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CHAPTER 2

This chapter deals with three major topics. The first topic is the basic properties of each phase of an unsaturated soil. This information is used in later chapters when describing the behavior of the soil as a system of phases. The second topic deals with the understanding of the interaction between air and water. The third topic deals with establishing useful volume-mass relations for solving engineering problems. An unsaturated soil has commonly been referred to as a three-phase system. However, more recently, the realization of the important role of the air-water interface (Le., the contractile skin) has warranted its inclusion as an additional phase when considering certain physical mechanisms. When the air phase is continuous, the contractile skin interacts with the soil particles and provides an influence on the mechanical behavior of the soil. An element of unsaturated soil with a continuous air phase is idealized in Fig. 2.1. When the air phase consists of occluded air bubbles, the fluid becomes significantly compressible. The mass and volume of each phase can be schematically represented by a phase diagram. Figure 2.2(a) shows a rigorous four-phase diagram for an unsaturated soil. The thickness of the contractile skin is in the order of only a few molecular layers. Therefore, the physical subdivision of the contractile skin is unnecessary when establishing volume-mass relations for an unsaturated soil. The contractile skin is considered as part of the water phase without significant error. A simplified three-phase diagram, depicted in Fig. 2.2(b), can be used in writing the volumemass relationships. The term “soil solids” is used when refemng to the summation of masses and volumes of all the soil particles. 2.1 PROPERTIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL PHASES An understanding of the basic properties of the soil particles, water, air, and contractile skin should precede the consideration of the behavior of the soil system. This sec20

Co py rig hte dM ate ria l
phase.
Volume
( b)

Phase Properties and Relations

Figure 2.1 An element of unsaturated soil with a continuous air

Mass

Figure 2.2 Rigorous and simplified phase diagrams for an unsaturated soil. (a) Rigorous four phase unsaturated soil system; (b) simplified three phase diagram.

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72 2. therefore. 2. Table 2 . 2.1.85 2.81 m/s2).’ va (2.. + M.7 2 . 9.8-3.knovel.84 2. 3 Phase diagram for an unsaturated soil.57 2. pa. 101. and gravitational acceleration.62-2. Quartz K-Feldspars Na-Ca-Feldspars Calcite Dolomite Muscovite Biotite Chlorite Pyrophyllite Serpentine Kaolinite Halloysite (2H20) Illite Montmorillonite Attapulgite 2. 3 kPa is lo00 kg/m3.2. is defined as follows: P w = Water is essentially a homogeneous substance the world over. It is the product of density. 1940).60-2. pw. 2. 1979) Mineral Specific Gravity. Total mass M = M.4) The specific volume of air.30 ‘Calculated from crystal structure. ps. The density of pure. g (Le.7 4 ‘ . For soil mechanics problems. the variation in the density of water due to temperature differences is more significant Co py rig hte dM ate ria l Total volume v = v.64 f 0.1 PROPERTIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL PHASES 21 tion discusses the gravimetric and volumetric properties pertinent to each phase. For isothermal conditions. 2. can be expressed as Ma pa = v. Volume of individual phase Mass of individual phase Soil Particles The density of the soil particles. M W V W (2.4 shows the density of pure water under various applied pressures and temperatures. In the S I system of units.55 2 .3) Air Phase The density of air.2)and also varying amounts of water vapor. The most important property of the contractile skin is its ability to exert a tensile pull. p . Specific volume. G. + M. 1 presents typical values of specific gravity for several common minerals. 8 4 ’ . p .com .86 2. specific volume is the ratio of volume to mass. except for variations produced by salts and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (Dorsey. -.78 2. Figure 2 .. 2. + vw+ v. vd.3): The density of the soil particles is commonly expressed as a dimensionless variable called specific gravity.76 2.6-2. Distilled water under the pressure of its saturated vapor is called pure. is generally defined as the inverse of density. The density of each phase can be formulated from the phase diagram shown in Fig. G. This property is called “surface tension” and is discussed later in this chapter. Table 2. vo. saturated water must be measured experimentally.7-3. The mixture is called Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. The specific gravity of the soil particles is defined as the ratio of the density of the soil particles to the density of water at a temperature of 4°C under atmospheric pressure conditions (Le.1 Density and Specific Volume Density.65 2S4-2.1 Specific Gravity of Several Minerals (from Lambe and Whitman. y. 6 1 ’ .9 2. is defined as follows (Fig. Water Phase The density of water.. saturated water.02 2.75-2.1 2.2-2. = -. PI G. the density of water is commonly taken as lo00 kg/m3. than its variation due to an applied pressure.2 2. Each phase of a soil has its own density. Figure 2.3 kPa). is defined as the ratio of mass to volume. this variable is now referred to as the relative density of the soil particles.3. is V d =Ma‘ Air behaves as a mixture of several gases (Table 2. Unit weight. 2. P w The density of water at 4°C and 1 0 1 . is a useful term in soil mechanics.

(kg/rn’) Figure 2. Under these conditions.24 x 1 0 ./wa)RT) is a constant for a gas in a closed system with a constant mass and temperature.000 28. = atmospheric pressure (i.knovel. The right-hand side of Eq.944 44.851 2. (M.934 0.) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H2) Xenon (Xe) Ozone (03) Air dry air when no water vapor is present.~ -5.300 48.e. - + where - -.03 1 1. 1940). = gauge air pressure (kN/m2 or kPa) u.016 131. V.) Oxygen ( 0 2 ) Argon (Ar) Carbon dioxide (CO.95 0.2 Composition of Dry Ail.. uatm) (kN/m* or kPa) u. = volume of air (m3) Ma = mass of air (kg) wa = molecular mass of air (kg/kmol) R = universal (molar) gas constant [i.003 83. = absolute air pressure (note that a bar. Eq. Dry and moist air can be considered to behave as an ‘‘ideal” gas under pressures and temperatures commonly encountered in geotechnical engineering. Table 2. T = t o 273. + dicates an absolute pressure. = wa Co py rig hte dM ate ria l Density of water.0 x 10-5 8.010 20.82 x 1 0 .42904 1.966 78. and is called moist air when water vapor is present.e.com ..183 4.. (2..0 1.25055 1.~ 1..800 2.3 kPa or 1 atm) V. 0 = 16) (kg /kmol) 28.16) (K) t o = temperature (“c).70 X 1 x 10-6 to 1 x 10-5 100. 101..144 1 .31432 J/(mol K ) ] T = absolute temperature (Le.08988 5.000 39..e. sign inti.8 Percentage by Volume Density (kg/m3) Molecular Mass (on Basis of Natural Scale. p.3 kPa and OOC) with no water vapor - u. 101.7837 1. 8.90035 0.2929 aUnder standard conditions (Le.6) can be rewritten as Boyle’s law: Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.016 32.4 Density of pure water for various applied pressures and temperatures (from Dorsey.. The ideal gas law can be written Ma RT ii.708 0. = u. (2.17847 3.6) (Le.22 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS Nitrogen (N.14 x 1 0 .08 20.9769 0.~ 5. i.

