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EXPERIMENT 3: CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

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OBJECTIVE

i.

Assemble and disassemble for maintenance and repairmen for centrifugal pump and its components.

ii. iii.

Replacing components. Troubleshooting, fault assessment.

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APPARATUS / EQUIPMENT

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wrench Ratchet Metal rod Allen Key Wooden Head Hammer Bearing Extractor Pipe Wrench

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SAFETY AND HEALTH

It is the individual’s responsibility to practice the following the general safety guidelines at all times. 3.1 Always know the hazards associated with the materials that are being utilized in the lab. Always wear appropriate protective clothing. Confine long hair and loose clothing. Do not wear high-heeled shoes, open-toed shoes, sandals or shoes made of woven material. Always wash hand and arm with soap and water before leaving the work area. Never perform unauthorized work, preparations or experiments.

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In the typical case. The diffuser transforms the high fluid velocity (kinetic energy) into pressure The main components: Impellers Diffusers Thrust washers Casing Shaft Bushing 1.1 Principle of the centrifugal pump An increase in the fluid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet is created when the pump is in operation. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The Impeller takes the power from the rotating shaft and accelerates the fluid. sewage. the fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller. flowing radials outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing).4. Common uses include water.0 THEORY Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic ax symmetric work-absorbing turbo machinery. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy. petroleum and petrochemical pumping. The centrifugal pump creates an increase in pressure by transferring mechanical energy from the motor to the fluid through the rotating impeller. from where it exits.    The two main components of a centrifugal pump are the impeller and the diffuser. . This pressure difference drives the fluid through the system or plant.

This force is supplied by a pressure gradient that is set up by the rotation. since that is the direction of force need to make the water move in circles. such as those in the centrifugal pump. mixing the concepts of centrifugal force in informal descriptions of effects. The concept of centrifugal force is not actually required to describe the action of the centrifugal pump. the actual forces on the water are inward. especially in older sources written before the modern concept of centrifugal force as a fictitious force in a rotating reference frame was well articulated. . the statement that the "outward force generated within the wheel is to be understood as being produced entirely by the medium of centrifugal force" is best understood in terms of centrifugal force as a fictional force in the frame of reference of the rotating impeller.The fluid flows from the inlet to the impeller centre and out along its blades. where the pressure at the outside. The outlet pressure is a reflection of the pressure that applies the centripetal force that curves the path of the water to move circularly inside the pump. can be taken as a reactive centrifugal nineteenth force. The centrifugal force hereby increases the fluid velocity and consequently also the kinetic energy is transformed to pressure. Figure 1. at the wall of the volute.1 shows an example of the fluid path through the centrifugal pump The transfer of energy from the mechanical rotation of the impeller to the motion and pressure of the fluid is usually described in terms of centrifugal force. This and early was typical of twentieth century writings. or centripetal. On the other hand.

The lifetime of mechanical shaft seals depends on liquid. pressure and temperature. then the two parts will not get in contact then the shaft seal can be left out. In a pump with a shaft seal. This solution has limited mounting options because the motor must be placed higher than the hydraulic parts and the fluid . The design of the impeller depends on the requirements for pressure.5. see figure 1. If motor and fluid are separated by a long shaft. see figure 1. Pumps variants are often created only by modifying the impeller.10. the fluid and the motor are separated by seal rings. The fluid is sucked into the impeller at the impeller eye and flows through the impeller channels formed by the blades between the shroud and hub. a separation with long shaft or a magnetic coupling. In the dry runner pump the motor and the fluid are separated either by a shaft seal. The coupling between motor and hydraulics is a weak point because it is difficult to seal a rotating shaft. The disadvantage is the sealing between the motor and impeller. The impeller is usually driven by an electric motor.The blades of the rotating impeller transfer energy to the fluid there by increasing pressure and velocity. The advantage of the dry-runner pump compared to the canned rotor type pump is the use of standardized motors. Mechanical shaft seals are maintenance-free and have a smaller leakage than stuffing boxes with compressed packing material. distinction is made between two types of pumps: Dry-runner pumps and canned rotor type pump. The impeller is the primary component determining the pump performance. see figure 1. In connection with the coupling.9. flow and application.

Furthermore the solution results in a lower efficiency because of the leak flow through the clearance between the shaft and the pump housing and because of the friction between the fluid and the shaft. an inducer or recirculation of pressurized froth from the pump discharge back to the suction to break the bubbles. resulting in a slight temperature increase (in addition to the pressure increase). Froth contains air that tends to block conventional pumps and cause loss of prime. or in the extraction of oils and. Some pumps may feature a large eye. Another approach is to build special pumps with an impeller capable of breaking the air bubbles. One approach consists of using vertical pumps with a tank. Air escapes to the back of the impeller and a special expeller discharges the air back to the suction tank. The impellers may be mounted on the same shaft or on different shafts. All energy transferred to the fluid is derived from the mechanical energy driving the impeller. In the pulp and paper industry holes are drilled in the impeller. Over history. For higher flow output impellers can be connected in parallel. This can be measured at isentropic compression. For higher pressures at the outlet impellers can be connected in series. A common application of the multistage centrifugal pump is the boiler feed water pump.surface in the system. froth is generated to separate the rich minerals or bitumen from the sand and clays. For example. a 350 MW unit would require two feed pumps in parallel. A centrifugal pump containing two or more impellers is called a multistage centrifugal pump. The mineral industry. . Each feed pump is a multistage centrifugal pump producing 150 l/s at 21 MPa. industry has developed different ways to deal with this problem. The impeller may also feature special small vanes between the primary vanes called split vanes or secondary vanes.

0 PROCEDURES The pipe on suction nozzle removed. The centrifugal pump casing removed. . Discharge Nozzle removed.5.

Removed the pulley using bearing extractor Clamp the pump by using wrench rear input shaft stationary. Pump casing has been pull put.Loose the screwed impeller using Allen key. .

The bearings completely removed. Make sure the shaft straightly remove from it. . Removed the main shaft used bearing extractor tool. Knock out the shaft using the wooden head hammer from the centrifugal casing pump.The mechanical seals removed.

) Put back the shaft in the main pump housing. Bearings reinstalled to the shaft. (Do not knock other area of bearing it will damage it. . Use wooden head hammer to knock it. Use the correct hollow pipe to knock on the bearing inner ring.Shaft has been cleaned with WD spray.

Screwed the mechanical seal into the main housing Install the main housing into centrifugal pump Tightened all the bolts and nuts The centrifugal pump completely disassembles and assembles .

com/content/dam/Global%20Site/Industries%20%26%20sol utions/Industry/pdf/The_Centrifugal_Pump.org/wiki/Centrifugal_pump#How_it_works http://www.pdf     http://en. and impeller for pushing the water 7. Besides.com/centrifugal-pumps-d_54.0 CONCLUSION Base on what we have done to pump.engineeringtoolbox.enggcyclopedia.com/images/tutorial/tutorial.0 REFERENCE  http://www. repair. we also learned about the components and functions of centrifugal pump. Therefore. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids converting rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy.com/2011/12/theory-equations-centrifugal-pumps/ http://www. we have achieved our objectives by learning how to maintain.grundfos.wikipedia.6.pdf http://www. 8.html . assemble and disassemble the centrifugal pump. It has bearing for rotation.0 DISCUSSION   What is the function of centrifugal pump? Centrifugal pump is used to increase the pressure of water Explain how centrifugal pump can increase the pressure of water.pumpfundamentals.