Lines: 05909-206 / 207 Telephones : P&T / STD (01334) 427350-59, 423050-423954 FAX : (0091) (1334) 426462 / 425069 / 426082 / 426254 Direct Board gauge train lines to Calcutta (Howrah), Delhi, Bombay, Lucknow, Dehradun and other major cities; Railway Siding for goods traffic connected to Hardwar Railway Station. POWER & WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM: - 40 MVA sanctioned Electric Power connection from UP Grid (132 KV / 11KV / 6.6 KV) (Connected load around 185 MVA) - 26 deep submersible Tube Wells with O.H. Tanks for water supply. - A 12 MW captive thermal power station is located in the factory premises.

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FIRE PROTECTION: - Managed by CISF with around 40 personnel and a host of latest fire fighting equipment and fire tenders.

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MANPOWER: Total strength is 9904 as on 31.3.96 which includes around 3000 qualified Engineers and Technicians (including substantial number of Post graduates), 5200 skilled artisans and the rest in other categories.

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TOWNSHIP AND PERIPHERAL INFRASTRUCTURES: A large modern township for employees and allied personnel with social and welfare amenities. Medical: Main Hospital (200 beds) Dispensaries in various townships sectors Occupational health center No. of Schools (including Intermediate levels) Science Degree College 1 9 1 19 1

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Residential: Around 6780 quarters.

Other amenities: - Good Road network - Shopping Centres - Central Stadium - Community Centres - A Club - Police Stations - CISF Complex for over 500 CISF personnel. - Convention Hall (a Most modern Air Conditioned Auditorium with 1500 seating capacity). - Parks.

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HEEP PRODUCT PROFILE: THERMAL AND NUCLEAR SETS (Turbines, Generators, Condensers and Auxiliaries of unit capacity upto 1000 HYDRO SETS INCLUDING SPHERICAL AND DISC VALVES (Kaplan, Francis, Pelton and reversible Turbines of all sizes and matching generators and auxiliaries maximum runner dia 6600 mm)

ELECTRICAL MACHINES: (For various industrial applications, pump drives & power station auxiliaries, Unit capacity upto 20000 KW AC / DC)

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CONTROL PANELS (For Thermal / Hydro sets and Industrial Drives) LARGE SIZE GAS TURBINES (Unit Rating : 60-200 MW) LIGHT AIRCRAFT DEFENSE PRODUCTS

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HEEP: FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Modernisation and regular Upgradation / up gradation of facilities and other infrastructure is a continuous endeavor at HEEP, BHEL. After initial setting up of the plant during the year 1964-72, in collaboration with the Soviet Union, the plant facilities and infrastructures have since been continuously upgraded under various investment projects vise, Stamping Unit Project, LSTG Project, Motor Project, Governing Components Project, TG Facilities Modernisation, TG Facilities Augmentation, Quality Facilities Augmentation, EDP projects, Gas Turbine Project, Facilities have also been added and establishments have been created for new projects in Defense and Aviation Project. Additionally, R &D facilities have also been created under Generators Research Institute, Pollution Control Research Institute, HTL modernization and other such schemes. Today the Plant has unique manufacturing and testing facilities, computerized numerically controlled machine-tools, Blade shop, heavy duty lathes, milling machines, boring machines, machining centers and many more. The Over Speed Vacuum Balancing Tunnel created for rotors up to 1300 MW (32T, 6.9 M dia bladed rotor, 6 rpm up to 4500 rpm) is one of the 8 of its kind in the entire world. The total spectrum of sophisticated, unique and other facilities at HEEP, Hardwar are the state-of-the-art in manufacturing processes and can be utilized for a variety of products' manufacture. TURBINE AND AUXILIARY BLOCK-III 1.0 1.1 GENERAL Block-III manufactures Steam Turbines, Hydro Turbines, Gas Turbines and Turbines Blades. Special Toolings for all products are also manufactured in the Tool Room located in the same block. Equipment layout plan is a per Drawing appended in Section III. Details of facilities are given in Section II. The Block consists of four Bays, namely, Bay-I and II of size 36x378 metres and 36x400 metres respectively and Bay-III and IV of size 24x402 metres and 24x381 metres respectively. The Block is equipped with the facilities of EOT Cranes, compressed air, Steam, Overspeed Balancing Tunnel, indicating stands for steam turbine, rotors, one Test stand for testing 210 MW steam turbines Russian Design, one Test Stand for Hydro Turbine Guide Apparatus and two separate Test Stands for the testing of Governing Assemblies of Steam and Hydro Turbines. All the parts are conserved, painted and packed before dispatch.