(2.002 RH = relative humidity (96) uu = partial pressure of water vapor in the air (kPa) - -0.124 1.003 +0. However.9) The molecular mass of air.152 1. namely. 2. Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. depending on environmental conditions.3 were computed for air with a relative humidity of 50% and 0. 2.2..243 ~~ 30 0. (kPa) 80 85 10 0. 1965).043 1. a correction should be applied as shown in the bottom portion of Table 2. ) and oxygen ( O .. at condition 2. Eq.) content in air may vary.982 1. and several other materials at different temperatures.8) gives an equation for the density of air: (2.6) gives M= a *a Table 2. (2.003 +om2 +0.167 1. the constituent of air that can vary most is water vapor. RH (96) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 10 +0.003 -0.005 +0.are essentially constant in the atmosphere. The dry air has a molecular mass of 28.002 +0. Rearranging the “ideal” gas equation (Le.016 kg/kmol.025 1.004 +0.140 1. Table 2. Figure 2.105 1. The volume percentage of water vapor in the air may range from as little as 0. r“ (“C) Absolute Air Pressure. The molecular mass of air is affected by the change in each constituent. This consequently affects the density of air.184 1.depends on the composition of the mixture of dry air and water vapor.002 -0.001 Va R T ’a’ Density Adjustments for Humidity (kg/m3) Temperature.knovel. 101. such as the rate of consumption of fossil fuels.001 0 -0. pa (kg/m3) Temperature. it should be noted that the density of air decreases as the relative humidity increases.004 -0. respectively. the influence of pressure is negligible for the range of pressures commonly encountered in typical civil engineering applications.001 -0. The absolute viscosity depends on the pressure and temperature.4) into Eq.196 1.966 kg/kmol. However. t o .198 -~ Substituting Eq.000002% to as high as 4-596 (Harrison.003 +om2 +0.003 -0.290 ~ - 20 0. while the viscosity of air increases as the temperature increases. ) .5 presents the absolute viscosities of water. The concentration of water vapor in the air is commonly expressed in terms of relative humidity: (2.003 -0.4 and 2.04% carbon dioxide by volume. and the molecular mass of the water vapor (H20) is 18.065 1. The composition of air.3 Density of Air at Different Absolute Pressures. The figures in the top portion of Table 2. of a fluid is defined as the resistance of the fluid to a shearing force applied by sliding one plate over another with the fluid placed in between.002 -0.083 1. The absolute (dynamic) viscosity.1 PROPERTIES OF THE INDIVIDUAL PHASES 23 absolute pressure and volume of air.240 1.228 1.006 ud = saturation pressure of water vapor at the same temperature (kPa).10) U”0 Co py rig hte dM ate ria l 90 95 100 101 105 Relative Humidity.946 1.005 ~ 0 -0.3 presents the values of air density for different absolute air pressures (Tia) and temperatures.006 +0. nitrogen ( N . and Relative Humidities (from Kaye and Laby. 1973) Density of Air. The carbon dioxide (CO. Ti.3 @a) and different temperatures a 8 given in Tables 2. to (“C) 20 +0. Although the corrections are small. air. The viscosities of liquids are shown to decmse with an increase in temperature.5. oa.com .1. at condition 1 absolute pressure and volume of air. The viscosities of water and air at atmospheric pressure (Le.001 +0. Temperatures. p .005 1. This resistance is expressed by the property called viscos- ity.001 -0. For air having relative humidities other than 5096. respectively. This indicates that the moist air is lighter than the dry air.968 1.3.001 where -0.910 0. respectively.2 Viscosity All fluids resist a change of form or the action of shearing.

507 0. 1976 Tuma.Surface tension is sile pull is called its surface tension. p Temperature.310 1 . 6 ( a ) ] . @) pressures and surface tension acting on a curved two-dimensional surface.654 0.548 55 60 65 70 7 5 80 85 90 95 100 0.3 Surface Tension The air-water interface (Le.3 kPa (Modified from Tuma. The property of the contractile skin that allows it to exert a ten.604 1.731 0. 1973 (b) Figure 2. Table 2 tension values for the contractile skin at different temperatures.009 0. 1976 Tuma. ( X IO-' N * to ("C) s/m2) .336 0. Its magnitude de.. The phenomenon of surface tension results f r o m the intennolecular forces acting on molecules in the contractile skin.knovel.. 6 1 Tuma.909 1 .4 Viscosity of Water at 101.437 0. 1 4 4 1..705 1.O 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature.864 1.800 0.895 0.3 kPa (Modified from Tuma. 1976 Kaye and Laby. p Tempera( X 10-~ ture. 1976 Tuma.381 0. (a) Intermolecular forces on contractile skin and water.785 1. 1976. 2 A molecule in the interior of the water experiences equal forces in all directions. 1976) Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity. contractile skin) Sources 1.357 0.6 Surface tension phenomenon at the air-water interface.10 0 1 0 20 30 40 50 100 200 -20 2.e. the water [Fig. 1973) Absolute (dynamic) Viscosity.24 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS Table 2. Temperature. 9 6 2.597 0. units of N/m).5 Viscosity of fluids at different temperatures (fmm Streeter and Wylie. to ("C) P (X Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity. A water molecule within the contractile skin Co py rig hte dM ate ria l 1.e. Surface tension is tangential to the contractile skin surface. In order for the contractile skin to be in equilibrium. 6 gives surface creases as temperature increases. and Kaye and Laby. at the air-water interface 1. T measured as the tensile force per unit length' of the contractile skin (i. experiences an unbalanced force towards the interior of the water. a tensile pull is generated along the contractile skin. 1975).1. .284 'xloI. 1973 Kaye and Laby.519 1. contractile skin) possesses a property called surface tension. These forces are different from those that act on molecules in the interior of . which means there is no unbalanced force. Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.299 0. t ( O C ) Figure 2.com .407 0.761 1.5 Viscosity of Air at 101. to ("C) N * s/m2) N * 10-~ s/m2) 0 5 1 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Table 2.470 0. 1973 Kaye and Laby. 1976 Tuma. 1976 Tuma.317 0.20 2 . 1976 Tuma.794 1.667 1.

