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CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW

2. 1. Healthy and Clean Living Behavior (PHBS)

Healthy and Clean Living Behavior (PHBS) based on Indonesia Health Minister Decision No. 1193/MENKES/SK/X/2004 is a national policy in promoting health living to support the vision achievement of Indonesia Healthy 2010. Here is the explanation about Healthy and Clean Living Behavior includes understanding, order and indicators.

2. 1. 1. Understanding of Healthy and Clean Living Behavior. Health and Clean Living Behavior is a set of behaviors practiced under consciousness as a learning product that make a person or a family able to help himself or herself in medical problem and actively embody public health (Indonesia Health Department, 2006). Health and Clean Living Behavior is a form of society-conscious willing and able to apply the Health and Clean Living Behavior in daily living. Health and Clean Living Behavior program efforts to give educational experience or create a situation for somebody, a family, a community and society. Society is expected to be able to recognize and solve its own problems, particularly in each framework and society can implement healthy living way by maintaining, preserving and improving health (Indonesia Health Department, 2006).

2. 1. 2. Health and Clean Living Behavior Order Order is a place where a community live, work, play, interact, etc. In this case there are five Health and Clean Living Behavior Order. They are household, school, working place, health facility and public space. In this research, the focus is on the educational institution which aim is evaluating the program implementation to behave cleanly and healthily (Health Department, 2006).

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2. 1. 3. Health and Clean Living Behavior Indicator An indicator is required to assess whether the principal activities undertaken in accordance by the plan and produce the expected impact. Thus, the indicator is a measure to indicate a state or a tendency of a state of a thing that a main concern (Indonesia Health Department, 2006).

2. 2. Health and Clean Living Behavior in School Order

2. 2. 1. School School is a highly organized institution with all the activity planned deliberately drafted whish so-called curriculum. It is a place to hold a formal teaching and learning process, in which a transformation of knowledge from teachers to students happens. School takes an important role in education because its immense influence toward the psychology growth of the children, next to the family as central education, school also has the function as an educational center of children personalities growth (Ahmadi, 2003).

2. 2. 2. Health and Clean Living Behavior in School Health and Clean Living Behavior in schools is an attempt to empower students, teachers, and school neighborhood in order to know, willing, and able to implement Health and Clean Living Behavior and actively take a role in creating a healthy school.

2. 2. 3. Benefits of Health and Clean Living Behavior in Schools a. A clean and healthy school gives protection to students, teachers and school neighborhood from various disturbances and threats disease. b. It can increase the enthusiasm of teaching-learning process that impact the achievement of the students. c. The image of a school as education institution is getting better so can attract the interest of the parents (society).

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Washing hands with water only is common but this thing is proved not effective enough in maintain health compare to washing hands with soap. Washing Hand with Soap and in Flowing Water. 1. To overcome the bacteria needs the understanding of the importance of hand washing by anyone. After defecation and urinate 11 . and in some cases this effect that make washing hands be interesting to do. Washing hand is an important step in preventing the spread of disease. In the grease and dirt are living germs. A better image of the local government in educational field. 3. There are 20 countries in the world to participate actively in this. in particular: 1. Hand washing with running water and soap is one of the measures of sanitation with clean hands and fingers with soap and water by humans to be clean and break the chain of germs.d. vomiting) and other diseases that can potentially lead to mortality. 3. Health and Clean Living Behavior Indicator at School 2. however using soap become more effective since fat and dirt are detached when we rub our hands. 2. Before feeding children 3. Handwashing with soap is necessary. It could be an example of healthy school for other schools. Another is the fragrant effect on the hand after washing it with soap. Before preparing food and before eating 2. The United Nations has declared October 15 as the Day of Washing Hands with Soap Day. Not just washing your hands but also the use of soap and carried out under running water because soap can reduce or weaken germs on hands. Hands are one of the various transmission mediums of infectious disease such as intestinal and digestive disorders (diarrhea. e. one of them is Indonesia. Washing hands with soap takes more time.