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MANUFACTURING FACILITIES HYDRO TURBINES For manufacturing of Hydro Turbines, Bay-I has the following sections: Circular Components Machining Section This section is equipped with a number of large/ heavy size Horizontal and Vertical Boring Machines, Drilling Machines, Centre Lathes, Marking Table and Assembly Bed. The major components machined in this section are Spiral Casing with Stay Ring, Spherical and Disc Valve bodies and Rotors. Runner and Servo Motor Housing Machining Section This section is equipped with NC/CNC and conventional machines comprising Heavy and Medium size vertical and Horizontal Boring Machines, Centre Lathes, Grinding machines and Drilling Machines, Marking Table, Assembly Bed, Assembly Stands for Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine assemblies and Wooden Platform for overturning heavy components. Hydro Turbine Runners, Servomotors, cylinders, Labyrinth Ring, Regulating Ring, Stay Ring, Turbine Cover, Lower Ring, Kaplan Turbine Runner Body and Blades are machined here. Guide Vanes and Shaft Machining Section This section is equipped with Heavy duty Lathe machines upto 16 metres bed, CNC turning machines, Horizontal Boring Machine, Heavy planer, Deep Drilling Machine, Boring Machines, marking Table, Marking Machines and Assembly Beds. Turbine shafts, Guide Vanes, Journals and Rotors of Spherical and Disc Valves are machined here. Rotors of Steam Turbines are also machined in this section. Assembly Section In this section, assembly and testing of Guide Apparatus, Disc Valve, Spherical Valves, Servo motor shaft and combined Boring of coupling holes are done. Preservation and Packing Section Final preservation and packing of all the Hydro Turbine components / assemblies is done here. Small components Machining Section This is equipped with Planetary Grinding Machine, Cylindrical Grinding Machines, small size Lathes, Planers, Vertical and Horizontal Boring Machines. Small components like Bushes, Levers, Flanges etc. and Governing assemblies and machines here. Governing Elements Assembly and Test Stand Section This section is equipped with facilities like oil Pumping Unit, Pressure Receiver, Servomotors etc. for assembly and Testing of Governing Elements.

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STEAM TURBINES The facilities and parts manufactured in the various sections of Steam Turbine manufacture are as follows:

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Turbine casing Machining Section It is equipped with large size Planer, Drilling, Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, CNC Horizontal and Vertical Boring machines etc. Fabrication work like casings, Pedestals etc. are received from Fabrication Block-II. Rotor Machining Section It is equipped with large size machining tools like Turning Lathe, CNC Lathes, Horizontal Boring Machines, special purpose Fir tree Groove Milling Machine etc. Some rotor forgings are imported from Russia and Germany and some are indigenously manufactured at CFFP, BHEL, Hardwar. Rotor Assembly Section This is equipped with Indicating Stand, Small size Grinding, Milling, Drilling, machines, Press and other devices for fitting Rotors and Discs. Machined Rotor, Discs and Blades are assembled here. Balancing and over speeding of Rotor is done on the dynamic balancing machine. Turbine casing Assembly Section Machined casings are assembled and hydraulically tested by Reciprocating Pumps at two times the operating pressure. Test Station - Test station for testing of 210 MW USSR Steam Turbine at no load is equipped with condensers, Ejector, Oil Pumps, Oil containers Steam Connections etc, required for testing. Overspeed testing is done for emergency Governor. Assembly Test Stands for different modules of Siemens design are equipped with accessory devices. Painting Preservation and Packing Section All the parts are painted, preserved and packed here for final dispatch. Bearings and Miscellaneous Parts Machining Section This section is equipped with small and medium size basic machine tools, e.g., lathes, Milling M/c, Horizontal Borer, Vertical Borer, drilling M/c etc. for manufacture of bearings and other miscellaneous parts of turbine. Sealing and Diaphragm Machining Section It is equipped with medium size Vertical Boring, Horizontal Boring, Planning, Drilling Machines etc. wherein castings of sealing Housings, Liner housings, Forgings of Rotor Discs, castings and fabricated Diaphragms and components are machined. It is also equipped with CNC machining center. Precision Horizontal Boring, Plano-Milling machines etc, are for manufacture of Governing Casting, Servo Casings and other medium parts of governing and Main Turbine assemblies.