13) Air and water can be combined as immiscible and/or miscible mixtures.0 71. Rearranging Eq. R..). 2.9 66. and a surface tension.13) becomes (2. Therefore.. and R2 = radii of curvature of a warped membrane in two orthogonal principal planes.2 64.) = 2TS R.u.12) gives the pressure difference across a two-dimensional curved surface with a radius. T. sin 6 (2.6(b)]. is referred to as matric suction.7) Au = T .4 62.12) can be extended using the Laplace equation (Fig. 1973).6 67.. (2. (2. When the pressure difference between the pore-air and pore-wakr goes to zero.2 INTERACTION OF AIR AND WATER (d + i) (2. three-dimensional membrane).7 74. Air-Water Interface) (from Kaye and Laby.12) Equation (2. R.11) where Co py rig hte dM ate ria l where &=-* 2TS RS 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Figure 2.6 Surface Tension of Contractile Skin (Le. The curved contractile skin is often called a meniscus. Temperature. u.. T.com . The pressure difference. the contractile skin would be subjected to an air pressure.5 72. The horizontal forces along the membrane balance each other.2.2 INTERACTION OF AIR AND WATER 25 Table 2. R. (u. u. to (“C) 0 Surface Tension. the radius of curvature of the contractile skin decreases.knovel. The immiscible mixture is a combination of free air and water without any interaction.) = matric suction or the difference between pore-air and pore-water pressures acting on the contractile skin. Equation (2.14): (u. the radius of curvature. The pressure difference acmss the curved surface can be related to the surface tension and the radius of curvature of the surface by considering equilibrium across the membrane [Fig. (2. The membrane has a radius of curvature of.11) gives (2.Eq. which is greater than the water pressure. Eq. 2Rs sin B = length of the membrane projected onto the horizontal plane. If the radius of curvature is the same in all directions (i.8 0 60 70 80 100 The surface tension causes the contractile skin to behave like an elastic membrane.2 73. If a flexible two-dimensional membrane is subjected to different pressures on each side..75 72. goes to infinity. 2. This behavior is similar to an inflated balloon which has a greater pressure inside the balloon than outside.7 Surface tension on a warped membrane. As the matric suction of a soil increases. 2. The pressure difference causes the contractile skin to curve in accordance with Eq. sin 6 = 2 AuR. The pressures acting on the membrane are u and (u + Au).u. The immiscible Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. a flat air-water interface exists when the matric suction goes to zem.15) is referred to as Kelvin’s capillary model equation. and R2 are equal to R. and a surface tension. R .15) where (u..e.. . T s (mN/m) 75. For a warped or saddle-shaped surface (Le.2 69. (2. (2.6 58. ...14) In an unsaturated soil. Force equilibrium in the vertical direction requires that 2T. the membrane must assume a concave curvature towards the larger pressure and exert a tension in the membrane in order to be in equilibrium. R.).u.. .

14 286.0639 3.206 87.4872 4.0332 6 0.852 51.9348 1.39 9.164 60. a unique relationship exists between the saturation water vapor pressure and temperature.25 270. separates the solid and the vapor states of water.120 143. The vaporization curve.61 kPa.3123 2. and with the vapor state along the sublimation curve. Liquid.7814 6. liquid.1075 23.0015 1.667 94.1 Solid.926 55.88 254.171 28.com .4022 2.5666 6.58 15. All of the above types of mixtures are dealt with in the following sections. A C . 2. and the sublimation curve. A miscible air-water mixture can have two forms. AC.9846 5.6296 16 0 40 60 80 100 120 7.8)..468 163.61 322.7 Saturation Pressures of Water Vapor at Different Temperatures“(from Kaye and Laby.8 represents an equilibrium condition between the liquid and vapor states of water. are presented in Table 2. In the atmosphere.8720 1. AB. The solid state can coexist in equilibrium with the liquid state along the fusion curve.2793 14 1. the words “water” or “water phase” refer to the liquid state of water.9451 12 1. On the other hand. This point is called the triple point of water where the solid. mixture is characterized by the separation produced by the contractile skin.960 133. fusion.8099 5.2 Water Vapor The vaporization curve. Saturation water vapor pressures.0724 2. and sublimation curves meet at point A . The fusion curve. water vapor can be present in the air.26 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS Solid Liquid u1 J e! a Figure 2. 1972).3384 4. 1973) to (“C) Co py rig hte dM ate ria l 0 100 374 Temperature.5983 2.0074 6.24 341.97 10.1974 4. the liquid state as water.26 11.974 75. First.9375 3.375 101.6107 1.knovel. 2. and the gaseous state as water vapor (Fig.1686 5.2276 2. AD. Three lines are drawn on the water state diagram (Fig.49 8. AD.7055 1. 1940).59 303.623 33.121 125. It gives combination values of temperature and pressure for which the liquid and vapor states of water can coexist in equilibrium. The state of water depends on the pressure and temperature environment.177 70.16 18.7051 3. Throughout the text. Zoo. air dissolves in water and can occupy approximately 2% by volume of the water (Dorsey. evaporation and condensation processes occur simultaneously at the same rate. These are the vaporization curve.23 ‘Saturation water vapor pressures. and vapor states of water can coexist in equilibrium.013 36. 2. The vaporization.6566 1.7. which is described by the vaporization curve.578 64. Consideration is also given to all possible states for the water. AB. This phenomenon is expressed by Dalton’s law of partial pressures.617 153.8 State diagram for water (not to scale.344 108.8130 1. Therefore. AB. are in kPa. 2. the fusion Table 2.7574 4 0.2053 21.980 81.4949 2 0. In this state of equilibrium.2.933 47.3226 8 0.3812 19. the evaporation rate depends only on temperature. t (“C) curve. from Van Have m and Brown.8180 3. Dalton’s law states that the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.304 186. in Fig.6443 4. The rate of condensation depends on the pressure in the water vapor which reaches its saturation value on the vaporization line.. Second. water vapor is mixed with air.857 116.2451 0. 2.160 43. The triple point of water is achieved at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 0.522 40.4974 2.1477 2.9967 18 0 10 20 30 to (“C) 0.95 16.345 31. the presence of the air has no effect on the behavior of the water vapor. However. and Vapor States of Water Water can be found in one of three states: the solid state as ice.27 12. and the sublimation curve.325 198. E”.67 224.691 174.8). is also called the vapor pressure curve of water.03 239.7576 1.6264 10 0.094 26.2.03 13. Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. separates the solid and the liquid states of water.77 211.3625 5.

