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THE CYPRUS INSTITUTE OF MARKETING REG.

BVI The Impact of Communication Mix Elements on Brand Image of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola in Punjab (Pakistan) (Pakistan
BY Waqas Ahmad Reg Registration No.: DL/PA/704/10 Dated: May 28th, 2013

A thesis hesis submitted to Cyprus Institute of Marketing in Partial fulfillment for the requirements of the MBA Degree
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Declaration

I Waqas Ahmad ,declare that this MBA thesis is written independently and no sources has been used other than stated in references and this dissertation has not been used in part or in total for any other MBA program .

Waqas Ahmad

Wah Cantt, Pakistan

Signature
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Place/Country

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would never have been able to complete my dissertation without the guidance of my committee members, help from friends, and support from my family and wife. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my advisor, Sohail Kamran , for His excellent guidance, caring, patience, and providing me with an excellent atmosphere for doing research. I would like to thank Captain Muhammad Kamran Imtiaz Butt patiently corrected my writing and supported my research. I would also like to thank Captain Abdullah Khan , and Captain Muhammad Sadique for guiding my research for the past several years and helping me to develop my background in Shipping economics. I would like to thank Ibrahim, who as a good friend was always willing to help and give his best suggestions. It would have been a lonely lab without him. I would also like to thank my parents and two elder sisters who were always supporting me and encouraging me with their best wishes. Finally, I would like to thank my wife who was always there cheering me up and stood by me through the good times and bad.

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Table of Contents 1) Abstract 2) Introduction
2.1) Company profile Pepsi Cola Inc 2.2) Company Profile Coca Cola 2.3) Coke and Pepsi Cola in Pakistan

Page no 01 Page no 02 Page no 02 Page no 03 Page no 04 Page no 05 Page no 10 Page no 10 Page no 10 Page no 10 Page no 11 Page no 11 Page no 11 Page no 11 Page no 12 Page no 12 Page no 13 Page no 13 Page no 14 Page no 14 Page no 14 Page no 15 Page no 15 Page no 15 Page no 16 Page no 18 Page no 18 Page no 43 Page no 43 Page no 43 Page no 44 Page no 45 Page no 45 Page no 46 Page no 48 Page no 48 Page no 49 Page no 49 Page no 50 Page no 52 Page no 51

3) Literature Review 4) Research and Methodology
4.1) 4.2) 4.3) 4.4) 4.5) 4.6) 4.7) Research method Source of Data Primary Data & Secondary Data Sample size and selection Method of collection date Contact Method Research Period

5) Theoretical framework
5.1) Research models

6) Marketing communication mix
6.1) 6.1.1) 6.1.2) 6.1.13) 6.1.14) 6.2) 6.2.1) 6.2.2) 7.1) 7.2) 7.3) 7.4) 7.5) 7.6) 7.7) Communication mix elements Advertising Personal selling Sales promotion Public Relations Dependent Variables Brand Image Hypothesis development

7) Analysis and finding
Question analysis Model summary ANNOVA Descriptive statistics Correlations Regression Discussion

8) Hypothesis Results 9) Conclusion and Recommendations
9.1) Conclusion 9.2) Recommendations 9.3) Limitations 10) References 11) Appendix 11.1) Questionnaire

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List of Tables
1. Gender 2. Age Group 3. Do you Drink Cola Brand 4. Market Strategy More effective in market 5. Brand effective in advertisements 6. Brand with creative & Appealing advertisements 7. Adds helps in Buying Products 8. Role Played by adds on cola products 9. Brand with more exciting offers 10. Company with more publicity 11. Brand you Prefer 12. Prefer Consumption quantity 13. Where you prefer to buy cola from 14. Brand you consume most 15. PR in your city have CRM 16. Customers complains 17. Complains used to improve services 18. Opinion about Coca cola Brand 19. Opinion about Pepsi brand 20. Adds Main source of building Brand image 21. Sales promotion helps to build brand image 22. Personal selling and brand image 23. PR and brand image Page no 18 Page no 20 Page no 22 Page no 23 Page no 24 Page no 25 Page no 26 Page no 27 Page no 28 Page no 29 Page no 30 Page no 31 Page no 32 Page no 33 Page no 34 Page no 35 Page no 36 Page no 37 Page no 38 Page no 39 Page no 40 Page no 41 Page no 42

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List of Bar Charts
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXII. XXIII. Gender Age Group Do you Drink Cola Brand Market Strategy More effective in market Brand effective in advertisements Brand with creative & Appealing advertisements Adds helps in Buying Products Role Played by adds on cola products Brand with more exciting offers Company with more publicity Brand you Prefer Prefer Consumption quantity Where you prefer to buy cola from Brand you consume most PR in your city have CRM Customers complains Complains used to improve services Opinion about Coca cola Brand Opinion about Pepsi brand Adds Main source of building Brand image Sales promotion helps to build brand image Personal selling and brand image PR and brand image Page no 19 Page no 21 Page no 22 Page no 23 Page no 24 Page no 25 Page no 26 Page no 27 Page no 28 Page no 29 Page no 30 Page no 31 Page no 32 Page no 33 Page no 34 Page no 35 Page no 36 Page no 37 Page no 38 Page no 39 Page no 40 Page no 41 Page no 42

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

1 ABSTRACT:

A brand image is a transforming idea that converts something intangible into something of value). A firm’s brand reputation is continually evolving, as it enters new continents, new countries or new markets, new brand extensions or product lines are added. Also new features of product and positioning may be modified or radically changed. With rising media, promotion costs and tendency towards globalization, brand image is perceived differently across different cultures. In competitive market it is imperative that company is able to narrate the brand identity by building a strong image. (**Essay on Consumer Behavior by Haiding 1973). A company can follow communication mix strategies to create a better brand image like: promotional activities, effective advertising and increasing public relation. Ultimately, the way consumers associates themselves with the brand would decide its success. This research shows the relationship between communication mix elements and brand image of Cola companies in Punjab, Pakistan. Brand image is set of beliefs about particular brand; a global brand will have a brand image all over the world. In this research the researcher has tried to find out the relationship of Brand image with advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, Public Relation and sale promotion. The researcher has conducted a survey in Punjab Pakistan to find out what will be impact of Communication mix elements on Brand image of cola Companies or simply by increasing or decreasing Sale promotion, or Public relations or any other factor brand image of Cola Companies will increase or decrease and which factors have positive affects and which have negative effect on brand image and finally he has tried out to find a simple solution to increase the brand image of cola companies.

**

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

2 INTRODUCTION:

This research is based on elements of

communication mix and their relationship with the brand image of two big cola companies in Pakistan i.e. Coca cola and Pepsi cola. Coke has used different advertising and promotional activities since 1960 by launching a kingdom advertisement in US and still it is using different media to increase the loyalty of customers which ultimately increase the brand image of Coke. On the other hand, Pepsi is doing unbelievable and effective advertising to increase market share in Pakistan for many years and very much successful too in its efforts, but Coca Cola as a global brand is still more popular all over the world than Pepsi.
Source

2009 Coke Pepsi
01/68734 $m/3% 02/32728 $m 04/236 RTB 23/13706 $m/6% 21/15034 $m ---------

2010 Coke Pepsi
01/70452 $m/2% 03/34844 $m 04/ 276 RTB 23/14061 $m/3% 31/15991 $m 65/45 RTB

2011 Coke Pepsi
1/71861 $m/2% 16/2580 7 $m 5/ 255 RTB 22/14590 $m/4% 24/14363 $m ---------

2012 Coke Pepsi
01/77839 $m/8% 08/31802 $m 08/ 209 RTB 22/16594$ m/14% 38/17096 $m 92/47 RTB

Interb rand *
Brand directory **

RTB ***

• • •

*Interbrand report-http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-global-brands/2012/Best-GlobalBrands-2012.aspx- (Ranking/Brand Value/Change in Brand Value) **Brand Directory --http://brandirectory.com/league_tables/table/global-500-2012----( Brand Ranking/Brand valve) ***RTB: Ranking the brands---http://www.rankingthebrands.com/The-BrandRankings.aspx?rankingID=30&year=401 --- (Brand ranking/RTB source points)

Different elements of communication mix have some certain relationship with the brand image or not. If they have, is it positive or negative? Researcher tried to find out the exact relationship of communication mix elements on brand image of cola companies, and for this purpose I study the promotional activities of Coca cola and Pepsi respectfully. The research was conducted in Punjab which is most populated provinces of Pakistan. There are some other brands of cola companies in Pakistan like Amrit Cola and Gourment Cola but they were neglected either because they were in province only or operating in city levels in limited cities only.