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Governing Machining Section This section is equipped with medium size and small size lathes, medium CNC lathe, Milling, Grinding, Drilling, Slotting and Honing Machines. Governing assembly parts are machined here. Diaphragm and Governing Assembly Section It is equipped with deflection testing equipment for Diaphragms, Dynamic Balancing Machine for balancing Impeller of Centrifugal Oil Pumps and small fittings and assembly equipment. Governing test stand is equipped with the facilities like Oil Pumping Unit, Pressure Receiver, Servomotor, overspeed testing of Emergency Governor etc. Light machine shop In addition to normal conventional machine tools it is equipped with CNC Lathes, CNC Milling, CNC Vertical Boring, Precision Milling, planetary grinding machines etc. for manufacture of small and medium precision components of governing and other turbine parts. GAS TURBINE All the components of Gas Turbine are machined and assembled using the facilities available for manufacturing of steam and hydro turbines except the following facilities which are procured exclusively for the manufacturing of Gas Turbine and are installed in the areas specified for gas turbine manufacturing.

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Hydraulic Lifting Platform This facility is used for assembly and disassembly of G.T. Rotor. This is a hydraulically operated platform which travels upto 10 M height to facilitate access to different stages of Rotor. This is installed in Bay-I assembly area.

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CNC Creep Feed Grinding M/c. This is installed in Gas Turbine machining area Bay-II Extn. This M/c grinds the hearth serration on rotor disc faces. Hirth serrations are radial grooves teeth on both the faces of rotor discs. Torque is transmitted trough these serrations, which are very accurately ground.

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External Broaching Machine This machine is installed in GT machining area and is used to make groove on the outer dia of rotor discs for the fitting of moving blades on the discs.

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CNC Facing Lathe This machine is installed in GT machining area and is used basically for facing rotor disc but can turn other components also.

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CNC Turning Lathe This machine is installed in Bay-I Heavy Machine Shop and is used to turn Tie Rods of Gas Turbine, which have very high length / diameter ratio. Tie-Rod is a

very long bolt (length approx. 10 meter & dia 350 mm) which is used to assembly and hold the gas turbine rotor discs to form a composite turbine rotor. f) Wax Melting Equipment This is low temp. electric furnace installed in Gas Turbine blading area in Bay-II. It is used to mix and melt Wax and Colaphonium, which is required to arrest the blade movement during the blade tip machining of stator blade rings. g) Gas Turbine Test Bed This test bed is installed near the Gas Turbine Machining area in Bay-II. This facility is used to finally assemble the gas turbine. Combustion chambers are not assembled here, which are assembled with main assembly at the site. h) Combustion Chamber Assembly Platform This facility is a 3 Tier Platform installed in Bay-I assembly area and is used for assembly of Combustion Chambers of Gas Turbine. 3.0 3.1 MANUFACTURING PROCESS HYDRO TURBINES The major processes involved in various Hydro Turbine Sections are as follows: - Marking and checking of blanks manual as well as with special marking M/c. - Machining on Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, Lathes etc. as the case may be on CNC /Conventional Machines. - Intermediate assembly operation is carried out on the respective assembly beds provided. - Then the assembly is machined as per requirement. - The sub-assemblies are further assembled for hydraulic/functional testing. Hydraulic testing is done using a power driven triple piston horizontal hydraulic pump which can generate a pressure of 200 Kg/Cm2. It can also be carried out using a power pack. - On Governing elements / assembly and test stand, the components / subassemblies / assemblies are tested up to a hydraulic pressure of 200 Kg / c m 2 using the piston pump. Oil testing upto 40 Kg / c m 2 is carried out with oil pumping unit, which is permanently installed on this bed.