In other words. - 27 Air pressure regulator Free air Cylinder / Channel and cage network for air dissolving in water (approximately2% by volume) Water Cage Figure 2. is usually not the same as the saturation pressure of the water vapor. 1958). is. In this model.10)l. at the corresponding temperature. The saturated condition indicates an equilibrium between the water vapor and the water where evaporation and condensation take place at the same rate. Si. as illustrated in Fig. The partial pressure of the water vapor in air defines the degree to which the air is saturated with water vapor at a specific temperature.com . equal to. and the density of water changes little as a consequence of the presence of the dissolved air. the water vapor in air is usually not in equilibrium with adjacent bodies of water. The porous stone has pores equaling 2% of its volume. 2. measurable effect 20 ‘ 0 0. . the behavior of a particular gas of a mixture of gases is independent of the other gases. the cylinder contains free air above the porous stone. In the undersaturated state. there is a lack of water vapor relative to the equilibrium condition.7)]. the undersaturated and supersaturated states of water vapor are not equilibrium conditions.003 0. Zu0.8).002 0.. isivo. The porous stone is used to simulate the behavior of water. 1940). The water vapor in air at a given temperature is therefore said to be undersaturated. 2. the rate of condensation exceeds the evaporation rate until the partial pressure of water vapor. Similarly the presence of air above water does not change the state equilibrium of water (Fig. (2.11). Therefore. If the load on the piston is increased.knovel. 3 Air Dissolving in Water Water molecules form a lattice structure with openings re- ferred to as a “cage” that can be occupied by a gas (Rodebush and Busswell.(2. has reached the saturation water vapor pressure. or greater than of water vapor. Air dissolves into the water and fills the “cages” which have a volume of approximately 2% by total volume. 2. The movement of air into the porous stone represents the movement of air into water.10 E f f e c t of dissolved air on the density of water (from Dorsey.10 shows the effect of dissolved air on the density of water for various temperatures. The imaginary valve is then closed. The imaginary valve is then opened. An analogy using a cylinder with a piston and porous stone is useful in analyzing the behavior of air-water mixtures. The degree of saturation with respect to water vapor is referred to as the relative humidity.9. This means that the partial pressure of the water vapor in air. is less than.7. or supersaturated when the partial pressure i . Henr y ’ s law states that the mass of gas dissolved in a fixed Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. In this case.9 Visualization aid for air dissolving in water. On the other hand. In nature. the free air above the porous stone will be compressed following Boyle’s law [Q. isuo.006 Difference in density between air-free and air-saturated water (kg/m’J Figure 2. Therefore. saturated. tween the free air and the porous stone to control the movement of air into the porous stone. The supenaturated state indicates an excess of water vapor which eventually condenses. the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation until the partial pressure of the water vapor. 1940). has been reduced to the saturation pressure. The water lattice is relatively rigid and stable (Dorsey.004 0. Let us suppose there is an initial pressure applied equally to the free air and to the air in the porous stone in the cylinder. Figure 2. S the saturation water vapor pressure. and some air will move into the porous stone in accordance with Henry’s law. u .2. the partial pressure of water vapor in the atmosphere which is in equilibrium with water is the saturation pressure given in Table 2.001 0. Consider a cylinder with a porous stone at its base and a frictionless piston at the top (Fig. An imaginary valve is situated at the boundary be- Co py rig hte dM ate ria l Dissolved air partial pressures that each individual gas would exert if it alone filled the entire volume.2 INTERACTION OF AIR AND WATER 2 . RH [Eq. 2 .

Table 2. Zal= mass and absolute pressure of the dissolved air. = absolute pressure of the dissolved air. at condition 1 M d z . (2. The possibility of a difference between the air and water pressures is later shown to be of significance in the compressibility formulation. v d .com . the process will be repeated. 2. The volume of dissolved air in water.16) and by considering the relationship shown in (Eq. The mass of air going into or coming out of water is time dependent. 1953). and air in water. This process will continue as the piston load is increased. such as soil particles. is directly proportional to the absolute pressure of the gas above the solution (Sisler et d .16) @a where Vd Md = volume of dissolved air in water = mass of dissolved air in water u.e. the volume of dissolved air in water is a constant for different pressures. an increase in the piston load will increase the pressure in the free air. Values for the volumetric coefficient of solubility for air in water under different temperatures are given in Table 2. At a constant temperature. at condition 2. h.. This time dependency can either be ignored or taken into consideration. Solubility of Air in Water The volume of dissolved air in water is essentially independent of air or water pressures.8 presents the coefficients of solubility of oxygen. the free air and the water (i. The absolute pressure of the dissolved air is equal to the absolute pressure of the free air under equilibrium conditions. Co py rig hte dM ate ria l Before After L Figure 2. stone (i.6)] can be rearranged and applied to a gas dissolving in water at a certain temperature and pressure: M d RT Vd = - % (2. This can be demonstrated using the ideal gas law and Henry’s law. the concentrationdiffer&@sion Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. depending upon the engineering problem under consideration. all the free air will move into the porous stone. D. the ratio of the mass and the absolute pressure of the dissolved air is constant: (2. In the analogy. the air and water pressures can have different magnitudes.8. at constant temperature. The above analogy cannot totally simulate the situation in an unsaturated soil. In the presence of a solid. which varies slightly with temperature. v d . Za2 = mass and absolute pressure of the dissolved air. H. an equilibrium condition will be reached where the pressure in the free air and the dissolved air are equal. The rate at which mass is transf e d across a unit area is equal to the product of the coefficient of diffusion. porous stone) have the same pressure. respectively. All coefficients of solubility are referenced to a standard pressure of 101. The ratio of the volume of dissolved gas.28 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS 1 initial load Frictionless piston Initial volume of free air Added Initial 1 I Volume change of the free air v o l u m e change due to air going into porous disk Imaginary valve Cylinder I Frictionless piston Final volume of free air I QD quantity of liquid. and the concentration gradient. and therefore more free air will go into the porous of Gases Through Water The rate at which air can pass through water is described by Fick’s law of diffusion.11 Piston and porous stone analogy. In the diffusion of air through water. in a liquid to the volume of the liquid is called the volumetric coefficient of solubility. The amount of air that can be dissolved in water is referred to as its solubility.e.3 kPa. Refemng to the piston and porous stone analogy. and the rate of solution is referred to as its difisivity.. After some time. The ideal gas law [Q. If the temperature remains constant throughout the process. Eventually. The ratio between the muss of each gas that can be dissolved in a liquid and the mass of the liquid is called the coefficient of solubility. water). The air and water pressures in a soil can also change at differing rates during a process.knovel.17) where Mdl .17). and any additional applied load will be carried by the porous stone. nitrogen. (2. . The mass of dissolved air at equilibrium is dependent upon the corresponding absolute air pressure as stated in Henry’s law. over a temperature range. If the piston load is then increased. respectively. is computed using Eq.