In addition to microbiological contamination. if we consider the 12 .1% and 27. As parents we need to realize that maybe the food from outside the home (at school) contributes to the fulfillment of energy needs by 31. parents. The survey also showed that some 78% of school children eating snacks in the school. students. to do the business promotion of food security both to the school. After the play / feed / pet hold 2. 2008). street food has an important role in the growth and achievement of school children.3. These bacteria may have come from ice cubes that are not cooked first. After sneezing.2 Eating Healthy Snacks in School Cafeteria Allowance for children is the most frequently performed and this can be harmful if they consume snacks that are not healthy. teachers. formality (preservatives used for the bodies). after coming home from the flier 5.4% protein. to reduce the exposure of school children to unhealthy snack food and unsafe. It is ironic. So. Unhealthy snack food quality and result in a risk to health and long-term negative impact on the formation of generation. as well as the effect on the child's diet. This is consistent with research conducted in Bogor where Salmonella paratyphi A was found in 25% 50% of the sample drinks sold at the sidewalk. rhodamine B (red dye on textiles ) and methanil yellow (yellow dye on textiles) (Judwarwanto. chemical contamination commonly found in hawker food is the use of the Food Supplement Ingredients (BTP) illegal such as borax (pengempal Boron containing heavy metals). 2008). protein 29% and 52% iron. and merchants (Judarwanto. 2008). School children are generally ¼ time each day spent in school. blowing your nose. coughing. Street food energy intake can contribute to the school children as much as 36%. either in the cafeteria or from vendors around the school (POM. Therefore.4. Because it can be understood an important role in the growth of street food and learning achievement of school children.

d. Latrines are important basic sanitation should be owned by every society. for example by using a goose neck / cover the meeting. enough lighting f. c.school snack food only as a minor problem because the impact was so great for the nation's survival in the future. e. Latrines between male students and female students should be separated so that hygiene can be maintained toilets and latrines hygiene inspection every day. Location of latrine should not be too close to the classroom. for this it must be made of materials that are strong and durable and to be more efficient should be made from materials available in the local area. But if the state of chalky soil or clay cracks in the dry season. for this lies the septic pit is at least 10 m from the source of drinking water. Do not contaminate water sources. safe to use. intelligent and accomplished people are an asset in the future. Increased attention to the health of school-age children through a healthy snack food is expected to create learners who are healthy.3 Using a Clean and Healthy Latrine The most important and can be done by the school to prevent spreading infectious diseases such as diarrhea are safely dispose of human waste by using latrines. Terms latrine healthy include: a. Easy to clean. No smell and feces can not be touched by insects and rodents. so the distance should be more than 15m. b. Therefore latrine latrine construction should follow a healthy standard which must be located at least 10 meters away from water sources and sewers have air so as not to contaminate the surrounding environment.3. 2. for this stool should be sealed. Fitted wall and roof protective. so if the location of the toilets next to the source of drinking water on the sloping ground. The importance of small and large bowel movements in the toilet is clean is to avoid various kinds of diseases caused by poor sanitation. impermeable walls and brightly colored. Waterproof flooring 13 .

i. Physical fitness is very important in supporting the activities of daily life. Exercise is a form of physical activity that involves structured terencanan and repetitive body movements and aimed to improve fitness jasmanin (MOH. back and knees. 14 . 8. Increasing the body's metabolism to prevent obesity and maintain a healthy weight. Increase muscle strength and bone density marked on: a. Improving the collateral vessels 7. decrease chronic joint pain in hips.4 Sporting a Regular and Measured Sport is a series of body movements were organized and planned to maintain motion (survival) and improve motor skills (improving quality of life). Spacious room enough. 4. Physical fitness consists of components that are grouped into groups related to health (Health Related Physical Fitness) and grouprelated skills (Skill Related Physical Fitness) (MOH. Reduce atherosclerosis. Capacity increases. lungs and blood vessels characterized by: 2. Benefits of exercise: 1. Available water purifier 2. the roof is not too low. 2002). In children: optimizing growth b. Resting pulse rate decreases. Improve the working and functioning of the heart. Increases elasticity (flexibility) of the body so as to reduce injuries. 2002). but the value of physical fitness of every person is different according to the tasks and their respective professions. Increases HDL Cholesterol. In adults: strengthen bone mass. h. 2. 3.3. 5.g. Good ventilation. Stroke volume increase 4. Reduced lactic acid buildup 6. 3.