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STEAM TURBINE Processes carried out in various sections of steam turbine manufacture are based on the following main phases.

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Machine section Castings, Forgings, welded structures and other blanks are delivered to this section. The manufacturing process is based on the use of high efficiency carbide tipped tools, high speed and high feed machining techniques with maximum utilization of machine tool capacity and quick acting jigs and fixtures. Assembly Section Casings and Governing assemblies are hydraulically tested for leakage on special test Bed. Assembled unit of governing and steam distribution systems are tested on Governing Test Bed. General Assembly and testing of Steam Turbine is carried out on the main Test Bed in Bay-II. Painting, Preservation and Packing After testing the turbine, it is disassembled and inspected. Then the parts are painted, conserved and packed for final dispatch. GAS TURBINE The major processes involved in manufacturing Gas Turbine in various sections of Bk-III are as follows:

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Machining Castings, Forgings, welded structures and other blanks are received from concerned agencies in the respective sections. These are machined keeping in view optimum utilization of machine tools and toolings. Special jigs and fixtures are made available to facilitate accurate and faster machining. Proper regime and tool grades have been established to machine the materials like inconel, which have poor machinablity.

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Main Assembly Final assembly is done on test bed. Parts are assembled to make sub-assemblies. These sub-assemblies are again machined as per technological and design requirements and are made ready for final assembly. After assembly and insulation assembled Gas Turbine is sent to site.

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Rotor Assembly The rotor is assembled on Hydraulic Lifting Platform and sent to main assembly, where after checking clearances, it is sent for machining. After balancing, turbine side of rotor is disassembled, inner casing is fitted and rotor reassembled. This work is also carried out on Hydraulic Lifting Platform. Finally rotor is sent for assembly on test bed.

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Combustion Chamber Assembly This assembly is carried out on 3 tier platform installed for this purpose in Bay-I assembly. After machining of all components, ceramic tiles are fitted in flame tube. Burner and piping etc. is fitted in dome and combustion chamber is finally assembled. It is directly sent to site after insulation.

B. BLADE SHOP 1. Introduction: Major part of Turbine Blade Machining Shop is located in Bay-IV of Block-III. In this shop various types of Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine Compressor blades are machined from bar stock, drawn profile, precision and envelope forgings. It is a batch production shop comprising of various kinds of CNC Machines and Machining Centers, besides various special purpose and general purpose machines. The layout of equipments is as per technological sequence of the manufacturing process. Blade shop implements various On Line Quality Control Techniques through Run Charts and Control charts. This shop is divided into four distinct areas. Details of facilities are given in various schedules of Section-II. 2. Manufacturing Facilities: i) Plain Milling Section It prepares accurate reference surfaces on the blade blanks by milling and grinding operation. It also manufactures the brazed type blades by induction brazing of drawn profile and suitably machined spacers. This section carries out banking by Band Saws, rhomboid grinding on Duplex grinding machines and thickness grinding on Surface grinders. ii) Copy Milling Section The Semi blanks prepared from plain milling section are further machined by copy Milling Machines / CNC machines (CNC Heller and BSK Bed type Klopp, BFH / BEK Knee type Machines) for concave and convex aerodynamic profile forms, (HTC-600, BFK Machines) for expansion angles, Compound taper grinding of radial plane is carried out by Surface grinders. It comprises of T-root machining centers for machining of T-root.

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LP Section This area deals with all types of free standing and forged blades for steam Turbine Compressor. The free standing blades are cerrobend casted in boxes to hold the blade with respect to the profile. These blades roots are subsequently machined on NTH, MPA-80A and T30 Machining Centers. There is a five station 360o circular copy milling machine for machining the profile of envelope forged blades / stocks for Steam Turbine and Gas Turbine Blades. It also has 3D copy Milling and CNC Machines with digitizing features for Tip-thinning, Fitted milling. The inlet edge of the last stage of Low pressure Turbine Moving blades are hardened on a Special Purpose Flame Hardening equipment.