The coefficient of diffusion for air through the water in a soil appears to differ by several orders of magnitude from the coefficient of diffusion for air through free water.07 X 27. to ("C) Coefficient of Diffusion.3. Their results are presented in Table 2.7 x 10-~ 2. the density of air is a function of the air pressure [Q. 1933). Table 2. to the total volume.com .52 x 20.02918 0.21) (2. 1940) Coefficient of Solubility.55 X 23. n.10.87 X 21.knovel. 9 ) ] .82 X 17. Barden and Sides (1967)measured the coefficient of diffusion for air through the water phase of both saturated and compacted clays.1 Porosity Porosity. This pressure difference becomes the driving potential for the free air to diffuse into the water. Under constant temperature conditions.02284 0. etc.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS 29 Table 2. D. Co py rig hte dM ate ria l "At standard atmospheric pressure.62 x 22. for each component of air through water are tabulated in Table 2.43 X 34.9 Coefiients of Diffusion for Certain G a s e s in Water (from Kohn. and air phases are useful properties in engineering practice. The coefficients of diffusion.92 x 10-9 Similarly.11 x 8. Argon.0 x Research Council. 0 4 10 15 20 25 30 14.An increase in pressure in the free air will develop a pressure difference between the free and dissolved air.19) (2. n.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS The volume-mass relations of the soil particles. D (m2/s) Gas co2 N2 H 2 0 2 20 22 21 25 1.25 X 10. n . = soil particle porosity (%) = water porosity (%) n.0 x 10-9 5.28 x 7.06 x 11.65 x 30.01564 bh = (PW/PM. where 2.56 X 13.07 X 24. Vu.65 X 0.2 x 10-9 2. The study concluded that the coefficient of diffusion appears to decrease with decreasing water content of the soil. Volumetric Coefficient of Solubility. water. Ha Temperature.8 Solubility of Gases in Water (Under a Pressure of 101. The derivations combine the gravimetric and volumetric properties of a soil.20) (2.3 kPa) (from h r s e y .S. 2.07 X 9.01708 0. (2.01868 0.24 x 13. = air porosity (%) n. The gases composing air individually diffuse into water. porosity type terns can be defined with respect to each of the phases of a soil: (2. ( 2 . Combined gases forming air dissolve in water at a rate of approximately 2.59 x 18. V (Fig.18) The volume associated with the contractile skin can be Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.02055 0. = contractile skin porosity (%).02632 0. m2/s (U.00 X 15.22) 2.51 x 14.10 X 38. 1965) Temperature.12): . to ("C) Nitrogen. hb Air Air Oxygen ence is equal to the difference in density between the free air and the dissolved air in the water.9.2. in percent is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids.

+ V.2 Void Ratio Void ratio.2 x 10-9 1 . Total mass. 0% < S C 100%):An unsaturated soil can be further subdivided. 2. Saturated soils (i. assumed to be negligible or part of the water phase. Unsaturated soils (i. 1967) Water Content. Therefore.3.24)]: e n=(2. The water and air porosities represent their volumetric percentages in the soil. e. Dry soils (i-e. Eqs.5 x 10-5 Mass relations b 2. No water is present.com .5 kPa Jackson clay and 4%bentonite consolidated at 34. (2.30 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS Table 2.knovel. The volumetric water content notation is also used throughout this book. 1 x lo-'' 4.3 Degree o f Saturation The percentage of the void space which contains water is expressed as the degree of saturation. t M.11.18) and (2. = v.24) 1 Total volume.25) 1 +e' Typical values for void ratio are shown in Table 2.0 x 10-I' 1. f v.6 x lo-"' 2.. The water porosity.e. is e commonly referred to as the volumetric water content. (Fig. S. V = V.5 kPa Denvent clay (illite) consolidated at 34. M = M. Vu. in soil science and soil physics literature. .10 CoefRcient of Mffusion for Air Through Different Materials (from Barden and Sides.2 x lo-'' Volume relations Co py rig hte dM ate ria l 47 75 53 39 3. S (%): (2.2 x lo-'' 4. The relationship between porosity and void ratio is obtained by equating the volume of voids.3. The sum of the porosities of all phases must equal 100%. expressed in decimal forin. + M. 2.23) The degree of saturation. + v. = loo(%).5 x lo-'' 3. S = 0%): Dry soil consists of soil particles and air. depending upon whether the air phase is continuousor occluded. S = 100%):All of the voids in the soil are filled with water.12 Volume-mass Elations.. Typical values of porosity for some soils are given in Table 2.e. is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids.26) + n = n... can be used to subdivide into three groups. (2. n . Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. V. . D (m2/s) Material Free water Natural rubber Kaolin consolidated at 414 kPa (oriented parallel to flow) Kaolin consolidated at 414 kPa (oriented perpendicular to flow) Kaolin consolidated at 483 kPa Kaolin consolidated at 34.7 x lo-'' c 1 . the following soil porosity equation can be written as n.12): M =pV (2. Vu. 0 x lo-'' 16 49 21 1. w (%) Coefficient of Diffusion.11. + n. The soil particle porosity can be visualized as the percentage of the overall volume comprised of soil particles.0 x lo-'' 6.5 kPa Compacted Westwater clay Saturated ceramic Saturated coarse stone 49 49 2. Figure 2.from the two equations [Le. to the volume of soil solids. + n.