2.1 COMPANY PROFILE- PepsiCo Inc.
PepsiCo is one of the largest companies in the United States. It figures among the 15 largest companies worldwide, according to the number of employees hired (Wikipedia). In food chain business PepsiCo is a world leader, it consists of different product companies among which the famous one is Pepsi-Cola, Doritos, Lays, Waves and Pepsi Food International. The PepsiCo group is presently into
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
two of the most profitable and growing industries namely, beverages and snack foods. It has scores of big & well known brands available in nearly 150 countries of the world. The group has established for itself one of the strongest brands in various segments for its operations. The beverages segment of PepsiCo primarily markets its Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, Dew and other brands worldwide and 7up outside the U.S. markets. The product of PepsiCo are held in close competition with Coca-Cola Inc,os USA. A point which is worth mentioning is that Coca Cola gets 80% if its profile for International operations, while the same figure for PepsiCo stands at 6% (Wikipedia). The segments also in the bottling plants and distribution facilities and also distribute the Ready to drink- teaproducts of Lipton in North America. In a joint venture with orient spray juice products, PepsiCo also manufactures and distributes fruit juices. The snack & Ready to eat food division manufactures and distributes and markets potato chips and other snacks worldwide (Wikipedia). The international operations of Snacks segments extend to the markets of Mexico, UK and Canada. Waves, Doritos & Lays represent the segments of Pepsi Cola. A packaged goods company consists of Pepsi Cola Company and Lays will continue to enjoy the name of Pepsi Cola. The move should enhance both corporations’ ability to prosper with their fully dedicated structure and management team. (Wikipedia)

2.2 COMPANY PROFILE-Coca Cola:
The Coca-Cola Company (here in known as Coke) possesses one of the most recognized brands on the planet. Coca cola paints itself as a wonderful corporation that produces amazing life- enhancing- products for the whole world. The Company has proven that the power is brand recognition along with its constant marketing, public relations, Sale promotions and advertising. The Coca Cola Company, incorporated on 5th September, 1919, is a beverage company. The Company owns & licenses and markets about 500 nonalcoholic beverage brands, primarily sparkling beverages and a variety of still beverages, such as waters, kin lay waters, juices and juice drinks, ready to drink teas & coffees, and energy and sports drinks. It owns and markets a range of nonalcoholic sparkling beverage brands, which include Coca Cola, Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Fanta and Sprite. The Company’s segments include Eurasia, Latin America, Africa, Europe, North America Bottling Investments and Corporate. On December 30, 2011, the Company has taken over the Great Plains Coca Cola Bottling Company (Great Plains) in the United States (Wikipedia). In Dec 2011, the Company acquired the remaining interest in Great Plains and Honest Tea, Inc. (Honest Tea). In Dec 2011, the Company acquired an extra ordinary interest in Coca Cola Central Japan Company. In September 2012, it acquired about 50% equity in Aujan Industries’ beverage business. In Jan 2013, Sacramento Coca Cola Bottling Company announced that it had been acquired by the Company. Effective February 22, 2013, Coke Corporation has acquired interest in Fresh Trading Ltd.
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
The Company markets, manufactures and sells beverage concentrates, also known as beverage bases, and syrups. It also includes fountain syrups and finished sparkling & still beverages. Outside the U. S it also sells concentrates for fountain beverages to its different bottling partners. The Company sells various sparkling beverages and a variety of still beverages, such as juice drink & fruit drinks, energy drinks and sports drinks, ready-to-drink teas and coffees, and water products like Kenly, to retailers or to distributors, wholesalers and different bottling partners, who distribute them to retailers. In addition, in the United States, it makes a variety of fountain syrups and sells them to fountain retailers, such as restaurants & Hotels and convenience stores who use the fountain syrups to produce beverages for quick consumption, or to authorized fountain wholesalers or bottling partners, who resell the fountain syrups to fountain retailers as per the requirements.( source our company Coca cola journey: http://www.cocacolacompany.com/our-company/)

2.3 COKE AND PEPSI IN PAKISTAN:
Coca Cola and Pepsi are the two biggest Beverage (cold drinks) companies of the world. Coca Cola’s brand value is much more than Pepsi. Coke was standing at number 4 among the top brands of year 2008 with estimated brand value of $ 67.6 billion. Pepsi was at number 39 with brand value of $15 billion ( BrandZ Top 100 brand ranking by Milliward brown) ,Moving forward to the last year 2011,Coca Cola now stands highest in brand value. So Coca Cola has grown a lot in 3 years and now is top ranked among brands with brand value of 71,861. “(Interbrand Global brands value Report 2011)” Similarly Pepsi grows up to number 22 in brand ranking with the brand value of 14,590 in 2011(Best Global brand by interbrand report 2011) .It is obvious that Coca Cola stands far higher than Pepsi in Brand value but Pepsi has always given a tough competition to Coca Cola in all the global markets. Comparing to 2012 Coke is still standing at No.1 in global brands. So what’s made Pepsi different from Coke? They both have different brand identities, brand personalities, values, marketing strategy and target group. It will also be interesting to study them because both Pepsi and Coca Cola are direct competitors in most of the markets in the world as well as in Punjab Pakistan. They have wide experience of developing different competitive products which are needed by the consumers (Pakistan today, Tapping into Consumer market in Pakistan, 19 august 2011). They also have a philosophy to communicate their products to consumers in contract to each other in the market. Coke is placed much above Pepsi in some countries like Japan USA but in some cultures like Pakistan, Bangladesh, Siri Lanka and India Pepsi is much popular than Coke. The focus of this study remains on the Brand Image of both the brands in Punjab, Pakistan; and how the consumer relates that Brand Image to number of factors including in communication Mix and how communication mix is influencing or increasing brand image of both the companies.
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3 Literature Review:
Building a brand driven culture is a lifelong commitment to a mindset and a way of life that takes time, planning & perseverance that produces intangible outputs, which include customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity, less customer defections, a higher share of customers’ wallets, more referrals, and a greater percentage of respected business (Knapp, D.E. (2000), The Brand Mindset, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, pp. 33, 36, 103).A set of brand associations enable a brand to develop a rich and clear brand identity and enhance brand image. While some customers may give more importance to functional benefits of product; social, spiritual and psychological dimensions help the brand stand above others. Therefore such type of attachment is not possible without effective advertising, personal selling, and promotional activities etc which enables people or customer to think. Building brand image requires a company to understand its brand as well as competitors’ brand through customer research, by conducting an effective customer research, by studying its customer’s former customers, industry experts, retailers and intermediaries companies can develop a better brand image. Brand image is the perception in the mind of the customers about the brand and its associations. A brand image is directly connected to brand identity which includes Brand strengths associated with beliefs, views and value, which are more powerful and most difficult to imitate. In contrast to brand image (the brands current associations), a brand identity is inspirational and may involve what the image needs to be changed or amplified. In an elemental sense, the brand identity represents what the organization wants the brand to stand for (Aaker, D.A. and Joachimsthaler, E. (2000), Brand Leadership, The Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 13, 27, 40, 48.), The “brand as personality” stage marks an important transition phase since not all brands evolve into consumer icons, particularly if the consumers do not relate to, or believe in, the communication of the brand; or they sense some inconsistencies, particularly with the brands communication (Wee, T.T.T. and Ming, M.C.H. (2003), “Leveraging on symbolic values and meanings in branding”, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 10 No. 3, pp. 208-18.). Referring to Aaker (Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 7, 39, 61, 110.), study shows that brand equity is a multidimensional concept. Brand equity consists of different items like brand awareness, brand loyalty, apparent quality, brand associations and various other proprietary brand assets. These all assets in turn give different benefits and value to the firm. Killer (2002) defined brand equity as “the differential effect that customer knowledge about a brand has in the customer’s response to marketing activities for the brand” (Research worldPage 5 of 55

Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
Journal of science and commerce ISSN 2229-4686). According to the another concept about, brand knowledge is not about the facts of the brand, but all the thoughts, feeling, perception, image, experience and so on that become linked to the minds of the customer (real or potential, individual or organization, Leone et al. (Leone, Robert P., Vithala R. Rao, Kevin Lane Keller, Anita Man Luo, Leigh McAlister and Rajendra K. Srivastava (2006), “Linking Brand Equity to Customer Equity,” Journal of Service Research, 9 (2), 125–38.). Another element of communication mix is the public Relations. Public Relations are one of the main factors in building brands image. Many studies show that public relations have an impact on brand image. According to the Fortunato (2000) public relations and promotional strategies play a great role in selecting and framing media content that could influence public opinion and behavior (World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (2): 277-286, 2011 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011: Title- The Effects of Brand Image and Perceived Public Relation on Customer Loyalty). There is a triangular relationship among public relation, mass media and the audience, it has been demonstrated through public relations strategies that a company is proactive in assisting the mass media content choice and farming processes. The research concludes; to maintain relationships with customers using public relations is very effective for future loyalty [8]. Similarly on the other hand Chen and Hui Hu (2009)(World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (2): 277-286, 2011- The Effects of Brand Image and Perceived Public Relation on Customer Loyalty) believe that customers also benefit in other ways from long-term associations with organizations. Here they show that Perceived relationship benefits add to the perceived value of the product, because the relationship is strengthened when customers perceive benefits beyond their satisfaction with the core products. According to the “Kambiz Heirdarzadeh Hanzaee and Fatemeh Torabi Farsani” (2011) three terms Professional, personal and community relationship affect key public member’ satisfactions and the ultimate goal of a public relations program should be to build a mutually beneficial relationship with key public members (World Applied Sciences Journal 13 (2): 277-286, 2011 ISSN 1818-4952 © IDOSI Publications, 2011: Title- The Effects of Brand Image and Perceived Public Relation on Customer Loyalty).. According to the study of effect of brand image and PR on customer loyalty, they conclude that public relations have a positive effect on brand image when the product is favorable or customer have a desire to use that product. According to the research on cosmetic industry by “Stephen L S, Maznah Wann Omar2, Nabsiah Abdul Wahid, Ismail Ishak and Arman Harun”(2007) the importance of brand image benefits on satisfaction and loyalty. The identification of
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brand image benefits of the branded product will help practitioners to establish effective marketing strategies (The effect of brand image on overall satisfaction and loyalty intention in the context of color cosmetic, Asian Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, 83–107, January 2007). It is very important to understand brand image dimension judgments from customers’ point of view, also whether these image dimensions are parallel to their perceptions, expectations, needs and goals. This may help managers to develop a marketing strategy based on consumer perceptions and meanings of the product. In the past studies, Such as Reynolds W.H (1965), (The role of the consumer in image building California Management Review, Spring, 69-76 ) showed that “an image is the mental construct developed by the consumer on the basis of some of the impressions among the flood of the total impressions; it comes into being through a creative process in which these selected impressions are elaborated, distinguished and ordered” (The Journal of tourism studies vol.14, No. 1, MAY '03). Kotler (2001) defined image as “the set of belief s, ideas, and impression that a person holds regarding an object” (p.273).On the other hand, Keller (1993)( Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, 2nd ed., Pearson Education, Harlow, p.273) considered brand image as “a set of perceptions about a brand as reflected by brand by Aaker (1991),( Aaker, D.A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, The Free Press, New York, NY, pp. 7, 39, 61, 110), whereby brand image is referred to as “a set of associations, usually organized in some meaningful way” (p. 109). Biel (1992) however defined brand image as “a cluster of attributes and associations that consumers connect to the brands’ name” (p.8). According to the “Timothy M. Smith, Srinath Gopalakrishna and Pual M. Smith” (2004) (“The Complementary Effect of Trade Shows on Personal Selling”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 21, 61-76), the complementarities between two dominate elements of the business marketing communications mix element that is personal selling, and trade shows from an integrated marketing communications (IMC) perspective. From the study with a group of industrial distributors, they show that sales efforts create higher sales productivity when customers have already been exposed to the firm’s product at a trade show. Overall profiles are shown to be greater when the return-on sales figures are higher among show attendants than non-attendants and that the trade show generates positive effects on customer purchase intentions. These results give much-needed accountability for trade shows. Nafiseh Sedaghat (2012)(Impact of promotion Mix Elements on Brand Equity" Source-" American Journal of scientific Research, Volume 43) study examines
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how promotional mix elements i.e. advertising, personal selling, sale promotion, public relations and direct marketing affect brand equity dimensions and brand equity. The findings recommend that promotional mix have positive effects on brand equity that accompanied the other research results. The managers can use the results of this paper for selecting appropriate strategies for creating a high level of brand equity. For example, extensive investments on advertising, advertising diversity, concentration on sales persons’ training in different fields such as social communication, sell technical knowledge and having informed of products’ attributes, recurring reward presentation, participating in different social occasions for boosting brand awareness and loyalty and ect. Summing up, personal selling, advertising, direct marketing, public relations and sales promotions should be improved and developed as brand creating factors. According to the IRISH TIMES, Business 2000, fifth edition (2001-2002; http://www.business2000.ie/archive/5th_edition.html) in the article “The Coca Cola Brand and Sponsorship”( http://www.business2000.ie/pdf/pdf_5/coca-cola_5th_ed.pdf) ‘Coca-Cola’s’ brand personality reflects the positioning of its brand. The process of positioning a brand product is a complex managerial task and must be done over time using all the elements of the marketing mix. Positioning is in mind of the consumer and can be described as how the product is considered by that consumer. When researching the positioning of a product, consumers are often asked how they would describe that product if it were a character or a person. The purpose of this is to build up a character statement. This can guarantee that consumers have a clear view of the brand values that make up the brand personality, just like the values, attitude and beliefs that make up a person. Many people see ‘Coca Cola’ as a part of their daily life. This resemblance between the brand and the consumer leads to a high degree of loyalty and makes the purchasing decision easier. Brand positioning guides ‘what’ will be communicated in the company’s advertising, while the character statement guides ‘how’ a message should be delivered or put across. Referring again to the studies about advertising McConnell et.al (1986)( Verdon, Walter A., Campell R McConeell and Theodore W Roester. (1968). Advertising Expenditures as an Economic Stabilizer: 1945-64’. Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, spring, 7-18.) also tried much to find out the correlation between advertising expenditure and GNP, industrial production. They could not establish the link between these variables. Chowdhury (1994) ( Chowdhury, Abdur R. (1994). Advertising Expenditures and the Macro Economy: Some New Evidence.International Journal of Advertising, No.1, 1-14.), a more closely related study considered the relationship between advertising and several macro economic factors during the period of 1960-91 in U.K. He was also unable to find the relation between advertising and consumption, while he was able to discover the relation between advertising and employment. On the other hand, Verdon and McConnell (1968)( Verdon, Walter A., Campell R McConeell and Theodore W Roester. (1968). Advertising Expenditures as an Economic Stabilizer: 1945-64’. Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, spring, 7-18.) studied the
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relationship between advertising and collective demand, they found that advertising have a positive relation with aggregate demand. The reason to discuss above two journals is that many studies are unable to find relationship between advertising and brand image. According to the study (Marketing Mix and The Brand Reputation of Nokia ,Market forces 2008 volume 4.0) by “Syed Ehtesham Ali “ (2008) increasing in promotional mix elements by 1 % , increases effects the brand equity of Nokia with 0.85 respectfully. A brand’s personality provides a richer source of competitive advantage than any functional feature can (Sherrington, 2003)( Sherrington, M. (2003), Added Value: The Alchemy of BrandLed Growth, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 21, 49). Personality attributes assists the brand to achieve sustainable competitive benefits and advantage loyalty. Kim, J.-H.,& Hyun,Y.J. (2011)( Kim, J.-H., & Hyun, Y.J. (2011). A model to investigate the influence of marketing-mix efforts and corporate image on brand equity in the IT software sector. Industrial Marketing Management, 40 (3), 424-438.), developed a model to examine the relationship among marketing mix efforts (channel performance, value oriented price, promotion, and after sales service), corporate image, three dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness with associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty), and market performance. The model considers three individual aspects of business markets. Corporate image is placed as a mediator from the marketing-mix efforts to the dimensions of brand equity. Personal selling is defined as the presentation of a persuasive message by a seller to a potential customer or group of customers, generally in a face-to-face meeting. It is a main component of promotion mix. The model is tested in the context of a Korean IT software sector. Kyung Hoon Kim et al. (2008)( Kim, Kyung Hoon.; Kim, Kang Sik.; Kim, Jong Ho., & Kang, Suk Hou, (2008), Brand equity in hospital marketing, Journal of Business Research, 61, 75– 82) study brand equity in hospital marketing. They identify five factors that control the creation of brand equity through successful customer relationships: trust, customer satisfaction, relationship commitment, brand loyalty, brand awareness. An experimental test of the relationships among these factors suggests that hospitals can be successful in creating image and positive brand equity if they can manage their customer relationships well.