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Polishing Section Blade Contours are ground and polished to achieve the desired surface finish and other aerofoil requirements. There are also other small sections e.g. Fitting Section, Tool and Cutter Grinding, Toolings Repair Section in Blade Shop.

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Inspection Device 3 D Coordinate Measuring Machines for taper and rhomboid checking. Moment weighing Equipment Real time Frequency analyzer for checking frequency of free standing blades. Contour plotter for plotting of blade profile with various magnifications. Fir tree root inspection device. Magna spray crack detection equipment. Miscellaneous There are other important facilities e.g. High rack storage system for fixtures. Compactor system storage for finish blades. Jib cranes and EOT cranes for material handling. The semi finished batch of blades are kept in special boxes for inter-operation movements. An AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle) is also located in LP Section of Blade Shop for better material movement.

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MANUFACTURING PROCESS The manufacturing process of turbine blades primarily depends on the type of blade e.g. Bar type, Brazed type, Free standing (Forged type), Gas Turbine Compressor blades. The bar type and brazed type blades are also known as drum stage glades. The manufacturing technology of each of these blades along with recommended machine tools / equipment is furnished below.

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BAR TYPE BLADES MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Blanking of area material Circular saw/band saw Sizing to rectangular shape Hor. Milling Machine Thickness grinding Surface grinder Rhomboid milling Duplex milling machine Rhomboid grinding Duplex grinding machine Milling perpendicularity on both Hor. Milling machine ends Milling radius on surround Hor. Copy milling m/c Finish milling of convex and Hor. Copy milling / CNC concave profile Hor. Milling machine Milling expansion faces of convex Hor. Copy milling m/c/ And concave sides at root and CNC milling m/c shroud Root slot/root chamfer and 2 spindle T-root roughing, m/c and Radit at root and shround root radius copy milling m/c, T-root Milling machining center Taper grinding Surface grinder Grinding and polishing of profile Abrasive belt polishing m/c And expansion faces Final Rounding, chamfering etc. Manual fitting. BRAZED TYPE BLADES MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cutting of drawn profile & spacer Hor. Milling machine blank Sizing to rectangular shape Hor. Milling machine Thickness grinding Surface grinder Rough and finish milling of Hor. Milling machine internal profile of spacer Cutting-off spacer Abrasive cutting PROCESS / OPERATION

PROCESS / OPERATION i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. 3.2

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

vi. Brazing of drawn profile and spacer vii. Milling of width viii. Pin rough and Root slot ix. External profile rough and finish machining x. Pin turning xi. Grinding and polishing xii. Debarring and rounding

Right frequency inducting brazing installation Duplex milling machine Vert. Milling m/c Hor. Milling machine Pin turning lathe Abrasive belt polishing m/c Manual fitting

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FREE STANDING BLADES MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Abrasive belt polishing 3D Vert. Copy milling m/c CNC machining Centre cerrobend Cerrobend casting equip.

PROCESS / OPERATION

i. Grinding of ref. Belts ii. Milling of inlet & outlet edge iii. Center hole drilling iv. Encapsulating alloy with

v. Remelting of cerrobend alloy vi. Remelting of cerrobend alloy vii. Machining of fillets viii. Grinding and polishing ix. Cutting-off blade tip x. Inlet edge hardening xi. Blade tip rounding xii. Tip thinning (if reqd.)