to the mass of soil solids.0 33.6 26. This subdivision is primarily a function of the degree of saturation. and D r y Density ( M o d i f i e d from Hough. G.knovel. 1969) Void Ratio.30 0.0 1762 1890 1474 1330 1281 0.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS 31 Table 2. 2.0 1890 Granular Materials: 2) Well-Graded Materials a) Silty sand 0. and G.20 Granular Materials: 1) Uniform Materials a) Equal spheres 0.40 52.20 0. (Fig.50 44.0 41. It is Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.55 0.0 1794 1698 801 308 Organic Soils a) Organic silt b) Organic clay (30-50% clay sizes) 3.0 237 1 1602 Clay Soils a) Clay (30-50% clay sizes) b) Colloidal clay (-0..0 37.. An unsaturated soil with a continuous air phase genedly has a degree of saturation less than approximately 80% (Le. silt.0 0.com . S > 90%). (kg/m3) maximum minimum P Co py rig hte dM ate ria l 0.95 c) Micaceous sand 1.0 12.o 0.4 0.0 46.90 b) Clean. M.O 17.o (fine or medium) d) Uniform. 80% < S < 90%).85 Mixed Soils a) Sandy or silty clay b) Skip-graded silty clay with stones or rock fragments c) Well-graded gravel. 2.50 0. n Soil Type maximum minimum maximum minimum Density.0 33.0 29.0 29.2.40 50.0 0.4 Water Content Water content.0 4.002 mm 2 50%) 2.0 29.40 0.60 71. is defined as the ratio of the 'mass of water.0 1.20 d) Silty sand and gravel 0.4 12.12). fine to coarse sand 0. and clay mixture 2034 2210 1922 2239 1394 1362 1217 1426 64.0 0. = 2.65 for granular soils.O 92. Void Ratio. = 2. w ..0 11.0 20.3.0 2162 2243 96 1 1346 0.0 50.. M. uniform sand 1.0 17.13 41.35 47.70 for clays.1 silt 0.0 81.8 1. S < 80%).11 Typical Values of Porosity. inorganic 1.70 0. sand. The transition zone between con- tinuous air phase and occluded air bubbles occurs when the degree of saturation is between appmximately 80-9096 (i.0 35.80 sand c) Clean.0 23 . e Porosity.92 (theoretical values) b) Standard Ottawa 0. Occluded air bubbles commonly occur in unsaturated soils having a degree of saturation greater than approximately 90% (Le.0 1762 1602 641 48 1 General Note: Tabulation is based on G.70 75. = 2.14 47.60 for organic soils.25 0.e.0 49.0 55.

39) (2.41) Mass relations (2.35) is shown in Fig.12): M p = (2. is defined as the ratio of the mass of the soil solids.32) and (2. is also referred to as the gravimetric water content.12): 2.6 Basic Volume-Mass Relationship Volume relations V.32) The total and dry densities of a soil defined in Eqs.3. = wGsp. Assuming that the mass of the air phase.33) Typical minimum and maximum dry densities for various soils are presented in Table 2..33). V (Fig.. and void ratio (Fig.. M.3.12 (i.3) and the volume-mass relations shown in Fig. (2. The total density of a soil.27) Water content. 2.3: 8. The total volume of the soil. M. is negligible.12. is defined as the ratio of the volume of water. The saturated density of a soil is the total density of the soil for the case where the voids are filled with water (Le.35) can then be rewritten as M.36) results in a basic volume-mass relationship for soils: Se = wG.12). = wM. S .e . Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. = e V. (2. w .SeV. (2.: s vu 8.37) v' (2. can also be expressed in terms of the volume-mass properties of the soil (i.e.25) into Eq. 2. is the product of the volume and density of water (Fig. V. (2. Mu.38).34) The volume of water. is given by the volume of the soil solids.29) becomes The mass of the soil solids. to the total volume of the soil.P. = 1 +e' M.28) The relationship given in Eq.. (2. V. M.39): (2. the total mass of the soil is the sum of the mass of the water. = P W V . . E V W 8. can also be computed from the volume relation given in Fig.. M. (2. The volumetric water content can be written as The mass of the water. 2. 2. 2. V (Fig. 2.13 Derivation of the basic volume-mass relationship.5 Soil Density Two commonly used soil density definitions are the total density and the dry density.V.30) yields another form for the volumetric water content equation: Se 8. (2. 2. = S e Figure 2. and G.. M. (2.. = p. The dry density of a soil. is the ratio of the total mass.com ..30) Substituting Eq.40) V' The total density is also called the bulk density.. M.32 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS presented as a percentage [Le. 2. can be rewritten using Eqs. = Sn. (2.. = SeV. (2. w. I T - The volume and mass for each phase can be related to one another using basic relations from the phase diagram (Fig. M.e.36) The volumetric water content can also be expressed in terms of porosity.to the total volume of the soil. can also be related to the mass of the soil solids.37) yields M. (2. V.39) and (2. 2.. w (W)]: (2. Other soil density definitions are the saturated density and the buoyant density.to the total volume of the soil.24).38) (2.11.The buoyant density of a soil is the difference between the saturated density of the soil and the density of water.).... is obtained from the phase diagram in Fig. Therefore. = G. The volumetric water content. (2. and the volume of the voids. (2. (2.. left-hand side): V .29) Since V u / V i s equal to the porosity of the soil. Equation (2.13 (i. Substituting Eq.35) Co py rig hte dM ate ria l (2. = - M.. (2. 1w G . M...e.. degree of saturation. respectively. pd. V . and the mass of the soil solids.knovel. = V' The mass of the water phase of a soil. V. the equation for the total density of a soil. . Eq.31) Equating Eqs.3): M. e . left-hand side). 2. and (2.. (2.. Vu = 0 and S = 100%). (2.38) into Eq. p. p. V.

Any change in one of these volume-mass Properties (i. The relationship between the gravimetricwater contents.2 0.6 9) C . 2.43) gives the following equation for the total density: p=- The dry density of a soil. Compaction is a mechanical process used to increase the dry density of soils (Le.E 2. 2. or the porosity. The compaction p m s s is not discussed in this book.c 0. (2. Mu.€ 1. and the density of the water.42) (2.g.40)] applies to any combination of S. and w.74 2. w. pd. or S) are known.U Water content.43) or Eq..3 0.: 2.41): Co py rig hte dM ate ria l ew = SWG. S G. (2. If any two of the volume-mass properties of a soil (e.. and w) may produce changes in the other two properties. (2..46) The relationship between total density.‘ (2.1 0.45) provided the void ratio. e. Ow.2. Se PW. S. The dry density curve corresponding to a degree of saturation of 100% is called the “zem air voids” curve.15). (2..e 0.7 0.44).2 0. p . is obtained by eliminating the mass of the water. Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. 1+e + is computed using Eq.d 0. (2. (2.e. can be established by substituting the basic volume-mass relationship [i. can be computed in accordance with Q. pd. w (%) Flgure 2. since numerous soil mechanics textbooks deal with this subject.3. Changes in two of the volume-mass quantities must be determined or measured in order to compute a change in the third quantity. 1. 2. p. pd.40)] into Eq.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS 33 (2.com . of the soil are known.1. w .14. G. from Eq. If 0 0 I I 1 I 0. and dry density. (2.e.c 1. (2..knovel.6 l. The dry density of the soil.7 Changes in Volume-Mass Properties The basic volume-mass relationship [Q.4 a 8 0. e.E 0.40) into Eq. (2.43) Substituting the basic volume-mass relationship in Eq. Eq.4 . n.14 Volume-mass relations for unsaturated soils.i 8 E 0. The specific gravity of the soil solids. The dry density curves for different degrees of saturation are commonly presented in connection with soil compaction data (Fig. pw.31): + wG.. and the volumetric water content. the total density of the soil. for different water contents is presented graphically in Fig.6 1 . e. are properties described in Section 2. e. densification).

