The Advantages and Disadvantages of Petrol, Diesel, LPG and Lithium Ion Batteries

PETROL Petrol, or gasoline, is a liquid mixture created form crude oil. It is made up of hydrocarbons and isooctane. It is a fuel most commonly used in internal combustion engines. Advantages
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Relatively concentrated and you can travel many hundred km with one full tank of petrol It is highly available It is fairly cheap It is not difficult to make - it just has to be distilled and no waste is produced It is easy to carry around It is fairly safe to store Disadvantages

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The supply of petrol is decreasing and we will one day run out of it Because of the high demand and decreasing supply, the price of petrol is increasing. It greatly affects the environment as carbon is produced when petrol is burned. Petrol can be much better used to create other products like plastics and chemicals Wars and international disputes have formed from petrol Petrol has an energy density of about 34.6 MJ/L. There are many different blends of petrol and energy density can vary. The difference is about ±4%. Petrol is currently highly available and cars can be filled up with petrol at service stations all over cities. However, our oil reserves are depleting and we are nearly at the point where we are consuming more petrol than we are finding. Burning 100L of petrol emits about 250kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) LPG has many uses; from heating to vehicles. It is made up of hydrocarbon gases. When used for vehicles, LPG is a mixture of propane and butane (this is called autogas). When compressed, it turns into liquid form. 1L of LPG liquid is equivalent to 270L of LPG vapour. Advantages

up to 20-30% New forms of diesel have been developed. PETROLEUM DIESEL Like petrol. but can be found at 45% of service stations in Australia(there are 3200 outlets). Advantages       Has a very high energy density Greater fuel economy than petrol . It is denser and heavier than petrol. Diesel can only be used in diesel engines.8MJ/L. LPG is not as available as petrol and diesel. LPG in Australia is mainly refined locally. However the average car can repay the cost of the conversion in about 2 years It has a lower energy density than petrol No new passenger cars come readily fitted with LPG (they have to be converted) The gas tank takes up a considerable amount of space in the car boot Liquid LPG (autogas with 60% propane and 40% butane) has an energy density of about 26. Better performance. it can provide better performance Has a higher octane rating than petrol (108 compared to 91) Disadvantages      It isn't highly available The initial cost for converting your vehicle to LPG can cost up to $3000. This contributes to smog and health issues like asthma and lung cancer .     LPG is cheaper than petrol (up to 50%) It produces less exhaust emissions than petrol It is better for the engine and it can prolong engine life In some vehicles. Diesel is made from the fractional distillation of oil. modern diesel is much cleaner. is made from crude oil and is a hydrocarbon mixture. quieter and more efficient than they were previously. Burning 100L of LPG emits about 160kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. petroleum diesel (or diesel fuel). it has the power to pull larger and heavier loads Highly available in Australia Disadvantages   Diesel produces more carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than petrol does Diesel cars emit more particles of soot into the air. faster acceleration In diesel engines.

prices of rechargeable batteries are rapidly decreasing The lifespan of the battery is currently only 2-3 years. vehicles like the Hyundai-Kia hybrid are currently being developed with these batteries and will be mass produced in 2009. more robust and more efficient than other battery technologies like lithiumion and NiMH (used in the original EV1) Disadvantages    They are still fairly expensive to manufacture. However. Advantages      They are much cleaner than petrol and diesel vehicles.72MJ/L. the more energy you get. The more batteries you have. Cars with these batteries can be carbon neutral Li-Poly batteries are very energy efficient They provide enough distance per recharge for the average person to drive around a city Li-poly batteries can be easily recharged at home or at recharging stations They are 20% lighter. Burning 100L of diesel emits about 270kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Diesel is highly available in Australia and can be found at any service staion that sells petrol as well.  The initial cost of buying a diesel car is more than a normal car running on petrol Diesel is slightly more expensive than petrol Diesel has an energy density of about 38. like public recharging stations for electric cars Li-Poly batteries have an energy density of 300Wh/L or 0. Li-Poly batteries are currently not commercially available.6MJ/L. . However. They are usually the most expensive part of an electric car. diesel is only available at truck stops and 30% of service stations as they have less diesel vehicles in use. especially if they are recharged with renewable energy. However. it may emit more carbon dioxide but it has much greater fuel efficiency and more kilometres per litre.58Wh/kg. technology is always developing and this is sure to increase There may not be enough infrastructure. They are already in use in portable devices and the technology is already there for its use in electric cars. LITHIUM-ION POLYMER BATTERIES Lithium-ion polymer batteries (or Li-Poly) are rechargeable battery packs that have evolved from Lithium-ion batteries. This can be compared to Lithium-ion batteries' energy density of 270Wh/L or 0. However. in other countries like America. Compared to petrol.