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4 Research Methodology:
4.1Research Method:
The quantitative research method was used for this study. Questionnaires were divided to different age people who were 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, and 30 above and after that data are analyzed through SPSS software. The questionnaire was taken with the help of three different articles of promotional mix and advertising.

4.2 Source of Data:

4.2.1 Primary Data: Primary research is the first time research for any problem arises or to find out any variable’s impact. Primary data was collected with the help of a structural questionnaire which is given in appendix. The questionnaire consists of twenty-three questions, which gives us the necessary data for analysis. These questions were obtained from different articles and thesis, as per the requirement of study.

4.2.2 Secondary Data: The secondary Data sources are included according to the requirements of the research problem. The secondary data sources always remain the most convenient and least expensive ways to approach the data. But it has the disadvantage of its diversification due to the fact that a huge quantity of Data is available, some of which is relevant and most of its is irrelevant. The selection of needed information sometimes becomes very critical along with the length of the data. Secondary sources can possibly meet the requirements of any research if the relevant data is selected wisely. Following are the sources of secondary data • • • World Wide Web along with web report, interviews and commercials Newspapers " Jang, Express news and Dawn news" Markazi Library Wah Cantt for Related Articles and Books
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4.3 Sample Size and Selection: 150 respondents were randomly selected on the basis of age group, gender, occupation, education, social; class group, geographic location etc are randomly selected for this study. Out of 150 males and females were equally divided. 4.4 Method of Collection of Data: The data was collected by questionnaire made with the help of different articles but not limited to the articles which are given below. 1. Sedaghat.N, Sedahat.M, Moakher.A. (2012), ‘The Impact of Promotional Mix Elements on Brand Equity’ American journal of Scientific Research, Vol.43, 2. Zafra .A(2010). “Comparative analysis of the Marketing Communications Mix for three Companies in the Cola drink sector: Coca Cola and Sainsbury own brand”, thesis, Brunel Business School, UK.PP 06-12. 3. Ramchander,V, (2007), ‘Measuring The Effectiveness Of Sales Promotional Mix Of Hyundai Motors’ Jayamukhi Institute of Management Science, India, pp 05-10. 4. Muhammad Kashif Omer Malik (2008) Title-"Marketing Communication of Pepsi and Coca Cola in Pakistan" Master Thesis EF0705 , School of sustainable devalopment of scociety and technology, Malardalens university, Vasteras,Sweden 5. Jiaferi Sun (2010) Title-" Brand Image in Cola Drinks" Lauria University of applied sciences, China 6. Zakir Ali Khan (2012) Title-"Marketing and innovation" Thesis no LB5202,Department of Management Sciences, Comsats institue of information Technology, Pakistan

4.5 Contact method: The customers were contacted personally and requested to answer the questions in the Questionnaire with good concentration. 4.6 Research period: Research work was carried out in 3 weeks.

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5

Theoretical Framework:

5.1 Research Models:

Dependent Variables Independent Variables

Advertising

Personal Selling

Brand Image

Sale Promotion

Public Relations

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6

Marketing Communication Mix:

As define by Gary Armstrong and Philip Kotler, A companies promotion mix consist of specific blend of advertising, advertising public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing tools that the company uses to persuasively communicate customers value and build customer relationship,” Major cola companies like Coke and Pepsi uses marketing communication mix to communicate customer value and build customer relations. Research explained ned briefly the elements of marketing communication mix and how cola companies uses communication mix elements to build strong relationship with customers to create and enhance brand image.

6.1

Communication mix elements: The elements of communication mix are are also independent variable of research.

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6.1 Advertising: According to Philip Kotler, “Advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation& promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identifier sponsor.” Advertising is one of the communication mix which is use to encourage and persuade targeted audience to take a new action or to continue an existing one. The goal of advertising is to hold the consumer behavior and drive it according to offer given through advertising. The main purpose of the company to advertise is also to assuring employees and stakeholders of company about company’s success. The messages given by advertising are paid by company and viewed by target market through various Medias like TV, News paper, Magazines.etc. From coca cola secondary study I come to know that an advertisement showing model Hilda Clark in formal 19th century attire. The first AD in US is titled drink Coca Cola 5 cents. For this AD variety of media can be used for advertising. Different companies select their media according to reach, Frequency and media impact they want for the product. Coca cola was accountable for 2/3 of all media spending on carbonates from 2004-2008 ( Mintel 2009) , on the other hand in 2010 FIFA world campaign which was based on theme “ Open Happiness” launched on 15th May 2010 brought an idea open a Coke and bring happiness. Comparatively Pepsi have also launched its soccer advertisement ( Manhalo 2010 Pepsi world cup 2010 Advertisement ) despite of not being official sponsor of FIFA. 6.1.2 Personal selling: Kolter defines the Personal selling as “face to face interaction with one or more perspective purchase for purpose of marketing presentation, answering questions, and procuring orders.” Personal selling is another type of communication mix and one of the oldest forms of promotion and its impact is very strong in building strong or weak brand image. Personal selling companies use sale force team to encourage immediately buying product or consuming service. Personal selling is the greatest possible way to build loyalty of brands and to build and manage very effective customer relationship. The sale person of company act on behalf of the organization. Coke has started personal selling and direct marketing through platform name COKE ZONE. 6.1.3 Sale promotion : Sale promotion is the marketing events and tools designed to simulate quicker and greater purchase for limited period of time. (Kotler 1998)
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
Sale promotion is a good-short term tactical tool which can simulate quick increase in sale by targeting promotional incentives on particular products. A promotional activity helps to keep customer loyal with product and helps to make him brand conscious Coca cola has different sale promotion like Chance to win FIFA world cup tour, PS3 every week this month with range of other rewards such as Boom box, Projector, Key ring bottle opener. Coke studio web site and program on TV got musical sections where one can get free music after redemption of points. Example of Pepsi sale promotion are Win a Trip and refresh your summer. 6.1.4 Public Relations: Public relations are strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationship between organization and their public. Public relations are one of the strong and powerful brand builders because it harnesses the power of third-party testimonials in the media. Public relations mostly deliver a tremendous return on investment because the articles and stories generated in media are credible. Whenever any program, a brand can develop and be strengthen over the time. It is one of the cheapest ways to reach the customers if publicity is achieved through right media. Customer loyalty higher means it implies a higher market share and ability to demand relatively high price compare to those competitors. From public relation and sponsorship companies are getting more loyal customers. Coca cola has won several rewards for its cooperative society responsibility. Unity cup and coke studio are the examples. Coca cola has been awarded several awards for its corporate responsibilities some of awards are as follow • • • Argentina Most Admired companies ranking Corporate responsibility award. American chamber in shanghai Leader in Corporate social responsibility