Fir-tree root machining center Cerrobend casting equip. Vertical 3D copy milling machine Abrasive belt polishing Abrasive cutting machine Frame hardening equip. (if required) Vert. 3-D dcopy milling m/c -do-

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GAS TURBINE BLADES MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cerrobend casting equip. Hor. Machining center Cerrobend casting equip. Vert. Stand Circular saw/hor. Milling m/c Hor. Milling m/c Abrasive belt polishing m/c

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i. Cerrobend casting ii. Root machining iii. Remelting of cerrobend alloy iv. Profile checking v. Length cutting vi. Tenon vii. Grinding and polishing of fillet

A. QUALITY CONTROL FACILITIES As in BHEL Customer Focus is of prime significance, Quality Control Function assumes vital role. Quality Control facilities get priority in investment planning. The Group is equipped with the state-of-the-art testing, measuring and analytic facilities. This chapter covers Facilities existing in various sections under Quality Management Deptt. 1.0 FACILITIES IN QUALITY CONTROL TURBINE BLOCK Each Quality Control Station is equipped with conventional measuring instruments as well as sophisticated testing machine to suit the inspection requirements of the related area. Some of the important facilities are:i) CNC 3D Coordinate Measuring Machine a fully computer controlled modern machine for automatic inspection of complex or precision components of size upto 2000x1200x1000 mm. The important features of this machine are high speed computer, versatile software, universal probe head for scanning, digitization and plotting of known and unknown curves etc. 2-D Coordinate Measuring Microscope Used for highly accurate and

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precise measurements of small and intricate components of the turbine. The machine is equipped with multiple feature digital readouts of resolution 0.0001 mm, a separate light generator connected through fiber cables for better accuracy, optical templates for various inspection purposes etc. iii) iv) Vibration Measuring Equipments Three no. of vibration measuring equipments are available for checking of blade frequency at various stages. Portable hardness testers it is being used for checking of hardness of plane hardened- Nitrided and stellited components. It can measure upto a range of HV 999. MPI Machine This is used for carrying out magnetic particle test for crack detection on finished blades. Surface Finish Measuring Equipment This is used for checking the surface finish of machined components. Can measure in R, Rz and Ra. Hardness Testers of different configurations SAROJ (VICKER CUM BRINELL) SAROJ B-3000 (BRINELL) USSR (ROCKWELL) USSR (BRINELL) SAROJ (ROCKWELL CUM BRINELL) SAROJ (ROCKWELL) HV to BH 5 to 250 KG BH 250 to 3000 Kg HRC 150 Kg BH 250 to 3000 Kg HRC/HB 60 to 250 Kg HRC 60 to 150 Kg

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HYDRO TURBINE LABORATORY INTRODUCTION Hydro Turbine Laboratory at HEEP, Hardwar was set up in late '60s. It comprises of three Test Beds with electronic Instrumentation Laboratory for test bed operation/maintenance and for carrying out Site Investigations. It has a modest Workshop to manufacture hydro turbine models. Till December '95 about 160 number of tests have successfully been performed in the Laboratory which include Contractual as well as Developmental tests on Hydro Turbine Models, Calibration of Hydraulic Valves, Nozzles and Flow Measuring Devices for 210 MW Thermal Sets. Besides performing the main function of design/ development of hydraulic passages of hydro turbines, design of models, their manufacture and testing, the Laboratory has also been engaged in Field Test Studies at various Hydro Power Sites for conducting Index Tests, Head Loss Measurement, Uprating Studies and attending to various Site Problems.

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DESIGN: MANUFACTURING: TESTING: TESTING CAPABILITIES: - Runaway speed tests of reaction and impulse turbine. - Determination of MW output of prototype turbine under specified operating conditions.

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INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY The Instrumentation Laboratory is equipped with the most modern instrumentation for carrying out accurate measurements during testing in the Laboratory as well as during field testing. The major facilities are: Ultrasonic Flowmeter for field tests. Magnetic Tape Recorder with Waveform Analyzer. Microprocessor based Pressure Pulsation Measuring System. Microprocessor based Wicket Gate Torque Measuring System. Microprocessor based Hydraulic Thrust Measuring system.

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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The continuous inhouse research and development efforts of the Laboratory have enabled it to establish new measurement methods for carrying out special tests, to bridge know-how / know-why gaps, to resolve certain site problems and to evolve and establish better and more efficient designs. The benefits of research and development activities are passed on to the customers through implementation of new concepts of existing sites and for future projects.

