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**Thermal Engineering by RK Rajput - ref page no. 1032
**

⁄7)An engine 200mm bore and 300mm stroke works on Otto cycle. The clearance

volume is 0.0016m³. The initial temperature and pressure are 1bar and 60°C.If the

maximum pressure is limited to 24bar, find :

i) The air standard efficiency of the cycle

ii) The mean effective pressure of the cycle . Assume ideal conditions.

Given :

bore diameter d = 0.2m stroke length l = 0.3m clearance volume Vc =0.0016m³

T₁=60+273=333K

P₁= bar Cv =0.718 kJ/kg K

Cp=1.005kJ/kg K

P₃=24 bar

To find: (i) η

(ii) mep

Solution:

Vs = πd²l/4 = π*0.2²*0.3/4 =0.0094248m³

V = Vc+Vs = 0.0016+0.0094248 = 0.011025 m³

rk = V₂/V₁ = V/Vc = 0.011025/0.0016 = 6.89

ηt = 1- (1/rkγ-1) = 1-(1/6.891.4-1) = 0.5379 = 53.79%

T₂/T₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ-1

T₂ = T₁* rkγ-1 = 333 * 6.891.4-1 = 720.66 K

P₂/P₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ

P₂ = P₁* rkγ = 1* 6.891.4= 14.91 bar

P₁v₁ = RT₁

=> v₁=RT₁/P₁ =0.287*333/ 00 = 0.9557 m³/kg

v₂=v₁/6.89 =0.9557/6.89 = 0. 387 m³/kg

Swept volume vs = v₁-v₂ = 0.ref page no.989/13. Given : T₁=97+273 =370K T₂=789+273 = 062K T₃= 839+273 =2 To find : η Solution : T₂/T₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ-1 = rkγ-1 rkγ-1 = 1062/370 => rk = 13.95)1.5379=169.25% 2K .817 m³/kg P₂/T₂ = P₃/T₃ => T₃=P₃T₂/P₂ = 24*720.66/ 4.95 T₃/T₂ = v₃/v₂ =rc rc = 2112/1062 = 1.789°C and 1839°C.45*0.989 T₄ = T₃(rc/rk)γ-1 = 2112*(1.9557-0.{(968.99 K η = .99-370)/1.45 kJ/kg Work done Wnet = Qs * ηt = 315.1387 = 0.9 = Heat supplied Qs = Cv (T₃-T₂)=0.66) = 315.4-1 = 968.076 bar Thermal Engineering by RK Rajput .68/0.817 = 2.*(T₄-T₁)/γ(T₃-T₂)+ = 1. Find the efficiency of the cycle. the temperatures at the beginning of compression.4(2112-1062)} = 0.7 8( 60 K 60-720. 9 at the end of compression and at the end of heat addition are 97°C. 1032 2⁄ )In an ideal Diesel cycle.68 kJ/kg Mean effective pressure = Work done Wnet / Swept volume vs = 169.5925 =59.

4-1 = 850.0544 = 0.4= 44.8) T₃/T₂ =v₃/v₂ = rc => T₃ =269 .5513=1019.5513 = 55.5/ 0 .8 6-0.3 = 0.[ {rcγ.Thermal Engineering by RK Rajput .91 kJ/kg P₁v₁ = RT₁ => v₁=RT₁/P₁ =0.287*850.+/*γ rkγ-1 (rc-1)} ] =1-[{3.164-1)}] = 0. Initially the air is at 15°C and 1 ata.0 3 bar Qs = 1850kJ/kg rk =15 (ii) mep Solution : T₂/T₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ-1 T₂ = T₁* rkγ-1 = 288 * 151.8 6 m³/kg v₂=v₁/ 5 =0.4-1}/{1.4-1*(3. 1033 3⁄ ) 1 kg of air is taken through a Diesel cycle. The compression ratio is 15 and the heat added is 1850 kJ.4*151.13 % Work done Wnet = Qs * ηt = 1850*0.013* 151.6K => rc =2691.8K P₂/P₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ P₂ = P₁* rkγ = 1.89 bar Heat supplied Qs = Cp (T₃-T₂) 850= .8 6/ 5 = 0.ref page no.7616 m³/kg .Calculate: i) The ideal cycle efficiency ii) Mean effective pressure Given: m =1kg T₁= 5+273=288 K To find: (i) η P₁= .0544 m³/kg Swept volume vs = v₁-v₂ = 0.164 η = .1641.005(T₃-850.6/850.8 =3.