3. 7. The percentage of the highest smoking rate of 64% at the adolescent age group (15-19 years). High blood pressure: systolic and diastolic pressure reduces. The main toxins in cigarettes are tar. 2. d.5 No Smoking Cigarettes contain more than 4000 elements and at least 200 are otherwise harmful to health. 15 . Increase the hormonal system by increasing tissue sensitivity to hormones. According to data from the National Social Economic Survey (NSES). approximately 3% of children start smoking since age less than 10 years. Diabetes: increase sensitivity to insulin. c. By knowing the rate of growth and development to provide input for the increased consumption of nutritious food for growing children. This means that the harmful effects of smoking on the vulnerable children and will impact on adolescence. 2. Reduce the risk of various diseases such as: a. Growth considered normal when body size equal to the average size of other children his age (Asim. b.5. smoking should be avoided since the early start of primary school.3. 1992). nicotine and carbon monoxide. Infection: increased immune system. that in 2004. it can be said to advance growth. While to know the normal growth of a child or not can be known by comparing the body size of the child with the child's age. if the smaller size means slower growth.6 Considering Weight and Height Measuring Measuring height and weight is an effort to determine the growth and development of children. Coronary heart disease: increasing HDL-cholesterol and reduce body fat. 6. body size in general. Conversely. Increase the activity of the immune system against disease by improving immune regulation. If the child has a body size exceeds the size of the average age of children in general. Therefore.

Not excited / lazy to do the activity.3. 3. Lazy activities Signs of students with good nutrition: 1. As the garbage to landfill (TPA). Signs of students with nutrition: 1. Fresh.Students look fat. Good appetite. Children with good nutritional status will grow and develop optimally according to age. Clean and shining eyes. Easily tired. 4. Tend often sick. Students with signs of malnutrition: 1.7 Disposal of Waste in Place Garbage is included that affect the sustainability of the environment. obesity or nutrition). if there is an error in the garbage disposal it would be fatal for the environment in the present and in the future to come. 6. 2. 2. Grow normally. Students look thin. Breath easy breath when doing activities.To determine the growth and development of students performed recording the results of weighing and measuring students' height in Card Towards Healthy Children School (KMS-US) regularly every 6 months will show the growth and development of students (nutritional deficiencies. Unable to move freely. because the garbage affects the natural environment and social environment. 4. 3. 2. 3. energetic and cheerful. 4. which 16 . Not fresh. Body look unbalanced. strong. 2. not cheerful. 5.

Understanding eradicate mosquito larvae Eradicate mosquito larvae in school is examining activities shelters clean water at school (bathtub. Sealed water reservoirs like air hole control. but very difficult to implement. 3 M Plus is a three-way plus that done when PSN as: 1. tree holes. 2009). larvae and pupae of mosquitoes transmitted the disease Dengue Fever. that they are highly educated did so (Kartiadi. The results are consistent with the statement by mentioning that Andang Binawanyang littering habits conducted in almost all societies. plus Avoiding mosquito bites). Malaria. 17 . landslides and other disasters. etc. swimming. Disposing of waste in place is a simple way that is very beneficial to keep the environment clean. 2.without any further processing. Filariasis (Elephant Foot) at the breeding places. flower pots placemats. When garbage piled up will lead to a catastrophe that makes environmental damage. Close. 3. students and the public school environment protected from various diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. ponds. for example like megakibatkan floods. Dengue fever. indentations that can collect rain water. etc. PSN is a combat activity eggs.8 Flick Eradicate Mosquitoes 1. Activities eradicate mosquito larvae Mosquito nest eradication (PSN) by 3 M plus (Drain. whether free of mosquito larvae or not. Drain and brush shelters like bath water.3. Bury. Reasons to eradicate mosquito larvae in school In order wiggler free schools. Chikungunya. 2.). which ultimately resulted in the buildup. not just the poor. 2.

4. lavender. Plus Avoiding mosquito bites such as:       Take medications that can prevent mosquito bites.. etc. Sprinkle larvacide (larva killer powder) in places that are difficult depleted eg guttering or in hard water areas.1 Understanding Business School Health School Health Enterprises (UKS) is any effort made to improve the health of school-age children in each lane. plastics are discarded carelessly (former bottle / glass of mineral water. 2. According Djone Soetomo (1982). UKS is a part of public health in the school run. Burying or get rid of second-hand goods that can hold water such as old tires. the type. level of education from Kindergarten (TK) to the upper secondary level (SMA / SMA / MA).3. rosemary. tin cans. et al (1991).) 4. tilapia. plastic. UKS Program is an integrated effort across programs and across sectors to improve the health and shape PHBs school-age children who are in public schools and religious character of the school. Maintaining larvae-eating fish in the pond / water tank. Seek adequate lighting and ventilation Improving channels and guttering damaged. such as wearing insect repellent ointment / rubbed into the skin. UKS is a public health effort that is run in schools with students as well as the environment as the main target. etc. According to Sonja Purnomo. for example.4 School Health Enterprises 2.. 18 ... Planting mosquito repellent plants. for example Betta fish. etc. zoddia. etc.