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FIELD TESTING The Laboratory is equipped to perform field efficiency and index tests on prototype turbines at hydro power sites. Many site problems of hydraulic and mechanical nature have been successfully solved as a result of extensive filed tests and analysis carried out by the Laboratory. The Laboratory has successfully carried out uprating studies at many hydro sites resulting in augmentation of power generating capacity of the units at no extra or minimum cost. Extensive work has been done by the Laboratory to tackle the problem of silt erosion of runner blades at several hydro power stations situated in the Himalayan region.

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CALIBRATION The Laboratory is equipped with the required facilities for calibration of load cells, pressure pulsation transducers, weights, volumetric tanks and torque wrenches. Calibration of these terms is performed with respect to standards with history traceable to N.P.L., Delhi.

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FUTURE PLANS Upgradation and modernization of Hydro Turbine Laboratory has been planned in the following areas: Renovation of Test Beds to cater for the requirements of IEC-995. Modernisation in the field of instrumentation. Addition of instantaneous in-siti calibration facility. Incorporation of Computerisation and Data Acquisition System Modernisation of Workshop facilities.

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HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE

INTRODUCTION HRDC Workshop caters to the needs of skill training of various trainees at HRDC. These trainees include Engineering Trainees & ACT Apprentices amongst others. Any other type of trainees who are to be given imported training can be given skill training in areas of machining, turning, fitting, welding, electrical, carpentry & electronics. In a year, about 500 ACT Apprentices are given training on various machines. VARIOUS SECTIONS OF HRDC WORKSHIP There are 7 different sections in HRDC Workshop in which facilities exist for training. (i) Turning Section has facilities for practical training of Turner Apprentices & trainees. There are 18 Lathes, which include HMT lathes H22, LB 17, LM 001, Russian lathe No. 163, Kirloskar lathe D 1 and one CNC Trainmaster T-70 of HMT make. Fitting Section has facilities for training in the area of fitting e.g. 36 bench vices for fitting work. Machining Section has 24 milling machines for skill training, 1 shaper, 1 slotter and 10 grinding machines. A CNC machining center also exists for training in CNC operations.

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Welding Section has facilities to give practical training in gas welding and electric welding. The section has transformer, MG set, rectifier & an electrode oven. Electrical Section has facilities for providing practical training in electrician field. Areas in which practical training is given are laying of house wiring, joints making & motor winding. Carpentry Section facilities for providing practical training in the field of carpentry. It has various wood working machines, like surface planer lathe, thickness planer, circular saw, pedestal grinder & drilling machines.

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(vii) Electronics Trade In this section practical training is given in making circuits & repair work of TVs, tape recorders, amplifiers etc. FACILITIES IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT / TRAINING Audio visual facilities Facilities exist for video projection through a video projection system on a wide screen. Other facilities include a colour TV, a 16 mm film & sound projector, overhead projectors (5 nos.) for transparencies, slide projectors (2 nos.), a video camera, video cassette recorders (2nos.), two-in-one tape recorders (2 nos.), a 35 mm photo camera, a conference system (for 6 persons) and a number of video tapes & 16 mm films on management, technical and functional areas. D. POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH INSTITUTE To provide directional thrust to environmental control / protection activities, a Pollution Control Research Institute has been set up by BHEL at HEEP, Hardwar with the assistance of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The main objective of the Institute is to develop technologies for pollution control in the areas of air, water noise and solid waste to obviate unintended side effects of economic growth. The Institute is concentrating on research and development activities related to environment protection against pollution emanating from industries. PCRI provides consultancy services related to pragmatic approaches / methods to maintain pollution within permissible limits. The other objectives include development of methods for recovery and recycling of industrial wastes. Most modern facilities for monitoring and analysis in the area of air, water, noise and solid waste are available at the Institute. It has full-fledged computer facilities for prediction and forecasting pollution impact. It also has workshop and other support services. The laboratories of Pollution Control Research Institute have been recognized by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India; Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India; Madhya Pradesh Pradushan Nivaran Mandal; UP State Pollution control Board; Bihar State Pollution Control Board; Punjab State Council for

Technology; Haryana State Pollution Control Board; Karanataka State PCB.