005773 = 0.045* 3. 65/4 =0.5 percent of the stroke.165m clearance volume Vc =0.4-1*(1. and a cylinder 4 diameter of 165mm.7 % Thermal Engineering by RK Rajput .4*14.006207 m³ rk = V₂/V₁ = V/Vc = 0.+/*γ rkγ-1 (rc-1)} ] =1-[{1.4-1}/{1.ref page no.27m stroke length l = 0.3v₂ => v₃/v₂ = rc = 1.3 v₃-v₂ = 0.045 ( 4.005773m³ V = Vc+Vs = 0. To find : η Solution : Vs = πd²l/4 = π*0.000434 m3 and the fuel ignition takes place at constant pressure for 4.The clearance volume is 0.27²*0.91/0.7616= 13.5985-1)}] = 0.5985 η = .ref page no.39bar Thermal Engineering by RK Rajput . 1033 4⁄ ) A compression ignition engine has a stroke 270mm.Mean effective pressure = Work done Wnet / Swept volume vs = 1019. 1033 .045 (v₂-v₁) = 0.31.59851.000434m³ Heat addition takes place at 4. Find the efficiency of the engine assuming it works on the diesel cycle.5% of the stroke.006207/0.617 = 61.000434 = 14.3v₂-v₂) v₃-v₂ = 0. Given : bore diameter d = 0.000434+0.[ {rcγ.

Determine : i) The cycle efficiency Take Cv= 0.5 bar T₃/T₂ = P₃/P₂ T₃=P₃T₂/P₂ = 70*979/48.126)1.4= 48.005(T₄-1413) T₄ = 723 K v₄/v₃ =T₄/T₃ = 723/ 4 3 = .34 K .4-1 = 615.The heat transferred to air at constant pressure is equal to that at constant volume.2 9 = 3.718(1413-979) = . 26 T₅=T₄ *(v₄/v₅)γ-1 = 1723 * (1/13.4-1 = 979K P₂/P₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ P₂ = P₁* rkγ = 1* 161.005 kJ/kg K Given: rk = 16 P₁= bar T₁=50+273 =323 K P₃=P₄=70 bar Qsv =Qsp To find: (i) η (ii) mep Solution: T₂/T₁ = (v₁/v₂)γ-1 T₂ = T₁* rkγ-1 = 323 * 161.5 = 4 3 K Cv (T₃-T₂)= Cp (T₄-T₃) 0.5⁄ ) An air standard dual cycle has a compression ratio of 16 and 8 compression begins at 1 bar and 50°C .2 9 v₅/v₄ = (v₁/v₂)*(v₃/v₄)= 6/ .718 kJ/kg K ii) Mean effective pressure of the cycle Cp=1.The maximum pressure is 70 bar .

24 .927/ 6 = 0.7 8(6 5.Qs = Qsv + Qsp = 2* Qsv Qs = 2* Cv (T₃-T₂) = 2*0.32/0.9= 413.209.927-0.0579 m³/kg Swept volume vs = v₁-v₂ = 0.32 kJ/kg P₁v₁ = RT₁ => v₁=RT₁/P₁ =0.8691 m³/kg Mean effective pressure = Work done Wnet / Swept volume vs = 413.287*323/ 00 = 0.9/623.7 8( 4 3-979) = 623.9 kJ/kg η = -(Qs/Qr) = 1-(209.8691 = 4.6632 =66.24) = 0.76 bar .34-323) =209.32 % Wnet = Qs-Qr = 623.0579 = 0.927 m³/kg v₂=v₁/ 6 =0.24 kJ/kg Qr = Cv (T₅-T₁) = 0.

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