health care and fostering the healthy school life. Primary Objectives: learners 2.2. free sex and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV / AIDS (Decree RI. reproductive health and other programs. namely health education.4. 3. 2007). improve health and create a healthy environment to allow growth and development of harmonious and optimal (MOH. and TP UKS at every level. friends.4. Specific objectives UKS is as follows: 1. attitudes and skills of learners. 3. Small physician program is mobilizing efforts of students in a school that meets the criteria and trained to participate in an effort perform maintenance and improvement of health for yourself. 2. Secondary target: teachers. medicine. family and the environment. 4. especially at primary level and secondary schools. juvenile delinquency. Increasing the role of the learners in improving health in schools.2 UKS destination The general objective of the program is to improve the UK's school children clean and healthy behavior. Tertiary Target: educational institutions ranging from preschool level to the upper secondary school level. 2. Related to the number of children in school. educational administrators and managers kesehata. UKS program organized through the integration of three (3) courses UKS. including the unit outside of 19 . UKS is effective means to promote programs of disease control and environmental health. At school. 2008).3 Target UKS Target Activity UKS is as follows: 1. Learners to implement PHBs. Increasing healthy life skills of students to be able to protect themselves from the effects of drug abuse. UKS program comes with a small physician activities. civil learning or tutor parents. nutrition. Improve knowledge.

and it occurred after the conduct of a particular object sensing (through sight. 2007). hearing. Education is a prerequisite of the knowledge (Badran. 2007). Knowledge or cognitive domain is very important for the formation of a person's actions because of the experience and behavior that turns research based knowledge will be more lasting. experience and expertise. Health education Health services Maintenance of a healthy school life environments Workforce Means UKS Research and development Management and organization 3. Fostering healthy scope of school life While coaching UKS scope includes: 1. taste and touch) (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. 6. Health service delivery c. Criteria of knowledge centered on thoughts that make one can distinguish right from wrong.4. It can be defined as the capacity to acquire. Implementation of health education b.school and college education as well as religious boarding school and its environment (TP UKS Center. 3. Research Rogers (1974) revealed that prior to adopting the new behavior in that person happens sequential process. smell. 2000). 7. namely : 20 .1 Knowledge Knowledge is the result of "know". store and use information. 4.4 Scope of UKS and Development UKS The scope of activities includes Tri UKS Business School Health Program (UKS Trias) which include: a. as well as a mixture of understanding. 2. 5. 2.

21 . the subject has been behaving in accordance knowledge. awareness and attitudes towards the stimulus (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo.1. which is the state the person is aware of in the sense of knowing prior to stimulation. 3. predict and so the object being studied. 2. 2. The knowledge possessed the cognitive domain covered in 6 levels. Awareness (consciousness). Understanding (comprehension) Understanding is defined as the ability to correctly describe what is known about the object. Trial. Know (know) Know interpreted as remembering a previously learned material. 5. infer. namely: 1. the subject has already started trying to do things according to what is desired by the stimulus. Adoption. but still within an organizational structure and still have something to do with one another. Here the attitude of the subject has begun to emerge. 3. 4. People who have understood the object or material must be able to explain. Analysis (analysis) Analysis is the ability to describe an object or material into components. Evaluation (to weigh) the good and whether or not the stimulus for him. Therefore. 2007). Interest (feel attracted) to the stimulus or object. However. the "know" this is the low level of knowledge. and can correctly interpret the material. 4. This suggests that the attitude of the respondents have been better. Applications (application) Application is defined as the ability to use a material that has been studied in a situation or condition of the real (actual). Rogers concluded that the change in behavior does not necessarily pass through these stages. cite examples. from further research.

5. The tendency to act (trend to behave). These three components together to form the whole attitude (total attitude). 3. conscience and emotions play an important role. the idea and the concept of an object. but a "predisposition" action or behavior (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. In determining this whole attitude. Synthesis (synthesis) Synthesis refers to the ability to place or connect the parts in a whole new form. 2. knowledge of thought. 2007). Evaluation (evaluation) Evaluation relates to the ability to conduct an assessment of the justification or a material or object. 2. 6. Emotional life or the emotional evaluation of an object. Allport (1954) explains that attitudes have three principal components. Attitude clearly shows connotations of correspondence reactions to certain stimuli.2 Attitude Attitude is a reaction or response to someone who is covered to a stimulus or object. Receive (receiving) Mean that people are willing to accept and pay attention to a given stimulus. the synthesis is the ability to develop new formulations of existing formulations. These ratings were based on a selfdetermined criteria. 2007). The attitude is not an act or event. As well as knowledge. namely: 1. 3. In other respects. or using criteria that already exist (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. Responding (responding) 22 . Newcomb (a social psychologist) stated that it is the attitude of readiness or willingness to act. Faith (belief). In other words. attitudes also consists of several levels. namely: 1.