More torque even at idling speed 2. High power to weight ratio 2. No fresh mixture escaping with exhaust gases Disadvantages Two stroke 1. they will have a bigger ecological footprint and the emissions depend on how much energy is used. Fresh mixture is escaping with exhaust gases during exhaust stroke 3.not suitable for high speed 3. Less moving parts eg no valve mechanism 4. More moving parts. Non stable at idling speed Four stroke 1. High speed engine due to less moving parts 5. Scavenging problem 2.Li-Poly batteries can be carbon neutral if they are recharged with renewable energy. No scavenging problems 3. Low service and overhaul cost due to less number of parts Four stroke 1. More number of stroke per circle . Low power to weight ratio 2. Less number of stroke per circle 3. Advantages and disadvantages between two stroke and four stroke engines Advantages Two stroke 1. If they are recharged from coal-powered energy.

benzene or iso-octane to increase octane ratings. of which 5. annual consumption of diesel in 2006 was about 190 billion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US gallons). This gives a higher power to diesel.S. .S. but because of the additives that are put into it. Overall a typical petrol sample is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes). After distillation. Energy Content of petrol vs diesel Gasoline contains about 34. and cycloparaffins). Petrol is produced at temperature between 35 degrees to 200 degrees while diesel is produced at a boiling point of 250-350 degrees.6 megajoules per litre (MJ/l)while diesel contains about 38. The U. Volatility of petrol vs diesel Petrol is more volatile than diesel. different by products are formed from it. The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23. Petrol consists of hydrocarbons with between 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule but then it is blended for various uses.6% was mid-grade and 9. some blending with other elements has to be done. ranging from approx. The ratios vary based on a variety of factors. Chemical composition Diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n. not only because of the base constituents. primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines. Diesel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil or a washed form of vegetable oilthat is used as fuel in a diesel engine invented by German engineer Rudolf Diesel. Production of petrol vs diesel Petroleum is refined to produce petrol and diesel. Petrol and diesel both are derived at varying temperatures during refining process. Global consumption of petrol vs diesel The U. naphthenes (cycloalkanes). High service and overhaul cost due to more parts About diesel and petrol Petrol is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons and enhanced with aromatic hydrocarbons toluene. Fractional Distillation process is used on petroleum and at varioustemperatures. Petrol is produced first in this process as it is produced at a lower temperature than diesel.6 megajoules per litre. and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes). aromatics and olefins (alkenes). iso. in order to use these byproducts as commercially acceptable petrol and diesel. used about 510 billion litres (138 billion gallons) of petrol (called "gas") in 2006.4. C10H20 to C15H28.5% was premium grade.

5 times the fuel efficiency of petrol. diesel is subsidized because it is heavily used for transportation. diesel was priced at $3. Petrol is primarily used to run petrol engines in cars. Cost of petrol vs diesel In countries like India.Uses of petrol and diesel Diesel is used to run diesel engines that are used in cars.30 difference between petrol and diesel prices in India. diesel is said to be more fuel effecient. Bad quality (high sulfur) diesel fuel has been used as a palladium extraction agent for the liquid-liquid extraction of this metal from nitric acid mixtures. Energy Efficiency When discussed in terms of motor fuel. Some varieties of diesel are also used in running heating systems in houses.39/gallon. In the US. giving almost 1. There is almost a Rs. motorbikes etc. In the international markets both are almost equally priced. Paraffin. petrol was priced at $3/gallon in December 2007. motorbikes etc. another byproduct of crude oil produced at 190-250 degrees is used as airline fuel. . trucks.

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