6.2

DEPENDENT VARIABLES:

1. Brand Image: “Brand image is the set of beliefs held about a particular Brand ( Kotler ) or “ set of associations, usually organized in some meaningful way “ ( Aeker, 1992)
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
A strong identity is vital for any firm respective of its size. Even through small organization with small corporate identity can beat a large firm. In other words the brand image of any company, business or organization is very much important and valuable for organization and it is vital to success. Brand image of different product is perception of the consumer (what they think about it) about the product. A product may have one or more images in the market according with the customer segment. A brand may have different image in different culture like a brand may have more value in Pakistan and may not be a good brand in Bangladesh; it depends upon the product or services. A good global brand is that which have a great brand image in all over the world where it is available like Microsoft, Coca Cola, and Pepsi.

6.3 I.

Hypothesis Development: Advertising: H0: There is no significant relationship between advertising and brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan. HA1: There is significant relationship between advertising and brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan.

II.

Personal Selling: H0: Personal selling affects the brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan. HA2: Personal selling does not affects the brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan. Public Relations & Direct marketing : H0: There is no significant relationship between public relations and Brand image of Cola companies in Punjab Pakistan. HA3: There is significant relationship between public relations and Brand image of Cola companies in Punjab Pakistan.

III.

IV.

Sales Promotion: H0: Sale promotion affects the brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan.
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
HA4: Sale promotion does not affects the brand image of cola companies in Punjab Pakistan.

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

7

Analysis and Findings:

7.1 Questions analysis:
• Total 150 respondents were studied through questionnaire. Statistics Gender Age Group Do you drink Cola Brands

Valid

150

150

150

Missing

0

0

0

Figure No 1.1 statistics

Out of 150 Respondents 75 were male and 75 were female. See figure no 1.2 and 1.3 for further details. Gender

Valid

Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Valid Percentage

Cumulative Percentage

Valid

Male

75

50

50

50

Valid

Female

75

50

50

100

Total

150

100

100

Figure No 1.2 Gender Classification of respondents
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

Gender

60

50

40

30

Frequency

20

10

0

Male

Female

Bar chart no 1.2 1. Gender Classifications of respondents

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In Lieu of empirical findings, maximum respondents were from age group 20-25 years i.e. 50 percent. Percentage division of age groups of the respondents is given in Figure no 2.1 and Bar chart no 2.1

Age Group
Valid From Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Cumulative percentage

15-20

45

30

30

30

20-25

75

50

50

80

25-30

22

14.7

14.7

94.7

30 and above Total

8

5.5

5.5

100

150

100

100

Figure no 2.1 Age Group Classifications

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

Age Group
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Age 15-20 Age20 Age20-25 age 20-30 Age 30-Above frequency

Bar chart No 2.1 Age Group Classification

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question whether respondent consume cola drinks 95.3 percent opted for yes and remaining 4.7 percent answered No Figure no 3.1 and Bar chart no 3.1 illustrates the findings. Answer Do you Drink Cola Brands Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Cumulative percentage

Valid

Yes

143

95.3

95.3 95.3

No

7

4.7

4.7 100

Total

150

100

100

Figure no 3.1 Do you drink Cola Brands

Do You Drink Cola Brands

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No

Frequency

Bar Chart No N 3.1 do you Drink Cola Brands
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question which form of Market strategies is most effective in market around 60 percent answered Television, 10 percent news paper, 10 percent scales promotion and remaining outdoor advertisements. Which form of Market strategies is most effective in market Cumulative Media Frequency Percentage Valid percentage percentage TV 90 60 60 60 Newspapers 15 10 Scale 15 Promotions Outdoor 30 Advertisements 150 Total 10 10 20 20 100 100 100 80 10 70

Valid

Table no 4.1 4 strategy most effective in market

Which Form of Market Stratagies is most effective in Market
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 TV News Papre Scale promo Out door Add Percentage

Bar chart No 5.1 .1 strategy most effective in market

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to which brand most effective in advertisements 60 percent answered for Pepsi cola and remaining for Coca cola Which brand bran effective in advertisements Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Pepsi 90 60 60 Coke Others Total 60 0 150 40 0 100 40 0 100 Table no 5.1 which brand effective in advertisements Cumulative percentage 60 100

Valid

Which Brand effective in advertisements
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi Coke Others Percentage

Bar chart no 5.1 which brand effective in advertisements

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question which brand has creative & appealing advertisement of Cola Company, 60 percent of people voted for Pepsi cola and reaming for coca cola.

Valid

Which brand brand has creative & appealing advertisements Cumulative Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage percentage Pepsi 90 60 60 60 Coke Others Total 60 0 150 40 0 100 40 0 100 Table no 6.1 which brand has creative and appealing advertisements 100

Brand with creative and appealing advertisements
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi coke others percentage

Bar chart no 6.1 which brand has creative and appealing advertisements

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

In answer to the question do the advertisements help you towards buying the product 90 percent people voted for Pepsi and 10 percent for the Coke.

Valid

Do advertisements help you toward buying product Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Pepsi 135 90 90 Coke Others Total 15 0 150 10 0 100 10 0

Cumulative percentage 90 100

100 Table no 7.1 Do advertisements help you toward buying product

Do adds helps you towards buying product
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi Coke Others percentage

Bar chart no 7.1 Do advertisements help you toward buying product

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

In answer to the question what is your opinion about role played by adds on cola companies products, 80 percent people voted for very important.

Valid

What is your opinion about role played by adds on cola products answer Frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative percentage percentage Very 120 80 80 80 important important 23 15 15 95 Less important Total 7 150 5 100 5 100 100

Table no 8.1 what is your opinion about role played by adds on cola products

Ur Opinion about Role Played by Adds on Cola Produsts in Market
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Very Important Important Less Important Percentage

Bar chart no 8.1 what is your opinion about role played by adds on cola products

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• Which brand has Innovative and exciting offers, most of the people voted for coke and Pepsi, 60 percent people voted for coke, 40 percent for pepsi and none for others. Which h brand having innovative and exciting offers Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Pepsi 60 40 40 Coke Others Total 90 0 150 60 0 100 60 0 100 Cumulative percentage 40 100

Valid

Table no 9.1 .1 which brand having innovative and exciting offers

Brand having Innovation and exciting offers
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi Coke Others Percentage

Bar Chart no 9.1 .1 which brand having innovative and exciting offers

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

In answer to the question which company has got more publicity in recent past, 70 percent voted for Pepsi and remaining for the coke.

Valid

Which company has got more publicity in recent past Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Pepsi 105 70 70 Coke Others Total 45 0 150 30 0 100 30 0 100

Cumulative percentage 70 100

Table no 10.1 .1 which company has got more publicity in recent past

which company has got more publicity in recent past
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi coke others Percentage

Table no 10.1 which company has got more publicity in recent past

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question a part form the consumption which brand do you prefer, 60 percent voted for Pepsi and 40 percent for coke.