and the change in water content.-$ u25 (2.44). can be computed. the change in the degree of saturation. if the changes in S and e or in S and w are known. The formulation can be visualized with the assistance of the piston-porous stone analogy described in Fig. The water phase initially has an amount of dissolved air which is in equilibrium with the free air. . (2. and air and water.50) (2. of the mixture is expressed in Eq. the soil has final volume-mass properties which are also related by the basic volume-mass relation: Sfe .15 Standard and m o d i f i e d AASHTO compaction curves.SiAe) Ae = (AwG. (2. as well as the density of each phase. the change in the void ratio. AS.45) by considering only the mass of the soil particles. = wf G.51).48) gives SiAe + ASei + ASAe = AwG. As a result of the pressure difference between the free Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www. A mixture of soil particles. Aw: Figure 2. All sides are impervious and fixed. Consider a soil that undergoes a pmeess such that changes occur in the volume-mass properties of the soil. (2.34 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS Substituting Eqs.55) G S where Si = initial degree of saturation e. can be written in terms of the change in void ratio. Initial volume-mass properties for each phase are shown in Table 2.54) changes in the void ratio. can be written as follows: Aw = (SfAe + Mei) I (2. (2. and (2.12. The density of a soil mixture can also be formulated for situations where there is a change in the volume of air due to compression. Ae. Prior to the process.40). the volume-mass properties of the soil have the following relationship: Siei = wiGs (2. S. water. At the end of the process. and air in differing volumetric percentages.11. Aw. (2. and free air at the top. respectively.49) into Eq. Ae.3. 2. is obtained by substituting Eq. The air pressure is then increased by placing an additional load on the piston. Between these extremes lies the category of unsaturated soils which consist of soil particles. are known. (2. (2.53) . while a mixture of soil particles and water constitutes a saturated soil. then the change in w or e .48) where Sf = final degree of saturation ef = final void ratio wf = final water content. The dry density.. . e. The relationship between the changes in the volumemass properties can be derived from the baric volume-muss relationship expressed in Eq. Co py rig hte dM ate ria l Water content. (2. (2. The following relationships between initial and final conditions can be written: Sf = Si + As (2. (2. water. .com . 2. A mixture of soil particles and air constitutes a dry soil. water in the middle. and air has a total density which has been defined in Eqs. ef Similarly.47) into Eq. with the exception of the top which is a sealed frictionless piston.8 Density of M i x t u r e s Subjected to Compression of the Air Phase Soil mixtures can occur in various forms in nature.ASei) n (2. water. &.52) The change in the degree of saturation. Similarly.51) where = change in the degree of saturation Ae = change in the void ratio Aw = change in the water content. (2. = initial void ratio wi = initial water content. The derivations can then be extended to solve for the density of mixtures of soil particles and air. The density can be derived in a general form for a mixture of soil particles. and air.49).52) and solving for Ae: As= (AwG.49) + Ae W f = wi + AW ef = ei (2.50). can be computed. w.knovel.43) and (2. AS Piston-Porous Stone Analogy Consider a cubic element of soil that consists of soil particles at the bottom.47) 3 f The change in water content. soil particles and water. w (%) 16006 %-i. and the water content.

and the mass of soil panicles. The soil particles are assumed to be incompressible (Le. kyle’s law states that the p d u c t of the volume and Co py rig hte dM ate ria l V U VU MU M W Pw =MW/VW Mdi Pw =MW/VW Md pwi = (Mw + M d i ) / v w = vw/v. Mu and Vu. = final absolute air pressure. = (Mu + Md)/vw S W + Md s i wi Vai vd Va - #ai Ua v d Poi h= vd/v./Vs e absolute pressure of a fixed amount of gas is constant under constant temperature conditions [Eq. the pressure in the free and dissolved air are the same. However. Pa h ei = V. V.. = Mw/Ms + Mdi Mw P. Similarly. = final volume of free air corresponding to the final absolute air pressure. At the end of the process. The density of the free and dissolved air also changes Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.i .. the pressure in the free air and dissolved air has changed from iiai to Si..knovel. Vs constant).7)]. (2.57) where Vai = initial volume of free air corresponding to the initial absolute air pressure... v d . (2. Ms. + vd)zai = (va + vd)Ea va = (Vai + v d ) u. Eai uai = initial absolute air pressure v d = volume of dissolved air V.. the total mass of air (Le. free air and dissolved air) remains constant.12 Symbols and Notations for the Initial and Final Stages of Each Phase in the o i l Solids. The final volume-mass symbols and notations for water and air are summarized in Table 2.com . some of the free air dissolves into the water in accordance with Henry’s law. the mass and volume of water (Le.vd ua - (2. is also constant throughout the process. respectively) are constant during the process. At the end of the p m s s . After an additional load is applied to the piston. Water.12. Za u. and the volThe volume of ume of free air has changed from Vai to va. was shown in Eq.: (v. the volume and pressure of the free air change. dissolved air.. Applying kyle’s law to the free air and dissolved air at a constant temperature gives the final volume of free air. This process is time dependent.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS 35 Table 2. and Air Mixture of S Volume-Mass Properties of Each Phase Soil Solids Volume Mass Density Initial Stage Final Stage Water Phase (Water and dissolved air) Volume of water and dissolved air Mass of water Density of water Mass of dissolved air Mass of water and dissolved air Density of water and dissolved air Degree of saturation Water content Air Phase (free &d dissolved air) Volume of free air Volume of dissolved air Absolute pressure of air Density of air Volumetric coefficient of solubility Voids (water and air) Void ratio and dissolved air.17) to be essentially constant for different air pressures..2.56) (2.

