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# ME 2202 / Sem III

ST JOSEPH’S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING CHENNAI – 600 119 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING HANDOUT 1 Thermodynamics It is the science of the relations between heat, work and the properties of the systems. Approaches in Thermodynamics:  In macroscopic approach, certain quantity of matter is considered, without considering the events occurring at the molecular level. These effects can be perceived by human senses or measured by instruments. eg: pressure, temperature Thermodynamics based on macroscopic approach is called Classical Thermodynamics  In microscopic approach, the effect of molecular motion is considered. eg: At microscopic level the pressure of a gas is not constant, the temperature of a gas is a function of the velocity of molecules. Most microscopic properties cannot be measured with common instruments nor can be perceived by human senses Thermodynamics based on microscopic approach is called Statistical Thermodynamics Some application areas of thermodynamics: Household Design (in whole or part) of  Refrigerator  Air-conditioner  Pressure cooker  Water heater  Electric Iron  Computer and TV

Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan, Professor of Mech Engg

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Boundaries The surfaces which separates the system from the surroundings are called the boundaries as shown in fig below (eg: walls of the kettle. mass and energy (work or heat) can be transferred across the boundary Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. the housing of the engine). System Boundary Types of Systems Surroundings Open System A system in which. Professor of Mech Engg Page 2 . Surroundings The rest of the universe outside the system close enough to the system to have some perceptible effect on the system is called the surroundings.ME 2202 / Sem III Large scale Design and analysis of  Automotive engines  Rockets  Jet Engines  Nuclear and Thermal power plants  Solar collectors  Design of vehicles from ordinary cars to airplanes System The system is a quantity of matter or a region in space on which we focus our attention (eg: the water kettle or the aircraft engine).

Properties It is some characteristic of the system by which the condition of system is described. the value of extensive property also increases. eg: volume. mass Intensive property: Properties whose value is independentof the size or extent of the sm. Isolated System A system in which neither mass nor energy is transferred across the boundary of the system. T).ME 2202 / Sem III Closed System A system in which there is no mass transfer but only energy transfer across the boundary. Any operation in which one or more properties change is called a ‘change of state’. Extensive property: Properties whose value depends on the size or extent of the system If mass is increased. Professor of Mech Engg Page 3 . Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. State A system is said to be in a state when it has definite values for properties. temperature (p. eg: pressure.

Consequently: A system may undergo changes in some or all of its properties in a process Some of the thermodynamic processes: Constant pressure process – Isobaric process Constant volume process – Isochoric process Constant temperature process – Isothermal process Quasi-static Process A process in which the intermediate states are equilibrium states is called quasistatic or quasi-equilibrium process. Mechanical equilibrium : No unbalanced forces. A system is said to go through a process if it goes through a series of changes in state. chemical and thermal equilibrium. A system is said to be in equilibrium state if it is under mechanical. Generally quasi-static processes are slow processes. ie no difference in pressure within the system Chemical equilibrium: No chemical reaction within the system Thermal equilibrium: No difference in temperature within the system Process The succession of states passed through during a change of state is called the path of the system.ME 2202 / Sem III Equilibrium State It is a state of balance. Professor of Mech Engg Page 4 . Carnot cycle. Cycle: A series of processes at the end of which the system comes back to initial state. Otto cycle Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. eg.

“when two systems are at the same temperature they are in thermal equilibrium”(They will not exchange heat). In other words. Professor of Mech Engg Page 5 . Work and Heat Work: Positive work is done by a system when the sole effect externalto the system could bereduced to the rise of a weight. B and C are in thermal equilibrium) then they are in thermal equilibrium themselves (that is A and B will be in thermal equilibrium Two systems are said to be equal in temperature. Symbol W Heat: It is the energy in transition between the system and the surroundings by virtue of the difference in temperature. Note:They need not be in thermodynamic equilibrium. when there is no change in their respective observable properties when they are brought together. Symbol Q Sign Conventions for Work and Heat Transfer  Work done by the system is +ve and work done on the system is –ve  Heat transferred to the system is +ve and heat transferred from the system is -ve Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan.ME 2202 / Sem III Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two systems (say A and B) are in thermal equilibrium with a third system (say C) separately (that is A and C are in thermal equilibrium.