Valid

Brand Pepsi Coke Others Total

Which brand do u prefer Frequency Percentage 90 60 0 150 60 40 0 100

Valid percentage 60 40 0 100

Cumulative percentage 60 100

Table no 11.1 apart from consumption which brand do u prefer.

Which brand do you prefer
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pepsi coke Others Perecntage

Table no 11.1 apart from consumption which brand do u prefer.

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question which is your preferred consumption quantity of cola, 65 percent voted for 250ml and 15 percent voted for 1.5 liters which 10 percent voted for each 500ml and 2.25 liters Preferred consumption quantity of cola Quantity Frequency Percentage Valid percentage 250 ml 97 65 65 500 ml 1.5 liters 2.25 liters Total 15 23 15 150 10 15 10 100 10 15 10 100 Cumulative percentage 65 75 90 100

Valid

Table no 12.1 what is your preferred consumption quantity of cola

prefered consumption quantity of cola
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 250ml 500ml 1.5 ltr 2.25 ltr perecentage

Bar chart no 12.1 what is your preferred consumption quantity of cola

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question where do you prefer to buy cola from, 50 percent voted form small grocery store, store 45 percent retailer and 5 percent for others? Where do you prefer to buy c cola from Place Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Small store 75 50 50 Retailer Others Total 67 8 150 45 5 100 45 5 100 Cumulative percentage 50 95 100

Valid

Table no 13.1 1 where do you buy cola from

where do you prefer to buy cola from
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 small store retailer others percentage

Bar chart no 13.1 where do you buy cola from

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question which cola brand do you consume most , 60 percent of people voted for Pepsi and 40 percent voted for coke and none for others.

Valid

Which cola brad do you consume most Brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Pepsi 90 60 60 coke Others Total 60 0 150 40 0 100 40 0 100

Cumulative percentage 60 100

Tablet no 14.1 which cola band do you consume most

Which cola brand u consume most
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 pepsi coke others Percentage

Bar chart no 14.1 which cola band does you consume most

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan

In answer to question does PR operator of cola companies in your city have some kind of customer relationship management, 55 percent voted for yes and 45 percent for No.

Valid

Does PR operator in your city have CRM Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Yes 83 55 55 No Total 67 150 45 100 45 100

Cumulative percentage 55 100

Table no 15.1Does PR operator in your city have CRM

Does PR in your city have CRM

60 50 40 Percentage 30 20 10 0 Yes NO

Table no 15.1Does PR operator in your city have CRM

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question are customers complains plains collected in your city 56 percent voted for yes and remaining for NO. Are customers complains collected in your city Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Yes 84 56 56 No Total 66 150 44 100 44 100 Cumulative percentage 56 100

Valid

Table no 16.1Are .1Are customers complains collected in your city

Are customers complains collected in your city

60 50 40 percentage 30 20 10 0 yes no

Bar Chart no 16 6.1Are .1Are customers complains collected in your city

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question to what degree the complains used to improve services, 28 percent of peoples voted for 25 percent, 22 percent for 50 percent, 20 percent for 75 percent and zero percent and 10 percent for 100 percent. To What degree complains used used to improve service answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage 100 % 15 10 10 75 % 50 % 25 % 0% Total 30 33 42 30 150 20 22 28 20 100 20 22 28 20 100 Cumulative percentage 10 30 52 80 100

Valid

Table no 17.1 .1 to what degrees customers complains used to improve services

To what degress complains used to improve services
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 100 75 50 25 0 percentage

Bar chart no 17.1 .1 to what degrees customers complains used to improve services

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question what is your opinion about the coca cola brand, 70 percent voted for very good, 20 percent good, 7 percent neutral and 3 percent bad. What is your opinion about Coca cola brand Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Very good 105 70 70 Good Neutral Bad Total 30 10 5 150 20 7 3 100 20 7 3 100 Cumulative percentage 70 90 97 100

Valid

Table no 18.1what is your opinion about coca cola brand

What is your opinion about Coca cola barnd
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 very good Good Neutal Bad percentage

Bar chart no 18.1what is your opinion about coca cola brand

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question what is your opinion about pepsi brand 60 percent voted for very good, 30 percent for good,8 percent for neutral and 2 percent for bad. Answer What is your opinion about Pepsi brand Frequency Percentage Valid percentage Very good 90 60 60 Good Neutral Bad Total 45 12 3 150 30 8 2 100 30 8 2 100 Cumulative percentage 60 90 98 100

Valid

Table no 19.1what is your opinion about Pepsi cola brand

Your Opinion about Pepsi Cola
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 very good Good Neutal Bad percentage

Bar chart no 19.1what is your opinion about Pepsi cola brand

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question advertising is the main source of building brand image of cola companies, , 45 percent strongly agreed, 20 percent agreed, 20 percent neutral and 11 percent disagreed and 4 percent strongly disagreed. Advertising is main source of building brand image of Cola company Cumulative Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage percentage Strongly 67 45 45 45 agree agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total 30 30 17 6 150 20 20 11 4 100 20 20 11 4 100 65 85 96 100

Valid

Table no 20.1 advertising is main source of building brand image of cola

Addvertising is main source of building brand image
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutal Disagree Astrongly Disagree

Series 1

Table no 20.1 advertising is main source of building brand image of

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer r to the question do you think sales sale promotion helps to build the brand image of cola companies, 22 percent strongly agreed, 30 percent agreed, 20 percent neutral,16 percent disagreed and 12 percent strongly strongly disagreed. Sales promotion helps to build brand image of Cola company Cumulative Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage percentage Strongly 33 22 22 22 agree agree 45 30 30 52 Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total 30 24 18 150 20 16 12 100 20 16 12 100 72 88 100

Valid

Table no 21.1 sales promotion help to build brand image of cola companies

Sales promotion helps to build brand image of cola companies
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutal Disagree Strongly Disagree

Percentage

Bar Chart no 21.1 sales promotion helps to build brand image of cola companies

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question personal selling is important enough to build the Brand image 15 percent of people strongly agreed, 20 percent agreed, agreed 33 percent neutral and 22 percent disagreed and 10 percent strongly disagreed. Personal selling is important to build brand image of Cola company Cumulative Answer Frequency Percentage Valid percentage percentage Strongly 23 15 15 15 agree agree 30 20 20 35 Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total 49 33 15 150 33 22 10 100 33 22 10 100 68 90 100

Valid

Table no 22.1 Personal selling is important to build brand image of cola companies

Personal selling is important to build brand image
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neutal Disagree Strongly Disagree Percentage

Bar chart no 22.1 Personal selling is important to build brand image of cola companies
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• In answer to the question public relations can enhance the brand image of cola companies, 20 percent of people strongly agreed, 30 percent agreed, 25 percent neutral 13 percent disagreed and 12 percent strongly disagreed.