2007). Respect (valuing) Invite others to do something or discuss with others about a problem is an indication of the attitude of the three levels. Theory suggests that attitudes can be changed through three processes. This limitation has two main elements. 2009). 2007). so that the conscious or unconscious individuals concerned will adopt a certain attitude. 2009). thoughts.3 Behavioral Health Behavioral health is essentially a person's response to stimuli related to pain and illness. health care systems. Persuasion is an attempt changing individual attitudes by incorporating ideas. namely the response and stimulus (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. Factors that are considered highly influential in directing attitudes to the desired shape is an external factor. 3. Human response or reaction can be passive (knowledge. namely that there are factors outside of the individual who deliberately intended to influence human behavior. Responsible (responsible) Responsible for everything that has been chosen with all the risk is the highest attitude (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo.Answer when asked. 4. food. perceptions and attitudes) and active (real or practical action). doing and completing assigned tasks is an indication of the attitude. This factor basically rests on a process called persuasion strategies to change attitudes (Saifuddin Anwar. identification and internalization. while the stimulus or stimuli 23 . The message conveyed by deliberately intended to cause contradictions and inconsistencies among the components of individual attitudes or between attitudes and behavior. 3. and even new facts through communicative messages. thus destabilizing the attitude and open opportunities for the desired change (Saifuddin Anwar. namely the willingness. and environment. opinions.

that the response to the prevention of disease. and use of facilities.consisted of four basic elements. b. This behavior is related to the response to the service facilities. Behavior with respect to the search of treatment (health seeking behavior). This behavior is by itself according to the levels of disease prevention. Behavior with respect to the improvement and maintenance of health (health promotion behavior). food and the environment. perceptions. 3. c. namely illness and disease. how to care. Attitudes toward food (nutrition behavior). The behavior of the health care system. perceptions. Thus. a more detailed health behaviors include: 1. d. that is how people respond. that the response to the prevention of disease. personnel and drugs. as well as behavior to not transmit the disease to others. as well as behavior to not transmit the disease to others. such as eating nutritious foods and exercise. Behavior with respect to the restoration of health (health rehabilitation behavior). health care systems. Conduct disease prevention (health prevention behavior). are made in relation to illness and disease. 2. the management of food and so on with respect to our needs. This behavior includes knowledge. either by way of treating the disease itself. the behavior of doing or seeking treatment. that person's response to food as a vital necessity for life. attitudes. 24 . e. or seek treatment to modern health facilities or traditional. health and medicine embodied in knowledge. Conduct disease prevention (health prevention behavior). Attitudes towards illness and disease. namely: a. attitudes and practice towards food as well as the elements contained in it. either actively or passively. the behavior associated with health recovery efforts after recovering from an illness.

25 . although these areas did not have a clear and firm boundaries. perception. Internal factors include the knowledge. Practices or actions taken by learners in relation to a given educational materials (practice).1 Domain Behavioral Health Human behavior is very complex and has a very broad scope. motivation and so that function to process external stimuli. Learning is a change in behavior based on past behavior. 3. that person's response to the environment as a determinant of human health. 2. namely internal and external factors. intelligence.3. Factors that influence the formation of behavior can be divided into two. the affective (affective domain) and psychomotor domains (psychomotor domain). Benjamin Bloom (1908) divides the behavior into three domains (domains / regions). Conduct environmental health (environmental health behavior). 2007). Attitude is a tendency to hold action on an object.4. cultural. whereas external factors include the environment. The above three domains measured: 1. Knowledge of learners to education materials provided (knowledge). The attitude is just part of human behavior (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. both physical and non-physical. such as climate. Attitude or response learners to educational material provided (attitude). Robert Kwick (1974) says that the behavior is an action or actions of an organism that can be observed and can even be studied. 3. The three domains are cognitive behavioral (cognitive domain). and so forth (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. This division is made for educational purposes. It can be concluded that the behavior was formed through a process and takes place in human interaction with the environment. in a way that suggests any signs to favor or not favor such objects. socio-economic. 2007) . emotion. Learning is defined as a process of behavior change resulting from the practices in the spheres of life. The behavior is similar to the attitude.