ME 2202 / Sem III 1 1.2 Flow Work: Wf = pV 1.2 Constant Pressure Quasi-static Process W12 = p (V2 – V1) 1.3 Electrical Work Rate of Electrical Work or Electrical Power.4. o 2NT 60000 W e = V I / 1000 1.1 Shaft Work: Work Transfers: o Rate of Shaft work or Shaft Power W  1.4 Polytropic Process (pVn = Constant) W12  p1V1  p 2V 2 n 1 Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan.4.1 Constant Volume Quasi-static Process W12 = 0 1.4.4. Professor of Mech Engg Page 6 .4 Moving Boundary Work W12   pdV .3 Hyperbolic or Isothermal (for ideal gas) process W12 = p1V1 ln (V2 /V1) Note: p1V1 = mRT1 V2 /V1 = p1 /p2 [ideal gas equation] [Since p1V1 = p2V2 for isothermal process] 1.General Expression 1 2 1.

applicable for all processes Note:  U+pV is called Enthalpy of the system  H = m cp T. When changes in Kinetic and Potential Energies are Neglected U = m cv T.4.1 Cycle (irrespective of type of system) Q=W  dQ   dW 3.1 Sensible Heat Transfer (Causing change in temperature) Q = m c T 2.2 Latent Heat Transfer (Causing change in phase) Q = m LH 3 First Law 3.3 Flow Processes (Processes undergone by an open system or Control Volume) For a steady flow process Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. Professor of Mech Engg Page 7 .2 Non-flow Processes (Processes undergone by a closed system) Q – W = E Q – W = U.ME 2202 / Sem III 1.5 Adiabatic Process (pV = Constant) W12  p1V1  p 2V2  1 2 Heat Transfers: 2. applicable for all processes 3.

81 m/s2 Page 8 2 2 Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. Professor of Mech Engg . m/s Specific Heat at Constant Pressure.2  c  C  cp  cp  E  EK  EP  g State points Specific Heat. J or kJ E = EK + EP + U Kinetic Energy. kJ/kg K Energy of a system. kJ/kg K Specific Heat at Constant Volume.ME 2202 / Sem III dQ o C1 dW o C  m1[h1   Z1 g ]   m 2 [h2  2  Z 2 g ] dt 2 dt 2 Note: All the terms in this equation represent rate of flow of energy (per unit time) 2 2 dQ C dW C  h1  1  Z1 g   h2  2  Z 2 g dm 2 dm 2 Note: All the terms in this equation represent flow of energy per unit mass Sign Conventions:  Work done by a system and Heat transferred to the system are taken to be positive  Work done on a system and Heat transferred out of the system are taken to be negative Nomenclature:  1. J EK = ½ mC2 Potential Energy. kJ/kg K Velocity. J EP = mgZ Acceleration due to gravity = 9.

RPM pressure . Professor of Mech Engg Page 9 . m3 Potential difference . kW  We  Wf  Z Electrical Power. kW V  V  W o  W o  W12 Work done in process 1-2. Nm Internal Energy. J or kJ Volume.314 kJ /kg mol K Temperature. K Torque. kJ/kg K R = Ru /M Universal Gas Constant = 8. kPa Heat Transfer kJ Characteristic Gas Constant. kg/s Molecular Weight Polytropic index Speed. Volts Work. kW Potential Head. kJ Power.ME 2202 / Sem III  I  LH  m  m  M  n  N  p  Q  R  Ru  T  T  U  o Current. kW Flow work. kJ/kg mass. kg mass flow rate. m Height of the system above the datum (where potential energy is zero)   Adiabatic index  = cp/cv Prepared by Dr S Arivazhagan. Amps Latent Heat.