Valid

Public relations can enhance the brand image of Cola company Answer Frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative percentage percentage Strongly 30 20 20 20 agree agree 45 30 30 50 Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total 38 19 18 150 25 13 12 100 25 13 12 100 75 88 100

Table no 23.1 Public Relations Relation can enhance the brand image of cola companies

Public relations Can enhance brand image
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Strongly Agree Agree Neytal Disagre Strongly Disagree percentage

Bar chart no 23.1 Public Relations Relation can enhance the brand image of cola companies
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
7.2 Model summary:

Model
1

R
0.822a

R Square
.675

Adjusted R square
.666

Std Error of the Estimate
.498

a. Predicators :( constant), Public Relations, Sales_ promotion. Advertising, Personal Selling

7.3 ANOVA: Model
Regression Residual Total

Sum of squares
74.739 35.999 110.739

df
4 145 149

Mean Square
18.685 0.284

F
72.260

Sig.
.000a

a. Predicators :( constant), Public Relations, Sales_ promotion. Advertising, Personal Selling b. Dependent Variable: Brand Image Descriptive statistics

N Ad Scales promotion Personal Selling Public Relations Brand Image Valid N ( list wise)
150 150 150 150 150 150

Minimum
1 1 1 1 1 1

Maximum
2 2 2 2 2 2

Mean
1.43 1.60 1.55 1.89 2.19

Std.Deviation
0.326 0.293 0.601 0.466 0.862

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
Correlations
Cotrol Variables Brand _ Image Advertising Correlation Advertisings 1.000 . Significance ( 2-tailed) 0 df Sales _ Promotion Correlation -.072 1.000 .713 -.038 147 147 147 Sale promotion -.072 .383 Personal selling -0.43 .602 Public Relations .332 .000

.383 Significance ( 2-tailed) 147 df Personal_ selling Correlation -.043

.

.000

.641

0

147

147

.713

1.000

.316

Significance ( 2-tailed)

.602

.000

.

.000

.147 df Public _ Relations Correlation .332

147

0

147

-.038

.316

1.000

Significance ( 2-tailed)

.000

.641

.000

.

147 df

147

147

0

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
7.4 Regression: . Coefficients’
Model 1 ( constant) Un standardized Standardized T coefficents coefficents B Std.Error Beta -1.342 .315 -4.262 Sig.

.000

Advertising -.179 Sales 1.145 promotion Personal -.654 selling Public 1.571 relations Dependent Variable : Brand image

.142 .198 .099 .102

.068 .388 -.456 .849

-1.258 5.776 -6.591 15.390

.210 .000 .000 .000

SPSS LOGO

Discussion:
After running the DATA in SPSS Software ( IBM software package used for statistic analysis ) results are shown in above tables, R Square 0.675 shows that results are significant approximately 68 percent of the variation in the response variables which are “ Advertising, sale promotion. Personal selling and public relation” can be explained by explanatory variables brand image. The results are explained in the next chapter.

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
8 Hypotheses Results:
1) H0: There is no significant relationship between the advertising and brand image of cola companies. HA1: there is significant relationship between the advertising and the brand image of cola companies. Results The coefficient table shows the impact of element of cola companies after study the results show one thing amazing that there was no relationship of advertising on the brand image of cola companies. I was thinking that results are not reliable or totally incorrect but after more study on advertising and brand image I come to know that there is no direct relationship of advertising with brand image. You can see the table the first variable i-e AD which represent advertising has sign value of 0.210 while b= -0.179 which shows that advertisements does not affect the brand image of Cola companies. So in the first hypothesis result we will reject HA1 or we will accept H0 by concluding the result that there is no significant relationship between advertising and the brand image of Cola companies. We can also say that advertising is no increasing or decreasing the brand image. 2) H0: Personal selling affects the brand image of cola companies. HA2: personal selling does not affect the brand image of cola companies. Results Personal selling has the value of -.654 and Beta-.456 with t-value of -6.591 and results are significant but negative so in this case we will accept the HA2 or reject H0 by concluding that personal selling has negative impact on brand image of cola companies, as we increase the Personal selling the brand image will decrease. 3) H0: There is not a significant relation between the Public relations and brand image. HA3: There is a significant relation between the public relations and brand image of cola companies.

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
Results The third hypothesis results show that public relations has a B value of 1.571 and results are significant so in this case we will accept the HA3 or reject H0 by concluding that Public relations and brand image are positively correlated or increasing the public relations will increase the Brand image of cola companies.

4) H0: Sales promotion does not affect the brand image of Cola companies. HA4: Sales promotion affects the brand image of Cola companies. Results Fourth hypothesis results showed the relationship between the sales promotion and brand image. Results show B value of 1.145 and results are significant so in this case we accept HA4.

Hypothesis HA1 HA2 HA3 HA4

Results Rejected Accepted Accepted Accepted

Table of hypothesis testing

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
9 Conclusions Recommendations &Limitations

9.1 Conclusions Cola companies are doing better in each field almost but in marketing we can assume their efforts and competition as the research shows. Coke and Pepsi always compete globally in marketing especially in communication mix elements, as Coke starts any advertising campaign Pepsi also tries to follow or introduce something innovative. As a part of research it shows the impact on communication elements on both of the brand and I try my best to find out the exact relationship. This research shows that coke is better in sale promotion and public relation more than Pepsi, where as every customer I analyzed through questionnaire and personal contact answer that Pepsi is more better in advertising like mountain dew commercials are very famous and Pepsi new adds by using Pakistani most famous celebrities like Shiad Afridi in Pakistan, but coke is much more famous or better in advertising. Anyhow advertising of Pepsi is better still the Brand image of Coke is higher than Pepsi in Punjab Pakistan as well as all over the world. Simply we can conclude that advertising is not a source of building Brand image but it is a good source to increase the sale. More elements of communication mix like personal selling shows negative results, it shows that if we increase personal selling it may decrease the Brand image in Punjab Pakistan (as the research results shows) because people think that its now a standardize product or people think that company is forcing them to buy which discourages many of the customers so Brand image decreases as the loyalty of the customers decreases. So personal selling is like that it not touches the self esteem of the customers. On the other hand building good public relations enhances the brand image as coke is much better in this than Pepsi. According to this study Public relation is main source of communication mix which can increase brand image, so cola companies especially Pepsi should increase the Public relationship and manage them efficiently. Sale promotion is increasing brand image of both of the cola companies as both companies has significant results and have good sale force teams. Sale force team makes the product available everywhere. Sale promotion like giving incentives to retailers or hotel make it possible like that, Like Pepsi has a contract with KFC so

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
customer of KFC enjoys Pepsi and loyal customer of KFC can be Loyal Customer of Pepsi in future due to promotional activity. Coke is number one global brand according to Inter brands Ranking 2012 and Pepsi is on number twenty-two but in Punjab Pakistan Pepsi is also a famous brand but not have better brand image than coke. What should Pepsi do to build brand image? The answer is to mange sale promotion and builds strong customer relationship as show above in research which can increase the brand image more. 9.2 Recommendations: The cola beverage industry is growing at a fast pace and over the years some new local brand like Amrit Cola, Gormay Cola, Mecca Cola have started operation in Pakistan. These companies gain some popularity but it is not possible for them to challenge the might of Coke and Pepsi. Due to its extensive supply chain and well established distribution network they have acquired some market share and a well established distribution they have acquired some market share and it is rising. What coke and Pepsi can do at the moment is that they should strengthen their brand image even further by addressing the factors underline by the research. 9.3 Limitations of study: The researcher study conducted by me has many limitations as compare to the broad topic which I have chosen to study. Some of limitations of study are given below • • • • • • • The survey is conducted in Punjab Pakistan so we can say that it is not valid globally. The survey is conducted in particular cities of Punjab Pakistan so we can say that it is not valid for whole Punjab or for Pakistan. The time was limited to the sample size was smaller comparing the topic. The research is based on the answers form the respondents so it might not be accurate. The research project has lack of customer’s viability for interview. In this research the retailers, distributors and whole sellers were not interviewed. The research focuses on two big companies Coke and Pepsi only and small other companies like the Amrit Cola, Gormay Cola were neglected.