26 . Response guided (guided responses) Can do things according to the correct sequence in accordance with the examples is an indicator of the level of the two practices. 2007). will lead to further response. in the sense that the subject knows in advance of the stimulus in the form of materials or objects outside. Finally stimuli. then he has reached level three practices.2 Practice or action An attitude not automatically manifest in action. For the realization of attitude required to be a real difference contributing factor or a condition that allows. Perception (perception) Identify and select different objects with respect to actions to be taken are first-rate practice. 3. among other facilities and factors support from other parties. especially in adults began in the cognitive domain. such as family (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. namely: 1. ie objects that are known and fully realized. The mechanism (mechanism) If someone has done something right automatically. a person's actions should not be based on knowledge or attitudes (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. This means that someone can act or behaving without knowing in advance the meaning of the stimulus it receives. or something is a habit. 2007). Practice has several levels. 2. This will lead to new knowledge on the subject and then cause a response in the form of an inner attitude of the subject to the object known it.The formation of a new behavior. 3. 2007). Stimulus received by the subject can directly lead to action. This means that the act itself was modified without compromising the truth of such action (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo.3. Adaptation (adaptation) Adaptation is a practice or action that is already well developed. In other words. 4. in the form of action with respect to the earlier stimulus.

3. because behavior change is the goal of education or health education to support other health programs. After that process the stimulus organism causing the willingness to act in the stimulus that has been received. Stimulus that may exceed the original stimulus means a given stimulus must be able to convince the organism. If the stimulus is not accepted. leadership and speaking style will determine the success of behavioral changes in a person. there is a concern of the individual and the stimulus is effective. Stimulus (excitatory) were given organism can be accepted or rejected. Hosland.3. group. 2007). 2. Furthermore.3. That is. then the stimulus has the effect of individual actions (behavior change). 27 . 4. reinforcement memegang peranan penting (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. One theory that explains the behavior change theory is stimulus-organismresponse (SOR). the quality of the source of communication. This theory is based on the assumption that the cause of the behavior changes depending on the quality of the stimuli (stimulus) that berkomunisasi the organism.4 Behavior Change It is important in health behavior change is a matter of the formation and behavior. When the stimulus is received. then it is not effective stimulus affect individual attention. With support and encouragement from the facility. the theory says that behavior can be changed only when a given stimulus actually exceeded the previous stimulus. such as credibility. et al (1953) say that the behavior change process is essentially the same as the process of learning. or community (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. If the stimulus has gotten the attention of the organism. The process of behavior change illustrates the learning process of individuals consisting of: 1. 2007). so he understands this and continued stimulus to the next process.

it is necessary concrete efforts and positive. Using power or encouragement. This behavior occurs because the change was planned by the subject. reinforcement factor plays an important role (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo.In these organisms convincing. In health programs. 2007). Several strategies to obtain these behavioral changes by WHO grouped into three. cultural and economic development. Some behavioral changes in humans caused by natural events. 3. 2. This is because everyone has a willingness to change (readiness to change) different (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. how to avoid disease and so on. in order to obtain a change of behavior in accordance with the norms of health. behavioral changes that can be grouped into three. Provision of information. will increase public knowledge about these things. namely: 1. namely: 1. but the change would be achieved lasting because it is based on self-awareness. Furthermore. In the event of an innovation or development programs in the community. 2007). way of health care. behavioral changes imposed on the target or the society that he wanted to do or behave as expected.3. knowledge-knowledge that will lead to their consciousness and will eventually cause people to behave in accordance with that knowledge. Willingness to change. 28 . Change of plans. the members of the community that is in it will also change. The results or changes in behavior in this way will take a long time. 2. By providing information about healthy way of life.5 Forms of Behavior Change According to WHO. The changing nature. 3. then what often happens is that some people are very quick to accept innovation or change. but some others were very slow to accept innovation or change. If in the event of a change in the surrounding physical environment or the social. In this case.

29 . but bidirectional. the knowledge-health as a basic knowledge of their behavior and steadily acquired greater depth. and ultimately their behavior will be more steady. This method will take longer than the latter.3. Discussion participation is one good way in order to provide information and health messages (Soekidjo Notoatmodjo. Discussion and participation. 2007). This method is as an increase in the second way in which to provide information about health is not unidirectional. Thus. it can even be an example for others.