61) into Eq. the initial and final densities of air are related as (2.9)]. using the initial void ratio. soil particles. by the volumetric coefficient of solubility..68) yields another form for the Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.68) Substituting the basic volume-mass relationship (Le. + Vw + V. Si. gives P = The final density of water.65) and dividing the top and bottom of the equation by V. ua (2- .67) into Eq. (2. and the initial degree of saturation.V~+ ~ w V w where pwf = final density of the water phase (i. can be written as Vw = SieiV.Si)eiV. water plus dissolved air). Equation (2. (2.58). pwf.58)]: V. pd. V..36 2 PHASE PROPERTIES AND RELATIONS du. ei. (2. V .57). Substituting Eqs. (2. Vd.e. pa [Eq. is given as the product of the dissolved air volume.e.. and air) after the change in air pressure V = total volume of the mixture after the change in absolute air pressure (i.65) The volume of each phase can be expressed in terms of the volume of soil particles. p = The density of the mixture can then be derived by substituting Eqs.. (2. Therefore..63) cess due to a change in the mass of dissolved air from Mdi to Md.e. I the change in pressure [see Eq. = volume of soil solids. can be obtained by substituting Eq.64) can therefore be rewritten as follows: P.66) and (2. This corresponds to the change in absolute air pressure from iai to Ea as described by Henry's law. and (2. (2. (2.e. the mass of water and dissolved air is changed at the end of the pro- Co py rig hte dM ate ria l (2.66) (2. water.. Vd.59) P = sponding to the initial air pressure = final density of air (fnx and dissolved) corresponding to the final air pressure total density of the mixture (i. " = density of soil solids V. can be written as Vai = (1 .62) where where Pai = initial density of air (free and dissolved) corre- Pa The water phase can be assumed to be incompressible (Le. Md.&)ei T + hSiei ps "ai The first term in Eq.. pw. V. (2. Siei = wiGs) into Eq. the volume of water. h (i. and the density of air. Vwis constant) during the process. V . At a constant ter mture. Vai.. + pwSiei + pai(l-.58) Conservation of Mass Applied to a Mixture The final density of a mixture can be written by satisfying the conservation of mass of the element: (2.knovel. .59). 1) (2. (2. (2. water plus dissolved air) Mw = mass of water before and after the change in air pressure Md = final mass of dissolved air Vw = total volume of water and dissolved air before and after the change in air pressure The mass of dissolved air. The final density of the water phase (Le. However. .) p. M w / V w )is the density of water without dissolved air. is related to the volume of water.62) (2.&)ei + pdhSiei 1 + Siei + (1 . (2.com .61) (Le. .67) and the volume of the initial free air.60) into Eq. is computed as the ratio of the total mass of water and dissolved air to the total volume of water and dissolved air under final conditions: This equation can be reduced to the following form: The volume of dissolved air... (2. (2. Vd = hVw). + Vw + Vai? + PaiVai + PaihVw - + hV.

e... water plus dissolved air).and the initial initial degree of saturation of the mixture.69) Soil Particles..74) for the absolute pore-air pressure gives (2. (2. increases. Under this condition. l + e (2.com .70) becomes p=- 1 + ($. The equations incorporate the effect of air going into solution due to the change in the air pressure. The equations use the initial degree of saturation and the initial void ratio as a reference. equals Tiai). as suggested by Bishop and Eldin (1950). The density of the mixture before a change in air pressure can also be obtained from these equations by setting iiaequal to Tiai..hSi I- - . the free air has been dissolved into the water and the degree of saturntion approaches 10096. (2. If the air pressure is continuously increased. At this stage. Let us assume that the mass of the air phase is negligible (i. Eq. Copyright © 1993 John Wiley & Sons Retrieved from: www.72) Ua (2. = pWand pai = 0).. Si = S. 1+e + Solving Eq. (2. Air. Si: Pw + P w WG. V.Water-Air Mixture The general equation for the density of mixtures can be specialized to the density of particular mixtures.73) by substituting (p. . (2.3 VOLUME-MASS RELATIONS 37 density of the soil (Le. As the final air pressure. yields the following form: p. p w ) . the degree of saturation. i.1) 2 + (2h Pw . The volume of the soil paxticles. and Schuurman (1966).68) and (2.. the water content. This also applies to a mixture which does not experience any change in the air pressure (i. ps = G . is set to zero..knovel. ia.. pm approaches p..2. and the void ratio remain constant (Le. equals Tiai). the soil particles-water-air mixture): 1 + wiGs + (ei . ei + p. is. Equation (2. h. the density of the air-water mixture will reach the density of the water phase (Le.75) (2. The magnitude of the air pressure required to bring the air-water mixture to saturation can be found from Eq. and e. the volumetric coefficient of solubility.wiG. and that there is no change in the pore-air pressure (i. The air-water mixture always has a density between that of air and water. .69) then specializes to the following form: P' Ps Co py rig hte dM ate ria l where pm = Equations (2.. the larger the air pressure required to saturate the air-water mixture. Rearranging Eq. (2. the final density of the air-water mixture also increases. obtained from Eq.4411. ei. Eq. If the density of air is assumed to be negligible. and dividing the top and bottom portions of the equation by the initial degree of saturation.. becomes infinity.71) gives the total density of a soil at a constant air pressure.e.). .Water Mixture The general mixture equation can also be shown to specialize to the case of an air and water mixture. Setting the initial void ratio to infinity gives the density of an air-water mixture after a change in air pressure from uai to Ea: density of an air-water mixture after a change in air pressure from Zai to i s.75) shows that the final absolute air pressure required to dissolve all of the free air depends upon the . pai = 0). Where the air does not have time to dissolve in the water. Consider the case of an unsaturated soil not subjected to a pressure change. Z . can be set to zero.. The lower the initial degree of saturation. = e). Se Pw. (2.) T + hwiGs Uai ei. and the initial void ratio. + pwSi + pai(l ..e. and is the same as the expressions derived previously [Le. wi = w ..68) by dividing the top and bottom portions by the initial void ratio. (2..74) G. The absolute air pressure. iS.69) are general mixture equations for the density after the soil has been subjected to a change in air pressure.Si) P = .71) Equation (2. the density of the air-water mixture reaches the density of water (Le.70) = Noting that the density of the solids can be written in terms of the specific gravity of the solids (Le. 1) (2. S absolute air pressure.75) is essentially the same as the maximum air pressure required to saturate a soil. Equation (2.