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
References
1) Sedeghat.N,Sedegat.M,Moakher.A (2012) Title-"Impact of promotion Mix Elements on Brand Equity" Source-" American Journal of scientific Research, Volume 43 2) Zafar Ali ( 2010) Title-: ComparitiveAnalaysis of Marketing Communication mix for Three companies in cola drink sector, Pepsi caola,Coca Cola and Sainsbery ownd Brand" Brunel Business scoll UK PP 06-12 3) RamChander V (2007) Title-" Measuring the effectiveness onf scale promotion Mix of Hyundi Motors" Jayamukhi Institue of Management Sciences INDIA, pp05/10. 4) Muhammad Kashif Omer Malik (2008) Title-"Marketing Communication of Pepsi and Coca Cola in Pakistan" Master Thesis EF0705 , School of sustainable devalopment of scociety and technology, Malardalens university, Vasteras,Sweden 5) Jiaferi Sun (2010) Title-" Brand Image in Cola Drinks" Lauria University of applied sciences, China 6) Zakir Ali Khan (2012) Title-"Marketing and innovation" Thesis no LB5202,Department of Mangement Sciences, Comsats institue of information Technology, Pakistan 7) Aaker. D.A (1991) Title “ Managing Brand equity”, new York: the free press 8) Angel.F and Manul, J ( 2005) title “ The impact of marketing communication and price promotion on brand equity” Hennry swert publication, Vol 12(6),pp 433-435 9) Chattopaddhyay dutta R.N, Sivani ( 2010), Title-“Media Mix elements effecting the brand equity” A study of the Indian passenger car market, science Direct, vol 22,pp 179-180. 10) Chedi C.R (2008), Title-“The influence of brand preference on brand image transfer”Phd thesis university of Twente, Netherland,pp09 11) Duncan,T (2006) Title-“Principle of advertising and IMC” 12) David.S and Martina R (2011) Title-“ Marketing communications Mix of universities communication with the students in increasing competitive universities environment” journal of competitiveness, Vol 03 PP.65-67 13) Ehtesham S.A (2008) Title- “ Marketing Mix and the brand reputation of Nokia” PAF-Karachi institute of economics and technology, Vol 4, pp19-23 14) Hubanic A & Hubanic V (2009) Title- “A case study of Nordstan Brand” Bachlor thesis, University of Gothenburg ,Sweden, PP 11-12 15) Heidrazadeh. H and Fatemh (2011) title- “ The effect of Brand image and Peceived Public relation on customer loyalty”, world applied sciences Journal, Vol 13(2),pp 277-278. 16) Inter Brands Report (2012) Link” http://www.interbrand.com/en/best-globalbrands/2012/Best-Global-Brands-2012.aspx ” 17) Wikipedia title Cola Wars link “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cola_Wars ” 18) Johnson J (2011) title-“ Pepsi Vs Coke ,the power of brand” 19) Kashif M (2008) Title-“ Marketing communication of pepsi co & coca cola in Pakistan”
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
20) Kartrandeve H.I (2000) Title-“ some aspects of measuring integrated marketing communications IMC” FACTA Universities vol 1, no 8, pp 89-92 21) Keller .K (2002). Title-“Branding and brand equity” In B.Weitz & R . Wensely ( eds), Hand book of marketing London, Sage publicvations, pp 151-178 22) Kotler Philip” Marketing Management” Chapter 09, building brand Equity, pp 273281 23) Yagasi M.I Biwas A Dutta ( 2009 ) : “ effect of Comparative advertising format on customer response” “The moderating of brand image and attribute relevance” published on Elsevier Inc , Vol 62, pp 770. 24) Malar L Korohmer H, Nyffenegger, B & hoyer,W.D (2011) Title- “ Emotional Brand attachment and brand personality” American Marketing association Vol 1, PP67 25) Megan, K.G (2008) Title- “ determining the relationship between destination brand image and its components with intention to Visit” MBA thesis, Cameron school of business, America, PP 69-71 26) Mouly, P R ( 2008), Assessment of effectiveness of marketing communication mix elements in Ethiopian service sector” African journal of business management, Vol 2 (3) PP062-064 27) Moradi, H and Zarei A ( 2007) Title-“The impact of brand equity on purchase intentions and brand prefence the moderating effects of country of origin image” Australian journal of basic and applied sciences. Vol5(3) pp540 28) Megan K.G(2006) Title-“ The effect of advertising on brand image” MS thesis university of Nottingham, UK pp 76-81 29) Poovaliangam K, Veerasamy D (2007) Title-“ The impact of communication on customers relationship marketing cellular service provider” “ the international identifier for serial and other continuing resources, in the electronic art print world, vol 14 pp 107-108. 30) Samue M, Jian L Damon, Kim S cypert L.M and Montague (2004) Title- “ Popularity of coca cola Vs Pepsi” Published in Neuron, Vol 44, No 2. PP 379387. 31) Scribe (2012) link www.scribe.com 32) Stephen L, Omer, Niabsiah a & Harun (2007), Title- “The effect of Brand image on overall satisfaction and loyalty Intention in the context of color cosmetics” Purchase intention through peer conformity” Asian Academy of Management journal, Vol 1, No 1 PP91-93. 33) Tseng L. Y (2009) Title- “How Brand image, Congruency between celebrity endorser and brand and brand attitude can influence the teens” Purchase intention through peer conformity, PHD thesis Fu Jen university Taiwan, 8F, No 278, PP.04 34) Pakistan Beverage Limited( Pepsi Website) website Link http://pakbev.com/ 35) Coca Cola Beverages Pakistan limited website link http://coke.rozee.pk/ 36) Battle of Brand Pepsi Vs Coke advertisement website link
http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/battle-of-the-brands-pepsi-vs-coke-advertisements/

37) Essay on Consumer Behavior by Haiding 1973

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
Appendix
Questionnaire I Student of Cyprus Institute of Marketing conducting a Survey about “Impact of Communication mix elements on Brand Image of Coca cola and Pepsi cola in Punjab Pakistan” as a part of my MBA research program. Please give me a few minutes I will greatly appreciate your help.

Instructions: Please encircle the answer you choose.

1. Gender:

Male

Female

2. What Age Group do you lie in? • • • • 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-above

3. Do you drink soft drinks? • Yes • No 4. Which form of marketing strategies is most effective in market? • TV Adds • News Paper Adds • Sale Promotions • Outdoor Advertisements 5. Which Brand most effective in advertisements? • Coke • Pepsi

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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
6. Which Brand has creative and appealing advertisement of Cola Company? • Coke • Pepsi 7. Do advertisements by the company really help you towards buying this product? • Yes • No 8. What is your opinion about role played by the Adds on Cola products in Market? • Important • Less important • Others 9. Which Brand having innovative and exiting offers? • Coke • Pepsi • Others 10. Which company has more publicity in recent past? • Pepsi • Coke • Others 11. A Part from consumption which brand do you prefers? • Coke • Pepsi

12. What is your preferred consumption quantity? • 250 ml • 500 ml • 1.5 Liters • 2.25 Liters 13. Where do you prefer to buy cola from?
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• • • Retailer Small Grocery store Others

14. Which cola brand do you consume the most? • Coke • Pepsi • Others

15. Does PR operator of Cola Company in your city have some kind of customer relationship manager? • Yes • No 16. Are the customer complains collected in your city? • Yes • No 17. To what Degree customer complains used to improve service? • 100 Percent • 75 Percent • 50 Percent • 25 Percent • 0 Percent 18. What Particular Rate to give the preference? • Taste • Price • Packing 19. What is your opinion about Coca Cola as a Brand? • Very Good • Good • Neutral • Bad • Very Bad 20. What is your opinion about Pepsi Cola as a Brand?
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Impact Of Communication Mix Elements On Brand Image Of Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola In Punjab Pakistan
• • • • • Very Good Good Neutral Bad Very Bad

21. Advertising is the main source of building brand image of Cola companies? • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neutral • Disagree • Strongly disagree 22. Do you think sales promotion helps to build brand image of Cola Companies? • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neutral • Disagree • Strongly disagree 23. Do you think Personal selling is impotent enough to build brand image of Cola Companies? • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neutral • Disagree • Strongly disagree 24. Do you think that Public relation can enhance the brand image of Cola Companies? • Strongly Agree • Agree • Neutral • Disagree • Strongly disagree

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